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BioChar – Article mutual aid-Science hub Mutual Aid community

1 November, 2022
 

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Lead removal from aqueous solutions by olive mill wastes derived biochar

1 November, 2022
 

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[Elsevier] Biochar loaded on MnFe2O4 as Fenton catalyst for Rhodamine B removal

1 November, 2022
 

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In Situ Exfoliated Graphene-Like Carbon Nanosheets Strongly Coupled with the Biochar … – Figshare

1 November, 2022
 


Patriot Hydrogen Expands into South East Asia

1 November, 2022
 

Patriot Hydrogen expands into South East Asia.

Patriot Hydrogen has launched in Malaysia with its first of many projects focused on producing renewable energy, biochar, and hydrogen across the country. The first project will be a strategic Joint Venture between Patriot Hydrogen, a Singapore investment company, and a local Malaysian project developer.

Located in the State of Terengganu, Malaysia, Patriot’s first project in Asia will be 100% renewable and focused on biochar production, wood vinegar, and carbon credits.

The project has secured land, feedstock, and customers for its biochar. All renewable electricity generated will be used for internal power consumption and to provide power to a local mill and facilities used by the plant.

Producing over 1.5 tonnes per day of high-quality biochar, the facility aims to address a biochar shortage in Malaysia via a gasification process using wood waste as the feedstock.

Gasification is a thermochemical process that converts biomass materials such as forest and agricultural waste into syngas that can be used for multiple purposes, including renewable energy, hydrogen, and low-carbon ammonia.

Like the rest of the world, Malaysia is facing challenges regarding climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As an oil-producing country where fossil fuels are the most significant sources of GHG emissions, it is vital for Malaysia to have greener technologies, cleaner fuels, and low carbon emissions due to its high carbon dioxide emissions, fossil fuels depletion, and energy security issues.

Hot off the back of recently signing long-term contracts with a sawmill in Millfield, NSW, for renewable energy generation, this is now Patriot’s third project and its first entry into Asia.

Glenn Davies, Patriot Chairman stated:

Patriot’s a dynamic, fast-moving, and agile Company.

“We have a positive management team that acts swiftly and is committed to turning the Company into a renewable energy and hydrogen powerhouse.”

“To be successful in such a fast-growing industry, you need to have a team around you that is supportive and looks at solutions rather than problems. I believe we have the right leaders to make the Company a huge success,” Davies further added.

Patriot plans to install and commission its first Asia-based renewable energy and biochar plant before Q1 2023.

“We’re finishing the year strong,” Davies says. “We’ve secured funding for our first two projects, signed three deals in the second half of the year, and have a healthy pipeline to take us into 2023.”

Highlights:

Patriot Hydrogen expands into South East Asia, October 31, 2022

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Thirst for knowledge drives regenerative agriculture | Dave Bergmeier | hpj.com

1 November, 2022
 

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Photo by Roman Synkevych on Unsplash.

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As farmers continue their drive to learn about soil health, they should know that strategy is worth the investment, according to Trisha Jackson, director of regenerative agriculture at PrairieFood.

PrairieFood, Lawrence, Kansas, is focused on what it calls its triple-P bottom line of taking care of people, the plant, and helping everyone in the supply chain to stay profitable. Jackson’s roots in education started at South Dakota State University where she focused on soil health research. She returned to her native Kansas to help producers with their decisions. At the same she was also increasing her knowledge with biochar as her focus was on building carbon resources to increase soil health.

Biochar is basically burnt wood, Jackson said. “You can make biochar out of any biomass but a lot of people make it out of wood. You’re decomposing it without oxygen using heat and so it turns into the shell of the biomass—carbon shell. Then that carbon is what you can put into the soil.”

However, it requires a pretreatment process for it to work effectively and she became acquainted with PrairieFood as it makes a micro carbon-rich oil amendment produced from biomass waste resources. She became acquainted with PrairieFood while working as a science instructor at Pratt Community College in Pratt, Kansas, in 2018.

PrairieFood was taking biomass resources and turning them into carbon or a carbon slurry that could be put on the soil in a more efficient manner than with biochar.

From her own central Kansas farm roots she knows farmers need to have success based on practices that work, which was one reason why she liked the PrairieFood approach.

“It’s immediately available to all soil biology from the instant it touches the ground. That’s a huge advantage. Not only that, it’s this slurry with a very fine particle size. So you can put it onto the ground with regular spray equipment. So now we’re on thousands and thousands of acres with much greater ease and less expense than we would ever do with a biochar product.”

Healing and building soil health is a concept she stresses because it works. Using any number of biomass resources including manure from feedlots, distillers’ grains and other known sources can be used to reduce the need for chemical inputs. It also sets up a circular nutrient cycle with less reliance on foreign supplies and that triggers more investment into local economies, she said.

She said one of PrairieFood’s board members, Tom Hoenig, noted that 51% of inputs that farmers use are tied to sources outside the United States. Hoenig served as president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Missouri, and was a vice chairman of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. He is the distinguished senior fellow at the Mercatus Center. Hoenig said PrairieFood could be a solution to changing the way how money flows. That resonates with Jackson.

“Why not change that whole model and have all that money circulate in rural America? Can you imagine if we took that 51% and all of a sudden it was circulating within our rural economy?” she said. “It’s totally life transforming.”

Soil remains the foundation for growing food and greater knowledge only enhances the value to farmers and consumers and becomes a base of regenerative agriculture, she said.

“You have to take care of the soil because the soil is what impacts our health in so many different ways,” Jackson said. “If we’re poisoning the soil, then it filters into our water, into our air and into our food. If we can partner with nature and start taking care of the soil, all the sudden all of these things that might have been problems before become benefits.”

She also believes that strengthening natural fixation of nitrogen is important and she plans to discuss that topic as a presenter at the upcoming Soil Health U, a High Plains Journal event, Jan. 18 to 19, 2023, at the Tony’s Pizza Event Center, Salina, Kansas.

Information for this story was from the Soil Solutions podcast with Jessica Gnad, the executive director of Great Plains Regeneration and soil health content consultant for High Plains Journal. Visit soilhealthu.net/podcasts to hear the podcasts. Sign up to receive the monthly Soil Health HPJ Direct newsletter and Soil Solutions podcast notifications by visiting hpj.com/signup and checking Soil Health.

Dave Bergmeier can be reached at 620-227-1822 or dbergmeier@hpj.com.

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Analysis of deviation from classical $$d_0^2$$ -law for biochar conversion in an oxygen-enriched …

1 November, 2022
 

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Combustion of char has conventionally been reported to be diffusion controlled. Analytically, the process is reported to follow second order initial diametric ((d_0)) dependence ((d_0^beta ; beta =2)) for both single-film (no CO combustion) and two-film models (CO burns in a concentric sphere over the particle). However, experimental investigations indicate deviation from classical diffusion limit with (beta) exceeding 2.00 and going as high as 2.37. Videography investigations depict luminous film engulfing the particle for certain Temperature-Oxygen concentration-Particle diameter combinations (for which, (beta ge 2)). The observed deviation is hypothesized to convective resistance offered by the CO generated on the surface to motion of (CO_2) towards the surface. This results in reduced (CO_2) concentration at the surface with enhanced conversion time being the implication (hence, (beta >2)). Such convective resistance remains unaccounted for in the prevailing analytical models. The CO dominated film thickness is enhanced with temperature and reactant concentration, increasing the convective resistance, and further deviating from (d_0^2) behaviour. The analytical solution shows that in presence of a convectively expanding CO film, total conversion time is a function of film diameter while also being dependent on (d_0^2). The hypothesis is validated by comparing analytical estimates with experimentally observed film diameter and conversion time.

Combustion of solid fuels has been established as a diffusion-limited process and a well-defined analytical approach leads to the classical (d_0^2) law for the particle conversion time1, where, (d_0) corresponds to the initial particle diameter. In the case of char conversion in an oxidizing media, the (d_0^2) law is reported to remain valid for the single film model (flameless) and two film (concentric CO flame) model2. It has also been explicitly established that under certain thermo-physical conditions (like temperature (T), reactant concentration ((X_{O_2 })), diffusivity, tortuosity, heterogeneous reaction rates etc.), the conversion process can deviate from being diffusion-controlled, resulting in the initial diametric dependence (power of (d_0)) dropping below 23,4. The limiting condition would be a linear initial diametric dependence ((d_0^1)) for the case of purely kinetically controlled conversion process1. Basically, in the correlation (d_0^beta) the value of (beta) will be between 1 (kinetically limited) and 2 (diffusionally limited), inclusive of the extremes5.

Several researchers1,6,7,8,9,10,11 have analytically approximated limiting conditions for combustion of solid fuels under a range of conditions. However, no literature reports or addresses the circumvention of diffusion limit ((beta = 2)). This is primarily due to extremely limited investigation in the high temperature oxygen enriched reactant regime12,13. The high temperature-high oxygen concentration environments are typically observed in oxy-fuel ((O_2-CO _2) and (O_2-H_2O)) gasification process14. (O_2/CO_2) ratios upto 1.0515 and (O_2/H_2O) ratio of upto 2.216 are typically reported. (O_2) mole fractions in excess of 60% and the resulting high temperatures in practical oxyfuel gasification systems set the backdrop for the current study.

Towards investigating the initial diametric dependence on the char combustion process in oxygen enriched gaseous mixture, experimental investigations spanning a range of sizes, temperature and oxidizer concentration (oxygen fraction in oxygen-nitrogen mixture) have been carried out. This study focuses on the high temperature and high Oxygen concentration regime for milli-meter scale particles (8–20 mm). Experimental investigations indicate very interesting and unique observations on the diametric dependence with time for complete conversion. It is observed that beyond certain T and (X_{O_2}), the power of (d_0) surpasses the classical diffusion limit of 2. As a typical example, Table 1 presents the curve-fit for temperature and concentration parametric analysis, depicting (beta) value surpassing 2. The experimental results indicate a very clear and explicit boundary that separates the conventional diffusion controlled regime ((beta le 2)) from the regime where the diametric dependence limit exceeds the power of 2. The trends and observation in the current work are unique and are being reported for the first time.

The current article presents a detailed experimental investigation and analysis that addresses the observed deviation from the conventionally established initial diametric dependency. A hypothesis is proposed to address the observed deviation and the hypothesis is extended to an analytical solution by invoking the Sherwood number. The conversion time correlation as proposed by S. Turns17 and Annamalai et al.1 which is a function of initial diameter alone is extended by introducing a geometric scaling factor. The scaling factor is itself a function of T and (X_{O_2}). The correlation accommodates the observed diametric dependence enabling the surpassing of the conventional limit, (beta = 2). The correlations are validated with experimental conversion times and it is observed that for a majority of cases the estimated conversion time remains within 10% of the measured conversion time with the maximum deviation limited to 25%.

The single char particle combustion experiments are carried out in a novel single-particle experimental facility engineered at the lab. The setup as shown in Fig. 1 consists of a high-temperature furnace with a ceramic reactor (100 mm diameter, 400 mm length) with an optical access. The char particle is suspended from a precision (100 (mu)g least count) balance fixed at an elevated frame. The furnace body has one degree of freedom in the vertical direction while the furnace top supporting the weighing balance and the particle remains stationary. This arrangement enables introduction of the particle in the furnace only after desired steady state condition is achieved. The particle is freely suspended from the micro-balance with a particle-holding jig, as shown in Fig. 1. The particle-holding jig rests on the pan of micro-balance on one end and holds the ceramic bead basket on the other. The ceramic bead basket comprises four SS-310 strands laden with ceramic beads. The ceramic beads withstand the high temperature resulting from char combustion and limit conductive heat transfer from the particle (the thermal conductivity of ceramic is almost five times lower than steel). The reactant gas from ultra-high pure gas cylinders is regulated through an electronic mass flow controller and preheated to the experimental temperature in a dedicated heater and administered into the reactor. Towards achieving a flowrate which provides the necessary oxygen concentration at the particle vicinity, but not leading to convective effects (near-quiescent environment), particle Reynolds Number (Re) of 0.1 is estimated. In defining Re, particle diameter is considered and the thermophysical properties are estimated based on the experimental temperatures and reactant gas composition. The Re is used to calculate the oxidizer velocity; which is used to arrive at the oxidizer mass flowrate.

The experimental setup is contained in vibration resistant transparent enclosure to prevent any external factors interfering with the measurement. Also, prior to each experimental run, it was ensured that the furnace temperature, oxygen flowrate and temperature are stable at the set values. The particle diameter was measured in three orthogonal directions to ensure sphericity and visually checked to be free from structural deformities.

Single particle experimental setup and detailed illustration of particle holding mechanism.

The experiments involve subjecting a single spherical char particles of initial diameter ((d_0)) to predetermined temperature and reactant concentration. The weight loss of the particle is continuously monitored using a sensitive weighing balance. Concurrently, through the optical window the particle combustion is observed, and captured through a digital single-lens reflex camera coupled with a macro lens. The macro lens facilitates extreme close-up of the particle combustion without loss of resolution. In a repeat experiment, the camera is replaced with an optical emission spectrometer (OES) for qualitative characterization of specie distribution around the particle. The key outputs from the experiments are the temporal evolution of mass, particle and flame diameter, total burn time, and specie distribution.

The experiments are carried out over a wide range of conditions as in Table 2. The temperature (T, K) indicated in Table 2 and further in the analysis corresponds to the furnace temperature. It is to be noted that the particle surface progressively reduces with combustion, and accurately measuring the surface temperature is instrumentally unfeasible. As such, furnace temperature is used as a reference, and this consideration has no implications on the inferences of the current work. It is also to be noted that at low furnace temperatures ((< 673 K)) there is no auto-ignition, and a pilot flame is used to ignite the particle. Post ignition the particle is allowed to burn in the desired ambient temperature. The effect of ignition is negligible as it is observed for less than 10% of the total combustion time3,4.

The spherical char test sample are prepared by slow pyrolysis (300 K to 1073 K at 10 K min(^{-1}); held at 1073 K for 60 min) of Beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) spheres under an inert ((N_2)) flux. The resulting char spheres are characterized (Table 3) for its composition, morphology diameter ((d_0)) and mass.

The particle combustion process is video recorded at 25 frames per second and individual frames are extracted for further processing. The particle is observed to progressively reduce in size with the combustion process with no visible cracking or fragmentation. A time-lapse of the combustion process of a 10 mm diameter particle subjected to 1073 K and 100% (O_2), spaced five seconds apart is shown in Fig. 2. In Figure 2, the particle is held on a specially designed particle holding jig made of ceramic beads. The ceramic beads withstand the high temperature generated by the oxygen-enriched combustion in high temperature ambient. In addition, the relatively low thermal conductivity of ceramic significantly reduces heat loss from particle surface. The measurements and by extension the analysis has no influence of the ceramic beads as more than 90% of the particle surface is clearly visible at all times.

(i) Timelapse of a 10 mm diameter char particle subjected to reactive experiments of 1073 K and 100% (O_2); (ii-a) Raw image, (ii-b) Processed image with circles fit to isolate the particle (red) and film (blue), (ii-c) measurements of particle diameter ((d_p)) and film diameter ((d_f)) in the processed image (Gray value (GV) profile across diameter (d)).

Towards quantifying the particle diameter and film diameter the raw images (Fig. 2ii-a) are subjected to Gaussian filter to eliminate any noise grains. The image is then segmented using color threshold to isolate the film based on the HSB (Hue-Saturation-Brightness) information of each pixel. The segmented image is further subjected to a black and white threshold which highlights the film alone as a black region (Gray value, GV=0) on a white background (GV=255) (Fig. 2ii-b). The outer boundary of the identified film region is the film-ambient interface, and the inner boundary is the film-particle interface. The offset of the film and particle centers is attributed to buoyancy effects. A scale is set to the images based on the known particle diameter at time, t = 0. The adopted approach is well established in the analysis of diffusion flame structure18.

In regards to the uncertainty in diameter measurement, with the resolution of each pixel being 50 microns, that would be the maximum error. A gray value (GV) profile across the radius (r) (Fig. 2ii-c) indicates the particle diameter and film diameter.

This section presents the experimental results (each data point presented has a minimum of 5 repeats) describing the nature of combustion followed by the presentation of hypothesis explaining the observed deviation from the classical (d^2) law. The hypothesis is extended to the first principles through the introduction of Sherwood number and an analytical correlation is arrived at. The section culminates with validation of the established correlation.

The mass of particle and the diameter of the particle progressively reduce with time. Considering the 2% ash present in the char sample, upto 98% mass loss is tracked. With regards to the particle diameter, reduction in diameter till 90% particle conversion is mapped as beyond this point the particle disintegrates or converts asymmetrically. The evolution of mass and diameter of a 10 mm diameter particle burning in 100% (O_2) at 673 K and 1073 K is shown in Fig. 3.

Evolution of mass (primary axis) and diameter (secondary axis) of a 10 mm diameter particle burning in 100% (O_2) at 673 K and 1073 K.

To check the sphericity of the particle during the conversion process, the conversion process is frozen at 25%, 50% and 75% of conversion (based on mass loss) by quenching and cooling the particles with (N_2) flux at 0.01 (kg, m^2, s^{-1}). Having frozen the conversion, the particles are retrieved, and the diameter is measured in the three orthogonal directions. It is found that the standard deviation in the diameter measurement in three orthogonal directions is nominal (of the order (sim) 0.1 mm). This negligible standard deviation indicates that the particle remains near-spherical throughout the conversion process. Further, noting that the process is diffusion-limited and the reactions occur at the particle’s surface, the surface area estimated with diameter measured from videography is compared with the surface area calculated from diameters in three orthogonal directions. It is found that the maximum difference in surface area is 1.3%. Conclusively, the particles are considered to behave like perfect spheres throughout the conversion process, with a diameter equivalent to the average of orthogonal measurements made from the videography.

Tracking the reduction in diameter (d) of a particle from its initial size ((d_0) at time, (t=0)) till its complete combustion ((t=t_c)) enables analyzing the temporal evolution of particle geometry. Adherence to the (d_0^2) law requires a linear trend for a plot mapping (d^2) against time. Similarly, the mass (m) of particle is tracked with time. For a spherical particle, in terms of mass, a linear trend in (d^2-t) profile translates to a linearity in (m^{2/3}-t) profile.

Temporal evolution of squared particle diameter ((d^2)) and particle mass ((m^{2/3})) with normalized time ((t/t_c)) for different sized particles, temperature and (O_2) concentrations (a) adherence to (d_0^2) behavior ((c) corresponding mass loss profile), (b) deviating from (d_0^2) behavior ((d) corresponding mass loss profile). (error in analyzing (d_p) is 0.05 mm).

Figure 4 represents the evolution of diameter ((d^2)) and mass ((m^{2/3})) against time with Fig. 4a and c identifying cases following the classical (d^2) law, and Fig. 4b and d identifying the cases deviating the classical (d^2) law (based on deviation of the experimental profile from linearity). In Fig. 4, the markers indicate the experimental data points, dashed lines indicate the experimental trends and continuous lines indicate the theoretical estimates (Ref. Eq. 5). The observed deviation is discussed in a subsequent section. While Fig. 4 presents the mass loss and diametric evolution for 8 experimental cases as representation, the discussion and understanding were found to be same across the full range (180 cases) of experimental data set.

It is observed that at (T < 473 K) and (X_{O_2}) (le) 20%, the conversion behavior is nearly linear. For the other conditions (T> 473 K, (X_{O_2}) > 20%), the (d^2)-t and (m^{2/3})-t profiles are observed to deviate from linearity across the range of particle sizes. A similar deviation in linearity of (d^2)-t profile is also observed in the experimental results of Kreitzberg et al.7, however the deviation is not quantified or discussed therein.

The identified conditions (T, (X_{O_2}), (d_0)) under which (d_0^2-law) remains valid and conditions leading to deviation from (d_0^2-law) are consolidated as in Table 4. Under the “Follows (d_0^2-law)” and “Deviates from (d_0^2-law)” regions, all the particle sizes follow/deviate the (d_0^2-law). However, in the intermediate region (T: 673–873 K; (X_{O_2}): 40–80%), the validity of (d_0^2-law) is dependent on particle size, specifically indicated in Table 4.

In reference to Table 4, while particles of all sizes (8–20 mm) adhere to (d_0^2-law) at low-temperature, low-concentration conditions and particles of all sizes deviates from (d_0^2-law) ((d_0^2-d_0^{2.36})) at high-temperature, high-concentration conditions. There is a particular transition (marked in bold) where size dependence is evident. Smaller sized particles tend to deviate from (d_0^2-law) while larger sized particles tend to adhere to (d_0^2-law) for a particular thermophysical conditions. As an example, at 673 K and 60% (O_2) smaller particle sizes ((le) 16 mm) deviate from (d_0^2-law) due to higher surface temperatures, but at the same thermophysical condition, larger particle adhere to (d_0^2-law) due to lower surface temperatures.

The interesting behavior of smaller particles having higher surface temperature is owing to the dynamics between heat generated by reactions and heat lost by radiation. The reaction rate for oxidation of spherical char particle in diffusion limited regime is established in the literature by various researchers2,17 as,

It is noted from Eq. (1) that, (Burn rate propto d_p). Radiation from spherical particle can be formulated as,

It is noted from Eq. (2) that, (Q_{rad} propto d_p^2). Basically, the burn (reaction) rate of char particle is proportional to (d_p), whereas the radiation loss is proportional to (d_p^2). The implication being, the surface temperature for larger particle would be lesser than that of smaller particle due to higher radiative loss in larger particle.

The phenomena of smaller particles having higher surface temperature is experimentally observed and reported by Avedesian and Davidson19 in fluidised bed gasification. Annamalai and Caton20 establish the phenomena theoretically and report that, at 10% (O_2) concentration the surface temperature of a 1 mm particle is 25 (^0C) higher than that of 1.5 mm particle.

While the previous section established the deviation from classical (d^2) law, the (alpha) and (beta) in the (t_c=alpha d_0^ beta) correlation are quantified in this section. The total conversion time for each particle is mapped to its initial size resulting in a (t_c) v/s (d_0) plot for a particular T-(X_{O_2}) combination. A power-law curve-fit to the plot quantifies (alpha) and (beta) in the correlation (t_c=alpha d_0^ beta). This analysis is extended over the entire range of (T-X_{O_2}) pairs presented in Table 2. The (t_c-d_0) profiles for the full range of analysis are shown in Fig. 5, with the quantified (t_c=alpha d_0^ beta) correlation (corresponding to goodness of fit of over 99%) presented as inset data. Figure 5a highlights the influence of temperature ((X_{O_2}) constant at 100%) on the conversion process and the (t_c=alpha d_0^ beta) correlation. Similarly, Fig. 5b indicates the influence of oxygen concentration (temperature held constant at 1073 K) on the conversion process.

Dependence of initial particle diameter ((d_0)) on the complete conversion time ((t_c)) (a) for different temperatures and 100% (O_2), (b) varying (O_2) concentrations at 1073 K.

Reviewing Fig. 5a and b, it is evident that, as the temperature increases the power of (d_0) increases. (beta le 2) is observed upto a temperature of 473 K (diffusion dominated regime) it surpasses the classical analysis limit of (beta =2) going as high as (beta =2.37) at 1073 K. Similar trend is observed for reactant concentration greater than 20% (O_2). Additional analysis of the (beta =2) correlations in Fig. 5a and b indicates that while (beta) increases with an increase in T and (X_{O_2}), a commensurate decrease in (alpha) is observed. For an increase in T from 300 K to 1073 K, while (beta) increases by upto 28%, the reduction in (alpha) is nearly twenty times. Similarly, increase in T-(X_{O_2}) from 20% to 100% leads to 30% increase in (beta) and 42-times reduction in (alpha).

Extending the analysis to the complete regime of investigation (Table 2), the variation of (beta) as a function of T and (X_{O_2}) is presented in Fig. 6. The surface plot clearly identifies the boundaries for the classical (d_0^2) law and deviation thereof based on the operating parameters. It can be seen in Fig. 6 that at low T and (X_{O2}) (beta) is less than 2. In a purely diffusion-dominated conversion process, wherein (beta = 2), the chemical reactions are extremely fast, and the oxygen is consumed at the particle surface. As T or (X_{O_2}) is lowered, the reaction rates slow; as a result, the propensity of oxygen to percolate into the particle increases. As this happens, the coefficient (beta) reduces to realize values below 2.

Variation of (beta) over a temperature range of 300–1073 K and oxygen concentration range of 20–100%.

One of the direct implications of (beta) surpassing 2 is that the time time taken for conversion increases. For fixed thermo-physical conditions, the increase in conversion time could only occur if the surface of the particle is starved of reactant. In line with this argument, it is hypothesized that as the heterogeneous reaction rate increases ((C + CO_2 rightarrow 2CO)), the flux of CO moving radially outward from the surface resists the diffusing (CO_2) resulting in CO rich and (CO_2) lean region in the vicinity of the particle surface. The presence of CO rich film results in reduced reactivity of char thereby broadly reducing the conversion process.

It is important to note that the conventional single film model (Fig. 7a) does not consider the presence of CO film. While the conventional two-film model (Fig. 7b) considers the generation of CO21,22, the progressively increasing resistance experienced by (CO_2) diffusing towards the particle surface due to the CO flux moving in the opposite direction is not accounted for—the (CO_2) mole fraction approaches zero only at the surface due to reaction with char23. This hypothesis is pictorially represented in Fig. 7. The key point sought to be highlighted in the current hypothesis is that the (CO_2) concentration gradient in Fig. 7c in the vicinity of the particle surface is significantly lower as compared to the conventional approach (when the opposing flux of CO is not considered) (Fig. 7b). In the conventional approach, since the opposing CO flux is not accounted for, a pure diffusion-limited ((d_0^2)) conversion regime gets embedded into the analysis.

Variation of (O_2), (CO_2) and CO mole-fraction in the film (a) conventional single-film approach, (b) conventional two-film approach (c) current approach.

In the typical two film model, the hypothesis of CO flux imposing an opposing effect on the (CO_2) flux is supported by the fact that, while (CO_2) is generated in a flame sheet surrounded on either side by gaseous media, in so far as CO is concerned, it is bounded on one side by the particle surface. As such, a substantial fraction of the generated CO has to move out in the radial direction due to the combined diffusion and momentum effects. Based on the presented arguments, the presence of a CO film strongly supports the proposed hypothesis.

While the presence of a highly luminous film as observed photographically establishes the presence of a reactive media (Fig. 2), spectroscopic investigations clearly establish the presence of a CO film surrounding the particle for cases wherein (beta) > 2. The emission spectrum employed to qualitatively characterize the species under (a) no film (single-film) mode identified at 673 K and 20% (O_2) and (b) CO film (two-film) mode identified at 1073 K and 100% (O_2), are shown in Fig. 8.

Optical emission spectrum (a) No-film mode at 673 K and 20% (O_2); (b) Film mode at 1073 K and 100% (O_2).

It is observed from Fig. 8 that, along expected lines, under single-film conditions the majority fraction of species comprises of (N_2) (Normalized intensity ((lambda _I^*)) − 1) and (CO_2) ((lambda _I^*) − 0.7) followed by (O_2) ((lambda _I^*) − 0.2) and O ((lambda _I^*) − 0.4), CO having a minimal (lambda _I^*) of 0.16. Additionally, it can be observed that the peaks in the visible region are marginal. In comparison, under two-film mode, significant fraction of CO ((lambda _I^*) − 1 − 0.5) contribute to the visible spectrum, visually observed as the film. The (CO_2) fraction is comparatively less ((lambda _I^*) − 0.18) and a large number of ionic and radical species like (O^+), (CO^+), (CO_2^+), (C_2). (O_2^+) and (O^+) are noted. The prevalence of radical and ionic species in two-film model is anticipated owing to the high temperatures generated by CO combustion in the film.

Extending the influence of CO, experimental observations in the current work suggest that film diameter ((d_f)) is a function of three parameters; (d_p) (also observed by Shen et al.24), T, and (X_{O_2}). The classical diffusion control approach however assumes that the (d_f) varies only as function of (X_{O_2}). The stated dependencies are established based on temporal visual inspections of the evolution of film diameter as indicated in Fig. 9. The evolution of film diameter ((d_f/d_0)) with time, temperature and (X_{O_2}) across particle sizes is shown in Fig. 9a–c.

Variation of film diameter (d_f) to initial particle diameter (d_0) ratio with (a) Normalised conversion time (b) temperature (100% (O_2)) and (c) (O_2) concentration (1073 K) (error associated with the determination of (d_f) is < 0.05 mm).

It is observed from Fig. 9a that (d_f/d_0) varies negligibly with time ((pm 0.05)). The film is established at about 10% conversion (delay owing to the homogeneous mixing and ignition chemistry) and is mapped upto 90% conversion. As such, time averaged film thickness is considered for further analysis.

Figure 9a and b indicates that (d_f/d_0) increases with an increase in T and (X_{O_2}). It is to be noted that the oxidizer flux is maintained constant (corresponding to Re = 0.1) throughout the experiment and hence does not have any influence on (d_f). The only plausible explanation for the increase in the film thickness is an increased flux from the particle surface, which is identified as CO from the optical emission spectrum presented in Fig. 8. In summary, the above observations theoretically validate the proposed hypothesis that at higher T and (X_{O2}), the CO flux from the particle increases. Since the diffusion rate of (CO_2) from the film interface to the particle surface remains the same, a higher CO flux from the particle surface poses enhanced resistance leading to higher conversion time and (beta > 2).

The hypothesis presented in the previous section finds support in the work by Cornish25 investigating heat transfer from concentric spheres. Cornish25 report on the reduction of the particle Nusselt number (Nu) with an increase in diameter of the outer sphere. Invoking unity Lewis number approximation, the Prandlt number and Schmidt number are similar, thereby Nu is equivalent to Sherwood number (Sh)2. The correction in Sherwood number due to CO film can be formulated as,

The mass-loss rate of a single particle burning in a quiescent environment is reported by Annamalai et al.1 as,

In Eq. (4), Sh for a spherical particle is approximated as 21, gas density (({rho }_g)) is obtained from the equation of state and (mathscr {D}) is the multi-component mass diffusion coefficient estimated using kinetic theory-based Chapman-Enskog equation. The transfer number B is ratio of stochiometric coefficients. Equating Eq. (4) to the temporal derivative of particle mass and integrating with respect to d and t with initial condition (at (t=0, d=d_0)) and terminal condition ( (at trightarrow t_c, drightarrow 0)) yields the classical (d_0^2) correlation,

For a particle within a CO film, Sh in Eq. (4) is corrected with Sh defined in Eq. (3) as,

Equating Eq. (5) to the temporal evolution of mass,

Integrating Eq. (6) and applying the initial and terminal conditions as in the case of Eq. (4), the modified (d_0^2) law is obtained as follows,

It is observed from Eq. (7) that, in presence of a CO film, the conversion time in addition to being a function of (d^2_{0,p}) also depends on the ratio of particle diameter to film diameter (frac{d_{0,p}}{d_f}), thereby deviating from the classical (d_0^2) regime.

The analytical correlation, Eq. (8), can be posed with three limiting conditions with respect to the particle diameter to film diameter ratio, (R = 2d_{0,p}/3d_f).

Case 1: (mathbf {R=1}rightarrow) Considering (d_{0,p} = 20) mm as an example, to obtain R=1; (d_f = 13.3) mm. This case is not possible as the CO film forms at the exterior of the particle and (d_f) is always greater than (d_p).

Case 2: (mathbf {R gg 1}) (rightarrow) It is seen in Case 1 that for (R=1), (d_f<d_p). Thereby, for (R gg 1), it concurs (d_f ll d_p). Since (d_f) is always greater than (d_p), Case 2 is impossible .

Case 3: (mathbf { R ll 1}) (rightarrow) This case is a possible when the film diameter is a magnitude larger than the particle diameter, (d_f gg d_p). Under such circumstances, the extremely large film acts as an infinite ambient medium, similar to the single-film approach, and Eq. (8) reduces to, (t_c=(d_{0,p}^2)/ alpha ^{‘}_{diffusion}).

Conclusively, depending on the prevailing thermophysical conditions, (R<1) and under limiting condition of (R ll 1), Eq. (8) reduces to the conventional (d_0^2-law).

The analytical correlation (Eq. 8) obtained for a single particle conversion time as a function of (d_0) and (d_f) is a typical initial value problem. The solution requires knowledge of (d_0), (d_f) and ({alpha ‘}). The transfer number B, under a two-film consideration, is formulated by Turns17 as,

In Eq. (9), ({vartheta }_s) is the stoichiometric ratio for C-CO({}_{2}) reaction at the particle surface and (Y_{O_{2,infty }}) is the mass fraction of oxygen at infinity. (Y_{CO_2,s}) is the mass fraction of CO({}_{2}) at the surface obtained iteratively with an initial guess of surface temperature and considering that under a purely diffusion-limited regime (Y_{CO_2,s}rightarrow 0.) The transfer number thus obtained from Eq. (9) is used to arrive at the ratio of particle diameter to film diameter employing the analytical correlation obtained from solving energy and specie balance at the particle surface and the CO film (flame)17,

The flame diameter d({}_{f}) obtained using the analytical correlation (Eq. 10) is compared with the experimental film diameter recorded photographically in the current work. The comparison is consolidated in Table 4. With the knowledge of ({d_0}_{.p}), (frac{d_f}{d_{p,0}}), and ({alpha ‘}) the total conversion time under different thermophysical conditions is estimated using Eq. (8) and compared with experimental burn times from the current work. The analysis is consolidated in Table 5.

Reviewing the data consolidated in Table 5, it can be observed that, the flame diameter and the total conversion time estimated from the analytical approach remain very close to the experimental observations with the maximum difference in both the cases being within 25%.

The experimental setup and methodology introduce errors in the final results. The errors are introduced from (1) the experimental setup in terms of uncertainties in the measured value, (2) the methodology and procedure followed during the experiment and (3) the propagation of error from its introduction to the final result.

With regard to the experimental setup, Table 6 consolidates the error associated with the various measurements made in the experiments. To address the errors arising from methodology, each data point was repeated at least five times, and the the standard deviation was found to be less than 5%.

The errors from the experimental setup and the procedure are propagated to the final calculated values based on the standard approaches detailed by Clifford26.

The current work has experimentally and analytically addressed combustion of biomass char in oxygen enriched and thermally supported environments with specific emphasis on conditions conventionally not addressed. Spherical char particles sized between 8 and 20 mm are subjected to temperatures (T) in range of 300 K to 1073 K and (O_2) mole fraction ((X_{O_2})) in the range of 20% to 100%. Following are the key observations;

While the conversion process follows the classical (d_0^2)-law under certain low T- (X_{O_2}) conditions, at high T- (X_{O_2}) deviation from the classical (d_0^2)-law is observed with the power of (d_0) surpassing 2, a first of its kind observation.

A surface plot is presented identifying 673 K and 40% (O_2) as transition conditions for deviation from (d_0^2)-law; single-film to two-film transition.

It is hypothesized that a convective flux of CO film from the particle surface curtails (CO_2) diffusion towards the surface resulting in significantly reduced (CO_2) concentration near the surface of the particle. The CO film identified and characterized by image processing and emission spectroscopy techniques is found to vary as a function of three parameters—(d_0), T and (X_{O_2}) while conventionally, only functional dependence on (X_{O_2}) is considered.

The proposed hypothesis is analytically formulated by amending the Sherwood number and solving for mass-loss rate of the particle to arrive at conversion time ((t_c))- (d_0) correlation. It is found that under conditions wherein CO film prevails the (t_c) in addition to being a function of (d_0^2), is also a function of ratio of (d_0) to film size (d_f).

The hypothesis is validated using experimental observations and agrees within 10% deviation for most cases and less than 25% deviation in all cases.

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

The authors thankfully acknowledge the support extended by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), India (Grant No.:103/234/2014-NT), Department of Science and Technology (DST), India (Grant No.: DST/TMD/HFC/2K18/64(G)) and Indian Oil Corporation Limited (Sanction No.: CHT/SD-IOCL/12-01).

Writing—Original draft: M.A.N.; Writing—Review and Editing: M.A.N., A.M.S., S.D.; Conceptualization: M.A.N., A.M.S., S.D.; Methodology, Investigation, Formal Analysis: M.A., A.M.S.; Supervision, Project Administration; Fund Acquisition: S.D.

Correspondence to N. Mohammed Asheruddin.

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Received: 17 August 2022

Accepted: 20 October 2022

Published: 01 November 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-22910-w

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Research: Biochar as circular economy substitute for peat | News – ERR

1 November, 2022
 

In Estonia and throughout Europe, ornamental gardening is becoming an increasingly popular pastime and a significant industry. Given the extensive use of peat soils, which upon excavation transform from potent carbon sinks to sources of CO2 emissions, it is crucial to find alternatives for plant growth medium, Olesja Escuer, a researcher at the Estonian University of Life Sciences (EMU) said.

“Peat is a natural growing medium, but its extraction and the resulting disturbance of peatlands have significant detrimental effects on the environment,” Olesja Escuer, a researcher at the EMU and gardener at the University of Tartu Botanical Garden, said.

Peat harvesting diminishes natural diversity, disrupts water regime and contributes to carbon dioxide land emissions.

The booming horticulture industry in Europe uses 90 percent peat substrate. As ornamental plant gardening grows in popularity, so does the demand for greenhouse production.

In her recently defended doctorate thesis, Escuer examined sustainable circular economy alternatives to peat.

She looked at how different mulch affects the growth, flowering and potting soil properties of popular flowering plants such as hybrid petunia, Impatiens walleriana, commonly called impatiens or bizzy Lizzy, and Tagetes patula, or French marigold.

In particular, Escuer tested the effects of partial peat replacement with hardwood biochar, essentially horticultural charcoal, on container-grown young marigold plants.

From production residue to wise contributer

Peatlands store water, sequester and store carbon dioxide and form their own ecosystem, Escuer said. “When peat is extracted and drained, it erodes, leading to the emission of greenhouse gases. Everything is interconnected,” she continued.

Escuer looked into hardwood biochar, a carbon-rich material resulting from pyrolysation, as an alternative to reduce peat use, specifically in the preparation of growing media for younger container plants.

She experimented with different amounts of wood biochar added to the peat to find the best balance of the two substances. “Although biochar has a high pH, peat is an acidic material, so one cancels out the other,” she explained.

Due to the fact that different varieties of hardwood biochar have distinct chemical and physical properties, the neutralizing effect of the particular biochar only became apparent during the experiment. Escuer discovered a formula in which up to fifty percent of the peat in the growing medium can be replaced with charcoal to create the optimal pH (acidity level) for plants.

“In addition to balancing soil acidity, biochar is important because it provides an indirect indication of nutrient content,” Escuer explained. Depending on the material burned, however, the charcoal may be too nutrient-rich and increase soil salinity.

In moderate doses, biochar works as a potassium fertilizer, again, depending on the biochar and its original material. “Ashes are used in horticulture in the same way. It is often added to the soil to provide potassium to plants.”

Escuer was looking for solution that could contributed to circular economy in the sector, so the hardwood charcoal she used in the experiment is a byproduct of a local company’s charcoal produce.

“They ship the larger portions of charcoal to the store, where we purchase them for the grill. Nonetheless, a small amount remains, and they must find a purpose for it.” Escuer says. Therefore, substituting even the smallest amount of peat with biochar has environmental benefits.

Cocoa beans and grass clippings

While Escuer experimented with biochar as a peat fertilizer for the young, just emerging plants in the container, for the open fields she used mulching with other organic and inorganic materials. “We used kraft paper, light gravel, grass clippings, pine bark, cocoa bean shells and peat in the experiment,” she said.

Of all the media she has tried, Escuer recommended using a mixture of lawn-cutting residues and cocoa shells. “Both of these decompose quickly. The husks provide phosphorus-potassium, while the grass clippings provide more nitrogen and magnesium,” she explained.

Cocoa bean shells may be expensive, but they have a place in smaller private gardens, or even in the soil of a plant grown in a container. “Mulch has the same impact in a container as it does in an open field: less watering is required, the soil temperature is better regulated, and the sun dries the soil less,” she explained.

“The primary benefit of using mulch is that it increases soil moisture, lowers soil temperature and can reduce weed infestation,” she said.

However, she said, the choice of mulch depends on the soil and the plants being grown. For instance, annual summer flowers have to be digged out of the soil in the fall.

“Bark could be used with annual palnts,” she said, “but I recommend to remove the bark from the soil surface before taking plants out so that the bark does not mix with the soil.”

This is due to the fact that bark supplies excessive carbon to the soil. In the case of perennial flowers, however, bark mulch enhances the soil airation and minimizes the gardener’s watering needs.

“I believe that more and more people are considering how to use fewer synthetic fertilizers and pesticides,” she added.

Each mulching material works slightly differently: “cocoa bean shells, for example, did not significantly reduce soil temperatures when compared to pine bark and grass clippings,” she said. This is due in part to pine bark’s low thermal conductivity, but also to the three materials’ different albedo, or ability to reflect solar radiation.

“Of course, the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of the mulch material is a crucial consideration,” she continued. When combined with soil, excessively carbon-rich mulch, for example, can produce nitrogen deficit in plants, and vice versa.

The optimal ratio for grass clippings is 25-30:1, although it can be even lower, Escuer said.

In particular, she has private gardeners in mind who can easier manage without the use of chemicals. “Clearly, it is quite challenging to replace them in large-scale production.”

However, research community is leaning towards finding sustainable circular economy alternatives, she said.

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Research Fellow (Fixed term) – Academic Positions

1 November, 2022
 

Location:  Jubilee Campus 

Salary:  £32,348 to £43,414 per annum (pro-rata if applicable) depending on skills and experience. Salary progression beyond this scale is subject to performance. 

Closing Date:  Tuesday 15 November 2022 

Reference:  ENG511022

Biochar can potentially make a major contribution to the UK target for Greenhouse Gas Removal (GGR) of 35M tonnes of carbon p.a. by 2050. However, there are some significant uncertainties to overcome, particularly the availability of feedstocks where supply of virgin wood could be limited. Biowaste, particularly anaerobic digestate, has significant potential to extend the range of feedstocks for biochar production. The vast expansion of anaerobic digestion for food waste alone, the Bio-waste to Biochar (B to B) technology can result in savings of over 500,000 tonnes of CO2 equivalent p.a. by 2030. The aim of the completed Phase 1 project with CPL, the University of Nottingham and Severn Trent Green Power funded by BEIS was to establish the feasibility of the B to B technology approach and optimise process design and operation for large-scale biochar production. Hydrothermal conversion (HTC) can operate successfully with AD fibre, even fibre containing high plastic contents with over 50 tonnes processed. In the Phase 2 project, a fully integrated HTC-HTT will produce ca. 450 t of biochar p.a. (1000 tonnes CO2 equivalent) over the course of the project representing an “end to end” solution to a major environmental problem for the food AD industry since the biochar produced will be deployed across arable land, woodland/forestry using the extensive partner network that has been established in the UKRI GGR Biochar Demonstrator project led by the University of Nottingham.

As well as organising the deployment of the the biochar, the University of Nottingham will also conduct an extensive biochar characterisation programme to endure that the voluntary European Biochar Certificate (EBC) environmental standard is met, that the biochar will be stable over centennial timescales and to model the structure of the biochar to predict it’s behaviour with respect to moisture and nutrient retention. The pore and bulk chemical structural characteristics of the biochars will be evaluated in detail and the results will be used to construct molecular models to predict and rationalise adsorption of pollutants and the retention of moisture and nutrients. The candidate will plan and deliver this programme and reporting the findings to CPL, the corsinating organisation for the BEIS Phase 2 project, and will work closely the Nanoscale and Microscale Research Centre (nmRC) at Nottingham on advanced methods including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The candidate will have:

•Proven ability on advanced modelling carbonaceous materials using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and molecular dynamic (MD) approaches.

•Proven ability on measuring porosity in microporous materials.

•Excellent oral, written and presentational skills, particularly to discuss and disseminate results to project partners/other stakeholders.

•The ability to work unsupervised with time management and organisational skills.

• PhD in a topic related to porous carbonaceous materials

This post is available on a fixed term basis until 31/03/2025. Hours of work are full time (36.25 hours). Job share arrangements may be considered. 
Informal enquiries may be addressed to Prof. Colin Snape, email: colin.snape@nottingham.ac.uk 
Please note that applications sent directly to this email address will not be accepted.

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Join – American Society for Horticultural Science

1 November, 2022
 

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Impact of Temperature and Heating Rate on Biochar Properties and Iodine Adsorption Performance

1 November, 2022
 

Recently, Luffa cylindrica has been drawing lots of attention in adsorption applications. However, the contaminated biomass needs to be properly disposed. Pyrolysis is a process capable of turning this type of residue into valuable product. Luffa cylindrica pyrolysis produces biochar which has been used as adsorbent for various cationic and organic species. Additionally, the use of solar power to heat the reactor reduces the environmental impact of pyrolysis. In this work, a lab-scale solar pyrolizer was built in a 40-dollar budget. This biomass was previously subjected to slow pyrolysis in an electrical reactor at various temperatures (300, 400, and 500 °C) and heating rates (2, 10, and 20 °C min−1) to assess the influence of these parameters on biochar properties. Further, the Luffa sponge sample was subjected to solar pyrolysis. The characterization methods of TG/DTG, FTIR, SEM, and HHV analysis were employed to assess biochar properties. Biochar adsorption performance was assessed by iodine adsorption experiments. Highest HHV (29.3 MJ kg−1) was obtained for the biochar from the 500 °C, 2 °C min−1 pyrolysis. Maximum iodine adsorption (162.9 mg g−1) was observed on the biochar produced at 400 °C, 2 °C min−1. Solar biochar had a 24.3 MJ kg−1 HHV and a Iodine adsorption of 115.2 mg g−1.

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The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available in the following persistent web link: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/19zBmuMOpeluSNan0HT9ewURScbU2THQv?usp=sharing.

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and the Dean of Research of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (PRPq—UFMG).

This work was supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Author Pedro Souza has received research support from this organization.

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by Pedro Henrique Cabral de Souza, Sônia Denise Ferreira Rocha and Daniel Bastos de Rezende. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Pedro Henrique Cabral de Souza and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Pedro Henrique Cabral de Souza.

The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Received: 28 March 2022

Accepted: 09 October 2022

Published: 01 November 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-022-01954-z

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Grassley Introduces Bipartisan Biochar Research Network Act | News | bdemo.com

1 November, 2022
 

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Bill seeks to explore agricultural, environmental benefits of biochar

Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa), a family farmer and member of the Senate Agriculture Committee, was joined by Sens. John Thune (R-S.D.), Sherrod Brown (D-Ohio) and Jon Tester (D-Mont.) in introducing the Biochar Research Network Act. This bipartisan, bicameral proposal seeks to study the effectiveness of biochar, which is a carbon-rich material produced from biomass. Specifically, the bill would establish a national biochar research network to test the impact of biochar across various soil types, application methods and climates to learn more about its capacity to benefit farmers and the environment.

“Biochar possesses the unique ability to improve the quality of soil while also sequestering carbon. With additional research, biochar could provide farmers with a low-cost solution for boosting their yields by keeping soil fertile for a longer period of time. A lot of work remains to fully understand the benefits biochar could provide, and that’s why I’m honored to lead the introduction of the Biochar Research Network Act to expand research into this potentially transformative tool,” Grassley said.

“I applaud the introduction of the Biochar Research Network Act. The research it enables will pave the way for a new industry that creates jobs and opportunity across rural Iowa producing biochar and next generation biofuel,” said David Laird, Professor Emeritus of Soil Science at Iowa State University.

“Soil health is critical to South Dakota agriculture,” said Thune. “Biochar holds the potential to benefit crop production, nutrient retention, and reduce the lifecycle carbon intensity of crops, which would amplify the benefits of homegrown biofuels. The research network supported by this legislation would expand the agriculture sector’s leadership in providing energy, food, and environmental solutions.”

“Biochar has the potential to lower input costs for farmers and protect our environment,” said Brown. “Bringing down costs for Ohio farmers, while addressing the impacts of climate change that farmers across this country know all too well, will be top priorities in the next farm bill debate, and biochar could be an important tool to doing both.”

“As a farmer, I know that the resources we invest in research and innovation can pay huge dividends down the line by lowering costs for Montana producers and increasing profit margins while improving the health of our fields,” said Tester. “That’s why I’m proud to sponsor this bipartisan legislation that will increase our understanding of the benefits of biochar on improving soil health, increasing moisture retention, and combatting climate change. Montana family farmers and ranchers feed the world, and this bill will help us give them every tool to be successful.”

The proposed national biochar research network would work to:

Understand productive uses for biochar to help with crop production and climate mitigation;

Assess biochar’s potential for soil carbon sequestration; and

Deliver cost-effective and practical information to farmers on sustainable biochar production and application.

A companion bill was recently introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives by Reps. Mariannette Miller-Meeks (R-Iowa) and Chellie Pingree (D-Maine).

During his 99 county meetings this year, Grassley visited a plant in Redfield, Iowa that manufactures biochar.

Sunny, along with a few afternoon clouds. High near 75F. Winds S at 10 to 20 mph..

Partly cloudy skies. Low 54F. Winds S at 10 to 15 mph.

As the fall sports season came to a close last Friday afternoon, I turned my attention to doing something I typically do each October. I put the camera down and turned into a spectator. Yes, a spectator. What did I go see? More high school sports.

It is safe to assume Kirk Ferentz has not enjoyed the glorious autumn in Iowa the way he would prefer.

The race for Grassley’s long-held seat in the US Senate is, somewhat surprisingly (but not really) close. I don’t make it a practice of predicting things political. I can’t and won’t hazard a prediction, for example, on the outcome of the up-coming US Senate election in Iowa. The polling sug…


Pyrolytic Synthesis and Characterization of Biochar Derived from Rice Husks for Removal of …

1 November, 2022
 

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Environmental and Economic Assessment – The Biochar Demonstrator

2 November, 2022
 

The Biochar Demonstrator will be conducting life cycle analysis and techno-economic assessment to determine carbon dioxide removal of biochar deployment and help develop robust business models.

Our integrated approach evaluates both the carbon sequestration and economic performance of the Demonstrator. We are developing a framework for assessing both the effectiveness and impacts of large-scale biochar deployment, and exploring business models that might be viable at different scales.

Through this we are accounting for the procurement of biomass, biochar production, carbon sequestration, and the permanence of carbon storage with models covering the full value chain of biochar

We will assess the consequential impacts of biochar for permanent carbon sequestration, allowing calculation of the net carbon sequestration potential of biochar from different feedstocks and processes. Our LCA methodologies will help us to develop critical understanding of the capacity of biochar to store carbon and mitigate the risks of carbon release due to disturbance (fire, pest) or future land use changes.

Matching feedstocks with optimised biochar production processes and additional outputs, we can examine how different business models balance costs with multiple potential value streams for the biochar product. As an example, an assessment indicates biochar production from crop and food waste digestates via a wet production process (hydrothermal carbonisation) can achieve carbon sequestration costs of £280 to £575/tonne.

The most ambitious and comprehensive biochar demonstration programme to date: the biochar demonstrator will apply over 200 tonnes of biochar to soils across the UK, addressing the uncertainties and barriers to its use.


Application of Fe-doped biochar in Cr(VI) removal from washing wastewater and residual Cr …

2 November, 2022
 

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Application of Fe-doped biochar in Cr(VI) removal from washing wastewater and residual … – X-MOL

2 November, 2022
 

High-content Cr(VI)-contaminated soils are challenging to remediate using a single remediation technique. This study combined soil washing and immobilization to remediate high-content (3440 mg kg−1) Cr(VI)-contaminated soil, which investigated the effects of operating time, temperature, and liquid-solid ratio (LSR) on the Cr(VI) removal efficiency of soil washing and evaluated the potential of Fe-doped biochar (FeBC) in soluble Cr(VI) removal from the washing wastewater and residual Cr(VI) immobilization in the washed soil. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency of soil washing increased with the operating time, temperature, and LSR, but still cannot remove Cr(VI) to achieve the safety content (<100 mg kg−1). FeBC showed satisfactory potential in both Cr(VI) removal and immobilization from wastewater and soil, in which the main mechanisms involve ion exchange, redox, and coprecipitation. These results demonstrate applying soil washing & immobilization to remediate high-content Cr(VI)-contaminated soil is a promising alternative method.

使用单一修复技术修复高含量 Cr(VI) 污染的土壤具有挑战性。本研究结合土壤清洗和固定化修复高含量(3440 mg kg -1)Cr(VI)污染土壤,考察了操作时间、温度和液固比(LSR)对Cr(VI)污染的影响。 ) 土壤洗涤的去除效率,并评估了 Fe 掺杂生物炭 (FeBC) 在从洗涤废水中去除可溶性 Cr(VI) 和在洗涤土壤中固定残留 Cr(VI) 的潜力。土壤洗涤的 Cr(VI) 去除效率随着操作时间、温度和 LSR 的增加而增加,但仍不能去除 Cr(VI) 以达到安全含量 (<100 mg kg -1)。FeBC 在去除和固定废水和土壤中的 Cr(VI) 方面表现出令人满意的潜力,其中主要机制包括离子交换、氧化还原和共沉淀。这些结果表明,应用土壤清洗和固定来修复高含量 Cr(VI) 污染的土壤是一种很有前途的替代方法。


Red Barn Event: Biochar Production – Wenatchee River Institute

2 November, 2022
 

November 2nd E-NEWSLETTER

Programs

Red Barn Event:

Biochar Production

TONIGHT, November 2nd

7:00PM-8:00PM

Come learn about biochar! Biochar is a stable, carbon-rich material made by heating biomass in an oxygen-free environment. C6 Forest to Farm is a nonprofit dedicated to protecting our forests from the risks of extreme wildfire. They plan to establish biochar production near Cole’s Corner that will operate using forest waste materials.

Autumn Ambles

Saturday, November 5th

9:00AM-11:00AM

The last one of the season! Join one of WRI’s knowledgeable naturalists for a two-hour autumn amble. Come take a walk with us as the air begins to cool and the leaves turn gold. You will learn about the natural and cultural history of Leavenworth with many scenic views along the way!

November

Beginner Bird Walk

Wednesday, November 9th

8:00AM-9:30AM

WRI’s FREE Beginner Bird Walks happen on the second Wednesday of every month! Join us for as many as you can. You’ll walk around the WRI campus with knowledgeable WRI staff. All birding experience levels are welcome. Need binoculars? We have loaners!

Red Barn Event: Lessons from the Mountains with Jeremy Jones

Saturday, November 12th

7:00PM-8:00PM

Join WRI and A Book for All Seasons to welcome professional snowboarder, author, and founder of Protect our Winters, Jeremy Jones! Jones will discuss his new book, The Art of Shralpinism: Lessons from the Mountains, with Northwest ski historian and author, Lowell Skoog.

Salmon: Showing Us the Way Home

Monday, November 14th

7:00PM-8:30PM

Virtual

 Come learn about the inspiring and collaborative approach to help salmon rediscover their historic habitats of the Upper Columbia River. Presented by Upper Columbia United Tribes, NCW Libraries, Cascade Fisheries, and WRI.

Red Barn Event:

Sustainable Holidays

Thursday, November 17th

7:00PM-8:00PM

Come learn about local recycling, the Waste Wizard tool, and how to minimize your waste this holiday season with Waste Loop and Sustainable NCW!

Introduction to Animal Tracking with Mark Kang-O’Higgins

Saturday, November 19th – Sunday, November 20th

Join WRI for a weekend introduction to the language of wildlife tracking. Throughout the weekend, you’ll gain a basic understanding of how to identify and interpret the commonly left tracks and sign of the wildlife in our region.

Pybus University: Indoor Gardening and Planning

Tuesday, November 29th

7:00PM-8:00PM

Have you always wanted to grow your own food, herbs, or flowers, but have never known where to start? It’s never too late in the year to start planning for the next! Join WRI Community Programs Educator, Chelsea Trout, for a workshop on indoor gardening!

Winter Wreath Classes

Friday, December 9th

9:00AM-11:00AM or

1:00PM-3:00PM

OR

Saturday, December 10th

9:00AM-11:00AM

Embrace the coming winter season by joining WRI and artist, florist, and event planner, Amy Wall, of Cashmere’s Salt of The Earth, to craft a festive wreath! There are three times available for the wreath class. Register for whichever you prefer!

Red Barn Event: The Wenatchee Mountains, Geology and Special Plants

Tuesday, December 13th

7:00PM-8:00PM

Join WRI and Washington Native Plant Society for a Red Barn Event! Help us welcome Ted Alway to speak about the Wenatchee Mountains, its geology, and the unique plants that grow here in response.

Fall Youth Education

In the last two weeks, we’ve held Fall Camp, did some Field Days with local schools, and have progressed more in the Traveling Naturalist program. Read some highlights below:

Fall Camp

Last Thursday and Friday was WRI’s Fall Camp with 13 students in grades K-3! Students did a bunch of fun activities outside. They went on a salmon walk to learn about salmon and try to spot some in the river. They learned about owls and then made a pinecone owl craft to take home. On Friday, they came to camp wearing their Halloween costumes and then went on a spooky nature hike in search of spooky things like spiders, dead salmon, and mushrooms. Then they made spooky animal habitats on Danger Beach. They also looked at pumpkins and parts of pumpkins up close with their pocket microscopes, then they got to decorate them and roast pumpkin seeds to snack on!

Traveling Naturalist

In the last month, WRI has continued activities in the Traveling Naturalist in the Classroom program. WRI visits 26 fourth and fifth classrooms in 5 different schools across North Central Washington. All fourth grade classrooms have finished their second lesson now. Students learned all about adaptations of animals and played Adaptation Olympics. They also did an experiment testing the adaptation of opposable thumbs by trying to throw a football with and without their thumb.

 

Also in the last month, fifth grade classrooms from Orondo, Chelan, Manson, and Rock Island had their field trips to the WRI campus. During their trip at WRI, they learned all about erosion control, fire ecology, and went on an exploration hike! They wrote many of their observations in their nature journals. Fifth grade students from Brewster will be having their field trip next week to Lake Chelan State Park!

Transitional Kindergarten:

Sensory Scramblers

Students used their senses on two different scavenger hunts: one where they used fall-colored paint swatches to find similar colors in nature around their school, and another where they had to find similar things in nature that were shown to them in a bandana by using their memory. They also used their hearing senses by being quiet for a couple minutes to notice what sounds they heard around them.

4th Grade:

Alpine Lakes Watershed Naturalists

All 4th grade classrooms from Alpine Lakes Elementary have now finished their 4-week rotation of Field Days at WRI! They finished it off by going on a riparian hike to look for salmon in the river. Then they did a nature art activity with Andy Goldsworthy.

Thank you to our volunteers from the past two weeks, Tim Abel and Beth Beck! Find volunteer opportunities and sign-up here.

Place

Salmon Art Sculpture

This fall, WRI commissioned a sculpture from Swede Albert, a p’squosa artist in Omak. Swede crafted a salmon sculpture to honor and recognize the first people to this land. The salmon is a symbol of perseverance of the Indigenous People’s traditions and culture. On Friday, Swede installed the sculpture on the WRI campus down by the Waterfront Park trail by the river. Swede stated, “it means the world to me to have an art piece established in my ancestral homelands”.

 

This project could not be possible without the help from a grant from the Woods Family Music and Art Fund and some private donors. Thank you for your support and thank you to Swede for his hard work and beautiful art that will be shared with all who come to enjoy the Wenatchee River.

What are your end of year giving plans?

The season of giving is nearly here! Once again, the Wenatchee River Institute is excited to participate in the Community Foundation of North Central Washington‘s Give NCW campaign. This year, there are 75 local nonprofits participating! Give NCW opens on November 24th and runs until December 31st. Keep us in mind for your end of year giving so that we can continue to grow our programs in the new year! 

Thank you, volunteers!

We want to take a moment to thank all of the volunteers who took part in WRI’s Make a Difference Day activity! There were a total of 12 volunteers who came to help cut back blackberry bushes and spread gravel over trails. Thanks to them, our pathway by the Red Barn leading to downtown is all clear. Thanks so much for your time!

Thank you to our donors from the last two weeks!

Elizabeth Sall

Kristin Effland

Chen Wang

Lisi Ott – Sustaining

Bonnie and Victor Reddick

Four Point Taxidermy

Tara deArrieta – Sustaining

Danica Mito

Mary Carol Nelson – Sustaining

Lynn Dickinson – Sustaining

Laura and Greg Reichlin – Sustaining

Christine Emmel – Sustaining

Kathryn and Doug Drew

Chuck Cahn

Scot Brower

Nancy and Tim Ahern

Diane and Herb Young – Sustaining

Gro Buer and Bruce Williams – Sustaining

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Tour of Biochar Now! – Events in Berthoud – AllEvents.in

2 November, 2022
 

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British Airways, UK invest in sustainable fuel – Recycling Today

2 November, 2022
 

British Airways, Nova Pangaea Technologies, both based in the United Kingdom, and Deerfield, Illinois-based LanzaJet have signed an agreement that will accelerate their Project Speedbird initiative to develop cost-effective sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) for commercial use in the United Kingdom.?

The SAF will be developed using a combination of technologies based on Nova Pangaea’s Refnova process of converting agricultural and wood waste into bioethanol and biochar. LanzaJet’s patented alcohol-to-jet technology, the first of its kind, then converts the bioethanol to produce SAF and renewable diesel. 

“This project will deliver the first end-to-end, sustainable value chain from agricultural and wood waste to SAF in the U.K.,” Nova Pangaea Technologies CEO Sarah Ellerby says. “It will undoubtedly play a very important role in the growing momentum towards decarbonizing our aviation sector.”

Project Speedbird was launched by the three companies in 2021 and granted nearly £500,000 ($575,750) by the U.K. Department for Transport’s (DfT) Green Fuels, Green Skies competition?for an initial feasibility study, which is complete. Project Speedbird would create the U.K.’s first SAF facility using agricultural and wood waste taken from sustainable sources. 

As part of the agreement, British Airways’ parent company, International Airlines Group (IAG), London, is investing in the project to support the next phase of work that will help decarbonize the aviation industry. 

Project Speedbird has applied for the DfT’s Advanced Fuels Fund grant for additional funding, which will be key to the project’s continued development while the DfT seeks to roll out its Jet Zero strategy that includes implementing a 2025 SAF mandate, which will require at airlines in the U.K. to use at least 10 percent SAF by 2030.

“The U.K. is a critical market in the decarbonization of the aviation industry, and this partnership brings together the full value chain from agricultural and wood waste to finished sustainable aviation fuel and use by British Airways,” LanzaJet CEO Jimmy Samartzis says. “This is about impact—on the economy, on energy security and on climate. We appreciate the DfT’s support as we scale up, continue to improve capital and process efficiency and enable production and use of SAF at a time when immediate action is needed.” 

The Project?Speedbird facility—which the partners plan to build in northeast England—would?transform agricultural and wood waste taken from sustainable sources into?102?million liters (nearly 27 million gallons) of?SAF per year. Construction could begin as early as 2023, and the facility is expected to be producing SAF by 2026.

British Airways intends to use all the SAF produced through Project Speedbird to help power some of its flights. The SAF produced would reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on a net lifecycle basis by 230,000 tonnes a year. This is the equivalent of approximately 26,000 domestic British Airways flights. Overall, Project Speedbird has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 770,000 tonnes a year as the combined processes also produce renewable diesel and biochar.

“Project Speedbird is another great step toward our mission to reach net zero carbon emissions by 2050 or sooner and achieve our target of using SAF for 10% of our fuel by 2030,” British Airways Director of Sustainability Carrie Harris says. “SAF is in high demand but in short supply across the globe, and so it is essential that we scale up its production as quickly as possible. With further investment and continued government support, Speedbird will be a key and pioneering project in the production of SAF here in the U.K.”  

Project Speedbird would generate hundreds of skilled employment jobs with the generation and supply chain opportunities in northeast England and help spread the benefits of investment in green technologies across the UK. It also would bolster the UK’s energy security.

Related stories: Indaba invests in waste-to-aviation fuel capacity | NC State awarded $2.25M grant to develop sustainable energy products from waste streams

Sonoco credits improving supply conditions and a number of activities it says are critical to its future for strong third-quarter financial results for the period ended Oct. 2.

The Hartsville, South Carolina-based packaging producer reports results that “exceeded the high end of guidance” thanks to stable demand in consumer packaging and a focus on continued progress on strategic priorities which it expects will continue to benefit financial results into next year and beyond.

“We delivered another strong quarter of results from stable consumer demand and improving supply chain conditions, while executing a number of activities critical to our future,” Sonoco President and CEO Howard Coker says. “Overall, I am pleased with our team’s performance through the quarter while successfully meeting the demand requirements of our customers.”

RELATED: Sustainable solution

The company’s net sales increased 34 percent year over year to $1.9 billion, while GAAP operating profit and base operating profit increased year over year to $182 million and $225 million, respectively.

Sonoco reports its financial results in two segments—consumer packaging and industrial paper packaging, with all remaining business reported as “all other.”

The consumer packaging segment new sales increased 72 percent year over year to $1.03 billion, and Sonoco says a positive volume/mix growth was driven by global rigid paper containers and flexibles. The segment’s operating profit increased 93 percent to $128 million.

In the industrial paper packaging segment, net sales increased 4 percent to $661 million through what Sonoco says is strong strategic pricing performance that was partially offset by the impact of foreign currency exchange and lower volume/mix in both paper and converted products. It’s operating profit, however, increased more substantially to $82 million, up 48 percent compared with the previous year’s quarter.

The all other business segment saw a 10 percent increase in net sales to $198 million.

RELATED: Sonoco adds paper cup recycling at Hartsville, South Carolina, mill

Key acquisitions have been at the forefront of Sonoco’s positive financial performance. The company says it continues to see strong results from the Ball Metalpack acquisition that was completed in January, and anticipates more growth with the $88 million acquisition of Skjern Paper in Denmark.

The move is intended to grow Sonoco’s existing and new customers in Europe. Skjern Paper has one mill that consumes 100-percent-recycled paper and what Sonoco says is a “strong ESG profile” with less reliance on natural gas. The agreement was announced Sept. 28 and the companies expect the deal to close in the fourth quarter.

Oakland, Tennessee-based polystyrene (PS) recycler Rapac has received the Global Recycle Standard (GRS) certification for its EcoSix recycled filler bead products.

The GRS is an international, voluntary, full-product standard that sets requirements for third-party certification of recycled content, chain of custody, social and environmental practices and chemical restrictions. Through its verification process, Rapac says the GRS was able to verify the recycled content of its products, as well as responsible social, environmental and chemical practices in its production.

According to the GRS, the certification defines requirements to ensure accurate content claims, good working conditions and minimal harmful environmental and chemical impacts for companies in more than 50 countries.

Rapac claims it is the largest recycler of expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the U.S., and services companies worldwide with a diverse range of PS products. The company offers applications of polystyrene that include both EPS and PS products, as well as proprietary, custom resins for a multitude of industries and applications.

In particular, EcoSix EPS recycled filler beads can be used for bean bags and furniture. The EcoSix EPS range also includes loose fill designed for void fill applications, drain beads that are designed for efficient flow and load bearing requirements used in drainage system applications and its EPS recycled resins.

“For nearly four decades, we have upheld an unwavering commitment to sustainability at the highest level,” Rapac Plant Manager Stephen Doorley says. “This certification represents our continued efforts to produce resins that are good for business and good for the planet.”

A pair of Orlando, Florida-based entities have announced a partnership to recycle polypropylene (PP).

In the effort to divert plastic scrap from Central Florida landfills and waterways, the Orlando Magic will implement PureCycle Technologies Inc.’s PureZero waste program at its arena, the Amway Center. PureCycle says PureZero is a first-of-its-kind plastic material recycling program geared toward stadiums and entertainment venues.

The Magic will be the first NBA team to utilize the program, according to PureCycle. The company says its aim is to process PP items commonly found in the Amway Center, such as souvenir cups and food containers, that are typically difficult and costly to recycle because they may contain leftover food and liquid.

PureCycle says its process removes color, odors and impurities from PP items to create an ultra-pure recycled (UPR) plastic that can be recycled multiple times.

“With the adoption of our PureZero program, the Amway Center can help close the loop on plastic waste generated at each game,” PureCycle CEO Dustin Olson says. “As an Orlando-based company, we are proud to work with the Magic. They are an organization deeply committed to sustainability, and we look forward to helping them tackle the plastic waste crisis right here in our own backyard.”

As part of the PureZero program, the Magic will stock Amway Center concessions with PP products. PureCycle says that once it recycles those products, a truly circular recycling system will be achieved.

“The Orlando Magic are thrilled to partner with PureCycle and continue in our quest to be champions off the court,” Magic Vice President of Global Partnerships J.T. McWalters says. “With our home arena, the Amway Center, achieving LEED Gold certification, this partnership underscores our commitment to sustainability. By implementing PureCycle’s PureZero program, we are helping end plastic waste pollution in the region. We are not simply recycling with PureCycle; we are helping change the culture of single-use plastic.”

The partnership with the Magic is the latest in the Central Florida region for PureCycle, which recently announced it will work with the League of Women Voters in Velusia, Seminole and Orange counties to recycle plastic campaign signs throughout this month.

Mpact, a paper and plastics packaging manufacturer and recycling business based in Johannesburg, has renamed its on-site waste management service offering. The company has rebranded its service, previously called Remade On Site, as Mpact Waste Management, making the service its own brand within the Mpact group.

According to Mpact, its on-site waste management service offering features a team of experts with more than 30 years of waste management experience. Mpact Waste Management serves clients at more than 250 sites in South Africa.

“Mpact Waste Management offers its customers a single point of contact, and the team is easily accessible,” says John Hunt, managing director of the recycling business at Mpact, including Mpact Recycling and Mpact Waste Management. “The Mpact Waste Management team get to know their sites intimately so they understand a business’ individual waste patterns, can advise accordingly and adapt an environmentally acceptable solution where necessary.”

Hunt adds that Mpact Waste Management can assist businesses in reducing the amount of waste they send to landfill by identifying what can be recycled and what is potentially hazardous waste.

He says, “If there was ever a perfect time to rename our Remade On Site brand, it’s now. The naming makes things logical, fitting in under the Mpact umbrella and gives our various businesses a clear definition and purpose. This change ushers in a positive era for our business that provides a national footprint of recycling services, which serve our clients and customers better and fosters a strong sense of collaboration among our employees.”


BioChar and SuperSoil – farm & garden – by owner – sale – Craigslist Baltimore

2 November, 2022
 

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Veteran Compost Bio-Charge Bio-Charge is a powerful combination of 20% wood biochar, 20% worm castings, and 60% coconut coir. Our biochar is made from locally sourced wood scraps, charged with fish…

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Study on the effect of biochar combined with Fenton oxidation on the aerobic composting of sludge

2 November, 2022
 

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Comparative Influence of Biochar and Zeolite on Soil Hydrological Indices and Growth …

2 November, 2022
 

You are accessing a machine-readable page. In order to be human-readable, please install an RSS reader.

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited.

Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Ghorbani, M.; Amirahmadi, E.; Konvalina, P.; Moudrý, J.; Bárta, J.; Kopecký, M.; Teodorescu, R.I.; Bucur, R.D. Comparative Influence of Biochar and Zeolite on Soil Hydrological Indices and Growth Characteristics of Corn (Zea mays L.). Water 2022, 14, 3506. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213506

Ghorbani M, Amirahmadi E, Konvalina P, Moudrý J, Bárta J, Kopecký M, Teodorescu RI, Bucur RD. Comparative Influence of Biochar and Zeolite on Soil Hydrological Indices and Growth Characteristics of Corn (Zea mays L.). Water. 2022; 14(21):3506. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213506

Ghorbani, Mohammad, Elnaz Amirahmadi, Petr Konvalina, Jan Moudrý, Jan Bárta, Marek Kopecký, Răzvan Ionuț Teodorescu, and Roxana Dana Bucur. 2022. “Comparative Influence of Biochar and Zeolite on Soil Hydrological Indices and Growth Characteristics of Corn (Zea mays L.)” Water 14, no. 21: 3506. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213506

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Peroxymonosulfate Activation Using Mnfe2o4 Modified Biochar for Organic Pollutants Degradation

2 November, 2022
 

Gannan Normal University

Gannan Normal University

Gannan Normal University

Hubei University

Gannan Normal University

Gannan Normal University

Hubei University

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Exploiting stable and high-performance catalysts is a challenge in remediating organic pollutants (OPs) during advanced oxidation. Herein, this study reported MnFe2O4 decorated biochar (MnFe2O4/BC) as an adsorptive-catalyst for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation to degrade OPs. BC as support not only increased the stability and dispersibility but also decreased the particle diameter of MnFe2O4. We demonstrated various OPs (50 mL, 20 mg·L−1) (including malachite green, bisphenol A, methylene blue, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and thiacloprid) was synergistically adsorbed and oxidized within 10 min with the introduction of PMS (0.2 g·L−1) in the MnFe2O4/BC system. The degradation efficiency was more than 95% after recycling six times. Results of discrete Fourier transform revealed that PMS was preferentially adsorbed on BC doping sites (−4.3143eV to −3.8497eV) and MnFe2O4 parts (−9.6735eV), and then the adsorbed–PMS was activated. These results confirmed that oxidation occurs through radical–induced and non–radical pathways in the MnFe2O4/BC system. Overall, the MnFe2O4/BC showed efficient performance, also this work provides a new insight for understanding of the PMS activation mechanism.

Keywords: MnFe2O4, biochar, Peroxymonosulfate, activation mechanisms, organic pollutants

Suggested Citation

Ganzhou
China

Ganzhou
China

Ganzhou
China

Youyi Avenue, Wuchang District No. 368
Wuhan, 430062
China

Ganzhou
China

Ganzhou
China

Youyi Avenue, Wuchang District No. 368
Wuhan, 430062
China

No Address Available

Chemical Engineering (Chemistry) eJournal

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The Potential of Biochar as N Carrier to Recover N from Wastewater for Reuse in Planting Soil – MDPI

2 November, 2022
 

You are accessing a machine-readable page. In order to be human-readable, please install an RSS reader.

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited.

Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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ZIP-Document (ZIP, 610 KiB)

Yu, Y.; Yang, B.; Petropoulos, E.; Duan, J.; Yang, L.; Xue, L. The Potential of Biochar as N Carrier to Recover N from Wastewater for Reuse in Planting Soil: Adsorption Capacity and Bioavailability Analysis. Separations 2022, 9, 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9110337

Yu Y, Yang B, Petropoulos E, Duan J, Yang L, Xue L. The Potential of Biochar as N Carrier to Recover N from Wastewater for Reuse in Planting Soil: Adsorption Capacity and Bioavailability Analysis. Separations. 2022; 9(11):337. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9110337

Yu, Yingliang, Bei Yang, Evangelos Petropoulos, Jingjing Duan, Linzhang Yang, and Lihong Xue. 2022. “The Potential of Biochar as N Carrier to Recover N from Wastewater for Reuse in Planting Soil: Adsorption Capacity and Bioavailability Analysis” Separations 9, no. 11: 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9110337

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Assessing the difference of biochar and aged biochar to improve soil fertility and cabbage …

2 November, 2022
 

Biochar plays an active role in increasing crop yield and improving soil quality due to its unique properties and structure. However, the physical and chemical properties of biochar also change over time after applying to the soil, which is referred to as aging. The distinction between modifying soil fertility and soil nutrient status is uncertain (especially in soil potassium levels).

We used three approaches to simulate aging progress of biochar, including acidification (AB), dry–wet cycle (DWB), and freezing–thawing cycling (FB). We used element analyzer, BET-N adsorption method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the difference in physical and chemical properties between original biochar (OB) and aged biochar (AB, DWB, and FB). In addition, we undertook pot experiment to assess the impact of original biochar and aged biochar on soil fertility status, soil enzyme activities, and the growth of cabbage, especially in the difference in promoting soil potassium (K) level.

The main results were as follows: Original biochar and aged biochar improved soil fertility and cabbage growth, but the improvement effect of aged biochar on soil environment was weakened. Among all-aged biochars, the AB had the worst effect on the soil environment. Compared to without biochar treatment (CK), the water-soluble K, available K, exchangeable K, and non-exchangeable K were increased by 43.60%, 45.56%, 46.49%, and 44.30%, respectively, under original biochar treatment. However, the promotion effect of soil potassium level was significantly decreased under the AB treatment. Additionally, the C and N content of biochar increased with aged biochar treatment, and the increasing trend was further obvious after applying it to the soil. Moreover, aged biochar treatment affected the surface of biochar, and was more susceptible to erosion in the soil by long-term water leaching.

Overall, the impacts of aged biochar on cabbage growth and soil fertility were inhibited compared to original biochar treatment, further providing a basis and reference for the proper application of biochar in agriculture production.

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The availability of data and materials is on the base of personal request.

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (42167042) and the National Key Research and Development of China (2017YFD0200803).

We thank C.C.J. for helping to design and supervising this study; H.X, Y.L, X.W, and M.C for maintaining the experiment process and determining soil physiochemical properties; and R.M for revising the manuscript grammatically. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Cuncang Jiang.

The manuscript was reviewed and ethically approved for publication by all authors. The manuscript was reviewed and consents to participate by all authors.

The manuscript was reviewed and consents to publish by all authors.

The authors declare no competing interests.

Responsible editor: Zhihong Xu

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Received: 30 October 2021

Accepted: 24 October 2022

Published: 02 November 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-022-03368-9

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Biochar-Added Cementitious Materials—A Review on Mechanical, Thermal … – NTNU Open

2 November, 2022
 

 

 


Economic efficiency of biochar as an amendment for Acacia mangium Willd. plantations

2 November, 2022
 

REYES MORENO, Giovanni; BARRIENTOS FUENTES, Juan Carlos  and  DARGHAN CONTRERAS, Enrique. Economic efficiency of biochar as an amendment for Acacia mangium Willd. plantations. Agron. colomb. [online]. 2022, vol.40, n.1, pp.120-128.  Epub Sep 26, 2022. ISSN 0120-9965.  https://doi.org/10.15446/agron.colomb.v40n1.96330.

Biochar is a product of pyrolysis obtained from any type of biomass and can be used as a soil amendment or conditioner, improving the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil. Additionally, it can serve as an alternative to the application of synthetic fertilization in forest species such as Acacia mangium Willd. This research was oriented towards the determination of the economic efficiency of the use of biochar in A. mangium compared to the use of synthetic fertilizers. Production costs of wood and by-products, income and profits from forestry, economic efficiency of capital (cost-benefit ratio), labor (wood production per worker), and land (wood production ha-1) were considered. We found that the production of wood using biochar increased by 47% per unit area (ha), by 23% per unit of work (worker), and increased earnings by approximately one million Colombian pesos ha-1 compared to the use of only synthetic fertilizers.

Keywords : costs; income; labor efficiency; land efficiency; profitability.


Biochar and Application of Machine Learning: A Review – IntechOpen

2 November, 2022
 

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Home > Books > Biochar – Productive Technologies, Properties and Application [Working Title]

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This study discusses biochar and machine learning application. Concept of biochar, machine learning and different machine learning algorithms used for predicting adsorption onto biochar were examined. Pyrolysis is used to produce biochar from organic materials. Agricultural wastes are burnt in regulated conditions to produce charcoal-like biochar using pyrolysis. Biochar plays a major role in removing heavy metals. Biochar is eco-friendly, inexpensive and effective. Increasing interest in biochar is due to stable carbon skeleton because of ease of sourcing the precursor feedstock and peculiar physicochemical. However, artificial intelligence is a process of training computers to mimic and perform duties human. Artificial intelligence aims to enable computers to solve human challenges and task like humans. A branch of artificial intelligence that teaches machine to perform and predict task using previous data is known as machine learning. It uses parameters called algorithms that convert previous data (input) to forecast new solution. Algorithms that have been used in biochar applications are examined. It was discovered that neural networks, eXtreme Gradient Boosting algorithm and random forest for constructing and evaluating the predictive models of adsorption onto biochar have all been used for biochar application. Machine learning prevents waste, reduces time and reduces cost. It also permits an interdisciplinary means of removing heavy metals.

The world is embracing the fourth industrial revolution and adapting technology in every sphere of human endeavours. 4IR is adjusting ways humans engage, work and live [1]. Its ushers humanity into a new phase caused by incredible technological advancements comparable to the first, second and third industrial revolutions. Machine learning has been deployed simply in different aspects of human lives to living and cost [2, 3]. It is gaining interest in biochar. Biochar is a produced using pyrolysis. Forestry and agricultural wastes are burnt in regulated conditions to produce biochar [2, 3]. This study examines the various algorithms used in machine learning to predict adsorption in biochar.

Fourth Industrial Revolution will alter patterns of key sectors. This includes technological shift, deviation in societal patterns and processes caused by increased interconnection among other features [4]. It hopes to transform the ways things are done. Things will communicate via networks, data sharing and the likes. It is an era that will see machines perform tasks more than before. The machines will learn using previously generated data and transform those learning to solve human challenges. This is all-encompassing, including in biochar.

Biomass conversion without oxygen produces a solid product (biochar) [5, 6, 7]. Stability of biochar is responsible for carbon sequestration [8]. It could be a way to combat climate change [9, 10]. Biochar improves soil fertility. It increases agricultural yield in acidic soils [11, 12]. Biochar is made from various organic waste feedstocks, including agricultural waste and sewage sludge [13, 14]. Biochar has many applications, including heat and power generation and a soil amendment. Process parameters and feedstock influence the characteristics of carbonised biomass. Selection of acceptable conditions to manufacture a char with the necessary qualities thus necessitates quantitative and qualitative knowledge of interdependence and affecting factors [15].

In machine learning, input is a set of instructions (algorithms) used to generate result. It learns from previous data to perform and optimise operations. Attempts have been made to adapt machine learning in biochar [16, 17].

There have been attempts to implement machine learning in various aspects of biochar [18], review machine learning [19, 20] and review biochar [21]. However, there is limited literature focusing on the review of machine learning in biochar. This forms the basis of this study. The concept of biochar is examined and, after that, machine learning. This is closely followed by examining biochar and machine learning.

The term ‘biochar’ is a late-twentieth-century English neologism. It is from a Greek words ‘o, bios’ or ‘life’ and ‘char’ or ‘clarification’ (charcoal produced by carbonisation of biomass) [22]. It is charcoal, prevalent in soil, aquatic ecosystems and animal digestive systems and participates in biological processes. Biochar usage for soil nutrient retention and improvement started in the Brazilian Amazon about 2000 years ago [23]. John Miedema, a commercial fisherman, organic farmer and inventor, first learned about biochar 5 years ago while looking for a better solution to clean up effluent from a dairy manure digester [24]. Biochar was made by pre-Columbian Amazonians by covering burning biomass with soil in ditches [25]. Terra preta de Indio was the name given to it by European settlers [26].

Biochar is made by heating biomass without oxygen, either completely or partially [27, 28]. The most common process for making biochar is pyrolysis, which can also be found in the early stages of gasification ad combustion [29]. Biochar is made from different biomass sources, including solid wastes, plant materials, biomass from wood, agricultural residues and so on [30, 31]. Pyrolysis is a typical technique to produce biochar. The process is performed between 400 and 1000°C [32, 33]. Pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonisation, gasification, flascarbonisation and torrefaction are some of the most prevalent thermochemical processes used to make biochar [34, 35, 36]. Pyrolysis is the most common biochar production method of all of these [37]. The process is depicted in Eq. (1).

Biochar is created the same way as charcoal, but it is meant to be used as an adsorbent and a soil amendment [38]. The end use of the material is, in essence, the key. If it is meant to be used as a fuel, it is called charcoal, and it is made with the best fuel qualities possible.

Biochar’s efficacy as a soil amendment is influenced by its chemical and physical qualities. As biochar interacts with bacteria, mineral substances and soil organic and plant roots, its characteristics alter. The biochar qualities affect its performance as a soil amendment.

Biochar comes in various forms, each with its own set of characteristics. Biochar’s qualities impact how well it works as a soil amendment [39]. It can be altered by conditioning, which includes adding minerals, nutrients and/or microorganisms to the biochar after it has been made [40]. Biochar from clean biomass differs from biochar produced with field residue in terms of the qualities. This is because the field residue biochar has been mixed with fertilisers, soil and manure. The characteristics of biochar are altered when it is mixed with soil organic, mineral substances and bacteria. Biochar improves with age.

Biochar properties are influenced by the type of biomass used [41]. As long as the biomass is not polluted with hazardous compounds, it can be used to make biochar (e.g. heavy metals, PCBs). Biochar feedstocks include plant residues, grasses, industrial wastes, woods, seaweed, manures, MSW, food waste [42]. Figure 1a shows the pyrolysis of seaweed to produce a biochar. Figure 1b shows the evolution of biochar from biomass.

(a) Process of seaweed pyrolysis to biochar [43] and (b) biomass to biochar [44].

The properties of biochar are grouped under chemical and physical [45] in Table 1.

Summary of biochar properties.

Biochar’s physical features influence its environmental mobility, interactions with minerals, soil water, nutrients and usefulness as an ecological niche for soil microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungus by soil microorganisms mycorrhizal fungus providing surfaces, growing space and predator protection [46]. Physical parameters such as particle density and size, porosity, bulk density and surface area are numerical and action connected. Porosity affects particle density and surface area [47]. Biochar with high porosity and low density may hold more water. However, wind and water easily remove such biochar. The quality of biochar is affected by heating rate, biomass type [48] as enumerated in Figure 2.

Factors affecting biochar quality.

Grass biochar has a particle density of 0.25–0.3 g/cm3, while wood biochar has 0.47–0.6 g/cm3 [49]. Particle density of biochar affects the loss and movement in water or wind [50]. Biochar with a low bulk density can be used to remediate wall gardens and compacted soils. Pore sizes can vary by six orders of magnitude and are classed as macro-, meso- and micro-pores, with varied implications for biochar interactions with the environment [51, 52]. Most woody biochar has low bulk densities, medium-to-high surface area and porosity [53, 54]. The process utilised to make biochar has an impact on porosity.

Hydrophobicity impacts biochar’s water uptake, its water holding capacity and microbial interactions. Tars (aliphatic chemicals) condensing on the charcoal surface during pyrolysis induce hydrophobicity. Biochar has high hydrophobic at low temperatures. However, longer pyrolysis times can lessen hydrophobicity. Hydrophobicity may diminish as biochar mixes with soil.

A low Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) indicates that the material is difficult to grind, whereas a high HGI value suggests that the material is easy to grind [55, 56]. HGI of 80–120 can be achieved for woody biochar having volatile matter content of about 20%, which is commonly achieved at temperatures around 600°C, defining charcoal as easily grindable.

Persistent carbon is composed of carbon ring structures, with some nitrogen and oxygen thrown in. Structures’ ring sizes are determined by temperature of biochar production. Biochars’ water-soluble and mineralisable chemicals can nourish bacteria and can boost seeds and plant nutrient and yield. Water-extractable organics are substantially more abundant in low-temperature biochars. Total and bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have maximum acceptable limits. A common (90%) PAH in biochar is naphthalene. Many biochars at 350–500°C have included mineralisable organic molecules that benefit plants and soil [57, 58]. Low dosages of phenols, butenolide (a component of tobacco), carboxylic and fatty acids and even PAH can encourage plant development. In contrast, high quantities can inhibit or kill it, a phenomenon known as hormesis.

Biochar continues to attract interest owing to its vast potential and benefit. However, there are some disadvantages associated with it. Discussed below are the merit and demerit of biochar.

Biochar is a carbon-rich substance, some scientists believe that it is the secret to soil renewal [59]. Biochar, which is relatively light and porous, can act as a sponge and provide a home for various beneficial soil microbes useful for soil and plant health. It increases agricultural production. Biochar can remove CO2 from the atmosphere for long periods and provide other environmental benefits [60]. Plants transform carbon dioxide from the air into organic material, or biomass, through photosynthesis. It helps in climate change mitigation [10].

It absorbs nutrients, resulting in a nutrient deficit in growing plants [47, 61]. Biochar application regularly creates soil compaction, which reduces crop yield. Land loss is also due to erosion, pollution risk, agricultural residue removal and worm life rate reduction.

Biochar is useful in several applications [62]. It is used to enhance soil health via soil amendment. It also serves as microbial carrier immobilising agents for remediation of toxic metal and organic contaminant in water and soil. It is catalyst for industrial application, porous materials for mitigating greenhouse gas emission and odorous compound. It is used as feed supplements to improve nutrient intake efficiency, animal health and hence productivity [63]. Figure 3 shows the influence of biochar properties on the agriculture and soil conditions.

Impact of biochar properties on soil conditions and agriculture [48].

Biochar has a lot of potential as a long-term product for improving agricultural soil health and fertility. The manufacture of biochar and its impact on soils can help to reduce the need for commercial fertilisers. Diverse research has also reported that addition of biochar to agricultural soil can aid in reducing greenhouse gas emission [64, 65, 66, 67].

Biochar is utilised as an agricultural soil amendment because it has a lot of fascinating properties, such as high carbon content, a high pH, high stability, a high porosity and a high surface area [68, 69]. Over the last few years, multiple research studies have been conducted to analyse the global impact of biochar on diverse agricultural soils [70, 71]. Biochar has improved soil’s chemical, physical and biological qualities, enhancing crop productivity [72, 73]. Furthermore, biochars with a high surface can be utilised as soil remediation technique to adsorb both inorganic and organic contaminants, for instance, heavy metals, and pesticides, hence minimising leaching into waterway. Once applied to carbon in biochar, soils, that are highly stable, can be sequestered for more than 1000 years.

When utilised as soil amendments, biochar is incorporated into the plant’s root zone – the area of soil surrounding a plant’s roots – ideally into 4–6 inches of soil depth. Increasing the time nutrients stay in the soil by mixing up to one part compost with one part biochar, most gardeners start with a ratio of 10 parts compost to one part biochar to ensure that plants tolerate it well.

Several materials such as green waste [74], rice straw [75], poultry litter [76] and other materials have been used for producing biochar using vacuum pyrolysed and other methods of biochar for soil amendments [77].

A carbon sink is any natural or artificial reservoir that indefinitely gathers and stores carbon-containing chemical compounds [78]. Also, anything that absorbs more carbon from the atmosphere than it releases, such as plants, the ocean and soil, is a carbon sink. Oceans are the primary natural carbon sinks, absorbing over half of all carbon released [79]. Carbon dioxide is sucked from the atmosphere by plants for use in photosynthesis. On the other hand, a carbon source is anything that releases more carbon into the atmosphere than it absorbs, such as fossil fuel combustion or volcanic eruptions [80]. Carbon is deposited on our planet in four major sinks: (1) organic molecules in living and dead organisms in the biosphere; (2) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; (3) organic matter in soils; and (4) fossil fuels and sedimentary rock deposits such as limestone and dolomite in the lithosphere. Because the process takes a supposedly carbon-neutral phase of naturally decaying, biochar reduces CO2 in the environment.

Growing plants or collecting waste biomass, converting it to biochar and adding it to soils remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the environment: plants growth eliminates CO2 from the atmosphere and produces additional biomass; the carbon in that biomass is transformed into a stable form [81, 82]. Biochar production can offset about 12% of world’s greenhouse gas emissions. At $30–120 per ton of CO2, biochar might sequester 0.5–2 GtCO2 per year by 2050 [83, 84]. According to the scholarly literature, sequestration rates range from 1 to 35 GtCO2 each year, with a potential of 78–477 GtCO2 in this century [85, 86].

Water retention refers to how much water a soil can keep for its crops, allowing plants to have more water available. Biochar can improve the soil’s water retention and holding ability due to its porous structure. An agriculturally applicable biochar amendment of 5% biochar (approximately 100 metric tons/ha) leads to a 24% increase in water retention capacity over unamended soil or a 50% increase [87]. Researchers have understudied the impact of biochar on water retention [88], on sandy soil [89], clay [90], the application in different agricultural soil [91] and the relationship between plant and water [92]. There has also been the study of southeastern coastal soil [93] and midwestern agricultural soil [94].

Stock fodder, also known as provender, is an agricultural feed used to feed domesticated animals such as cattle, rabbits, sheep and horses [95]. Fodder crops are divided into two categories: temporary and permanent. Fodder is used to describe the crops gathered and utilised for stall feeding. Forage is a vegetative matter used as animal feed, whether fresh or stored. Grasses, legumes, crucifers and other forage crops are farmed and utilised as hay, grazing, fodder and silage.

Xie et al.[96] provided a thorough investigation of biochar’s technical features and possible applications as an engineered material for environmental remediation. Mandal et al. [97] presented quantitative data and discussed the benefits of biochar composites over pure biochar. The synthesis of nano-metal-aided biochar and its features and applications in soil improvement and heavy metal removal are discussed. Shakoor et al. [98] discuss how to boost biochar’s heavy metal sorption capability by activating it with steam or acids/bases and impregnating biochar-based composite with mineral, organic compound and carbon-rich material. Biochars’ chemical/physical activation of biochar can improve their surface area, resulting in better functionality, while pretreatment/modification techniques aid in developing new sorbent with efficient surface attribute for heavy metal removal from aqueous solution using biochar as a supporting media. This is essential because heavy metal sorption is driven by type of biochar, heavy metal species and various processes, including physical binding, complexation, ion exchange, surface precipitation and electrostatic interactions. Efforts were also made to review the application of biochar to remove heavy metals and toxic elements in water and wastewater [99, 100].

Wood-based biochar is the most popular product, accounting for approximately 64% of the market. Soil conditioner is the most popular application, accounting for almost 82% of the market.

The global biochar market is expected to be worth USD 314.6 million in 2022, with a readjusted size of USD 524.7 million by 2028, representing an 8.9% CAGR (compound annual growth rate) over the research period. From 2021 to 2030, the global biochar markets are expected to increase at a CAGR of 13.2%, from $170.9 million in 2020 to $587.7 million in 2030. Carbon Gold, The Biochar Company (TBC), Biochar Supreme, Cool Planet, Black Carbon and Swiss Biochar GmbH, among others, are global biochar significant players. The top three firms account for roughly 20% of the market [101].

Machine learning (ML) is a process of predicting values using a previous learning. It is a subset of AI. It uses set of instructions called algorithm. ML uses algorithm to emulate variable or humanity. AI is used to solve complex tasks like how humans solve problems. There are four types of algorithms. They are reinforcement, unsupervised, semi-supervised and supervised. Python, Java, C++, R and JavaScript are among the top five programming languages and libraries for machine learning. Python is the language of choice for machine learning engineers, with more than 60% of them adopting and prioritising it for development since it is simple to learn. A little coding knowledge is required for the effective deployment of machine learning.

An American IBMer (Arthur Samuel) was first to use machine learning in 1959 [102, 103]. Another term used is ‘self-teaching computer’ [104, 105]. A book on machine learning for pattern categorisation by Nilsson dominated the1960s [106]. Pattern recognition continued till the 1970s [107]. An approach for teaching neural network using 40 character recognition by computer terminal was documented in 1981 [108, 109]. This terminal included 4 special symbols, 26 letters and 10 digits. Tom Mitchell opined ‘A computer program is said to learn from experience E for some class of tasks T and performance measure P if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E’. This became accepted machine learning definition [110, 111]. However, the definition provided operational description of the ML tasks instead of cognitive. It aligns with Alan Turing’s method ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’, replacing ‘Can machine think’ with ‘Can machines do what we (as thinking creatures) can achieve’ [112].

The goal of modern ML is to classify data using standard models and generate predictions about future outcomes using these models. A stock trading machine learning system may provide the trader with future prospective predictions [113, 114].

Most beginners’ main goal is to generalise what they have learned [115]. Generalisation is ML ability to execute precisely, previously unseen data using algorithm. Data (training) originate from new probability distribution. It represents space of occurrences. Optimisation prediction requires general model development. Computational learning theory is analysis of performance of algorithms. Training sets are limited because of future uncertainty. Learning theory rarely provides guarantees about algorithm performance. Probabilistic performance bounds are tremendously widespread. Bias-variance decomposition is used for generalisation error.

For the best generalisation outcomes, the hypothesis’ complexity needs reflect the intricacy of the functions behind the data. If the assumption is fewer intricate than the functions, the system will under-fit the data. Increment in the complexity of the model reduces training error. Poor generalisation due to overfitting is caused by complicated hypothesis of model [116]. Learning theorists look at the temporal intricacy and feasibility of learning in addition to performance bounds. A computation is deemed viable in computational learning theory if it can be completed in polynomial time [117].

ML is classified as reinforcement, unsupervised and supervised based on feedback or signal as depicted in Figure 4 [118, 119].

Classification of machine learning.

Optimisation problem is solved using reinforced and unsupervised learning [118, 119, 120]. Although, supervised learning uses trained labelled data to produce result [121, 122]. Unsupervised learning uses unguided structure to solve problem [123]. Unsupervised learning is either intended or a means to an end (finding hidden patterns in data) (feature learning). It is used to obtain hidden pattern or future learning. Reinforcement learning is the third type. It is interaction in a dynamic circumstance. An example is driving on the road on the computer. Another example is engaging an opponent in competitive game [124]. Incentives (data) are fed to the software to help solve problem.

Unsupervised learning exposes latent patterns and structures from unlabelled data. Supervised learning solves problem using guided learning [125]. Figure 5 depicts the most often used supervised algorithms.

Flowchart of supervised machine learning procedure [126].

Deep learning is used to clean heavy metal by constructing improved adsorption models. Machine learning or deep learning can develop models depending on data complexity, dimensionality and end use [127]. However, challenges of complexity and dimensionality are improved by deep learning with encoder.

Machine learning entails building a model that has been guided by training data. It can subsequently process more data to produce prediction. For machine learning systems, different models have been utilised and investigated. These are shown in Figure 6. The models include artificial neural networks, decision trees, support-vector machines, regression analysis, genetic algorithms, Bayesian networks, training models and federated learning [129, 130, 131].

Algorithms of machine learning [128].

The following models have been used in biochar applications. An overview is given for understanding the models.

  1. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have become increasingly popular [132, 133]. ANN mimics the human brain with parallel processing to develop complex relationship between independent and dependent variables by developing structures for the model training via experimental data and the tool forming pattern between output and input data. It is a great tool because of its benefits in non-linear system adaptations and approximation without knowing the variables’ relationship and ease of use [134].

  2. Random forest (RF) models are machine learning models that use the results of a series of regression decision trees to predict the output. Each tree is built independently and is based on a random vector sampled from the input data, with the same distribution across the forest. Using bootstrap aggregation and random feature selection, the predictions from the forests are averaged [135]. RF models are reliable predictors for small sample numbers and high-dimensional data. The RF classifier is an ensemble approach for training several decision trees parallel with bootstrapping and aggregation, often known as bagging [136].

  3. Support-vector machine

    A support-vector machine (SVM) is a supervised machine learning model that uses classification techniques [137]. SVM models can categorise new text after being given sets of labelled training data for each category. Though we might also argue regression difficulties, categorisation is the best fit. The SVM algorithm aims to find the optimum line or decision boundary for categorising n-dimensional space into classes so that additional data points can be readily placed in the correct category in the future [138, 139]. A hyperplane is a name for the optimal choice boundary. The goal of the SVM algorithm is to find a hyperplane in an N-dimensional space that categorises data points. In SVM, a kernel is a function that aids in problem-solving. They give shortcuts to help avoid doing complicated mathematics. The amazing thing about kernel is that it allows us to go to higher dimensions and execute smooth calculations. Kernels allow us to go up to an infinite number of dimensions. SVM is used for regression and classification of problems. It is a linear model. It can solve both linear and nonlinear problems and is useful for a wide range of applications. C is a hypermeter that is set before the training model to control error, and Gamma is another hypermeter that is placed before the training model to give the decision boundary curvature weight.

  4. eXtreme Gradient Boosting Model

    Gradient boosting is a machine learning technique used for various applications, including regression and classification [140, 141]. Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) is an open-source package that implements the gradient boosting technique efficiently and effectively. Extreme Gradient Boosting is a tree-based method that belongs to Machine Learning’s supervised branch. It’s a machine-learning algorithm that can predict classification or regression. It returns a prediction model in the form of an ensemble of weak prediction models, most commonly decision trees [142].

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have become increasingly popular [132, 133]. ANN mimics the human brain with parallel processing to develop complex relationship between independent and dependent variables by developing structures for the model training via experimental data and the tool forming pattern between output and input data. It is a great tool because of its benefits in non-linear system adaptations and approximation without knowing the variables’ relationship and ease of use [134].

Random forest (RF) models are machine learning models that use the results of a series of regression decision trees to predict the output. Each tree is built independently and is based on a random vector sampled from the input data, with the same distribution across the forest. Using bootstrap aggregation and random feature selection, the predictions from the forests are averaged [135]. RF models are reliable predictors for small sample numbers and high-dimensional data. The RF classifier is an ensemble approach for training several decision trees parallel with bootstrapping and aggregation, often known as bagging [136].

Support-vector machine

A support-vector machine (SVM) is a supervised machine learning model that uses classification techniques [137]. SVM models can categorise new text after being given sets of labelled training data for each category. Though we might also argue regression difficulties, categorisation is the best fit. The SVM algorithm aims to find the optimum line or decision boundary for categorising n-dimensional space into classes so that additional data points can be readily placed in the correct category in the future [138, 139]. A hyperplane is a name for the optimal choice boundary. The goal of the SVM algorithm is to find a hyperplane in an N-dimensional space that categorises data points. In SVM, a kernel is a function that aids in problem-solving. They give shortcuts to help avoid doing complicated mathematics. The amazing thing about kernel is that it allows us to go to higher dimensions and execute smooth calculations. Kernels allow us to go up to an infinite number of dimensions. SVM is used for regression and classification of problems. It is a linear model. It can solve both linear and nonlinear problems and is useful for a wide range of applications. C is a hypermeter that is set before the training model to control error, and Gamma is another hypermeter that is placed before the training model to give the decision boundary curvature weight.

eXtreme Gradient Boosting Model

Gradient boosting is a machine learning technique used for various applications, including regression and classification [140, 141]. Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) is an open-source package that implements the gradient boosting technique efficiently and effectively. Extreme Gradient Boosting is a tree-based method that belongs to Machine Learning’s supervised branch. It’s a machine-learning algorithm that can predict classification or regression. It returns a prediction model in the form of an ensemble of weak prediction models, most commonly decision trees [142].

The following are some machine learning applications. Image and speech recognition, traffic prediction, self-driving cars, product recommendation, online fraud detection, stock market trading, medical diagnosis, automatic language translation, email spam and malware filtering, Alexa, Google assistant and Google Maps [119].

Image recognition is one of the most common machine learning applications [143]. It’s utilised in identifying things such as people, places and digital photograph. Automatic buddy tag suggestion is a commonly used facial identification and picture recognition. Facebook has tools that suggest friends auto-tagging. When we submit photos with our friends Facebook, we obtain automatic tags recommended with their names powered by machine learning’s face identification and algorithm recognition. It is based on the ‘Deep Facia’ Facebook projects that manage face recognition and individual identification in photos.

The user of Google has the option to ‘Search by voice’, which falls under recognition of speech and is a prominent machine learning application. Recognition of speech, frequently referred to as ‘Computer speech recognition’ or ‘Speech to text’, is the turning process of voice instruction to text. Machine learning technique is now used widely in speech recognition application [144]. Technology of speech recognition is utilised by Alexa, Google Assistant, Siri, and Cortana to obey voice command.

The map provides the best route with the shortest routes and forecasts traffic condition. It utilises two techniques in anticipating traffic condition, such as whether traffic is clear, extremely congested or sluggish moving: The vehicle’s location is tracked in real time via the Google Map app and sensor. At the same time, the average time has been taken on previous days. Everyone making use of Google Maps contributes to the improvement of the apps. It collects data from the users and transmits it back to the database to improve its performance.

Different entertainment and e-commerce organisations, for instance, Netflix, Amazon and others use machine learning to make products recommendation to user. We begin to receive advertisements for the same goods while browsing the internet on the same browser, because of machine learning, whenever we look for a product on Amazon [145]. Google deduces the user’s interests and recommends products based on those interests using multiple machine learning techniques. Likewise, when we use Netflix, we receive recommendations for series of entertainment, movies and other contents, which is also based on machine learning.

Self-driving cars are one of the most intriguing machine learning applications [146]. In self-driving automobile, machine learning plays key roles. Tesla, the well-known automobile manufacturer, is developing self-driving vehicles. It trains automobile model to recognise people and object while driving using an unsupervised learning method.

In medical science, machine learning is used to diagnose disorders [147, 148]. Therefore, medical technology is evolving rapidly, and 3D model that can predict the exact lesions location in the brain is now possible. It facilitates the brain cancers detection and other brain-related illness.

Machine learning aids in translation by transforming text into familiar language. This feature is provided by Google Neural Machine Translation (Google’s GNMT), a Neural Machine Learning that translates text into native language automatically. Sequence-to-sequence learning methods are the technology behind automatic translation, coupled with translation of text from one language to another and picture recognition.

Machine learning has proved transformative in several domains, yet it frequently fails to produce the promised outcomes [149]. There are various reasons for this, including a lack of (appropriate) data, data access issues, data bias, privacy issues, poorly designed tasks and algorithms, incorrect tools and personnel, a lack of resources and evaluation issues [150]. In 2018, an Uber self-driving car failed to identify a person, and the pedestrian (Elaine Herzberg) was killed due to the incident [151, 152]. Even after years of effort and billions of dollars, IBM Watson’s attempts to employ machine learning in healthcare failed to deliver [153]. Machine learning has been utilised in updating evidence concerning systematic reviews and increased reviewer concerns due to the biomedical literature development. When students ‘learn the wrong lesson’, they can be disappointed. An image classifier trained just on photographs of brown horses and black cats, for example, may conclude that all brown patches are most likely horses [106]. In the real world, unlike people, existing image classifiers frequently do not make decisions based on the spatial relationships between picture component and instead study associations between pixels that human is unaware of but correlates with specific sorts of image of real object. Modifying this pattern on lawful images can cause the algorithm to misclassify the image as ‘adversarial’ non-linear systems, or non-pattern disturbances can potentially lead to adversarial vulnerabilities. Several systems are so fragile that single change hostile pixel causes misclassification.

Machine ethics (also known as machine morality, computational morality or computational ethics) is a branch of artificial intelligence ethics concerned with enhancing or ensuring the moral behaviour of man-made machines that employ artificial intelligence, also known as artificial intelligent agents [154, 155]. Privacy and surveillance, bias and discrimination and perhaps the deepest, most difficult philosophical question of the era, the role of human judgement, are three major ethical concerns for society, according to Sandel, who teaches a course on the moral, social and political implications of new technologies [156, 157].

More effective techniques in training deep neural network (machine learning specific subdomain) that incorporate various non-linear hidden unit layers have been developed since the 2010s, thanks to developments in computer technology and machine learning algorithms [158]. By 2019, GPUs had supplanted CPUs as the most common way of training large-scale commercial cloud AI, frequently with AI-specific upgrades [159]. From AlexNet (2012) to AlphaZero (2017), OpenAI calculated the amount of hardware computing required in large deep learning project and discovered 300,000-fold increase in the required computing amount, with 3.4-month doubling-time trendline [160].

There are embedded machine learning and neuromorphic or physical neural networks.

A physical neural network also known as a neuromorphic computer, is an artificial neural network in which an electrical changeable substance emulates the neural synapse function. The term ‘physical’ neural network refers to physical hardware to simulate neurons rather than software-based techniques. Other artificial neural networks that use memristor or other electrical adjustable resistance materials to imitate neural synapse are also known as memristor networks [161, 162].

Embedded Machine Learning is a sub-field of machine learning that uses embedded system with low computing capabilities, for instance, microcontrollers, wearable computers and edge devices to run machine learning models. Running machine learning models in embedded device eliminates the necessity to transport and store data on cloud server for processing further, resulting in fewer data breach and privacy leak and less theft of intellectual property, personal data and company trading secrets. Embedded Machine Learning can be implemented using various methods, including hardware acceleration, approximation computation and machine learning model optimisation [163].

Different software suites having various algorithms have been used for machine learning. Some are free and open-source, and others are proprietary. The open-source and free software includes Caffe, ELKI, Deeplearning4j, Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit and DeepSpeed. However, KNIME and RapidMiner are the most popular open-source proprietary software [164], alongside R tool and Weka [165]. R tool is free and used for environmental statistics. RapidMiner is a complete data science platform focusing on delivering business value [166]. It brings together data preparation, machine learning and model operations to boost users’ productivity of all skill levels within an organisation. The Konstanz Information Miner (KNIME) is a free and open-source platform for data analyses, reporting and integration [167]. Through its modular data pipelining ‘Building Blocks of Analytics’ concept, KNIME integrates multiple components for machine learning and data mining. The paid proprietary includes Angoss Knowledge STUDIO, Ayasdi, Amazon Machine Learning, IBM Watson Studio, Azure Machine Learning, IBM SPSS Modeler, Google Prediction API, Mathematica, KXEN Modeler, STATISTICA Data Miner, LIONsolver, Oracle Data Mining, MATLAB, Oracle AI Platform Cloud Service, Neural Designer, NeuroSolutions, SAS Enterprise Miner, Splunk, SequenceL, PolyAnalyst and RCASE.

For new users, selecting ‘which algorithm to study’ can be tough. Machine learning algorithms have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. Some excel with textual data, others excel at visuals and others at other data types. Many characteristics, such as resemblance, behaviour, data kinds and others, can be used to classify machine learning algorithms [168, 169].

Linear Regression, Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, SVM (Support Vector Machine) Algorithm, Naive Bayes Algorithm, KNN (K-Nearest Neighbours) Algorithm, K-Means and Random Forest Algorithm are some of the most used machine learning algorithms [170, 171, 172] as shown in Figure 7.

Classification of machine learning algorithms [173].

Some selected works have been done using machine learning in biochar optimisation, which is dependent on the design of experiments for identifying pyrolysis parameters and optimising processes, which are all influenced by interconnected elements. The literature optimisation is separated into two categories: production and use. The optimisation procedure maximises the biochar’s adsorption capacity and effectiveness for environmental and water remediation by antibiotics, extracting heavy metals and other contaminants from industrial effluent [174]. The three most significant process parameters in biochar manufacture are the heating temperature, heating time and heating rate [175]. The gaseous environment and particle size employed in the biochar production variable such as the moisture contents, presence of inorganic/organic elements that catalyse certain reaction were included as feedstock factors for optimisation.

The algal biochar yield was predicted via extreme gradient algorithms. The XGB (eXtreme Gradient Boosting) machine-learning algorithm was used for prediction of algal biochar composition and yield in this study. In the XGB model, an intensive grid search strategy was designed to evaluate all of the available input parameter combination for forecasting biochar yield. Thirteen distinct pyrolytically significant input parameters combination were compared with the combination indicated by the model’s techniques selection feature to predict biochar yield. The ash content, N/C, pyrolysis temperature, H/C and duration are essential parameters in determining the algal biochar output in this feature selection technique, where N, H and C are the nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon biomass content, respectively. Once the model was trained with the training data set, the highest R2 of 0.84 was attained between model predictive and experimental biochar yield for the data set test. A Pearson correlation coefficients matrix showed the link between the biochar yield and input parameters. The Feature Temperature was the most significant element in plots. The interactive influence of other input parameter and temperature on algal charcoal output was represented using Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) Dependence Plot. The plots’ summary revealed the relevant features combined with SHAP and feature values. The created XGB model adds to our understanding of the input parameter impact on algal biochar yield prediction.

Zhu et al.’s [176] machine learning was utilised in this study to construct prediction models for yield and carbon content of biochar (C-char) based on pyrolysis data of lignocellulosic biomass and investigate the inner information underlying the models. Based on biomass properties and pyrolysis circumstances, the results revealed that random forests could reliably forecast biochar output and C-char. Furthermore, for both yield (65%) and C-char, the proportional contribution of pyrolysis conditions was higher than that of biomass characteristics (53%). Structural information was more significant than element compositions for biomass characteristics for effectively estimating biochar yield, and the opposite was true for C-char. In the pyrolysis process, the partial dependence plot analysis revealed the impact of each important component on the target variable and the interactions between these elements. The study added the biomass pyrolysis process knowledge and improved biochar yield and C-char quality.

Sun et al. [177] studied the application of machine learning methods to predict metal immobilisation remediation by biochar amendment in soil. The work began by compiling and categorising data from published literature to develop a biochar soil remediation database, which now contains 930 data sets with 74 biochars and 43 soils. Then, based on biochar characteristics, soil physicochemical properties, incubation conditions (e.g. water holding capacity and remediation time) and the initial state of heavy metals, it modelled the remediation of five heavy metals and metalloids (lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper and zinc) by biochars using machine learning (ML) methods such as artificial neural network (ANN) and random forest (RF) to predict remediation efficiency. The ANN and RF models surpass the accuracy and predictive performance of the linear model (R2 > 0.84). Meanwhile, the anticipated outputs of the models investigated model tolerance for missing data and interpolation reliability. Both the ANN and the RF models performed admirably, with the RF model having a higher tolerance for missing data. Finally, the contribution of factors employed in the model was assessed using ML models’ interpretability. And the findings revealed that the type of heavy metals, the pH value of biochar and the dosage and remediation period were the most influential elements of remediation. The relative importance of variables could point researchers on the proper path for better heavy metal cleanup in soil.

Cao et al. [178] employed SVM (support-vector machine) approach for estimation of the biochar output from cattle dung pyrolysis in their study. The parameters employed for modelling were moisture content, pyrolysis temperature, biochar yield, biochar mass, sample mass and heating rate, and they were based on a data set of 33 experimental data. The following metrics were used to assess the performance: Magnitudes of root mean square error (RMSE), average percent relative error (APRE), average absolute percent relative error (AAPRE) and coefficient of discrimination (R2). To compare the resilience and properties of SVM, an ANN model was created. Surprisingly, SVM outperformed ANN with an R2 score of 0.9625, whilst ANN’s R2 value was 0.8040.

Li et al. [179] compiled information from prior studies to create a predictive model for biochar qualities depending on feedstock and pyrolysis settings. Though significant biochar properties such as pH, yield, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, volatile matter content, ash content and elemental compositions are affected by different factors, there is strong link between biochar properties, feedstock type and pyrolysis temperature.

Heavy metal testing using traditional spectral approaches is time-consuming and impossible to detect for huge amounts of effluent. Based on remote sensing imagery, geographical data and spatial distribution, machine learning algorithm may be utilised to forecast effluents metal distribution. RF, SVM and ANN have been used for this.

RF and ANN machine learning algorithm were utilised in predicting the heavy metals concentration present in soil using visible and infrared spectroscopy data [180]. Also, Zhang et al. [181] used geographical distribution data, and the concentrations of Cd, As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Hg and Ni in the soil were predicted via SVM, RF and ANN algorithms. Hu et al. [182] utilised RF to find the regulating factors in heavy metal bioaccumulation in soil-crop systems. ANN is a simple method for determining the link between the heavy metal pollutants removal and process parameter [133, 183].

In recent literature, ANN has been primarily utilised to optimise pyrolysis parameters, but techniques such as the Taguchi approach have also been applied. This application creates orthogonal matrices using a basic statistical tool to conceptualise an integrated experimental design to discover crucial factors in an optimised operation [175]. For effective optimisation, ANN is employed in conjunction with other technologies. In Lakshmi et al. [126], a unique approach is described that combines several types of ANN in conjunction with techniques such as particles swarm optimisation to almost always guarantee global optimum without local minimum trapping. Particles swarm optimisation is novel, efficient, rapid, robust and simple when tackling non-linear, multi-variable problems. Razzaghi et al. [183] employ genetic algorithms to optimise the generated ANN, resulting in process parameter values.

Machine learning could be useful in developing predictive models for heavy metals cleanup utilising modified biochar. ML models are useful in the adsorption process because of their ability to analyse intricate correlations between factors [184]. ML models are an effective modelling tool in the adsorption process because of their capacity to improve analysed relationships among numerous parameters [185]. The performance of adsorption is affected by operational parameters such as heating rate, temperature, dosage, adsorbent surface area, particle size, starting concentration, pH and contact time value. Taking all of this into account, constructing adsorption models is time-consuming and takes a lot of experimentation. To avoid this tedium, ML can be used to create robust models in evaluating the heavy metals adsorption process [186, 187, 188, 189].

Wong et al. [184] examined the operational parameters effect such as dosage, contact time, operating temperature and biochar initial concentration on the process of adsorption using rambutan peel biochar to remove Cu(II) from water body. They used AI models such as Multi-Layer Regression, ANN and ANFIS to study the impact of the above-mentioned operational parameters (MLR). Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is a Neuro-Fuzzy intelligent modelling and control technique for ill-defined and unpredictable systems. The system’s input/output data pairs under examination form the basis of ANFIS. The ANFIS model was the most accurate, with 90.24% score, followed by 88.27% ANN and 59.14% MLR. For Pb(II) adsorption on ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treated biochar, Li et al. [190] constructed an AI model utilising the SVM algorithm.

Nath and Sahu [155] employed iron oxides infused mesoporous rice-husk nano-biochar in removing arsenic. Using ANN and RSM methodologies, they obtained a removal efficiency of 96%. Six AI models was developed by Afridi [173] with different architectures network in ANN for prediction of heavy metal adsorptions on modified biochar. The six models were effective, with R2 values greater than 0.99 between predicted and expected variables. Chakraborty and Das [191] developed an ANN model to estimate Cr (VI) absorption efficiency on sawdust biochar nanocomposite. The ANN model assisted them in determining an appropriate adsorption mechanisms and the most excellent feasible Cr (VI) equations for absorption on biochar modified.

Zhao et al. [192] demonstrated a new method to establish sensitive parameter impacting the process of adsorption and develop strong predictive model using AI. For prediction of the efficiency of six metal ions adsorption, the authors used kernel extreme learning machine, with SVM and Kriging model subset. These models accurately identified sensitive parameters, such as T, pH water, ionic radius, total carbon ratio and pH solute, with R2 above 0.9, and could provide the necessary framework for developing predictive models for various scenarios.

Zhu et al. [193] investigated the application of machine learning methods to predict metal sorption onto biochars. The study used 353 data sets of adsorption studies from works of literature, the adsorption of six heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, copper and zinc) on 44 biochars was predicted using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and random forests (RF). The regression models were trained and refined to estimate adsorption capacity based on biochar properties, metal sources, environmental factors (temperature and pH) and the initial metal-to-biochar concentration ratio. The study discovered that RF model was more accurate than the ANN model.

Machine learning may be used to forecast and automate the remediation process and optimise process variables and feedstock conditions for optimal heavy metal removal efficiency. Machine learning may be utilised to create kinetic models and hybrid isotherm, which will accurately model for multicomponent systems and reduce error making the removal of heavy metal more cost-effective and efficient time.

The study was able to draw a relationship between biochar and machine learning. A review of biochar from history to application and challenges was discussed. Remediation of heavy metal is critical to avoid bioaccumulation, soil degradation and environmental contamination. Biochar is a practical and inexpensive method for removing heavy metal from waste effluent. Various approaches can improve the removal heavy metals effectively from pristine biochar. The paper also gave an overview of machine learning. Various algorithms of machine learning were discussed. After that, selected algorithms used for biochar were reviewed, and areas of opportunities were discussed. Artificial neural networks, support-vector models and random forests have been deployed in the machine learning of biochar. The ANN and RF models surpass the accuracy and predictive performance of the linear model. It was seen that random forest models perform better than artificial neural network models for predicting and generalisation. Machine learning will lead to a greater understanding of biochar’s effectiveness and applications in more sectors.

The authors acknowledge the funding from URC of the University of Johannesburg and the National Research Foundation of South Africa.

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


DataSheet_1_Effectiveness of neem materials and biochar as nitrification inhibitors in … – Figshare

2 November, 2022
 

The nitrates produced after mineralization from compost may be prone to leaching, especially in tropical sandy soils, because of the increased rate of nitrification and the porous nature of such soils. This may result in low nitrogen (N) use efficiency and adverse environmental effects. Inorganic nitrification inhibitors are costly and mostly unavailable in Ghana. Research on simple but effective local materials for use as nitrification inhibitors is therefore a priority. Two such materials are neem materials and biochar. Neem materials can suppress nitrifying bacteria due to their antimicrobial properties. Biochar can hold ammonium in the soil, making it temporarily unavailable to nitrifying bacteria. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of neem materials and biochar as nitrification inhibitors and their influence on nitrate leaching. In preliminary studies: 1) pot incubation was conducted for 60 days to estimate the nitrification rate with manure, compost, and NH4Cl as the N source (150 kg N/ha) in one set and neem seeds, bark, and leaves (1.25 µg azadirachtin/g) in another set, using nitrate concentrations; and 2) the ammonium sorption and desorption capacities of sawdust, rice husk, and groundnut husk biochar were determined. In the main study, pot incubation with compost as the N source but treated with milled neem seeds or bark (1.25 µg azadirachtin/g) or sawdust biochar (20 t/ha) was conducted for 60 days, in which the nitrification inhibition was determined using nitrate concentrations. A leaching experiment in columns with similar treatments and maize sown was then conducted to quantify the nitrate in leachates. A high nitrification rate was recorded in compost-amended soil, almost half that of the standard (NH4Cl). The use of sawdust biochar, which showed the highest ammonium sorption and desorption capacity, resulted in 40% nitrification inhibition that lasted the entire incubation period. The use of neem seeds with an azadirachtin concentration of 3.92 mg/g resulted in a similar nitrification inhibition, but this only lasted 40 days. Inhibition caused by both materials resulted in about a 60% reduction in nitrate leached. Thus, neem seeds (498 kg/ha) and sawdust biochar (20 mt/ha) could be used to control nitrate leaching for short-duration and long-duration crops, respectively.


Degradation of Teracycline by Persulfate Oxidation Promoted by Iron-modified Biochar

2 November, 2022
 

The accumulation of tetracycline (TC) in aquatic environments raised the risk to ecosystems and human health due to its potential biological toxicity. The development of carbon-based materials with features of low cost, easy isolation and excellent performance for activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate reactive oxygen species toward TC degradation is essential but remains a grand challenge. Herein, sustainable biomass kelp-derived self-nitrogen doped biochar -stabilized Fe nanoparticles were developed for PMS activation toward TC degradation. The influences of calcination temperature on the microstructure were studied to further optimize the degradation performance for TC. The Fe@BC/PMS system exhibited an optimal performance for activating PMS to degrade TC with a removal efficiency of 93 % within 50 min. Additionally, the magnetic Fe@BC/PMS had robust recycling stability because of the enhanced interaction between the Fe2+/Fe3+ and graphitized biochar. Characterization results indicated that Fe nanoparticles, graphite nitrogen, and direct electron transfer process participate in the PMS activation. Quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance analyses revealed the combined radical and non-radical pathways for TC degradation, and the non-radical pathway plays a dominant role. This study offers a facile and low-cost strategy to prepare an efficient PMS activator for antibiotic wastewater remediation.

F. Yu, Y. Song, Y. Guo and J. Yang, New J. Chem., 2022, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/D2NJ03348H

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In Situ Exfoliated Graphene-Like Carbon Nanosheets Strongly Coupled with the Biochar

2 November, 2022
 


Multiple-functionalized biochar affects rice yield and quality via regulating arsenic and lead …

3 November, 2022
 

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Multiple-functionalized biochar affects rice yield and quality via regulating arsenic and lead …

3 November, 2022
 

Rice grown in soils contaminated with arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) can cause lower rice yield and quality due to the toxic stress. Herein, we examined the role of functionalized biochars (raw phosphorus (P)-rich (PBC) and iron (Fe)-modified P-rich (FePBC)) coupled with different irrigation regimes (continuously flooded (CF) and intermittently flooded (IF)) in affecting rice yield and accumulation of As and Pb in rice grain. Results showed that FePBC increased the rice yield under both CF (47.4%) and IF (19.6%) conditions, compared to the controls. Grain As concentration was higher under CF (1.94-2.42 mg kg-1) than IF conditions (1.56-2.31 mg kg-1), whereas the concentration of grain Pb was higher under IF (0.10-0.76 mg kg-1) than CF (0.12-0.48 mg kg-1) conditions. Application of PBC reduced grain Pb by 60.1% under CF conditions, while FePBC reduced grain As by 12.2% under IF conditions, and increased grain Pb by 2.9 and 6.6 times under CF and IF conditions, respectively, compared to the controls. Therefore, application of the multiple-functionalized biochar can be a promising strategy for increasing rice yield and reducing the accumulation of As in rice grain, particularly under IF conditions, whereas it is inapplicable for remediation of paddy soils contaminated with Pb.

在被砷 (As) 和铅 (Pb) 污染的土壤中种植的水稻会因有毒胁迫而导致水稻产量和品质下降。在这里,我们研究了功能化生物炭(原磷 (P) 富 (PBC) 和铁 (Fe) 改性富磷 (FePBC))与不同灌溉方式(连续淹水 (CF) 和间歇淹水 (IF) 的作用) )) 影响水稻产量和水稻籽粒中 As 和 Pb 的积累。结果表明,与对照相比,FePBC 在 CF(47.4%)和 IF(19.6%)条件下均提高了水稻产量。CF条件下谷物As浓度(1.94-2.42  mg  kg -1)高于IF条件(1.56-2.31  mg  kg -1),而IF条件下谷物Pb浓度较高(0.10-0.76  mg ) kg -1 ) 比 CF (0.12-0.48  mg  kg -1 ) 条件下。与对照相比,PBC 的应用在 CF 条件下使晶粒 Pb 降低了 60.1%,而在 IF 条件下,FePBC 使晶粒 As 降低了 12.2%,在 CF 和 IF 条件下,晶粒 Pb 分别增加了 2.9 倍和 6.6 倍。因此,多功能生物炭的应用可能是提高水稻产量和减少水稻籽粒中 As 积累的有前景的策略,特别是在 IF 条件下,但它不适用于 Pb 污染的稻田土壤的修复。


Grants to create clean technology and help our environment | Mirage News

3 November, 2022
 

The City of Greater Geelong has announced funding for three projects that use clean technology and support our move towards a circular economy where the impacts of production and consumption are reduced.

The three projects will share $50,000 in funding support as part of Council’s $4.6 million Community Grants program.

The latest funding round will support one project that aims to fast track the electrification of homes and businesses, and two projects aiming to reduce the environmental impacts of concrete and asphalt.

The previous grant round in 2019 saw Capricorn Power, Deakin University, Focus Pty Ltd and Geelong Sustainability Group Inc. complete clean technology and circular economy projects that addressed stockpiled landfill, reduced household energy use, encouraged community solar production and the uptake of renewable energy.

The projects to receive funding include:

Fulton Hogan

Leading construction and roadworks company, Fulton Hogan, will use biochar sourced from agricultural and organic sites in Greater Geelong to test the viability of using biochar in cold mix asphalt products at their Lara plant.

The testing aims to reduce energy costs, create circular economy solutions to a waste product, and create a low-carbon pavement material.

BOOM Power Pty Ltd

The team behind the BOOM software-as-a-service platform are working with their ASX-listed strategic partner, Bill Identity (Bid), to accelerate the electrification of homes and businesses.

The project will develop the ability for households and Small to Medium Enterprises to upload an energy bill and receive a tailored proposal for electrifying their home or business.

The user will answer simple questions about their home or business and receive a tailored plan for electrification of their building, including solar, storage, hot water, heating and cooling, and electric vehicle (EV) charging points. The report will explain upfront the financed costs, financial savings and environmental benefits.

Australian Engineering Solutions (Austeng) and Deakin University

North Geelong engineering firm, Austeng, and Deakin University will use crushed glass and industrial by-products to create a more sustainable alternative to cement-based concrete.

Mixing crushed glass with fly ash and slag, the project aims to develop a sustainable geopolymer concrete that meets performance standards for footpaths, pavements, and floor slabs.

Replacing cement with fly ash can reduce the carbon footprint of concrete by between 30 and 50 per cent and make use of waste fly ash and glass.

Concrete is one of the most consumed materials in the world, second to water, and its production is responsible for 7 per cent of the world’s CO2 emissions.


British Airways, LanzaJet, Nova Pangaea accelerate SAF initiative | Biomassmagazine.com

3 November, 2022
 

British Airways, LanzaJet and Nova Pangaea Technologies have signed an agreement that will accelerate their ground-breaking Project Speedbird initiative to develop cost-effective sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) for commercial use in the U.K. As part of the agreement, British Airways’ parent company IAG, is investing in the project to support the next phase of development work that will help decarbonize the aviation industry.

Project Speedbird was initially launched by the three companies in 2021 and was granted nearly £500,000 by the Department for Transport’s (DfT) Green Fuels, Green Skies competition to fund an initial feasibility study for the early-stage development of the project. This work is now complete and so the next stage of development can begin. Once in operation, it would be the U.K.’s first SAF facility utilising agricultural and wood waste taken from sustainable sources.

Project Speedbird has now applied for the DfT’s Advanced Fuels Fund grant for additional funding, which will be key to the project’s continued development whilst the DfT seeks to roll out its recently announced Jet Zero strategy that includes implementing a SAF mandate to come into force in 2025, which will require at least 10 percent of U.K. jet fuel to be SAF by 2030.

Project Speedbird would transform agricultural and wood waste taken from sustainable sources into 102 million litres of SAF per year. Construction could begin as early as 2023 and the facility, which is planned to be built in North East England, is expected to be producing SAF by 2026. British Airways intends to offtake all SAF produced through Project Speedbird to help power some of its flights. The SAF produced would reduce CO2 emissions, on a net lifecycle basis, by 230,000 tonnes a year. This is the equivalent emissions of approximately 26,000 British Airways domestic flights.* Overall, Project Speedbird has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 770,000 tonnes a year** as the combined processes also produce renewable diesel and a material called biochar – a carbon-rich charcoal-like material left over after the agricultural and wood wastes have been processed. Biochar is a natural carbon removal method.

The SAF will be developed using a combination of leading-edge technologies based on Nova Pangaea’s REFNOVA® process of converting agricultural and wood waste into bioethanol and biochar. LanzaJet’s proprietary and patented alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) technology, the first of its kind in the world, then converts the bioethanol to produce SAF and renewable diesel.

Project Speedbird would provide significant skilled employment with the generation of hundreds of jobs and supply chain opportunities in the North East of England and help spread the benefits of investment in green technologies across the U.K. It would also bolster the U.K.’s energy security as the facility would boost domestic production.

Sarah Ellerby, CEO at Nova Pangaea Technologies, said, “This project will deliver the first end-to-end, sustainable value chain from agricultural and wood waste to SAF in the U.K. It will undoubtedly play a very important role in the growing momentum towards decarbonizing our aviation sector. The support from British Airways is a vote of huge confidence in our technology and will accelerate its commercialization. In July, the U.K. Government announced its Jet Zero strategy signaling a SAF mandate of 10 percent of all U.K. flights to run on SAF by 2030. This agreement is another significant step towards meeting this mandate in the U.K. Our aim is to help the U.K. become a global leader in the end-to-end SAF market, with consequent benefits to employment and business activity.”

Carrie Harris, director of sustainability at British Airways, said, “Project Speedbird is another great step towards our mission to reach net zero carbon emissions by 2050 or sooner and achieve our target of using SAF for 10 percent of our fuel by 2030. SAF is in high demand but in short supply across the globe and so it is essential that we scale up its production as quickly as possible. With further investment and continued government support, Speedbird will be a key and pioneering project in the production of SAF here in the U.K. The biochar carbon removal opportunities are another important aspect of this impressive innovative project that can contribute to our net zero action. We are delighted to be a part of this important project, illustrating how we’re putting sustainability at the heart of our business with our BA Better World sustainability program.”

Jimmy Samartzis, CEO at LanzaJet, said, “The U.K. is a critical market in the decarbonization of the aviation industry, and this partnership brings together the full value chain from agricultural and wood waste to finished Sustainable Aviation Fuel and use by British Airways. As the U.K. sits at an inflection point in its quest to decarbonize, Project Speedbird represents historical significance with an eye toward the future. This is about impact – on the economy, on energy security, and on climate. We appreciate the DfT’s support as we scale-up, continue to improve capital and process efficiency, and enable production and use of SAF at a time when immediate action is needed.”

*Based on the calculated average U.K. domestic route from 2019 data.

**This figure includes CO2 emission reductions from the production of SAF, renewable diesel and biochar.

 

 


BIOCHAR APPLICATION STABILIZED THE HEAVY METALS IN COAL MINED SOIL

3 November, 2022
 

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Canadian VER investor teams up with Maine biochar developer – Carbon Pulse

3 November, 2022
 

A Toronto-based ESG investor has signed a carbon credit streaming agreement with a developer to build a biochar pyrolysis pilot facility in Maine, the companies announced Thursday.


Carbon Streaming Announces Enfield Biochar Stream Agreement With Standard Biocarbon

3 November, 2022
 

US$1.3 Million U.S. Biochar Carbon Removals Project and Royalty on Biochar Revenue

TORONTO–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Carbon Streaming Corporation (NEO: NETZ) (OTCQB: OFSTF) (FSE: M2Q) (“Carbon Streaming” or the “Company”) is pleased to announce that it has entered into a carbon credit streaming agreement and associated royalty agreement (collectively, “Enfield Biochar Stream” or the “Carbon Stream”) with Standard Biocarbon Corporation (“Standard Biocarbon”) to support the construction of a biochar pyrolysis pilot facility in Enfield, Maine, USA (the “Project”).

Transaction Highlights:

Impact Highlights:

Carbon Streaming Founder and CEO Justin Cochrane stated: “We are excited to announce our second biochar removals streaming agreement in the USA. With strong storage permanence, we believe that biochar will have increasing importance in advancing the removal of global emissions. We look forward to future partnership opportunities with Standard Biocarbon as it scales its business in the northeastern United States.”

Standard Biocarbon President & CEO Fred Horton commented: “We are pleased to collaborate with Carbon Streaming as we bring this exciting project to life. Our vision for building biochar production through win-win partnerships with leading lumber mills provides a clear and realistic path to scale. This innovative funding from Carbon Streaming fills a critical role in enabling us to build our first pilot plant using this model. We believe this will help catalyze a new industry producing premium quality biochar with many beneficial applications, and supporting sustainable rural community development while putting millions of tons of carbon back in the ground.”

The Project comprises the development of a pilot facility using carbonization systems engineered and built by PYREG GmbH (“PYREG”), through which woodchips and sawdust from the Pleasant River Lumber Co. mill in Enfield, Maine are converted into premium-quality biochar. Biochar, short for biological charcoal, is a stable, porous, near-pure form of carbon which remains inert for centuries. CORCs are generated from the biochar’s ability to store carbon and prevent the release of CO2 into the atmosphere. The biochar itself also has a variety of applications in agriculture, environmental remediation and construction materials. In addition, the heat generated in the pyrolysis process is expected to be used in the mill’s drying kilns.

PYREG is a German net-zero technology engineering and manufacturing company. Since 2009, the company has deployed 50 of its plants globally. As a result, PYREG has a strong track record, with many of its customers producing both premium-quality biochar and generating CORCs under the Puro.earth standard. Moreover, Standard Biocarbon’s strong partnership with PYREG provides an excellent foundation for future project expansion, at numerous locations across New England and Eastern Canada. Given the importance of its partnership with Standard Biocarbon, PYREG recently established the office of its US subsidiary (Pyreg, Inc.) near Standard Biocarbon’s headquarters in Portland, Maine.

Over its 30-year life, the Project is expected to remove approximately 90,000 tCO2e emissions, generating an equivalent number of CORCs, and produce approximately 250,000 yd3 of biochar. First production of biochar and initial delivery of CORCs are targeted for the second half of calendar year 2023 and expected to ramp up to full production in 2024. Carbon Streaming will market and sell 100% of CORCs delivered from the Project and will also receive a royalty on volume of biochar sold. The CORCs are expected to be verified and registered through Puro.earth, a leading global standard for carbon removal projects.

Under the terms of the Enfield Biochar Stream, the Company will make an upfront deposit of up to US$1.3 million. At closing, US$0.5 million of the upfront deposit was paid and the Company will make additional milestone payments of US$0.8 million as the Project achieves registration and production milestones. Proceeds from the Carbon Stream are fundamental to the construction of the Enfield biochar pyrolysis facility. Carbon Streaming will also make ongoing delivery payments to Standard Biocarbon for each CORC sold under the Carbon Stream. Ongoing delivery payments will be toward the lower end of the range of the Company’s other stream investments since biochar has other revenue generating applications.

Removal credits are in high demand and typically trade at a premium. Pricing for CORCs on the Puro.earth CORC Biochar Price Index have ranged from approximately US$105/CORC to US$150/CORC year to date.

About Carbon Streaming

Carbon Streaming aims to accelerate a net-zero future. We pioneered the use of streaming transactions, a proven and flexible funding model, to scale high-integrity carbon credit projects to accelerate global climate action and advance the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. This approach aligns our strategic interests with those of project partners to create long-term relationships built on a shared commitment to sustainability and accountability and positions us as a trusted source for buyers seeking high-quality carbon credits.

The Company’s focus is on projects that have a positive impact on the environment, local communities, and biodiversity, in addition to their carbon reduction or removal potential. The Company has carbon credit streams and royalties related to over 20 projects around the world, including projects involving nature-based solutions, the distribution of fuel-efficient cookstoves and water filtration devices, sustainable community projects focused on waste avoidance and energy efficiency, agricultural methane avoidance and biochar carbon removal.

To receive corporate updates via e-mail, please subscribe here.

About Standard Biocarbon

Standard Biocarbon has a mission to lead the creation of a modern North American biochar industry as part of a global climate solution. Standard Biocarbon’s model is to co-locate operations at lumber mills where it will function as an onsite customer for wood residuals while also providing thermal energy to the mill for lumber drying kilns.

Standard Biocarbon’s pilot facility, at Pleasant River Lumber’s mill in Enfield, Maine, will convert low value residuals from lumber production into biochar for use in agriculture, remediation, filtration and other emerging applications. There are at least 15 other sawmills in Maine that would be excellent sites for biochar production and Standard Biocarbon is talking to owners of several of these. Maine has lost markets for over four million tons of low-grade wood, biomass and mill residuals in the past decade, and the need for expanded and diversified markets for sawmill residuals is noted in the Maine Forest Action Plan: 2020. Biochar production provides another market for this low-grade wood.

Standard Biocarbon’s goal is to create a new growth industry, leveraging the infrastructure and know-how of the region’s thriving forest products sector to serve growing demand for better soil, cleaner water and less CO2 in the air. For more information, visit www.standardbiocarbon.com.

Advisories

The references to third party websites and sources contained in this news release (including information with regard to Standard Biocarbon and PYREG) are provided for informational purposes and are not to be considered statements of the Company.

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information

This news release contains certain forward-looking statements and forward-looking information (collectively, “forward-looking information”) within the meaning of applicable securities laws. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, that address activities, events or developments that the Company believes, expects or anticipates will or may occur in the future, are forward-looking information, including, without limitation, statements and figures with respect to the expected number of future CORCs generation and emission reductions and removals from the Project; the expected amount of future biochar production; the ability for the Project to be independently verified and registered by Puro.earth; the timing of delivery of CORCs under the Carbon Stream; timing to meet additional payment milestones; the anticipated premium pricing for the CORCs; the expected sources of emission reductions and removals generated by the Project; the expected delivery on UN Sustainable Development Goals; the use of proceeds from the Carbon Stream; the demand for removal credits; the expected impact of regulatory developments on the Project; and statements with respect to execution of the Company’s portfolio and partnership strategy.

When used in this news release, words such as “estimates”, “expects”, “plans”, “anticipates”, “will”, “believes”, “intends” “should”, “could”, “may” and other similar terminology are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. This forward-looking information is based on the current expectations or beliefs of the Company based on information currently available to the Company. Forward-looking information is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that may cause the actual results of the Company to differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking information, and even if such actual results are realized or substantially realized, there can be no assurance that they will have the expected consequences to, or effects on, the Company. They should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be an accurate indication of whether or not such results will be achieved. Factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things: volatility in prices of carbon credits and demand for carbon credits; change in social or political views towards climate change and subsequent changes in corporate or government policies or regulations and associated changes in demand for carbon credits; limited operating history for the Company’s current strategy; risks arising from competition and future acquisition activities; concentration risk; inaccurate estimates of growth strategy, including the ability of the Company to source appropriate opportunities and enter into stream, royalty or other agreements; dependence upon key management; general economic, market and business conditions and global financial conditions, including fluctuations in interest rates, foreign exchange rates and stock market volatility; uncertainties and ongoing market developments surrounding the validation and verification requirements of the voluntary and/or compliance markets; failure or timing delays for projects to be registered, validated and ultimately developed and for emission reductions or removals to be verified and carbon credits issued; foreign operations and political risks including actions by governmental authorities, including changes in or to government regulation, taxation and carbon pricing initiatives; due diligence risks, including failure of third parties’ reviews, reports and projections to be accurate; dependence on project partners, operators and owners, including failure by such counterparties to make payments or perform their operational or other obligations to the Company in compliance with the terms of contractual arrangements between the Company and such counterparties; failure of projects to generate carbon credits, or natural disasters such as flood or fire which could have a material adverse effect on the ability of any project to generate carbon credits; volatility in the market price of the Company’s common shares or warrants; the effect that the issuance of additional securities by the Company could have on the market price of the Company’s common shares or warrants; global health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainties surrounding the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; and the other risks disclosed under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in the Company’s Annual Information Form dated as of September 26, 2022 filed on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.

Any forward-looking information speaks only as of the date of this news release. Although the Company believes that the assumptions inherent in the forward-looking information are reasonable, forward-looking information is not a guarantee of future performance and accordingly undue reliance should not be put on such statements due to the inherent uncertainty therein. Except as may be required by applicable securities laws, the Company disclaims any intent or obligation to update any forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or results or otherwise.

Contacts

ON BEHALF OF THE COMPANY:
Justin Cochrane, Chief Executive Officer

Tel: 647.846.7765

[email protected]
www.carbonstreaming.com

Investor Relations
Andrea Cheung, VP, Investor Relations

[email protected]

Media
Amy Chambers, Director, Marketing, Communications & Sustainability

[email protected]

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Carbon Streaming Announces Enfield Biochar Stream Agreement With Standard Biocarbon

3 November, 2022
 

US$1.3 Million U.S. Biochar Carbon Removals Project and Royalty on Biochar Revenue

TORONTO–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Carbon Streaming Corporation (NEO: NETZ) (OTCQB: OFSTF) (FSE: M2Q) (“Carbon Streaming” or the “Company”) is pleased to announce that it has entered into a carbon credit streaming agreement and associated royalty agreement (collectively, “Enfield Biochar Stream” or the “Carbon Stream”) with Standard Biocarbon Corporation (“Standard Biocarbon”) to support the construction of a biochar pyrolysis pilot facility in Enfield, Maine, USA (the “Project”).

Transaction Highlights:

Impact Highlights:

Carbon Streaming Founder and CEO Justin Cochrane stated: “We are excited to announce our second biochar removals streaming agreement in the USA. With strong storage permanence, we believe that biochar will have increasing importance in advancing the removal of global emissions. We look forward to future partnership opportunities with Standard Biocarbon as it scales its business in the northeastern United States.”

Standard Biocarbon President & CEO Fred Horton commented: “We are pleased to collaborate with Carbon Streaming as we bring this exciting project to life. Our vision for building biochar production through win-win partnerships with leading lumber mills provides a clear and realistic path to scale. This innovative funding from Carbon Streaming fills a critical role in enabling us to build our first pilot plant using this model. We believe this will help catalyze a new industry producing premium quality biochar with many beneficial applications, and supporting sustainable rural community development while putting millions of tons of carbon back in the ground.”

The Project comprises the development of a pilot facility using carbonization systems engineered and built by PYREG GmbH (“PYREG”), through which woodchips and sawdust from the Pleasant River Lumber Co. mill in Enfield, Maine are converted into premium-quality biochar. Biochar, short for biological charcoal, is a stable, porous, near-pure form of carbon which remains inert for centuries. CORCs are generated from the biochar’s ability to store carbon and prevent the release of CO2 into the atmosphere. The biochar itself also has a variety of applications in agriculture, environmental remediation and construction materials. In addition, the heat generated in the pyrolysis process is expected to be used in the mill’s drying kilns.

PYREG is a German net-zero technology engineering and manufacturing company. Since 2009, the company has deployed 50 of its plants globally. As a result, PYREG has a strong track record, with many of its customers producing both premium-quality biochar and generating CORCs under the Puro.earth standard. Moreover, Standard Biocarbon’s strong partnership with PYREG provides an excellent foundation for future project expansion, at numerous locations across New England and Eastern Canada. Given the importance of its partnership with Standard Biocarbon, PYREG recently established the office of its US subsidiary (Pyreg, Inc.) near Standard Biocarbon’s headquarters in Portland, Maine.

Over its 30-year life, the Project is expected to remove approximately 90,000 tCO2e emissions, generating an equivalent number of CORCs, and produce approximately 250,000 yd3 of biochar. First production of biochar and initial delivery of CORCs are targeted for the second half of calendar year 2023 and expected to ramp up to full production in 2024. Carbon Streaming will market and sell 100% of CORCs delivered from the Project and will also receive a royalty on volume of biochar sold. The CORCs are expected to be verified and registered through Puro.earth, a leading global standard for carbon removal projects.

Under the terms of the Enfield Biochar Stream, the Company will make an upfront deposit of up to US$1.3 million. At closing, US$0.5 million of the upfront deposit was paid and the Company will make additional milestone payments of US$0.8 million as the Project achieves registration and production milestones. Proceeds from the Carbon Stream are fundamental to the construction of the Enfield biochar pyrolysis facility. Carbon Streaming will also make ongoing delivery payments to Standard Biocarbon for each CORC sold under the Carbon Stream. Ongoing delivery payments will be toward the lower end of the range of the Company’s other stream investments since biochar has other revenue generating applications.

Removal credits are in high demand and typically trade at a premium. Pricing for CORCs on the Puro.earth CORC Biochar Price Index have ranged from approximately US$105/CORC to US$150/CORC year to date.

About Carbon Streaming
Carbon Streaming aims to accelerate a net-zero future. We pioneered the use of streaming transactions, a proven and flexible funding model, to scale high-integrity carbon credit projects to accelerate global climate action and advance the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. This approach aligns our strategic interests with those of project partners to create long-term relationships built on a shared commitment to sustainability and accountability and positions us as a trusted source for buyers seeking high-quality carbon credits.

The Company’s focus is on projects that have a positive impact on the environment, local communities, and biodiversity, in addition to their carbon reduction or removal potential. The Company has carbon credit streams and royalties related to over 20 projects around the world, including projects involving nature-based solutions, the distribution of fuel-efficient cookstoves and water filtration devices, sustainable community projects focused on waste avoidance and energy efficiency, agricultural methane avoidance and biochar carbon removal.

To receive corporate updates via e-mail, please subscribe here.

About Standard Biocarbon
Standard Biocarbon has a mission to lead the creation of a modern North American biochar industry as part of a global climate solution. Standard Biocarbon’s model is to co-locate operations at lumber mills where it will function as an onsite customer for wood residuals while also providing thermal energy to the mill for lumber drying kilns.

Standard Biocarbon’s pilot facility, at Pleasant River Lumber’s mill in Enfield, Maine, will convert low value residuals from lumber production into biochar for use in agriculture, remediation, filtration and other emerging applications. There are at least 15 other sawmills in Maine that would be excellent sites for biochar production and Standard Biocarbon is talking to owners of several of these. Maine has lost markets for over four million tons of low-grade wood, biomass and mill residuals in the past decade, and the need for expanded and diversified markets for sawmill residuals is noted in the Maine Forest Action Plan: 2020. Biochar production provides another market for this low-grade wood.

Standard Biocarbon’s goal is to create a new growth industry, leveraging the infrastructure and know-how of the region’s thriving forest products sector to serve growing demand for better soil, cleaner water and less CO2 in the air. For more information, visit www.standardbiocarbon.com.

Advisories
The references to third party websites and sources contained in this news release (including information with regard to Standard Biocarbon and PYREG) are provided for informational purposes and are not to be considered statements of the Company.

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information
This news release contains certain forward-looking statements and forward-looking information (collectively, “forward-looking information”) within the meaning of applicable securities laws. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, that address activities, events or developments that the Company believes, expects or anticipates will or may occur in the future, are forward-looking information, including, without limitation, statements and figures with respect to the expected number of future CORCs generation and emission reductions and removals from the Project; the expected amount of future biochar production; the ability for the Project to be independently verified and registered by Puro.earth; the timing of delivery of CORCs under the Carbon Stream; timing to meet additional payment milestones; the anticipated premium pricing for the CORCs; the expected sources of emission reductions and removals generated by the Project; the expected delivery on UN Sustainable Development Goals; the use of proceeds from the Carbon Stream; the demand for removal credits; the expected impact of regulatory developments on the Project; and statements with respect to execution of the Company’s portfolio and partnership strategy.

When used in this news release, words such as “estimates”, “expects”, “plans”, “anticipates”, “will”, “believes”, “intends” “should”, “could”, “may” and other similar terminology are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. This forward-looking information is based on the current expectations or beliefs of the Company based on information currently available to the Company. Forward-looking information is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that may cause the actual results of the Company to differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking information, and even if such actual results are realized or substantially realized, there can be no assurance that they will have the expected consequences to, or effects on, the Company. They should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be an accurate indication of whether or not such results will be achieved. Factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things: volatility in prices of carbon credits and demand for carbon credits; change in social or political views towards climate change and subsequent changes in corporate or government policies or regulations and associated changes in demand for carbon credits; limited operating history for the Company’s current strategy; risks arising from competition and future acquisition activities; concentration risk; inaccurate estimates of growth strategy, including the ability of the Company to source appropriate opportunities and enter into stream, royalty or other agreements; dependence upon key management; general economic, market and business conditions and global financial conditions, including fluctuations in interest rates, foreign exchange rates and stock market volatility; uncertainties and ongoing market developments surrounding the validation and verification requirements of the voluntary and/or compliance markets; failure or timing delays for projects to be registered, validated and ultimately developed and for emission reductions or removals to be verified and carbon credits issued; foreign operations and political risks including actions by governmental authorities, including changes in or to government regulation, taxation and carbon pricing initiatives; due diligence risks, including failure of third parties’ reviews, reports and projections to be accurate; dependence on project partners, operators and owners, including failure by such counterparties to make payments or perform their operational or other obligations to the Company in compliance with the terms of contractual arrangements between the Company and such counterparties; failure of projects to generate carbon credits, or natural disasters such as flood or fire which could have a material adverse effect on the ability of any project to generate carbon credits; volatility in the market price of the Company’s common shares or warrants; the effect that the issuance of additional securities by the Company could have on the market price of the Company’s common shares or warrants; global health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainties surrounding the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; and the other risks disclosed under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in the Company’s Annual Information Form dated as of September 26, 2022 filed on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.

Any forward-looking information speaks only as of the date of this news release. Although the Company believes that the assumptions inherent in the forward-looking information are reasonable, forward-looking information is not a guarantee of future performance and accordingly undue reliance should not be put on such statements due to the inherent uncertainty therein. Except as may be required by applicable securities laws, the Company disclaims any intent or obligation to update any forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or results or otherwise.

ON BEHALF OF THE COMPANY:
Justin Cochrane, Chief Executive Officer
Tel: 647.846.7765
info@carbonstreaming.com
www.carbonstreaming.com

Investor Relations
Andrea Cheung, VP, Investor Relations
investors@carbonstreaming.com

Media
Amy Chambers, Director, Marketing, Communications & Sustainability
media@carbonstreaming.com

ON BEHALF OF THE COMPANY:
Justin Cochrane, Chief Executive Officer
Tel: 647.846.7765
info@carbonstreaming.com
www.carbonstreaming.com

Investor Relations
Andrea Cheung, VP, Investor Relations
investors@carbonstreaming.com

Media
Amy Chambers, Director, Marketing, Communications & Sustainability
media@carbonstreaming.com


British Airways, LanzaJet and Nova Pangaea Technologies to accelerate SAF project

3 November, 2022
 

British Airways, LanzaJet and Nova Pangaea Technologies have signed an agreement that will accelerate their ground-breaking Project Speedbird initiative to develop cost-effective sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) for commercial use in the UK. As part of the agreement, British Airways’ parent company IAG, is investing in the project to support the next phase of development work that will help decarbonise the aviation industry.

Project Speedbird was initially launched by the three companies in 2021 and was granted nearly £500,000 by the Department for Transport’s (DfT) Green Fuels, Green Skies competition to fund an initial feasibility study for the early-stage development of the project. This work is now complete and so the next stage of development can begin. Once in operation, it would be the UK’s first SAF facility utilising agricultural and wood waste taken from sustainable sources.

Project Speedbird has now applied for the DfT’s Advanced Fuels Fund grant for additional funding, which will be key to the project’s continued development whilst the DfT seeks to roll out its recently announced Jet Zero strategy that includes implementing a SAF mandate to come into force in 2025, which will require at least 10 per cent of UK jet fuel to be SAF by 2030.

Project Speedbird would transform agricultural and wood waste taken from sustainable sources into 102 million litres of SAF per year. Construction could begin as early as 2023 and the facility, which is planned to be built in North East England, is expected to be producing SAF by 2026. British Airways intends to offtake all SAF produced through Project Speedbird to help power some of its flights. The SAF produced would reduce CO2 emissions, on a net lifecycle basis, by 230,000 tonnes a year. This is the equivalent emissions of approximately 26,000 British Airways domestic flights.* Overall, Project Speedbird has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 770,000 tonnes a year** as the combined processes also produce renewable diesel and a material called biochar – a carbon-rich charcoal-like material left over after the agricultural and wood wastes have been processed. Biochar is a natural carbon removal method.

The SAF will be developed using a combination of leading-edge technologies based on Nova Pangaea’s REFNOVA process of converting agricultural and wood waste into bioethanol and biochar. LanzaJet’s proprietary and patented alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) technology, the first of its kind in the world, then converts the bioethanol to produce SAF and renewable diesel.

Project Speedbird would provide significant skilled employment with the generation of hundreds of jobs and supply chain opportunities in the North East of England and help spread the benefits of investment in green technologies across the UK. It would also bolster the UK’s energy security as the facility would boost domestic production.

*Based on the calculated average UK domestic route from 2019 data.

**This figure includes CO2 emission reductions from the production of SAF, renewable diesel and biochar.

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Production of biochar from Keppaphycus alvarezii (macroalgae) for the removal of eosin yellow

3 November, 2022
 

Dyes are mainly used in textile industries, owing to their usability they produce huge quantity of wastewater. Implication of best treatment technology for the treatment of textile wastewater is a concern globally. In this study, spent macroalgae Keppaphycus alvarezii was collected and converted into biochar at a temperature of 350 °C for removal of eosin yellow dye. The batch adsorption experiments were carried out by altering factors such as initial dye concentration, temperature, pH, contact time, and biochar dosage. At an initial dye concentration of 100 ppm, a contact time of 60 min, a temperature of 30 °C, a biochar dosage of 0.4 g, and a pH of 7, the best dye removal efficiency was 90.3%. In the first, second, third, and fourth regeneration cycles, the desorption efficiency of NaOH elutant is 81.24, 74.46, 62.36, and 51.23%, respectively. With the Freundlich isotherm model, the adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics, according to the adsorption isotherm and kinetics studies.

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The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Thinakaran E: investigation, writing—original draft.

Brema J: writing—review and editing, supervision.

Arumairaj P.D: writing—review and editing, supervision.

Correspondence to Thinakaran Elayappan.

Not applicable.

The authors declare no competing interests.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Received: 24 July 2022

Revised: 10 October 2022

Accepted: 15 October 2022

Published: 03 November 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-022-03424-x

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Us Biochar Market Detailed Analysis and Forecast by 2022-2031 – Newstrail.com

3 November, 2022
 

Biochar is made from thermal decomposition of biomass, without using oxygen. It is a porous and solid material produced from the carbonization of biomass. It is increasingly being used in various applications such as gardening, research, agriculture (large farms), and household. Key market players are focusing on increasing the production of biochar for using it in agricultural field to increase soil productivity. Biochar significantly improves the soil fertility by increasing crop yield. The consistent use of fertilizers in order to improve crop yield may increase the acidity in soil. This demands the use of carbon-based additives to neutralize the soil. This factor is considered to be a major growth driver for the U.S. biochar market.

Biochar offers various health benefits for soil, as it retains water as well as water-soluble nutrients. Agricultural specialists are using biochar for improving water quality by retaining agrochemicals and soil nutrients. Moreover, biochar is hygroscopic in nature. It can absorb and hold water from the surrounding environment.

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The U.S. biochar market is expected to witness incremental growth opportunities due to the emergence of small- and medium-scale manufacturers of biochar. Furthermore, key contributors in the U.S. biochar market are focusing on research & development activities to explore fast and cost-effective methods of producing biochar. Rising support from governments to boost research activities by providing financial help is expected to drive the market growth in the upcoming years.

Manufacturers are offering biochar in pure form in order to meet the requirement of farmers and gardeners in U.S. Thus, rise in adoption of safe and environment-friendly biochar products is creating lucrative opportunities for manufacturers operating in the U.S. biochar market. The biochar manufacturers are more likely to produce economical products with the help of several research and studies by professionals.

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Granular Biochar Market to Reach $ 34,541.08 thousand till 2028 by Analyzing Global …

3 November, 2022
 

By

Published

The scope of our recent study on “Granular Biochar Market Forecast to 2028 – COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis – by Product Type (Wood Source Biochar, Corn and Wheat Source Biochar, and Others), Application (Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, and Others), and Geography” includes the factors fueling the market growth, revenue estimation and forecast, and market share analysis, along with the identification of significant market players and their key developments.

The granular biochar market is expected to grow from US$ 68,789.87 thousand in 2022 to US$ 134,541.08 thousand by 2028; it is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 11.8% from 2022 to 2028.

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Based on product type, the global granular biochar market is segmented into wood source biochar, corn and wheat source biochar, and others. In 2021, the corn and wheat source biochar segment dominated the market. Also, the same segment is expected to grow at the fastest rate during the forecast period. The growing demand for clean agricultural products and products with increased soil productivity is driving the granular biochar market. It helps increase water retention and improve the porosity of water, which leads to improvement in soil’s microbial properties. All these factors are leading to the growing demand for granular biochar.

The global granular biochar market is segmented into five main regions—North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), the Middle East & Africa (MEA), and South & Central America. In 2021, Asia Pacific dominated the global market. Also, it is expected to be the fastest-growing region during the forecast period. The Asia Pacific granular biochar market is growing due to several factors such as rise in demand for organic and healthy products, increased use of granular biochar in water and wastewater treatment industry, implementation of latest technologies in the region and expanding research & development efforts. Government organizations are trying to regulate the production and use of environmentally friendly products, such as prohibiting chemicals and establishing maximum consumption limits. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop bio-based agrochemicals to reduce synthetic agrochemicals’ harmful effects on the environment. Furthermore, the advantages of using granular biochar, such as low acidity, high stability in soil, and increased efficiency, led to increased adoption of such products. These factors are boosting the market growth.

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Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Granular Biochar Market

Initially, the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected the granular biochar market due to the shutdown of manufacturing facilities and the restrictions on transportation and logistics. Disruptions in the supply chain hampered the supply of granular biochar. Following the state and regional guidelines, manufacturers had to follow extensive measures to protect the health and safety of their employees. Many global manufacturers temporarily closed their operations or restricted their production capacity. The negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the end-use industries decreased the demand for granular biochar. However, businesses are recovering as the governments of various countries reduced imposed restrictions. Moreover, successful vaccination drives have further eased the current scenario leading to a rise in business activities globally. The recovery of the agricultural industry is also driving the granular biochar market. The start of operations in the manufacturing units led to the recovery in the production of biochar products, which positively impacted the market growth.

Order a Copy of Granular Biochar Market Shares, Strategies and Forecasts 2028 Research Report at –  https://www.theinsightpartners.com/buy/TIPRE00029573/

This Report gives the Answer of Below Questions: 

Q.1. Can you list some of the major players operating in the global granular biochar market?

Ans. The major players operating in the global granular biochar market are CharGrow USA LLC, Green Man Char, Oregon Biochar Solutions, Pyreg GmbH, Carbonis GmbH & Co. Kg., Airex Energie Inc., BioChar6, American Biochar Company, Arsta Eco Pvt. Ltd., and Advanced Renewable Technology International.

Q.2 In 2021, which region held the largest share of the global granular biochar market?

Ans. In 2021, Asia Pacific accounted for the largest share of the global granular biochar market. Many Asia-Pacific countries, such as Australia, China and India, are among the world’s fastest-growing populations. The agricultural industry is anticipated to expand at a faster pace as a result of increasing population, rising urbanization, and rising concerns of healthy food products. The favourable government policies for developing organic products in countries such as China, Japan, and India is also one of the key factors driving the growth of granular biochar market over the coming years.

Q.3. In 2021, which product type segment accounted for the largest share in the global granular biochar market?

Ans. In 2021, the corn and wheat source biochar segment accounted for the largest market share. Granular biochar serves to enhance soil structure, increase water retention and aggregation, decrease acidity, improve porosity, control nitrogen leaching, and improve microbial characteristics in order to improve soil quality. Composting has also been proven to benefit from granular biochar. Both the loss of nutrients in the compost material and greenhouse gas emissions are prevented. Additionally, it aids in lowering the ammonia losses, bulk density, and smell of the compost.

Q.4. Which application segment is the fastest growing in the global granular biochar market?

Ans. On the basis of application, soil conditioner is the fastest growing segment. Granular biochar may be able to hold onto soil nutrients like phosphorus, nitrate, and ammonium. This effect is most noticeable in light-textured soils. Granular biochar aids in boosting crop productivity and soil fertility. Additionally, soil deterioration is a big issue for agriculture worldwide. To improve the condition of degraded soils and address this growing issue, biochar is applied to them.

Q.5. Which product type segment is the fastest growing in the global granular biochar market?

Ans. On the basis of product type, wood source biochar is the fastest growing segment. It is growing at a CAGR of 12.2% during the forecast period 2022-2028. Due to the material’s advantageous qualities, interest in using granular biochar in agriculture has grown recently. Adding biochar in the form of granules to temperate soil can enhance a number of soil health indices.

Q.6. What is the key driver for the growth of the global granular biochar market?

Ans. Granular Biochar is being increasingly used in the agricultural sector. The increasing demand for organic products and organic farming is driving the market forward. Biochar is a soil amendment that increases soil fertility. Organic farming requires less agrochemicals, which minimizes the usage of non-renewable energy. Additionally, it helps to reduce the greenhouse effect and global warming by storing carbon in the soil. Also, people are becoming more educated about the advantages of eating organic food and the negative consequences of chemicals used in food production.

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Biochar Market Size, Share, Statistics, Demand and Revenue, Forecast 2030 Scope by Players

3 November, 2022
 

Market Strides, a leading global market research firm, is pleased to announce its new report on Biochar Market, forecast for 2022-2030, covering all aspects of the market and providing up-to-date data on current trends.

The report covers comprehensive data on emerging trends, market drivers, growth opportunities, and restraints that can change the market dynamics of the industry. It provides an in-depth analysis of the market segments which include products, applications, and competitor analysis. The report also includes a detailed study of key companies to provide insights into business strategies adopted by various players in order to sustain competition in this highly competitive environment.

Request For Sample Report: https://marketstrides.com/request-sample/biochar-market

Biochar Market research report can help you in taking the right business decisions. It is a comprehensive and detailed analysis of market trends, opportunities and challenges that will give you an edge over competitors. You will be able to take informed decisions based on this data-driven study.

Some of the major player covered in the report. Additional companies can be included in the report as per request.
Renewable Carbon Resources Australia, Biochar Industries, Green Life Soil Co, Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Limited, Green Man Char, Diacarbon Energy Inc.

On the basis of Types, the market is segmented into
Agriculture Waste, Forestry Waste, Animal Manure, Biomass Plantation

On the basis of Application, the market is segmented into
Gardening, Agriculture, Household

The report covers North America, Europe, APCA, Latin America, Middle East, Africa. Country level data is provided in the report.
The global market is huge, with a lot of opportunities for different regions. The North American region has the United States and Canada to offer while Asia Pacific includes China, Japan, South Korea India Australia as well as other countries in that area like Singapore.

Purchase the complete Biochar Market Report

Market research reports can help you in taking the right business decisions. It is an analysis of the market and industry, which helps in understanding the market better. This report will provide you with all the information you need to know about this sector so that it becomes easy for you to take informed decisions.

With our market research reports, we offer a comprehensive overview of this sector and its dynamics. We have done extensive research on this topic and are confident that our findings will be helpful for anyone who needs some guidance or direction when making important decisions related to their company’s future growth strategy.

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Market Strides is a Global aggregator and publisher of Market intelligence development reports, equity reports, database directories, and economic reports. Our repository is diverse, spanning virtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry.

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Pyrolytic stove, what it is and how the device works to save on heating – Spark Chronicles

3 November, 2022
 

There pyrolytic stove is the innovative tool that there will allow you to save while we heat the home. Let’s find out how it works, also trying to understand what makes this product convenient.

Although the operation of this device is based on a concept that has been known since ancient times, as pyrolysis has been used for a very long time to carbonise, for example, wood, the pyrolytic stove is gaining momentum especially recently.

With the increase in utilities, in effect, domestic heating using gas and electricity has become excessively expensive. It is not surprising, therefore, that most are gearing up for look for means that allow you to save while keeping domestic environments warm.

In this case, the pyrolytic stove can help to produce heat at a low price. Let’s find out how it works and how much you can save thanks to the use of this device.

As for the operation of the pyrolytic stove, as the name itself implies it’s all based on pyrolysis. The process provides for the heating of biomass used to power the stove: biomass which, inside the device, they can even reach 400 degrees.

Pyrolysis generates not only heat, but also gas, coal or biochar production (a special carbonaceous material that is precisely produced by the degradation of biomass by means of heat).

We could almost define it as a gas stove which, however, does not use gas to operate: the gas is produced by the combustion of the biomass used to power the device.

Unlike classic stoves, whether they are pellet, wood or other type of fuel, thanks to pyrolysis not only the biomass used for food is burned. Combustion gases are also burned for heat production.

To work properly, the pyrolytic stove it must have a container that can withstand high temperatures and where the biomass combustion will take place. Furthermore it is necessary that the container can be properly closed. In fact, the pyrolysis process takes place without the presence of oxygen.

One of the most appreciated features of the pyrolytic stove is its versatility: it is indeed possible use various types of materials to feed it.

In general, this device suitable for heating domestic environments is powered by biomass. Over the years, the consumption of pellets to power these devices has become widespread.

Still, the pyrolytic stove it can also be fed with a mix of pellets and wood, with wood and also with waste deriving from pruning.

The device can in fact also be fed by foliage and other residues deriving from pruning operations.

The first benefit of the pyrolytic stove is for sure its efficiency. As already mentioned regarding the operation, this device it not only burns biomass, but also gases produced by pyrolysis.

Furthermore, it is a device that it can be fed with any type of biomass. Therefore, not being linked to a particular and specific type of power supply, we can from time to time choose the biomass which, at the time of purchase, appears to be the most convenient.

The possibility of feeding it also through pruning wastethen, makes it even cheaperallowing us to also save on its power supply.

Another advantage concerns the biochar production, product we have already mentioned. This pyrolysis residue can be reused as fertilizer.

The only drawback of this type of device is thatat the moment, hasn’t caught on yet and, on the market, the models available in most cases are in the outdoor version.

However, the product is spreading more and more and, to date, indoor models have become more numerous. Their cost, unfortunately, thanks to the scarce diffusion and the not very numerous models, it is around 2,000 euros.

Let’s now pass to the question that surely many will be asking: how much can you save with the pyrolytic stove?

First of all, this device does not need to use electricity: therefore, saves on electricity bills.

Furthermore, thanks to the possibility of using different biomasses, we will be able to save by choosing the one that, at the moment, is more convenient.

In the case of use of pruning waste, the feeding of this stove is even free of charge.

The only flaw, which we have already talked about, is represented by the initial cost of purchasing and installing the product. However, given the enormous savings that biomasses allow us to obtain, the initial expense is justified.

In fact, pyrolysis allows to obtain an exploitation of biomass equal to 280% more compared to traditional stoves.

Read also: Saving water, IKEA takes care of it with the new circular shower that recycles: how it works

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DataSheet1_Biochar-compost amendment enhanced sorghum growth and yield by … – Figshare

3 November, 2022
 

Soil salinization, an important type of soil degradation, has become a problem restricting crop production and food quality. The remediation technologies by using compost and biochar were considered sustainable and environment friendly, but the sole application of compost or biochar hardly gets the satisfactory remediation effects. Until now, information about the effects of cocomposted biochar on soils is limited, especially in the coastal soil. This study investigated the impact and potential underlying mechanism of corn straw biochar (BC), seaweed compost (SC), and cocomposted BC and SC (BCSC) on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the coastal soil of China in a pot experiment. BC and BCSC treatments increased the dry biomass and yield of the sorghum by 44.0–52.4% and 132.9–192.3%, respectively. Similarly, the root morphologies of sorghum, including surface area and average diameter, were also increased with BC and BCSC addition. Meanwhile, BCSC treatment showed a better performance than what the others did. The enhanced growth and yield of sorghum primarily resulted from the improvement of soil properties (WHC, SOM, and EC) and nutrient availability (Olsen-P and AK content). In addition, the increased diversity and shifted composition of soil bacteria with BC and BCSC addition might also account for the increased growth and yield of sorghum. Furthermore, the enhanced relative abundances of beneficial bacteria Vicinamibacteraceae (39.0%) and Sphingomonadaceae (41.5%) in the rhizosphere soil were positively correlated with the content of available nutrients (NH4+, Olsen-P, and available K) in the coastal soil, which might reveal the mechanism of enhancing growth under the established collaborative interactions of them. Our study provides the potential of using biochar-compost to ameliorate the degradation of coastal soils and improve crop yield.


Insight into the Fe–Ni/biochar composite supported three-dimensional electro-Fenton …

3 November, 2022
 

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Feasibility of Using Biochar as an Eco-Friendly Microfiller in Polymer Concretes – MDPI

3 November, 2022
 

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Carbon Streaming Announces Enfield Biochar Stream Agreement With Standard … – Yahoo Finance

4 November, 2022
 

US$1.3 Million U.S. Biochar Carbon Removals Project and Royalty on Biochar Revenue

TORONTO, November 03, 2022–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Carbon Streaming Corporation (NEO: NETZ) (OTCQB: OFSTF) (FSE: M2Q) ("Carbon Streaming" or the "Company") is pleased to announce that it has entered into a carbon credit streaming agreement and associated royalty agreement (collectively, "Enfield Biochar Stream" or the "Carbon Stream") with Standard Biocarbon Corporation ("Standard Biocarbon") to support the construction of a biochar pyrolysis pilot facility in Enfield, Maine, USA (the "Project").

Transaction Highlights:

The Project will convert waste biomass into biochar, preventing the release of approximately 90,000 tonnes of CO2 equivalent ("tCo2e") emissions and generate an equivalent number of CO2 removal certificates ("CORCs") over 30 years.

The CORCs are expected to be independently verified and registered through Puro.earth, a leading standard for carbon removal projects.

Carbon Streaming will receive 100% of the CORCs generated by the Project, with ongoing payments to Standard Biocarbon for each CORC sold.

Carbon Streaming will also receive a revenue royalty on volume of biochar sold. The Company expects the Project to produce approximately 250,000 cubic yards ("yd3") of biochar over 30 years.

First biochar production and delivery of CORCs are expected in the second half of calendar year 2023.

The Company has made an initial upfront deposit of US$0.5 million on closing, with additional payments of US$0.8 million as the Project achieves registration and production milestones.

Impact Highlights:

Biochar is a stable form of carbon which remains inert and prevents the release of CO2 emissions for centuries.

Biochar can play an important role in climate change adaptation by increasing the water retention capacity of soil and catch basins, creating resiliency to extremes in precipitation while mitigating harmful runoff.

By using consistently high-quality feedstock, and industry leading pyrolysis technology from PYREG of Dörth, Germany, the Project is targeting the production of high-quality biochar which meets specifications for the highest value applications.

The Project will contribute to the local economy by providing employment in nearby communities.

Through the use of PYREG technology, the Project is expected to deliver on eight UN Sustainable Development Goals, including Climate Action (13), Zero Hunger (2), Clean Water and Sanitation (6), Affordable and Clean Energy (7), Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure (9), Sustainable Cities and Communities (11), Responsible Consumption and Production (12), and Life on Land (15).

Carbon Streaming Founder and CEO Justin Cochrane stated: "We are excited to announce our second biochar removals streaming agreement in the USA. With strong storage permanence, we believe that biochar will have increasing importance in advancing the removal of global emissions. We look forward to future partnership opportunities with Standard Biocarbon as it scales its business in the northeastern United States."

Standard Biocarbon President & CEO Fred Horton commented: "We are pleased to collaborate with Carbon Streaming as we bring this exciting project to life. Our vision for building biochar production through win-win partnerships with leading lumber mills provides a clear and realistic path to scale. This innovative funding from Carbon Streaming fills a critical role in enabling us to build our first pilot plant using this model. We believe this will help catalyze a new industry producing premium quality biochar with many beneficial applications, and supporting sustainable rural community development while putting millions of tons of carbon back in the ground."

The Project comprises the development of a pilot facility using carbonization systems engineered and built by PYREG GmbH ("PYREG"), through which woodchips and sawdust from the Pleasant River Lumber Co. mill in Enfield, Maine are converted into premium-quality biochar. Biochar, short for biological charcoal, is a stable, porous, near-pure form of carbon which remains inert for centuries. CORCs are generated from the biochar’s ability to store carbon and prevent the release of CO2 into the atmosphere. The biochar itself also has a variety of applications in agriculture, environmental remediation and construction materials. In addition, the heat generated in the pyrolysis process is expected to be used in the mill’s drying kilns.

PYREG is a German net-zero technology engineering and manufacturing company. Since 2009, the company has deployed 50 of its plants globally. As a result, PYREG has a strong track record, with many of its customers producing both premium-quality biochar and generating CORCs under the Puro.earth standard. Moreover, Standard Biocarbon’s strong partnership with PYREG provides an excellent foundation for future project expansion, at numerous locations across New England and Eastern Canada. Given the importance of its partnership with Standard Biocarbon, PYREG recently established the office of its US subsidiary (Pyreg, Inc.) near Standard Biocarbon’s headquarters in Portland, Maine.

Over its 30-year life, the Project is expected to remove approximately 90,000 tCO2e emissions, generating an equivalent number of CORCs, and produce approximately 250,000 yd3 of biochar. First production of biochar and initial delivery of CORCs are targeted for the second half of calendar year 2023 and expected to ramp up to full production in 2024. Carbon Streaming will market and sell 100% of CORCs delivered from the Project and will also receive a royalty on volume of biochar sold. The CORCs are expected to be verified and registered through Puro.earth, a leading global standard for carbon removal projects.

Under the terms of the Enfield Biochar Stream, the Company will make an upfront deposit of up to US$1.3 million. At closing, US$0.5 million of the upfront deposit was paid and the Company will make additional milestone payments of US$0.8 million as the Project achieves registration and production milestones. Proceeds from the Carbon Stream are fundamental to the construction of the Enfield biochar pyrolysis facility. Carbon Streaming will also make ongoing delivery payments to Standard Biocarbon for each CORC sold under the Carbon Stream. Ongoing delivery payments will be toward the lower end of the range of the Company’s other stream investments since biochar has other revenue generating applications.

Removal credits are in high demand and typically trade at a premium. Pricing for CORCs on the Puro.earth CORC Biochar Price Index have ranged from approximately US$105/CORC to US$150/CORC year to date.

About Carbon Streaming
Carbon Streaming aims to accelerate a net-zero future. We pioneered the use of streaming transactions, a proven and flexible funding model, to scale high-integrity carbon credit projects to accelerate global climate action and advance the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. This approach aligns our strategic interests with those of project partners to create long-term relationships built on a shared commitment to sustainability and accountability and positions us as a trusted source for buyers seeking high-quality carbon credits.

The Company’s focus is on projects that have a positive impact on the environment, local communities, and biodiversity, in addition to their carbon reduction or removal potential. The Company has carbon credit streams and royalties related to over 20 projects around the world, including projects involving nature-based solutions, the distribution of fuel-efficient cookstoves and water filtration devices, sustainable community projects focused on waste avoidance and energy efficiency, agricultural methane avoidance and biochar carbon removal.

To receive corporate updates via e-mail, please subscribe here.

About Standard Biocarbon
Standard Biocarbon has a mission to lead the creation of a modern North American biochar industry as part of a global climate solution. Standard Biocarbon’s model is to co-locate operations at lumber mills where it will function as an onsite customer for wood residuals while also providing thermal energy to the mill for lumber drying kilns.

Standard Biocarbon’s pilot facility, at Pleasant River Lumber’s mill in Enfield, Maine, will convert low value residuals from lumber production into biochar for use in agriculture, remediation, filtration and other emerging applications. There are at least 15 other sawmills in Maine that would be excellent sites for biochar production and Standard Biocarbon is talking to owners of several of these. Maine has lost markets for over four million tons of low-grade wood, biomass and mill residuals in the past decade, and the need for expanded and diversified markets for sawmill residuals is noted in the Maine Forest Action Plan: 2020. Biochar production provides another market for this low-grade wood.

Standard Biocarbon’s goal is to create a new growth industry, leveraging the infrastructure and know-how of the region’s thriving forest products sector to serve growing demand for better soil, cleaner water and less CO2 in the air. For more information, visit www.standardbiocarbon.com.

Advisories
The references to third party websites and sources contained in this news release (including information with regard to Standard Biocarbon and PYREG) are provided for informational purposes and are not to be considered statements of the Company.

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information
This news release contains certain forward-looking statements and forward-looking information (collectively, "forward-looking information") within the meaning of applicable securities laws. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, that address activities, events or developments that the Company believes, expects or anticipates will or may occur in the future, are forward-looking information, including, without limitation, statements and figures with respect to the expected number of future CORCs generation and emission reductions and removals from the Project; the expected amount of future biochar production; the ability for the Project to be independently verified and registered by Puro.earth; the timing of delivery of CORCs under the Carbon Stream; timing to meet additional payment milestones; the anticipated premium pricing for the CORCs; the expected sources of emission reductions and removals generated by the Project; the expected delivery on UN Sustainable Development Goals; the use of proceeds from the Carbon Stream; the demand for removal credits; the expected impact of regulatory developments on the Project; and statements with respect to execution of the Company’s portfolio and partnership strategy.

When used in this news release, words such as "estimates", "expects", "plans", "anticipates", "will", "believes", "intends" "should", "could", "may" and other similar terminology are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. This forward-looking information is based on the current expectations or beliefs of the Company based on information currently available to the Company. Forward-looking information is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that may cause the actual results of the Company to differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking information, and even if such actual results are realized or substantially realized, there can be no assurance that they will have the expected consequences to, or effects on, the Company. They should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be an accurate indication of whether or not such results will be achieved. Factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things: volatility in prices of carbon credits and demand for carbon credits; change in social or political views towards climate change and subsequent changes in corporate or government policies or regulations and associated changes in demand for carbon credits; limited operating history for the Company’s current strategy; risks arising from competition and future acquisition activities; concentration risk; inaccurate estimates of growth strategy, including the ability of the Company to source appropriate opportunities and enter into stream, royalty or other agreements; dependence upon key management; general economic, market and business conditions and global financial conditions, including fluctuations in interest rates, foreign exchange rates and stock market volatility; uncertainties and ongoing market developments surrounding the validation and verification requirements of the voluntary and/or compliance markets; failure or timing delays for projects to be registered, validated and ultimately developed and for emission reductions or removals to be verified and carbon credits issued; foreign operations and political risks including actions by governmental authorities, including changes in or to government regulation, taxation and carbon pricing initiatives; due diligence risks, including failure of third parties’ reviews, reports and projections to be accurate; dependence on project partners, operators and owners, including failure by such counterparties to make payments or perform their operational or other obligations to the Company in compliance with the terms of contractual arrangements between the Company and such counterparties; failure of projects to generate carbon credits, or natural disasters such as flood or fire which could have a material adverse effect on the ability of any project to generate carbon credits; volatility in the market price of the Company’s common shares or warrants; the effect that the issuance of additional securities by the Company could have on the market price of the Company’s common shares or warrants; global health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainties surrounding the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; and the other risks disclosed under the heading "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in the Company’s Annual Information Form dated as of September 26, 2022 filed on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.

Any forward-looking information speaks only as of the date of this news release. Although the Company believes that the assumptions inherent in the forward-looking information are reasonable, forward-looking information is not a guarantee of future performance and accordingly undue reliance should not be put on such statements due to the inherent uncertainty therein. Except as may be required by applicable securities laws, the Company disclaims any intent or obligation to update any forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or results or otherwise.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20221103006260/en/

Contacts

ON BEHALF OF THE COMPANY:
Justin Cochrane, Chief Executive Officer
Tel: 647.846.7765
info@carbonstreaming.com
www.carbonstreaming.com

Investor Relations
Andrea Cheung, VP, Investor Relations
investors@carbonstreaming.com

Media
Amy Chambers, Director, Marketing, Communications & Sustainability
media@carbonstreaming.com


Thank you for smoking: Potential of biochar in sustainable agriculture – ScienceDirect

4 November, 2022
 

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Soil Remediation and Improvement Solution – Beston Group

4 November, 2022
 

Soil remediation is the removal of contaminants from soil so that the soil can be used for specific requirements. Now the soil is polluted by different factors and different degrees, such as multiple farming, industrial pollution, mining pollution and so on. These contaminated or poor soils require specific methods to improve soil quality and reduce soil contamination. This article will provide investors with the solution and the advantages. See what is soil remediation.

Soil remediation refers to the removal of contaminants from soil, such as pesticides, hydrocarbons, radioactive substances and heavy metals. Contaminated soil poses many risks and hazards to human and ecological health. While repairing the soil, it increases the nutrient content of the soil. Therefore, many countries have carried out soil remediation projects. These projects helps to improve carbon sequestration.

Here are some common types of land restoration for your reference.

Firstly, Beston adopts the carbonization method to obtain biomass charcoal, tar, wood vinegar and combustible gas through the high-temperature carbonization process of biomass waste dry distillation.

Secondly, Among them, biomass biochar can significantly increase soil ph, change soil texture, and increase the exchange of salt bases. This can lead to an increase in soil CEC. It improves the absorption of nutrients by plants. It also improves the soil organic matter.

Agriculture Rice husk, straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, peanut shell, reed pole, corn cob, elephant grass, etc.;

Forest Different kinds of trees, bamboo, etc.;

Nutshell Coconut shell, hazelnut shell, palm kernel shell, olive seed shell, cocoa shell, coffee shell, cashew shell, etc.;

Industry Sawdust, sugarcane bagasse, wooden furniture, wooden products, etc.;

Beston installed many projects over the world to help customers to make biochar, including 30+ countries. They are Turkey, Iran, France, Kenya, Colombia, etc. Beston helps these customers to finish these projects till the end. Therefore, they have good reviews on Beston. See the following projects and solutions.

The Internet of Things system (optional) can remotely monitor product usage, operating parameters, faults and other information through mobile devices. This system can help customers grasp project information in real time. Customers can set different early warning strategies based on each monitoring data. When the monitoring data triggers the warning strategy, the system automatically pops up the corresponding warning information.

Beston offers continuous pyrolysis equipment. This model has high automation level. Moreover, it can work continuously for 5*24 hours. It process a large amount of agricultural and forestry biomass waste at one time. With the help of Beston engineers, various parameters of the equipment can be adjusted to the most suitable condition according to customers’ requirements. Contact us to learn more infor about biomass pyrolysis machine.

The PLC electric cabinet has an alarm device, and there will be an alarm display and an alarm if the electrical part fails. All pipeline gas directions are led by fans (fans are variable frequency), and when the pipeline is blocked, it will be displayed on the PLC; when the equipment is working, the equipment is under slight negative pressure, and the end of the main furnace is provided with explosion-proof holes (to prevent excessive pressure in the equipment).

Different types and states of biomass will have slightly different requirement for carbonization time and temperature. Experienced Beston engineers will help customers find the most suitable carbonization temperature, carbonization time and machine parameters. If customers have requirements on the quality of biochar, engineers can provide technical support. Engineers assist customers to adjust equipment parameters.

On the one hand, biochar can adsorb soil organic molecules and promote the polymerization of small organic molecules to form SOM through surface catalytic activity. Biochar can also change the form of toxic elements and reduce pollution during plant growth. It will promote the uptake of nutrient elements, and promote plant growth.

In this way, it not only effectively solves the current problem of agricultural and forestry waste pollution, but also plays a great role in improving soil fertility, and makes great contributions to agriculture.

Biochar soil remediation is a common method. More and more users use this method to remediate soil with agricultural and forestry waste. This method is not only easy to operate but also can recycle agricultural and forestry waste in a high efficiency. If you are interested in this biochar production method, please contact Beston.

1What kind of solution will meet your demand? (Key point)

2What kind of material and expected end product are you planning to have? (Right solution begins from material and product)

3When is the project supposed to be running? (Key info for A-Z project programming)

4Budget for machinery purchasing? (Key info for right model)

5Points that you really focus on. (Customized service from our project consultant)

1What kind of solution will meet your demand? (Key point)

2What kind of material and expected end product are you planning to have? (Right solution begins from material and product)

3When is the project supposed to be running? (Key info for A-Z project programming)

4Budget for machinery purchasing? (Key info for right model)

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$50000 funding for green tech and circular economy projects – Council Magazine

4 November, 2022
 

Smart Cities 2022 Event

Smart Cities 2022 Event

The City of Greater Geelong has announced $50,000 in funding support for three projects that use clean technology, as part of Council’s $4.6 million Community Grants program.

Of the three projects, one aims to fast track the electrification of homes and businesses, and the other two projects aim to reduce the environmental impacts of concrete and asphalt.

The three projects that support Council’s move towards a circular economy are: 

Greater Geelong Mayor and Innovative Solutions Chair, Peter Murrihy, said, “We’re proud to support local companies and researchers that are trialling products for a low carbon economy while developing skills for tomorrow.

“Geelong is a proud centre for advanced manufacturing in Australia and we want to keep supporting local businesses that are helping to cut emissions and reduce energy costs.”

BOOM Power Pty Ltd

The team behind the BOOM software-as-a-service platform are working with their ASX-listed strategic partner, Bill Identity (Bid), to accelerate the electrification of homes and businesses.

The project will develop the ability for households and small to medium enterprises to upload an energy bill and receive a tailored proposal for electrifying their home or business.

The user will answer simple questions about their home or business and receive a tailored plan for electrification of their building, including solar, storage, hot water, heating and cooling, and electric vehicle (EV) charging points. 

The report will then explain upfront the financed costs, financial savings and environmental benefits.

Fulton Hogan

Construction and roadworks company, Fulton Hogan, will use biochar sourced from agricultural and organic sites in Greater Geelong to test the viability of using biochar in cold mix asphalt products at their Lara plant.

The testing hopes to reduce energy costs, create circular economy solutions to a waste product, and create a low-carbon pavement material.

Australian Engineering Solutions (Austeng) and Deakin University

North Geelong engineering firm, Austeng, and Deakin University will use crushed glass and industrial by-products to create a more sustainable alternative to cement-based concrete.

By mixing crushed glass with fly ash and slag, the project aims to develop a sustainable geopolymer concrete that meets performance standards for footpaths, pavements, and floor slabs.

Concrete is one of the most consumed materials in the world – second to water – and its production is responsible for seven per cent of the world’s CO2 emissions.

Replacing cement with fly ash can reduce the carbon footprint of concrete by between 30-50 per cent and make use of waste fly ash and glass.

The previous grant round in 2019 saw Capricorn Power, Deakin University, Focus Pty Ltd and Geelong Sustainability Group Inc. complete clean technology and circular economy projects that addressed stockpiled landfill, reduced household energy use, encouraged community solar production and the uptake of renewable energy.

Innovative Solutions Deputy Chair, Councillor Sarah Mansfield, said the projects are great examples of how governments, universities, and the private sector can work together for the benefit of our environment. 

“We want to help local businesses trial new products and make the move towards a circular economy where nothing is wasted.”

Featured image: The team at Fulton Hogan. Image: City of Greater Geelong.

Due to unprecedented demand for new housing in the region, Moreton Bay Council has requested approval to make a…

Logan City Council has endorsed a five-year project to create a new city plan, which will outline the City’s…

More than 30 per cent of Toowoomba Regional Councils (TRC) 2021/22 flood recovery program has been completed, delivering critical…

Logan City Council has opened community consultation on key elements to help shape Council’s new proposed Logan Plan 2025. …

A new electric waste collection truck trial is underway in South Australia thanks to a joint-council waste contract between…

The Victorian Government will continue supporting regional and rural councils in their fight to prevent the spread of invasive…

City of Parramatta Council has elected its new Lord Mayor and re-elected Councillor Michelle Garrard as Deputy Lord Mayor…

Many of the tasks required to maintain a clean township need energy, water, and responsible landfill management, and how…

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Greenhouse gas emission responses to different soil amendments on the Loess Plateau, China

4 November, 2022
 

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Just Accepted – CSIRO PUBLISHING | Environmental Chemistry

4 November, 2022
 

We acknowledge the Traditional Owners of the land, sea and waters, of the areas that we live and work on across Australia. We acknowledge their continuing connection to their culture, their contribution to our shared knowledge, and pay our respects to their Elders past and present.

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Upgrade STP With Modern Technology, Complete Work On Time: Manish Sisodia To DJB

4 November, 2022
 

In the times of social media and TV channels, which whip up emotions that are more often than not toxic and come camouflaged as nationalism, a big game between India and Pakistan relationship always brings an edge and pressure, says Anand Vasu

Giving an illustrious example of Dattu Bhokanal, a onion grower who clocked the fastest 15th as a single-scull rower in the world at 2016 Rio Olympics, Dilip D’Souza tells how passion drives all sports and keeps nation on an edge, always

More than the display of jingoism and chauvinism, sports is about the weak taking on the mighty and humbling them

Few can understand his journey from a high-profile cricketer, known as much for his colourful life, to a right-wing politician

Speaking of the high-voltage drama that a cricket match between the two neighbours ensues, Suresh Menon tells how sports rivalry is not confined to the Asian archrivals alone. It is rather our version of the England–Australia and Australia–New Zealand rivalries, except that they are not kept alive by politicians and media for political and commercial gains

Updated: 04 Nov 2022 8:00 pm

Delhi Deputy Chief Minister Manish Sisodia on Friday directed the officials of Delhi Jal Board (DJB) to upgrade the sewage treatment plant with modern technology and complete the work within stipulated time frames, an official statement said.

The DJB has been instructed to take strict action against any lapse by the Sewage Treatment Plant's (STP) contractors in the work to fulfil targets, it said.  A work report shall be submitted every day to the deputy CM by the CEO of the DJB as well. It will also be ensured that all stipulated safety standards and measures of quality are followed during this process, the statement further stated. 

According to the statement, Sisodia said, "Delhi Government is working in a phased manner to increase the capacity of various sewage treatment plants in different areas in the national capital to clean the Yamuna."

"The set target is to clean the Yamuna river completely by 2025. As part of this initiative, the 45 MDG sewage treatment plant at Kondli will be upgraded to release clean water into the Yamuna," he said. 

He said the treated water will not only help in cleaning the river but will also prove to be very useful to meet other requirements – such as for horticulture and rejuvenating Delhi's lakes to meet the growing demand for potable water.

Sisodia also conducted a surprise inspection of the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) and 'sludge treatment plant' at Kondli, during which he found that the sewage treatment has not been following stipulated norms and quality control measures. 

He reprimanded the officials and instructed them to resolve this issue at the earliest, for which a plan of action must be submitted to him within a week, the statement said. Sisodia also inspected the sludge treatment plant built inside the premises of the Kondli STP. 

He said this sludge treatment plant can treat 200 tonnes of sludge daily.  It is based on the technology of hot air oxidation, in which the silt is dried and converted into biochar using hot air. It is then removed from the sewage, is processed and the residue is used to make tiles, it said. 

(With PTI Inputs)

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Environmental Expert Witness Service Industry: Growth Drivers by Top Players like

4 November, 2022
 

Environmental Expert Witness Service Market 2022
The Global Environmental Expert Witness Service Market report provides information about the Global industry, including valuable facts and figures. This research study explores the Global Market in detail such as industry chain structures, raw material suppliers, with manufacturing The Environmental Expert Witness Service Sales market examines the primary segments of the scale of the market. This intelligent study provides historical data from 2019 alongside a forecast from 2022 to 2030.

Results of the recent scientific undertakings towards the development of new Environmental Expert Witness Service products have been studied. Nevertheless, the factors affecting the leading industry players to adopt synthetic sourcing of the market products have also been studied in this statistical surveying report. The conclusions provided in this report are of great value for the leading industry players. Every organization partaking in the global production of the Environmental Expert Witness Service market products have been mentioned in this report, in order to study the insights on cost-effective manufacturing methods, competitive landscape, and new avenues for applications.

This report contains a thorough analysis of the pre and post pandemic market scenarios. This report covers all the recent development and changes recorded during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Request For Sample Report: https://marketstrides.com/request-sample/environmental-expert-witness-service-market

Top Key Players of the Market:
Focus Environmental, Inc., ORC Expert Services, Gallagher Bassett Technical Services, Jones Environmental, Inc., The Bodhi Group, Lindmark Engineering, EAG Laboratories, The Westmark Group LLC, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc., Matrix New World Engineering, Inc., Orion Environmental, Inc., Lunsford Air Consulting, Inc., Korlipara Engineering, Tactical Surveillance, Inc., Water Resources Consulting Services, Inc., JMJ Group, LLC

Types covered in this report are:
Consulting, Research, Witness

On the Basis of Application:
Oil & Gas, Metallurgy, Papermaking, Others

With the present market standards revealed, the Environmental Expert Witness Service market research report has also illustrated the latest strategic developments and patterns of the market players in an unbiased manner. The report serves as a presumptive business document that can help the purchasers in the global market plan their next courses towards the position of the market’s future.

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Regional Analysis For Environmental Expert Witness Service Market
North America (United States, Canada, and Mexico)
Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia, and Italy)
Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia)
South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, etc.)
The Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa)

Why B2B Companies Worldwide Rely on us to Grow and Sustain Revenues:

This report provides:

1. An in-depth overview of the global market for Environmental Expert Witness Service.
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4. Discussion of R&D, and the demand for new products launches and applications.
5. Wide-ranging company profiles of leading participants in the industry.
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7. The growth in patient epidemiology and market revenue for the market globally and across the key players and market segments.
8. Study the market in terms of generic and premium product revenue.
9. Determine commercial opportunities in the market sales scenario by analyzing trends in authorizing and co-development deals.

Get Purchase this Environmental Expert Witness Service Market Report 2022-2030 : Choose License Type

In the end, the Environmental Expert Witness Service Market report includes investment come analysis and development trend analysis. The present and future opportunities of the fastest growing international industry segments are coated throughout this report. This report additionally presents product specification, manufacturing method, and product cost structure, and price structure.

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What is carbon sequestration?

4 November, 2022
 

Carbon sequestration, is the process of naturally or artificially capturing and storing carbon dioxide emissions. These emissions come primarily from burning fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, for energy use. However, when too much carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, it can lead to climate change and global warming. This is where carbon sequestration comes in. By capturing these emissions and storing them underground or in plants and oceans, we can reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and mitigate some of the negative effects of climate change. It is a crucial tool in combatting global warming and creating a more sustainable future.

One way to sequester carbon on a large scale is through the use of biochar. Biochar is a type of charcoal produced from organic materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even manure. When biochar is added to soil, it not only enhances plant growth and increases crop yields, but it also helps to trap atmospheric carbon in the ground. This process of storing carbon in soil is known as “terrestrial sequestration.” In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, biochar can also improve soil fertility and water retention, improve fertilizer efficiency, and reduce nutrient runoff. While biochar has been used for centuries by indigenous cultures, modern technologies are now making it possible to produce biochar on a larger scale, offering a potential solution for fighting climate change while also improving sustainable agriculture practices.

Carbon sequestration, or the capture and storage of carbon emissions, has been touted as a potential solution to mitigate climate change. However, there are significant challenges that must be overcome before it can become a widespread approach. One major issue is cost – the technology required to capture and store carbon is expensive and not yet widely available. In addition, the long-term effectiveness of storing carbon in underground wells or other repositories is uncertain. It is also necessary to consider potential safety and environmental impacts, such as leaking carbon or disrupting geological structures. Despite these challenges, researchers and scientists are working towards finding solutions, such as developing more affordable technology and a better understanding of how much carbon can safely be stored. By addressing these obstacles, carbon sequestration could hopefully play a significant role in reducing global carbon emissions.

Carbon sequestration, is the process of capturing carbon dioxide emissions and storing them underground, has recently gained attention as a potential solution to combat climate change.

While it may seem like an effective way to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels, there are a variety of concerns surrounding its implementation on a large scale. One main concern is the possibility of leakage, where stored carbon can escape back into the atmosphere. This could defeat the purpose of sequestering it in the first place and potentially have detrimental effects on local ecosystems. Another issue is that carbon sequestration technologies are often expensive and energy-intensive, meaning they may not be financially or logistically feasible for widespread use. Additionally, some worry that the focus on carbon sequestration could divert attention and resources away from more sustainable solutions, such as renewable energy sources. Overall, while carbon sequestration has the potential as a tool in our fight against climate change, careful consideration must be given to its possible negative consequences before implementing it on a large scale.

In addition to reducing our energy consumption and switching to renewable sources, another way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is through the use of biochar. This substance is made from organic materials, such as wood or agricultural waste, that have been burned in a controlled environment with minimal oxygen. The resulting biochar can be used as a soil amendment, improving the soil’s fertility and ability to retain water and nutrients. But more importantly, biochar can permanently store carbon in the soil for hundreds or even thousands of years. Considering agriculture accounts for roughly 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions, incorporating biochar into farming practices could have a significant impact on reducing emissions. While it may seem like a small change, expanding the use of biochar is an environmentally friendly solution worth considering in our efforts to combat climate change.

Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing carbon to reduce their impact on the atmosphere and reducing pollution. While it has been proposed as a possible solution to combat climate change, it is important to understand the limitations and potential downsides of this method. Firstly, it is only effective for certain industries such as power plants that emit large amounts of carbon. Secondly, there are concerns about the long-term storage and safety of carbon emissions. And finally, there is also the issue of potential cost – implementing carbon sequestration technology can be expensive, and raises questions about who should bear the burden of these costs. Despite these challenges, some argue that carbon sequestration is a necessary step in reducing global carbon emissions and slowing down climate change. Ultimately, more research and discussion are needed before deciding on the effectiveness and feasibility of using this approach.

In conclusion, carbon sequestration is a process that can help to mitigate the effects of climate change by removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. It works by trapping carbon dioxide underground or underwater where it cannot contribute to global warming. There are many potential benefits of implementing large-scale carbon sequestration projects, such as reducing our reliance on fossil fuels and slowing the rate of climate change. However, there are also some potential risks associated with these projects, which need to be taken into consideration before they are implemented. There are other ways to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions that we should consider before embarking on any large-scale carbon sequestration projects. Carbon Gold biochar can be purchased by contacting us at info@carbongold.com if you would like to learn more about biochar and how it could help address climate change.

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Josiah Hunt – BioSolutions Conference & Expo

4 November, 2022
 

Josiah Hunt, CEO of Pacific Biochar, began a career focused on biochar in 2008, pioneering methods for biochar production, processing, and application in farming systems using organic and biological approaches. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in agroecology and environmental quality from the University of Hawaii, Hilo in 2004. In 2013, he was named an advisor to the International Biochar Initiative.

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Methodology for Biochar Utilization in Soil and Non-Soil Applications – Verra

4 November, 2022
 

13. Waste handling and disposal

Under Development

Biochar is a carbon-rich, solid material made from feedstock biomass that offers compelling climate benefits. When incorporated into soils, it is 10 to 100 times more stable than the feedstock from which it was produced, and a substantial amount of biochar’s organic carbon will persist in soil for decades to millennia. Biochar also offers environmental and agricultural benefits such as nutrient retention, improved water holding capacity, and increased aeration.

The methodology provides a framework for quantifying emission reductions and removals from:

On 10 August, Verra hosted a webinar to introduce the proposed methodology.

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Verra is a nonprofit organization that operates standards in environmental and social markets, including the world’s leading carbon crediting program, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Program.

© 2022 Verra All rights reserved


VM0044 Methodology for Biochar Utilization in Soil and Non-Soil Applications, v1.0 – Verra

4 November, 2022
 

13. Waste handling and disposal

Approved 12 August 2022

This methodology quantifies the biochar carbon removals resulting from the adoption of improved waste handling and disposal of waste biomass (i.e., the conversion of waste biomass into biochar) at new biochar production facilities; future versions may include purpose grown feedstocks and/or biochar production at existing facilities. The greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits are credited only for biochar that is utilized in eligible soil and non-soil applications which include crop- and grasslands and emerging non-soil products such as biochar-amended concrete and building materials. This methodology is applicable globally and utilizes a standardized activity method for determining additionally. 

Additional Resource:

This methodology was open for public comment from 10 August 2021 until 8 September 2021. Public comments are closed.

Various organizations

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Verra is a nonprofit organization that operates standards in environmental and social markets, including the world’s leading carbon crediting program, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Program.

© 2022 Verra All rights reserved


California Congressman Josh Harder's FARM Bill Could Revolutionize The Central Valley's …

4 November, 2022
 

Farming gets a bad rap when it comes to climate change. From extensive land and water use to greenhouse gas emissions and runoff from factory animal farming facilities – it appears that the agriculture sector is in serious need of modernization to improve its sustainability. California’s leadership is rising to the challenge: last year, Representative Josh Harder reintroduced his Future of Agricultural Resiliency and Modernization (FARM) Act aimed to help farmers across the country more effectively fight climate change. The initiative focuses on improving farming practices and establishing a pyrolysis grant program.

Climate-conscious consumers have been switching to plant-based products to reduce their environmental impact. But a plant-based diet is not a panacea for climate change. For instance, it requires 20 gallons of water to produce a single cup of almond milk. To put it in context, it is still much less than the amount of water required to produce cow milk. But for drought-stricken California, every drop counts:

“As extreme heat, drought, devastating wildfires, intense flooding, and more violent storms ravage our country and communities across the world, the need for aggressive, comprehensive climate action has never been more urgent,” said Madeleine Foote, Deputy Legislative Director for the League of Conservation Voters in a press release. “Rep. Harder’s FARM Act is an important piece to solving the climate crisis by acknowledging the critical role farmers, farm workers, and the agricultural sector must play in tackling climate change.”

In addition to heavy water use, the almond industry produces a lot of waste in the form of shells and husks. These materials are typically discarded and burned. Not only is it wasteful, but it contributes to greenhouse gas emissions by putting all the carbon sequestered and stored in plant matter back into our atmosphere. The current practices call for innovation to help convert biomass into something useful. A company called Corigin Solutions has partnered up with Central Valley farmers and the state government to provide a solution to this problem – by converting almond refuse into useful material called biochar.

Biochar is produced by burning agricultural byproducts in the absence of oxygen, a process called pyrolysis. Unlike the wildfires that have devastated the state over the last few years, this process is carried out in a controlled way inside a specialized facility. And unlike the traditional agricultural burning that produces harmful air pollutants and releases carbon dioxide, pyrolysis actually allows for carbon capture. On top of it, farmers can put biochar back into the soil to enhance its health and crop yields.

“It holds nutrients, it holds moisture, and it increases the soil’s fertility,” explained Mike Woelk, CEO of Corigin Solutions. Biochar may also help drive down the costs of fertilizer by reducing the amount of synthetic nutrients that have to be added to soil to grow crops. Another product of pyrolysis is a liquid concentrate called pyroligneous acid, which provides beneficial organic compounds that enhance plant growth. The final component is syngas – a mixture of methane, hydrogen gas, carbon monoxide, and dioxide – which can also be put to good use with biotechnology. That’s right: the same substance that is responsible for the greenhouse effect can be converted into value-added products by microorganisms that feed on it.

An Illinois synthetic biology company LanzaTech has developed a carbon upcycling technology that uses syngas as a feedstock for production of ethylene, ethanol, fragrance ingredients, and even shoes and yoga pants. The biotech company is able to capture gas from industrial emission and use it to make virtually anything – from materials and chemicals to flavors and fragrances – using engineered microbes. LanzaTech has partnered with athletic apparel company lululemon to create a carbon-neutral fabric similar to the proprietary material used for its leggings. The waste-gas-derived polyester has the same appearance and functionality as virgin polyester but comes with the great feeling of knowing your yoga pants are eco-friendly.

Last year, Representative Harder passed the Pyrolysis Innovation Grants Act. The bill will invest $5 million each year through 2027 in pyrolysis programs to help farmers convert nut shells into fuels and other valuable commodities instead of openly burning them. This program provides a stream of green income for farmers in the Valley, improves air quality, and creates new high-paying jobs. “And here’s the best part: You can’t ship half a billion pounds of nut shells to China, so our communities right here in America will reap the rewards for investments in this tech ten and a hundred times over,” said Congressman Harder during an Agriculture Committee meeting last year.

This initiative is part of a bigger push to establish a circular bioeconomy in California. The vision is to create an ecosystem for bio-based innovation and implement bio-based strategies to convert wastes to carbon-neutral and carbon-negative fuels and products. Caribou Biofuels, Scaled Power, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), State University of New York (SUNY), and the Berkeley Energy and Resources (BEAR) are collaborating on a CalFire grant project to develop and deploy a Mobile Biomass Harvester and Conversion Unit, which is essentially a portable pyrolysis facility. Blake Simmons, Division Director of Biological Systems at LBNL, has been spearheading the effort to process agricultural waste in Central California.

“The CalFire project is scheduled to be delivered in the first quarter of 2023 and will be deployed in the Tahoe region. It will be capable of converting 500-800 pounds per hour [of agricultural waste] into power, green gasoline, and biochar,” said Simmons. After the demo project gets off the ground, the goal is to build more units and deploy them throughout the state. The consortium working on this project has had discussions with food processors and waste facilities in the Central Valley (and beyond) to build and deploy larger units capable of processing up to 2 tons per hour that will be optimized for converting different types of waste streams.

All these initiatives come together to create a circular economy and help support regions that are in need of economic stimulation, like California’s Central Valley. I have previously talked about establishing the Bio-Belt program to infuse strategic investment in biotechnology into rural America. And technology like the CA Mobile Biomass Harvester and Conversion Unit could be the missing piece. Biomanufacturing relies heavily on the availability of cheap feedstocks, so it makes sense to build biotech facilities closer to where the source crops are grown and processed. This will not only help utilize the resources in a more efficient manner but also bring talent and innovation to the agricultural belts of the USA.

Fighting climate change requires a multipronged approach that includes implementing process improvements in agriculture, waste processing solutions, and upcycling those waste streams via biotechnology. California has long been the center of innovation when it comes to biotechnology and is now also leading the way for sustainable agriculture and waste processing:

“The FARM Act is poised to create high-paying jobs in agricultural communities like mine while improving our environment and opening up new streams of revenue for our farmers. When folks think of California innovation fifty years from now, they’ll think about the Central Valley and our leadership in 21st-century biotechnology,” said Representative Harder.

Let’s hope this idea spreads like a wildfire.

Thank you to Katia Tarasava for additional research and reporting on this article. I’m the founder of SynBioBeta, and some of the companies that I write about, such as LanzaTech, are sponsors of the SynBioBeta conference and weekly digest.


Conversion of Pyrolysis Products into Volatile Fatty Acids with a Biochar … – ACS Publications

4 November, 2022
 


Conversion of Pyrolysis Products into Volatile Fatty Acids with a Biochar … – ACS Publications

4 November, 2022
 


Effects of Biochar on the C Use Efficiency of Soil Microbial Communities – MDPI

4 November, 2022
 

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Giagnoni, L.; Renella, G. Effects of Biochar on the C Use Efficiency of Soil Microbial Communities: Components and Mechanisms. Environments 2022, 9, 138. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9110138

Giagnoni L, Renella G. Effects of Biochar on the C Use Efficiency of Soil Microbial Communities: Components and Mechanisms. Environments. 2022; 9(11):138. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9110138

Giagnoni, Laura, and Giancarlo Renella. 2022. “Effects of Biochar on the C Use Efficiency of Soil Microbial Communities: Components and Mechanisms” Environments 9, no. 11: 138. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9110138

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Use of Biochar Prepared from the Açaí Seed as Adsorbent for the Uptake of Catechol from … – MDPI

4 November, 2022
 

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Feitoza, U.d.S.; Thue, P.S.; Lima, E.C.; dos Reis, G.S.; Rabiee, N.; de Alencar, W.S.; Mello, B.L.; Dehmani, Y.; Rinklebe, J.; Dias, S.L.P. Use of Biochar Prepared from the Açaí Seed as Adsorbent for the Uptake of Catechol from Synthetic Effluents. Molecules 2022, 27, 7570. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217570

Feitoza UdS, Thue PS, Lima EC, dos Reis GS, Rabiee N, de Alencar WS, Mello BL, Dehmani Y, Rinklebe J, Dias SLP. Use of Biochar Prepared from the Açaí Seed as Adsorbent for the Uptake of Catechol from Synthetic Effluents. Molecules. 2022; 27(21):7570. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217570

Feitoza, Uendel dos Santos, Pascal S. Thue, Eder C. Lima, Glaydson S. dos Reis, Navid Rabiee, Wagner S. de Alencar, Beatris L. Mello, Younes Dehmani, Jörg Rinklebe, and Silvio L. P. Dias. 2022. “Use of Biochar Prepared from the Açaí Seed as Adsorbent for the Uptake of Catechol from Synthetic Effluents” Molecules 27, no. 21: 7570. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217570

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Effect of Biochar on the Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant System and Cadmium Content … – MDPI

4 November, 2022
 

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Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Jiang, W.; Xu, L.; Liu, Y.; Su, W.; Yan, J.; Xu, D. Effect of Biochar on the Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant System and Cadmium Content of Mentha piperita ‘Chocolate’ and Mentha spicata in Cadmium-Contaminated Soil. Agronomy 2022, 12, 2737. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112737

Jiang W, Xu L, Liu Y, Su W, Yan J, Xu D. Effect of Biochar on the Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant System and Cadmium Content of Mentha piperita ‘Chocolate’ and Mentha spicata in Cadmium-Contaminated Soil. Agronomy. 2022; 12(11):2737. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112737

Jiang, Wantong, Lingxin Xu, Yule Liu, Wenxin Su, Junxin Yan, and Dawei Xu. 2022. “Effect of Biochar on the Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant System and Cadmium Content of Mentha piperita ‘Chocolate’ and Mentha spicata in Cadmium-Contaminated Soil” Agronomy 12, no. 11: 2737. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112737

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Synthesis of biochar using brewery waste for efficient adsorption of ionic iron species

4 November, 2022
 

Biochar from agro-industrial residues has been reported as an excellent adsorbent material for metal ions due to its physical–chemical characteristics and he low cost of raw material. In this work, the synthesis and activation pathways of biochar produced from brewery waste and its capacity to adsorb iron ions in aqueous solutions were investigated. The synthesis was performed by pyrolysis in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Biochar was chemically activated using solutions of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, and calcium chloride. The biochar samples as well as the raw material were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and determination of the surface area and total pore volume by adsorption of N2 (BET) with the aim of evaluating the physicochemical changes in the material. The biochar activated by NaOH (B-NaOH) had the highest Fe adsorption capacity, followed by B-CaCl2, brewery waste (BW), raw biochar (RB), and B-HCl. Pyrolysis increased the surface area and pore volume of all biochar compared to the in natura sample (0.108 m2/g), with emphasis on the RB (0.832 m2/g) and B-NaOH samples (1067 m2/g). The maximum adsorption capacity of Fe2+ was obtained for B-NaOH (q = 21.5 mg/g) with 2 g/L of sample, 16 h of contact, and neutral pH. The Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted the experimental equilibrium data obtained for B-NaOH sample (R2 > 0.960). The kinetic curves showed equilibrium conditions after 300 min, and the pseudo-second-order model presented a better correlation with the data for all curves (R2 > 0.998). Biochars produced in this study can be effectively applied in processes involving iron ion removal.

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The datasets used or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

This work is sponsored by Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), IPARQUE/IDT and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES/Brazil). Maria Alice P. Cechinel has financial support from the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq/Brazil) (process n. 350509/2022–0).

Maria Alice P. Cechinel: conceptualization, methodology, writing—original draft, supervision. Eduardo Junca: project administration, funding acquisition. Kênia M. dos Santos: investigation, formal analysis. Andressa C. Rostirolla: investigation, formal analysis.

Correspondence to Maria Alice P. Cechinel.

Not applicable. The study has no data collected from human subjects.

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All authors have approved and agreed to publish the paper in Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Received: 10 August 2022

Revised: 24 October 2022

Accepted: 25 October 2022

Published: 04 November 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-022-03495-w

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Insights into the mechanism of tar reforming using biochar as a catalyst – Fingerprint

4 November, 2022
 

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Canadian VER investor teams up with Maine biochar developer – Sendeco2

4 November, 2022
 

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Effect of Biochar on the Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant System and Cadmium Content … – MDPI

4 November, 2022
 

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Performance and mechanisms of biochar-assisted vermicomposting in accelerating di-(2 …

5 November, 2022
 

Biochar and earthworms can accelerate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) degradation in soils. However, little is known regarding the effect of biochar-assisted vermicomposting on soil DEHP degradation and the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated DEHP degradation performance and bacterial community changes in farmland soils using earthworms, biochar, or their combination. Biochar-assisted vermicomposting significantly improved DEHP degradation through initial physical adsorption on biochar and subsequent rapid biodegradation in the soil, earthworm gut, and charosphere. Burkholderiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae were the potential DEHP degraders and were enriched in biochar-assisted vermicomposting. In particularly, Burkholderiaceae and Sphingomonadaceae were enriched in the earthworm gut and charosphere, possibly explaining the mechanism of accelerated DEHP degradation in biochar-assisted vermicomposting. Soil pH, soil organic matter, and humus (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin) increased by earthworms or biochar enhanced DEHP degradation. These findings imply that biochar-assisted vermicomposting enhances DEHP removal not only through rapid physical sorption but also through the improvement of soil physicochemical characteristics and promotion of degraders in the soil, earthworm gut, and charosphere. Overall, biochar-assisted vermicomposting is a suitable method for the remediation of organic-contaminated farmland soils.


Knowledge Co. is considering the acquisition of a production process that will produce a … – Chegg

5 November, 2022
 

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5 November, 2022
 

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Synthesis, Characterization and Sorption Properties of Biochar, Chitosan and ZnO-Based …

5 November, 2022
 

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Roy, H.; Islam, M.S.; Arifin, M.T.; Firoz, S.H. Synthesis, Characterization and Sorption Properties of Biochar, Chitosan and ZnO-Based Binary Composites towards a Cationic Dye. Sustainability 2022, 14, 14571. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114571

Roy H, Islam MS, Arifin MT, Firoz SH. Synthesis, Characterization and Sorption Properties of Biochar, Chitosan and ZnO-Based Binary Composites towards a Cationic Dye. Sustainability. 2022; 14(21):14571. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114571

Roy, Hridoy, Md. Shahinoor Islam, Mohammad Tanvir Arifin, and Shakhawat H. Firoz. 2022. “Synthesis, Characterization and Sorption Properties of Biochar, Chitosan and ZnO-Based Binary Composites towards a Cationic Dye” Sustainability 14, no. 21: 14571. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114571

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Effects of Rice Husk Biochar on Nitrogen Leaching from Vegetable Soils by 15 N Tracing Approach

5 November, 2022
 

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Ding, Y.; Zhu, S.; Pan, R.; Bu, J.; Liu, Y.; Ding, A. Effects of Rice Husk Biochar on Nitrogen Leaching from Vegetable Soils by 15N Tracing Approach. Water 2022, 14, 3563. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213563

Ding Y, Zhu S, Pan R, Bu J, Liu Y, Ding A. Effects of Rice Husk Biochar on Nitrogen Leaching from Vegetable Soils by 15N Tracing Approach. Water. 2022; 14(21):3563. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213563

Ding, Ying, Siyu Zhu, Run Pan, Jiangping Bu, Yong Liu, and Aifang Ding. 2022. “Effects of Rice Husk Biochar on Nitrogen Leaching from Vegetable Soils by 15N Tracing Approach” Water 14, no. 21: 3563. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213563

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asia pacific biochar conference 2022 – Viajes 360 Marruecos

5 November, 2022
 

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Activated Biochar Is an Effective Technique for Arsenic Removal from Contaminated … – EconPapers

5 November, 2022
 

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Iftikhar Ahmad (Obfuscate( ‘cuivehari.edu.pk’, ‘iftikharahmad’ )), Abdul Ghaffar, Ali Zakir, Zia Ul Haq Khan, Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Atta Rasool, Aftab Jamal (Obfuscate( ‘gmail.com’, ‘aftabses98’ )), Adil Mihoub, Simone Marzeddu and Maria Rosaria Boni
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Iftikhar Ahmad: Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
Abdul Ghaffar: Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
Ali Zakir: Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
Zia Ul Haq Khan: Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
Muhammad Farhan Saeed: Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
Atta Rasool: Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
Aftab Jamal: Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Crop Production Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar 25130, Pakistan
Adil Mihoub: Center for Scientific and Technical Research on Arid Regions, Biophysical Environment Station, Touggourt 30240, Algeria
Simone Marzeddu: Department of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering (DICEA), Faculty of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy
Maria Rosaria Boni: Department of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering (DICEA), Faculty of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy

Sustainability, 2022, vol. 14, issue 21, 1-20

Abstract: Arsenic (As), the silent poison, is a widespread environmental pollutant which finds its way into drinking water supplies from natural or man-made sources and affects over 200 million people worldwide, including in Pakistan. It has been demonstrated that As causes serious health complications as well as social and economic losses. A quick, cost-effective, and simple method for efficiently filtering As from drinking water is urgently needed. The present study evaluates the ability of chemical treatment solutions to activate the sorption capacity of biochar derived from cotton stalks. The surface characteristics of CSB (cotton stalk biochar), HN-CSB (treated with nitric acid: HNO 3 ), and Na-CSB (treated with sodium hydroxide: NaOH) were investigated for their As sorption capacities and efficiency in removing As from contaminated drinking water. The chemical modification of biochar significantly increased the surface area and pore volume of CSB, with a maximum observed in HN-CSB (three times higher than CSB). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed several functional groups (OH − , −COOH, C=O, N-H) on CSB, though the chemical modification of biochar creates new functional groups on its surface. Results showed that the maximum sorption capacity of CSB was (q = 90 µg g −1 ), of Na-CSB was (q = 124 µg g −1 ) and of HN-CSB was (q = 140 µg g −1 ) at an initial As concentration of 200 µg L −1 , an adsorbent dose of 1 g L −1 , with 4 h of contact time, a pH of 6 and a temperature of 25 ʰC. However, As removal was found to be 45–88% for CSB, 62–94% for Na-CSB and 67–95% for HN-CSB across all As concentrations. An isotherm model showed that As sorption results were best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model in the case of CSB (Q max = 103 µg g −1 , R 2 = 0.993), Na-CSB (Q max = 151 µg g −1 , R 2 = 0.991), and HN-CSB (Q max = 157 µg g −1 , R 2 = 0.949). The development of the largest surface area, a porous structure, and new functional groups on the surface of HN-CSB proved to be an effective treatment for As removal from contaminated drinking water. Both HN-CSB and Na-CSB are clearly cost-effective adsorbents under laboratory conditions, but HN-CSB is cheaper and more efficient in As removal than Na-CSB, allowing it to be used as a powerful and promising adsorbent for the removal of pollutants like Arsenic from aqueous solution.

Keywords: arsenic; biochar; drinking water; human welfare; modification; remediation; Punjab (Vehari) (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O13 Q Q0 Q2 Q3 Q5 Q56 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2022
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Bio-oil and biochar as additional revenue streams in South American Kraft pulp mills

5 November, 2022
 

LUT University

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Sekam bakar (Burnt rice husk biochar) – Shopee Malaysia

5 November, 2022
 

 


Highly efficient removal of thallium in wastewater by MnFe2O4-biochar composite

5 November, 2022
 


中国教育图书进出口有限公司

5 November, 2022
 

[期刊论文][research article]

出版年:2020

D  O  I:10.1021/acsami.9b20924

Oil spills causemassive loss of aquatic life. Oil spill cleanup can be very expensive,have secondary environmental impacts, or be difficult to implement.This study employed five different adsorbents: (1) commercially availablebyproduct Douglas fir biochar (BC) (SA ~ 695 m2/g,pore volume ~ 0.26 cm3/g, and pore diameter ~13–19.5 ?); (2) BC modified with lauric acid (LBC); (3)iron oxide-modified biochar (MBC); (4) LBC modified with iron oxide(LMBC); and (5) MBC modified with lauric acid (MLBC) for oil recovery.Transmission, engine, machine, and crude oils were used to simulateoil spills and perform adsorption experiments. All five adsorbentsadsorbed large quantities of each oil in fresh and simulated seawaterwith only a slight pH dependence, fast kinetics (sorptive equilibriumreached before 15 min), and high regression fits to the pseudo-second-orderkinetic model. The Sips isotherm model oil sorption capacities forthese sorbents were in the range ~3–11 g oil/1 g adsorbent.Lauric acid-decorated (60–2 wt %) biochars gave higher oiladsorption capacities than the undecorated biochar. Lauric acid enhancesbiochar hydrophobicity and its water contact angle and reduces waterinflux into biochar’s porosity preventing it from sinking inwater for 3 weeks. These features were observed even at 2% wt of lauricacid (sinks only after 2 weeks). Magnetization by magnetite nanoparticledeposition onto BC and LBC allows the recovery of the exhausted adsorbentby a magnetic field as an alternative to filtration. Oil sorptionwas endothermic. Recycling was demonstrated after toluene stripping.The oil-laden adsorbents’ heating values were obtained, suggestingan alternative use of these spent adsorbents as a low-cost fuel afterrecovery, avoiding waste disposal costs. The initial and oil-ladenadsorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmissionelectron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmet–Tellersurface area, contact angle, thermogravimetric analyses, differentialscanning calorimetry, vibrating sample magnetometry, elemental analysis,and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

adsorption;magnetite;lauric acid;biochar;oil spill

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Electromagnetic interference shielding behavior of flexible PVA composite of tunicated …

6 November, 2022
 

This study aims to investigate the effect of adding tunicated onion bulb biochar and Co hybrid particles on PVA composites reinforced with chopped carbon fiber in EMI shielding performance. In this study, the composite films were produced by solution casting and characterized according to appropriate ASTM standards. Results revealed that the increase in particles vol.% from 1 to 5 exhibits the maximum magnetization, retentivity, and coercivity of 1144 emu, 1026 emu, and 9016 G for the composite designation PVA4 at 5 vol.% of hybrid particles. However, the 5 vol.% of hybrid particle and 30 vol.% of fiber in the composite improved the dielectric constant and loss up to 394% and 531%, when compared with pure PVA. Moreover, a maximum tensile strength of 78 MPa with a % of elongation of 84 is observed for the composite PVA3, which contains 30vol.% of fiber and 3vol.% of hybrid Co-biochar particle. Similarly, the maximum total shielding effect of − 51.3 dB is found for composite designation PVA4 at Ku band. From SEM fractography, it is noted that the presence of particles along with fiber increased the toughness and wavy microstructure. These high EMI shielding ability flexible composite materials could be used in electronic gadgets and telecommunication sectors.

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All data available in the manuscript itself.

Babu M—conceptualization, design, research conduct.

Anusha N—conceptualization and drafting of manuscript.

Tapas Babu B R—conceptualization and drafting of manuscript.

Yuvaraj R—Drafting support.

Correspondence to M. Babu.

Not applicable.

The authors declare no competing interests.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Received: 05 May 2022

Revised: 18 October 2022

Accepted: 24 October 2022

Published: 04 November 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-022-03489-8

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Article Versions Notes – MDPI

6 November, 2022
 

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Georgia Bulldogs undisputed … but is Bama done, done? Brian Kelly stakes his … – Newstrail.com

6 November, 2022
 

By John Brice Bulldogs, Buckeyes, Wolverines and … Vols? Horned Frogs? Tigahs? The ‘Game of the Century,’ the undisputed biggest home game in the history of Sanford Stadium and Georgia Bulldogs football never materialized. Kirby Smart’s Georgia squad was too good to allow any semblance of threat from a Tennessee team that’s zoomed from the sport’s dregs to its upper tier. View the original article to see embedded media. Still, the Bulldogs proved themselves not only as the defending champions but as the frontrunner yet again in 2022 — especially as Alabama’s season was laid to waste. The Ti…

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The woodworking circular saw blades market is projected to reach a valuation of US$ 68.3 Mn by the end of 2029, as per the latest report by

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Biochar From Biomass and Waste by Yong Sik Ok , Daniel C.W. Tsang , Nanthi Bolan … – Reddit

6 November, 2022
 


Synthesis and application of chicken manure biochar as an effective nanoporous adsorbent …

6 November, 2022
 

Biochar is an appropriate and value-added strategy for treating heavy metal-contaminated water in urban and industrial wastewaters. In this study, an innovative precursor based on chicken manure is used to produce biochar for As(III) removal. The modified biochar (MBC) was fabricated by the pyrolysis process and characterized by FT-IR, SEM, EDS, and TG-DTA analyses. Subsequently, the effect of pH, contact time, dosage of nanoadsorbent, and recycle performances have been studied for As(III) removal from wastewater. The results revealed that the optimum condition to achieve high adsorption capacity (98% As(III) removal) is at 1.5 g L−1 adsorbent dose, pH ~ 7.8, and during 300 min, as well as MBC was capable to use and recycle at least 10 times without considerable adsorption reduction, confirming the high stability of the nanoadsorbent in the exposure of wastewaters. Finally, a possible adsorption mechanism is proposed based on ion-exchange and the participation of electrostatic attractions of hydroxyl and carbonate groups.

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The authors declare that all data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article.

This work has not been sponsored by any organization.

Correspondence to Ahmad Tavasoli.

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Received: 14 July 2022

Accepted: 29 October 2022

Published: 06 November 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-022-02686-6

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Sunniva Sheffield '23 | Oberlin College and Conservatory

6 November, 2022
 

Sunniva Sheffield (she/her) is majoring in Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Environmental Studies. She is conducting mentored research under Professor John Petersen. Her project is titled “An Experiment Comparing Biochar Effects on Root, Shoot, and Fruit Production in Beans, Tomatoes, and Willows".

Please describe your project: 

Biochar is charcoal produced by the anaerobic combustion of biomass. When made from agricultural waste and applied to soils, it has the potential to both sequester carbon and increase soil fertility. Prior studies have documented a positive response of plants to biochar. However, the effects of biochar are variable across different biochar source materials, and soil types. This makes it challenging to generalize from previous research. Using a single source of biochar (hazelnut wood) and identical soil, we compared the effects of different levels of soil biochar on different plant tissues (root, shoot, and fruit) in three distinct species: cherry tomatoes, bush beans, and hybrid willow saplings.     

A brief summary (the elevator speech) of your research project:

Biochar is a special type of charcoal produced through the anaerobic combustion of biomass. Our research aimed to better understand how a single source of biochar might impact different tissues in distinct plant types, cherry tomatoes, green beans, and hybrid willows. We have documented significant increases in fruit, shoot, and root biomass with increases in soil biochar, with the highest biomass levels produced in the 26% treatment.

Why is your research important?

Today, biochar is advanced as a mechanism for sequestering carbon to address climate change while concurrently increasing soil fertility and thereby addressing the food needs of a growing population. In general, biochar is promoted for its capacity to: increase cation exchange capacity (CEC); increase base cation saturation, decrease bulk density, increase moisture retention, and increase pH which all improve plant growth. Biochar can be used in both agricultural settings to reduce the need to use fertilizers as well as a carbon sequestration method.    

What does the process of doing your research look like?

Throughout the summer and the fall I water the plants, measure their growth and do any maintenance. During the fall and winter I then start to process the plants through cutting their roots and shoots and measuring their dried weight, length, and running nutrient analysis on the soil and some of the leaf tissues. During the winter and fall I also do all of the data analysis using Rstudio and Excel and write!

What knowledge has your research contributed to your field?

We found a highly significant positive relationship between the amount of biochar added to the soil and plant biomass in all species but differences among species, with no significant difference in overall response between species. Tomatoes were the only species to exhibit significant differences in response in different plant tissues; fruit and shoot biomass increased significantly with biochar, root tissue did not. Bean germination increased significantly with biochar concentration. Date of first flowering was earlier with increasing soil biochar in beans but not in tomatoes. Control over both sources of biochar and soil composition in this experiment expands our understanding that biochar has different impacts on different plants and, in some cases, species-specific impacts on different plant tissues and other measures of fertility. Our results were contrary to research that found inhibiting effects of biochar at levels comparable to our 20% treatment. This study was conducted in a highly organic soil with hazelnut wood biochar; further research that controls for soil type and biochar source is necessary to determine the extent to which our findings apply for other biochar sources in other soil types and for other species of plants.

In what ways have you showcased your research?

Yale School of the Environment New Horizons Conference – 4/2022

Ecological Society of America and Canadian Society for Ecology and the Environment Annual Conference – 8/2022

Working on two papers now to submit for publication.

How did you get involved in research? What drove you to want to seek out research experiences in college?

I have always wanted to be a researcher; I always loved the lab sections of classes and so when I realized it was something I could do I started to contact professors on how I could get involved.

What is your favorite aspect of the research process?

I love seeing how my ideas or hypotheses change. I love watching a research idea blossom and turn into hours of work and analysis and real results. It is so cool when you see differences in your variables and the data proving what you thought or did not think would happen.

How has working with your mentor impacted the development of your research project? How has it impacted you as a researcher?     

I feel like I have become a more mature researcher who is able to figure out how to make a research project happen from scratch. John has allowed me to have the independence to work and decide things on my own while also always being a great mentor and providing support when I need it. A lot of things I had to figure out and learn on my own which has been super helpful. I feel prepared to take on grad school and other research projects after this.

How has the research you’ve conducted contributed to your professional or academic development?   

I really want to go into ecology and environmental science now as a career. Before I was not sure what I wanted to do after graduating, but now I feel excited and am applying to graduate schools to continue learning and researching in the field I am passionate and curious about.

What advice would you give to a younger student wanting to get involved in research in your field?      

Go into the professor’s office and ask questions about their research! Get to know them and make a connection. Show your interest and curiosity and ask how you could get involved.

 

Oberlin has separate application processes for the College of Arts and Sciences and the Conservatory of Music.

You have exceptional musical talent and intellectual enthusiasm.
We have a place just for you.


Enhanced adsorption of phosphate from pickling wastewater by Fe-N co-pyrolysis biochar

6 November, 2022
 

Reference Number: 7664285aca563068

IP Address: 192.252.149.25

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Bradley Mannis on LinkedIn: #ReclaimEarth

7 November, 2022
 

Bradley Mannis


New iron reduction technology targets low emissions steel | Mirage News

7 November, 2022
 

On behalf of the Australian Government, the Australian Renewable Energy Agency has today announced $947,035 in funding to Calix Limited (ASX:CXL) to evaluate the feasibility of a low emissions method for reducing iron.

A $1.96 million pre-Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) and FEED study will scope the design for a proposed demonstration scale Hydrogen Direct Reduced Iron (HDRI) production plant utilising Calix’s proprietary Zero Emissions Steel Technology (ZESTY).

Calix’s proposed demonstration plant would be capable of producing 30,000 tonnes each year of HDRI as a feedstock for steel production.

The majority of global steel production uses carbon intensive blast furnace technology that requires coking coal at numerous stages of the production process.

HDRI is a suitable feedstock for electric arc furnaces, which produce steel using only electricity. When powered by renewables, electric arc furnaces can reduce the emissions from this stage of the process to virtually zero.

Electric arc furnace steel plants today generally use Direct Reduced Iron produced with natural gas. HDRI can use renewable hydrogen to eliminate the need for natural gas and cut emissions from iron reduction.

The process builds on Calix’s existing Calix Flash Calciner technology that is used for a variety of industrial processes.

As the world’s largest producer of iron ore, Australia is uniquely positioned to reduce emissions from the steel value chain.

Reducing emissions from metals production is a strategic priority for ARENA, with a focus on decarbonising the steel and aluminium value chains.

ARENA has previously supported Australian steel manufacturer BlueScope to investigate reducing emissions from the Port Kembla Steelworks using biochar or renewable hydrogen.

ARENA CEO Darren Miller said that ZESTY is a prime example of Australian innovation helping tackle global challenges.

“Decarbonising heavy industries like steel is a big challenge, and a big opportunity, and ARENA is looking to support companies like Calix that are developing potential solutions,” Mr Miller said.

“For Australia and the world to meet our net zero targets, we’ll need to develop new ways of making materials the world relies on.

Steel is among the most carbon intensive industries, accounting for more than seven per cent of global CO2-e emissions, and Australia is well positioned to be a leader in this space.

With abundant renewable energy resources and the world’s largest iron ore deposits, we have a unique opportunity to decarbonise an industry that is critical to the global economy.

We’re looking forward to the outcomes of this study and hope to see ZESTY play an important role in the future of Australian iron and steel.” he said.

Calix is an Australian company established in 2005 that offers flash calcination and kiln technology used for more sustainable high temperature processing of minerals and chemicals.

The ZESTY pre-FEED / FEED Study is due to be completed in late 2023 and will inform Calix’s decision whether to proceed with the demonstration plant.


Thesis Defense: Abigayl Novak – Graduate School – The University of Maine

7 November, 2022
 

Abigayl Novak, a candidate for Master of Science in Forestry, will be defending her thesis titled, “Influence of Biochar as a Soil Amendment on Soil Qualities and Wild Blueberry’s Physiology.”

Zoom meeting:

For the Zoom link and password, please contact Abigayl Novak at abigayl.novak@maine.edu


This week, we are joined by Kathleen Draper, board chair of the International Biochar … – Reddit

7 November, 2022
 


Kilifi County Farmers Sensitized on Biochar Production – PlantVillage

7 November, 2022
 

Farmers in various areas in Kilifi including Kizingitini, Arabuko Sokoke, Sosoni Mzee wa Zaidi and others were recently trained on biochar production and drought management. The training aimed at ensuring farmers enhance soil fertility and productivity as they prepare for the next farming season.

Kizingitini Farmers Field School during biochar training.

Speaking during the Kizingitini Farmers Field School meeting, Ms. Veronicah Achungo, an agronomist from Dream Team, urged the farmers to embrace the use of biochar since it is organic and does not contain chemicals. “Biochar is cheap since the process of making it does not incur any cost, one can make it using dry coconut husks, maize stalks and other crop residues,’’ she said.

Ms. Achungo also stated that biochar can store carbon in the soil for 1000 years increasing soil fertility and productivity. “Biochar retains water therefore once you use it in your farms it will help in intensifying soil moisture,” she stated. She also advised farmers to undertake the process of making biochar away from their farms to not harm other soil nutrients.

Kilifi County Lead Ms. Mercilyn Tsuma addresses farmes in Arabuko Sokoke.

“You can charge biochar using organic manure such as animal waste,” stated Ms. Mercilyn Tsuma, Lead Kilifi County while training farmers in Arabuko Sokoke. She also added that once charged, biochar should be stored in a cool area away from sunlight for it to absorb the manure. Ms. Tsuma further encouraged the farmers to use biochar while preparing their farms and during top dressing.

Mr. Allan Nzaro, Lead farmer Kizingitini area commended PlantVillage for being a trustworthy organization and urged his fellow farmers to join the organization to enhance food security. Ms. Janet Mbitha a small-scale farmer in Arabuko Sokoke attested that she used biochar while planting trees on her farm and they are healthy compared to her neighbor’s farm.

Farmers in Arabuko Sokoke being trained on the process of making biochar.

“I thank PlantVillage for providing knowledge to us. Through the training offered we can start making biochar in preparation for the long rains season,” said Mr. Samuel Safari a farmer in Arabuko Sokoke. He further encouraged other farmers to embrace biochar since it does not affect plants.

Farmers in the region were also trained on agroforestry and drought management as additional practices to mitigate the ravaging drought affecting the county.

By Emmy Neema.

 

 


Nitrogen-doped Biochar Encapsulated Fe/Mn Nanoparticles As Cost-effective Catalysts For …

7 November, 2022
 

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Cellulose Nanofibers/Engineered Biochar Hybrid Materials as Biodegradable Coating for …

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Biochar Market 2022 Latest Trends | Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt …

7 November, 2022
 

The high-level analysis of the global Biochar Market report covers the current market status, competition, and strategic measures. The report also includes several classifications, industrial chain studies, advanced applications, and the general competitive environment. In addition, the global Biochar industry provides comprehensive information on cutting-edge technology, industry experts, top businesses, development, use, and market conditions. The global Biochar market report contains historical data, future estimates, and market size for a global context. The Biochar market analysis includes vendor supply chain strategies, output patterns, and industry divisions. Similarly, market research on Biochar evaluates the worlds top competitors and provides a full picture of the competitive structure.

The Biochar research includes thorough information on leading industry participants as well as their global market strategies. The global Biochar market research report looks at present competition and future opportunities in a rigorous and complete approach.

Free Sample Report + All Related Graphs & Charts @ https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/698?utm_source=PTK7

Leading players of Biochar Market including:

Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House, Anaerob Systems, Algae AquaCulture Technologies, CECEP Golden Mountain Agricultural Science And Technology, EarthSpring Biochar/Biochar Central, Energy Management Concept, 3R Environmental Technology Group and Renargi

The research study also includes information on industry segments, new businesses, competitive evaluations, the market position, and current events in the global Biochar sector. The Biochar research examines new market dynamics, including patterns, challenges, current risks, driving forces, and market trends. However, these aspects are taken into account when predicting the global Biochar markets growth. In a Biochar market analysis, Porters Five Forces Analysis is commonly utilized to examine and quantify the current industry climate. This research study also provides precise information and the most recent primary expansions on the major leaders in terms of the regional situation.

The global Biochar market research study combines primary as well as secondary methods to assist clients understand the most essential requests fast. Throughout the investigation, the research study delivers accurate sector dynamics and growth factors that can improve industry profitability. Similarly, the studys conclusions were founded on sound research assumptions and processes. This research study looks at the major rivals industry, sales, and product portfolios by product, region, and application, as well as a competitive study.

The global Biochar industry research studys quantitative market structure information comprises major companies, regional share analysis, and service providers. The study gives a short overview of significant industry acquisitions and partnerships throughout the anticipated period. In addition, the research examines how major corporations compete on pricing, product portfolio, product, geographical presence, economic status, and growth strategy. The research looks into global Biochar market opportunities. To examine the segments in the global market study, the global Biochar market research includes industry data such as cost, sales, regional growth, share, and revenue analysis. The competitive situation and techniques of significant competitors in the Biochar market have been analyzed.

Biochar market Segmentation by Type:

by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification and Others)

Biochar market Segmentation by Application:

by Application (Agriculture and Others)

There are four aspects to the study: applications, product, geography, and end-users. The research looks at the industrys geographic reach as well as the existing market position of major market participants in the Biochar Market. Apart from market requirements, the most recent research study concentrates on the characteristics of the main competitors items. In the coming years, the global Biochar industry is predicted to flourish. The analysis in the report provides essential data on leading competitors market shares, as well as crucial industry trends and profitable possibilities. Based on the current market situation, the research includes precise market segmentation, share structure, and trends analysis.

The markets competitive climate is aided by the presence of a large number of small and major producers competing on price and quality. The research covers a detailed evaluation of the industrys most significant developments. The global market analysis also divides the market, resulting in increased global income while ensuring long-term stability. The study focuses on the Biochar markets growth prospects, limits, and opportunities. In order to understand new entrants, global Biochar market research also considers value chain analysis. Corporate management operations such as partnerships, mergers and acquisitions, and player contracts are also covered in the market analysis.

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Reet Aus: I will stop designing when there is no more fabric waste – news | ERR

7 November, 2022
 

Reet Aus, a fashion designer and senior researcher at the Estonian Academy of the Arts (EKA), told ERR’s morning show “Hommik Anuga” that all of her creations are made from fabric scraps discarded by large factories.

Aus has implemented the principle of value-added recycling in her fashion house. “You take an existing material and give it new life through design, creating a new product,” she said.

What makes her concept special is that her brand works with large factories, where they produce locally from the leftovers of a particular factory.

“It is still a new fabric that has become a surplus or leftover during the manufacturing process. What would otherwise go to the waste dump and from there either to the landfill or if we are talking about Bangladesh, for example, where there is no waste treatment, most of it actually ends up somewhere in the natural environment.”

Aus’ design clothing is currently manufactured in Poland, Turkey and Bangladesh.

Aus said that her entire business approach stems from an inner conflict she experienced when she recognized that the fashion industry she had studied did not align with her personal beliefs.

She said that the fashion industry, especially the mass fashion or fast fashion sector, is entirely meaningless.

From an environmental perspective, she argued, nothing will change unless the business practices of inexpensive multinational brands are altered.

In this regard, she said that it is irrelevant whether she would still be able to use the leftover fabrics: “I assure you that I stop designing as soon as there are no leftover fabric scraps!”

The designer said that the fashion sector has a larger impact on the environment than aviation and sea transport combined and that regulation can make a difference.

“When the burden falls on brands, corporations begin to rethink their entire business models; they would not be able to continue in the same way,” Aus said, adding that it will likely come down to the manufacturer’s liability.

“Whoever puts a product on the market will have to take it back afterwards,” she said, adding that this will change the thinking about what to put on the market.

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Effects of Soft Rock and Biochar Applications on Millet (Setaria italicaL.) Crop Performance …

7 November, 2022
 

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Effects of Biochar and Nitrogen Application on Rice Biomass Saccharification, Bioethanol …

7 November, 2022
 

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Figure 1

Ali, I.; Adnan, M.; Iqbal, A.; Ullah, S.; Khan, M.R.; Yuan, P.; Zhang, H.; Nasar, J.; Gu, M.; Jiang, L. Effects of Biochar and Nitrogen Application on Rice Biomass Saccharification, Bioethanol Yield and Cell Wall Polymers Features. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 13635. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113635

Ali I, Adnan M, Iqbal A, Ullah S, Khan MR, Yuan P, Zhang H, Nasar J, Gu M, Jiang L. Effects of Biochar and Nitrogen Application on Rice Biomass Saccharification, Bioethanol Yield and Cell Wall Polymers Features. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(21):13635. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113635

Ali, Izhar, Muhammad Adnan, Anas Iqbal, Saif Ullah, Muhammad Rafiullah Khan, Pengli Yuan, Hua Zhang, Jamal Nasar, Minghua Gu, and Ligeng Jiang. 2022. “Effects of Biochar and Nitrogen Application on Rice Biomass Saccharification, Bioethanol Yield and Cell Wall Polymers Features” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 21: 13635. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113635

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Preparation of N-, O-, and S-Tri-Doped Biochar through One-Pot Pyrolysis of Poplar and …

7 November, 2022
 

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Enhancement of adsorption and regeneration ability for biochar aerogel over in situ …

7 November, 2022
 

Biochars prepared from waste biomass have drawn great attentions in wastewater treatment. How to regenerate the used biochar after adsorption to avoid solid waste pollution is a key problem. Herein, a biochar aerogel (BC@FeOOH/Cu2O) deriving from waste bamboo was prepared, and the FeOOH/Cu2O particles were in situ loaded onto biochar to enhance its adsorption and regeneration ability. The adsorption and regeneration ability of BC@FeOOH/Cu2O were explored, and the colority and chemical demand oxygen (COD) removal rate of BC@FeOOH/Cu2O (2 g/L) for reactive red X-3B (250 mg/L) reached 100% with the adsorption quantity of 125 mg/g. Moreover, the BC@FeOOH/Cu2O after adsorption can be regenerated with H2O2 (0.1%) under solar irradiation (1.0 sun), and the removal capacity of BC@FeOOH/Cu2O for reactive red X-3B still reached 115.5 mg/g after 10 cycles. The excellent reusability of BC@FeOOH/Cu2O may reduce solid waste pollution and benefit the large-scale application of biochars in dye wastewater treatment.

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Not applicable.

Not applicable.

This research was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds of Shaoxing Keqiao Research Institute of Zhejiang Sci-Tech University (KYY2021006S), Scientific Research Foundation of Zhejiang Sci-Tech University (22202008-Y), Zhejiang Provincial Key Research and Development Program (2022C01174), and National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFB3801502).

Zhai, S., initiated the project and designed the experiment. Jin, R., performed the experiment and wrote the manuscript. Zhang, Y., and Liu, G., contributed significantly to analysis and manuscript preparation. Qi, M., helped perform the analysis with constructive discussions.

Correspondence to Shimin Zhai or Dongming Qi.

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Received: 24 July 2022

Revised: 26 October 2022

Accepted: 27 October 2022

Published: 07 November 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-022-03504-y

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Effect of Biochar and Nitrogen Applications on Growth of Corn (Zea mays L.) Plants

7 November, 2022
 

The Development of Optimal Cryopreservation Media For Longspine Scraper (Capoeta trutta) Sperm

Erdinç ŞAHİNÖZ, Faruk ARAL, Zafer DOĞU

Endüstriyel Sızıntı Suyundan Pb(II) Giderimi İçin Genleştirilmiş Perlit Kullanımı: Kinetik Çalışmalar

FULYA AYDIN TEMEL

Modifiye Atmosfer Paketli Sığır Kıyma ve Kuşbaşı Örneklerinde Listeria monocytogenes ve Serotiplerinin Belirlenmesi

Ali GÜCÜKOĞLU, Adem ÖZKİRAZ

Hatay İli Yonca Üretim Alanlarında Bulunan Böcek Faunasının Tespiti ve Bazı Türlerin Popülasyon Yoğunlukları

KAMURAN KAYA

Belediye Katı Atıklarının Bileşimi Analizi (Libya-Bingazi Örneği)

Miraç AYDIN, İdris İMNEİSİ, Faisal Ali Mohamed BABA

Pazarsuyu Deresi (Giresun, Türkiye) Sediment Kalitesinin Çok Değişkenli İstatistik Yöntemlerle Belirlenmesi

FİKRET USTAOĞLU, A. YALÇIN TEPE

Ordu–Boztepe’nin Turizm ve Rekreasyon Potansiyeli ile Boztepe’nin Kent İmajına Katkısı

MURAT YEŞİL, Kübra Nur BEYLİ

Investigation of The Effectiveness of Teucrium Orientale L. Plant in Hemorrhoid Treatment

Nuray EMİN, Ayşegül GÜZEL, Kıymet NURAL

Yumurtlamanın Son Dönemindeki Yumurtacı Tavukların Rasyonlarına Bor (Ortoborik Asit) İlavesinin Bazı Yumurta Sarısı Parametreleri Üzerine Etkisi#Yumurtlamanın Son Dönemindeki Yumurtacı Tavukların Rasyonlarına Bor (Ortoborik Asit) İlavesinin Bazı Yumurta Sarısı Parametreleri Üzerine Etkisi

HACER KAYA, MUHLİS MACİT

The Development of Optimal Cryopreservation Media For Longspine Scraper (Capoeta trutta) Sperm

ERDİNÇ ŞAHİNÖZ, ZAFER DOĞU, Faruk ARAL


Facile Synthesis of Sustainable Activated Biochars with Different Pore Structures as Efficient …

8 November, 2022
 


Effect of dissolved humic acids and coated humic acids on tetracycline adsorption by K 2 CO 3

8 November, 2022
 

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Humic acids (HAs) widely exist in water environment, and has an important impact on the adsorption of pollutants. Herein, HAs (both dissolved and coated) was employed to assess the effect on the removal of the organic contaminant tetracycline (TC) by K2CO3 modified magnetic biochar (KMBC). Results showed that low concentration of dissolved HAs promoted TC removal, likely due to a bridging effect, while higher concentration of dissolved HAs inhibited TC adsorption because of the competition of adsorption sites on KMBC. By characterization analysis, coated HAs changed the surface and pore characteristics of KMBC, which suppressed the TC removal. In a sequential adsorption experiment involving dissolved HAs and TC, the addition of HAs at the end of the experiment led to the formation of HAs-TC ligands with free TC, which improved the adsorption capacity of TC. TC adsorption by KMBC in the presence of dissolved HAs and coated HAs showed a downward trend with increasing pH from 5.0 to 10.0. The TC adsorption process was favorable and endothermic, and could be better simulated by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. Hydrogen bonds and ππ interactions were hypothesized to be the underlying influencing mechanisms.

Biochar (BC) is a porous carbon material prepared by pyrolysis of biomass, such as plant residues and animal wastes1,2. It is considered a promising alternative adsorbent for wastewater treatment due to high porosity, thermo-stability, low cost, and recycling potential3. Biochar has shown high efficiency in the adsorption of a wide range of contaminants spanning heavy metals and organic pollutants4,5. Despite these advantages, the effective utilization of the pristine biochar in environmental remediation can still be improved, especially in solid–liquid separation and adsorption capacity, due to the scarcity of their surface functional groups6.

The introduction of magnetic nanoparticles to biochar surface can yield improved solid–liquid separation properties, which, however, occurs at the cost of reduced adsorption capacity due to the occupancy of the adsorption sites by magnetic nanoparticles7. To circumvent this problem, surface chemical modification of biochar has been proposed, which activates biochar for specific adsorption functions8. To date, various types of chemical reagents have been applied to the surface activation of biochar, such as ZnCl2, MgCl2, KMnO4, H2SO4, H3PO4, KOH, and K2CO39,10,11. Among these reagents, K2CO3 is not deleterious to human health and has been used as food additives. Moreover, modification of biochar with K2CO3 activation has been shown to significantly improve surface area, pore volume, and aromaticity12. Therefore, K2CO3 is a highly applicable biochar activation agent.

The biochar-based nanocomposites have been used for the removal of organic pollutants, for example, antibiotics13, dyes14, and pesticides15. As a typical class of organic contaminants, antibiotics are frequently detected in surface water, ground water, and drinking water16. Overuse of antibiotics increases the risk of bacterial drug resistance, resulting in the most common antibiotics no longer being able to effectively control infectious diseases. Concerns have also been raised about antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which may impact the structure and the activity of environmental microbial populations17. Moreover, once ARGs are successfully integrated in gene-transmission elements, they can persist in and transmit even in the absence of selection pressure17,18. Thus, the removal of antibiotic contaminants is of significant practical importance, and biochar and its derivatives has been validated for this purpose4,9,19,20,21.

Nevertheless, pollutants in real-world water environments are not isolated, and other substances often affect the removal of pollutants. Humic acids (HAs), as a ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), consists of numerous functional groups including carboxylic, phenolic and aromatic groups, which can be modulate the interactions between biochar and pollutants. For example, HAs may alter the physicochemical properties of biochar, change their surface reactivity, and affect its adsorption behavior to multifarious contaminants22. In most cases, adsorption of organic contaminants in water by biochar is strongly inhibited by the coexisting HAs through pore plugging and competitive adsorption sites23. In contrast, there were some reports demonstrating that the adsorption of antibiotics on unmodified biochar could be improved in the presence of HAs24. However, related mechanistic research of HAs effect on the adsorption of antibiotics by modified biochar is lacking. In addition, there are few studies on the effect of HAs on the aggregation or autooxidation of magnetic nanoparticles, and the related mechanism is not clear.

Herein, we introduce a novel biochar composite, K2CO3-modified magnetic biochar (KMBC), which was prepared through a simultaneous activation and magnetization process. Tetracycline (TC) was selected as model antibiotic because of its long-term use in farmland and frequent detection in drinking water. The main objectives of this investigation were: (1) to explore the effect of dissolved/coated HAs on TC removal by KMBC; (2) to study the effect of pH and addition sequences of HAs on TC removal by KMBC; (3) to clarify the interaction and potential mechanisms of KMBC for TC uptake in the presence of HAs. This work is expected to provide new insights into how HAs interacts with modified biochar and organic contaminants in wastewater.

Rice straw in this study was collected from the waste biomass of the farm of Yiyang, Hunan province, China. Hydrochloride salt of tetracycline (TC) was obtained from Hefei Bomei Biotechnology Co., Ltd., China. Humic acids (HAs) were purchased from Shanghai Chemical Corp. (Shanghai, China), which was purified before use, and the purification method referred to Wang et al.25 (described in the Supplementary Materials). All other chemicals used in this work were analytical grade and solutions were prepared using Milli-Q water (18.2 MΩ/cm) (Millipore, Billerica, MA) in this work.

The collected rice straw was rinsed with Milli-Q water several times and air-dried, then ground into powder and sieved through a 100-mesh sieve. The unmodified rice straw biochar (RBC) was pyrolyzed in a tubular furnace with a 5 °C/min heating rates to 600 °C, which was maintained for 2 h in a N2 atmosphere, before being cooled to room temperature. To prepare K2CO3 activated magnetic biochar (KMBC), desired amounts of K2CO3 was added into the mixed solution of 10 g rice straw and 2 g FeCl∙6H2O (50 mL) and stirred at 25 °C and 150 rpm for 24 h. The mixture was dried at 80 °C and then pyrolyzed at 600 °C for 2 h in a N2 atmosphere. The samples were washed repeatedly with deionized water, followed by drying at 60 °C.

KMBC was pre-coated with purified HAs at a mass ratio of 1% and 10% (HAs: KMBC), named as 1% HAs/KMBC and 10% HAs/KMBC. HAs/KMBC was synthesized with the following steps. Different amounts of purified HAs were dissolved in 25 mL Milli-Q water, followed by adjustment of pH to 7 with NaOH or HCl. Then, 0.5 g KMBC was added into the solution. The samples were shaken at 25 °C with 170 r/min for 24 h and kept quiescent for 48 h, washed with Milli-Q water for three times, and freeze-dried in vacuum24.

The effect of the ratio of K2CO3 to rice straw (0.5:1, 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1) on TC adsorption was explored in 25 mL 50 mg/L TC solution. For subsequent experiments, a fixed ratio (K2CO3: rice straw) of 4:1 (w/w) was adopted. In a typical adsorption experiment, a 50 mL conical flask was charged with 25 mL 50 mg/L TC solution as adsorbate and 0.005 g RBC, KMBC, HAs/KMBC as adsorbent. The sorption kinetics was studied at 150 rpm at 25 °C from 0 to 26 h. In the adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics experiments, the initial concentrations of TC were 50–300 mg/L under three different temperatures (25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C). The pH effect in the reaction system was set as 5.0–10.0 with adjusted with 0.1 mol/L HCl and NaOH solution. All of the experimental data were the average of twice or three duplicate experiments.

Influence of dissolved HAs on 50 mg/L TC uptake was studied at different HAs concentrations in the range of 0.5–20 mg/L. The effects of addition sequences of dissolved HAs and KMBC on the sorption of TC were investigated in the pH range of 5.0–10.0. The addition sequences were as follows: (1) KMBC and 5 mg/L HAs at pH 5.0–10.0 were pre-equilibrated for 26 h before adding TC (denoted as (KMBC-HAs)-TC); (2) KMBC and 50 mg/L TC at pH 5.0–10.0 were pre-equilibrated for 26 h before adding dissolved HAs (denoted as (KMBC-TC)-HAs); (3) The mixture of 50 mg/L TC and 5 mg/L HAs at pH 5.0–10.0 were pre-equilibrated for 26 h before adding KMBC (denoted as (TC-HAs)- KMBC).

The concentrations of TC in the supernatants were analyzed by HPLC (Agilent 1100, USA) on a C18 column (4.6 × 150 mm) with UV–visible detection at a wavelength of 357 nm. The mobile phase consisted of 0.01 M oxalic acid: chromatographic acetonitrile (v/v, 4:1) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The injection volume was 20 μL, and the column temperature was 30 °C26. The residual HAs concentration in the supernatant was determined by a UV–visible spectrometer (UV-2550, SHIMADZU, Japan) at 254 nm24.

The surface structure and elemental composition was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Quanta 400 FEG, USA) and energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (Genesis, USA). Magnetic properties were measured on a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) (Lake Shore 7410, USA). The surface elemental composition and elemental species were characterized by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using an ESCALAB 250Xi spectrometer (Thermo Fisher, USA). The surface functional groups were recorded on Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) using an IRTracer-100 spectrometer (Shimadzu, Japan). The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore structure analysis of the samples were obtained by a Quadrasorb EVO instrument (Quantachrome, USA) basing on N2 adsorption methods. Zeta potentials of KMBC, and HAs coated KMBC were determined using a zeta potential analyzer (Nano-ZS90 Zetasizer, Malvern Instruments, UK).

The calculation formula of TC adsorption capacity (qe) is given in the following equation:

where Co and Ce (mg/L) are the initial and equilibrium TC concentrations, respectively; V (L) is the initial volume of the TC solutions, and m (g) is the mass of the adsorbent used.

The equations of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were as follows:

where qe and qt are the adsorption capacity of TC adsorption on the adsorbent (mg/g) at equilibrium and at different time, respectively. k1 (1/min), k2 (g/mg min), and kp (mg/g·min0.5) are the rate constants of the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion rate constants, respectively. C is the intercept of linear fitting of qt versus t0.5.

The Langmuir and Freundlich models could be expressed as:

where Ce is the equilibrium concentration of TC (mg/L); qe is the equilibrium amount of TC (mg/g) and qm is the maximum adsorption capacity corresponding to Langmuir model (mg/g); KL (L/mg) and Kf [(mg/g)/(mg/L)N] are the constant of Langmuir and Freundlich models, respectively; N is the Freundlich constants that represented adsorption strength.

The Gibbs free energy (ΔGo) for TC uptake on adsorbents was calculated by the following formula:

where R (8.314 J/mol K) is universal gas constant and T (K) is the solution temperature in Kelvin. K0 is the thermodynamic equilibrium constant, calculated by plotting ln Kb (Kb = qe/Ce) versus Ce and extrapolating Ce to zero. ΔGo can also be expressed in terms of enthalpy (ΔHo) and entropy (ΔSo) change in the adsorption process as a function of temperature. ΔSo and ΔHo values can be derived from the slope and intercept of ΔGo versus T, respectively.

Statistical analysis was performed with a one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) followed by the post hoc Tukey test. Duncan’s statistics of F-test was used to identify the differences between experimental treatment using IBM SPSS Statistics 26.

Surface morphology and main elemental composition of biochar before and after modification were studied by SEM and EDS. As shown in Fig. 1, raw biochar exhibits a regular tubular structure (Fig. 1a). After activation by K2CO3, more sub-micrometer features were presented on the KMBC surface (Fig. 1b). The large number of adherents might be related to the presence of magnetic nanoparticles on the RBC surface. HAs coating further enhanced the pore structure of KMBC (Fig. 1c and d). The main elemental composition of four materials is listed in Table 1. Compared to RBC, the increased O contents of KMBC caused the surface polarity indexes [(N + O)/C] increased from 67.44 to 240.88, indicating the emergence of some oxygen-containing groups by activation. The surface polarity indexes [(N + O)/C] exhibited a reduction of 1% HAs/KMBC comparing to KMBC, which might be due to the consumption of some oxygen-containing groups due to the combination of a small amount of HAs and KMBC. However, for 10% HAs/KMBC, higher surface polarity indexes [(N + O)/C] and O content were observed, reflecting higher sorption to HAs and hydrophilicity23, and the increased amount of oxygen-containing groups was much greater than the combined consumption.

SEM images of (a) RBC, (b) KMBC, (c) 1% HAs/KMBC and (d) 10% HAs/KMBC.

Good solid–liquid separation performance of adsorbent is of great significance to the real-world wastewater treatment. Thus, the magnetic hysteresis loops of KMBC, 1% HAs/KMBC and 10% HAs/KMBC were characterized (Fig. S1) to illustrate the magnetic properties of these materials. The saturation magnetization value of KMBC is 0.027 emu/g, suggesting that KMBC was sufficient to achieve solid–liquid separation with an external magnetic field. After 1% and 10% HAs coating, the magnetic behavior of KMBC was enhanced with saturation magnetization values of 0.08 emu/g and 0.06 emu/g, respectively. HAs possessed strong affinity to magnetic nanoparticles and effectively coats particle surface via the surface complexation ligand exchange reactions, which could suppress the aggregation or autooxidation of Fe3O427, resulting in the rise of saturation magnetization values after HAs coating. The Fe2p peak appeared in the XPS full spectra of KMBC and 10% HAs/KMBC (Fig. S2), further confirming the successful loading of magnetic particles on KMBC and HAs/KMBC surface.

The FTIR analysis are shown in Fig. S4. As observed from FTIR spectra, a number of strong peaks (e.g., 3356 cm−1 for O–H, 1601 cm−1 for C = O and 1029 cm−1 for C–O) were identified in the spectrum of HAs, indicating it was rich in oxygen-containing groups19,28. These oxygen-containing groups also appeared on the RBC and KMBC. Compared with RBC, the extra peak at about 535 cm−1 corresponded to the Fe–O stretching vibrations in KMBC spectrum, which further confirmed that the magnetic nanoparticles were coated on the RBC surface29. However, after HAs loading, the oxygen-containing groups on KMBC decreased significantly, which may be the reason that KMBC might consume a lot of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups by interacting with the polar functional groups of HAs through hydrogen bonds.

Figure 2 shows TC removal by KMBC at different K2CO3 feeding ratios at pH 7. It was found that the removal of TC increased from 35.2 to 118.4 mg/g with increasing K2CO3. The increased adsorption capacity might be related to the change of pore structure and surface properties of the modified biochar. According to the BET characterization (Fig. S3), compared to RBC, the formation of more micropores and mesopores on KMBC was observed when the ratio of K2CO3 to rice straw was 4:1. In addition, the total pore volume and specific surface area of KMBC was 4.1 and 4.8 times that of RBC (Table 1). Therefore, K2CO3 was beneficial to the enhancement of the TC adsorption performance of the materials.

Effect of the ratio of K2CO3 to rice straw on TC removal by KMBC. C0(TC) = 50 mg/L, m/V = 0.1 g/L, T = 25 °C, t = 26 h, pH = 7.0.

Contact time is a significant parameter to evaluate the application potential of adsorbents in wastewater purification. As shown in Fig. 3, for both RBC and modified forms, the rapid adsorption of TC occurs within the first 6 h, and the adsorption rate reduced thereafter and reached equilibrium. After K2CO3 and HAs modification, longer times were needed for these systems to reach adsorption equilibrium than RBC system. These effects might be attributed to the fact that the activation process increased the specific surface area and promoted the development of pores compared to raw biochar. Besides, the competition/occupation of adsorption sites between HAs and TC might also lead to the prolongation of adsorption equilibrium. In the following experiment, 26 h was selected as the reaction time of TC adsorption to ensure that the adsorption equilibrium of all samples was established.

Adsorption kinetic curves of TC onto RBC, KMBC, 1% HAs/KMBC and 10% HAs/KMBC: (a) the solid lines and dotted lines are the pseudo-second-order model and the pseudo-first-order model simulation, respectively; (b) Intra-particle diffusion model simulation. C0(TC) = 50 mg/L, m/V = 0.1 g/L, T = 25 °C, pH = 7.0.

Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were employed to fit the kinetic data to shed light on the adsorption mechanism. The experimental kinetic data are non-linearly fitted as presented in Fig. 3a and related parameters from the kinetic models are provided in the Table S1. Results indicated pseudo-second-order model preferably described the removal process of TC by different types of materials with higher R2. In addition, the theoretical adsorption capacity (qcal) of pseudo-second-order model was in good agreement with the experimental adsorption capacity (qexp). It showed that TC adsorption onto biochar materials were mainly controlled by chemisorption30.

In order to explore the diffusion mechanism of TC onto the biochar materials, the kinetic data were further analyzed by the intraparticle diffusion model based upon diffusion mass transfer. The kinetic parameters of intra-particle diffusion are displayed in Table S2. According to the values of intercept C, the plots showed no crossing at the origin and exhibited multi-linearity relationships within the studied contact time, demonstrating that the adsorption process was affected by more than one rate-determining step. As shown in Fig. 3b, the intraparticle diffusion plot is categorized into three regions (A, B, and C), which represented film diffusion, intraparticle diffusion, and internal surface of the adsorbent in the sorption process, respectively31. The intercept C reflected the information about the boundary layer effect32. Compared with KMBC, other materials exhibited decreased C values in all stages, demonstrating a negative contribution of TC diffusion onto HAs/KMBC; that was, HAs modification was not conducive to TC adsorption, and the effect was HAs-content-dependent.

Adsorption isotherm is used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of adsorbent and the microscopic interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by classic isotherm models (Langmuir and Freundlich) at three temperatures (298, 308, and 318 K) and the corresponding regression parameters are listed in Table 2. As shown in Fig. 4a–c, the Freundlich model is superior to the Langmuir model for TC adsorption based on the values of R2, RMSE, and χ2. It confirmed that TC has a typical multilayer heterogeneous coverage on the interface of biochar materials29. Still, homogeneous adsorption cannot also be neglected in the TC removal by all four kinds of biochar materials (All R2 values in Table 2 were greater than 0.9 in the Langmuir model). According to the Langmuir model fitting, the saturated adsorption capacity (qe) of KMBC was higher than the qe of 1% HAs/KMBC and 10% HAs/KMBC in the studied temperatures, indicating that HAs would occupy some adsorption sites and hinder TC capture.

Effects of TC concentration and temperature [(a):298 K; (b):308 K; (c):318 K] on TC adsorption by RBC, KMBC, 1% HAs/KMBC and 10% HAs/KMBC. m/V = 0.1 g/L, t = 26 h, pH = 7.0.

Reaction temperature is a crucial factor for inherent energy change. The effect of temperature on the TC adsorption by biochar materials was investigated at 298, 308, and 318 K (Fig. 4a–c). Van’t Hoff equation could be used to establish a relationship between the adsorption coefficient (Kb) and temperature33, and related parameters are presented in Table S4. The negative value of Gibbs free energy (Δ) meant that the adsorption of TC on RBC, KMBC, and HA/KMBC was a spontaneous process in standard conditions34. Linear fitting of ΔG° versus T are shown in Fig.S6. With the rise of temperature, the value of ΔGo declined, which indicated that the TC removal ability by four biochar materials could be improved at a higher temperature. The calculated enthalpy for all samples (ΔHo) was positive, further implying the endothermic nature of adsorption process. The entropy (ΔSo) value referred to the increase of randomness at the solid/liquid interface in the process of TC adsorption. Thus, the mechanism for TC adsorption onto RBC, KMBC, and HAs/KMBC was endothermic and energy was needed to achieve adsorption33.

TC adsorption in the absence or presence of dissolved HAs and coated HAs as a function of pH from 5.0 to 10.0 are shown in Fig. 5. Increasing pH from 5.0 to 10.0, the TC adsorption capacity by RBC increased at first and then decreased. The optimal pH appeared at around 7.0. However, the differences were not substantial. In the same pH range, the TC adsorption by KMBC showed a downward trend, but again, the change was only 18%. The removal of TC enhanced with the addition of 5 mg/L dissolved HAs at different pH values. Thus, KMBC had the potential to be used in a broad pH range and a small amount of HAs presented in natural wastewater was conducive to TC removal in the test pH ranges. However, low or high concentrations of HAs coating had an obvious inhibition effect for TC uptake, especially under alkaline conditions. When initial pH was lower than 7.8, the surface of HAs/KMBC was negatively charged (Fig. S5b) and most TC molecules were positively charged (Fig. S5a). The electrostatic attraction might exist between the cation TC and negative HAs/KMBC surface at pH < 7.8, which was conducive to TC adsorption. However, coated HAs had inhibition effect for TC uptake at pH < 7.8, demonstrating that HAs coated on KMBC surface could occupy some the adsorption sites. The effect of occupation might be greater than the electrostatic attraction, thus limiting the adsorption of TC. When initial pH was higher than 7.8, the surface of HAs/KMBC was negatively charged (Fig. S5b). Meanwhile, TC was existed in the anion state (pH > 7.8) (Fig. S5a) in solution. Therefore, in addition to occupation, electrostatic repulsion between TC and HAs/KMBC resulted in lower TC adsorption.

Effects of pH on TC adsorption by RBC, KMBC, dissolved HAs and coated HAs modified KMBC. C0(TC) = 50 mg/L, m/V = 0.1 g/L, t = 26 h, T = 25 °C.

The influence of different levels of dissolved HAs (0–20 mg/L) on TC removal by RBC and KMBC is presented in Fig. 6. For different HAs concentrations studied, TC sorption on RBC and KMBC was slightly improved at dissolved HAs concentration < 5 mg/L. HAs exhibited an obvious inhibitory trend when dissolved HAs concentration was > 5 mg/L. TC possessed a nitrogen aromatic heterocyclic structure, which could interact with RBC and KMBC through ππ interaction19. According to the BET analysis, RBC and KMBC had high porosity, thus the removal of TC could also be achieved by pore filling. Jin et al.35 has found that HAs could interact with TC in solution. Therefore, HAs might act as a “bridge” between the adsorbents and TC36 and the bridging effect might contribute to the slight initial increase in adsorption capacity at low [HAs], before being overwhelmed by the binding competition at high [HAs]. As shown in Fig. 6a, the concentration of dissolved HAs after the experiment decreased from the initial value, corroborating that that dissolved HAs was adsorbed onto the RBC and KMBC.

(a) Effects of different concentration of dissolved HAs (0–20 mg/L) on TC removal by RBC and KMBC, and the residual of dissolved HAs after reaction; (b) TC adsorption by different amount coated HAs modified KMBC. C0(TC) = 50 mg/L, m/V = 0.1 g/L, t = 26 h, T = 25 °C, pH = 7.0.

When HAs were coated on KMBC (Fig. 6b), TC removal was inhibited, and the inhibition was more obvious at higher HAs feed ratios. According to the BET and FTIR analysis results, the BET specific surface areas of HAs/KMBC were higher than that of KMBC, and HAs coating enhanced the polarity of KMBC and ππ interactions between HAs and KMBC (Fig. S4b), which was conducive to the adsorption of TC. However, Table 1 displays the decrease of pore diameter after low HAs coating, which probably due to pore plugging by a small amount of HAs molecules. In addition, the high coated HAs occupied the reactive sites on the KMBC, resulting in the decrease of TC adsorption. As shown in Fig. 6b, higher HAs coating led to the greater inhibition, which might be due to the more active sites being occupied.

Figure 7 shows the TC sorption with the influence from HAs under three different addition sequences across the pH range 5.0–10.0. Remarkably, TC adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by the addition sequences in the pH range tested, suggesting various mechanisms existed in the complex systems of HAs, TC and KMBC.

Effects of addition sequences of dissolved HAs, TC and KMBC. C0(TC) = 50 mg/L, C0(HAs) = 5 mg/L, m/V = 0.1 g/L, t = 26 h, T = 25 °C.

In the (KMBC-HAs)-TC system (referring to mixing HAs with KMBC first, before adding TC), the HAs adsorbed on KMBC occupied most of the adsorption sites and pores, forming a strong hindrance which was not conducive to the subsequent capture of TC on KMBC. Hence, in this system, the removal ability of TC was lowest. In contrast, in the (KMBC-TC)-HAs ternary system, TC and KMBC were pre-equilibrated for 24 h before adding HAs, where TC had reached saturation adsorption on KMBC. When HAs was added to this mixed solution, the adsorption capacity of TC in the solution could be improved by strong combination between HAs and unremoved TC. In this case, the high adsorbed amounts of TC observed in the presence of HAs might be due to the formation of HAs-TC ligands in aqueous solution. When TC was pre-equilibrated with HAs, partial TC molecule would form complexes with HAs and then adsorb on KMBC. It was also possible that adsorption of free TC molecule might compete with free HAs for residual adsorption sites on exposed KMBC surfaces. Therefore, the TC adsorption behavior was controlled by TC-HAs complexes.

Statistical significance of the difference of adsorption capacities by different adsorbents under various experimental conditions were assessed. The ANOVA results (Table S3) indicated that adsorption amount of TC at most different reaction times by four adsorbents were a significant difference (P < 0.05). ANOVA results (Tables S5and S6) further demonstrated that initial concentration of TC and temperature had a significant effect on the adsorption of TC on the four materials (P < 0.05). The results in Table S7 indicate that the adsorption amount of TC by four adsorbents are significantly different in all the tested pH ranges (P < 0.05). It had insignificant impact on TC adsorption by four materials when the dissolved HAs concentration < 5 mg/L, while there was significant difference in adsorption amount when the dissolved HAs concentration > 5 mg/L (Table S8) As shown in Table S9, all P values are less than 0.05, which also suggest that the different addition sequences of dissolved HAs, TC and KMBC are statistically significant for the adsorption of TC (P < 0.05).

The adsorption mechanism could be further explained by FTIR spectra. Fig. S4b shows the FTIR spectra of HAs/KMBC before and after TC adsorption. The O–H of HAs/KMBC migrated after adsorbing TC, which might be due to the H-bond interaction, which was one of the important driving forces of adsorption. The aromatic C = C and C = O bands on HAs/KMBC surface act as π-electron-donor, which can react with π-electron-acceptor from aromatic rings of TC. The shifts of C = C and C = O bands were indicative of hydrophobic and ππ interactions between HAs and KMBC23.

This view was confirmed by the XPS spectra, which were used to explore the surface and internal elements of adsorbent. The computer deconvolution XPS spectra of C 1 s and O 1 s are shown in Fig. 8a–d. For 10% HAs/KMBC, the peaks of the C 1 s binding energy at about 284.65 eV, 284.79 eV, 286.05 eV and 288.48 eV were assigned to C = C, C–C, C-O and C = O, respectively31,37. After TC adsorption, there was a significant change of C = C peak shape, implying the aromatic C = C of HAs/KMBC might be combined with the benzene ring of TC. The O 1 s spectra of 10% HAs/KMBC was deconvoluted into three peaks at 530.92 eV, 532.32 eV and 532.74 eV, corresponding to the Fe–O, C–O, and C = O groups, respectively29,38. After TC uptake, the shift of C–O and C = O groups indicated that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of HAs/KMBC might be combined with the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of TC, demonstrating that hydrogen bond might play a role in the adsorption process. These results were in good agreement with FTIR data.

(a) and (b) are the computer deconvolution C 1 s spectra of 10% HAs/KMBC and 10% HAs/KMBC-TC, respectively; (c) and (d) are the computer deconvolution O 1 s spectra of 10% HAs/KMBC and 10% HAs/KMBC-TC, respectively.

In summary, we studied a range of parameters that govern KMBC adsorption performance of TC, and investigated the potential underlying mechanisms. Sample characterization revealed that larger specific surface area and more pore structure were presented on KMBC after activation by K2CO3. BET analysis indicated more micropores and mesopores in the KMBC with increasing the amount of K2CO3, thus increasing the adsorption capacity of the materials. The VSM, FTIR and XPS analysis indicated the successful loading of magnetic particles on the RBC surface. FTIR results confirmed that HAs been loaded on KMBC via hydrogen bonds. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model provided an excellent fit for the adsorption data. Thermodynamic studies demonstrated the favorability and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. Dissolved HAs provided both positive and negative influences on TC removal at different concentrations. TC removal was inhibited when HAs coating on KMBC was applied, which might be due to the more active sites occupied on KMBC surface. Sequential addition of HAs and TC revealed that both components can compete for binding with KMBC. Besides, TC-HAs complexes affected the TC adsorption behavior. According to the XPS and FI-IR analysis, the hydrogen bonds and ππ interaction were the critical driving force for this adsorption. These studies provide valuable information on biochar modification for wastewater treatment and mechanistic insight on the adsorption process, which we envision will pave the way for practical application of these materials.

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its supplementary information files.

This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 52100205), the Education Department of Hunan Province of China (21B0237), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 51909090) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (Grants 2019JJ50409).

L.M.: Conceptualization, Methodology, Validation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing—original draft. W.P.: Resources, Supervision, Validation, Writing—review and editing. H.C.: Revision, Formal analysis. L.Y.: Visualization, Formal analysis. L.S.: Resources, Supervision, Validation. Z.K.: Visualization, Formal analysis. C.J.: Data curation. T.X.: Visualization. L.S.: Visualization.

Correspondence to Ping Wang.

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Received: 21 April 2022

Accepted: 19 October 2022

Published: 08 November 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-22830-9

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Germany – Biochar – GO-GRASS

8 November, 2022
 

The German demo site at Nationalpark Unteres Odertal converts low nutritional quality grass from the wetlands into biochar. By implementing a first complete processing line, the grass is transformed into biochar by pyrolysis or hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC).

The final product can be used on agricultural farmland, as it may increase the water holding capacity and the nutrient content of the soil, being a substitute to mineral fertilisers. The demo site will also develop technologies for harvesting, pre-processing and preserving the grass. Additional to the above-mentioned benefits, biochar is also a good supplement for the energy production in biogas plants.  After fermentation, the remaining digestate can be spread on the fields.


COP27: CDR certifier to launch in Africa with first projects due in December – Carbon Pulse

8 November, 2022
 

An Africa-focused carbon removals certification body aims to launch by registering carbon credit-generating biochar facilities in December, the initiative’s representatives told a panel at COp27 on Tuesday as experts touted the continent’s potential to generate removals at scale.


INNOVATIVE, CANADIAN CLEANTECH/NANOTECH COMPANY, BIO GRAPHENE …

8 November, 2022
 

TORONTO, Nov. 8, 2022 /CNW/ –  Bio Graphene Solutions (BGS), a sustainable manufacturer and supplier of consistent, high-quality graphene from non-graphite source materials via a proprietary thermal-mechanical production process, today announced it is conducting a non-brokered private placement financing to raise up to $3,000,000 (the “Offering”). The Offering is priced at $1.01 per common share.

Net proceeds of the Offering will go towards expanding production capacity of BGS’ consistently high-quality graphene powder through its revolutionary eco-friendly manufacturing process, which converts 100% organic material (biochar) into graphene for use as an additive across numerous applications with a primary focus on material improvement, CO2 reduction, and sustainability in the concrete and asphalt industries.

“BGS is pleased to report that it has done in excess of 2000 industrial concrete mix design tests of material that gets used in the real world (not lab samples) and we have recently been successful in removing 15% of the cement while increasing the strength by 25+% and reducing the CO2 by 30%,” said Gary Van Dusen, CTO & Co-Founder of Bio Graphene Solutions Inc. “We believe this makes us 3-5 times more effective than most carbon capture technologies and presents significant opportunity, particularly considering that the concrete industry is responsible for 8-10% of ALL global greenhouse gases produced.”

BGS is positioning itself as a disruptor in the graphene industry through the Company’s unique production process and “Green Graphene” competitive advantage.  BGS has recently partnered with the University of Waterloo—a leading authority and Canada’s premier academia on Smart Infrastructure innovation—in support of its research and development efforts on sustainability in the concrete and asphalt industries.

“We are very pleased to be working on this joint program with Bio Graphene Solutions and Green Infrastructure Partners (GIP) a large industry asphalt partner around finding innovative ways to make material improvements and reduce CO2 emissions, with an emphasis on sustainability in the construction of our roadways, said Hassan Baaj, PhD, P. Eng., MBET. Professor, Norman W. McLeod Chair in Sustainable Pavement Engineering, Director, Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology. “This is an important two-year joint venture initiative for advancing eco-friendly infrastructure technology in