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Modifying waste biomass to catalytically degrade pollutants

1 November, 2019
 

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By Paul Grad | November 1, 2019

Sewage and wastewater often contain pollutants and environmental hormones (endocrine disruptors) that can have a negative effect on the environment and on human health. Catalysts currently used to destroy such pollutants involve high costs. And up to now, research has mostly focused on developing single-substance catalysts and enhancing their performance. Little research has been done to develop an eco-friendly nanocomposite catalyst capable of removing environmental hormones from sewage and wastewater.

Now a research team from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST; Seoul, South Korea; https://eng.kist.re.kr), led by Jae-woo Choi and Kyung-won Jung, has utilized biochar created from rice hulls to produce an eco-friendly, low-cost and highly efficient catalyst. They coated the surface of the biochar with nano-sized manganese dioxide to create a nanocomposite.

To make the catalyst, the KIST team used a hydrothermal method — a type of synthesis that uses high heat and pressure — to produce a nanocomposite. The team observed that giving the catalyst a three-dimensional, stratified structure resulted in the high effectiveness of the advanced oxidation process, due to the large surface area created.

The catalyst developed at KIST removed more than 95% of bisphenol A, an environmental hormone disruptor, in less than one hour, compared with 80% removal by the catalyst currently used. When combined with sonication (20 kHz ultrasound), the KIST catalyst removed all traces of bisphenol A in less than 20 min. Even after many repeated tests, the bisphenol A removal rate remained at about 93%.

This publication contains text, graphics, images, and other content (collectively “Content”), which are for informational purposes only. Certain articles contain the author’s personal recommendations only.
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© 2019 Access Intelligence, LLC – All Rights Reserved.


Use of Bacillus-siamensis-inoculated biochar to decrease uptake of dibutyl phthalate in leafy …

1 November, 2019
 

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a frequently detected farmland contaminant that is harmful to the environment and human health. In this study, a DBP-degrading endophytic Bacillus siamensis strain T7 was immobilized in rice husk-derived biochar for bioremediation of DBP-polluted agricultural soils. The effects of this microbe-biochar composite on the soil prokaryotic community and the mechanism by which it regulates DBP degradation, were also investigated. A supplement of T7–biochar composite not only significantly boosted DBP biodegradation in soil by raising the DBP degradation rate constant and half-life from 0.1979 d−1 and 2.3131 d to 0.2434 d−1 and 2.1062 d, respectively, but also impeded DBP uptake by leafy vegetables. The general bioremediation effect of T7–biochar alliance excelled pure T7 suspensions and biochar, by trapping more DBP and boosting its complete degradation in soil. Besides, the combination of strain T7 and biochar can increase the proportion of some beneficial bacteria and boost the functional diversity of soil prokaryotic community, then to a certain extent may reverse the negative effect of DBP pollution on the agricultural soils. These results indicate that the rice-husk-derived biochar is a proper media when utilizing functional microbes into environmental treatment. Overall, T7–biochar composite is a promising soil modifier for soil bioremediation and the production of DBP-free crops.

 


Biotransformation of phosphorus in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludge biochar

1 November, 2019
 

Polyphosphates were the predominant P species in EBPR sludge biochar.

The P availability in EBPR sludge biochar could be enhanced by steam activation.

Presence of Ca2+ inhibited P-release from low-temperature (400 °C) biochar.

Steam activation makes high-temperature (700 °C) biochar a robust P fertilizer.

Polyphosphates were the predominant P species in EBPR sludge biochar.

The P availability in EBPR sludge biochar could be enhanced by steam activation.

Presence of Ca2+ inhibited P-release from low-temperature (400 °C) biochar.

Steam activation makes high-temperature (700 °C) biochar a robust P fertilizer.

Biochar derived from enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sludge could be a potential phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Soil microorganisms play a regulating role on the turnover of P in soil. When the EBPR sludge biochar is added to soil, it would inevitably interact with soil microorganisms. Thus, for the wise use of the EBPR sludge biochar, it is imperative to understand the interaction between the biochar and soil microorganisms. In this study, Pseudomonas putida (P. putida), a common soil microorganism, was applied to investigate the biotransformation of P in two EBPR sludge biochars. The results reveal that P released from biochar produced at 700 °C (E700) was more easily absorbed by P. putida than that released from biochar produced at 400 °C (E400). This is attributed to the higher polyphosphates (poly-P) content in E700 and poly-P has higher affinity to P. putida surface compared to orthophosphates. Furthermore, E400 has a negative effect on intracellular poly-P formation in P. putida, which is probably caused by the oxidative stress induced by the free radicals from E400. As intracellular poly-P plays a critical role on bacteria survival and their interaction with surrounding environment, high-temperature biochar (E700) in this case would be more suitable for soil remediation.


Biochar For Environmental Management Science And Technology

1 November, 2019
 

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Determination of Parameters for Biochar Production from Biomass Waste using Rocking Kiln

1 November, 2019
 

Determination of Parameters for Biochar Production from Biomass Waste using Rocking Kiln — Fluidized Bed System

Isa MACM, Sopian. K, Mat. M, Razali H Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), National Universiti of Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract Biomass waste is one of the sources for renewable energy. Biomass energy can be produced from combustion technology, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis. Combustion technologies are such as rotary kiln, fluidized bed, rocking kiln, bed grate furnace, combustor and others. Biomass was converted to bio char using the developed Rocking Kiln- Fluidized Bed (RK-FB) system. RK-FB is a combination technology of rotary kiln, fluidized bed and rocking kiln for combustion. The objective of this work is to measure the optimum parameters to produce the bio char using the RK-FB. In this work, cold run and hot run were conducted to obtain combustion parameters. From this study, parameters obtained from cold run methods were total air for fluidization, rocking speed and residence time while the hot run method obtained parameters of the suitable temperature, the angle of the system, residence time, total air for fluidization, rocking speed, reduction of weight sample and Calorific value of the bio char produced. The samples used in this research were biomass waste from palm oil kernel shells. From the study, the suitable parameter for this new system to work efficiently were temperature 680°C-720oC, flow rate at 200-300 l/m, angle of the rotary kiln at 7o, residence time at 20- 25 minutes and weight reduction of palm oil kernel shells at 70%. The study also found that charcoal or bio char have calorific value, 33MJ/Kg. It is concluded that the parameters used in this work are suitable the Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed for production of bio char from biomass waste.

Keywords Biomass waste; Incineration; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW); commissioning.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Biomass energy sources are produced from materials that are derived from plants where the sources of these plants coming from either land or sea. Biomass includes all the plants specifically for energy resources or waste products from various woods, plants and municipal waste.

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industries. According to (Zuhaira et al., 2018) the oil palm industry is one of the main industries in Malaysia that contributes to the countrys gross domestic product (GDP). Malaysia had approximately 4.75 million hectares of palm oil under cultivation which covers about 60% of the country's agricultural area (Shafie et al., 2012). Malaysia is the second world`s largest supplier of palm oil after Indonesia (Malaysia Palm Oil Sector, 2012) and has supplied 30% of the world demand on palm oil.

    Since Malaysia is the largest production of palm oil, the industry generated vast quantities of palm biomass, mainly from milling and crushing palm oil. According to the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry report (Malaysian Palm Oil Industry, 2014), the types and amount of these biomass generated in 2014 are shown in Table (1).

    TABLE 1: PALM OIL BIOMASS GENERATED IN YEAR 2014

    Biomass

    Quantity (Million Tonnes)

    Calorific Value KJ/kg

    Moisture Content

    %

    Shell

    5.2

    20108

    12

    Fiber

    7.69

    19068

    37

    Most biomass can be used as combustion fuels. In the normal practice, the kernel shell and fiber used as main fuels for main sources of energy in palm oil mills. The fuels are burn in the boiler to produce steam for electricity generation for use in the milling process (Nasrin et al., 2008).

    Biomass energy production from biomass waste can be from combustion technology, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis. Combustion technology involves rotary kiln, fluidized bed, rocking kiln, bed grates furnace, combustor and others. Rotary kiln technology includes rotation method and the residence time. The residence time depends on the length and diameter of the rotary kiln and the total stoichiometric air given to the system. Fluidized bed is another technology in combustion while the method uses air and sand. The total air located at bottom of fluidized bed system is one factor to contribute the suitable fluidization in the system.

    In this work, the determination of combustion parameters is essential in obtaining the desired bio char. Hence, the objective of this research is to study the performance parameters of the Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RK FB) system. The parameters involve in the study include the temperature, the angle of the system, residence time, total air for fluidization, rocking speed and reduction of weight sample.

  2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

    1. Characterization of the Palm Kernel Shell

      The palm kernel shells were obtained from the oil palm processing plant of Seri Ulu Langat Palm Oil Mill Sdn. Bhd, Dengkil, Selangor. Palm kernel shell characterization conducted using proximate and ultimate analysis. Proximate analysis, determine the energy, humidity, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon found in biomass raw materials (palm shells) using the standard method described in ASTM-84 (American Society for Testing Materials- 84) while the ultimate analysis determine the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and ash according to weight percentage basis.

    2. Experimental Rig for Biochar Production

      The lab scale Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed was designed with the capacity up to 500 gram/hr. The lab scale RK-FB was developed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency and National University of Malaysia to produce bio char from palm kernel shell. The lab scale Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed consists of combination of the three components; the rocking kiln, rocking drive system and fluidized bed. The length of rocking kiln chamber is 900 mm and the internal diameter is 160mm. Air was blown through the small holes with 4 mm in diameters and located below the rotary kiln bed which cause it to become fluidized and the fluidized bed. The Rocking rate ranged from 2 to 5 seconds using pneumatic system. In the combustion process for RK-FB cold and hot run procedure were implemented.

      The heating rate was controlled by controlling the amount of current LPG and oxygen passing through the burner. The temperature inside the kiln was 700°C and the temperature of the external or skin temperature was 160°C. The residence time and the heating rate were recorded.

      There are primary chamber, combustion chamber and secondary chamber as shown in RK-FB drawing in Figure (1). The primary chamber section consists of LPG burners and biomass residues inlet. The chamber combustion part is the place where combustion took place. In combustion chamber, there are fine holes for fluidization and rocking of the system. The secondary chamber is the separation of the flue gas and collection of the product.

      stack

      stack

      Biomass waste inlet

      Secondary chamber

      Combustion chamber

      Burner

    3. Cold Run and Hot Run Process

    The cold run and hot run processes with biomass waste were conducted in this work. The purposes of the experiments conducted in the two procedures were to study the efficiency of the rotary kiln and to gain the initial data during the cold run process and the true data during combustion or hot run process.

    Cold run process was conducted using air. Rocking method was implemented during the cold run pocess to obtain data on the total air that was needed and the rocking velocity to move the waste starting from the loading until the unloading at the combustion chamber.

    Hot run process was conducted to obtain data for combustion process such as the temperature, residence time, rocking, flow rate needed to become fluidized, product quality and yield of the product. This system is operated by turning the burner so that the temperature inside the burner chamber reaches 700°C, after which the biomass residue of the palm oil shell will be measured. The burner then will be switched off, and the flow of air will be discharged to the combustion chamber. The rocking system is turned on while the palm kernel shell burnt and the carbonization process took place to convert to bio char. The bio char products were released in the secondary chamber.

  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

    1. The proximate analysis and ultimate analysis of palm kernel shell

      The palm kernel shells used in this experiment were taken from oil palm processing plant of Seri Ulu Langat Palm Oil Mill Sdn. Bhd, Dengkil, Selangor. Table (2) tabulated the proximate and ultimate analysis of palm kernel shell. It is observed that the volatile content is high 74.9%. This might contribute to the carbonization effect and the yield of the bio char produced.

      The carbon content as shown in Table (2) is high 48.9%, compared to the another study done by (Nor Afzanizam, 2015). From the literature (Nor Afzanizam,2015), the characteristic of the palm oil kernel shell were volatile matter 71.1%, fixed carbon is 18.8% and ash 4.7%. Table (2) shows that there are variations of the values from the raw material which may be due to factors on the quality of the trees and storage (Ghani et al., 2010).

      Palm Kernel Shell

      This Work

      Nor Afzanizam, 2015

      Raja Razuan, 2011

      Proximate Analysis (%)

      Volatiles Fixed Carbon

      Ash Content Moisture

      74.9

      21.5

      2.1

      1.1

      71.1

      18.8

      4.7

      5.4

      73.7

      18.4

      2.2

      5.7

      Ultimate Analysis (%)

      Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulphur Oxygen

      48.9

      5.9

      0.6

      0.2

      41.4

      48.1

      6.4

      1.3

      0.1

      34.1

      53.8

      7.2

      0.0

      0.5

      36.3

      Palm Kernel Shell

      This Work

      Nor Afzanizam, 2015

      Raja Razuan, 2011

      Proximate Analysis (%)

      Volatiles Fixed Carbon

      Ash Content Moisture

      74.9

      21.5

      2.1

      1.1

      71.1

      18.8

      4.7

      5.4

      73.7

      18.4

      2.2

      5.7

      Ultimate Analysis (%)

      Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulphur Oxygen

      48.9

      5.9

      0.6

      0.2

      41.4

      48.1

      6.4

      1.3

      0.1

      34.1

      53.8

      7.2

      0.0

      0.5

      36.3

      TABLE 2: THE PROXIMATE AND ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE PALM KERNEL SHELL (Isa et.al., 2018)

      Product outlet

      Rocking system

      Primary chamber

      FIGUREURE 1: Schematic Diagram for RK-FB

    2. Production of Bio Char

      Cold run and hot run processes were conducted to produce bio char in the Rocking kiln-Fluidized bed system. From the results, it was found that the suitable fluidized is 200 300 l/minute and 25 minutes of residence time was needed for the waste to complete the cycle.

      The results also showed that combination of rotary kiln, rocking and fluidized bed produced a system that is able to move the biomass waste. The rocking method that was implemented in the system was to ensure that the waste would mix with the air during combustion. The rotary kiln must be rotated at an angle of 7°. The success of fluidized method depends on the total holes located at the bottom part of the rotary kiln. As a result, a large surface area will be produced and this will speed up the waste combustion process.

      Hot run or combustion process is another step after obtaining the initial data results from the cold run test. In the hot run method, the operating temperature of the kiln was in range of 680°C 720°C, which is the normal temperature of the kiln. At this temperature, the combustion of waste took place and was supported by rocking and fluidized to ensure that the combustion process is even. Set-up experiment for the hot run method is shown in Figure (2).

      FIGUREURE 2: Combustion of biomass waste in the Rocking Kiln

      Fluidized Bed

      The product produced from rocking Kiln-Fluidized Bed or yield is defined as the percentage of the weight of the final product of carbonization from the initial material weight. Note that the yield does not include the ash content derived from the initial material, which is not removed by any treatment simulating of producing bio char.

      The proximate and ultimate analyses of products produced from experimental results are listed in Table (3). The result of the product at temperature 680°C — 720°C is about 30-35% yield and carbon content is about 67.01%. The yield shows a decrease with an increase in temperature (Norfadhilah et al., 2019). This agreed with the work of (Abechi, 2013), lower yield is expected at higher temperature as more volatiles are removed. The rate of decrease is faster in the temperature range more than 400°C, which is characteristic of the behavior of the carbonization process. Produced the yield of carbon char about 29% at 600°C using the same raw material (Yang et al., 2006). (Stanislaw et al., 2018), used pyrolysis process found that the carbon content increases from 50% to 63% with increases in process temperature from 300oC to 400oC. When the temperature increased from 200-500°C, the carbon char

      yield decreases from 99.3% to 26.8% in wheat straw carbon char and 98% to 35.8% in pig manure carbon char (Liu et al., 2015). Carbon char produced from eucalyptus tree bark was 68% and corncob was 33% (Kanouo Djousse et al., 2017). From pyrolysis process conducted by Stanislaw (2018), total mass produced depending on the temperature with 50.07% mass yield of carbon char at 4000C and 88.57% mass yield of carbon char at 3000C.

      TABLE 3: THE PROXIMATE AND ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE PRODUCT

      Proximate Analysis (%)

      Ultimate Analysis (%)

      Calorific Value (MJ/KG)

      Volatiles 21.53

      Fixed Carbon 75.90

      Ash Content 2.25

      Moisture 1.2

      Carbon 67.01

      Hydrogen 3.41

      Nitrogen 0.74

      Sulphur 0.20

      Oxygen 12.59

      Ash 2.00

      33

      Table (3) shows the elemental composition found in the ultimate analysis. The elemental compositions were Carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) which are the main components in the analysis. This results agreed with the work of (Ghani et al., 2010). During carbonization C and H are oxidized to form CO2 and H2O. The content of C and H contributes to the positive calorific value (Ghani et al., 2010). The calorific value after carbonization is much higher that is 33 MJ/kg as compared to the calorific value of the raw palm kernel shell without underwent carbonization process that is only 24 MJ/KG. According to (Ghani et al., 2010), the high calorific value is due to the high carbon content in the sample.

    3. Effect of the air fluidization for the production of Bio Char

      The temperatures were set at 680-7200C at angle 7 degrees. From the experiments, the total air flow rate in the range of 50 850 l/m. From Figure (3) the air flow rate in the combustion chamber was 50 l/m. This resulted n 94% burnt of palm kernel shell with residence time of 60 min. However, the amount of bio char produced was 4% and the quality of the bio char was 32 MJ/kg. At 800 l/m flow rate the quality of the charcoal produced was low and approaching the quality of original palm kernel shell with low residence time. This shows that with high flow rate the palm kernel shell was not able carbonized.

      FIGURE 3. EFFECT OF THE AIR FLUIDIZATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIO CHAR

      Figure (3) showed the optimum air flow rate to produce quality and quantity bio char. At air flow rate of 200 l/m, residence time 20-25 min, amount of bio char produced were 30-35% with 33 MJ/kg. This shows that only 30-35% of bio char produced from 100% raw palm kernel shell. According to (V. Idakiev et al., 2013), the residence time is influenced by the air flow that enter the chamber. In his study, the materials dispersed in continuous operation while the residence time decreased as the flow rate increased.

      The charcoal production from the combustion is affected by the amount of air flow rate. The air flow rate also affects the residence time of the raw material in the combustion chamber until the product is released.

    4. Effect of the Rocking Angle

      Figure (4) shows the effect of the rocking angle of the system. The angle effects the quality of the product and the produced yield. In this work, the flow rate was at 200 l/m and 300 l/m with temperature at 680°C-720°C. At flow rate 200 l/m and 300 l/m with 2 degree rocking angle, the yield was 15% and the quality bio char produced was 30 MJ/Kg. This is due to only 15% was produced when 100% biomass waste inserted in the RK-FB combustion chamber. This is due to small angle and long residence time 55 minutes cause the bio char burnt stated that the angle of the rotary kiln effect the bio char produced. Further increased in the angle will cause inadequate residence time for feed to complete the combustion (Gajendra Kumar et al., 2014).

      From Figure (4) at angle 7 degree, highest production bio char at 30% with high quality at 33 MJ/kg and residence time at 20-25 minutes. With the same flow rate, a 200 l/m and 300 l/m, the difference is only 5%. Thus the optimum angle was at 7 degree

      At angle 10 degree, the yield was 35%, however, the quality of the product decreased at 28 MJ/kg. When the angle increased, the carbonization happened in shorter time and most of the kernel shells did not carbonized efficiently.

    5. New Parameters for RK-FB

    In this study, a new concept of laboratory lab scale system was developed which combines the three components which are the rotary kiln, rocking and fluidized bed made the system work efficiently. According to the literature (National Guidelines for Hazardous Waste Incineration Facilities, 1992) the combustion temperatures vary according to the characteristics of the waste material but in general the range is between 810°C 1650°C. However, the operating temperature for Rocking Kiln-Fluidized Bed which is used in this research is much lower that is starting from 680°C 720°C. The European Von Roll organization which produces a rocking kiln which is the same as a rotary kiln with rotation at 45 degree from centre in each direction also has the operating temperature from 600°C 1300°C which is slightly higher than the operating temperature for RK-FB produced and (National Guidelines for Hazardous Waste Incineration Facilities., 1992). The new parameters used in this research are tabulated in Table (4).

    TABLE 4: NEW PARAMETERS USED IN THIS WORK

    Parameters

    Units

    Temperature

    680°C — 720oC

    Air Flowrate

    200 300 l/m

    Rocking displacement

    90o

    Angle of the rotary kiln

    7 degree

    Residence time

    20 25 minutes

    Weight reduction of palm oil kernel shells

    70%

  4. CONCLUSION

From the experimental results, cold run and hot run process can be used to obtain combustion parameters. The optimum parameters obtained from cold run process were total air for fluidization at 200 300 l/min, the rocking angle was at 7 degree and residence time at 20-25 minutes while the hot run process obtained the suitable parameter for this new system to work efficiently were temperature 680°C-720oC, flow rate at 200-300 l/m, angle of the rotary kiln at 7 degree and weight reduction of palm oil kernel shells at 70%. This system is capable to process biomass waste with complete combustion to produce energy and carbonization for production of charcoal. The produced bio char have calorific value, 33MJ/Kg.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to thank Malaysia Nuclear Agency and Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), National University of Malaysia (UKM) for the usage of the facilities, support and encouragement in conducting this research.

REFERENCES

FIGURE 4. EFFECT OF THE ROCKING ANGLE IN THE PRODUCT PRODUCED.

  1. Abeschi, Preparation and Characteristic of Activated Carbon From Palm Kernel Shell By Chemical Activation, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 3(7), 54-61,2013.

  2. CCME, National Guidelines for Hazardous Waste Incineration Facilities, Volume 1, Ontario,1992

  3. Djousse Kanouo, B. M., Allaire, S. E. and Munson, A. D (2017). Quality of bio chars made from eucalyptus tree bark and corncob

    using a pilot scale retort kiln. Waste and biomass valorization, 9(6), 899909

  4. EPA, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Handbook, Permit Writer Guide to Test Burn Data, 1986

  5. Evbuomwan, B.O, Agbed A.M, Atuka M.M. A, Comparative Study of ThePhysico-Chemical Properties of Activated Carbon From Palm Oil Waste, International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations, Vol.2, Issues 19, 2013.

  6. Gajendra Kumar Gaurav,Shabina Khanam, 2 D Model of Sponge Iron Rotary Kiln Developed Using CFD, Conference Proceeding (EEECOS 2014) ISSN: 2321-9939, 2014.

  7. Liu, W.J, Jaing, H and Yu, H.Q, Development of bio char based functional materials toward a sustainable platform carbon material, American chemical society, Chem.Rev.115(2), 12251-12285, 2015.

  8. Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Sohif Mat and Halim Razali, Efficiency of the Rocking Kiln Fluidised Bed for Charcoal Production, Jurnal Kejuruteraan SI 1(7), 81-86, 2018.

  9. MPOB. Malaysian Oil Palm Industry: Overview of the Malaysian Oil Palm Industry, Retrieved from MPOB retievedwebsite:http://bepi.mpob.gov.my/images/overview/Overvie w_of_Industry_2012.pdf, 2014.

  10. Norfadhilah Hamzah, Koji Tokima, Kunio Yoshikawa, Solid Fuel from Oil Palm Biomass residues and Municipal Solid Waste by Hydrothermal Treatment for Electrical Power Generation in Malaysia: A Review, Sustainability 1060; doi: 10.303390/su/1041060, 2019.

  11. Nasrin, A.B.,MA A.N., RohayaM.H, Oil Palm Biomass as Potential Substitution Raw material for commercial Briquettes Production, American Journal of applied Sciences: 179-183, 2008.

  12. Nor AfzanizamSamiran, MohamadNazriMohdJaafar, A Review of Palm Oil Biomass as a Feedstock for Syngas Fuel Technology, JurnalTeknologi, 2014.

  13. Raja Razuan Raja Deris, Combustion and Slow Pyrolisis of Oil Palm Stones and Palm Kernel Cake, PhD Thesis , The University ofSheffield, 2011.

  14. Shafie S.M., Mahlia T M.i, Masjuki H.H, A Review On Electricity Generation On Biomass Residue In Malaysia, Journal of Elsevier, 2012.

  15. Stanislaw S.,Anna P., Monika Z, A New Approach for evaluating bio char quality from Mallow Biomass Thermal Processing, Journal of Cleaner Production, 356-364, 2018.

  16. Tihay V., Gillard, Pyrolysis gases released during the thermal decomposition of three Mediterranean species, Journal of Analytical and Aplied Pyrolysis, Vol.88, no.2, pp.168174, 2010.

  17. V.Idakiev, L. Morl, Study of Residence Time of Disperse Materials in Contionously Operating Fluidized Bed Apparatus, Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 48,5,415-456, 2013.

  18. Wan Ab Karim GhaniW.A., Abdullah M.S.K, Physical and ThermoChemical Characteristic of Malaysia Biomass Ashes, Journal The Institutes of Engineers Malaysia,Vol.71, no.3, 2010.

  19. Xiong Z.H., Chang J., Wu, C.Z., Chen Y., Zhu J.X, An experimental study on biomass airsteam gasification in a fluidized bed, Bio Resources.Technol, 95101, 2004.

  20. Zuhaira M Z., Fazida H H., Thinaj r., Aqilah B H, A rapid and Non-Destructive Tehnique in Determining the Ripeness of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB), Journal Kejuruteraan ,93-101, 2018

Isa MACM, Sopian. K, Mat. M, Razali H Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), National Universiti of Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract Biomass waste is one of the sources for renewable energy. Biomass energy can be produced from combustion technology, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis. Combustion technologies are such as rotary kiln, fluidized bed, rocking kiln, bed grate furnace, combustor and others. Biomass was converted to bio char using the developed Rocking Kiln- Fluidized Bed (RK-FB) system. RK-FB is a combination technology of rotary kiln, fluidized bed and rocking kiln for combustion. The objective of this work is to measure the optimum parameters to produce the bio char using the RK-FB. In this work, cold run and hot run were conducted to obtain combustion parameters. From this study, parameters obtained from cold run methods were total air for fluidization, rocking speed and residence time while the hot run method obtained parameters of the suitable temperature, the angle of the system, residence time, total air for fluidization, rocking speed, reduction of weight sample and Calorific value of the bio char produced. The samples used in this research were biomass waste from palm oil kernel shells. From the study, the suitable parameter for this new system to work efficiently were temperature 680°C-720oC, flow rate at 200-300 l/m, angle of the rotary kiln at 7o, residence time at 20- 25 minutes and weight reduction of palm oil kernel shells at 70%. The study also found that charcoal or bio char have calorific value, 33MJ/Kg. It is concluded that the parameters used in this work are suitable the Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed for production of bio char from biomass waste.

Keywords Biomass waste; Incineration; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW); commissioning.

INTRODUCTION

Biomass energy sources are produced from materials that are derived from plants where the sources of these plants coming from either land or sea. Biomass includes all the plants specifically for energy resources or waste products from various woods, plants and municipal waste.

The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industries. According to (Zuhaira et al., 2018) the oil palm industry is one of the main industries in Malaysia that contributes to the countrys gross domestic product (GDP). Malaysia had approximately 4.75 million hectares of palm oil under cultivation which covers about 60% of the country's agricultural area (Shafie et al., 2012). Malaysia is the second world`s largest supplier of palm oil after Indonesia (Malaysia Palm Oil Sector, 2012) and has supplied 30% of the world demand on palm oil.

Since Malaysia is the largest production of palm oil, the industry generated vast quantities of palm biomass, mainly from milling and crushing palm oil. According to the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry report (Malaysian Palm Oil Industry, 2014), the types and amount of these biomass generated in 2014 are shown in Table (1).

TABLE 1: PALM OIL BIOMASS GENERATED IN YEAR 2014

Biomass

Quantity (Million Tonnes)

Calorific Value KJ/kg

Moisture Content

%

Shell

5.2

20108

12

Fiber

7.69

19068

37

Most biomass can be used as combustion fuels. In the normal practice, the kernel shell and fiber used as main fuels for main sources of energy in palm oil mills. The fuels are burn in the boiler to produce steam for electricity generation for use in the milling process (Nasrin et al., 2008).

Biomass energy production from biomass waste can be from combustion technology, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis. Combustion technology involves rotary kiln, fluidized bed, rocking kiln, bed grates furnace, combustor and others. Rotary kiln technology includes rotation method and the residence time. The residence time depends on the length and diameter of the rotary kiln and the total stoichiometric air given to the system. Fluidized bed is another technology in combustion while the method uses air and sand. The total air located at bottom of fluidized bed system is one factor to contribute the suitable fluidization in the system.

In this work, the determination of combustion parameters is essential in obtaining the desired bio char. Hence, the objective of this research is to study the performance parameters of the Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RK FB) system. The parameters involve in the study include the temperature, the angle of the system, residence time, total air for fluidization, rocking speed and reduction of weight sample.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Characterization of the Palm Kernel Shell

The palm kernel shells were obtained from the oil palm processing plant of Seri Ulu Langat Palm Oil Mill Sdn. Bhd, Dengkil, Selangor. Palm kernel shell characterization conducted using proximate and ultimate analysis. Proximate analysis, determine the energy, humidity, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon found in biomass raw materials (palm shells) using the standard method described in ASTM-84 (American Society for Testing Materials- 84) while the ultimate analysis determine the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and ash according to weight percentage basis.

Experimental Rig for Biochar Production

The lab scale Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed was designed with the capacity up to 500 gram/hr. The lab scale RK-FB was developed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency and National University of Malaysia to produce bio char from palm kernel shell. The lab scale Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed consists of combination of the three components; the rocking kiln, rocking drive system and fluidized bed. The length of rocking kiln chamber is 900 mm and the internal diameter is 160mm. Air was blown through the small holes with 4 mm in diameters and located below the rotary kiln bed which cause it to become fluidized and the fluidized bed. The Rocking rate ranged from 2 to 5 seconds using pneumatic system. In the combustion process for RK-FB cold and hot run procedure were implemented.

The heating rate was controlled by controlling the amount of current LPG and oxygen passing through the burner. The temperature inside the kiln was 700°C and the temperature of the external or skin temperature was 160°C. The residence time and the heating rate were recorded.

There are primary chamber, combustion chamber and secondary chamber as shown in RK-FB drawing in Figure (1). The primary chamber section consists of LPG burners and biomass residues inlet. The chamber combustion part is the place where combustion took place. In combustion chamber, there are fine holes for fluidization and rocking of the system. The secondary chamber is the separation of the flue gas and collection of the product.

stack

stack

Biomass waste inlet

Secondary chamber

Combustion chamber

Burner

Cold Run and Hot Run Process

The cold run and hot run processes with biomass waste were conducted in this work. The purposes of the experiments conducted in the two procedures were to study the efficiency of the rotary kiln and to gain the initial data during the cold run process and the true data during combustion or hot run process.

Cold run process was conducted using air. Rocking method was implemented during the cold run pocess to obtain data on the total air that was needed and the rocking velocity to move the waste starting from the loading until the unloading at the combustion chamber.

Hot run process was conducted to obtain data for combustion process such as the temperature, residence time, rocking, flow rate needed to become fluidized, product quality and yield of the product. This system is operated by turning the burner so that the temperature inside the burner chamber reaches 700°C, after which the biomass residue of the palm oil shell will be measured. The burner then will be switched off, and the flow of air will be discharged to the combustion chamber. The rocking system is turned on while the palm kernel shell burnt and the carbonization process took place to convert to bio char. The bio char products were released in the secondary chamber.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The proximate analysis and ultimate analysis of palm kernel shell

The palm kernel shells used in this experiment were taken from oil palm processing plant of Seri Ulu Langat Palm Oil Mill Sdn. Bhd, Dengkil, Selangor. Table (2) tabulated the proximate and ultimate analysis of palm kernel shell. It is observed that the volatile content is high 74.9%. This might contribute to the carbonization effect and the yield of the bio char produced.

The carbon content as shown in Table (2) is high 48.9%, compared to the another study done by (Nor Afzanizam, 2015). From the literature (Nor Afzanizam,2015), the characteristic of the palm oil kernel shell were volatile matter 71.1%, fixed carbon is 18.8% and ash 4.7%. Table (2) shows that there are variations of the values from the raw material which may be due to factors on the quality of the trees and storage (Ghani et al., 2010).

Palm Kernel Shell

This Work

Nor Afzanizam, 2015

Raja Razuan, 2011

Proximate Analysis (%)

Volatiles Fixed Carbon

Ash Content Moisture

74.9

21.5

2.1

1.1

71.1

18.8

4.7

5.4

73.7

18.4

2.2

5.7

Ultimate Analysis (%)

Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulphur Oxygen

48.9

5.9

0.6

0.2

41.4

48.1

6.4

1.3

0.1

34.1

53.8

7.2

0.0

0.5

36.3

Palm Kernel Shell

This Work

Nor Afzanizam, 2015

Raja Razuan, 2011

Proximate Analysis (%)

Volatiles Fixed Carbon

Ash Content Moisture

74.9

21.5

2.1

1.1

71.1

18.8

4.7

5.4

73.7

18.4

2.2

5.7

Ultimate Analysis (%)

Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulphur Oxygen

48.9

5.9

0.6

0.2

41.4

48.1

6.4

1.3

0.1

34.1

53.8

7.2

0.0

0.5

36.3

TABLE 2: THE PROXIMATE AND ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE PALM KERNEL SHELL (Isa et.al., 2018)

Product outlet

Rocking system

Primary chamber

FIGUREURE 1: Schematic Diagram for RK-FB

Production of Bio Char

Cold run and hot run processes were conducted to produce bio char in the Rocking kiln-Fluidized bed system. From the results, it was found that the suitable fluidized is 200 300 l/minute and 25 minutes of residence time was needed for the waste to complete the cycle.

The results also showed that combination of rotary kiln, rocking and fluidized bed produced a system that is able to move the biomass waste. The rocking method that was implemented in the system was to ensure that the waste would mix with the air during combustion. The rotary kiln must be rotated at an angle of 7°. The success of fluidized method depends on the total holes located at the bottom part of the rotary kiln. As a result, a large surface area will be produced and this will speed up the waste combustion process.

Hot run or combustion process is another step after obtaining the initial data results from the cold run test. In the hot run method, the operating temperature of the kiln was in range of 680°C 720°C, which is the normal temperature of the kiln. At this temperature, the combustion of waste took place and was supported by rocking and fluidized to ensure that the combustion process is even. Set-up experiment for the hot run method is shown in Figure (2).

FIGUREURE 2: Combustion of biomass waste in the Rocking Kiln

Fluidized Bed

The product produced from rocking Kiln-Fluidized Bed or yield is defined as the percentage of the weight of the final product of carbonization from the initial material weight. Note that the yield does not include the ash content derived from the initial material, which is not removed by any treatment simulating of producing bio char.

The proximate and ultimate analyses of products produced from experimental results are listed in Table (3). The result of the product at temperature 680°C — 720°C is about 30-35% yield and carbon content is about 67.01%. The yield shows a decrease with an increase in temperature (Norfadhilah et al., 2019). This agreed with the work of (Abechi, 2013), lower yield is expected at higher temperature as more volatiles are removed. The rate of decrease is faster in the temperature range more than 400°C, which is characteristic of the behavior of the carbonization process. Produced the yield of carbon char about 29% at 600°C using the same raw material (Yang et al., 2006). (Stanislaw et al., 2018), used pyrolysis process found that the carbon content increases from 50% to 63% with increases in process temperature from 300oC to 400oC. When the temperature increased from 200-500°C, the carbon char

yield decreases from 99.3% to 26.8% in wheat straw carbon char and 98% to 35.8% in pig manure carbon char (Liu et al., 2015). Carbon char produced from eucalyptus tree bark was 68% and corncob was 33% (Kanouo Djousse et al., 2017). From pyrolysis process conducted by Stanislaw (2018), total mass produced depending on the temperature with 50.07% mass yield of carbon char at 4000C and 88.57% mass yield of carbon char at 3000C.

TABLE 3: THE PROXIMATE AND ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE PRODUCT

Proximate Analysis (%)

Ultimate Analysis (%)

Calorific Value (MJ/KG)

Volatiles 21.53

Fixed Carbon 75.90

Ash Content 2.25

Moisture 1.2

Carbon 67.01

Hydrogen 3.41

Nitrogen 0.74

Sulphur 0.20

Oxygen 12.59

Ash 2.00

33

Table (3) shows the elemental composition found in the ultimate analysis. The elemental compositions were Carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) which are the main components in the analysis. This results agreed with the work of (Ghani et al., 2010). During carbonization C and H are oxidized to form CO2 and H2O. The content of C and H contributes to the positive calorific value (Ghani et al., 2010). The calorific value after carbonization is much higher that is 33 MJ/kg as compared to the calorific value of the raw palm kernel shell without underwent carbonization process that is only 24 MJ/KG. According to (Ghani et al., 2010), the high calorific value is due to the high carbon content in the sample.

Effect of the air fluidization for the production of Bio Char

The temperatures were set at 680-7200C at angle 7 degrees. From the experiments, the total air flow rate in the range of 50 850 l/m. From Figure (3) the air flow rate in the combustion chamber was 50 l/m. This resulted n 94% burnt of palm kernel shell with residence time of 60 min. However, the amount of bio char produced was 4% and the quality of the bio char was 32 MJ/kg. At 800 l/m flow rate the quality of the charcoal produced was low and approaching the quality of original palm kernel shell with low residence time. This shows that with high flow rate the palm kernel shell was not able carbonized.

FIGURE 3. EFFECT OF THE AIR FLUIDIZATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIO CHAR

Figure (3) showed the optimum air flow rate to produce quality and quantity bio char. At air flow rate of 200 l/m, residence time 20-25 min, amount of bio char produced were 30-35% with 33 MJ/kg. This shows that only 30-35% of bio char produced from 100% raw palm kernel shell. According to (V. Idakiev et al., 2013), the residence time is influenced by the air flow that enter the chamber. In his study, the materials dispersed in continuous operation while the residence time decreased as the flow rate increased.

The charcoal production from the combustion is affected by the amount of air flow rate. The air flow rate also affects the residence time of the raw material in the combustion chamber until the product is released.

Effect of the Rocking Angle

Figure (4) shows the effect of the rocking angle of the system. The angle effects the quality of the product and the produced yield. In this work, the flow rate was at 200 l/m and 300 l/m with temperature at 680°C-720°C. At flow rate 200 l/m and 300 l/m with 2 degree rocking angle, the yield was 15% and the quality bio char produced was 30 MJ/Kg. This is due to only 15% was produced when 100% biomass waste inserted in the RK-FB combustion chamber. This is due to small angle and long residence time 55 minutes cause the bio char burnt stated that the angle of the rotary kiln effect the bio char produced. Further increased in the angle will cause inadequate residence time for feed to complete the combustion (Gajendra Kumar et al., 2014).

From Figure (4) at angle 7 degree, highest production bio char at 30% with high quality at 33 MJ/kg and residence time at 20-25 minutes. With the same flow rate, a 200 l/m and 300 l/m, the difference is only 5%. Thus the optimum angle was at 7 degree

At angle 10 degree, the yield was 35%, however, the quality of the product decreased at 28 MJ/kg. When the angle increased, the carbonization happened in shorter time and most of the kernel shells did not carbonized efficiently.

New Parameters for RK-FB

In this study, a new concept of laboratory lab scale system was developed which combines the three components which are the rotary kiln, rocking and fluidized bed made the system work efficiently. According to the literature (National Guidelines for Hazardous Waste Incineration Facilities, 1992) the combustion temperatures vary according to the characteristics of the waste material but in general the range is between 810°C 1650°C. However, the operating temperature for Rocking Kiln-Fluidized Bed which is used in this research is much lower that is starting from 680°C 720°C. The European Von Roll organization which produces a rocking kiln which is the same as a rotary kiln with rotation at 45 degree from centre in each direction also has the operating temperature from 600°C 1300°C which is slightly higher than the operating temperature for RK-FB produced and (National Guidelines for Hazardous Waste Incineration Facilities., 1992). The new parameters used in this research are tabulated in Table (4).

TABLE 4: NEW PARAMETERS USED IN THIS WORK

Parameters

Units

Temperature

680°C — 720oC

Air Flowrate

200 300 l/m

Rocking displacement

90o

Angle of the rotary kiln

7 degree

Residence time

20 25 minutes

Weight reduction of palm oil kernel shells

70%

CONCLUSION

From the experimental results, cold run and hot run process can be used to obtain combustion parameters. The optimum parameters obtained from cold run process were total air for fluidization at 200 300 l/min, the rocking angle was at 7 degree and residence time at 20-25 minutes while the hot run process obtained the suitable parameter for this new system to work efficiently were temperature 680°C-720oC, flow rate at 200-300 l/m, angle of the rotary kiln at 7 degree and weight reduction of palm oil kernel shells at 70%. This system is capable to process biomass waste with complete combustion to produce energy and carbonization for production of charcoal. The produced bio char have calorific value, 33MJ/Kg.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to thank Malaysia Nuclear Agency and Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), National University of Malaysia (UKM) for the usage of the facilities, support and encouragement in conducting this research.

REFERENCES

FIGURE 4. EFFECT OF THE ROCKING ANGLE IN THE PRODUCT PRODUCED.

Abeschi, Preparation and Characteristic of Activated Carbon From Palm Kernel Shell By Chemical Activation, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 3(7), 54-61,2013.

CCME, National Guidelines for Hazardous Waste Incineration Facilities, Volume 1, Ontario,1992

Djousse Kanouo, B. M., Allaire, S. E. and Munson, A. D (2017). Quality of bio chars made from eucalyptus tree bark and corncob

using a pilot scale retort kiln. Waste and biomass valorization, 9(6), 899909

EPA, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Handbook, Permit Writer Guide to Test Burn Data, 1986

Evbuomwan, B.O, Agbed A.M, Atuka M.M. A, Comparative Study of ThePhysico-Chemical Properties of Activated Carbon From Palm Oil Waste, International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations, Vol.2, Issues 19, 2013.

Gajendra Kumar Gaurav,Shabina Khanam, 2 D Model of Sponge Iron Rotary Kiln Developed Using CFD, Conference Proceeding (EEECOS 2014) ISSN: 2321-9939, 2014.

Liu, W.J, Jaing, H and Yu, H.Q, Development of bio char based functional materials toward a sustainable platform carbon material, American chemical society, Chem.Rev.115(2), 12251-12285, 2015.

Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Sohif Mat and Halim Razali, Efficiency of the Rocking Kiln Fluidised Bed for Charcoal Production, Jurnal Kejuruteraan SI 1(7), 81-86, 2018.

MPOB. Malaysian Oil Palm Industry: Overview of the Malaysian Oil Palm Industry, Retrieved from MPOB retievedwebsite:http://bepi.mpob.gov.my/images/overview/Overvie w_of_Industry_2012.pdf, 2014.

Norfadhilah Hamzah, Koji Tokima, Kunio Yoshikawa, Solid Fuel from Oil Palm Biomass residues and Municipal Solid Waste by Hydrothermal Treatment for Electrical Power Generation in Malaysia: A Review, Sustainability 1060; doi: 10.303390/su/1041060, 2019.

Nasrin, A.B.,MA A.N., RohayaM.H, Oil Palm Biomass as Potential Substitution Raw material for commercial Briquettes Production, American Journal of applied Sciences: 179-183, 2008.

Nor AfzanizamSamiran, MohamadNazriMohdJaafar, A Review of Palm Oil Biomass as a Feedstock for Syngas Fuel Technology, JurnalTeknologi, 2014.

Raja Razuan Raja Deris, Combustion and Slow Pyrolisis of Oil Palm Stones and Palm Kernel Cake, PhD Thesis , The University ofSheffield, 2011.

Shafie S.M., Mahlia T M.i, Masjuki H.H, A Review On Electricity Generation On Biomass Residue In Malaysia, Journal of Elsevier, 2012.

Stanislaw S.,Anna P., Monika Z, A New Approach for evaluating bio char quality from Mallow Biomass Thermal Processing, Journal of Cleaner Production, 356-364, 2018.

Tihay V., Gillard, Pyrolysis gases released during the thermal decomposition of three Mediterranean species, Journal of Analytical and Aplied Pyrolysis, Vol.88, no.2, pp.168174, 2010.

V.Idakiev, L. Morl, Study of Residence Time of Disperse Materials in Contionously Operating Fluidized Bed Apparatus, Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 48,5,415-456, 2013.

Wan Ab Karim GhaniW.A., Abdullah M.S.K, Physical and ThermoChemical Characteristic of Malaysia Biomass Ashes, Journal The Institutes of Engineers Malaysia,Vol.71, no.3, 2010.

Xiong Z.H., Chang J., Wu, C.Z., Chen Y., Zhu J.X, An experimental study on biomass airsteam gasification in a fluidized bed, Bio Resources.Technol, 95101, 2004.

Zuhaira M Z., Fazida H H., Thinaj r., Aqilah B H, A rapid and Non-Destructive Tehnique in Determining the Ripeness of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB), Journal Kejuruteraan ,93-101, 2018


Water Retention, Air Exchange and Pore Structure Characteristics after Three Years of Rice Straw …

1 November, 2019
 

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Soil Physics & Hydrology Water Retention, Air Exchange and Pore Structure Characteristics after …

1 November, 2019
 

Biochar has been suggested as soil amendment for improving soil structure and associated functions for agricultural production. We investigated the impact of rice straw biochar application on soil water retention (SWR), air movement through soil, and soil pore characteristics of a tropical sandy clay loam field. A field experiment was conducted at the University of Ghana’s Forest and Horticultural Crops Research Centre, Kade, Ghana, which comprised three treatments: soil without biochar (B0), and soil amended with 15 and 30 Mg ha−1 of biochar (B15 and B30, respectively). Three years after biochar application, we sampled intact 100 cm3 soil cores and measured SWR, air permeability (ka) and gas diffusivity (Dp/D0), and quantified pore characteristics: tortuosity (τ), effective pore diameter (dB) and the number of air-filled pores in a given soil cross-section (nB) at selected matric potentials. At all matric potentials (−10 to −15000 hPa), B30 considerably reduced SWR compared to B0, whereas the B15 had similar SWR as B0. Biochar did not significantly affect the plant available water (PAW). The B30 significantly increased ka at −30 hPa relative to B15. At a given air-filled porosity, the B30 tended to have larger Dp/D0 values compared to B0. Despite these improvements in soil air transport, the effect of the biochar treatment was marginal on soil τ, dB and nB. We suggest that, probably higher biochar application rates and longer time are needed to significantly improve PAW and soil pore structure characteristics, which control air and gas transport through the soil.

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1 November, 2019
 


Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using magnetic modified biochar derived from raw corncob

1 November, 2019
 

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Magnetic modified-corncob biochar with impregnation ratio of iron at 20% (w/w) was used for removal of Cr(VI) from the aqueous solution. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption isotherm, kinetics and mechanism of Cr(VI) onto MCB20. The results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity achieved 25.94mg/g. The adsorption kinetic data were found to fit best to the pseudo-second order model with a high correlation coefficient (R2=0.992). The adsorption mechanisms of Cr(VI) onto MCB20 were electrostatic attraction, anion exchange and adsorption coupled-reduction. The adsorption mechanisms occurring between Cr(VI) anions and MCB20 due to mainly contribution of Fe3O4 presence in corncob biochar structure after magnetization by FeCl3. Among a fore mentioned mechanisms, adsorption coupled-reduction plays vital role in removal of Cr(VI) by enhancement the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) through generation of electron-donor groups (hydroxyl groups) on the MCB20 surface. Then, Cr(VI) interacted with the electron-donor groups and Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III). Besides, Fe2+ ions in the MCB20 structure were simultaneously oxidized to Fe3+ ions and enhanced transformation of Cr(VI) into Cr(III). The reduced Cr(III) cation, finally, were adsorbed by MBC20 through substitution Fe3+ with Cr3+ in the acidic condition, complexation with surface functional groups of MCB20 and formation of Cr(OH)3¬. This study both developed a new way to produce low cost adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI) from the aqueous solution and solved waste by waste.

The article was received on 23 May 2019, accepted on 01 Nov 2019 and first published on 01 Nov 2019

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Iron-montmorillonite treated corn straw biochar

1 November, 2019
 

In this study, corn straw biomass was co-pyrolyzed with a clay mineral (montmorillonite) in the presence of iron-bearing materials (FeCl3, magnetite and iron acetylacetone) and the prepared iron-montmorillonite biochars were characterized for their interfacial behavior. The results showed that, by adding iron to the pyrolysis process, organometallic complexes such as Fe-O-C were generated on the surface of biochars. All the iron-montmorillonite biochars were also shown to enhance the oxidation resistance likely by the increased relative contents of C=O and COOH from 0% and 3.7% to 6.5-8.4% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively, compared with the iron-absent biochar. The measured carbon recalcitrance index (R50, bicohar) of iron-montmorillonite biochars in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also increased from 46.9% to 48.6-56.9%. Among the three types of added iron materials, magnetite showed the best performance in improving biochar stability. The study indicated that, when added together, montmorillonite and iron were effective in improving the stability of biochar, which displays an important environmental significance of carbon sequestration.

 


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The Leading Companies Competing in the Electroactive Polymer Market: Industry Forecast, 2019 …

1 November, 2019
 

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Biochar Market will Likely Rise to US$14751.8 by 2025

1 November, 2019
 

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Genesis Industries LLC, Vega Biofuels, Inc., Phoenix Energy, Full Circle Biochar, Pacific Biochar, Diacarbon Energy Inc., Earth Systems Bioenergy, Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd, Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Biochar Supreme LLC, CharGrow, LLC, and Cool Planet Energy Systems are some of the prominent companies currently functional in the global biochar market.

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News Live 2019: Global Granular Biochars Market Rise to High Globally In Next Five Years

1 November, 2019
 

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The market study on the global Granular Biochar market will encompass the entire ecosystem of the industry, covering five major regions namely North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East & Africa, and the major countries falling under those regions. The study will feature estimates in terms of sales revenue and consumption from 2019 to 2025, at the global level and across the major regions mentioned above. The study has been created using a unique research methodology specifically designed for this market.

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Quantitative information includes Granular Biochar Market estimates & forecast for a upcoming years, at the global level, split across the key segments covered under the scope of the study, and the major regions and countries. Sales revenue and consumption estimates, year-on-year growth analysis, price estimation and trend analysis, etc. will be a part of quantitative information for the mentioned segments and regions/countries. Qualitative information will discuss the key factors driving the restraining the growth of the market, and the possible growth opportunities of the market, regulatory scenario, value chain & supply chain analysis, export & import analysis, attractive investment proposition, and Porter’s 5 Forces analysis among others will be a part of qualitative information. Further, justification for the estimates for each segments, and regions will also be provided in qualitative form.

Request a Sample of Granular Biochar Market Research Report and Analysis of Key Players at https://inforgrowth.com/sample-request/5594801/granular-biochar-market

Major players profiled in the report are GE Healthcare, Philips, BioTelemetry, Suzuken, Fukuda Denshi, Welch Allyn, Mortara Instrument, NIHON KOHDEN, Spacelabs Healthcare, Mindray Medical, Schiller AG, Innomed, EDAN.

On the basis of products, report split into,
Granular Biochar.

On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including
Hospitals, Clinics, Others.

The study will also feature the key companies operating in the industry, their product/business portfolio, market share, financial status, regional share, segment revenue, SWOT analysis, key strategies including mergers & acquisitions, product developments, joint ventures & partnerships an expansions among others, and their latest news as well. The study will also provide a list of emerging players in the Granular Biochar market.

The global Granular Biochar market is bifurcated on the basis of types and on the basis of distribution channel.

Based on regions, the market is classified into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa and Latin America. The study will provide detailed qualitative and quantitative information on the above mentioned segments for every region and country covered under the scope of the study.

Furthermore, this study will help our clients solve the following issues:

This study will address some of the most critical questions which are listed below:

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We are a market-intelligence company formed with the objective of providing clients access to the most relevant and accurate research content for their growth needs. At InForGrowth, we understand Research requirements and help a client in taking informed business critical decisions. Given the complexities and interdependencies of market-intelligence, there is always more than one source to explore and arrive at the right answer. Through our smart search feature and our reliable & trusted publishing partners, we are paving way for a more simplified and relevant research.

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IBI Biochar World Congress 2019

1 November, 2019
 

Message posted by Tom Miles to the Biochar Discussion Group (Yahoo Group):

Conference Chairman Dr. Yong Sik Ok will host us at the Korea Biochar Research Center in Seoul, Korea

Abstracts and Early Registration Due June 30, 2019


Biochar Fertilizer Market Analysis by Major Companies, Size, Segmentation, Market Dynamics …

1 November, 2019
 

Biochar Fertilizer Market 2019 report contains a focused socio-economic, political, and environmental analysis of the factors affecting the Biochar Fertilizer…

Biochar Fertilizer Market 2019 report contains a focused socio-economic, political, and environmental analysis of the factors affecting the Biochar Fertilizer industry. The report contains an analysis of the technologies involved in production, application and much more.

The report also carries in-depth case studies on the various countries which are actively involved in the Biochar Fertilizer production. An analysis of the technical barriers, other issues, cost effectiveness affecting the Biochar Fertilizer Market. Determining the opportunities, future of the Biochar Fertilizer and its restraints becomes a lot easier with this report.

Look insights of Global Biochar Fertilizer industry market research report at https://www.pioneerreports.com/report/538354   

About Biochar Fertilizer Industry

The overviews, SWOT analysis and strategies of each vendor in the Biochar Fertilizer market provide understanding about the market forces and how those can be exploited to create future opportunities.

Key Players in this Biochar Fertilizer market are:–

Get sample Copy of this Biochar Fertilizer Market Report at https://www.pioneerreports.com/request-sample/538354 

Production Analysis: SWOT analysis of major key players of Biochar Fertilizer industry based on a Strengths, Weaknesses, company’s internal & external environments. …, Opportunities and Threats. . It also includes Production, Revenue, and average product price and market shares of key players. Those data are further drilled down with Manufacturing Base Distribution, Production Area and Product Type. Major points like Competitive Situation and Trends, Concentration Rate Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion which are vital information to grow/establish a business is also provided.

Product Segment Analysis of the Biochar Fertilizer Market is: 

 Product Type Segmentation
Organic Fertilizer
Inorganic Fertilizer
Compound Fertilizer

Industry Segmentation
Cereals
Oil Crops
Fruits and Vegetables

Channel (Direct Sales, Distributor) Segmentation

Look into Table of Content of Biochar Fertilizer Market Report at https://www.pioneerreports.com/TOC/538354

Geographically this report covers all the major manufacturers from India, China, USA, UK, and Japan. The present, past and forecast overview of Biochar Fertilizer market is represented in this report.

The report offers the market growth rate, size, and forecasts at the global level in addition as for the geographic areas: Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, North America, and Middle East & Africa. Also it analyses, roadways and provides the global market size of the main players in each region. Moreover, the report provides knowledge of the leading market players within the Biochar Fertilizer market. The industry changing factors for the market segments are explored in this report. This analysis report covers the growth factors of the worldwide market based on end-users.

Inquire for further detailed information of Biochar Fertilizer Market Report at: https://www.pioneerreports.com/pre-order/538354 

The report offers the market growth rate, size, and forecasts at the global level in addition as for the geographic areas: Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, North America, and Middle East & Africa. Also it analyses, roadways and provides the global market size of the main players in each region. Moreover, the report provides knowledge of the leading market players within the Biochar Fertilizer market. The industry changing factors for the market segments are explored in this report. This analysis report covers the growth factors of the worldwide market based on end-users.

Why should you buy Biochar Fertilizer Market Report?

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Biochar Fertilizer Market are as follows:-

Single User Licence Price: USD 2350

No Of Pages in Biochar Fertilizer Market Report: 118

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Strawberry Seed Oil Market Forecast, Size, Strategies, Top Vendors, Trends and SWOT Analysis …

1 November, 2019
 

The Strawberry Seed Oil market report analysis series and provides a comprehensive insight into the global Strawberry Seed Oil channel….

The Strawberry Seed Oil market report analysis series and provides a comprehensive insight into the global Strawberry Seed Oil channel. It analyses the market, the major players, and the main trends, strategies for success and consumer attitudes. It also provides forecasts to 2024.

Look insights of Global Strawberry Seed Oil industry market research report at https://www.pioneerreports.com/report/112962   

About Strawberry Seed Oil Industry

The overviews, SWOT analysis and strategies of each vendor in the Strawberry Seed Oil market provide understanding about the market forces and how those can be exploited to create future opportunities.

Key Players in this Strawberry Seed Oil market are:–

Get sample Copy of this Strawberry Seed Oil Market Report at https://www.pioneerreports.com/request-sample/112962 

Important application areas of Strawberry Seed Oil are also assessed on the basis of their performance. Market predictions along with the statistical nuances presented in the report render an insightful view of the Strawberry Seed Oil market. The market study on Global Strawberry Seed Oil Market 2018 report studies present as well as future aspects of the Strawberry Seed Oil Market primarily based upon factors on which the companies participate in the market growth, key trends and segmentation analysis.

Product Segment Analysis of the Strawberry Seed Oil Market is: 

Industry Segmentation
Pharmaceutical
Cosmetic
Personal Care

Channel (Direct Sales, Distributor) Segmentatio

Look into Table of Content of Strawberry Seed Oil Market Report at https://www.pioneerreports.com/TOC/112962

This research report consists of the world’s crucial region market share, size (volume), trends including the product profit, price, Value, production, capacity, capability utilization, supply, and demand and industry growth rate.

Geographically this report covers all the major manufacturers from India, China, USA, UK, and Japan. The present, past and forecast overview of Strawberry Seed Oil market is represented in this report.

Inquire for further detailed information of Strawberry Seed Oil Market Report at: https://www.pioneerreports.com/pre-order/112962 

Key market insights include:

1. The analysis of Strawberry Seed Oil market provides market size and growth rate for the forecast period 2019-2024.

2. It offers comprehensive insights into current industry trends, trend forecast, and growth drivers about the Strawberry Seed Oil market.

3. The report provides the latest analysis of market share, growth drivers, challenges, and investment opportunities.

4. It offers a complete overview of market segments and the regional outlook of Strawberry Seed Oil market.

5. The report offers a detailed overview of the vendor landscape, competitive analysis, and key market strategies to gain competitive advantage.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Strawberry Seed Oil Market are as follows:-

Single User Licence Price: USD 2350

No Of Pages in Strawberry Seed Oil Market Report: 117

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Global Biochar Fertilizer Market 2019 Key Stakeholders – Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh

1 November, 2019
 

Global Biochar Fertilizer  Market Overview :

The worldwide market for Biochar Fertilizer is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly xx% over the next five years, will reach xx million US$ in 2023, from xx million US$ in 2017

Global Biochar Fertilizer  Market is the decisive study of the global Biochar Fertilizer  market. The report provides an unbiased and detailed analysis of the current trends, opportunities, market drivers which would help stakeholders to make market strategies according to the current and future market. The authors have added a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market. The study gives an idea of what situation the market will face, what will be the growth rate and which type of failure will occur. The key contents covered in this report includes industry drivers, geographic trends, producers, and equipment suppliers, market statistics, and market forecasts for the period of 2018 to 2023.

It splits the market by type and by applications to fully and deeply research and reveal market profile and prospects. SWOT analysis and strategies of each player in the market delivers knowledge about the market forces and how these can help create future opportunities. Then, new product launch events, mergers & acquisitions, and industry plans and policies are included.

DOWNLOAD FREE SAMPLE REPORT: https://www.mrinsights.biz/report/global-biochar-fertilizer-market-2018-by-manufacturers-regions-150087.html#sample

The leading players mentioned in this report:Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics LLC,

For each geographical region, the market potential is analyzed with respect to the growth rate, consumer buying patterns, demand, and present scenarios, macroeconomic parameters in the industry. The industry existence and maturity analysis will lead to investment feasibility and development scope. The report offers the market growth rate, size, and forecasts at the global level.

This report also covers all the regions and countries of the world, which shows a regional development status, including market size, volume, and value, as well as price data. Geographically, the report splits global into the North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia etc.), Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa).

What Makes The Market Report More Powerful?

The key to any successful business is understanding the demands and requirements of the. To catch your ideal customer, engagement with your client base is important.  The report predicts upcoming market opportunities, challenges, risks and threats in the Biochar Fertilizer  market. It further has added its production process, plant locations, demand-supply ratio, import-export, raw material sources, and capacity utilization. Additional information featured in this report includes provincial trade policies, frameworks, market entry barriers, environmental concerns, market fluctuation, and study on volatile economic conditions.

READ FULL REPORT: https://www.mrinsights.biz/report/global-biochar-fertilizer-market-2018-by-manufacturers-regions-150087.html

There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the global Biochar Fertilizer  Market.

Chapter 1: to describe Biochar Fertilizer  Market  Introduction, product scope,market overview,market opportunities,market risk,market driving force;

Chapter 2: to analyze the top manufacturers of Biochar Fertilizer  Market , with sales, revenue, and price of Biochar Fertilizer  Market , in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 3: to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 4: to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Biochar Fertilizer  Market , for each region, from 2013 to 2018;

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9: to analyze the market by countries, by type, by application and by manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;

Chapter 10 and 11: to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2013 to 2018;

Chapter 12: Biochar Fertilizer  Market  market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2018 to 2023;

Chapter 13, 14 and 15: to describe Biochar Fertilizer  Market  sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source

Customization of the Report:This report can be customized to meet the client’s requirements. Please connect with our sales team (sales@mrinsights.biz), who will ensure that you get a report that suits your needs.

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Biochar Market 2019 | Trends, Growth, Size and Application in Health Care Industrial

1 November, 2019
 

Global “Biochar Market” report provides complete evaluation for those who are looking for Business expand in various regions, manufacturers, New entrants in the industry, Professional organisation/solutions providers, Government bodies, financial speculators and private value firms.

Reports presents an in-depth assessment of the Biochar including enabling technologies, key trends, market drivers, challenges, standardization, regulatory landscape, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents forecasts for Biochar investments from 2019 till 2024.

Get a Sample Copy of the Report — https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/14056926   

About Biochar:

This report studies the Biochar market, Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.

Biochar Market Key Players:

Biochar market is a growing market into the C1 sector at present years. The Biochar has uncovered rapid development in the current and past years and is probably going to proceed with a continuing development in the upcoming years.

Biochar Market Types:

Biochar Market Applications:

Scope of the Report:

Key Reasons to Purchase:

Inquire or Share Your Questions If Any before the Purchasing This Report — https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/14056926

Key questions answered in the report include:

At last, the report gives the inside and out examination of Biochar Market took after by above components, which are useful for organizations or individual for development of their present business or the individuals who are hoping to enter in Biochar industry.

Number of Pages: 124

Purchase This Report (Price 3480 USD for single user license): https://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/14056926

1 Biochar Market Overview

1.1 Product Overview and Scope

1.2 Classification of Biochar by Types

1.2.1 Global Market Revenue Comparison by Types (2019-2024)

1.2.2 Global Market Revenue Market Share by Types in 2018

1.3 Global Biochar Market by Application

1.3.1 Global Market Size and Market Share Comparison by Applications (2014-2024)

1.4 Global Biochar Market by Regions

2 Manufacturers Profiles

2.1 Manufacture 1

2.1.1 Business Overview

2.1.2 Biochar Type and Applications

2.1.2.1 Product A

2.1.2.2 Product B

2.2 Manufacture 2

2.2.1 Business Overview

2.2.2 Biochar Type and Applications

2.2.2.1 Product A

2.2.2.2 Product B

More..

3 Global Market Competition, by Players

3.1 Global Biochar Revenue and Share by Players (2014-2019)

3.2 Market Concentration Rate

3.2.1 Top 5 Biochar Players Market Share

3.2.2 Top 10 Biochar Players Market Share

3.3 Market Competition Trend

4 Global Market Size by Regions

4.1 Global Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Regions

4.2 North America Revenue and Growth Rate (2014-2019)

4.3 Europe Revenue and Growth Rate (2014-2019)

4.4 Asia-Pacific Revenue and Growth Rate (2014-2019)

4.5 South America Revenue and Growth Rate (2014-2019)

4.6 Middle East and Africa Revenue and Growth Rate (2014-2019)

Continued..

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Our other Reports:

Global Bus Services Market by Share, Size, Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2024

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Biochar slideshare

1 November, 2019
 

Campus Journalism

It lights houses, buildings, streets, provides domestic and industrial heat, and powers most equipment used in homes, offices and machinery in factories. Food makes your body work, grow and repair itself. ² In the forward scan of figure 1, the potential first scans negatively, starting from a greater potential (a) and ending at a lower potential (d). Technology. • Economic Aspects of bio- oil production. Biochar is a solid material derived from the carbonisation of biomass. Learn about working at BioDea. In the current era, Smart City projects have to deal with big social, ecological, and technological challenges such as digitalization, pollution, democratic aspirations, more security, etc. What is Climate Change? Climate change refers to significant, long-term changes in the global climate. Modern life is unimaginable without electricity. Join LinkedIn today for free. Hayrides, barn floors, over-stuffed scarecrows and cows munching on grass – that’s what I knew growing up in Maine. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. FROM THE SEPTEMBER 2019 ISSUE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE MAGAZINE. These three cycles working in balance are responsible for carrying away waste materials and replenishing the ecosystem with the nutrients necessary to sustain life. This fraction of soil consists of loose and friable particles of 2. How to Make a Compost Tea. Biochar can be used in all types of agricultural systems (organic, chemical, permaculture, mixed farming, natural farming, biodynamic agriculture, Homa therapy for agriculture, zero tillage farming, etc. , FASc, PEng, CEng, FIChemE, FHEA, MIEM, AAE. Before going to the properties of amino acids, we should brush back the amino acids basic points. Since 1983 forestry has benefited from more than US$120 million in investments and has undergone substantial changes, resulting in doubled earnings between 1985 and 1990. 14: Characteristics of biochar derived from pyrolysis of biomass materials 152. Composting is a natural process that transforms waste into a rich soil additive. Many a times I receive requests for excel file. The USBI Advisory Board has developed a set of Biochar Sustainability Protocols that promote the health of people and the planet as the process creates value. Rock hard in ten seconds. Fermented pickles or brined pickles undergo a curing process for several weeks in which fermentative bacteria produce acids necessary for the preservation process. Bacteria Functional Groups biochar. Wakefield Biochar. We have given Alert notice about fake journals since July 2017 and we have been receiving messages even now from people who have fallen prey to fake journals that are imitating our journal Current Science (www. Repairs almost anything. 3m 2). Biochar has the potential to increase conventional agricultural productiv-ity and mitigate GHG emissions from agricultural soils. , 2009). 1 5. Conversión del tamaño en número de malla o granulometría (U. The Biological Activated Carbon Process for Water Purification In the early seventies, it was reported that bacteria which proliferate in GAC filters may be responsible for a fraction of the net removal of organics in the filter. Of course we know some microbes are bad, like e. The choice of the functional unit influences inventory results. slideshare. This chapter includes the Physio chemical properties of Amino acids. Solution: biochar enhances nutrient recycling and carbon sequestration. suspension synonyms, suspension pronunciation, suspension translation, English dictionary definition of suspension. Kit has organized and spoken at numerous conferences and has served as an advisory board member for South by Southwest ECO and WebVisions. Our comments: Shall present soils as a living organism — a quality attributed to animals, human, the general environment, but not to soils. Biochar formed as by-product in cook stoves is the common accessible source in rural areas. Basically, carbon sinks are holding tanks for carbon or carbon compounds, like carbon dioxide (CO2). This site has been created to facilitate the establishment of a South East Asian biochar interest group. Zeta-Meter Inc. The story goes that charcoal buried in the soil is stable for thousands if not hundreds of thousands of years and increases crop yields. The higher involvement of multi-stakeholders in the different phases of the projects is one strategy, enabling Green computing even includes changing government policy to encourage recycling and lowering energy use by individuals and businesses. El polvo sólo se aplica en la purificación de líquidos; el carbón se dosifica en un tanque con agitación y luego se separa del líquido por medio de un filtro adecuado para retener partículas pequeñas (como es el filtro prensa). The strict definition of a soil amendment is anything added and mixed into the soil. Urban trees face various challenges which frequently lead to high tree mortality, shorter lifespans and increased maintenance cost. 15: Effect of carbonization temperature on yield and fixed carbon  >In partnership with the Bureau of Plant Industry, Foundation for the Philippine Environment, GMA Network, Inc. 7. This tutorial will guide you through the process of planning, building, and testing a wireless home network. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Pyrolysis, which is also the first step in gasification and combustion, occurs in the absence or near absence of oxygen, and it is thus distinct from combustion (burning), which can take place PubMed comprises more than 29 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. The Seattle BioChar Working Group is a grass-roots, 501c3 nonprofit organization. Biochar thus has the potential to help mitigate climate change via carbon sequestration. Properties of palm kernel shell (PKS) biochar were studied to identify its potential for soil amendment and carbon sequestration. Soil application of Biochar, made of biomass. . The whole soil, from the surface to its lowest depths, develops naturally as a result of these five factors. COMM 12033 Speech and Script. com, find free presentations research about Biochar PPT Biochar is an efficient adsorber of electromagnetic radiation, meaning that biochar-mud plaster can prevent “electrosmog”. net/saibhaskar/biochar-. Until recently, I thought hay and straw were the same thing. something that is suspended or 13 May 2014 Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. 27 members focused on the non-biological methods for obtaining value from biomass. Biochar first came into broad public awareness through the example of the Amazon, where the hypothesis is that Amazonian inhabitants added biochar along with other organic and household wastes over centuries to modify the surface soil horizon into a highly productive and fertile soil called Terra Preta, which is in direct contrast to the typical weathered Oxisol soils in close proximity. 23 Oct 2011 Project dates: 2011 to 2013. Although many countries have prioritized the use of biochar BIOCHAR USE IN SOIL GUIDELINES & INSTRUCTIONS for Growers David Yarrow, May 2014 this unfinished article is a work-in-process Something old is new again. The positive effect was related to the high adsorption capacity of biochar particles during composting (Dias et al. When burned, the energy in biomass is released as heat. Biochemical definition is – of or relating to biochemistry. BIOCHAR PRESENTATION By the Philippine Biochar Association O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Health 20 in hyperaccumulation of heavy metals as well as degradation of xenobiotics (Suresh and Ravishankar 2004). Raymond Bayan. This project investigated how charred carbon (biochar) is used to enrich soil by African farmers, and how it is being discussed and promoted as a potential solution to environmental problems. For potted plants, use pure biochar at a ratio of about 1:16 with your potting soil – about ½ cup per gallon of soil (118ml per 4 litres of soil). Our biochar technology re-invents fire in order to create clean energy and build healthy soils. Dr Elmer http://www. Modern biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environmental footprint, feed the hungry, use less and cleaner energy, and have safer, cleaner and more efficient industrial manufacturing processes. To improve tree health and survivability the Swedish capital Stockholm has been testing and refining the use of structured soils and biochar for nearly 10 years. Improve your students’ reading comprehension with ReadWorks. The anaerobic process, which is essentially putrefaction (sorry, but there it is), produces a very acidic environment similar to that in the stomach. This Biochar formed around 300 to 600 degrees centigrade has the maximum benefits. The success of biochar use seems to be dependent on a reduction of biochar price. The proposal to grow crops on hundreds of millions of hectares to be turned into buried ‘biochar’ is therefore widely seen as a “carbon negative How Much Biochar Should You Use? The general advice in the biochar community is that a healthy soil will have ~5% to 10% biochar in the planting area down below the roots of your vegetables, flowers, grass, trees or shrubs. A large consumption of cereal‐based foods with small concentrations and low bioavailability of Zn is the major reason behind this problem. Solid waste is generated from industrial, residential, and commercial activities in a given area, and may be handled in a variety of ways. 203—. … A carbon sink is a natural reservoir that stores carbon-containing chemical compounds accumulated over an indefinite period of time. called the cation exchange capacity (CEC). BIG-SEA could provide communication and linkage between biochar researchers, farmers, related industry and supporting organisations, interested in tropically focused biochar industry development. Keywords: composites, layered compounds, polymers, metals, ceramics 1. 17 número4 Effects of biochar on nutrients and the microbial community structure of tobacco-planting soils Biochar effects on nitrogen and phosphorus use  Here is our primer on Shallow Lake ecology given to the Crooked Lake Area Association in 2008 (Slideshare). How to Get Started With a Research Project. 251 likes. I have calculated O/C, H/C, C/N Biomass & Bioenergy is an international journal publishing original research papers and short communications, review articles and case studies on biological resources, chemical and biological processes, and biomass products for new renewable sources of energy and materials. org saibhaskarnakka@gmail. Check out this SlideShare Presentation: Background and Objectives: Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management with other soil amendments is crucial for optimal growth and productivity of grain crops. currentscience. D. Reduce the risk existing in the laptops such as chemical known to cause cancer, nerve damage and immune reactions in humans. Exclusive stories and expert analysis on space, technology, health, physics, life and Earth The angle of repose is the minimum angle at which any piled-up bulky or loose material will stand without falling downhill. Biochar gasification, 331 Bioconversions, 365 Biomass reactions in biosynthesis, 364–365 in reaction rate law, 76 Bioprocessing design problem, 926 Bioreactors, 364–367 cell growth in, 368–369 chemostats, 381–383 mass balances in, 377–381 rate laws in, 369–371 stoichiometry in, 371–377 summary, 385–386 wash-out in, 383–384 El carbón puede producirse en forma de polvo, de gránulos o de pelets cilíndricos. You can take a thesis writing course on Udemy to learn how to write a great thesis A thesis proposal is a short document that explains what the thesis you want to write will be about, what type of research you would do to write it, and what sort of problem you are attempting to solve by writing it. Obesity has been described as a state of chronic oxidative stress. , and Timothy M. S. Smog is a kind of air pollution, originally named for the mixture of smoke and fog in the air. Soil forms layers or horizons, roughly parallel to the earth’s surface, in response to five soil forming factors. All presentations on biochar in SlideShare dot net link Excerpts from the book ". Biochar. They take the form of cylindrical carbon molecules and have novel properties that make them potentially useful in a wide Online Shopping Mall Terkemuka di Indonesia. This article examines six of these functions. Anderson and Christa Roth, full text available on Slideshare 2 Jun 2018 The US Biochar Initiative is a not-for-profit organization promoting the http:// www. The chemical processes taking place on the surfaces of nanoparticles are also very complicated and remain largely unknown. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Further, more research is needed in order to understand the effect of biochar on soil microorganisms and how the interaction between biochar and soil microbes influences remediation of heavy metal polluted soils because such studies are rare in literature. Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming. What is the significance of the heating value HHV and LHV for bio-oil? I am using biochar for heavy metal sorption. Biochar plus amendments is one of the means to mitigate global food security and climate change. An example is a silt loam soil that has 30% sand, 60% silt and 10% clay sized particles. It is produced from pyrolysis of plant and waste feedstock's… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 96 likes. Improper disposal of municipal solid waste can create unsanitary conditions, pollution, and outbreaks of disease. In the past half dozen years, farmers and professionals working with them in several Asian and African countries have begun adapting and extrapolating what they have learned from and about the system of rice intensification (SRI) to a range of other crops – finger millet, wheat, sugarcane, tef, oilseeds such as mustard, legumes such as soya and kidney beans, and various vegetables – in what is tartaric acid with metal extraction yields typically following the sequence, copper> nickel> zinc> cadmium> lead. oxygen. Slideshare presentation by Rasmus Kiehl (2010): "Combining Biochar and Microfinance for Carbon Offsets" Quote was found on the Blog "The Biochar Economy" . The Basics of Biochar: A Natural Soil Amendment Josiah Hunt,1 Michael DuPonte,2 Dwight Sato,3 and Andrew Kawabata4 1Landscape Ecology LLC; 2,3,4CTAHR Department of 2Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences, 3Plant and En-vironmental Protection Sciences, 4Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, Komohana Research and Extension Center, Hilo IBI provides a platform for fostering stakeholder collaboration, good industry practices, and environmental and ethical standards to support biochar systems that are safe and economically viable. N. coli and salmonella, but more are considered beneficial and out-compete pathogens for survival in the soil. However, many of the methods required for estimating real reductions in methane and nitrous oxide are not yet available. 2. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Lazada adalah perintis e-commerce (online shopping) di beberapa negara dengan pertumbuhan tercepat di dunia yang menawarkan pengalaman belanja online cepat, aman dan nyaman dengan produk-produk dalam kategori mulai dari fashion, peralatan elektronik, peralatan rumah tangga, mainan anak-anak dan peralatan olahraga. The cations on the CEC of the soil particles are easily exchangeable with other cations and as Zinc (Zn) still represents an important health problem in developing countries, caused mainly by inadequate dietary intake. http://www. Involved with biochar, a structuring soil amendment than can hold and retain fertilizers — member of the International Biochar Initiative. Biochar crea una estructura a largo plazo en el suelo, que ofrece alojamiento para microorganismos y conduce a una mayor retención de agua y nutrientes. Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. 3 Are there other substances that are relevant for consumers regarding perfume allergies? Many fragrance substances can act as prehaptens or prohaptens, forming allergens which are more potent than the parent substance by abiotic and/or metabolic activation. The global biochar market sizewas worth USD 1. Search. It is an example of how financial and regulatory matters can also be aspects of the biochar economy. Carbons Finland produces biochar that can be used, for example, as growing media in landscaping, and for treating rainwater and runoff water, composting of manure and other organic materials, recycling of soil nutrients and improvement of the quality of growing media. North America is further bifurcated in U. Compost has many benefits for your garden soil, and increased soil fertility equals more bountiful plants in your herb or vegetable garden. in). net/bio4climate/hugh-mclaughlin-biochar-  parts of the country, and potential benefits of biochar use in improving soil health, Biochar production and use. All materials have a response when placed in a magnetic field, although with most, the effect is too slight to be detected. Feghali, Ph. Soil organisms improve soil fertility by performing a number of functions that are beneficial for plants. Biochar is defined as a carbon-rich product obtained when biomass, such as wood, manure, or leaves, is heated at relatively low temperatures (700°C) in a closed container with little or no available air (Lehmann and Joseph, 2009). The addition of biochar to soils is being hailed both as a promising tool in carbon sequestration and enriching soils, and it appears also to offer a range of other benefits Anaerobic composting requires an entirely different set of organisms and conditions than does aerobic composting. A Focus on Anaerobic Treatment There are 2 major types of systems used for wastewater treatment: aerobic and anaerobic systems. , to lead the Garden and Landscape Studies program at Dumbarton Oaks, an outpost of Harvard University. Value-added products with strict sustainable forest management policy hold a promising future in terms of sustainability for the timber industry in Ghana. Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE is a European Union funding programme that inspires and supports cooperation on shared regional challenges – with a budget of 246 million Euro from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). The Cation Exchange Capacity of your soil could be likened to a bucket: some soils are like a big bucket (high CEC), some are like a small bucket (low CEC). Sand particles can be seen by unaided eye. edu; Wei Zheng, PhD — Illinois Sustainable Technology Center Liaison You want to produce large-scale wood pellet? I think biochar would be better and wiser It is a problem as old as commerce. Soil texture is a reflection of the particle size distribution of a soil. Several different technological methods are available for the purpose of carbon capture as demanded by the clean coal concept: Pre-combustion capture – This involves gasification of a feedstock (such as coal) to form synthesis gas, which may be shifted to produce a H 2 and CO 2-rich gas mixture, from which the CO 2 can be efficiently captured and separated, transported, and PowerPoint is the world's most popular presentation software which can let you create professional SOIL POLLUTION powerpoint presentation easily and in no time. Readers often ask for a pdf/doc version of any sample feasibility study report. I will discuss the Tonga kiln, but first a comment about 2. La Via Campesina is an international movement bringing together millions of peasants Experience the next breakthrough in mobility. A new evaluation of the Common Agriculture Policy’s Pillar 1 greening measures for the European Commission, led by IEEP on behalf of Alliance Environnement, found that overall the greening measures have led to only small changes in management practices, except in a few specific areas. Sustainable management of phosphorus and other nutrients is crucial for agriculture, food, industry, water and the environment. Amazonian farmers discovered 3,000 years ago that doing so made the land much more fertile. A thesis proposal is a short document that explains what the thesis you want to write will be about, what type of research you would do to write it, and what sort of problem you are attempting to solve by writing it. Pyrolysis, the chemical decomposition of organic (carbon-based) materials through the application of heat. One way to demonstrate this would be to pour sand from a bag to the ground. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration. The biochar approach provides a uniquely powerful solution, for it allows us to address food security, the fuel crisis, and the climate problem, and all in an immensely practical manner. that the 2016 edition of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture is being launched. It has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases, which are released by burning fossil fuels. Body function and the food that sustains it is infinitely complex. Calculates the volume, lateral area and surface area of a circular truncated cone given the lower and upper radii and height. Like most  20 Sep 2010 BIOCHAR PRODUCTION AND USESWorkshop on Biochar – Production and UsesThursday 16th – Friday 17th September 2010Appropriate  21 Oct 2015 Biochar. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. Free Radicals: Free Radicals Free radical damage has been implicated in a wide variety of age related chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, ophthalmic and neurodegenerative disease as well as being involved in the ageing process. They reduce compaction, aerating the soil to allow water and nutrients to more easily move through it and reach plant roots. C. This project investigated how charred carbon ( biochar) is used to enrich soil by African farmers, and how it is being  Policy & Legislative Environment relating to Biochar & Activated Carbon usage . Biochar is a charcoal-like substance produced from agriculture and forest wastes which contains 70% carbon. These soil amendments or soil conditioners improve the physical nature of soil. Anderson, PhD — Facilitator psanders@ilstu. net/NutrientPlatform. Peterson@ars. 2 The Philippines Kiln This is a 1985 reference to a poorly designed but clearly TLUD barrel for making charcoal. Course code:-RAWE Course title:-Rural Agriculture  4 Sep 2012 This presentation is for a university class. Biochar and Soils. Solid waste refers to the range of garbage materials—arising from animal and human activities—that are discarded as unwanted and useless. I did CHNS analysis and got wt% of C,H,N,S. The support or matrix on which the enzymes are immobilized allows the exchange of medium containing substrate or effector or inhibitor molecules. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. e-geo. 5kg) of biochar to properly cover 100 square feet (9. Increasing consumption of product in producing organic food and its ability to enhance soil fertility and plant growth are expected to be the key growth drivers Biochar Is a Valuable Soil Amendment This 2,000 year-old practice converts agricultural waste into a soil enhancer that can hold carbon, boost food security, and increase soil biodiversity, and discourage deforestation. J. A chemical process by which triglyceride lipid fat molecules can be shattered into four molecules using methanol and caustic soda as a catalyst – Source. Using Plants for Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soils nanocomposites offer new technology and business opportunities for several sectors of the aerospace, automotive, electronics and biotechnology industries. Micromeritics Instruments Corporation is a leading global provider of solutions for material characterization with best-in-class instrumentation and application expertise in five core areas: density; surface area and porosity; particle size and shape; powder characterization; and catalyst characterization and process development. Biochar can also be applied to the outside walls of a building by jet-spray technique mixing it with lime. 3 kilo tons that year. This is demonstrated in a range of case studies from East and West Africa, where biochar, human waste and other waste resources have been used to produce briquettes or biogas as additional high-quality fuel sources. This helps you give your presentation on SOIL POLLUTION in a conference, a school lecture, a business proposal, in a webinar and business and professional representations. Here is another presentation (only 11 slides) to learn more about this product. Forest Ecosystems is an open access, peer-reviewed journal publishing scientific communications from any discipline that can provide interesting contributions about the structure and dynamics of "natural" and "domesticated" forest ecosystems, and their services to people. Prof Dr Ir Dominic Foo is the Professor of Process Design and Integration at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, and is the Founding Director for the Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies. They consist mainly of the photosynthesizing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes and fermenting Soil Porosity and Permeability • Porosity is the total amount of pore space in the soil (30 to 60%) – Affects the storage of air and water – Affects the rate of movement of air and water Deserts And Desertification – The Causes, Consequences And Challenges Desertification comes about by a complex interaction between the natural … of economic conditions, population pressure, agricultural practices , and politics. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint. 6,000 years ago, terra preta was invented—famous charcoal-rich “dark earth” of Brazil’s Amazon Basin—among the most fertile soils ever discovered on Earth—a stark contrast to A Great Introduction to Biochar! Thanks to our recent Biochar Community Conversations grant, team member, Kelsey Crane, produced this fun video! USBI – Biochar Sustainability Protocols. 1 SOIL CHEMICAL REACTIONS INTRODUCTION Biogeochemical processes in the terrestrial environment dominate the hydrochem- Dental plaque biofilm infection Ecological point of view Ecological community evolved for survival as a whole Complex community Over 500 bacterial species Adherence, coaggregation Dynamic equilibrium between bacteria and a host defense Adopted survival strategies favoring growth in plaque Disturbed equilibrium leading to pathology Professor Dominic C. Learm more about making premium biochar on WakefieldBiochar. It refers to activating particular representations or associations in memory just Growing plants by floatigation using biochar in salt / brackish / polluted / flood – evaporated water using sun light and rain water harvesting. Plus, see a full list of heavy metals and their characteristics. They are in the air, in the rivers and oceans, in our drinking water, in the soil, and on our skin. Soil Formation Soil Formation Washington Soil Atlas. Pyrolysis + Gasification. Get great prices from the gravel supplier! 5 brilliant mathematicians and their impact on the modern world We owe a great debt to scores of mathematicians who helped lay the foundation for our modern society with their discoveries. The international peasant’s voice. Animal Feed Science and Technology is a unique journal publishing scientific papers of international interest focusing on animal feeds and their feeding. Adsorption and absorption are important processes that occur in chemistry and biology. 02 mm diameter. Pienkos, Ph. Some management practices may help improve and maintain the biological fertility of soil. net/NutrientPlatform/towards-the-implementation-  Pyrolysis Parameters. Soil organic carbon is made up of a number of different pools that vary in their chemical composition and stage of decomposition. Res. net/saibhaskar/biocharculture-in-cotton- saibhaskar. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Table 4. 3 Zeta Potential The double layer is formed in order to neutralize the charged col-loid and, in turn, causes an elec-trokinetic potential between the The three main cycles of an ecosystem are the water cycle, the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle. , 2007). Architecture and Design Arts Business and Economics Chemistry Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies Computer Sciences Cultural Studies What is biomass power? Biomass power is carbon neutral electricity generated from renewable organic waste that would otherwise be dumped in landfills, openly burned, or left as fodder for forest fires. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Phani Solid-waste management, the collecting, treating, and disposing of solid material that is discarded because it has served its purpose or is no longer useful. It is produced from pyrolysis of plant and waste feedstock's… SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Biochar is being promoted as a “triple win” to address climate change, energy and food security. The GRA Croplands Research Group is focused on reducing the greenhouse gas intensity and improving the overall Kit was the community editor for SlideShare, and then LinkedIn from 2010 to 2013. Ada sebuah perkataan, "Failed to plan berarti Plan to be failed". CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE No-till agriculture – a climate smart solution? till the solution to reduce the hunger in the world and to mitigate climate change? It has been proven that no-till can signifi cantly reduce soil erosion and conserve water in the soils. • The future  Total elemental analyses of biochars presents challenges during digestion because of biochars' high chemical recalcitrance and widely varied composition. Agronomy for Sustainable Development (ASD) is a journal of the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA). 1. You can take a thesis writing course on Udemy to learn how to write a great thesis Looking for Sample Feasibility Study? Check this post for 55+ real life feasibility study samples. Many debate if agricultural land should be in the hands of larger scale commercial farmers or a multitude of smallholders. gov; Paul S. Heterogeneous Catalysis. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration, as it has the potential to help mitigate climate change. So, goal is always ahead of time and not in the present. Several recent major international developments will further strengthen its key function as a provider of informed, balanced and comprehensive analysis of global fisheries and aquaculture data and related issues. [Frontiers in Bioscience 2, d12-26, January 1, 1997] 12 CYTOKINES IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC INFLAMMATION Carol A. usda. Phosphorous is one of the major nutrients contributing in the increased eutrophication of lakes and natural waters. Here practice and theory merge under a  25 Mar 2011 Design, Construction, Testing, and Deployment of a Biochar Reactor: A Student Capstone ProjectRobert Prins and Wayne TeelJames Madison  30 Sep 2016 You can make biochar with a simple cone or ring kiln, but how does it work? This presentation explains the principles behind flame carbonizing  25 Apr 2018 Using biochar to achieve efficient irrigation, especially useful for horticulture crops, designed by Dr. This fertilizer can be used on flowering plants, vegetables, houseplants, and crops of all sorts to Phosphorous removal from wastewater Controlling phosphorous discharged from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants is a key factor in preventing eutrophication of surface waters. Coal is an important source of energy in the United States, and the Nation's reliance on this fossil fuel for electricity generation is growing. The money-based functional unit, which also seems more appropriate for the different products considered, favors the value-added. The potential of the working electrode is measured against a reference electrode which maintains a constant potential, and the resulting applied potential produces an excitation signal such as that of figure 1. Papers describing research on feed for ruminants and non-ruminants, including poultry, horses, companion animals and aquatic animals, are welcome. How to use biochemical in a sentence. Some improve the tillage of the soil while others improve the nutrient content. Revestido externamente com manta de aquecimento para temperaturas entre 400 e 700 graus Celsius com parafuso de Arquimedes em seu interior e mecanismo de acionamento permite com pouca energia transformar os resíduos vegetais picados em carvão vegetal (biochar), sem perder a fumaça ou gases do Efeito Estufa a custo baixo. In this study, 2019 has been considered as the base year and 2019 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Biochar. Biomass fuels, woody fuels, MSW, and animal wastes, comprise the vast majority of available biomass fuels. This presenta… SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. 12 Jun 2013 Improving Water Quality by Developing Alternative Markets for Poultry Litter Biochar. com. What’s biochar, you ask? It’s charcoal, buried in the ground. Ithaca, NY (USA): Cornell University. Coal 's role in electricity generation worldwide. Biochar also has appreciable carbon sequestration value. Philip T. 4. By making biochar from brush and other hard to compost organic material, you can improve soil — it enhances nutrient availability and also enables soil to retain nutrients longer. The global climate is the connected system of sun, earth and oceans, wind, rain and snow, forests, deserts and savannas, and everything people do, too. Gravel delivery within 25-miles of Marietta / Metro Atlanta area. The latest Tweets from ARTichar (@ARTi_char). 8 Apr 2015 Insights into sulfamethazine adsorption interfacial interaction mechanism on mesoporous cellulose biochar: Coupling DFT/FOT simulations  Biochar is produced by heating biomass in the absence (or under reduction) of biochar to build garden, agricultural, and forest productivity, and bioenergy for  7 Jun 2018 These biochar materials were then tested for phosphorus adsorption from Slideshare presentations: www. View Phani Mohan K’S profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. What are Carbon Sinks? Carbon sinks are very important for our environment because they act like sponges to soak up the carbon compounds that are playing such an enormous role in global climate change. Now LU is recognized as a center of biochar research and production in Missouri. Inilah contoh business plan terbaru Plus PDF – Membuat bisnis plan atau rencana bisnis bisa sangat membantu kelancaran bisnis kita. Abstract Grain dimensions, density, bulk density, porosity and angle of repose of paddy and rice were studied with respect to (a) varietal difference, (b) effect of moisture content, and (c) effect Access to and use of these Methods shall impose the following obligations on the user. In each of those categories, some There is a strong link between gender and energy in view of food preparation and the acquisition of fuel, especially in rural areas. ac. 1. Disadvantages : Green computing could actually be quite costly. The potential for biochar to improve soil fertility could result in increased crop yields from previously degraded soils for smallholder farmers. Initial fermentation may be followed by the Is the biochip the Mark of the Beast? The biochip technology was originally developed in 1983 for monitoring fisheries, it’s use now includes, over 300 zoos, over 80 government agencies in at least 20 countries, pets (everything from lizards to dogs), electronic "branding" of horses, monitoring lab animals, fisheries, endangered wildlife, automobiles, garment tracking, hazardous waste, and Comments for Proposal 'Carbon-negative biochar economies' in Contest 'Contest 2011: Global 2011' The Potential for Biofuels from Algae Algae Biomass Summit San Francisco, CA. Introduction Nanocomposites are composites in which at least one of the Start studying APES Midterm. Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. 1,283 views. Priming is a nonconscious form of human memory concerned with perceptual identification of words and objects. The animation illustrate the process of The Pioneer Valley Biochar Initiative (in Massachusetts) is a group of farmers, foresters, professors, students and concerned citizens, promoting biochar as a soil amendment that can increase soil productivity and enhance crop health when incorporated into farm, forest and garden soils. ) Global Biochar Market Outlook,Trend and Forecast 2015-2024 – Geographically, the global biochar market is categorized into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (RoW). Kelpie, WOW!!!!! How come that Handbook has not been highlighted before? (or was it??) It will take some time to digest 294 pages. Image credit: Dawit Solomon, Cornell University. 5 Soil and Soil Solution Chemistry JAN MULDER AND MALCOLM S. You can spread pure inoculated biochar around a grow area, then mulch as normal to hold the biochar in place. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Some nematodes do not kill the plant cells they feed upon but “trick” the plant cells to enlarge and grow, thus producing one or more nutrient-rich feeding cells for the nematode. To amend soil means to improve it with additional materials. The combustion of coal, however, adds a significant amount of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere per unit of heat energy, more than does the combustion of Sorption describes the actions of absorption and adsorption – desorption is the opposite of sorption. The composition of a specific nanoparticle can be very complex, depending on what interactions it has had with other chemicals or particles and on its lifetime. Bacteria may also be classified by living in a highly acidic versus alkaline environment, aerobic versus anaerobic, or autotrophic versus heterotrophic environment (Dick, R. Soil water holding capacity is controlled primarily by the soil texture and the soil organic matter content. Biochar is a carbon-rich product that results when biomass is burned under oxygen-deprived conditions. The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration. , Philippine Biochar Association, Haribon  vol. 19 Oct 2017 Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. CRESSER 5. Q-Bond USA. Standard Sieve) de medios filtrantes granulares y carbón activado, arena sílica. Join Often nematodes withdraw the contents of plant cells, killing them. You'll be required to undertake and complete research projects throughout your academic career and even, in many cases, as a member of the workforce. These cations are held by the negatively charged clay and organic matter particles in the soil through electrostatic forces (negative soil particles attract the positive cations). Biochar can store carbon in the soil for as many as hundreds to thousands of years. Immobilization is defined as the imprisonment of cell or enzyme in a distinct support or matrix. Define suspension. It is produced from pyrolysis of plant and  4 Feb 2019 In this book, the ​author explained 9 simple methods of biochar production. Coon Creek Watershed District 13632 Van Buren  17 Jun 2016 focus was more towards researching for nano fertilizers, biochar for moisture conservation . Biotechnology definition is – the manipulation (as through genetic engineering) of living organisms or their components to produce useful usually commercial products (such as pest resistant crops, new bacterial strains, or novel pharmaceuticals); also : any of various applications of biological science used in such manipulation. – the use of biochar for fertilizer. Amino acids are basically building blocks of proteins. biochar-books. Cation Exchange Capacity is the measure of how many negatively-charged sites are available in your soil. Carbon dioxide (CO History. It is used as soil enhancer to increase fertility, prevent soil degradation and to sequester carbon in the soil. The concept of integrating biochar with energy production can be extended further to an approach in which highly productive biomass crops such as sugar cane are first fractionated into food/feed, with the residual fibrous biomass being the feedstock for gasification to produce electricity (or process heat) and biochar. HyperloopTT is building a system that brings airplane speeds to the ground, safely and sustainably. He is a Professional Engineer registered with the Board of Int. Applied and Environmental Soil Science is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research and review articles in the field of soil science. • Bio-oil, Products from bio-oil. The research on biochar at Lincoln University was started in 2011 under the supervision of Dr. Food is in fact one of the most complicated sets of chemicals imaginable. Effective Microorganisms (EM) are mixed cultures of beneficial naturally-occurring organisms that can be applied as inoculants to increase the microbial diversity of soil ecosystem. View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Biochar PPT. Wright, M. It takes about 10 pounds (4. 2 percent of GDP in 1990; timber was the country's third largest foreign exchange earner. “Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. Microbes are everywhere. Sai Bhaskar Reddy. Our goal is to develop and implement biorenewable technologies. This technique characterizes pore size distribution independent of external area due to particle size of the sample. 23 https://www. Aims and Scope. In a similar research made by (Asada et al. When supply exceeds demand, prices fall Biomass fuels are organic materials produced in a renewable manner. Biochar may be added to soils with the intention to improve soil functions and to reduce emissions from biomass that would otherwise naturally degrade to greenhouse gases. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, GEO http://www. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area and is caused by a mixture of Shop our selection of Soil Amendments in the Outdoors Department at The Home Depot. Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint – Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. In this study, slow pyrolysis of PKS was conducted using the Steve C. What is Carbon Sequestration? More and more people are gathering at conferences to find urgent solutions which will have long-lasting but positive effects on reversing the current problems associated with rising carbon dioxide levels and the unsettling specter of global warming and climate change. Yield to maturity is also referred to as "book yield" or "redemption yield. The urban landscape historian Thaïsa Way, FASLA, relocated this summer from the University of Washington in Seattle, where she has served on the faculty for 12 years, to Washington, D. We need to reason before applying Biochar in an area, and its application is not adoptable everywhere. They used a “slash and char” technique, mixing biomass into infertile soil to build up rich farming areas. Download Presentation BIOCHAR An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation. 5 Mar 2014 This presentation was used to teach 2nd graders about water and filtration with a little bit of biochar thrown in for good measure! 10 Oct 2011 Michael Horton of ConCERT describes Biochar: a carbon-rich byproduct of combustion that can be used as an extremely efficient fuel for stoves  19 Dec 2009 You want to know all the secrets about biochar ? This book will help ! http://www. We provide access to solar lights in some of the most remote regions of the world and, are building a movement to eradicate the kerosene lamp. com. Introduction. “Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. Carbon nanotube. In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. “Biochar may represent the single most important initiative for humanity’s environmental future. Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, E1109 Lazada Malaysia "(Ecart Services Malaysia Sdn Bhd (983365-K)" is pioneering e-commerce across some of the fastest growing countries in the world by offering a fast, secure and convenient online shopping experience with a broad product offering in categories ranging from fashion, consumer electronics to household goods, toys and sports equipment. Soil fertility depends on three major interacting components: biological, chemical and physical fertility. She is the co-author of the book Present Yourself: Growing Your Business With SlideShare, published by O’Reilly Media, 2013. See who you know at BioDea, leverage your professional network, and get hired. This amendment can also decrease cadmium uptake by crops. They claim that by charring crop residues one acre of productive land can be turned into two acres of productive land within 8 years. ARTi was founded by students in 2013 composed of multiple disciplines and nationalities. November 15, 2007. , Canada, and Mexico whereas Europe segment consist of UK, Germany, France, and Rest of Europe. Transesterification – Definition, Glossary, Details – Oilgae. Bacteria can live in extreme environments like hot springs for sulfur bacteria or in extreme cold as in ice water in the Arctic. 3 billion in 2018, while demand was estimated at 395. Department of Agriculture. There has been increasing interest on converting rice straw to biochar and examining its use as a soil amendment. Public Environ. The world's leading adhesive repair system. Org’s global mission is to develop, promote and share positive tools for carbon negative living. Join our movement. The European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP) brings together companies and stakeholders to address the Phosphorus Challenge and its opportunities. CAP greening evaluation published. Biochar thus has the potential to help mitigate climate change via carbon sequestration. Applied at thicknesses of up to 20 cm, it is a substitute for Styrofoam insulation. This industry aims to replace the fossil fuel industry as well as the fertilizer industry. When this type of feeding occurs, large lesions are formed in the plant tissue (Figure 13, 18). Effects of biochar and charcoal on soil-hydraulic properties. Share; Like; Download Microbial inoculants also known as soil inoculants or bioinoculants are agricultural Maize growth improved after an amendment of arbuscular mycorrhizae and biochar. Sample feasibility study report is one of the most requested items on our site. This has led to renewed interest of agricultural researchers to produce biochar from bioresidues and its use as a soil amendment. Although mainstream wireless networking has made amazing strides over the years, wireless technology and terminology remain a bit difficult for most of us to comprehend. Biochar as one of the best choices by absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere or carbon-negative strategy to prevent global warming. BJH analysis can also be employed to determine pore area and specific pore volume using adsorption and desorption techniques. 8 Feb 2012 Dr. Phani Mohan has 10 jobs listed on their profile. experimentation a methodology was formed that set a basis to find the yield of biochar produced, percent of carbon in biochar and the surface areas of ideal temperature samples. Y. org Biochar is the product of heating organic matter such as wood, manure or plant material to temperatures over 300oC in a  16 Jun 2016 Slow Pyrolysis of Corncobs for Biochar as a Possible Alternative to Graphene Oxide by Alexander Lau Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali. The “ash content” is a measure of the total amount of minerals present within a food, whereas the “mineral content” is a measure of the amount of specific inorganic components present within a food, such as Ca, Na, K and Cl. Learn about the definition of heavy metal as used in chemistry and other sciences. Biochar Basics: An Introduction about the What and Why of Biochar Version 1 of these slides was presented at the 2009 Northeast Biochar Symposium, November 13 at the University of Massachusetts Amherst (Released for general distribution and use by others. Access thousands of high-quality, free K-12 articles, and create online assignments with them for your students. D1. A 30 minute rundown of the 2012 US Biochar Conference. The forestry sector of Ghana accounted for 4. Compost tea is a well-balanced and nutrient-rich fertilizer that you can make by brewing compost in water. Improved cookstoves that produce biochar as well as heat for cooking could reduce indoor air pollution and time spent on fuel gathering. • Bio-char production. These particles, although inactive, constitute the framework of the soil. Many conclusions and recommendations were drawn to understand the application of and further study of biochar as a beneficial sorbent. There are many types of soil amendments that can be added, and each is used for its own reason. For example, if there is a storm or strike, and ferries cannot deliver food to our province, this disruption to distribution increases in the cost of food, and decreases the availability of food pretty quickly: both of which affect our access to food. There is both technological optimism and debate about its potential. Foo, PhD. I went to the Scarborough Fair and checked out the 4-H animals but never payed attention to Agriculture statistics including data on crops, livestock numbers and products, commodities produced and land management. The relative proportion of biochar components determines the chemical and physical behavior and function of biochar as a whole (Brown, 2009), which in turn determines its suitability for a site-specific application, as well as transport and fate in the environment (Downie et al. These are low-cost technologies and anyone could adopt them  6 Dec 2016 Introduction Conversion efficiency Method of biochar preparation Chemical property of different type of biochar Effects of biochar on  4 Feb 2016 Presentation at National Permaculture Convergence (5th – 7th February 2016) 25 Oct 2016 Biochar and its importance in sustaining crop productivity & soil health. Among the issues exercising the minds of those concerned with the future welfare of the African continent and its people is the issue of farm size. SolarAid is an international charity that combats poverty and climate change. 25-10- 20161; 2. Organic Carbon Pools – Queensland Key points. (Source Finger Labs Biochar @ Slideshare) Cleankeeping already has posted information on Biochar, which represents a really great hope to create a cleaner and better world. This is re-garded as a basis for higher and more stable crop yields Buy gravel and other bulk landscaping materials from Georgia Landscape Supply. GRA Croplands Research Group. It welcomes multidisciplinary articles that bridge agronomy, cropping and farming system research with ecological, genetic, environmental, economical and social sciences. Sequential extractions proposed by the European Communities Bureau of Reference method used to assess the redistribution of heavy metal forms in the soil showed that apparent metal mobilities were reduced upon soil washing. The kind of food you eat can affect the efficiency of these processes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an allotrope of carbon. There is a minimum angle or maximum slope the sand will maintain due to the forces of gravity and the effect of friction between the particles of Australia's innovation catalyst. Determination of the ash and mineral content of foods is important for a number of reasons: Magnetic separation is a process used to separate materials from those that are less or non­magnetic. Peterson, PhD — Coordinator Steve. These bacteria also generate flavor compounds which are associated with fermented pickles. This highly porous and very stable carbon made from organic waste is able to improve soil […] Author Willem Van Cotthem Posted on February 18, 2015 Categories agrichar/biochar/terra preta, Climate / climate change, Desertification, drought, drylands, erosion, food / food security, land / land degradation, land management, permaculture, small-scale farming, Soil, soil degradation, soil fertility, soil moisture, Success stories – best This video is made available as part of the biofuels education projects funded by the National Science Foundation and the U. SeaChar. • Application of Bio-char. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. For both the CFI and NCOS, emissions and removals will be estimated using a prescribed methodology such as the National Carbon Accounting Toolbox5. Each has different uses along with pros and cons. Since 1916, we've been advancing Australia with inventions and innovations that have a positive impact on people's lives around the world. Biochar Interest Group, South East Asia, Dr Elmer V Sayre January, 2011. Presented at the Nile Basin Development Challenge (NBDC) Science Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9–10 July 2013. Its coverage reflects the multidisciplinary nature of soil science, and focuses on studies that take account of the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of processes in soil. Durable Biochar Producing TLUD Camp Stove: TLUD – Top Lit Up Draft stoves are an by Dr. " The YTM of a discount bond that does not pay a coupon is a good starting place in order to understand some of the more A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envisions, plans and commits to achieve. El biochar ofrece una gran transición hacia la agricultura orgánica, ya que crea una mayor independencia de los costosos fertilizantes químicos. 6–7 Biomass torrefaction has been recognized as a technically feasible method of converting raw biomass into a solid that is suitable for commercial and residential combustion and gasification applica- Breaking science and technology news from around the world. The user is granted the right, without any fee or cost, to use, copy, modify, alter, enhance and Making biochar through pyrolysis is an important aspect of manufacturing. The biochar produced at LU is through the slow pyrolysis that results in more biochar and adequate combustible gases. , 2002), it was found that bamboo biochar was effective in absorbing ammonia in soils. Biochar price is also largely dependent on the biochar production system, source and availability of biomass, transportation, application costs, efficacy of applied biochar in soil, and the mitigation of climate change. Biochar because of its physical and chemical property imparts value for various applications for the present and future challenges on earth. Scope of the Report: Global Biochar market size will increase to xx Million US$ by 2025, from xx Million US$ in 2019, at a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period. biochar slideshare

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Soil Conditioners Market Outlook 2019-2027 – Trends, Demand, Production, Sales, Supply …

1 November, 2019
 

The report on Soil Conditioners Market 2019 is one of the fastest developing element in Global Market. The Soil Conditioners Market has observed continuous development in the past decade and is predictable to reach new levels of evolution during the estimate period 2019 to 2027. The report estimates the key elements at play in the market. To offer a clear summary of the market to user and helps to implement their Industry Development Schemes. The report also provides exhaustive PEST analysis for all five regions namely; North America, Europe, APAC, MEA and South America

About Soil Conditioners Market:

Soil conditioners are the components added to soil that fertilizers and improve the physical qualities of the soil. Soil conditioners improve the structure of soil by increasing aeration, nutrients and water holding capacity. These are generally used for rebuilding or improving soils affected by improper soil management. It can be applied either before planting with a tiller or after planting periodically during the growing season. Soil conditioners also help in improving the yield of the soil and can help change its property to best suit the state that a plant needs to grow. Some of the commonly used soil conditioners are biochar, bone meal, blood meal, coffee grounds, compost, compost tea, coir, manure, straw, etc. Many soil conditions are commercially available in the form of certified organic products, for people concerned with maintaining organic crops or organic gardens.

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Soil Conditioners Market with key Manufacturers:

Segmentation of Global Soil Conditioners Market:

Moreover, the Soil Conditioners Market report highlights dynamic categories in the industry which contains of Soil Conditioners types, applications, business procedures, and end-users. Each segment is deeply studied and derived details about consumption trends, revenue anticipations, sales volume and development rate.

The global soil conditioners market is segmented on the basis of type, application, solubility, crop type and soil type. Based on type, the market is segmented as natural and synthetic. On the basis of the application, the market is segmented as agricultural and industrial. The market on the basis of the solubility is classified as water-soluble and hydrogels. By crop type, the market is classified as cereals & grains, oilseeds & pulses, fruits & vegetables and others. And on the basis of soil type, sand, silt, clay, loam and peat.

Important Points covered in the Soil Conditioners Market report:

The report provides a detailed overview of the industry including both qualitative and quantitative information. It provides an overview and forecast of the global Soil Conditioners market based on various segments. The Soil Conditioners market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. The report covers the analysis and forecast of 18 countries globally along with the current trend and opportunities prevailing in the region.

What are the business Opportunities for the Investors?

In the end, the Soil Conditioners Market report makes some important proposals for a new project of Soil Conditioners Industry before evaluating its feasibility. Overall, the report provides a detailed insight of 2027 Global Soil Conditioners Market covering all important parameters.

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Global Biochar Market Market Risk, Competitive Strategies & Regional Outlook

1 November, 2019
 

Biochar Market research delivers a sensible and actionable understanding of the market to support your plan with research-based facts. This report concentrates on the summary and offers qualitative and quantitative explore for the Biochar market scenario. This Report additionally focuses on the on-demand offer chain to understand the needs of various global Industries and a few vital options. Additionally to the present, it offers a comprehensive analysis of best key players.

The scope of the report:

This report focuses on the Biochar market global as well as the provincial market. The report is categorized supported the tip user, regions & application. The assorted key player within the current market is listed during this report. Key players are intricately thought-about during this report along side their revenue in encouraging regions.

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The Biochar market report could be a valuable offer of perceptive information for business strategists. The Biochar market 2019 evaluates an in-depth study of Main Biochar market players on the idea of their trade profile, demand, Biochar sales margin, margin of profit and annual revenue to possess a far better share within the Biochar trade globally. It additionally covers development plans and policies for Biochar market. The report highlights on the dominant facts of Biochar market position, that serves quality info of Biochar trade and additionally permits the readers to investigate the Biochar market scenario to form the choice consequently. The Biochar report describes the capable approaches of the market players towards the market propensity and producing stats.

Biochar Market highlight Of the Research:

-Industry Upstream and Downstream Analysis

-Describes the Biochar product Scope, market opportunities, market propulsion and risks.

-The proportion of producing price Structure

-Describes Biochar business competitive scenario, sales, revenue and international market share for Biochar are analyzed comprehensively by landscape distinction.

-Supply and demand of world Biochar business

Competitive Rivalry:

The key insights bestowed within the report may be a compilation of various business body, aiming to estimate the event of the segments in the impending period. Under the worth chain of the Biochar market, this report covers the analysis of the downstream and upstream components of the market. Except this, the report presents the competitive situation, covering company summary, product portfolio, monetary performance, recent highlights, and techniques. SWOT analysis and techniques of every bourgeois within the market provided in the report can facilitate players produce future opportunities.

Geographical information can facilitate the reader to perceive the most effective playacting regions. This report offers an examination and increment pace of the market in these regions covering North America (United States, North American nation and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia), Mideast and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, African nation and South Africa) with their crucial positions, size, production, consumption, revenue, and conjointly market share.

Biochar Market SWOT Analysis by Leading Key Players Includes:

Agri-Tech Producers LLC, Genesis Industries LLC, Diacarbon Energy Inc, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc, Vega Biofuels Inc, Earth Systems Bioenergy, Biochar Products Inc, Earth Systems PTY. LTD., Waste to Energy Solutions Inc, Swiss Biochar GmbH

The Segmentation for the report:

by Technology Advancement,

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List of Exhibits in the keyword market report:

-Product contributions

-Major changes in market dynamics and competitive landscape

-Global Biochar Market of the business by topographies 2019

-Global Biochar Market of the business by topographies 2028

-Geographical division by Revenue Generation 2019

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MarketResearch.biz published a new report titled “Cellulase (CAS 9012-54-8) Market: Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Trends, Growth, and Forecasts 2019–2028” in their offering. The  Cellulase (CAS 9012-54-8) Market report analysis includes industry size & Share, sales & revenue, analysis by volume & value, Trends, growth prospects & major companies. The Cellulase (CAS 9012-54-8) Market also […]

GLOBAL SOLID SURFACE & OTHER CAST POLYMERS MARKET — BY TYPE(ENGINEERED COMPOSITES, SOLID SURFACE, ENGINEERED STONE), BY APPLICATION(KITCHEN, BATHROOM),INSIGHTS, SIZE, SHARE, GROWTH, TRENDS, AND FORECAST (2019-2024) The latest survey on Global Solid Surface & Other Cast Polymers Market is conducted covering various organizations of the industry from different geographies to come up with a 100+ […]


Special Issue : Bioenergy and Biochar: Repurposing Waste to Sustainable Energy and Materials

1 November, 2019
 

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Dear Colleagues,

All types of biomass, and their waste, comprised one the pillars of the pre-industrial, pre-fossil fuel, agriculture-based economies of the past. Traditional practices of biomass waste management were applied, but not necessarily in a sophisticated and efficient way, and covered all the way up from agricultural activities to food production, animal feed, natural fibre separation as well as processing of forest-wood. The modern bioeconomy sector, though, includes new circular economy energy and materials streams of added value products, such as gaseous, liquid and solid biofuels and bioenergy generation routes, and biochar production, along with all the previously mentioned traditional bioeconomy emerged products.

The aim of this Special Issue is to include the latest bioenergy and biochar advancements and incorporation to a bioeconomy in transition. This Special Issue focuses on nature, properties, upgrading and bioenergy generation processes from all types of biomass waste and biochars originating from biomass waste. Overviews of international ongoing and collaborative, transdisciplinary research projects, technology transfer and policy development in the field are also welcome. A transdisciplinary approach in order to examine, explore and critically engage with issues, advances and barriers of the attempt are also encouraged.

Dr. Dimitrios Kalderis
Guest Editor

Dr. Vasiliki Skoulou
co-Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Resource recovery and biochar characteristics from full-scale faecal sludge treatment and co …

2 November, 2019
 

First comprehensive study on full-scale faecal sludge treatment producing biochar.

Biochar properties suggest potential applications as solid fuel or soil amendment.

Complete destruction of pathogens and partial immobilisation of heavy metals.

Co-processing with agricultural waste improves biochar properties.

First comprehensive study on full-scale faecal sludge treatment producing biochar.

Biochar properties suggest potential applications as solid fuel or soil amendment.

Complete destruction of pathogens and partial immobilisation of heavy metals.

Co-processing with agricultural waste improves biochar properties.

Unsafe disposal of faecal sludge from onsite sanitation in low-income countries has detrimental effects on public health and the environment. The production of biochar from faecal sludge offers complete destruction of pathogens and a value-added treatment product. To date, research has been limited to the laboratory. This study evaluates the biochars produced from the co-treatment of faecal sludge from septic tanks and agricultural waste at two full-scale treatment plants in India by determining their physical and chemical properties to establish their potential applications. The process yielded macroporous, powdery biochars that can be utilised for soil amendment or energy recovery. Average calorific values reaching 14.9 MJ/kg suggest use as solid fuel, but are limited by a high ash content. Phosphorus and potassium are enriched in the biochar but their concentrations are restricted by the nutrient-depleted nature of septic tank faecal sludge. High concentrations of calcium and magnesium led to a liming potential of up to 20.1% calcium carbonate equivalents, indicating suitability for use on acidic soils. Heavy metals present in faecal sludge were concentrated in the biochar and compliance for soil application will depend on local regulations. Nevertheless, heavy metal mobility was considerably reduced, especially for Cu and Zn, by 51.2–65.2% and 48.6–59.6% respectively. Co-treatment of faecal sludge with other carbon-rich waste streams can be used to influence desired biochar properties. In this case, the addition of agricultural waste increased nutrient and fixed carbon concentrations, as well as providing an additional source of energy. This study is a proof of concept for biochar production achieving full-scale faecal sludge treatment. The findings will help inform appropriate use of the treatment products as this technology becomes more commonly applied.


Biochar florida

2 November, 2019
 

Taylor a a Center for Water and Air Quality, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA Oxford Biochar website >>>> All our products are 100% organic, Soil Association approved, carbon negative and locally sourced, ensuring your organic patch is truly climate-smart. Growing flooded rice has proven effective in reducing oxidation and minimizing nutrient loss during wet summer months. 2, abr . , Simojoki, A. Our biochar and biochar-blended products improve human well-being and address Biochar amendments have been used in agriculture to improve soil fertility and enhance crop productivity. South Florida invasive Melaleuca quinquenervia was used to make biochar. Western Nutrient Management Conference Proceedings. What is it I hear you say. Potential impacts of using sewage sludge biochar on the growth of plant forest seedlings. Successful commercialization of biochar systems will take many different pathways depending on desired outcomes, local conditions and national and international policies. Organic carbon coating gives composted biochar a boost . INOH HUGE NEWS IN THE MAKINGS HERE STAY TUNED FOR UPDATES According to Mark Goldberg, Chief Executive Officer of INOH, "This is a great opportunity to partner with a terrific team of innovators focused on production of premium materials and products for the Cannabis Industry. in the case of biochar amendment) on soil chemistry and crop yields has been . At the same time, the biochar is truly beneficial for the soil. Biochar in South America. biochar- · international. Biochar is an ancient practice that converts waste into the #1 long-term soil amendment that we have on this planet. It is reprinted by Burning Sugarcane in Florida is Making People Sick. I have added a Buy Biochar page which will list companies selling Biochar >>>>. Impacts of biochar additions on soil microbial processes and nitrogen cycling. Current demand estimates suggest that biochar is a billion dollar plus industry worldwide with the two largest markets being North America and Europe [13]. by . Alan R. Biochar technology not only produces sustainable bio-energy, it can also store massive amount of carbons within the charcoal. Our speaker for October, Dr. Mobile Carbonizer. The grant put Santanu Bakshi, an assistant scientist at the Bioeconomy Institute, to work on yet another biochar project. Biochar has been shown to be effective in treating greening disease as well as increase yields. I think a combination of biochar, sheet mulch, cover crops and plot rotation would work really well. Biochar Usage: Pros and Cons. Biochar Supreme: Located in Everson, WA on the west coast just south of Canada. The University of Florida (UF), together with Florida A&M University (FAMU), administers the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. ii. W. Sewage sludge derived biochar and its effect on the  Biochar is a charcoal produced from plant matter and stored in the soil as a means of Visit the following links, promoted by the University of Florida/ Institute of  Delivery + Sales + Service Organic Compost & Mulch Delivery Tampa Bay Compost Tea Application = Microbial Soil Restoration Biochar. ALS3133T2Module3&4 study guide by jla29 includes 140 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. We have been testing and utilizing biochar for stormwater treatment since 2010. Terry Mock received a degree in Real Estate and Urban Land Studies from theUniversity of Florida in 1972. Biochar Technology, Inc. S. Our BioGranules™ product is a proprietary formula that evolved out of our work with organic potting soils, and the need to provide high concentrations of beneficial organisms in “peat lite” growing media. Zimmerman⁎ Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, 241 Williamson Hall, P. Hsieh a, D. Well as Biochar is still not what I would class as a main steam product, finding it down at your local farm produce or gardening store is going to be a little hard, Some charcoal products can be found but care has to be taken as some of these Pacific Biochar – Bulk biochar products for sale, plain and biologically activated biochar. Are there any distributors? Would it be more cost effective to make it myself (given that I have a relative infinite supply of wood chips/waste wood)? Biochar Land Application Objective. Catch basin inserts, pond filter benches and a filter box were installed and stormwater inflow and outflow were monitored for two years and results will be discussed. Routledge, London, 928p Scholz SM, Sembres T, Roberts K, Whitman T, Wilson K and Lehmann J 2014 Biochar Systems for Smallholders in Developing Countries. Biochar should loosen the clay while compost feeds crops. For more information, please contact lib-ir@fsu. Biochars are primarily stable Carbon Rings = Graphene Sheets. Traditional lump charcoal allows the volatile compounds to redeposit into the pure carbon. Comprehend what challenges the use of biochar faces and what a practitioner needs to know when using biochar. Biochar Solutions: Located in Carbondale, CO, they offer wholesale biochar as well as equipment such as the B-1000 Thermal Conversion System. Biochar and compost are evaluated globally as a means to improve soil fertility, promote plant growth and resistance to biotic stresses, and to mitigate climate change. Biochar production via pyrolysis is a means to sequester carbon for the soil long term. g. Living Web Farms is a 501c-3 education and research organic farm. Bin Gao, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States Prof. biochar for˜the˜removal of˜reactive r120ough˜adsorption Autosorb-1analyzer(QuantachromeInstruments,Florida, USA). biocharsolutions. Presentation 1. The recipe for biochar is not as simple. Hawaii Biochar Group. Re: DIY Biochar I inspiration about whether or not that was once as soon as anything very an identical. Biochar is the product of O 2-limited thermal treatment of biomass (pyrolysis) and is used in agriculture as a livestock feed supplement, compost additive and soil amendment as well as for manure The biochar had released some of the phosphate, which the lettuce seeds used to grow. Includes $100 million for Florida Forever, the state's environmental land buying program, $175 million for Everglades restoration, $50 million to expedite the rehabilitation of the Herbert Hoover The University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) is a federal-state-county partnership dedicated to developing knowledge in agriculture, human and natural resources, and the life sciences, and enhancing and sustaining the quality of human life by making that information accessible. Biochar and mill ash improve yields of sugarcane on a sand soil in Florida Article in Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 253:122-130 · February 2018 with 53 Reads How we measure 'reads' Mill ash and rice hulls biochar can potentially improve sugarcane yields on sand soils in South Florida. — . Biochar can be thought off as x-ray scan of the original biomass, which uncovers the structures of the biomass input. Press release by Biofuelwatch and Global Justice Ecology Project: For immediate release. Biochar gardens have arisen as a viable method of farming that promotes carbon sequestration. New life agro Wood Vinegar produces and supplies wood vinegar and by products for organic agriculture in usa. SOUTH FLORIDA BIOCHAR LLC has been set up 5/1/2013 in state FL. d Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States e Tropical Research and Education Center, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Homestead, FL 33031, United States highlights Prepare conditions affected biochar’s physicochemical properties. Biochar Is a Valuable Soil Amendment This 2,000 year-old practice converts agricultural waste into a soil enhancer that can hold carbon, boost food security, and increase soil biodiversity, and discourage deforestation. Click here to find biochar-based Cool Terra® for sale near you. org) has identified more than 50 uses for biochar, and worldwide interest in and demand for biochar are growing quickly. Mechanisms of metal sorption by biochars: Biochar characteristics and modifications. Stefan and three University of Florida scientists have just published the new findings in the March Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Biochar and compost are the two major amendments I'm adding to my garden beds this time around. Two biochars were produced by pyrolysis at As time allows I have been following with interest research into alternative treatment of organic materials for use in tropical soils. Add biochar to ditches/swales at lower edge of fields to capture/filter nutrients before the streams. Conversely, biochar from Ingá desorbed the most P. The company's filing status is listed as Active and its File Number is G14000090836. cn. These biochars were thermally  11 Dec 2017 Biochar, when applied to soils is reported to enhance soil carbon sequestration 1Soil and Water Sciences Department, University of Florida,  17 Jun 2019 Researchers looking to add value to biochar – a solid, porous as a doctoral student at the University of Florida looking into how biochar could  B43G-2554 – Molecular Structure of Dissolved Organic Carbon from Biochar Kyle Wyman Bostick, University of Florida, Geological Sciences, Gainesville, FL,   25 Sep 2015 ABSTRACTAs a low-cost adsorbent, biochar can be used as a low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment, particularly with respect to treating  Biochar is the carbonaceous solid product of biomass pyrolysis which can be Ward at ECHO Fort Myers, Florida talks about the process of making biochar. Healthier Soil; Drought resistance Biochar Can Beneficially Change The World. T. The grant put Santanu Bakshi, an assistant scientist at ISU’s Bioeconomy Institute, to work on yet another biochar project. Therefore, biochar and compost are alternative to control the black pod disease and cocoa yields in small holder farmers. Biochar Now Certifications BIOCHAR NOW PRODUCTS Earthspring BioChar – revitalize your soil. Biochar, also known as black carbon, is a product derived from organic materials rich in carbon (C) and is found in soils in very stable solid forms, often  Biochar, also known as black carbon, is a product derived from organic . Biochar can bind to pesticides in soil. Biochar is a charcoal produced from plant matter and stored in the soil as a means of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. edu. , Mäkelä, P. , & Helenius, J. Biochar have also been engineered to obtain improved properties with enhanced sorption capacity. Home of Biota Max. Institute of Poyang Lake Eco-economics at Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang 330013, China cckung78@hotmail. Zimmermanb a Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, School of Natural Resources and Environment, The Ohio State University, 2021 Coffey Road, 414A/422B Kottman Hall, Simultaneous Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Stormwater by Zero-Valent Iron and Biochar in Bioretention Cells Collaborating Universities University of Delaware Newark, DE 19716 302-831-2792 www. Air Burners is the leading manufacturer of air curtain burner, destructor, incinerator and trench burner systems for use in forest clearing, wildfire mitigation and biomass buring. Space Coast Carbon Solutions LLC is the result of the lifelong passion for sustainability and ecological responsibility of Sashi & June Artiles-Perry. Biochar is a carbon-rich product that is produced from organic material subject to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen. Best Management Practices for Wood Ash as a Soil Amendment Prepared by Mark Risse, Extension Engineer, Updated by Julia Gaskin, Land Application Specialist 2002, Cooperative Extension Service,The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences The State of the Biochar Industry Report. Well. Buy biochar-based Cool Terra® products online or get directions to a nearby retailer. As a soil additive Composite particles are disclosed comprising magnesium oxide, iron oxide, and biochar; and methods of making and using the composite particles. Biochar (BC) produced from agricultural crop residues has proven effective in sorbing organic contaminants. Biochar is free of volatiles and will have no taste or smell and you can crush it between your fingers without any oily residue. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can . The use of biochar within hog slurry retention ponds, windrow composting systems, and manure piles seems quite feasible having the same benefits of reducing the rate of nutrient leaching and volatlization. com. Biochar, also known as “agrichar” or “biomass-derived black carbon”, is a charcoal produced from carbon-rich material. 28, n. The next test will be to see if the biochar mix works as well on farms. A. www. Organic carbon and nutrient release from a range of laboratory-produced biochars and biochar–soil mixtures Atanu Mukherjee 1, Andrew R. Excess nutrients from runoff, vegetation, wildlife and humans enter the water column and can negatively impact a waterbody's health. Many factors can influence the characteristics of the char the kiln produces: the type of biomass that goes in, how much, and the temperature fluctuations that occur while it all burns. Flux Farm Scientific Research. Could ‘Green Harvesting’ Change the Game? A class action lawsuit blames sugar companies for health risks in low-income communities of color as a result of burning sugarcane fields, and urges more environmental and economical harvesting methods. Their combined citations are counted only for the University of Florida Verified email at Hydrogen peroxide modification enhances the ability of biochar 1 sorption of phosphate and other contaminants on biochar and its environmental implications by ying yao a dissertation presented to the graduate school Biochar PhysioChemical Properties. What is Biochar? Florida soil is really bad. Florida State University Libraries Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations The Graduate School 2013 Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant Adsorption and Transport in Biochar Amended Agricultural Soil Kien Anh Vu Follow this and additional works at the FSU Digital Library. Biochar Industries Barefoot biochar, and biochar stoves in New South Wales, Austrialia; BiGchar from Black is Green, in Australia. Bob has a background in mechanical technology, conventional and organic farming, business and sales management. Like compost, different biochars act differently in the soil. Bhupinder Pal Singh, The New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales, Australia. quinquenervia biochar reduced bean growth in calcareous soil. Biochar, a soil amendment, is a specialized form of charcoal suitable for use in the soil. “It [biochar] distinguishes itself from charcoal and similar materials by the fact that biochar is produced with the intent to be applied to soil as a means to improve soil health, to filter and retain nutrients from percolating soil water, and to provide carbon storage”3. This study evaluated the ability of dairy-manure derived biochar to sorb heavy metal Pb and organic contaminant atrazine. Compared to other soil amendments, it has a high Dr. A subchapter of the International Biochar Initative for anyone in Florida interested in education,creation and distribution It seems like biochar would be a good soil amendment for the sugar sand on Florida's south west coastal regions. university of florida . ’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. Jim Geist, chief operating officer for Biochar Now, checks a computer near some of the kilns Tuesday, June 13, 2017, at the business in Berthoud. We are the only wood vinegar producer and supplier in the United States. Mukherjeea,⁎,R. org/Newenglandbiochar. The role of biochar in the mitigation of (P) eutrophication has recently received substantial attention. Biochar Ontario. Charcoal Green® Pure Biochar helps bind organic toxins (such as herbicides) from soil to provide a safer environment for new or existing root systems. Tlud biochar stove for sale…. 282 likes. Wakefield Biochar is manufactured and shipped out with the greatest care for consistent particle size and with low dust! Use it to improve the soil and establish long-term benefits for your plants, flower and lawn. edu 1 Soil and Water Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States 2 School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States Interest in the use of biochar in agriculture has increased exponentially during the past decade. To be able to serve customers in the agriculture industry, Oregon Biochar Solutions is registering Rogue Biochar™in each of the lower 48 states which require state regulatory approval — we hope to obtain approval in each of these jurisdictions by the end of 2017. Biochar Among these adsorbents, biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, porous with large surface area, environmental friendliness, low cost, and thus has received a great deal of attention [14,15]. virginia. 23rd November 2009. The company's filing status is listed as Active and its File Number is P16000057756. , 2006). Since then, Terry has developed a variety of pioneer residential, commercial, industrial and recreational land development projects which employed innovative sustainability technologies, including a specialty in native plant preservation and restoration techniques. 4% when weighted by the inverse of the pooled variance. Biochar pH and EC were determined potentiometrically on a 1:2 sample – mass-to-water volume paste. No two biochar batches are exactly alike, and making biochar is as much art as science, Van Zwieten likes to say. — Phosphate poses one of Florida’s ongoing water-quality challenges but a process developed by University of Florida researchers could provide an affordable solution, using partially burned organic matter called biochar to remove the mineral. Biochar enhances the natural process: the biosphere captures CO Biochar (BC) produced from agricultural crop residues has proven effective in sorbing organic contaminants. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that biochar amendment could The Biochar Company (TBC) is an integrated biochar product development, marketing and sales company. Biochar Equipment, LLC Overview. If you choose not to activate your biochar, you can instead encourage microbes to “move in” to the biochar’s porous surface by wetting it down before mixing it into the soil. Bhadha, Mabry McCray, Bin Gao, Barry Glaz, and Samira H. Check out what customers have to say about Black Owl Biochar: Biochar (Black Carbon) Introduction: It has only recently been realized that pyrogenic carbon, biochar or black carbon (BC), can make up a significant fraction of the organic carbon in soils and sediments. It has the capacity to absorb carbon from the air/atmosphere, secures the food system, and increases biodiversity in the soil. iii. , MIAMI, FL, 33138. Because biochar has substantial surface area based on its porous properties, it provides ample housing for the beneficial microorganisms that appear to accelerate the process. Biochar has also been tested for reme-diating toxic chemicals in contami-nated soils, and one study reported a tenfold reduction of cadmium in soil after application of biochar, with sub-sequent reduction of phytotoxicity. Three senior environmental engineering students produced biochar from corn cobs as part of their senior design project. He has done research in the related area of gasification, especially of coal to produce liquid fuel. Check out what customers have to say about Black Owl Biochar: By making biochar from brush and other hard to compost organic material, you can improve soil — it enhances nutrient availability and also enables soil to retain nutrients longer. Aquatic ecosystems are constantly changing due to the surrounding environment. Rockwood, President of Florida FGT, has over 30 years of experience on the development and use of E. Locally sourced, naturally processed, reasonably priced. Mechanical Engineer Summary The San Dimas Technology and Development Center (SDTDC) investigated the use of air curtain destructors (ACDs) as an efficient, environmentally friendly, and technically viable means of disposing of slash, wood, and other burnable waste materials. Yong sik Ok, Korea University, Republic of Korea Prof. Biochar can be dusty, dispersing black soot as it is applied. Converting wood and other suitable biomass into a high quality biochar at high throughput rates. Biochar is a natural phenomena, built up in soils from forest and grass fires. O. BSI equipment is capable of continuously processing woodchip and nut hull feedstock into biochar in a proprietary, two-stage process. He’s worked with the material for most of the decade, starting as a doctoral student at the University of Florida looking into how biochar could be used to reduce copper toxicity in soils supporting citrus groves. Our mission as a company is to revitalize the planet, inspire action and generate mutual value by empowering people. The application of biochar and organic amendments on sandy soils has shown to improve soil health and CharGrow USA LLC manufactures biochar-based soil inoculants in Mills River, North Carolina. The long-term sequestration effect of  16 Jan 2019 Biochar that promote P sorption rather than desorption should be Special thanks to College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Florida A&M  26 Mar 2009 Keep 'biochar' and soils out of carbon trading Caution urged against (Spain) Environmental Alliance of North Florida (US) Enviornmental  19 Jun 2019 Biochar may not be the miracle soil additive that many farmers and researchers Biochar may boost the agricultural yield of some soils — especially poor illuminating 1 billion years of evolution Florida Museum of Natural  Our biochar filter media blends are tested and proven by customers as a natural Shipping from Pearl Harbor, Hawaii to Massachusetts to Florida to California. Zimmerman’s research assess the stability of biochar formed from different biomass material and their potential as a mechanism for carbon sequestration. They offer Black Owl biochar blends for specific applications by the bag, cubic foot, cubic yard or This is the charcoal. I. Fub, R. New Zealand Biochar Network. Author information: (1)State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210023, China. Nemours a,R. Thesampleswerede-gassedundervacuumforat View Minghan Xian E. Carbon coating gives biochar its garden-greening power by Colorado State University Field experiment in Switzerland, with setup of compost windrows from mixed manure before adding the biochar. Lang, Jehangir H. I threw some into my gardens and some into my compost but never really made a lot, added a lot or paid any real attention to the long term pluses or minuses. The latest developments at the Ithaka Institute are now focusing on its use as a building material Biochar may look like charcoal but it isn’t made the same way so don’t start dumping your fireplace ashes into your garden. Biochar, also known as black carbon, is a product derived from organic materials rich in carbon (C) and is found in soils in very stable solid forms, often as deposits. Biochar Equipment, LLC filed as a Florida Limited Liability in the State of Florida on Monday, November 7, 2011 and is approximately eight years old, as recorded in documents filed with Florida Department of State. The challenge, as I’ve said before, is replicating the consistent, preferably local, demand for biochar at a price that makes biochar production financially viable. Biochar has potential as a valuable tool for the agricultural industry with its unique ability to help build soil, conserve water, produce renewable energy and sequester carbon. Bo Pan, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China. Biochar works, it’s healthy, and it is certainly the next wave in green products that will further the fight to be green. Recently, the benefits that Biochar has on our environment have been positively identified. The effect of weighting function suggests site-dependence and dataset limitations on the potential of biochar to mitigate N 2 O. . T l u d. Cool Terra™ Biochar Receives International Biochar Initiative’s 1 st Certification, California Organic Certification, and Support from United Nations Environment Program Biochar is an ancient soil treatment recently rediscovered. Software recipes permit autopilot operation while adapting to nature’s anomalies to consistently produce high-quality biochar. www. Does biochar really work? I’ve asked that question and have been asked that question many times. Here’s a great video on biochar by Wae Nelson at TEDxOrlando that shows what a difference biochar makes to plants, people and the planet! Wae Nelson was employed as a mechanical engineer in the aerospace and defense industries for many years, working both as a designer and as a manager in manufacturing. Organizations involved in Carbon Fixing biochar and Terra Preta activities. Biochar is defined by the International Biochar Initiative (“IBI”) as “a solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. (OTCPink: VGPR) announced today that as a result of interest from online retail outlets, the Company has designed the “Big Bag of Biochar”. Biochar Solutions' production equipment optimizes biochar for the characteristics of fixed carbon and high surface area, through exothermic production. Biochar, a highly porous material produced from plant waste, is mostly used in agriculture as a soil conditioner, in livestock farming as a feed supplement, and in metalworking as a reducing agent. No one knows Biochar for Stormwater better than us! Florida biochar. //xocs:srctitle — Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment — . Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration, as it has the potential to help mitigate climate change. Jenny Sparks, Reporter-Herald. is an acronym for Top Lit Up Draught meaning you lite it at the top and the air is sucked up through the fire. Get a guided tour of the new Florida Biochar Facility with site manager, Ken Morrison. We are deeply committed to our values and reclaim 100% of our biomass from the local waste stream. Carbon content in wood biochars > 80% typical. With over 35 acres, four greenhouses, alternative energy innovation, pastured livestock, forest crops, and diverse vegetable production, Living Web is the leading demonstration site for effective organic farming in western North Carolina, via free video content and year-round workshops. Learn how the innovative process works and the stages biomass goes thr To be able to serve customers in the agriculture industry, Oregon Biochar Solutions is registering Rogue Biochar™in each of the lower 48 states which require state regulatory approval — we hope to obtain approval in each of these jurisdictions by the end of 2017. compost socks for improved erosion control. He has owned and operated businesses in electronics, metalworking, marine sales and service, boat building, re-manufacturing of outboard marine engines, commercial fishing, and organic farming. As a soil additive, biochar can store carbon and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and it can slow-release nutrients to act as a non-toxic fertilizer. 355 Title : Designer/Engineered Biochar for Sustainable Waste Management Journal website. IBI is tracking industry trends and developments through the annual State of the Industry report series. What is Biochar. Biochar did not significantly reduce N 2 O emissions when weighted by the inverse of the number of observations per site. See more ideas about Garden, Habitats and Soil improvement. Soon after a heavy rain it is dry as a bone. The World Bank, No. Just a bit of an update if you are looking to buy or purchase Biochar. biochar, will remain in soil and contribute to the mitigation of climate change; second, stability will determine how long biochar will continue to provide benefits to soil, plant, and water quality (Lehmann et al. This presentation will discuss the use of biochar, iron and sand filters to remove bacteria and phosphorus from urban runoff in a watershed in the Minneapolis metropolitan area. Biochar and Pesticides. Japan Biochar Association. The SOUTH FLORIDA BIOCHAR LLC principal address is 543 NE 74TH ST. Biochar production is a carbon-negative process, which means that it actually reduces CO2 in the atmosphere. Sub-samples of each biochar were subsequently dried for 24 hours at 105˚C to ob- little is known about the interaction of biochar in differing soil types. A 5% (w/w) rate of M. Biochars can persist for long periods of time in the soil at various depths, typically thousands of years. , Professora da North Florida Research and Education . The Biochar Company (TBC) is an integrated biochar product development, marketing and sales company. For centuries, Biochar has been used as a soil conditioner. Florida. grandis (EG), C. amplifolia (EA), E. For more than 100 years, biochar, a carbon-rich, charcoal-like substance made from oxygen-deprived plant or other organic matter, has both delighted and puzzled scientists. Biochar reduced mean N 2 O emissions by 12. The Warm Heart Biochar Research project develops new, inexpensive biochar technology and fertilizers for poor farmers. Nevertheless, the potential for biochar in animal feed seeks to address several key concerns and varies to some degree between the types of livestock being fed. We expect our first 'tenant' to be a biochar company that will use our shredded hardwood  Market Development. Guest Editors : Prof. A recent WEDU PBS video about Biochar featured research by Dr. , v. Stormwater/Agricultural Run-Off-i. P. Biochar Products Oregon, United States, Biochar Products is in the early stages of developing a biochar 10 Dry Ton Per Day biochar plant to be located on the old Ellingson Lumber mill site near Halfway, Oregon. com +86-15070074808 Lehmann J and Joseph S 2015 Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation. Adding biochar and wood chips to socks for erosion control. He’s worked with the material for most of the decade, starting as a doctoral student at the University of Florida looking into how biochar could be used to reduce copper toxicity in the soils supporting citrus groves. Biochar is the product of pyrolysis of organic matter. Environmental campaigners warn that a lawsuit over fraud against a company claiming to be the world’s largest manufacturer and distributor of biochar presents a stark warning of the dangers of the scramble for funding for unproven climate change techno-fixes. Component 2: Biochar. A process developed by University of Florida researchers that removes phosphate from water, also yields methane gas usable as fuel and   Biochars. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. University of Florida, Quincy, FL, United States of America. A number of studies have demonstrated effective removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by biochar and, in some cases, proven the 190-7 Biochar and Mill Ash Use As Soil Amendments to Grow Sugarcane in Sandy Soils of South Florida. Using experience in Florida, USA, we describe eucalypts’ potential for maximizing SRWC productivity through site amendment and genetic improvement, document their suitability for biochar production, and assess biochar’s potential for improving The biochar not only absorbs the smell and ammonia, but also captures nutrients from the bird droppings. This 30. The most common example is charcoal, derived from wood. But I never bothered giving biochar a real test. Devi Hou, School of Environment, Tsinghua University Biochar supporters claim that the elemental carbon of biochar will remain and provide its benefits of water retention and nutrient banking for up to multiple thousands of years (I would be very happy with 100 years for my future grandchildren). Biochar is highly resistant to breakdown and thus becomes a sink for carbon storage. Living Soils. Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. For the organization's website, please select from the list below. The honor is supported by the generous contributions of… Read More biochar-soaks-ammonia-pollution-study-shows BE COOL TO THE PLANET Hi, I’m Biochar Bob and I’m on a mission to tell biochar’s story through the impact it has on the people and places where it is used and made around the world. Amazon to Sell Vega Biofuels “Big Bag of Biochar” New Package Design a Result of Interest From Online Retail Market Norcross, Georgia – November 17, 2017, Vega Biofuels, Inc. Biochar production could mitigate climate change. Opportunities for Green State Biochar-a. It is made by burning plant material in conditions with low oxygen. Northeast Biochar is an ancient practice that converts waste into the #1 long-term soil amendment that we have on this planet. And this is in a region of the world known for its highly infertile soils. E. Biochar is a cheap porous material produced by burning biomass, such as woods or grasses. University Florida Agricultural & Biological Engineering Biochar and Efficient Use of Water and Fertilizers Bin Gao Department of Agricultural & Biological Engineering Understand what the research has shown about the use of biochar on the health and survivability of urban trees. Biochar is a highly porous stable Carbon-rich product resulting from the charring of biomass (e. Florida biochar. Watch the video: Biochar WEDU PBS The plants capture CO2 from the air transforming it into plant matter and the pyrolysis process locks the CO2 in the char for thousands of years in an organic carbon form thereby preventing the CO2 emissions from decomposing biomass. 2011 Effects of biochar and other amendments on the physical properties and greenhouse gas emissions of an artificially degraded soil A. (2014). In Florida, greening disease is widespread. L. Biochar is similar to charcoal from a wood fire, but not exactly the same. Biochar production and application to soil can be, in many situations, a viable strategy for climate change mitigation. The Biochar Website. Central Illinois Biochar Group. quinquenervia biochar reduced available nutrients in soil. Black Owl Biochar's Pure & Nautral, Premium Organic Biochar is OMRI-Listed. SOIL AMENDMENT IN FLORIDA CITRUS Florida citrus soils can be highly variable. edu Electronic address: xeyang@zju. Sol Farms Ltd, Belize Biochar plus Compost and Seed Starting Mixes; Biochar in Australia and Oceania. The area under the evergreen trees in my backyard looks barren because nothing seems to grow there. In particular, application of biochar to the soil is gaining greater interests, which can reduce fertilizer consumption, increase crop yields, and sequestrate carbon. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Minghan Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. KASOZI,† ANDREW R. 26 Jun 2018 Input of biomass-derived biochar into soil is recognized as a promising method of carbon sequestration. Biochar Systems New England Biochar LLC. Biochar Effects on Denitrification N 2O emission decrease by 10-90% in 14 different agricultural soils In 10 out of the 15 measured soils, also the total N denitrified between 4 and Biochar is a pyrolysis byproduct that may be ploughed into soils in crop fields to enhance their fertility and stability, and for medium- to long-term carbon sequestration in these soils. (4)Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945, United States. 5″ wide by 11″ deep kiln, made of sturdy 20 gauge steel, is by far the easiest, affordable, and fastest way to make biochar at home. Bruno Glaser, Soil Biogeochemistry Institute of Agronomy and Nutritional Sciences Martin Luther University, Saxony-anhalt, Germany Ecologically responsible raw biochar. Doctoral candidate Andressa Freitas in the Soil and Water Sciences Department has received the Emerging Scholar Award from the Association for Academic Women (AAW) at the University of Florida. Pacific Biochar – Bulk biochar products for sale, plain and biologically activated biochar. Canadian Biochar Initiative. , Alakukku, L. Biochar has been known for many years as a soil enhancer. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension outreach is a partnership between state, federal, and county governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the public. The effect of biochar on pesticide residues in soil varies. Melaleuca quinquenervia biochar addition reduced soil respiration compared with the control. See more from this Division: ASA Section: Environmental Quality See more from this Session: Agronomic, Environmental, and Industrial Uses of Biochar : II Phosphorus (P) eutrophication in the water bodies is of global concern. on determining benefits of biochars on sandy soils of Florida with low fertility and  2 Química, PhD. A subchapter of the International Biochar Initative for anyone in Florida interested in education,creation and distribution All Black Owl Biochar (TM) products have greater than 70% Organic Carbon. 88888, Washingotn DC Biochar is the carbonaceous solid product of biomass pyrolysis which can be used as chemical feedstock for various purposes such as energy production, and adsorption of pollutants. This article is meant to be a small introduction to April’s meeting on Biochar where our good friend Wae Nelson spoke on the subject and educated us on the benefits of this ancient and traditional agricultural technique. The use of biochar for animal feed is less expensive than activated carbon even if it requires a larger amount. Its main benefits are: Florida; hence, cultivation on sandy soils is increasing to gradually alleviate production from organic soils. UF researchers develop method to remove phosphate from water, using biochar. udel. Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development. Daniel CW Tsang, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China Prof. BiGchar is made from locally sourced agricultural waste using the BiGchar pyrolisis unit. Donald L. Biochar is very porous, but not amorphous (unshaped), this determines the essential characterises of biochar and offers a wide range of applications. Take care of the soil and it will take care of you! I work with beneficial bacteria and beneficial fungi in agriculture, farming and gardening. Impacts of biochar additions on soil microbial processes and nitrogen cycling-(Abstract Only) Spokas, K. Andrew Zimmerman, Associate Professor in the Department of Geological Sciences. Ecologically responsible raw biochar. Green Earth Biochar is a Florida Fictitious Name filed on September 5, 2014. Fl. Biochar is a charcoal created from green waste through a method called pyrolysis. This article comes to us from CSA News, and was authored by Nancy Maddox. //dc:title — Biochar and mill ash improve yields of sugarcane on a sand soil in Florida — BODY — 1 Introduction The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) industry of south Get a guided tour of the new Florida Biochar Facility with site manager, Ken Morrison. Rather than composting I prefer soaking my biochar in organic liquids like aged urine (nitrogen and phosphorus), worm tea (plant growth hormones), and compost/extracts. It is a particulate and very, very black in color. AGCC-driven sea level rise is flooding homes in Florida with sewage from More and more examples of biochar production are popping up all across the globe using different technologies and different biomass for biochar production. Li H(1), Dong X(2), da Silva EB(2), de Oliveira LM(2), Chen Y(3), Ma LQ(4). The role of biochar in sequestering carbon and mitigating climate change . onto a Range of Laboratory-Produced Black Carbons (Biochars) GABRIEL N. A subchapter of the International Biochar Initative for anyone in Florida interested in education,creation and distribution 1 Nov 2018 South Florida invasive Melaleuca quinquenervia was used to make Biochar has been heralded for improving soil quality, sequestering C,  21 Jun 2017 Researchers at North Carolina State University are looking at the "black gold" of biochar to enhance nutrient-poor and droughty soils. 2011. May 11, 2011. : agricultural & wood waste), that when mixed with organic compost and added to soils, yields considerable benefits. The litter is then collected and used in compost piles. 3. Italian Biochar Association. USBI Biochar 2018 is the largest event in North America dedicated to advancing the sustainable production and use of biochar through scientific and engineering research, policy development, field practice, and Once infected there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening disease. The current status of the business is Inactive. So the machine can be also called charcoal making machine, biomass Living Web Farms is where hands on learning comes to life about organic food production and innovative knowledge for sustainable agriculture from the world's Biochar and Mill Ash Use as Soil Amendments to Grow Sugarcane on Sandy Soils in South Florida Odiney Alvarez, Timothy A. Biochar Solutions Inc is deploying a Network of distributed carbon sequestration and soil restoration capacity by designing, producing, and selling continuous process industrial equipment to convert wood waste (carbon liabilities) into biochar and bioenergy (carbon solutions). In Ovations Holdings, Inc. Alex E. P. Shipping from Pearl Harbor, Hawaii to Massachusetts to Florida to California. Adding biochar to soil during crop production accomplishes two things at once: aiding in soil carbon sequestration, and improving the fertility, carbon content, and Biochar is an organic carbon (OC) and plant nutrient-rich substance that may be an ideal amendment for bolstering soil organic matter and nutrient contents. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. carbon. We are only just starting to fully realise the full benefits biochar brings to us, environmentally, economically and for our health. LAND-APPLICATION OF BIOCHAR IN AGROFORESTRY Vimala Nair, PK Ramachandran Nair, Nilovna Chatterjee Biswanath Dari, and Andressa Freitas University of Florida 3rd European Agroforestry Conference Montpellier SupAgro, France 23 –25 May 2016 The Use of Air Curtain Destructors for Fuel Reduction. The plant will be portable so it can be moved into the forest during months where fuels reduction projects are occurring. The company's principal address is 5455 Friarsway Drive, Tampa, FL 33624. Biochar is a type of charcoal very unlike the grill’s charcoal briquettes, which are a mixture of powdered devolatilized coal, a small portion of raw or carbonized sawdust, and intentional ash additives. Box 400742 Charlottesville, VA 22904-4742 www. The Haiti Biochar Project. Biochar is a type of charcoal that is produced by the thermal decomposition of biomass such as wood chips and poultry litter at elevated temperatures. With research in Ohio, New Jersey, Florida and Virginia we have continually Using biomass residues from farm and forest which are converted to biochar, we   8 Jul 2019 Additionally, three biochars (CL, ZL and FL) were produced from poplar, corn and sewage sludge, respectively. atanu mukherjee . Daroub Biochar Now's custom computer controller. It’s called biochar. Humic Science and Technology Conference. These leave a small residue of stable pyrolytic carbon which has built up over millions of years to be a substantial and beneficial fraction of the soil carbon in many soils. Abstract: Interest in the use of biochar in agriculture has increased exponentially during the past decade. Irrigate, and wait a week or two before planting. , Stoddard, F. Learn how the innovative process works and the stages biomass goes through to become activated charcoal and eventually biochar. The Registered Agent on file for this company is Cor Ira L and is located at 7870 Nw 11th Place, Plantation, FL 33322. torelliana (CT), cottonwood, cypress, and slash pine hybrids in Florida and elsewhere. Biochar is a porous, charcoal-like material produced via pyrolysis, the high-temperature decomposition of biomass. My idea is to combine the benefits of both by building a hugelculture bed with wood and biochar. a dissertation presented to the graduate school of the university of florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy . Biochar Industry Opportunities in the Pacific Northwest by . Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Lala, A. , 2018. During the activity, student teams prepare soil mixtures, make observations (including microscopic examinations), compare soil properties, conduct water retention tests, take and record measurements, and analyze their observations and data. The International Biochar Initiative, the industry’s highest-profile trade group, describes the product'seffects this way: “This 2,000 year-old practice converts agricultural waste into a soil Biochar Safely Filter Excess Pond Nutrients. Now, Avni Solanki from the University of Florida and Treavor Boyer from Arizona State University, have studied biochar, a precursor to activated carbon, to see if it could work as a viable alternative. Melaleuca quinquenervia has been characterized as one of the most aggressive and wide-spread invasive species by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. Biochar, when applied to soils is reported to 27 Jun 2018 However, a product called Biochar can be created from biomass and is Headquartered in Palm City, Florida, and with offices in Europe and  10 Aug 2017 Florida Organics Recycler Expands Exponentially . Agriculture is the main source of P in the water bodies, as a result of excessive fertilizer and manure application Students learn about soil properties and the effect biochar—charcoal used as a soil amendment—has on three soil types, sand, loam and clay. Warm Heart tests not only under clean, scientific conditions, but in the real world of farmers’ fields – and this is what they have to say about biochar after the experience. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. The composite particles may be used to recover solutes including phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic compounds from aqueous solution, and the resulting solute-loaded particles may be used as a fertilizer to enhance plant growth. As a low-cost adsorbent, biochar can be used as a low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment, particularly with respect to treating heavy metals in wastewater. Florida Biochar Facility video. Study: Organic coating on biochar explains its nutrient retention and stimulation of soil fertility. Using biomass residues from farm and forest which are converted to biochar, we make a biological tool that increases crop productivity. Oxford Biochar is part of the Big Biochar Experiment >>>> This is the first large-scale experiment on the use of biochar in British allotments and gardens. R. Use of biochar within poultry production as an addative to the bedding layer also holds a lot of promise (more on that below). The company is currently engaged in field trials in row and orchard crops in both California and Florida, and they are testing in dairy Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Carbon Considerations : Biochar, Biomass, Biopower, and Sequestration (2013, Hardcover) at the best online prices at eBay! The University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) is a federal-state-county partnership dedicated to developing knowledge in agriculture, human and natural resources, and the life sciences, and enhancing and sustaining the quality of human life by making that information accessible. Growers can wet biochar to limit its dust, but without overcoming that challenge, repeatedly adding biochar to the soil may limit its appeal. The fast pyrolysis biochar, when mixed with degraded tropical mineral soil, decreased the soil's P sorption capacity by 55% presumably because of the high soluble, inorganic P prevalent in this biochar (909 mg P/kg of biochar). Our biochar and biochar-blended products improve human well-being and address Biochar is a valuable soil amendment. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND ENERGY PRODUCTION: EVALUATION OF BIOCHAR APPLICATION ON TAIWANESE SET-ASIDE LAND Chih-Chun Kung1, Bruce McCarl2, Chi-Chung Chen3 1: Corresponding author and assistant professor. The benefits of using biochar. The mobile and stationary ENVIROSAVER™ 350 is the most advanced, cost-effective and environment-friendly wood debris conversion systems. Now, why is this important for you? Well, Biochar soil detox and other products can be used in small gardens, farms, or any other locales to enhance plant growth and vigor while promoting seed germination. The Best BioChar Garden Kiln is based on the Japanese cone kiln. Also oxygen, hydrogen, and ash compounds : Mg, Ca, Si Buy Biochar Services Contact We currently offer two products from our network. It is sometimes added by farmers and gardeners to their soils. And of course, the many trial and errors involved in Central Florida gardening and Permaculture. GAINESVILLE, Fla. Box 112120, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA The University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) is a federal-state-county partnership dedicated to developing knowledge in agriculture, human and natural resources, and the life sciences, and enhancing and sustaining the quality of human life by making that information accessible. As visibility about biochar increases, we wanted to be sure you have the latest information about this new idea. That is why we don't just use any biochar in our stormwater filter medias. com, aka CharcoalRemedies. – jun. IBI defines a Class One biochar as any biochar consisting of anything greater than 60% OrganicCarbon. Lump charcoal is often much denser than biochar because most of the pore spaces are full of those tars. Minghan has 6 jobs listed on their profile. Wakefield Premium Biochar Soil Conditioner is approved by the USDA as Certified Biobased Product. The company developed its own computer control electronics and software to manage multi-zone inputs and outputs relating to temperature, flow, pressure, combustion and time. biochar-international. I wanted to test if the fertility of this soil could be improved with the addition of biochar. physical and chemical properties of a range of laboratory-produced fresh and aged biochars . Short-term effects of biochar on soil properties and wheat yield  11 Jan 2019 Researchers have assembled current and potential sources of government support to promote the production and use of biochar, which helps . As such, BC is an important but poorly understood portion of the global carbon cycle. Biochar may be a fast, inexpensive, and easy way to remove arsenic—one of the world’s most common pollutants—from water. Ngatia a, *, Y. In the process of making biochar, the unstable carbon in decaying plant material is converted into a stable form of carbon that is then stored in the biochar. Biochar socks vs. Biochar and mill ash improve yields of sugarcane on a sand soil in Florida. This is the first in a three part series discussing biochar’s attributes and potential uses. Beston biochar production equipment for sale refers to carbonizing biomass materials into charcoal through a series of reactions. Cool Planet: A Company That Makes Biochar And Gasoline . Our biochar and biochar-blended products improve human well-being and address Oct 1, 2019- Explore flood1982's board "biochar" on Pinterest. Barefoot Biochar Biochar Stoves Events Vitality Community Consultation Testimonials FAQ Our enterprise is located in northern New South Wales in the middle of a neglected plantation forest. In an article published in the That is why we don't just use any biochar in our stormwater filter medias. What is biochar? Biochar is a fancy name for charcoal if it’s used as a soil amendment (to improve soil properties). ZIMMERMAN,*,† PETER NKEDI-KIZZA,‡ AND BIN GAO§ Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, 241 Williamson Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611-2120, Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Florida, The Biochar Fund. For a new study, researchers used used iron-enhanced carbon cooked The International Biochar Institute (www. Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd In the Miami, FL area; looking for biochar to amend roughly 10 acres. One factor I saw about the packs of bump, is the measure of the sack would now not make a difference as so much as the load. The native Indians of the region would create charcoal and incorporate it in small plots of land from 1 – 80 hectares in size. 9:93-98. Biochar Fund Biochar Global Solutions Biochar Machine Biochar Merchants Biochar Now Biochar Products biochar solutions Biz-Solutions LLC Black Carbon Black Earth Products Blue-Leaf Burt’s Greenhouses BuyActivatedCharcoal. Go ahead and try the best biochar on the market! But there is a way to permanently improve the organic matter content of your soil. No one knows Biochar for Stormwater better than us! The Biochar Company (TBC) is an integrated biochar product development, marketing and sales company. This material presents a fine-grained, highly porous structure that helps soils retain water and nutrients. With research in Ohio, New Jersey, Florida and Virginia we have continually refined our process to achieve a product that closes the loop for agricultural sustainability. Premium Mixed – Woody feedstock – Organic carbon = 75% (+/- 5%) Chemical Engineering Journal Impact factor:8. Biochar is a charcoal-based soil amendment produced by pyrolysis of waste biomass. Biochar is the result of heating biomass under the exclusion of air – a process known as pyrolysis. For posts about the organizations, please click on their name on the left menu. The idea actually dates back to a journal kept by an early European explorer in South America who reported he saw large native populations in areas with highly-weathered tropical soils that are now generally considered too poorly supplied with nutrients and too Bin Gao, University of Florida, USA. edu University of Virginia 351 McCormick Dr. is a Florida Domestic Profit Corporation filed on July 7, 2016. All Black Owl Biochar (TM) products have greater than 70% Organic Carbon. Incorporate biochar with any of these just prior to adding them to the soil. Green, UF Graduate Research Professor Emeritus, Mechanical and Aerospace Engi-neering, is an expert in producing Biochar through pyrolysis. Pyrolyzer LLC. Citrus trees decline and die within a few years and may never produce usable fruit. In south Florida, several plant species have come to dominate and severely alter delicate ecosystems. Schapiro, P. Greenhouse gases are impacting Earth's climate and will continue to do so at elevated rates until we find ways to mitigate our actions. The second major component of this project was a two-year monitoring study to evaluate the ability of biochar to boost nutrient removal. Increasing rates of M. Senior environmental engineering students work on making biochar from corn cobs. Potential phosphorus eutrophication mitigation strategy: Biochar carbon composition, thermal stability and pH influence phosphorus sorption L. com Carbon Brokers Int’l Carbon Char/ East Coast Compost Carbon roots International Carbon Gold Biochar: a biomass byproduct. Dr. soil/biochar mixtures were field-aged for 15 months under north Florida climatic  7 Jun 2013 Biochar gardens have arisen as a viable method of farming that promotes Adding biochar to soil during crop production accomplishes two things at The Florida Food Policy Council is a grassroots and volunteer-run 501(c)  Tammeorg, P. iv. Terra Preta, as it is known in this area of Brazil, remains highly fertile until today, even with little or no application of fertilizers. Biochars. It even has the capability to reverse deforestation. Simply, biochar is nutrient-rich charcoal that, when mixed into your soil in your garden or farm plot, improves the health of your soil. The way biochar is manufactured, it creates a high carbon level (88+% of Wakefield Biochar is carbon and certified 97% USDA Certified Biobased Product) and it is incredibly porous. You add fertilizer but it is soon washed down out of the reach of plant roots, or worse it runs off into the waterways. biochar florida

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Finland farmer connects soil, food, climate change

2 November, 2019
 

What’s the connection between soil and food and climate change? That’s the question that David Abazs, executive director of the University of Minnesota Extension Northeast Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships and long-time Finland farmer, set out to answer at the second Community Partners EngAge climate program Tuesday, Oct. 29.

Abazs studied the connection between soil quality and agriculture production while working on a demonstration grant research project at the Wolf Ridge Environmental Learning Center farm. He set out to find which would be the best way to amend the soil to ensure the best growing conditions and to keep the carbon captured in the soil.

"We had the opportunity to do research on how to better prepare a field for planting by raising the soil's pH levels," Abazs said.

Different sections of soil were amended with lime, ash, biochar or a combination of the previous three. Biochar is anaerobically combusted wood that acts like a nutrient sponge because it’s heavy with carbon.

The best combination was the biochar and ash as it kept the organic matter high and lowered the acidity of the soil.

“Some people farm for the food; I farm the soil,” Abazs said. “That’s what I’m looking for when the growing season is done: How is the soil faring?"

For example, Abazs said he noticed that foods in the brassica family, such as broccoli, emit a chemical that will kill off fungi in the soil.

“And we like the fungi and want to keep it healthy,” Abazs said. “So we know we have to plant a cover crop the next season, usually of oats, and let the fall kill the crop and incorporate the dead plants into the soil at the start of the next year to rebuild the organic matter.”

Proper soil care can also help prevent the release of carbon into the atmosphere, as according to Abazs, agriculture is currently responsible for a quarter to a third of the carbon in the atmosphere.

“But these are things that farmers can do to retain that carbon and stop the contribution,” Abazs said.

Consumers can also help by choosing products created by farms using best practices. Abazs encouraged buying local produce as it reduces the carbon footprint by reducing transportation, buying grass-fed meat (if you have to buy meat) and supporting farmers.


Biochar Market Size Report Presents Development Trends, Driving Forces, Opportunities & Future …

2 November, 2019
 

Report Title: 2018-2023 Global and Regional Biochar Industry Production, Sales and Consumption Status and Prospects Professional Market Research Report

Biochar Market Reports offer detail insights on current market competition worldwide covering top-line vendors list, drivers. In Biochar market report helps to analysed growth forecasts considering past industry status and future plans accordingly. Proficient insights based on financial status of Biochar market and adopted business strategies are also discussed.

Biochar is a charcoal which is obtained by heating different waste products such as wood waste, agricultural waste, animal manure and forest waste. These waste products are used as feedstock for production of biochar. Biochar is produced mainly through modern pyrolysis processes in which direct thermal decomposition of biomass waste in the absence of oxygen, resulting into biochar along with bio-oil and syngas. Biochar obtained is rich in carbon content and is fine grained residue. Biochar can also be obtained using different technologies such as gasification, microwave pyrolysis, etc.

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This Biochar market report is a unique tool assessment providing decision-making overview for readers with technology trends, production, consumer benefits and development opportunities worldwide. Overall Biochar Market Statistics and figures with revenue and growth rate also presented as a valuable source of guidance. There are Leading market players in Biochar Industry which are listed below. Biochar Report show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application;

Biochar Market by Top Manufacturers:
Phoenix Energy, Pacific Biochar., Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Earth Systems Bioenergy, Diacarbon Energy Inc, Genesis Industries LLC, Full Circle Biochar, Vega Biofuels, Inc, Cool Planet Energy System, CharGrow, LLC, Biochar Supreme LLC, Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd

By Feedstock Type
Woody Biomass, Agricultural Waste, Animal Manure, Others

By Application
Electricity Generation, Agriculture, Forestry, Others,

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Biochar market plays dynamic role in the following region:

Detailed TOC of 2018-2023 Global and Regional Biochar Industry Production, Sales and Consumption Status and Prospects Professional Market Research Report

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Finally, Biochar market report analyse the manufacturing cost of the product, which is very important for the manufacturer and competitors, raw material price, manufacturing process cost, labour cost, energy cost, all these kinds of cost will affect the market trend, to know the manufacturing cost better, to know the Biochar market better.

 

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(Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in contaminated soil

2 November, 2019
 

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Performance of enhanced anaerobic digestion with different pyrolysis biochars and microbial …

2 November, 2019
 

1. Typical biochars from agricultural waste pyrolysis were chosen to enhance anaerobic digestion.

2. Suitable dosage was helpful for methane production, but excessive addition could inhibit it.

3. Biochar enhancement was an integrated result, for a sole factor, it had no significant regularity.

4. Biochar type and dose just affected the microbial distribution, rather than its dominance.

5. Anaerobic digestion with biochars had a secondary methane peak, while control groups did not have.

1. Typical biochars from agricultural waste pyrolysis were chosen to enhance anaerobic digestion.

2. Suitable dosage was helpful for methane production, but excessive addition could inhibit it.

3. Biochar enhancement was an integrated result, for a sole factor, it had no significant regularity.

4. Biochar type and dose just affected the microbial distribution, rather than its dominance.

5. Anaerobic digestion with biochars had a secondary methane peak, while control groups did not have.

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is commonly used to treat biowastes, however, there are challenges in AD such as low methane yield, intermediate inhibition, and system instability. In this study, the effects of typical biochars on methane yield and microbial variation for AD with straw and cow manure were explored. The results indicated that cumulative methane yield with coconut shell biochar was higher than that without a biochar (319.44 vs. 282.77 mL/g VS). Interestingly, AD with biochars had a secondary methane yield peak, whereas control groups did not show this phenomenon. A suitable dosage (e.g., straw biochar of 2%) improved cumulative methane yield, but excessive addition (4%) could inhibit AD. AD system with biochar was more helpful for the growth of acetoclastic methanogens rather than hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The study demonstrated biochar can indeed enhance AD performance, and microbial community analyses could supply valuable information to elucidate the mechanism of enhancement.


Global Biochar Market Expected To Observe Major Growth By 2028

2 November, 2019
 

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Market Key Players: Biochar market report is incredibly helpful to the global key players who are thirstily waiting to grow there growth during this competitive market. Biochar market report is essentially created from that specialize in key players who are related to us. Leading Manufacturers of Biochar Market are: Agri-Tech Producers LLC, Genesis Industries LLC, Diacarbon Energy Inc, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc, Vega Biofuels Inc, Earth Systems Bioenergy, Biochar Products Inc, Earth Systems PTY. LTD., Waste to Energy Solutions Inc, Swiss Biochar GmbH

Market Segmentation: Market segmentation is the division of the market or population into subgroups with similar motivations. It’s widely used for segmenting on geographic variations, demographic variations, technographic variations, diseased person graphic variations, and variations in product use.

By technology: Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal, Others, By application: Agriculture, Water & waste water treatment, Others

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Just have a look over Table of Content Snippet:

Part 01:  Industry Outlook

Part 02:  Regional and Country-Wise Market Study

Part 03:  Technical Information and Production Plants Study

Part 04:  Regional Manufacturing by various segmentation

Part 05:  Manufacturing Procedure and Price Structure

Part 06:  2009-2015 Biochar Productions Supply Status and Supply- Demand Study and Forecast 2028

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Biochar affects the structure rather than the total biomass of microbial communities in temperate soils

2 November, 2019
 

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1 Biochar affects the structure rather than the total biomass of microbial communities in temperate soils Elena Anders 1,2, Andrea Watzinger 1, Franziska Rempt 1,3, Barbara Kitzler 4, Bernhard Wimmer 1, Franz Zehetner 2, Karl Stahr 3, Sophie ZechmeisterBoltenstern 2 and Gerhard Soja 1 1 Environmental Resources and Technologies, Health and Environment Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, KonradLorenzStrasse 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria 2 Institute of Soil Research, Department of Forestry and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, PeterJordanStrasse 82, 1190 Vienna, Austria 3 Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, University Hohenheim, EmilWolffStrasse 27, Stuttgart, Germany 4 Institute of Soil Biology, Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, 1131 Vienna, Austria Biochar application is a promising strategy for sequestering carbon in agricultural soils and for improving degraded soils. Nonetheless, contradictory and unsettled issues remain. This study investigates whether biochar influences the soil microbial biomass and community structure using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. We monitored the effects of four different types of biochar on the soil microbial communities in three temperate soils of Austria over several months. A greenhouse experiment and two field experiments were conducted. The biochar application did not significantly increase or decrease the microbial biomass. Only the addition of vineyard pruning biochar pyrolysed at 400 C caused microbial biomass to increase in the greenhouse experiment. The biochar treatments however caused shifts in microbial communities (visualized by principal component analysis). We concluded that the shifts in the microbial community structure are an indirect rather than a direct effect and depend on soil conditions and nutrient status. Key words: biochar, PLFAs, soil microbial communities, temperate soil Introduction Biochar is the solid residue obtained after the pyrolysis of organic material under the exclusion of oxygen. Biochar as a soil amendment has become an important topic in soil science in the past few years, and many research groups are studying the effects of biochar on (agro) ecosystems. The investigations tackle issues such as carbon sequestration, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regeneration of degraded soils, biochar as a possible nutrient carrier for better plant growth and enhancement of microbial proliferation. Terra preta is the oldest documented form of biochar amendment in soils. In these Anthrosols in the Amazon region, biochar was found to enhance microbial growth compared to the same soil without biochar (Grossman et al. 2010). Moreover, the biomass of the bacterial community in this soil was higher and more diverse (O Neill et al. 2009). In temperate Australian soils, biochar ( years old) improved soil fertility (Downie et al. 2011). Biochar is resistant to degradation in soil (Masek et al and Watzinger et al. 2013). Its addition to soil may influence microorganisms directly by being metabolized and acting as a major C source. Ameloot et al. (2013) listed several studies that indicate assimilation and plant uptake of N from labeled biochar or increased soil respiration rates after biochar amendment. For example Zimmerman (2010) found a doubled mineralization rate of biochar in the presence of microorganisms. Manuscript received April

2 Physical and chemical parameters of the soil indirectly cause shifts in microbial abundance (Pietikäinen et al. 2000, Liang et al. 2010, Kolb et al. 2009) and structure (Lehmann et al. 2011, Glaser and Birk 2012, Watzinger et al. 2013, Farrell et al. 2013). Kolton et al. (2011) reported that biochar induced shifts in bacterial communities often occur at the genus level (e.g. Flavobacterium sp.) and that the promotion of certain bacterial genera could at least partially explain the induced growth and plant resistance phenomena. The phvalue is a key soil parameter (Brewer et al. 2011). Adding fresh, untreated biochar to soil usually increases the soil phvalue. The degree of change in these values depends on factors such as pyrolysis temperature, feedstock of biochar, degree of oxidation and the current ph of the soil (Lehmann et al. 2011, Lehmann et al. 2006, Chan and Xu 2009, Cheng et al. 2006). Not all microorganisms react similarly to a phincrease. Fungi have higher biomass in acidic soils, whereas actinomycetes avoid this environment and prefer soils with high phvalues (Giri et al. 2005). It is possible to increase the water retention capacity by adding biochar, thus increasing the suitability of amended soils as microbial habitat (Glaser et al. 2002). Especially in sandy soils, the biochar micropores and surface structure cause a potential retention effect. In case of soil dehydration, biochar can offer retreat areas for microorganisms (Schimel et al. 2007). The production type and amendment method of biochar can also indirectly influence microorganism communities. Steinbeiss et al. (2009) discovered that the biochar type determined which groups of microorganisms were involved in decomposition processes. Furthermore, the pores in biochar can be valuable microhabitats for microorganisms (Downie et al. 2009) and could act as a safe refuge from predators (Pietikäinen et al. 2000). Nonetheless, there is no quantitative proof for the protective characteristics of biochar (Lehmann et al. 2011). Note also that the average pore size of biochars (nm scale) is much smaller than that of the smallest soil organisms (μm scale) (Ameloot et al. 2013). Nonetheless, the sorption of easily degradable organic compounds, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemisorption of ammonium (NH 4+ ) (Anderson et al. 2011) at biochar surfaces due to the presence of functional groups, could indicate its suitability as a favorable habitat (Pietikainen et al. 2000). The pore size and the internal surface structure of biochar depend on the feedstock (Abit et al. 2012). The feedstock of biochar has an important impact on the soil microbial response to amendment in soil. Ameloot et al. (2013) reported that the greater the lignin content, the aromatic C content and the C/N ratio of feedstock of the resulting biochar, the smaller the biochar mineralization rate. Apart from the feedstock, the pyrolysis temperature seems to be a key factor in manipulating biochar characteristics. High pyrolysis temperatures increase the microporosity and fractioning of biochar structure. Also, the stable components in biochar increase, while the labile components decrease with high pyrolysis temperature. The stable parts remain in the soil for a long time, whereas the labile parts are available to the microorganisms (Abit et al. 2012, Mašek et al. 2011, Lehmann et al. 2011). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also found in the labile fractions and these substances might affect microorganisms (Lehmann et al. 2011, Deenik et al. 2011, Kloss et al. 2013). Spokas et al. (2012) listed yield results from many biochar studies: to date no definitive answer has been found for whether biochar causes positive or negative effects in agricultural soil beyond C sequestration. Growing attention is being given to biochar amendment in soil and its impact on soil microbial communities. Lehmann et al. (2011) reviewed the impacts of biochar on soil communities. Quilliam et al. (2012) determined the level of microbial colonization of woodderived biochar that had been buried in an agricultural soil for three years. They suggested that, over the short term (3 years) biochar does not provide a significant habitat for soil microbes. Ameloot et al. (2013) reviewed how soil micro, meso and macroorganisms interact with biochar stability, they also evaluated C content, feedstock and pyrolysis conditions, application rates, native SOC contents and soil chemical properties as factors involved in these interactions. In a short term experiment Farrell et al. (2013) determined, using two biochars amended in acridic arenosol, a rapid incorporation of labelled 13 C in microbial PLFAs. They assumed that the shifts and changes in microbial community reflected the varying utilisation of biocharc. In the present study the effect of biochar on the native soil microbial communities in temperate soil were targeted. The aim was to answer the following questions: What influence does biochar have on the microbial communities in soil and what are the reasons for it? The investigations have focused on different aspects: type of biochar, soil and application rate. To answer these questions we set up a greenhouse experiment and a field experiment with different biochar types on contrasting soils. This enables us to analyze the reactions of microbial communities to different biocharsoil environments. 405

3 Materials and methods Soil and biochar characterization For the experimental setup, three Austrian agricultural soils were selected. The soils were a sandy Planosol from Eschenau, a calcareous Chernozem (on loess) from Traismauer, both Lower Austria, and a gleyic Cambisol from Kaindorf/Obertiefenbach (Styria). The soil from Eschenau is an acidic sandy soil with low nutrient retention capacity. The soil of Traismauer, in contrast, is a calcareous, silty soil with high capacity to retain nutrients. The gleyic Cambisol of Kaindorf is characterized by relatively high clay content (Table 1). For all soils, the phvalue, electric conductivity (EC) and the cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined by standard methods (see Appendix). Carbonate carbon content (C inorg ), soil organic carbon content (C org ) and nitrogen (N) were determined according to standard methods (supplementary information). Particle size was determined with a sedigraph based on a modified standard method (supplementary information). Soil material from the topsoil (Aphorizon, 0 20 cm) was excavated in summer After transport to the greenhouse, the soil materials were airdried and stored until the experiment. Table 1. Soil characteristics Eschenau Traismauer Kaindorf GPS coordinates N 48 46`32.9 ; E15 14`28.6 (± 2.4 m) N 48 19`52.6 ; E 15 44`20.5 (± 4 m) N ; E (± 4 m) soil type Planosol Chernozem Cambisol Texture sandy loam silt loam clay loam EC (µs cm 1 ) 41.2 ± ± ± 0.1 CEC (mmol c kg 1 ) 75.1 ± ± ± 2.2 phvalue (CaCl 2 ) 5.4 ± ± ± 0.1 C inorg content (%) 0 ± ± ± 0.0 C org ( %) 1.6 ± ± ± 0.0 N tot ( %) 0.11 ± ± ± 0.01 previous crop 2010 rye (Secale cereale) alfalfa (Medicago sativa) wheat (Triticum aestivum) ρ B (g cm 3 ) greenhouse WHC (g/100g) greenhouse (ρ B = 1.22 g cm 3 ) 38.8 (ρ B = 1.14 g cm 3 ) 45 (ρ B = 1.24 g cm 3 ) EC = electrical conductivity, CEC = cation exchange capacity, C inorg = carbonate content, C org = soil organic carbon content, N tot = total nitrogen content, ρ B = bulk density in the greenhouse experiment, WHC = water holding capacity of the greenhouse experiment. In the greenhouse experiment three different feedstocks were used for biochar production, vineyard pruning (525 C), wheat straw (525 C), and a woodchipmixture (525 C). Additionally vineyard pruning biochar was produced using a lower pyrolysis temperature of 400 C (Table 2). The different feedstocks for pyrolysis were selected according to their local availability as residues from agricultural crop production and forestry. The main differences were expected between straw and woody biomass materials. The different woody materials might also have caused different biochar properties because of differences in porosity and lignocellulosic characteristics. Vineyard pruning was an important feedstock because of the abundant availability in the region of one of the field experiments. Therefore a pyrolysis temperature comparison was made with this material. To guarantee complete pyrolysis, each feedstock was given a different dwell time. The vineyard pruning biochar was pyrolysed at a heating rate of 2 C min 1 with a dwell time of 6 h at 525 C and 8 h at 400 C at the laboratory of AIT. The wheat straw and woodchipmixture biochars were produced at a rotary kiln in Dürnrohr (Austria; EVN) each at a pyrolysis temperature of 525 C, dwell times of approximately 1 h, and heating rates of C min 1. Argon (Ar) was constantly flushed during the whole pyrolysis process to maintain the oxygen free environment inside the furnace. Biochar was ground and sieved to a particle size of < 2 mm for mixing with the soil (3 w/w % of biochar was added to the soils). For the field experiment a commercially available biochar with 80% beech and 20% diverse hard woods (without oak), produced by SCRom Char SRL, Sincraieni (Romania) was used. The biochar was produced under normal atmosphere pressure conditions. The pyrolysis temperature was 500 C and the dwell time was 2 h. After carbonization the biochar was moistened with 20% water. 406

4 Table 2. Biochar characteristics wood mixture straw Greenhouse vineyard pruning vineyard pruning Field ROMCHAR 80%beech, 20% other hard wood pyrolysis temperature ( C) heating rate ( C min 1 ) dwell time (h) EC (ms cm 1 ) 1.6 ± ± ± ± 0.0 CEC(mmol c kg 1 ) 93.0 ± ± ± ± 1.3 phvalue (CaCl 2 ) 8.9 ± ± ± ±0.0 C tot (%) 67.1 ± ± ± ± N tot (%) 1.2 ± ± ± ± ash content (%) BETN 2 SA (m²g 1 ) ± ± ± ± 0 EC = electrical conductivity, CEC= cation exchange capacity, C tot = total carbon content, N tot = total nitrogen content, BETN 2 SA= Brunauer EmmettTeller specific surface area (N 2 adsorption). Greenhouse experiment The greenhouse experiment was conducted in October 2010, with five replicates per treatment (Table 3). The pots were 23.5 cm in diameter and 40 cm in height. To collect seepage water the pots had a drainage outlet to which a flexible siphonlike tube was fixed. The pots were filled (from bottom to top) with 15 mm coarse sand (0.5 2 mm), 15 mm fine sand ( mm) and 350 mm soilbiochar mixture; bulk density was approximately 1.3 g cm ³. A soil moisture probe was installed in one pot per treatment. Water holding capacity (WHC) was measured gravimetrically from disturbed soil samples. For monitoring the moisture content in the pots we used a TDR measurement system: Trase multiplex system X1 (Soil moisture equipment corp., Santa Barbara, USA), and Echo probes 10 HS (Decagon Devices, Inc., WA, USA). Table 3. Treatments used in the greenhouse experiment treatment code soil origin biochar pyrolysis temperature ( C) amount of biochar (% w/w) Nitrogen fertilizer (kg ha 1 ) E_WN Eschenau wood E_SN Eschenau straw E_VN400 Eschenau vineyard pruning E_VN Eschenau vineyard pruning E_W Eschenau wood E Eschenau none 0 0 E_N Eschenau none K_WN Kaindorf wood K_N Kaindorf none T_WN Traismauer wood T_N Traismauer none

5 In the pots, a crop rotation with mustard (Sinapis alba L.cv. Serval ; 50 seedlings per pot, density of 3 g m 2 ), barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Xanadu ; ten seedlings per pot) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. ReichersbergerNeu ; six seedlings per pot) was grown. Soil was sampled on day 2, 4, 7, 14, 24 (2 days after fertilization), 51 (2 days after fertilization, shooting of barley), 80 (maturation of barley) and 109 (harvest) and 297 (32 days after planting clover). The whole timeline of sampling and soil treatment is shown in Figure 1. Soil samples were taken with a soil auger (Ø=25 mm) out a depth between 15 and 20 cm with a distance to pot side of 40 mm. Samples were filled into a plastic bags and frozen at 10 C. The standard fertilizer rate was 40 kg N ha 1 for mustard and 100 kg N ha 1 (N100) for barley, using a commercial combination fertilizer (N: P 2 O 5 : K 2 O: S = 15:15:15:3; Linzer Star). Irrigation was conducted according to the measured water content using artificial rain water (3 mg Ca l 1 : 50 % of Ca was added as CaCl 2 2H 2 O, 50% as CaSO 4 2H 2 O). At certain time intervals, excess irrigation was conducted in order to trigger leaching. The C and N content from soil was measured in parallel to the PLFA soil samplings at day 0, day 51, day 170 and day 297 by an elemental analyzer after grinding the samples (CHNSO EA 1108; Carlo Erba Instruments, Milano, Italy). Seepages were collected at intervals of approximately four weeks and analyzed for ph, EC, ammoniumn (NH 4+ ), nitraten (NO 3 ) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (Bücker 2012). Seepage data were tested for correlation with the PLFA data. Plants were harvested and analyzed for dry matter yield and elemental composition (Kloss et al. 2013); the dry matter yield data were tested for correlation with the PLFA data. Fig. 1. Schematic timeline of sampling, fertilization and irrigation days of the greenhouse experiment (heavy irrigation was performed at certain times to generate seepage water). Cultivated plants were mustard (Sinapis alba L.cv. Serval ; 50 seedlings per pot, density of 3 g m 2 ), barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Xanadu ; ten seedlings per pot) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. ReichersbergerNeu ; six seedlings per pot); the gap between barley and clover cultivation shows the state of a fallow period. Field experiment To study the behavior and carbon sequestration of biochar under field conditions, we established field experiments at two sites. We selected the locations Traismauer and Kaindorf as experimental sites because they were adjacent to the places where we collected the soil samples for the greenhouse experiment. Biochar application was carried out in March On both field sites, 3 biochar treatments and a control plot with four replicates each (16 plots per location) were established. The four treatments consisted of soil amended with (i) 3% biochar without any fertilizer (BC3), (ii) 1% biochar with NPKfertilization (BC1NPK), (iii) 3% biochar with NPKfertilization (BC3NPK) and (iv) no biochar but NPKfertilization (NPK). Fertilizer amount was adapted for each crop. Corn was cultivated in Traismauer in 2011 and winter wheat was the subsequent crop in the PLFA sampling year At the PLFA soil sampling day, the wheat was nearly fully matured (June 2012). In Kaindorf the cultivation in 2011 was spring barley and in the PLFA sampling year 2012 sunflower; at PLFA sampling day the sunflower was in the juvenile growth phase (May 2012). Each plot was circular with a diameter of 6.5 m. Soil samples were taken from the center of the plots, corresponding to a circle with a diameter of 3.5 m. The plots were arranged according to a Latin square with n=4. 408

6 Table 4. Field experiment treatments. P and K fertilizer level was identical for all plots. treatment code location biochar application crop rotation (2011 / 2012) N application rate (NH 4 NO 3 kg ha 1 ) BC3 Kaindorf 72 Mg ha 1 corn / wheat 0 / 0 BC1NPK Kaindorf 24 Mg ha 1 corn / wheat 150 / 120 BC3NPK Kaindorf 72 Mg ha 1 corn / wheat 150 / 120 NPK Kaindorf corn / wheat 150 / 120 BC3 Traismauer 72 Mg ha 1 barley / sunflower 0 / 0 BC1NPK Traismauer 24 Mg ha 1 barley / sunflower 120 / 100 BC3NPK Traismauer 72 Mg ha 1 barley / sunflower 120 / 100 NPK Traismauer barley / sunflower 120 / 100 Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) Microorganisms were investigated using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analyses. PLFAs were extracted from soil samples according to the procedure of Bligh and Dyer (1959) as described by Frostegård et al. (1991). We used 2±0.2 g soil for each sampling extraction. Details on the extraction and measuring method used are provided in Watzinger et al. (2013). We analyzed 25 PLFAs which we arranged in five groups of PLFAs. The interpretation of PLFA biomarkers was modified after Paul and Clark (1996): Gram positive bacteria (i14:0, i15:0, a15:0, i16:0, a17:0, i17:0 (Brennan 1988)), actinomycetes (10Me16:0, 10Me17:0, 10Me18:0, 12Me18:0 (White and MacNaughton 1997)), Gram negative bacteria (16:1ω7c, cy17:0, 17:1ω8, 18:1ω7c, cy19:0 (Wilkinson 1988, Moss and Daneshvar 1992, Waldrop et al. 2000)), fungi (16:1ω5c, 18:2ω6.9, 18:1ω9c (Zak et al. 1994, Frostegård and Bååth 1996, Olsson et al. 1995)) and unspecific fatty acids (14:0, 15:0, 16:1ω6c, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 19:1). Identification of microbial groups based on different fatty acids is problematic as pointed out by Frostegård et al. (2011). The grouping of PLFAs in this study is more a theoretical instrument than a fixed categorisation of microorganism groups. For these reason we used a single representative PLFA from each group and not the sum of many PLFAs, this also allows an interpretation without a connection to given microbial groups. Statistical analysis All analytical results were calculated on the basis of ovendry (105 C) weight of soil. Statistical evaluation was performed with SPSS 19.0 for Windows; curve fitting was obtained by SigmaPlot 10.0 for Windows. Data were tested with the Dixon QTest for outliers, detected outliers were deleted. Data showed a normal distribution of PLFAs within the different treatments. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on data to reduce PLFAs from 25 to a few major factors; the deleted outliers were replaced by SPSS through means. PCA was separately analyzed for each sampling day. Based on the principal component factors a MANOVA was performed for each sampling day. PostHoc Turkey s test was performed, significance was accepted at p<0.05. In Table 5 different letters indicate significant difference within one column (p<0.05 Turkey s test). PCA was also used to visualize the separation of treatments or soils. In the figures we illustrated the principal component factors which were significantly affected to visualize separation of treatments. In the glasshouse experiment we analyzed the difference of seven treatments within the soil of Eschenau. Additionally, the treatments wood biochar with fertilizer (WN) and soil with fertilizer but without biochar (N) were compared from the soils of Eschenau, Kaindorf and Traismauer. For the field experiment, four different treatments were analyzed and compared (Kaindorf and Traismauer). Finally, a correlation for the glasshouse experiment was done separately for each soil with biochar and without biochar. We calculated the mean PLFA amounts from each treatment and analyzed individual PLFAs with the factors of soil characteristics (Ncontent, Ccontent, C/N ratio, water content), seepage composition (phvalue, DOC, ammonium, nitrate, electric conductivity, sulphate) and plant performance (weight of dried plant material) with the Spearman correlation (=S.c.). The PLFAs considered were: i14:0, 14:0, i15:0, a15:0, 15:0, i16:0, 16:1ω7c, 16:1ω6c, 16:1ω5c, 16:0, 10Me16:0, i17:0, a17:0, 17:1ω8c, cy17:0, 17:0, 10Me17:0, 18:2ω6.9, 18:1ω9c, 18:1ω7c, 18:0, 10Me18:0, 12Me18:0, cy19:0, 19:1. 409

7 Results Greenhouse experiment The temporal development of total PLFA concentrations, an indicator of microbial biomass is shown in Figure 2. The total PLFAs showed no significant difference, but differences occurred between soils. The first ten days included 4 sampling days (days 0, 2, 5 and 10). In this initial phase, the microbial community showed high sums but chaotic trends. After the fourth sampling date, the sampling intervals were extended to one month or more. The microbial community in the Eschenau soil showed an increasing trend in PLFA concentrations until day 86. The treatment E_VN400 even showed an increase until day 170, whereas in the other treatments the PLFA sum slowly declined from day 86. The concentrations in the soils from Kaindorf and Traismauer developed similarly, but with a wider range. In both soils, the PLFA sums of treatments with biochar were slightly lower compared to the controls. Fig. 2. Soil PLFA concentrations from the greenhouse experiment of a) different treatments for the Eschenau (E) and b) comparison of the wood biochar treatments to the control in Eschenau (E), Kaindorf (K) and Traismauer (T) soils. WN= wood biochar with nitrogen; SN= straw biochar with nitrogen, VN400= vineyard pruning biochar with pyrolysis temperature 400 C with nitrogen; VN= vineyard pruning biochar with nitrogen, N= without biochar with nitrogen. Error bars indicate standard deviation; n = 5. We focused on individual PLFAs but also investigated five microbial groups: Gram positive bacteria, actinomycetes, Gram negative bacteria, fungal and unspecific PLFAs. In Figure 3, the occurrence of one selected representative fatty acid for each soil microbial group: Gram positive bacteria, actinomycetes, Gram negative bacteria, fungal and unspecific PLFAs, are shown for the different soil treatments. The Gram positive bacterial PLFA a15:0 and the Gram negative bacterial PLFA cy17:0 remained largely unchanged across the whole experiment. The actinomycete PLFA 10Me18:0 increased on day 170 and 297. The saprophytic fungi biomarker PLFA 18:2ω6,9 decreased over time. Unspecified PLFAs (i.e. 16:0) also decreased with time. The PLFA analyses showed few significant trends. The MANOVA for the two treatments, wood biochar with fertilizer (WN) and soil with fertilizer but without biochar (N) from Eschenau, Kaindorf and Traismauer soils, showed differences between the three soils but no differences between treatments. In the MANOVA for the seven different treatments from the Eschnau soil the treatment E_VN400 and E_VN differed significantly from all other biochar treatments and the control treatments; in contrast E_WN and E_W differed only from the control treatments without biochar. Treatment E_VN400 showed a significant increase in concentration of individual PLFAs (Figs. 2 and 3). Generally, PLFA concentrations of Kaindorf were highest and those of Traismauer lowest. 410

8 Fig. 3. Five PLFAs (a15:0, cy17:0, 10Me18:0, 18:2ω6.9 and 16:0) of the studied treatments from the greenhouse experiment on four different sampling days. E= Eschenau; T=Traismauer; K=Kaindorf; WN= wood biochar with nitrogen; SN= straw biochar with nitrogen; VN400= vineyard pruning biochar with pyrolysis temperature 400 C with nitrogen; VN= vineyard pruning biochar with nitrogen; W= wood biochar without nitrogen; E= without biochar without nitrogen; N= without biochar with nitrogen. Error bars indicate standard deviations; n = 5. For principal component analysis we selected four sampling days. This provided insight into the microbial community shifts and into potential dominant drivers (specific PLFAs or organism groups) of these shifts. The principal component analysis of the greenhouse experiment showed a significant grouping of the treatments and clarified the results of the PLFA analysis. The Eschenau treatments showed a separation between groups of treatments with biochar and those without; especially the abovementioned biochar treatments E_VN400 and E_VN showed a large separation on day 10 and day 51. Later, on day 170 and day 297, only the treatments E_WN and E_W showed little separation from the control treatments (Fig. 4). The Kaindorf and Traismauer treatments showed no separation between the treatment with and without biochar (Fig. 5). This lack of separation was similar to the results from the field experiment (Fig. 7). Basically, in the treatment separation in Eschenau soil the highest influence on the grouping of treatments was shown by PLFAs belonging to the group of Gram positive bacteria (i14:0), unspecific PLFAs (16:1ω6, 19:1) and fungi (18:2ω6,9), Gram negative bacteria (16:1ω5, 18:1ω7) (supplementary information). The highest influence on grouping of the wood biochar treatments and the control treatments of all three soils was shown by fungal (16:1ω5, 18:2ω6,9, 18:1ω7) and actinomycete PLFA (10Me18:0, 12Me18:0). Nonetheless, the results showed no specific PLFAs or organism group that operated as a dominate driver of shifts. Accordingly, the separation is apparently not driven by a particular microbial group or a single PLFA. The correlation analysis from the greenhouse experiment showed many significant correlations between PLFAs and soil properties, seepage water characterization and plant biomass (supplementary information, Tables I III). The C/N ratio in the soil increased after adding biochar (Table 5). The mean C/N ratio from Eschenau biochar treatments increased from day 2 (18) between days 51 and 170, when the value was between 33 and 37. The C/N ratio from the Kaindorf and Traismauer treatments with biochar increased from 16 to over 20. The C and N contents were also the only parameters determined for the soil samples used for PLFA analysis. All other parameters were reported from different samples and at varying times (Kloss et al. 2013, Bücker 2012). 411

9 Fig. 4. Principal component analyses from the greenhouse experiment with grouping of various biochar and fertilization treatments for soil from Eschenau on four different sampling days. Error bars indicate standard deviation. E= Eschenau; WN= wood biochar with nitrogen; SN= straw biochar with nitrogen; VN400= vineyard pruning biochar with pyrolysis temperature 400 C with nitrogen; VN= vineyard pruning biochar with nitrogen; W= wood biochar without nitrogen; E= without biochar without nitrogen; N= without biochar with nitrogen. For more data on the eigenvalue and variance see supplementary information. Fig. 5. Principal component analyses from the greenhouse experiment with grouping of biochar treatment for soil from Kaindorf and Traismauer on four different sampling days Error bars indicate standard deviation. E=Eschenau; T=Traismauer; K=Kaindorf; WN= wood biochar with nitrogen; N= without biochar with nitrogen. For more data on the eigenvalue and variance see supplementary information. 412

10 Correlations between PLFAs and the N content of soil were common, but varied with soil type. PLFAs in the Eschenau soil correlated both positively and negatively with the N content of soil, more negatively correlation for ammonium could be found in soil with biochar, also correlation with nitrate and DOC were present only in Eschenau soil with biochar. In the Kaindorf soil generally few correlations with PLFAs were found. No correlation of PLFAs and Ncontents of soil were found. Moreover, several correlations were found regarding DOC, nitrate, C contents of soil and C/N ratio of soil. In the Traismauer soil the N content correlated with PLFAs in soil with biochar and without; additional positively correlations with ammonium were found only in soil with biochar. Many positive correlations between ph and PLFAs were present in the Traismauer soil and in the Eschenau soil. Other variables (sulphate, water content, EC) correlated with diverse PLFAs, but no general patterns were evident. The Eschenau soil treatments without biochar showed a strong positive correlation with all PLFAs and with the growth of mustard, barley and clover. In the treatment with biochar only the first crop (mustard) correlated with certain PLFAs from different microbial groups. Table 5. Mean and standard deviation of C org and N tot in the soil on four selected days during the greenhouse experiment (n=5). Different letters indicate significant difference within one column (p <0.05 Tukey s test, n=55), unit = (g/ 100g dry soil). Day 0 Day 51 Day 170 Day 297 C org N tot C org N tot C org N tot C org N tot E_WN 2.8 ± 0.6 b 0.14 ± 0.01 ab 3.1 ± 0.3 abc 0.20 ± 0.04 cd 2.8 ± 0.4 bc 0.08 ± 0.03 bc 2.8 ± 0.4 ab 0.1 ± bc E_SN 2.6 ± 0.2 b 0.15 ± 0.01 ab 2.9 ± 0.3 ab 0.18 ± 0.02 bcd 2.8 ± 0.5 bc 0.08 ± 0.01 bc 2.6 ± 0.4 ab 0.09 ± 0.01 abc E_VN ± 0.4 b 0.17 ± 0.01 abc 3.2 ± 0.3 abc 0.20 ± 0.02 cd 3.2 ± 0.3 de 0.09 ± 0.01 cde 3.1 ± 0.2 ab 0.11 ± 0.01 bc E_VN 3.1 ± 0.5 b 0.16 ± 0.01 abc 3.4 ± 0.2 abc 0.17 ± 0.00 bcd 3.5 ± 0.2 de 0.09 ± 0.00 de 3.5 ± 0.2 ab 0.11 ± 0.00 c E_W 2.5 ± 0.1 b 0.15± 0.01 abc 3.1 ± 0.8 ab 0.16 ± 0.00 abc 3.0 ± 0.3 bcd 0.08 ± 0.01 bcd 2.8 ± 0.4 ab 0.10 ± 0.01 bc E 1.1 ± 0.1 a 0.14 ± 0.01 ab 1.1 ± 0.1 a 0.14 ± 0.00 ab 1.1 ± 0.1 a 0.05 ± 0.01 a 1.4 ± 0.9 a 0.08 ± 0.01 a E_N 1.0± 0.1 b 0.13 ± 0.00 d 1.1 ± 0.2 cd 0.13 ± 0.00 f 1.0 ± 0.3 f 0.07 ± 0.00 f 0.9 ± 0.2 b 0.09 ± 0.02 f K_WN 3.6 ± 0.1 c 0.25 ± 0.00 c 4.3 ± 0.1 d 0.27 ± 0.01 d 4.4 ± 0.1 g 0.21 ± 0.02 g 4.3 ± 0.0 ab 0.25 ± 0.00 d K_N 2.4 ± 1.5 a 0.25 ± 0.06 a 2.4 ± 0.7 a 0.25 ± 0.05 a 2.3 ±0.4 a 0.22 ± 0.01 a 2.0 ± 0.3 a 0.19 ± 0.01 ab T_WN 3.3 ± 0.3 b 0.20 ± 0.00 bc 3.4 ± 0.5 abc 0.21 ± 0.02 bcd 3.3 ± 0.2 cde 0.13 ± 0.00 e 3.1 ± 0.1 ab 0.17 ± 0.00 c T_N 1.6 ± 0.2 b 0.18 ± 0.01 d 1.6 ± 0.1 cd 0.17 ± 0.01 e 1.6 ± 0.1 b 0.13 ± 0.01 b 1.4 ± 0.4 a 0.12 ± 0.05 e E= Eschenau; T=Traismauer; K=Kaindorf; WN= wood biochar with nitrogen; SN= straw biochar with nitrogen; VN400= vineyard pruning biochar with pyrolysis temperature 400 C with nitrogen; VN= vineyard pruning biochar with nitrogen; W= wood biochar without nitrogen; E= without biochar without nitrogen; N= without biochar with nitrogen; C org = soil organic carbon content, N tot = total nitrogen content. Field experiment The different treatments, including various amounts of biochar and nitrogen fertilization, did not significantly alter PLFA concentrations (Fig. 6). Only the location (climate, soil, cultivation) made a significant difference. The amounts of individual PLFAs from Kaindorf were higher than those from Traismauer, except the PLFA for fungi. The field experiment showed few significant trends in individual PLFAs, and a clear separation of groups was evident in the principal component analysis (Fig. 7). Principal component analysis and MANOVA showed no difference in treatments within the soils. The separation from soils from the field experiment (PC 2) was caused by PL FAs from the microbial group of fungi (18:1ω7, 18:2 ω6,9, 18:1ω5), whereas the separation of treatments (PC 1) was probably caused by the fertilization regime. Responsible variables were Gram positive bacterial, Gram negative bacterial, actinomycete and unspecific PLFAs (supplementary information). 413

11 Fig. 6. Means of individual PLFAs from the field experiments at the locations Kaindorf (K) and Traismauer (T). T=Traismauer; K=Kaindorf; BC1NPK= 1% biochar with nitrogen, BC3NPK= 3% biochar with nitrogen, BC3= 3% biochar without nitrogen, NPK= only fertilizer; error bars indicate standard deviations; n = 5. Fig. 7. Principal component analysis with grouping of various biochars and fertilization treatments from the field experiment. Error bars indicate standard deviation T=Traismauer; K=Kaindorf; BC1NPK= 1% biochar with nitrogen, BC3NPK= 3% biochar with nitrogen, BC3= 3% biochar without nitrogen, NPK= only fertilizer. For more data on the eigenvalue and variance see supplementary information. 414

12 Discussion This study investigated the effects of biochar on microbial communities under the greenhouse and field conditions. It was designed to identify (1) the influence of biochar on the soil microbial communities, (2) the reasons for these influence, and (3) the differences in the biochar effects caused by different application rates in soil, different pyrolysis temperature and the feedstock of biochar. Effects of biochar on the soil microbial biomass and community structure PLFA analysis of the greenhouse experiment showed little significant evidence for a positive effect of biochar on total microbial biomass. The absence of biochar effects on soil microorganisms has been documented by Castaldi et al. (2011) and Watzinger et al. (2013). At the same time however, no significant negative effect of biochar amendment on total microbial biomass was observed in the current study. Nevertheless, our principal component analysis of both experiments showed shifts in the microbial community. If microbially available carbon sources (e.g. plant residues or vegetable oil) are added to the soil, then soil microorganisms tend to react by increasing their biomass (Stemmer et al. 2007, Mellendorf et al. 2010). As we generally did not observe such an increase, we hypothesize that changes in microbial communities were largely caused by altered soil characteristics, as proposed by Watzinger et al. (2013), Mašek et al. (2011) and Lehmann et al. (2011). The behavior of the PLFA pattern also supports findings of O Neil et al. (2009) and Anderson et al. (2011), that the biomass shifts apparently occurred at the level of single families, genera and species, and not in total microbial biomass. Additionally, we hypothesise that soil drying and pot preparation had strongly impacted soil microorganisms and caused major microbial mortality, followed by a large increase of microbial biomass. Linking soil microbial community changes to the soil properties in the greenhouse experiment Biocharinduced changes in the C/N ratio, water holding capacity, phvalue and nutrient availability affect soil fertility and microbial communities (Mao et al. 2012, Pietikäinen et al. 2000, Liang et al. 2010, Kolb et al. 2009). Soil samples from the greenhouse experiment were collected and analyzed at the start of the experiment and after seven month (Kloss et al. 2013). Adding biochar to the soil increased the ph value, EC, CEC, C/N ratio and C org in the soil of this experiment. During the first seven months, the EC of the biochartreated soil decreased, whereas CEC increased. The C/N ratio increased after 51 and 170 days. We ascribed this increase to the absence of fertilization, which was omitted as a preparative management for the cultivation of clover. The reaction of PLFAs to the tested factors differed from soil to soil, and the correlations regarding the treatments with biochar differed from those without biochar. This supports a mainly indirect and complex effect of biochar on microbial communities, involving manifold effects of biochar on the soils physical and chemical factors rather than a direct interaction such as biochar degradation by microorganisms as suggested by Mašek et al. (2011) and Lehmann et al. (2011). One explanation for the observed strong correlation between the PLFAs and the C and Ncontents of soil is that they were the only parameters as determined in the same samples as the PLFA analysis. Beyond this, it is known that an increasing C/N ratio changes the soil microbial community, e.g. favors fungal growth but limits bacterial abundance (Eiland et al. 2001). In contrast to this general model, we found not only negative correlations between PLFAs and C/N, but also strongly increasing microbial biomass with increasing C/N ratio This mismatch is because C/N ratios do not visualize the C or Navailability, and were probably caused by correlations from PLFAs with the Ncontents We found only little correlation between PLFAs and the Ccontent of soil. This leads to the conclusion that most of the C was not bioavailable. Moreover, we found many correlations between PLFAs and Ncontents of soil in Eschenau and Traismauer. Kaindorf showed correlations only with Ccontent and few correlations with nitrate. Nelissen et al. (2012) and Anderson et al. (2011) found that, depending on the soil and its nutrient status and dynamics, the processes of adsorption, immobilization, nitrification and mineralization will considerably affect nutrient availability and consequently soil microorganisms. Our interpretation is that the nutrientrich soil (Kaindorf) showed no correlation with Ncontents and only few with nitrate because the microorganisms were already supplied with nutrients. The nutrientpoor soils with biochar from Traismauer and Eschenau showed many positive correlations with the Ncontent, nitrate and DOC; this could indicate that biochar enhanced the nutrient supply in these treatments. Kolb et al. (2009) and Steinbeiss et al. (2009) also reported that the increase in microbial biomass and respiration is higher with a low level of native SOM (soil organic matter) in the biocharamanded soils. They also determined that the increase in microbial habitat and available C in the SOMpoor soils was the main driver of this development. Note that, these soil bacteria are better adapted to nutrientlimited environments than those in soils with larger SOM. The absence of enhanced microbial biomass in the nutrientrich soil of Kaindorf could also be reflecting to the high level of preexisting microbial biomass (Ameloot et al. 2013). 415

13 The correlations also showed that in the Planosol (Eschenau) many microorganisms benefited from the higher ph value. Like Watzinger et al. (2013), we found a strong increase of actinomycetes midway through of the experiment. This probably partly reflects their sensitivity to low ph values (Giri et al. 2013). The decrease in and low amount of fungal PLFAs could have also been a consequence of higher ph, because fungi normally grow optimally in acidic soils (Aciego Pietri and Brookes 2009). The moderate ph value increase in the Cambisol (Kaindorf) and the Chernozem (Traismauer) showed no beneficial effects on microorganisms. In both soils, the ph value was close to neutral and its increase after biochar application was quite small which might explain the lack of response of the soil microorganisms. A high pyrolysis temperature increases the microporosity in biochar and the fraction of finer biochar particles (Abit et al. 2012) and decreases the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of biochar (Lehmann et al. 2011). The process temperature also determines how much char, condensable liquid and gas will ultimately result from the pyrolysis. With increasing pyrolysis temperature the fractions of stable biochar compounds increase; this yields biochars with longer residence times in the soil, but with less labile compounds to promote microorganisms (Mašek et al. 2011, Lehmann et al. 2011). It is possible that the low pyrolysis temperature in treatment E_VN400 produced a larger labile C fraction; this, in turn, might have increased microbial PLFAs while the other investigated biochar treatments showed neutral or decreasing effects for microbial biomass. Nelissen et al. (2012) also reported increased activity of soil microorganisms in biochar pyrolysed at 350 C versus 550 C. They attributed this to the larger labile carbon fraction in the lower temperature biochar. We observed increases of partly the same PLFAs already described by Watzinger et al. (2013) as taking part in biochar degradation. Our greenhouse experiment, however, provided no proof that they were involved in biochar degradation. One example of increased PLFA was 10Me18:0, actinomycetes. The reproduction of actinomycetes is slow and they prosper in nutrient limited soil. Actinomycetes can also degrade persistent and complex substrates and tend to build stable populations within the microbial community (Metting 1993). Additionally, Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium, members of the actinomycetes are known degraders of aromatic compounds (Johnsen et al. 2002, Ringelberg et al. 2001). Nonetheless, some of the volatile organic compounds can be toxic; moreover high salt levels from the labile biochar fraction could decrease microbial biomass (Lehmann et al. 2011, Spokas et al. 2011). TaghizadehToosi et al. (2011) described VOCs from biochar as possible nitrification inhibitors. Kloss et al. (2013) and Deenik et al. (2011) found that the detrimental effects of VOCs in biocharenriched soils were temporary. In our experiment, the stability of the total microbial biomass after biochar amendment confirmed that biochar toxicity played a minor role. Principal component analysis of the microorganism community, however, did show a separation of different treatments on day 0 and day 51. On day 170 the biochar treatments showed no separation and the last sampling day showed a separation between treatments with biochar and without. This might be attributed to the loss / leaching of salts and the labile carbon fraction of the biochar. Comparison of soil microbial community growth and plant growth in the greenhouse experiment The first crop (mustard) of Eschenau showed clear differences between the biochar treatments and the control, but these differences were reduced and insignificant in the second (barley) and third crops (clover) (Kloss et al. 2013). This pattern was also partial reflected in the principal component analysis and the MANOVA of the microorganism community. The treatments with vineyard pruning showed, on days 10, 51 and 86 strong differences and on day 170 and 297 no difference, instead we found at day 170 and day 297 a difference between the treatments without biochar and the treatments with wood biochar. Generally, biochar application decreased the plant biomass of the first two crops (mustard and barley) in all soils. This might be related to shifts in micronutrient availability, or to the toxic effects of VOCs and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Kloss et al. 2013). We found no significant reduction of microbial biomass. Kloss et al. (2013) determined that the interaction of biochar application and N fertilization was only of minor importance for plant growth. Our analysis of PLFAs also showed no or little influence of biochar on the N related processes of microbial growth. In the Planosol (Eschenau) without biochar, PLFAs correlated with all three crops, whereas the treatment with biochar correlated only with the mustard crop. One interpretation is that, in the sandy Planosol without biochar, the interaction between plants and microorganisms is closed and has a stronger impact. This direct connection seemed to be decoupled through the biochar amendment. 416

14 Effects of biochar on soil microorganisms in the field In the field experiment, the C/N ratio increased significantly after biochar addition, while the soil parameters ph value, EC and CEC were not influenced by this addition in the second vegetation period, when PLFA samples were collected. In Kaindorf, the yield of wheat (dry biomass) fell significantly under BC3 treatment compared to the other three treatments. The yield of sunflower in Traismauer showed a smaller difference between the BC3 and the NPK treatment (unpublished data). The reduced component factors of PCA from the microorganism PL FAs did not show the same distribution pattern as the crop yield of the corresponding treatments. There was no disadvantage of treatment BC3 found. The separation of treatments into two soilgroups was caused by principal component factor 2, which was largely defined through PLFAs from the microorganism group of fungi. This separation probably originated from the innately higher fungi content in the microorganism community of Traismauer soil. The trends and the separation of the treatments in the field experiment were comparable to those from the greenhouse experiment. Conclusion Biochar amendment to temperate agricultural soils did not increase or decrease total soil microbial biomass but caused minor shifts in the microbial communities using phospholipid fatty acid analyses. Only the biochar treatment Eschenau soil with vineyard pruning pyrolysed at 400 C showed a significant increase of microbial biomass in the greenhouse experiment possibly related to a larger labile fraction in biochar pyrolysed at lower temperature. The greenhouse pot experiment and the field experiments showed consistent results. Biochar application affected soil chemistry and physics and consequently microbial communities differently in the three different agricultural soils. In this context of complexity we could identify ph value being important, especially after biochar addition to the slightly acidic soil (Eschenau soil). Additionally, nutrientstatus and availability (Ncontent of the bulk soil; nitrate, ammonium and DOC of the soil solution) affected the microbial communities. We found that biochar enhanced the positive correlation between nutrients and microorganisms in the nutrient poor soils of Eschenau and Traismauer more than in the nutrient rich soil of Kaindorf. In our high quality agricultural soils the importance of biochar addition was rather carbon sequestration than soil amelioration. Acknowledgement This study was financed by the Austrian FFG, project nr , via the KLI.ENfunds programs Neue Energien References Abit, S.M., Bolster, C.H., Cai, P. & Walker, S.L Influence of Feedstock and Pyrolysis Temperature of Biochar Amendments on Transport of Escherichia coli in Saturated and Unsaturated Soil. Environmental Science & Technology 46: Aciego Pietri, J.C. & Brookes, P.C Substrate inputs and ph as factors controlling microbial biomass, activity and community structure in an arable soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 41: Anderson, C.R., Condron, L.M., Clough, T.J., Fiers, M., Stewart, A., Hill, R.A. & Sherlock, R.R Biochar induced soil microbial community change: Implications for biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Pedobiologia International Journal of Soil Biology, 54: Ameloot, N., Graber, E., Verheijen, F.& De Neve, S Interactions between biochar stability and soil organisms: review and research needs. European Journal of Soil Sience, 64: Bligh E. & Dyer W A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 37: Bücker, J Effects of biochar on leachate characteristics and crop production of mustard (Sinapis alba) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) in a microlysimeter experiment on three agricultural soils in Austria. Diploma thesis, BTU Cottbus. Brennan, P. J Mycobacterium and other actinomycetes. In: Ratledge, C. and Wilkinson, S. G. (eds.). Microbial lipids. London: Academic Press. p Brewer, C.E., Unger, R., SchmidtRohr, K. & Brown, R.C Criteria to Select Biochar for Field Studies based on Biochar Chemical Properties. Bioenergy Research 4: Castaldi, S., Riondino, M., Baronti, S., Esposito, F.R., Marzaioli, R., Rutigliano, F.A., Vaccari, F.P. & Miglietta, F Impact of biochar application to a Mediterranean wheat crop on soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas fluxes. Chemosphere 85: Chan, K. Y. & Xu, Z Biochar: nutrient properties and their enhancement. In: Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S. (eds.). Biochar for Environmental Management. Earthscan, London: Science and Technology. p


gC 3 N 4 Modified biochar as an adsorptive and photocatalytic material for decontamination of …

2 November, 2019
 

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Biochar for delivery of agri-inputs: Current status and future perspectives

2 November, 2019
 

Biochar, a carbonaceous porous material produced from the pyrolysis of agricultural residues and solid wastes has been widely used as a soil amendment. Recent publications on biochar are primarily focussed with its application in climatic aspects, contaminant immobilization, soil amendment strategies, nutrient recovery, engineered material production and waste-water treatment. Numerous studies have reported the positive attribute of biochar’s nutrient value that helps in improving plant growth and fertilizer use efficiency. The renewability, low-cost, high porosity, high surface area and customizable surface chemistry of biochar offers ample prospect in several engineering applications, some of which needs significant attention. This review aims at systematically assessing the uses of biochar as a potential carrier material for delivery of agrochemicals and microbes. The key parameters of biochar that are crucial to assess the potential of any material to be used for delivery purposes are discussed. The parameters such as the physicochemical properties of biochar, the mechanistic aspects of adsorption and release of agrochemicals and microbes from biochar, comparative assessment of biochar over other carrier materials, long-term effects of biochar and the economic and environmental benefits of biochar are discussed in detail. At the end, a brief perspective has also been laid out to discuss how nano-interventions could further be helpful to tailor biochar properties useful for delivery applications.

 


johannes lehmann nature pictures

2 November, 2019
 

johannes lehmann nature pictures
Royalty Free Stock Photos, Illustrations, Vector Art, and … ; Find the perfect royalty-free image for your next project from the world’s best photo library of creative stock photos, vector art illustrations, and stock photography. How biochar production could help climate change fight … ; 9/30/2010 · Pictures Newsletters … Cornell University scientist Johannes Lehmann thinks biochar is crucial way to reduce human carbon emissions, by burying them. … In a commentary in Nature, Lehmann … Vermeer, Johannes – workART Prints and Picture Frames ; Vermeer, Johannes from R258.00 See it framed Buy Fine Art Print: A Lady Writing Vermeer, Johannes from R258.00 See it framed Buy Fine Art Print: Allegory of Faith Vermeer, Johannes from R258.00 See it framed Buy Fine Art Print: A Woman Asleep Vermeer, Johannes from R258.00 See it framed Buy Fine Art Print: A Young Woman Reading at an Open … Hittite language – Wikipedia ; Hittite (natively 𒉈𒅆𒇷 nešili “[in the language] of Neša”), also known as Nesite and Neshite, was an Indo-European language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa, as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.The language, long extinct now, is attested in cuneiform, in records dating from the 16th … Horticulture – Wikipedia ; Horticulture has been defined as the culture of plants, mainly for food, materials, comfort and beauty. According to American horticulturist Liberty Hyde Bailey, “Horticulture is the growing of flowers, fruits and vegetables, and of plants for ornament and fancy.” A more precise definition can be given as “The cultivation, processing, and sale of fruits, nuts, vegetables, and ornamental plants … Johannes Le Roux | Facebook ; Johannes Le Roux is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Johannes Le Roux and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and… Our Most Popular Scientists – Top 100 – Biography, Facts … ; Johannes Kepler 1571 to 1630. … Inge Lehmann 1888 – 1993. Analyzed earthquake waves to discovered that within our planet’s liquid core, at the very center of the earth, there is a solid core whose diameter is greater than 1,000 km. … Transformed our understanding of nature: his famous equations unified the forces of electricity and … Lehmann, Werner – workART Prints and Picture Frames ; Lehmann, Werner from R358.00 See it framed Buy Fine Art Print: Good Morning Cape Town Lehmann, Werner from R358.00 See it framed Buy Fine Art Print: Table Mountain Lehmann, Werner from R358.00 See it framed Buy Fine Art Print: Winter Day Lehmann, Werner from R358.00 See it framed Buy Fine Art Print: Agave Lehmann, Werner from R358.00 See it … Johannes Straub | Facebook ; Johannes Straub is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Johannes Straub and others you may know. … Das ist ein Fall für RTL, Pictures, Text, Pictures, Ideas, Life Hacks, Ideas, Nico Semsrott, … Johannes Lehmann. Johannes Ekberg. Johannes Herbst. Johannes Jais. Johannes Caspary. Johannes Kempas. Johannes Pürrer (Joschy) Johannes Van Zyl. Arne W Lehmann | Dr. rer. nat. | ResearchGate ; Arne W Lehmann with expertise in Animal Communications, Entomology, Systematics (Taxonomy). Read 59 publications, 5 answers, and contact Arne W Lehmann on ResearchGate, the professional network …Monitoring the world’s agriculture | Nature ; 7/28/2010 · To feed the world without further damaging the planet, Jeffrey Sachs and 24 food-system experts call for a global data collection and dissemination network to … Publications Authored by Johannes Lehmann | PubFacts ; Johannes Lehmann Johannes Richers Alexander Pöthig Stephan A Sieber Chem Commun (Camb) 2016 12;53(1):107-110 Department of Chemistry, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstraße 4, 85747 Garching, Germany. Beautiful Free Images & Pictures | Unsplash ; Beautiful, free images and photos that you can download and use for any project. Better than any royalty free or stock photos. Volume 561 Issue 7724, 27 September 2018 – nature.com ; Volume 561 Issue 7724, 27 September 2018. Stellar outburst. The cover image is a visualization of the turbulent envelope of a luminous blue variable star surrounding the central high-density core. Johannes Gutenberg | Printing Press, Facts, & Biography … ; 8/19/2019 · Johannes Gutenberg, German craftsman and inventor who originated a method of printing from movable type. Unique to his invention were a durable type-metal alloy, an oil-based ink that adhered well to metal type and transferred well to vellum or paper, and a press for applying firm even pressure to printing surfaces. Johannes Kepler – Biography, Facts and Pictures ; Johannes Kepler’s Early Life and Education. Johannes Kepler was born on December 27, 1571, in the town of Weil der Stadt, which then lay in the Holy Roman Empire, and is now in Germany. His mother, Katharina Guldenmann, was a herbalist who helped run an inn owned by her father. Biochar References Articles Books – css.cornell.edu ; Lehmann, J.: 2007, ‘A handful of carbon’,Nature 447, 143-144. Lehmann J 2007 Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5, 381-387. Lehmann J and Joseph S 2009 Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan, London. Mathews JA 2008 Carbon-negative biofuels. Energy Policy 36, 940-945. Johannes Richers | Dr. rer. nat. | 10 publications … ; www.jorichers.com ///// Dr. Johannes Richers is a chemical scientist and a designer. He received his chemistry education from the Technical University of Munich, Germany (B.Sc./M.Sc.), studied … Comparison of Wet-Digestion and Dry-Ashing Methods for … ; trant nature of biochar (Cheng et al. 2008; Kuzyakov et al. 2009) requires more aggressive digestion methods than typically used for plant materials and entirely different methods than soil where mainly silicates are dissolved. The term biochar refers to a wide range of possible materials. Composition of the original biomass largely determines … Nature’s Internet: The Vast, Intelligent Network Beneath … ; Derrick Jensen (who I’ve always categorised as interesting, but fundamentally unhelpful) has an interview with Paul Stamets, author of Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World, in “The Sun Magazine” about the “Vast, Intelligent Network Beneath Our Feet” that few think about, but which has a huge influence on life on earth as we know it – Going Underground.Amazonian Terra Preta Can Transform Poor Soil Into Fertile … ; 3/1/2006 · Lehmann, who studies bio-char and is the first author of the 2003 book “Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management,” the first comprehensive … Horticulture – Wikipedia ; Horticulture has been defined as the culture of plants, mainly for food, materials, comfort and beauty. According to an American horticulture scholar, “Horticulture is the growing of flowers, fruits and vegetables, and of plants for ornament and fancy.” Johannes Meintjes | Home Page ; JOHANNES MEINTJES ARCHIVAL WEBSITE We are compiling a catalogue raisonné of the paintings of Johannes Meintjes and approximately 2000 images may be viewed on this archival website. Please assist by sending any images that you may have to cmt@iafrica.com (PDF) Sachs etal Nature 2010 | Thomas Tomich and Clare … ; Johannes Lehmann is in assessments (www.millenniumassessment. lion, and $1 million per year there after. the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell org/en/multiscale.aspx) — which look at the Finally, site monitoring would begin when University. terra preta – gardenweb.com ; Johannes Lehmann. Basic Concepts Projects Work by others Pictures References. Bio-char: the new frontier. Inspired by the fascinating properties of Terra Preta de Indio, bio-char is a soil amendment that has the potential to revolutionize concepts of soil management. Farm | Biochar Farms ; The objective for biochar farming is probably not going to be applying as much biochar as possible, but rather to achieve the maximize crop production from the most efficient application of biochar. Dr. Johannes Lehmann has reported that, “With relatively small amounts of 2-5 Mg C per hectare [tones/hectare] of bio-char, significant … People in N – Pictures – Zimbio ; People in N – Pictures – Zimbio. TV. … Namayca Bauer Nambala Johannes Nambia Namcha Namchiangtai Jeerawan … Colo Nando Escribano Nando Lehmann Nando Marmo Nando Pelusi … Browse By Author: W – Project Gutenberg ; Containing a collection of some of the principal phaenomena in nature, accounted for by the greatest philosophers of this age (English) (as Contributor) Wallis, John Eyre Winstanley, 1886-¶ The Welding of the Race (“449”-1066) (English) (as Compiler) Wallis, Keene ¶ Là … How fences could save the planet – newstatesman.com ; 1/13/2011 · By burning all agricultural waste such as corn and rice stalks, branch and leaf litter (as well as animal dung) in a “low-oxygen” environment to create charcoal, we could “halt the increase and actually decrease the level of atmospheric carbon by 0.7 gigatonnes a year”, according to Johannes Lehmann, a soil science expert at Cornell University. Classroom Resources – Conservation ; In a deft act of ecological jujitsu, Johannes Lehmann wants to borrow an 8,000-year-old technology to interrupt the natural carbon cycle and return some of the infamous black stuff to the soil. Classroom ResourcesTia Haynes – HUMAN/KIND JOURNAL ; 27 May 2019 … Instead there is a loop of meditative music set to nature images. A couple more plaques under the doctor’s names. Some new photo books. Biochar – Biofuelwatch ; 18 Nov 2011 … One recent report published in Nature Communications, co- …… According to Johannes Lehmann, soil scientist and Chair of the International …… advantage of the positive image created around biochar and even be promoted … Buy Wall Prints & Framed Prints in Perth – Gallery 360 ; From abstract art to still life pieces, our design consultants will help you find the perfect wall art prints for your home. See our extensive range here. ‘Unusual Excrescences of Nature’: Collected Coral and the Study of … ; 15 Mar 2017 … The display of objects and images suggests the presence of human activity, yet ….. Joannes Stradanus and Philips Galle, Diving for coral (on Sicily). …… Ann- Sophie Lehman, Frits Scholten, and Perry Chapman (Leiden: Brill, … Image against Nature: Spolia as Apotropaia in Byzantium and … – NYU ; … and nature of these images find close analogies in Byzantium, where antique statuary …. providing protection against both natural disasters (storms, earthquakes, inundations) …… Festschrift Johannes Quasten, 2 vols, vol. 2, Münster: …. H. Reich (eds), Festschrift zu C.F. Lehmann-Haupts sechzigstem Geburtstage, Vienna. Automatic image orientation determination with natural image statistics ; 6 Nov 2005 … In this paper, we propose a new method for automatically determining image orientations. This method is based on a set of natural image … Citrine: Mineral information, data and localities. – Mindat.org ; Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data: … Lehmann, G. (1972) Yellow color centers in natural and synthetic quartz. Physik der ….. Johannes Mine. F. Müller: … Kemper Museum’s Exhibition Gets ‘Dressed Up’ | KCUR ; 1 Nov 2013 … … Art called Dressed Up explores the “theater of the self,” and the role of nature, culture, … And she confirms, pointing to the picture: “The tiger with the bow tie.” … Credit Collection of Johannes Lehmann, Ithaca, New York. What Makes a Genius? – National Geographic ; Photograph by Philippe Halsman, Magnum Photos (Left) … Scientific breakthroughs like Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection would be impossible ….. Johannes Kepler … Source: age and Achievement, by Harvey C. Lehman.Research Tools – biochar-international ; IBI Board Member Johannes Lehmann works with biochar researchers at Brookhaven Labs … Photo courtesy of Johannes Lehmann … University of Guyana, Faculty of Natural Sciences Department of Chemistry & Faculty of Agriculture and … Controlled Burn – Grow ; 17 Oct 2018 … Just picture it: 9 billion organisms, from perhaps 10,000 species, existing … In 2008 Whitman joined the lab of Cornell University’s Johannes Lehmann, who … of the element that makes up less than 1 percent of natural carbon. biochar – Tel Archives ouvertes ; 20 Jun 2017 … Grâce à sa nature poreuse le biochar/charbon est capable ….. Figure II-1 : Photo et schéma d’une charbonnière typique du Trentino-Alto Adige …… habitat improvement for soil biota (Johannes Lehmann et al., 2011); v. Abad Chabbi – Loop ; Profile picture. Abad Chabbi. Habilitation … Cornelia Rumpel; Johannes Lehmann; Abad Chabbi. Nature. Published on 04 Jan 2018. 0views; XX downloads; XX … Leopoldina news ; 4 Oct 2018 … Photos: Leopoldina | Markus Scholz and David Ausserhofer. ML (Berlin) and Prof . …… Johannes Lehmann ML, Ithaca, USA,. Cornell University … Is Biochar a Game-Changer for Sustainable Farms? | Civil Eats ; 12 Jun 2017 … … after Cornell University professor Johannes Lehmann published … This woody material needs to be managed to reduce natural forest fires, and the strategy of open burning is not popular.” … Photos courtesy of Forage. Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology … ; Dr. Johannes Lehmann, Stephen Joseph … Natural resource management, energy, climate, agriculture … Nature / Environmental Conservation & Protection Biochar for environmental management: science and technology – ePdf ; Biochar for Environmental Management Biochar for Environmental Management Science and Technology Edited by Johannes … Author: Johannes Lehmann … Biochar Systems for Smallholders in Developing Countries ; All photographs used with permission; further permission required for reuse. ….. Johannes Lehmann is an associate professor of soil biogeochemistry and soil …… specific nature of biochar systems, a challenge lies in conducting applied long-.

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Application of co-composted biochar significantly improved plant-growth relevant physical …

2 November, 2019
 

A woody-biochar was added to waste biomass during a composting process. The resulting compost-char was amended to a metal contaminated soil and two plant species, L. perenne and E. sativa, were grown in a pot experiment to determine 1) plant survival and stress factors, 2) uptake of metals to plants and, 3) chemical characteristics of sampled soils and pore waters. Compost supplemented with biochar after the composting process were also tested, as well as a commercially available compost, for comparison.

Co-composting with biochar hastened the composting process, resulting in a composite material of reduced odour, increased maturity, circum-neutral pH and increased moisture retention than compost (increase by 3% of easily removable water content).

When amended to the soil, CaCl2 extractable and pore water metals s were reduced by all compost treatments with little influence of biochar addition at any tested dose. Plant growth success was promoted furthest by the addition of co-composted biochar to the test soil, especially in the case of E. sativa. For both tested plant species significant reductions in plant metal concentrations (e.g. 8-times for Zn) were achieved, against the control soil, by compost, regardless of biochar addition.

The results of this study demonstrate that the addition of biochar into the composting process can hasten the stability of the resulting compost-char, with more favourable characteristics as a soil amendment/improver than compost alone. This appears achievable whilst also maintaining the provision of available nutrients to soils and the reduction of metal mobility, and improved conditions for plant establishment.

 


Global Biochar Market 2019 Innovative Trends and Insights Research upto 2024

2 November, 2019
 

Get extensive research offering detailed information and growth outlook of the global Biochar market in the recent research report added by MarketandResearch.biz. This is professional and comprehensive research formulated by taking into consideration the major regional market situations, key driving factors, major competitors, and the size & scope of the market. The analysts have ensured client needs along with a thorough understanding of market capacities in the real-time scenario. Here all the necessary vital details asked by the clients or any audiences in terms of market advantages or disadvantages and future market scope are mentioned.

The research report reveals the market competitive landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the major vendor/key players in the market. Top companies in the Global Biochar Market: Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels,

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Further, it delivers a close watch on leading competitors combining their strategic analysis, micro and macro market trend and scenarios, pricing analysis and a holistic overview of the market situations in the forecast period from 2019 to 2024. The information is delivered to help determine the strength of competition and take the necessary steps to obtain a leading position in the Biochar market. The report focuses on primary and secondary drivers, market share, leading segments, and geographical analysis.

Regional Spread:

The clients and other readers will also find the geographical regions that are playing an important role in enhancing the growth and development of the market. In this section, the report involved vital information regarding supply and demand, market development enhancers, market share, sales distributors in a very formal pattern. The key countries in each region are taken into consideration as well, such as North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia etc.), Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

For product type segment, this report listed main product type of market: Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar

For the end use/application segment, this report focuses on the status and outlook for key applications. End users are also listed covering Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

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Biochar market is categorized based on the types of services or products, end-user, application segments, regions, and others. Every segment expansion is evaluated along with the evaluation of their growth in the forecast period. The report features basic, secondary and advanced information regarding market global status and trend, market size, share, growth, trends analysis, segment and forecasts from 2019-2024.

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Goethite-modified biochar restricts the mobility and transfer of cadmium in soil-rice system.

2 November, 2019
 

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Cadmium (Cd) contamination of paddy soils has raised serious concerns for food safety and security. Remediation and management of Cd contaminated soil with biochar (BC) and modified biochar is a cost-effective method and has gained due attention in recent years. Goethite-modified biochar (GB) can combine the beneficial effects of BC and iron (Fe) for remediation of Cd contaminated soil. We probed the impact of different BC and GB amendments on Cd mobility and transfer in the soil-rice system. Both BC and GB effectively reduced Cd mobility and availability in the rhizosphere and improved the key growth attributes of rice. Although BC supply to rice plants enhanced their performance in contaminated soil but application of 1.5% GB to the soil resulted in prominent improvements in physiological and biochemical attributes of rice plants grown in Cd contaminated soil. Sequential extraction results depicted that BC and GB differentially enhanced the conversion of exchangeable Cd fractions to non-exchangeable Cd fractions thus restricted the Cd mobility and transfer in soil. Furthermore, supplementing the soil with 1.5% GB incremented the formation of iron plaque (Fe plaque) and boosted the Cd sequestration by Fe plaque. Increase in shoot and root biomass of rice plants after GB treatments positively correlates with incremented chlorophyll contents and gas exchange attributes. Additionally, the oxidative stress damage in rice plants was comparatively reduced under GB application. These findings demonstrate that amending the soil with 1.5% GB can be a potential remediation method to minimize Cd accumulation in paddy rice and thereby can protect human beings from Cd exposure.

Heavy metals; Iron plaque; Pollution; Remediation; Rice plants


Performance of enhanced anaerobic digestion with different pyrolysis biochars and microbial …

2 November, 2019
 

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is commonly used to treat biowastes, however, there are challenges in AD such as low methane yield, intermediate inhibition, and system instability. In this study, the effects of typical biochars on methane yield and microbial variation for AD with straw and cow manure were explored. The results indicated that cumulative methane yield with coconut shell biochar was higher than that without a biochar (319.44 vs. 282.77 mL/g VS). Interestingly, AD with biochars had a secondary methane yield peak, whereas control groups did not show this phenomenon. A suitable dosage (e.g., straw biochar of 2%) improved cumulative methane yield, but excessive addition (4%) could inhibit AD. AD system with biochar was more helpful for the growth of acetoclastic methanogens rather than hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The study demonstrated biochar can indeed enhance AD performance, and microbial community analyses could supply valuable information to elucidate the mechanism of enhancement.

 


Immobilization of metribuzin degrading bacterial consortium MB3R on biochar enhances …

2 November, 2019
 

Metribuzin (MB) is a triazinone herbicide used for the eradication of weeds in agriculture. Presence of its residues in agricultural soil can potentially harm the establishment of subsequent crops and structure of soil microbial populations. In this study, remediation potential of an MB degrading bacterial consortium MB3R immobilized on biochar was evaluated in potato vegetated soil. In potato vegetated soil augmented with MB3R alone and MB3R immobilized on biochar, 82 and 96% MB degradation was recorded respectively as compared to only 29.3% in un-augmented soil. Kinetic parameters revealed that MB3R immobilized biochar is highly proficient as indicated by significant increase in the rate of biodegradation and decrease in half-life of MB. Enhanced plant growth was observed when augmented with bacterial consortium either alone or immobilized on biochar. Presence of herbicide negatively affected the soil bacterial community structure. However, MB3R immobilized on biochar proved to be helpful for restoration of soil bacterial community structure affected by MB. This is the very first report that reveals improved remediation of contaminated soil and restoration of soil bacterial populations by use of the MB degrading bacterial consortium immobilized on biochar.

 


Biochar Market Size in terms of volume and value 2017 – 2025

3 November, 2019
 

Global “Biochar ” Market Research Study

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Competitive Landscape 

Players in the biochar market receive support from companies supplying pyrolysis technology and wood pellets and residue. Phoenix Energy, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis, and 3R ENVIRO TECH Group are some of the top firms involved in the pyrolysis technology business. Wood pellets and residue are primarily provided by timber businesses such as West Fraser, Georgia-Pacific, and Weyerhaeuser. Out of the prominent biochar players in the international market, Biochar Supreme, LLC is prophesied to make the cut. The analysts anticipate the market to own a fragmented character.

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Global Perspective of Biochar Market 2019 Involving Analysis of Key Players, Types, Applications …

3 November, 2019
 

Biochar Market 2019 Report is a guide to benefits investors and participants to manage and decrease the threats, improve suitable industry models and make good policies and decisions. Biochar market provides important product scope, market overview, opportunities, risk, driving force, sales, revenue. Also, Biochar market offers manufacturers, regions, types, applications, sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, research findings and more.

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The Research projects that the Biochar market size will grow from XX Million USD in 2018 to XX Million USD by 2024, at an estimated CAGR of XX%. The base year considered for the study is 2018, and the market size is projected from 2019 to 2024.

The Biochar report gives brief insights about market trends, market share by Key drivers, Key players, categorization by Product Types and Application, growth rate and sales and so on. Biochar Market report gives valuable information on global Industry chain, offering vast growth opportunities across developing as well as developed economies. Also, the Biochar Market could benefit from the increased Biochar demand to bring down the cost of treatment across the globe.

Biochar Market Segmentation is as follow:

By Market Players:
Phoenix Energy, Pacific Biochar., Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Earth Systems Bioenergy, Diacarbon Energy Inc, Genesis Industries LLC, Full Circle Biochar, Vega Biofuels, Inc, Cool Planet Energy System, CharGrow, LLC, Biochar Supreme LLC, Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd

By Feedstock Type
Woody Biomass, Agricultural Waste, Animal Manure, Others,

By Application
Electricity Generation, Agriculture, Forestry, Others,

Regional Analysis: — Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa.

Country-Level Analysis: — United States, Canada, Mexico, Germany, France, UK, Russia, Italy, China, Japan, Korea, India, Southeast Asia, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, are the top countries playing important role in the Biochar market.

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TOC of Biochar Market Report Contains: —

And More…

Reasons To Buy
— Identify and estimate Biochar market opportunities using our standardized valuation and forecasting methodologies
— Measure Biochar market growth potential at a micro-level via review data and forecasts at category and country level
— Understand the latest industry and Biochar market trends
— Strong and substantiate business plans by leveraging our serious and actionable understanding
— Evaluate business risks, including cost, and competitive pressures

In the end, the Biochar Market feasibility of new investment plan is evaluated, and wide Biochar research conclusions are offered in the report. Biochar Market report delivers major statistics, list of Figures, Tables, Charts which is the detail source of data for guidance and understanding of Biochar Industry.

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Global Armored Vehicle Market Size 2019: Research Methodology, Top Manufactures and Market Size Estimate 2025


Biochar Fuel Market Size, Share 2019: Global Industry Current Trends, Top Companies …

3 November, 2019
 

Global Biochar Fuel Marketresearch analysts provide an elaborate description of the value chain and its distributor analysis The Global Biochar Fuel Market -study provides comprehensive data which enhances the understanding, scope and application of this report.

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The report can help to understand the market and strategize for business expansion accordingly. In the strategy analysis, it gives insights from marketing channel and market positioning to potential growth strategies, providing in-depth analysis for new entrants or exists competitors in the Biochar Fuel industry.

Major players covered in this report:-

Key Market Dynamics of the Global Biochar Fuel Market report provides thorough forecasts on the latest market trends, development patterns, and research methodologies. Some of the factors that are directly influencing the market include the production strategies and methodologies, development platforms, and the product model itself, and even a minute change within the product profile would result in massive changes within the above-mentioned factors. All of these factors are explained in detail in the research study.

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By Type:

By Application:

The report provides noteworthy insights to readers, service providers, suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, stakeholders, and individuals who are interested in evaluating and self-studying this market.

Covered in this report

The Report Covers the Present Scenario and the Growth Prospects of the Global Biochar Fuel Market for 2019-2026. To calculate the market size, the report considers new installations or sales and subscription payments of Biochar Fuel.

Geographically, the regional consumption and value analysis by types, applications, and countries are included in the report. Furthermore, it also introduces the major competitive players in these regions.

Major regions covered in the report:
North America
Europe
Asia-Pacific
Latin America
Middle East & Africa

Country-level segmentation in the report:
United States
Germany
UK
France
Italy
Spain
Poland
Russia
China
Japan
India
Indonesia
Thailand
Philippines
Malaysia
Singapore
Vietnam
Brazil
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Qatar
Bahrain

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Years considered for this report:

Historical Years: 2014-2018
Base Year: 2019
Estimated Year: 2019
Forecast Period: 2019-2026

Major Points From TOC:-

1 Market Overview
1.1 Biochar Fuel Introduction
1.2 Market Analysis by Type
1.2.1 Type 1
1.2.2 Type 2
1.2.3 Type 3
1.3 Market Analysis by Application
1.3.1 Application 1
1.3.2 Application 2
1.3.3 Application 3
1.4 Market Analysis by Region
1.4.1 United States Market States and Outlook (2014-2026F)
1.4.2 Europe Market States and Outlook (2014-2026F)
1.4.3 China Market States and Outlook (2014-2026F)
1.4.4 Japan Market States and Outlook (2014-2026F)
1.4.5 Southeast Asia Market States and Outlook (2014-2026F)
1.4.6 India Market States and Outlook (2014-2026F)
1.4.7 Brazil Market States and Outlook (2014-2026F)
1.4.8 GCC Countries Market States and Outlook (2014-2026F)
1.5 Market Dynamics and Development
1.5.1 Merger, Acquisition and New Investment
1.5.2 Market SWOT Analysis
1.5.3 Drivers
1.5.4 Limitations
1.5.5 Opportunities and Development Trends
1.6 Global Market Size Analysis from 2014 to 2026
1.6.1 Global Market Size Analysis from 2014 to 2026 by Consumption Volume
1.6.2 Global Market Size Analysis from 2014 to 2026 by Value
1.6.3 Global Price Trends Analysis from 2014 to 2026

2 Global Competition by Types, Applications, and Top Regions and Countries
2.1 Global (Volume and Value) by Type
2.1.1 Global Consumption and Market Share by Type (2014-2019)
2.1.2 Global Revenue and Market Share by Type (2014-2019)
2.2 Global (Volume and Value) by Application
2.2.1 Global Consumption and Market Share by Application (2014-2019)
2.2.2 Global Revenue and Market Share by Application (2014-2019)
2.3 Global (Volume and Value) by Region
2.3.1 Global Consumption and Market Share by Region (2014-2019)
2.3.2 Global Revenue and Market Share by Region (2014-2019)

3 United States Biochar Fuel Market Analysis
3.1 United States Consumption and Value Analysis
3.2 United States Consumption Volume by Type
3.3 United States Consumption Structure by Application

4 Europe Biochar Fuel Market Analysis
4.1 Europe Consumption and Value Analysis
4.2 Europe Consumption Volume by Type
4.3 Europe Consumption Structure by Application
4.4 Europe Consumption by Top Countries
4.4.1 Germany Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.2 UK Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.3 France Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.4 Italy Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.5 Spain Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.6 Poland Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.7 Russia Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019

5 China Biochar Fuel Market Analysis
5.1 China Consumption and Value Analysis
5.2 China Consumption Volume by Type
5.3 China Consumption Structure by Application

6 Japan Biochar Fuel Market Analysis
6.1 Japan Consumption and Value Analysis
6.2 Japan Consumption Volume by Type
6.3 Japan Consumption Structure by Application

Continued…

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Fine Biochar Powder Market Size, Share, Growth, Analysis and Forecast by 2019-2026

3 November, 2019
 

This Fine Biochar Powder Market research report provides a comprehensive overview of the markets between 2019-2026 and offers an in-depth summary of the current market status, historic, and expected way forward for the Fine Biochar Powder market. additionally, to this, the report provides data on the restraints negatively impacting the market’s growth. The report includes valuable information to assist new entrants, as well as established players, to understand the prevailing trends in the Market.

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Segmentation by Key Manufacturers:

This report includes following top vendors in terms of company basic information, product category, sales (volume), revenue (Million USD), price and gross margin (%). They are: 

Key players in the market have been identified through secondary research, and their market shares have been determined through primary and secondary research. All percentage shares, splits, and breakdowns have been determined using secondary sources and verified primary sources

Based on Classifications, each type is studied as Sales, Market Share (%), Revenue (Million USD), Price, Gross Margin and more similar information. They are:

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The Report Aimed to provide most segmented consumption and sales data of different types of Fine Biochar Powder, downstream consumption fields and competitive landscape in different regions and countries around the world, this report analyses the latest market data from the primary and secondary authoritative source.

The report also tracks the latest market dynamics, such as driving factors, restraining factors, and industry news like mergers, acquisitions, and investments. It provides market size (value and volume), market share, growth rate by types, applications, and combines both qualitative and quantitative methods to make micro and macro forecasts in different regions or countries.

Major Applications of Fine Biochar Powder Market: 

Each application is studied as Sales and Market Share (%), Revenue (Million USD), Price, Gross Margin and more similar information. 

The report can help to understand the market and strategize for business expansion accordingly. In the strategy analysis, it gives insights from marketing channel and market positioning to potential growth strategies, providing in-depth analysis for new entrants or exists competitors in the Fine Biochar Powder industry.

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Points covered in the Fine Biochar Powder Market Report:

1 Market Overview
1.1 Fine Biochar Powder Introduction
1.2 Market Analysis by Type
1.3 Market Analysis by Application
1.4 Market Analysis by Region
1.4.1 United States Market States and Outlook (2014-2026)
1.4.2 Europe Market States and Outlook (2014-2026)
1.4.3 China Market States and Outlook (2014-2026)
1.4.4 Japan Market States and Outlook (2014-2026)
1.4.5 Southeast Asia Market States and Outlook (2014-2026)
1.4.6 India Market States and Outlook (2014-2026)
1.4.7 Brazil Market States and Outlook (2014-2026)
1.4.8 GCC Countries Market States and Outlook (2014-2026)
1.5 Market Dynamics and Development
1.5.1 Merger, Acquisition and New Investment
1.5.2 Market SWOT Analysis
1.5.3 Drivers
1.5.4 Limitations
1.5.5 Opportunities and Development Trends
1.6 Fine Biochar Powder Market Size Analysis from 2014 to 2026
1.6.1 Fine Biochar Powder Market Size Analysis from 2014 to 2026 by Consumption Volume
1.6.2 Fine Biochar Powder Market Size Analysis from 2014 to 2026 by Value
1.6.3 Fine Biochar Powder Price Trends Analysis from 2014 to 2026

2 Fine Biochar Powder Competition by Types, Applications, and Top Regions and Countries
2.1 Fine Biochar Powder (Volume and Value) by Type
2.1.1 Fine Biochar Powder Consumption and Market Share by Type (2014-2019)
2.1.2 Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Type (2014-2019)
2.2 Fine Biochar Powder (Volume and Value) by Application
2.2.1 Fine Biochar Powder Consumption and Market Share by Application (2014-2019)
2.2.2 Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Application (2014-2019)
2.3 Fine Biochar Powder (Volume and Value) by Region
2.3.1 Fine Biochar Powder Consumption and Market Share by Region (2014-2019)
2.3.2 Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Region (2014-2019)

3 United States Fine Biochar Powder Market Analysis
3.1 United States Fine Biochar Powder Consumption and Value Analysis
3.2 United States Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Volume by Type
3.3 United States Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Structure by Application

4 Europe Fine Biochar Powder Market Analysis
4.1 Europe Fine Biochar Powder Consumption and Value Analysis
4.2 Europe Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Volume by Type
4.3 Europe Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Structure by Application
4.4 Europe Fine Biochar Powder Consumption by Top Countries
4.4.1 Germany Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.2 UK Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.3 France Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.4 Italy Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.5 Spain Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.6 Poland Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019
4.4.7 Russia Fine Biochar Powder Consumption Volume from 2014 to 2019

Continued…

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Soil carbon mineralization following biochar addition associated with external nitrogen

3 November, 2019
 

Biochar has been attracting increasing attention for its potentials of C sequestration and soil amendment. This study aimed to understand the effects of combining biochar with additional external N on soil C mineralization. A typical red soil (Plinthudults) was treated with two biochars made from two types of plantation-tree trunks (soil-biochar treatments), and was also treated with external N (soil-biochar-N treatments). All treatments were incubated for 42 d. The C[O.sub.2]-C released from the treatments was detected periodically. After the incubation, soil properties such as pH, microbial biomass C (MBC), and microbial biomass N (MBN) were measured. The addition of biochar with external N increased the soil pH (4.31-4.33) compared to the soil treated with external N only (4.21). This was not observed in the comparison of soil-biochar treatments (4.75-4.80) to soil only (4.74). Biochar additions (whether or not they were associated with external N) increased soil MBC and MBN, but decreased C[O.sub.2]-C value per unit total C (added biochar C + soil C) according to the model ftting. The total C[O.sub.2]-C released in soil-biochar treatments were enhanced compared to soil only (i.e., 3.15 vs. 2.57 mg and 3.23 vs. 2.45 mg), which was attributed to the labile C fractions in the biochars and through soil microorganism enhancement. However, there were few changes in soil C mineralization in soil-biochar-N treatments. Additionally, the potentially available C per unit total C in soil-biochar-N treatments was lower than that observed in the soil-biochar treatments. Therefore, we believe in the short term, that C mineralization in the soil can be enhanced by biochar addition, but not by adding external N concomitantly.

Key words: Biochar, carbon sequestration, nitrogen, soil amendment.

INTRODUCTION

Biochar incorporation into soils can potentially sequester C and amend soils (Yu et al., 2010; Mulcahy et al., 2013; Spokas, 2013; Zhang et al., 2014). However, soil C mineralization can be altered by biochar within a short time, and the mechanism underlying this process warrants further investigation (Verheijen et al., 2014). A small fraction of labile C in biochar can be mineralized within a short period (Kuzyakov et al., 2009) and can stimulate soil microorganism growth (Quilliam et al., 2013). Biochar can provide a substrate for soil microorganisms, thereby enhancing microorganism activity (Gomez et al., 2014). This microbial growth induces soil C mineralization or degradation (Smith et al., 2010; Luo et al., 2011). However, other studies indicate that biochar alters the soil microbial community structure rather than biomass (Anders et al., 2013) and suppresses soil C mineralization through its adsorptive and biochemical effects (Jones et al., 2011). This variation in behavior and activity requires further clarification. An additional benefit of biochar is the potential to ameliorate soil acidification through the breakdown of carbonates contained in biochar (Bruun et al., 2014).

Nitrogen fertilizer application associated with biochar improves N utilization efficiency through mineral retention and biological fixation, and has the potential to increase N uptake by crops (Borchard et al., 2012). Thus, C sequestration and soil amendment can be simultaneously achieved by using biochar with N…

Gale Document Number: GALE|A444942429


Biochar Fertilizer Market Regional Data Analysis 2019-2025

3 November, 2019
 

In 2018, the market size of Biochar Fertilizer Market is million US$ and it will reach million US$ in 2025, growing at a CAGR of from 2018; while in China, the market size is valued at xx million US$ and will increase to xx million US$ in 2025, with a CAGR of xx% during forecast period.

In this report, 2018 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Biochar Fertilizer .

This report studies the global market size of Biochar Fertilizer , especially focuses on the key regions like United States, European Union, China, and other regions (Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia).

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This study presents the Biochar Fertilizer Market production, revenue, market share and growth rate for each key company, and also covers the breakdown data (production, consumption, revenue and market share) by regions, type and applications. Biochar Fertilizer history breakdown data from 2014 to 2018, and forecast to 2025.

For top companies in United States, European Union and China, this report investigates and analyzes the production, value, price, market share and growth rate for the top manufacturers, key data from 2014 to 2018.

In global Biochar Fertilizer market, the following companies are covered:

Ion Beam Applications
Varian
Hitachi
Mevion
Sumitomo Heavy Industries
ProNova

Segment by Regions
North America
Europe
China
Japan
Southeast Asia
India

Segment by Type
Synchrotron Type
Cyclotron Type
Synchronous Cyclotron Type
Linear Accelerator Type

Segment by Application
Hosptial
Proton Treatment Center
Other

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The content of the study subjects, includes a total of 15 chapters:

Chapter 1, to describe Biochar Fertilizer product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market driving force and market risks.

Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Biochar Fertilizer , with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Biochar Fertilizer in 2017 and 2018.

Chapter 3, the Biochar Fertilizer competitive situation, sales, revenue and global market share of top manufacturers are analyzed emphatically by landscape contrast.

Chapter 4, the Biochar Fertilizer breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2014 to 2018.

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to break the sales data at the country level, with sales, revenue and market share for key countries in the world, from 2014 to 2018.

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Chapter 10 and 11, to segment the sales by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2014 to 2018.

Chapter 12, Biochar Fertilizer market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2018 to 2024.

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Biochar Fertilizer sales channel, distributors, customers, research findings and conclusion, appendix and data source.


Biocharged Biochar

3 November, 2019
 

Biochar has a very high cation exchange capacity (CEC) and is able to hold onto positively charged nutrients such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) potassium (K), and sodium (Na), and is also very good at holding onto nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, by pre-charging the biochar with our proprietary Compost Tea prior to application we can greatly speed up this adsorption process and thereby mitigate any negative effects the biochar may initially have on available nutrients and minerals in your soil.

Biochar has a unique physiochemical structure which leads to increased soil fertility and crop yields, particularly in degraded or highly-weathered soils. However, “raw” biochar (without any nutrient charging) acts as a nutrient sponge in your soil. While adding raw biochar to the soil has long-term positive effects it requires time for the biochar to “soak up” nutrients until most or all of the pores and negative charges are saturated with nutrients. The Biochar continues to adsorb nutrients until it achieves equilibrium with the soil. This can potentially take anywhere from 12-24 months. Once equilibrium is achieved the biochar acts as a slow release fertilizer that efficiently releases a steady stream of nutrients.

Studies have shown that by biocharging the biochar we can greatly accelerate the growth of mycorrhizae, up to three times compared to untreated biochar, which penetrate plant root cells and improve uptake of soil nutrients.

 


from Pharmaceutical Effluent Using Iron Oxide-Biochar Nanocomposite Loaded with …

3 November, 2019
 

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The Impact of Biochar on Bioretention Nitrogen Removal and Hydrologic Performance

3 November, 2019
 

Poor nitrate removal and substantial land occupation are two factors that limit the application of bioretention facilities. Biochar was evaluated in this study as an amendment of bioretention media to enhance nitrogen removal from runoff as well as improve hydrologic performance. Two pilot-scale bioretention cells (91 cm dia., 1.2 m deep) were constructed in parallel, and both contained 20 cm saturation zone with coarse sand, 76 cm vadose zone with treatment medium, and 5 cm of triple-shredded wood mulch from bottom to top. Treatment medium in the control cell was a mixture of 88% sand, 8% clay, and 4% sawdust by mass, while the biochar cell amended 4% commercial biochar pyrolyzed from Southern Yellow Pine at 550°. Both cells were instrumented with soil moisture sensors, soil potential sensors and temperature sensors. A field infiltration test was conducted in each cell using a tension disc infiltrometer directly on the treatment media to obtain soil hydraulic parameters, then three 24-36-hour tracer tests containing bromide and nitrate pollutant were conducted over a five-month period. Influent, effluent and pore water were continuously sampled for bromide and nitrogen analysis during these tests. In addition, hydrologic performance of the two cells under various conditions of rainfall recurrence interval and duration were simulated using HYDRUS-1D after verification with tracer test data. Results showed that the biochar cell reduced NO3-N concentrations by 30.6-84.7%, while the control cell only reduced NO3-N by -6-43.5%, depending on the storm. Biochar amendment slightly increased the average pH of the vadose zone from 6.3 to 7.3, decreased the average dissolve oxygen content by 43%, and decreased the average oxidation-reduction potential from 22 mV to -115 mV, which contributed to the enhanced nitrate removal. Biochar-amended medium increased saturated hydraulic conductivity by 1.5 times, and increased cell residence time and water retention by 12.6% and 15% respectively during the tracer tests. For a 1-yr interval and 24-hr duration storm simulation, the biochar-amended cell could reduce overflow by 78%, extend the delay of the peak flow by two times and decrease the peak outflow rate by 35%, compared to the control cell.

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Effects of Biochar Addition on CO.sub.2 and N.sub.2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to …

3 November, 2019
 

Author(s): Jingjing Chen, Hyunjin Kim, Gayoung Yoo*

Introduction

Biochar application to agricultural soils is a promising management practice that has the potential to mitigate climate change and increase soil quality [1-5]. However, it is not yet widely used in agricultural fields as a common practice, because the effects of biochar appear to be dependent on the characteristics of the soil and the biochar [6-9].

If biochar is a completely inert material that does not interact with soil components, only the C sequestration potential of biochar needs to be considered, and changes in the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil upon biochar addition do not need to be considered. However, biochar is not completely inert, and some portions of biochar, especially the surface, contain significant amounts of bioavailable nutrients [10-12]. Therefore, the addition of biochar to soils can affect the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the soil, thereby influencing C and N cycles in the soil [10-14].

Changes in soil C and N dynamics will result in changes in CO2 and N2 O emissions. Soil CO2 emissions have been reported to increase [15-17], decrease [6, 9, 18], and remain unchanged [19] by biochar amendment. These widely varying observations can largely be explained by different amounts of volatile organic matter content in the biochar, which generally increases with decreasing pyrolysis temperature. Volatile matter content is widely used as an indicator of the amount of labile C in biochar [20, 21]. Changes in CO2 emission are also related to the application rate of biochar. Cumulative CO 2 production was reported to be significantly higher than the control at 1% and 2% biochar application rates [22,23], while there was no change in CO 2 emission from soil with 5% and 10% biochar application rates. Effect of biochar also depended on the condition of the soil to which it was applied; addition of biochar to soil with a high C content did not result in any additional change in CO2 emission [15].

Effects of biochar addition on N2 O emission are even more inconsistent, because the process of N2 O emission is very complicated, involving denitrification, autotrophic nitrification, and heterotrophic nitrification, among other processes [24,25].N2 O emissions are widely known to be influenced by soil water status, available C content, oxygen content, pH, N availability, and so on [26-28]. Reduced N 2 O evolution was reported from rice paddy soil amended with biochar when the soil was relatively wet, while the opposite trend was observed when the soil was drier [29]. A reduction in N2 O emission by biochar amendment was also reported by [30]. These observations have been explained by enhanced soil aeration [31], increased pH [27], and microbial immobilization of soil NO3 by biochar addition [22]. Biochar has also been reported to have opposite effects on N2 O emission. Higher N2 O emission was observed from rice paddy soil amended with biochar made from swine manure by [32-34]; the changes…

Gale Document Number: GALE|A432553195


Biochar tote

3 November, 2019
 

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Dr. ir. Greet Ruysschaert Plant Sciences Unit The Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research

3 November, 2019
 

Fout:

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2 Supervisors: Prof. Dr. ir. Pascal Boeckx Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS) Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Dr. ir. Greet Ruysschaert Plant Sciences Unit The Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO) Dean: Rector: Prof. Dr. ir. Guido Van Huylenbroeck Prof. Dr. Anne De Paepe

3 Victoria Nelissen Effects of biochar on soil processes, soil functions and crop growth Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor (PhD) in Applied Biological sciences

4 Dutch translation of the title: Effecten van biochar op bodemprocessen, bodemfuncties en gewasgroei Illustration on the front cover: Biochar applied in the field trial (before incorporation) in October Citation: Nelissen, V., Effects of biochar on soil processes, soil functions and crop growth. PhD thesis, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 222p. ISBN The author and promoters give the authorization to consult and copy parts of this work for personal use only. Every other use is subject to copyright laws. Permission to reproduce any material contained in this work should be obtained from the author.

5 Woord vooraf Op een dag kreeg ik een mailtje van Greet met de vraag of ik geen interesse had in een doctoraat rond biochar. Biochar? Na wat opzoekingswerk leerde ik dat er veel te doen was rond biochar, dat het potentieel had, en dat er in Vlaanderen nog niet veel onderzoek naar verricht was. Ik vond het dus echt een uitdaging om daar onderzoek naar te doen. Vier jaar later is het resultaat er, en ben ik blij het aan jullie voor te stellen. Ik ben veel personen een woord van dank verschuldigd. Zonder hen zou dit doctoraat nooit tot stand zijn gekomen. Een ongelofelijk dikke merci voor jullie allemaal! Dank aan mijn promotoren Pascal Boeckx en Greet Ruysschaert, en aan het ILVO, in het bijzonder aan Kristiaan Van Laecke en Johan Van Waes, om mij de kans te geven aan dit doctoraat te beginnen. Pascal en Greet, hartelijk dank voor jullie begeleiding tijdens mijn doctoraat en het nalezen en verbeteren van mijn teksten. Jullie kritische blik kwam het doctoraat alleen maar ten goede. Dank ook aan de leden van de leescommissie (Prof. Stefaan De Neve, Dr. Saran Sohi, Dr. Bart Vandecasteele en Dr. Kor Zwart) voor hun waardevolle opmerkingen. Dank aan alle collega s van de labo s van ILVO-P109 en ISOFYS voor alle hulp en analyses; zonder jullie zouden er nooit zoveel resultaten in dit doctoraat verwerkt zijn. Speciale dank aan Jasmien, Koen en Pieter voor hun hulp bij verschillende experimenten, en aan Chris en Bart (ILVO). Een dikke merci ook aan Katja en Jan (ISOFYS) voor de isotopen- en PLFA-analyses. Katja, de dagen dat we de 15 N-oplossingen moesten toedienen waren voor mij heel stresserend, maar dankzij jou liep het toch altijd vlot en met een glimlach! Dank aan alle ILVO-P109-techniekers voor het vele veldwerk, in het bijzonder aan Geert DS en Geert H. Dank aan de collega s van ISOFYS voor hun hulp bij verschillende experimenten: Samuel, bij de gas-experimenten; Nasrin, bij het N 2 O/NO experiment; Jeroen en Dries H, bij de isotopenexperimenten; Dries R, bij de PLFA analyses. Dries H, ook bedankt voor de statistische analyses van de PLFA data. i

6 Woord vooraf Dank aan Prof. Wim Cornelis (Vakgroep Bodembeheer) voor de samenwerking betreffende het bodemfysische werk. Thanks to Bashar Al-Barri, for his interest into biochar and soil physics, and for all his help during the calibration of the water content reflectometer sensors and interpretation of the results. Ook dank aan Tommy D Hose voor zijn hulp hierbij. Dank aan Jan Vermang voor het beantwoorden van mijn vele bodemfysische vragen via mail, en aan Maarten Volckaert voor alle hulp bij de bodemfysische experimenten. I would also like to thank Prof. Frederik Ronsse and Dane Dickinson (Vakgroep Biosysteemtechniek) for the biochar CHN and proximate analyses. Dank ook aan Kristof De Beuf (FIRE Statistical Consulting, Ghent University) voor de statistische verwerking van de bodemvocht- en temperatuurdata van de veldproef. Thanks to Tobias Rütting for modelling the data from Chapter 3 and for teaching me the 15 N tracing model. Thanks to Henrik Hauggaurd-Nielsen and Dorette Müller-Stöver for your contributions to Chapter 7, and to Jason Cook and Simon Shackley for the willow and pine biochar production. Ik begeleidde twee thesisstudenten de afgelopen jaren: thanks to Delphine en Biplob! Thanks to the Interreg IVB North Sea Region project Biochar: climate saving soils and the Multidisciplinary Research Partnership Ghent Bio-economy for their financial support. Dank aan alle collega s: dankzij jullie was het heel aangenaam werken op ILVO en ISOFYS. Een speciaal woordje van dank voor mijn bureaugenoten Bert en Tommy: het was elke dag een plezier om de bureau met jullie te delen. Dank voor alle statistiek-, Worden Excel-tips, maar vooral voor de vele fijne momenten! Dank ook aan mijn ouders, die mij alle kansen gaven om verder te studeren, familie en vrienden, voor jullie steun en interesse. Thomas, zonder jouw steun was dit allemaal nooit gelukt. Bedankt voor je luisterend oor, je interesse in mijn werk, en gewoonweg voor al die mooie jaren samen. Bedankt! Victoria ii

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9 Summary Biochar is the carbon-rich product obtained when organic material is pyrolyzed, during which bioenergy is produced. When applied to soil, biochar is claimed to have positive effects on soil properties and processes and carbon could be sequestered. For these reasons, biochar production and application to soil is often associated with raising agricultural productivity while mitigating climate change. Especially in (tropical) highly weathered soils, biochar has shown positive effects on soil properties and crop yields, but it is uncertain whether the same positive effects can be obtained in (temperate) more fertile soils. Therefore the overarching aim of this PhD research was to get a better understanding of biochar effects on soil chemical, physical and biological properties, plant growth, and soil greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural northwestern European soils. Lab, pot and field experiments have been conducted to gain insight into biochar effects on plant and soil. 15 N tracing lab experiments suggested that in the short term, biochar addition to soil stimulated mineralization of more complex SOC, thereby increasing mineral N availability. However, in the absence of plants this available N was rapidly, biotically immobilized. Furthermore, nitrification rates were increased with biochar addition. In contrast, in the longer term, these effects faded, probably due to the transient effects of biochar labile C fraction and ph. Moreover, lab experiments have shown that biochar can reduce mineral N availability in the short term, likely due to biotic or abiotic N immobilization. It is unknown when and to which extent the immobilized N could become available again. These experiments also show that biochar can increase soil ph, through which several soil processes can be affected, e.g. NH 3 volatilization, nitrification and denitrification However, bulk soil ph was not always significantly increased by biochar addition. There was a trend for a higher increase in soil ph after biochar application in low ph soils while at more neutral soil ph, this was not the case as observed in the biochar field trial. It cannot be excluded that elevated ph micro-sites close to biochar particles affect soil processes, despite biochar having no effect on bulk soil ph. In the short term, likely microbial activity and abundance should be altered through biochar, as the 15 N tracing experiments showed that biochar affected soil N cycling in the short term. This effect seems to be transient, probably due to a change in biochar v

10 Summary properties, as biochar seems to act as an inert substance regarding N cycling in the longer term as biochar seems to act as an inert substance regarding N cycling in the longer term. This was shown by a 15 N tracing experiment conducted with soil sampled one year after biochar application. Furthermore, biochar addition to soil did not influence soil microbiological community structure to a large extent in six European North Sea region countries during the first year after biochar application, as only certain bacterial biomarker PLFAs were significantly affected by biochar addition. It was remarkable that fungal biomarker PLFAs were not significantly influenced by biochar addition. Biochar addition to soil reduced N 2 O and NO emissions compared to the control soil after urea and NO – 3 fertilizer application, and NO emissions after NH + 4 fertilizer application. N 2 O emissions were more decreased at high compared to low pyrolysis temperatures. Also – reduced NO 3 availability after biochar addition was observed. We hypothesize that decreased N 2 O and NO emissions were mediated by multiple interacting phenomena: + stimulated NH 3 emissions, microbial N immobilization, non-electrostatic sorption of NH 4 and NO – 3, and ph effects. Pot trial results showed that biochar can cause short-term reductions in biomass – production due to reduced NO 3 availability. This effect was biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature dependent. Hence biochar addition might in some cases require increased fertilizer N application to avoid crop growth retardation. In the field trial, a complex interaction between soil physical parameters, time after biochar application and time of tillage operations was observed. Effects on bulk density, porosity and soil water retention curves were non-consistent over time, possibly due to interaction with tillage operations. Biochar increased soil water content in 2012, although mostly not significantly. However, in 2013, when soil water content was overall lower compared to during 2012, it was not affected by biochar addition. Under field circumstances, biochar addition to soil did not affect spring barley grain or straw yield, nor N or P uptake during the first two years after biochar application. In the field trial, biochar was applied to soil in autumn, as it was our hypothesis that there could be a negative crop response due to reduced N availability when the biochar would be applied in spring and a crop would be immediately sown. However, biochar did not affect soil mineral N availability, neither immediately after biochar application, nor afterwards. vi

11 Summary Overall, our results indicate that biochar has mixed effects on soil quality properties in the short term, as effects can be positive, negative, and neutral. The field trial results showed that in medium term, biochar does hardly affect soil properties. Our study shows relatively short-term results, and long-term data are needed to confirm these first results. vii

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13 Samenvatting Biochar is het koolstofrijke product dat ontstaat wanneer organisch materiaal gepyrolyseerd wordt, waarbij er bio-energie geproduceerd wordt. Wanneer biochar wordt toegediend aan de bodem, zou het een positief effect hebben op bodemeigenschappen en processen, terwijl koolstof kan worden opgeslagen. Daarom wordt biocharproductie en toediening aan de bodem vaak geassocieerd met het verhogen van productiviteit van de landbouw met als bijkomend voordeel dat klimaatsverandering gemitigeerd wordt. Vooral in (tropische) sterk verweerde bodems is er bewijs dat biochar een positief effect heeft op bodemeigenschappen en gewasopbrengst, maar het is momenteel onzeker of diezelfde positieve effecten kunnen bekomen worden in (gematigde) meer vruchtbare bodems. Het doel van dit PhD onderzoek is daarom om meer inzicht te verwerven in het effect van biochar op bodemchemische, -fysische en biologische eigenschappen, gewasgroei, en broeikasgasemissies uit de bodem in noordwestelijke Europese landbouwbodems. Labo-, pot- en veldexperimenten werden uitgevoerd om een beter inzicht te verkrijgen in de effecten van biochar op bodem en gewas. 15 N tracing labo-experimenten tonen aan dat biochartoediening aan de bodem mineralisatie van meer complexe bodemorganische koolstof stimuleert op korte termijn, waarbij de beschikbaarheid van minerale N toeneemt. Echter, in afwezigheid van een gewas werd deze beschikbare N weer snel biotisch geïmmobiliseerd. Daarnaast namen nitrificatiesnelheden toe na biochartoediening. Op langere termijn verdwenen deze effecten, waarschijnlijk omwille van de voorbijgaande effecten van de labiele koolstoffractie en ph van biochar. Verder tonen labo-experimenten aan dat biochar de beschikbaarheid van minerale N op korte termijn kan reduceren, waarschijnlijk omwille van biotische of abiotische N immobilisatie. Het is niet geweten wanneer en in welke mate deze geïmmobiliseerde N weer beschikbaar zou worden. Deze experimenten tonen verder ook aan dat biochar de bodem ph kan doen toenemen, waardoor verschillende bodemprocessen kunnen worden beïnvloed, zoals NH 3 vervluchtiging, nitrificatie en denitrificatie. Echter, de bulk bodem ph nam niet altijd significant toe na biochartoediening. Er werd een hogere toename in bodem ph vastgesteld na biochartoediening aan lage ph bodems terwijl bij meer neutrale bodem ph dit niet altijd het geval was, zoals waargenomen in de biochar veldproef. Het kan echter niet uitgesloten ix

14 Samenvatting worden dat verhoogde ph micro-sites dichtbij de biochar partikels bodemprocessen beïnvloeden, ook wanneer er geen effect is op de bulk ph. Op korte termijn lijkt het waarschijnlijk dat microbiële activiteit en voorkomen gewijzigd worden door biochar, vermits de 15 N tracing experimenten erop wijzen dat de bodem N cyclus vlak na biochartoediening verandert. Dit effect lijkt echter van voorbijgaande aard, wat waarschijnlijk te wijten is aan de veranderende biochareigenschappen doorheen de tijd, vermits biochar geen grote invloed heeft op de N cyclus op langere termijn zoals aangetoond in een 15 N-tracing experiment met bodem die bemonsterd werd één jaar na biochartoediening. De microbiële gemeenschapsstructuur in de bodem werd slechts in beperkte mate gewijzigd in zes Europese Noordzee regio landen gedurende het eerste jaar na biochartoediening, vermits slechts enkele bacteriële biomarker PLFAs significant werden beïnvloed. Opmerkelijk was dat schimmel biomarker PLFAs niet significant beïnvloed werden door biochar. Biochartoediening aan de bodem reduceerde N 2 O en NO emissies in vergelijking met de – controlebodem na ureum en NO 3 bemesting, en NO emissies na NH + 4 bemesting. De daling in N 2 O emissies was hoger bij hoge pyrolysetemperaturen. Verder werd ook een – lagere NO 3 beschikbaarheid vastgesteld na biochartoediening in vergelijking met de controle. Wij veronderstellen dat de lagere N 2 O en NO emissies te wijten zijn aan een combinatie van factoren: gestimuleerde NH 3 emissies, microbiële N immobilisatie, nietelectrostatische sorptie van NH 4 en NO – 3, en ph effecten. + De resultaten van de potproeven tonen aan dat biochartoediening aan de bodem – biomassaproductie kan reduceren omwille van een lagere NO 3 beschikbaarheid in de bodem. Dit effect is afhankelijk van de biomassa gebruikt voor biocharproductie en de pyrolysetemperatuur. Na biochartoediening zou een verhoogde bemestingsdosis dus nodig kunnen zijn om vertraagde gewasgroei te vermijden. In de veldproef werd een complexe interactie tussen bodemfysische eigenschappen, tijdstip na biochartoediening en tijdstip van de veldbewerkingen vastgesteld. De effecten van biochar op bulkdichtheid, porositeit en bodemwaterretentiecurves waren niet consistent doorheen de tijd, waarschijnlijk omwille van interactie met de bewerkingen op het veld. In 2012 nam het bodemvochtgehalte toe na biochartoediening, hoewel meestal niet significant. In 2013, toen het bodemvochtgehalte in het algemeen lager was dan in 2012, werd het niet beïnvloed door biochartoediening. x

15 Samenvatting Tijdens de eerste twee jaren van de veldproef had biochar geen effect op graan- en stroopbrengst, noch op N of P opname in het gewas. De biochar werd toegediend in het najaar, omdat onze uitgangshypothese was dat biochar de gewasopbrengst negatief zou kunnen beïnvloeden door een lagere N beschikbaarheid wanneer de biochar zou worden toegediend in de lente en er onmiddellijk een gewas zou gezaaid worden. Echter, biochar had geen effect op de minerale N beschikbaarheid in de bodem, niet onmiddellijk na biochartoediening, noch later. Onze resultaten wijzen erop dat biochar gemengde effecten heeft op bodemkwaliteit op korte termijn, vermits de effecten van biochar positief, negatief of neutraal kunnen zijn. De veldproefresultaten tonen aan dat biochar geen groot effect heeft op de bodemeigenschappen op middellange termijn. Het moet echter worden opgemerkt dat onze studie relatief korte termijn resultaten toont, en dat langere termijn data nodig zijn om de eerste resultaten bevestigen. xi

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17 15 N Stable isotope of nitrogen with mass 15 AC Air capacity AIC Akaike Information Criterion ANOVA Analysis of Variance C Carbon CEC Cation exchange capacity EBC European Biochar Certificate h Matric head H Hydrogen K(0) Saturated hydraulic conductivity MacPor Macroporosity MatPor Matrix porosity n Number of replicates N Nitrogen + NH 4 Ammonium – NO 3 Nitrate N lab Labile soil organic nitrogen N org Soil organic nitrogen N rec Recalcitrant soil organic nitrogen NUE Nitrogen Use Efficiency PAWC Plant available water capacity PLFA Phospholipid fatty acid RWC Relative water capacity SD Standard deviation SE Standard error SOC Soil organic carbon SOM Soil organic matter TN Total nitrogen TC Total carbon TOC Total organic carbon SWRC Soil water retention curve VWC Volumetric water content θ FC Volumetric soil water content at field capacity θ m Soil matrix porosity θ PWP Volumetric soil water content at permanent wilting point θ r Residual volumetric soil water content θ s Saturated volumetric soil water content ρ b Bulk density Particle density ρ s List of abbreviations xiii

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19 List of tables Table 2.1 Biochar feedstock, production conditions and suppliers. It is indicated which biochars are used in which chapters. 18 Table 2.2 Physico-chemical properties (mean ± 1 standard error; n = 2; for CEC n = 1) of the biochar types used in this thesis based on oven-dry basis (105 C) except for ph-kcl. 21 Table 2.3 Overview of studies in which biochar labile C fraction was determined using sand and a nutrient-microbial inoculum solution. 22 Table 2.4 Spearman s rho values of non-parametrical correlations (n = 11, except for correlations with labile C, for which n = 8) between the biochar characteristics. 23 Table 3.1 Characteristics of the investigated arable soil. 35 Table 3.2 Initial calculated concentrations and N abundances of the NH 4 ads and NO 3 ads pools in the three treatments. 36 Table 3.3 Description and gross rates (mean and SD) of soil N transformation in the control soil and the soils amended with biochar-350 C and -550 C. All gross N transformation rates differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the treatments. 37 Table 4.1 Soil characteristics at the start of the field trial (October 2011), and one year after biochar application (October 2012) (mean ± standard error; n = 4). 52 Table 4.2 Mean relative abundance (mol PLFA-C %) ± standard error (n = 4) of individual PLFAs in the control and biochar treatment one year after biochar application. 53 Table 4.3 Nash Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient for each measured variable (NH + 4, NO – 3, 15 N-NH + 4, 15 N-NO – 3 ) for each labeled treatment ( 15 NH 4 NO 3 or NH 15 4 NO 3 ) in 2011 and Table 4.4 Gross rates (mean and standard errors (SE)) of soil N transformation processes in the control and biochar-amended treatments in 2011 and All gross N transformation rates differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the treatments. 60 Table 5.1 Bulk density (g cm -3 ) in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (mean ± standard error). 74 xv

20 List of tables Table 5.2 Particle density (g cm -3 ) in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (mean ± standard error). 74 Table 5.3 Porosity (cm cm -3 ) in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (mean ± standard error). 74 Table 5.4 van Genuchten parameters, saturated soil water content, field capacity, permanent wilting point, residual water content and derived soil quality indicators in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam (biochar dose: 10 g kg -1 ) and loam (biochar dose: 20 g kg -1 ) soil (mean ± standard error). 78 Table 6.1 Soil NH + 4 -N and NO – 3 -N concentrations one day after biochar but before fertilizer addition (mean ± standard error). 96 Table 6.2 P-value results from (a) one-way ANOVAs for NH + 4 and NO – 3 concentrations before fertilizer addition, two-way ANOVAs for NH and NO 3 concentrations and cumulative N 2 O and NO emissions after 14 days of incubation, and three-way ANOVAs for relative reductions compared to the control, (b) one-way ANOVAs with biochar type as factor for each fertilizer type separately for cumulative N 2 O and NO emissions, and (c) two- and one-way ANOVAs for NO emission reductions. N/A = not applicable. 97 Table 6.3 Spearman s rho values of non-parametrical correlations (n = 7) between the – biochar characteristics and relative N 2 O and NO emission decreases and NO 3 concentration decreases in the biochar treatments compared to the control. 103 Table 6.4 Overview of studies investigating the effect of biochar on N 2 O emissions. 105 Table 6.5 Possible mechanisms for observed N 2 O reduction and/or observed reduced mineral N availability with biochar application, according to the respective authors. 108 Table 7.1 Total metal concentrations of the biochars used (n = 1). 126 Table 7.2 Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the biochars (n = 1). 126 Table 7.3 Mean phytotoxicity of 6 biochars (± 1 standard deviation; n = 4) at a biochar application rate of 10 g kg -1 soil and in a biochar-sand mixture (50:50 v:v). 127 xvi

21 List of tables Table 7.4 NO – 3 concentrations (mg N kg -1 ) in the control and biochar treatments (mean ± 1 standard deviation; n = 3) after four incubation weeks for three fertilizer doses (0, 50 and 150 kg N ha -1 ). 128 Table 8.1 Organic carbon (OC) and texture analyses of the different soil horizons in the field trial. 143 Table 8.2 Overview of the field trial measurements. 146 Table 8.3 Overview of European field trials, established within the Interreg IVB North Sea region project Biochar: climate saving soils, in which PLFAs were analyzed. 153 Table 8.4 Soil chemical properties in the control and biochar treatments as measured over time at a soil depth of 0-25 cm(mean ± standard error; n = 4). 157 Table 8.5 Bulk density, particle density, porosity, van Genuchten parameters, derived soil quality indicators and stability index in the control and biochar treatment measured over two years ( ) (mean ± standard error; n = 8). 158 Table 8.6 Number of earthworms and earthworm biomass in the control and biochar treatment (mean ± standard error; n = 8). 169 Table 8.7 Mean relative abundance (mol % PLFA-C) of individual PLFAs in the control and biochar treatment (± standard error; n = 4, except for the Netherlands, where n = 3).170 Table 8.8 Grain and straw dry matter yield, P and N concentration and hl weight in the control and biochar treatment (mean ± standard error; n = 4). 172 Table 8.9 Sample size (n) calculations for a given standard deviation σ and a certain λ, which is the smallest difference between the treatment means that is important to recognize. 176 Table 9.1 Overview of mineral N concentrations at the end of the different experiments. 185 Table 9.2 Overview of soil ph-kcl, biochar ph-kcl, and soil ph-kcl after biochar addition xvii

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23 List of figures Figure 1.1 Terra Preta soil (left) and nearby Ferralsol (right) in Manaus, Brazil. 2 Figure 1.2 Left: Green plants remove CO 2 from the atmosphere via photosynthesis and convert it into biomass. Virtually all of that carbon is returned to the atmosphere when plants die and decay, or immediately if the biomass is burned as a renewable substitute for fossil fuels. Right: Green plants remove CO 2 from the atmosphere via photosynthesis and convert it into biomass. Up to half of that carbon is removed and sequestered as biochar, while the other half is converted to renewable energy co-products before being returned to the atmosphere (Source: Biochar Solutions Inc., 2011). 3 Figure 1.3 Potential soil and atmospheric benefits of biochar (Source: Red Garner). 5 Figure 1.4 The price of carbon allowances (per ton CO 2 ) in the EU emission trading system (Source: Thomson Reuters Point Carbon and 9 Figure 1.5 Thesis outline. 12 Figure 2.1 Cumulative carbon mineralization originating from the willow and pine biochar types measured during 357 days (symbols; mean ± standard error, n = 3) and predicted by the equation C(t) = C max (1 – e -kt ) (lines), and cumulative carbon mineralization originating from the maize and wood mixture biochars measured during 384 days (mean ± standard error, n = 3). 22 Figure 3.1 Conceptual 15 N tracing model that was used for data analysis (N lab = labile soil organic N, N rec = recalcitrant soil organic N, NH + 4 = ammonium, NO = nitrate, NH 4 ads = adsorbed NH + – 4, NO 3 ads = adsorbed NO – 3, see Table 3.3 for explanation of N transformations and abbreviations). Transformations in grey were not retained in the final model. 32 Figure 3.2 Measured concentrations and 15 N enrichments (mean ± standard deviation) of the NH (a and b) and NO 3 (c and d) pools in the treatments after addition of 15 N-labeled + NH 4 or NO – 3, respectively. 36 Figure 3.3 Mean gross (in grey) and net (in black) N transformation rates (in µg N g -1 day – 1 ) between the different N pools in the control (a), biochar-350 C (b) and biochar-550 C (c) treatment. For the net N transformation rates, the width of the arrow indicates the importance of the rate. 39 xix

24 List of figures Figure 4.1 Measured (symbols) and modeled (lines) concentrations and 15 N enrichments (mean ± standard error) of the NH + 4 (a and b) and NO – 3 (c and d) pools in the 2011 experiment. 56 Figure 4.2 Measured (symbols) and modeled (lines) concentrations and 15 N enrichments (mean ± standard error) of the NH + 4 (a and b) and NO – 3 (c and d) pools in the 2012 experiment. 57 Figure 4.3 Mean gross (in gray) and net (in black) N transformation rates (in µg N g -1 day – 1 ) between the different N pools in the control (a) and biochar (b) treatment for the 2011 experiment. For the net N transformation rates, the width of the arrow indicates the importance of the rate. 59 Figure 4.4 Mean gross (in gray) and net (in black) N transformation rates (in µg N g -1 day – 1 ) between the different N pools in the control (a) and biochar (b) treatment for the 2012 experiment. For the net N transformation rates, the width of the arrow indicates the importance of the rate. 59 Figure 5.1 Observed mean water contents (symbols; n = 4) at several pressure heads and modeled (lines) soil water retention curves for the control and biochar amended treatments in the sandy loam soil: (a) willow, (b) pine, (c) maize and (d) beech and cane biochar treatments. Soil matric heads at which field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) were measured are indicated on the x-axis. 75 Figure 5.2 Observed mean water contents (symbols; n = 4) at several pressure heads and modelled (lines) soil water retention curves for the control and biochar amended treatments in the loam soil. Soil matric heads at which field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) were measured are indicated on the x-axis. 76 Figure 5.3 Mean specific water capacity (δθ/δh) versus soil matric head h (n = 4) for the control and biochar amended treatments in the sandy loam soil: (a) willow, (b) pine, (c) maize and (d) beech and cane biochar treatments. 76 Figure 5.4 Mean specific water capacity (δθ/δh) versus soil matric head h (n = 4) for the control and biochar amended treatments in the loam soil. 77 Figure 5.5 Bulk density in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (own data, data in grey), and in studies from literature (data in black). Data above the black 1:1 line indicate a higher bulk density in the biochar treatments, whereas data below xx

25 List of figures the line indicate a lower bulk density in the biochar treatments than in a control without biochar. 80 Figure 5.6 Plant available water capacity (PAWC) (calculated as water retained between h = -340 and h = cm) in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (own fitted data, data in grey), and as calculated from literature studies (data in black). Data above the black 1:1 line indicate a higher PAWC in the biochar treatments, whereas data below the line indicate a lower PAWC in the biochar treatments than in a control without biochar. 82 Figure 5.7 Volumetric water content (VWC) in the control and biochar treatments from literature studies. Data in black indicate VWC at h = -10 cm, data in grey at h = cm (= FC) and open symbols at h = cm (= PWP). Data above the black 1:1 line indicate a higher VWC in the biochar treatments, whereas data below the line indicate a lower VWC in the biochar treatments than in a control without biochar. 83 Figure 6.1 Soil NO – 3 -N concentrations 14 days after urea, NH and NO 3 fertilizer addition. Error bars indicate the standard error. 96 Figure 6.2 Soil N 2 O-N emissions after (a) urea, (b) ammonium and (c) nitrate fertilizer (51.3 mg N kg -1 ) addition at day 0. Error bars indicate ± 1 standard error. 99 Figure 6.3 Soil NO-N emissions after (a) urea, (b) ammonium and (c) nitrate fertilizer (51.3 mg N kg -1 ) addition at day 0. Error bars indicate ± 1 standard error. 100 Figure 6.4 Cumulative (a) N 2 O-N and (b) NO-N emissions from soil amended with urea, NH and NO 3 fertilizer for the entire experiment (14 days). Error bars indicate the standard error Figure 6.5 Correlation of N 2 O emission decreases and biochar ph for the urea and NO 3 fertilizer treatments. Spearman s rho values are indicated as ρ. 102 Figure 7.1 NH + 4 (a) and NO – 3 (b) concentrations in the control soil and biochar-amended treatments at a fertilizer dose of 150 kg N ha -1 (38.5 mg N kg -1 ); error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 3) Figure 7.2 ph-kcl (a, b) and NO 3 concentrations (c, d) in the control and biocharamended treatments at two fertilizer doses (0 and 50 kg N ha -1 ) in the ILVO pot trial with radish (a, c) and spring barley (b, d); error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test. xxi

26 List of figures In case of no interaction between the factors biochar type and fertilizer dose, there is only one letter per biochar treatment (a, b, c); in case of interaction, there is one letter on top of each bar (d) (capital and lowercase letters for unfertilized treatments and fertilized treatments, respectively). 129 Figure 7.3 Radish (a) and spring barley (b) dry matter yield (per pot) in the control and biochar-amended treatments at two fertilizer doses (0 and 50 kg N ha -1 ) in the ILVO pot trial; error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test (one letter per biochar treatment due to no interaction between factor biochar type and fertilizer dose). 130 Figure 7.4 Aboveground biomass N uptake for radish (a) and spring barley (b) in the control and biochar-amended treatments at two fertilizer doses (0 and 50 kg N ha -1 ) in the ILVO pot trial; error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test (capital and lowercase letters for unfertilized treatments and fertilized treatments, respectively). 131 Figure 7.5 Nitrogen use efficiency in the control and biochar-amended treatments in the ILVO pot trials; error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test (capital and lowercase letters for radish DTU pot trial). 131 Figure 7.6 Radish (a) and spring barley (b) dry matter yield (per pot) in the control and biochar-amended treatments at two fertilizer doses (0 and 50 kg N ha -1 ) in the DTU pot trial; error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); for (a) no significant differences were found; for (b) treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test (one letter per biochar treatment due to no interaction between factors biochar type and fertilizer dose). 132 Figure 8.1 Overview of the field trial locations, established within the Interreg IVB North Sea region project Biochar: climate saving soils, in which PLFAs were analyzed (Source: Google Maps). 142 Figure 8.2 Field trial lay-out. 144 Figure 8.3 After cultivating the field using a spading rotary cultivator, the biochar has been incorporated in the soil profile until a depth of 25 cm. Biochar spots are encircled. 145 xxii

27 List of figures Figure 8.4 Long-term ( ) average yearly pattern of monthly precipitation (mm) and daily temperature ( C) in Merelbeke, Belgium, and monthly precipitation (mm) and average daily temperature ( C) data from October 2011 until August 2013 in Merelbeke, Belgium. 155 Figure 8.5 Measured and theoretical soil organic carbon contents (mean ± standard error) in the biochar treatment at the different sampling dates. The theoretical amounts of SOC content is calculated as the sum of SOC in the control treatment plus the amount of C added to the soil through applying a biochar (C content = 68.1%) dose of 5.4 g kg Figure 8.6 Mineral N (NH + 4 and NO – 3 ) concentrations in the control soil and biocharamended treatments at a soil depth of (a) 0-30 cm, (b) cm and (c) cm; error bars indicate ± 1 standard error (n = 4). 158 Figure 8.7 Observed volumetric water contents (symbols) at several pressure heads and modeled (lines) soil water retention curves for the control and biochar-amended treatments in (a) October 2011, (b) March 2012, (c) August 2012 and (d) April Soil matric heads at which field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) were measured are indicated on the x-axis; error bars indicate ± 1 standard error (n = 8). 161 Figure 8.8 Hydraulic conductivity in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured in (a) October 2011 and (b) March 2112; error bars indicate ± 1 standard error (n = 8). 162 Figure 8.9 (a) Topp equation and developed calibration curves for the control and biochar treatment (error bars indicate ± 1 standard error, n = 2 for the control and 3 for the biochar treatment); (b) Correlation between permittivity derived and measured VWC. The 1:1 line and regression lines are indicated. 164 Figure 8.10 (a) Soil volumetric water content in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured by reflectometer sensors in the field in 2012; error bars (in lightgrey) indicate standard errors (n = 8). The y-axis at the right indicates hourly rainfall (mm h-1). (b) P-values resulting from the t-tests conducted to verify significant differences in VWC between the control and biochar treatment for The grey line indicates a P- value of Figure 8.11 (a) Soil volumetric water content in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured by reflectometer sensors in the field in 2013; error bars (in lightgrey) indicate standard errors (n = 8). The y-axis at the right indicates hourly rainfall (mm xxiii

28 List of figures h -1 ). (b) P-values resulting from the t-tests conducted to verify significant differences in VWC between the control and biochar treatment for The grey line indicates a P- value of Figure 8.12 (a) Hourly soil temperature in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured by reflectometer sensors in the field in 2012 (error bars in light-grey indicate standard errors; n = 8); (b) Difference in soil temperature between the biochar and control treatment in 2012; (c) P-values resulting from the t-tests conducted to verify significant differences in soil temperature between the control and biochar treatment for The grey line indicates a P-value of Figure 8.13 (a) Hourly soil temperature in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured by reflectometer sensors in the field in 2013 (error bars in light-grey indicate standard errors; n = 8); (b) Difference in soil temperature between the biochar and control treatment in 2013; (c) P-values resulting from the t-tests conducted to verify significant differences in soil temperature between the control and biochar treatment for The grey line indicates a P-value of Figure 8.14 Two-dimensional ordination of the PLFA microbial communities in the experimental biochar (blue) and control (red) plots using Redundancy Analysis (RDA, Chord distance) and fitted vectors for chemical soil properties (NL: the Netherlands, DE: Germany, NO: Norway, DK: Denmark, GB: Great Britain (Scotland), BE: Belgium). Significant correlations between the ordination and vectors are indicated by an asterix (*: P <0.05; **: P < 0.01***: P<0.001). Only PLFAs ( RDA species ) with a RDA axis score >1 are plotted on the triplot. 171 Figure 9.1 Recycling of energy and nutrients within the carbon-negative bio-based economy (Source: Vanholme et al. 2013). 191 xxiv

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31 Table of contents Woord vooraf Summary Samenvatting List of abbreviations List of tables List of figures i v ix xiii xv xix CHAPTER 1 – Introduction What is biochar? Where does the interest in biochar come from? Terra Preta Climate change Biochar and international climate policy Biochar in temperate regions like Flanders Biochar uncertainties Aims and outline of the thesis General objectives Specific objectives: Research questions and hypotheses CHAPTER 2 Biochar characterization Introduction Materials and methods Results and discussion Conclusions CHAPTER 3 Maize biochars accelerate soil nitrogen dynamics in a loamy sand soil in the short term Introduction xxvii

32 Table of contents 3.2 Materials and methods Soil Biochar N tracing experiment N tracing model NH 4 ads and NO 3 ads pool calculations Results Soil and biochar characterization Measured mineral N pools and 15 N enrichments Calculated NH 4 ads and NO 3 ads pools Gross N transformation rates Discussion N mineralization and NH 4 immobilization, adsorption and release Production and consumption of NO Conclusion CHAPTER 4 Temporal evolution of the impact of a woody biochar on soil nitrogen processes a 15 N tracing study Introduction Materials and methods Field trial, soil and biochar N tracing experiment N tracing model Model efficiency Statistical analyses Results Soil characterization xxviii

33 Table of contents Measured mineral N pools and 15 N enrichments Gross N transformation rates Discussion Conclusion CHAPTER 5 – The effect of different biochar types on physical properties of two soils under laboratory conditions Introduction Materials and Methods Biochar Soil Soil water retention characteristics, bulk density and derived physical soil quality indicators Statistical analyses Results Soil characterization Bulk and particle density, soil water retention characteristics and derived soil quality indicators Discussion Conclusion CHAPTER 6 Effect of different biochar and fertilizer types on N 2 O and NO emissions Introduction Materials and methods Soil Biochar Incubation experiment Statistical analyses xxix

34 Table of contents 6.3 Results Soil characterization Incubation experiment Discussion Effect of biochar on N 2 O emissions Effect of biochar on NO emissions Conclusions CHAPTER 7 Short-term effect of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics, soil and crop response in temperate soils Introduction Materials and methods Soil Biochar characterization Phytotoxicity test Nitrogen incubation experiment ILVO pot trial DTU pot trial Statistical analyses Results Soil and biochar characterization Phytotoxicity test Nitrogen incubation experiment ILVO pot trial DTU pot trial Discussion Biochar and toxicity xxx

35 Table of contents Mechanisms for reduced N availability after biochar application Crop growth effects Conclusion CHAPTER 8 The impact of a woody biochar on soil properties and crop growth in a Belgian field experiment Introduction Materials and Methods Field trial Weather data Soil chemical properties Soil physical properties Soil biological properties Crop analyses Statistical analyses Results Weather data Chemical soil properties Soil physical properties Biological soil properties Crop analyses Discussion The effect of biochar on soil properties The effect of biochar on crop yield and properties Conclusion CHAPTER 9 General discussion and conclusions Biochar characterization xxxi

36 Table of contents 9.2 Biochar effects on plant and soil Soil chemical properties Soil physics Soil biology N 2 O and NO emissions Plant growth Does biochar improve soil quality? Does biochar have a future in Flanders? Perspectives for further research References 195 Appendix 213 Curriculum Vitae 217 xxxii

37 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Biochar is often proposed to provide a win-win-win scenario, as biochar application to soil would (i) increase soil quality and consequently crop yield (Lehmann, 2007; Jeffery et al., 2011), (ii) sequester carbon (Laird, 2008), and (iii) bioenergy could be produced during biochar production (Laird, 2008). However, most biochar research has been mainly conducted in tropical regions, and, despite the growing number of studies in temperate regions, the claimed positive effects are still uncertain for northwestern European soils, which are often already fertile. In this introductory chapter, first the concept and the possible benefits of biochar will be explained (1.1), after which the origin of interest into biochar will be elucidated (1.2). The reasons for interest in biochar in Flanders are illustrated (1.3), and uncertainties related to biochar are identified (1.4). This introduction ends with an overview of the research aims and an outline of the thesis (1.5). 1.1 What is biochar? Biochar is the carbon-rich product obtained when organic material is pyrolyzed, which implies thermal decomposition under limited supply of oxygen at relatively low temperatures (< 700 C) (Lehmann and Joseph, 2009). It is generally considered for application to soil, with the aim to improve soil functioning and increase carbon sequestration. Biochar comprises mainly stable aromatic forms of organic carbon, which is a common characteristic of char in general. Therefore, it cannot readily be returned to the atmosphere as CO 2 even under favorable environmental and biological conditions, such as those that may prevail in the soil (Sohi et al., 2010). 1.2 Where does the interest in biochar come from? Terra Preta The interest in biochar arose from the so-called Terra Preta soils (Figure 1.1). These are highly sustainable fertile soils occurring in patches averaging 20 ha in central Amazonia. These soils are richer in soil organic matter and nutrient concentrations, and have a better 1

38 Chapter 1 nutrient retention capacity than the surrounding infertile Ferralsols. Terra Preta soils are of pre-columbian origin, as they were formed according to radiocarbon dating between 7000 and 500 years BP. It is unknown whether these soils were made intentionally or resulted as a by-product of human occupation (Glaser, 2007). However, human activity at that time has resulted in the accumulation of plant and animal residues, ash, charcoal and various chemical elements such as P, Mg, Ca, Cu and Zn (Novotny et al., 2009). These high amounts of charcoal and nutrient contents have resulted into high sustainable soil fertility and crop production potential compared to surrounding Ferralsols. Also in other countries, soils similar to Terra Preta have been documented, a.o. in Ecuador, Peru, Benin and Liberia (Sohi et al., 2010). The formation of new Terra Preta sites has been suggested to help secure food production of a fast growing population, especially in the humid tropics, where infertile soils predominate (Glaser, 2007). Applying biochar to soil has been shown to improve soil structure and fertility, thereby improving biomass production (Lehmann, 2007). Due to the porous structure of biochar, high surface area and affinity for charged particles, interaction occurs between biochar and physical and biological soil components (Biederman and Harpole, 2013). This can result in enhanced water and nutrient retention and a change in soil microbial community structure and activity, which are the main mechanisms hypothesized for the potential to improve soil properties and functions relevant to agronomic and environmental performance after biochar application to soil (Jeffery et al., 2011). Figure 1.1 Terra Preta soil (left) and nearby Ferralsol (right) in Manaus, Brazil. 2

39 Introduction Climate change Global climate change and the search for alternatives to fossil fuels are major social, political, and economic challenges. It is unlikely that one single solution will be found to meet these challenges. However, an integrated biomass waste-bioenergy system could possibly make a significant contribution to the solution, meanwhile having the benefits of improving soil quality. During pyrolysis of biomass, bio-oil, syngas and char are produced (Laird, 2008). Char is also a potential energy product, but could alternatively be applied to soil. The feedstock used for biochar production should be biomass waste materials, in order to create no competition for land with any other land uses. Examples are crop residues, forestry waste and animal manure (IBI, 2013a). As carbon is withdrawn from the atmosphere and sequestered for hundreds or even thousands of years, and as meanwhile bioenergy is produced (Figure 1.2), biochar could be part of a solution to combat climate change while reducing the use of fossil-fuel energy. If biochar could sequester carbon while improving soil quality and increase crop yields, this would distinguish it from costly geo-engineering measures to mitigate climate change (Sohi, 2012). Figure 1.2 Left: Green plants remove CO 2 from the atmosphere via photosynthesis and convert it into biomass. Virtually all of that carbon is returned to the atmosphere when plants die and decay, or immediately if the biomass is burned as a renewable substitute for fossil fuels. Right: Green plants remove CO 2 from the atmosphere via photosynthesis and convert it into biomass. Up to half of that carbon is removed and sequestered as biochar, while the other half is converted to renewable energy co-products before being returned to the atmosphere (Source: Biochar Solutions Inc., 2011). Except for carbon sequestration and reducing fossil fuel use, biochar could possibly reduce soil greenhouse gas emissions. Both nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions have been increased since pre-industrial times through human activities like fertilizer application and fossil fuel combustion (Smith et al., 2007). Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas, which has been calculated to have 298 times the global warming 3

40 Chapter 1 potential of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) over a 100-year period (Forster et al., 2007). In contrast, NO x, which is mainly emitted as nitric oxide (NO), do not directly affect the earth’s radiative balance, but they catalyze tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), which is in turn a greenhouse gas. Agricultural and natural ecosystems are important N 2 O and NO x sources, as nitrification and denitrification are principal sources of NO and N 2 O emissions in soils (Hutchinson and Davidson, 1993; Ehhalt et al., 2001). Agriculture contributes about 58% of the total anthropogenic emissions of N 2 O, and this amount is estimated to increase by 35-60% by 2030 due to increased nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and increased animal manure production (Smith et al., 2007). The major source (> 60%) of global tropospheric NO x emissions is fossil fuel combustion, while soil emissions amount about 10% (Ehhalt et al., 2001). Biochar has been shown in several laboratory studies to reduce N 2 O emissions under certain conditions (e.g. Van Zwieten et al., 2010a; Stewart et al., 2012), although other studies show no effect or increased N 2 O emissions (e.g. Cheng et al., 2012; Clough et al., 2010) with biochar application. Also field experiments show mixed results (Castaldi et al., 2011; Taghizadeh-Toosi et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012), corroborating the complex interaction between the effects of biochar and weather conditions, fertilizer and biochar dose. Methane (CH 4 ) is a greenhouse gas, which has been calculated to have 23 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) over a 100-year period (Forster et al., 2007). Globally, agricultural CH 4 emissions increased by 17% from 1990 to 2005 (Smith et al., 2007). Rice fields are responsible for a significant fraction of the global CH 4 emissions, as they contribute 8-18% of the global CH 4 emissions (Forster et al., 2007). Methane emissions from paddy soils have been shown to decrease after biochar application (Liu et al., 2011). Agriculture will have to adapt to climate change. According to the IPCC Third Assessment Report (Alcamo et al., 2007), climate modeling results show an increase in annual temperature in Europe of 0.1 to 0.4 C per decade over the 21 st century. Precipitation in the north is predicted to increase and in the south to decrease, and it is likely that the seasonality of precipitation will change and the frequency of intense precipitation events will increase, especially in winter. Moreover, it is very likely that the intensity and frequency of summer heat waves will increase throughout Europe. Short-term adaptation of agriculture may include changes in crop species, cultivars and sowing dates, whereas feasible long-term adaptation measures may include changing the allocation of agricultural 4

41 Introduction land according to its changing suitability under climate change (Alcamo et al., 2007). Also biochar could be part of a long-term adaptation strategy. As biochar could affect soil physical properties like soil structure, porosity, particle density and water storage capacity (Atkinson et al., 2010), soil to which biochar has been added has the potential to retain more water during periods of drought. Altogether, (i) biochar could contribute to a solution for the climate change problem through carbon sequestration, reducing the use of fossil fuel through displacing it (as during biochar production also bio-energy is produced) and reducing soil greenhouse gas emissions, (ii) biochar could be part of a climate change adaptation strategy through increasing soil physical quality and consequently soil water holding capacity and (iii) biochar could increase soil quality and crop yield, and decrease nutrient leaching through increased water and nutrient retention (Verheijen et al., 2010) (Figure 1.3). For these reasons, interest in biochar is growing among scientists and policy makers worldwide, and biochar research has expanded the last couple of years, first in tropical regions, nowadays also in temperate regions, although it is uncertain whether the same beneficial effects can be obtained in temperate soils as in tropical soil types. Figure 1.3 Potential soil and atmospheric benefits of biochar (Source: Red Garner). 5

42 Chapter Biochar and international climate policy With support from the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the International Biochar Initiative (IBI, an organization promoting the development of biochar systems that follow Cradle to Cradle sustainability guidelines ) tried but did not manage to include biochar as an example of a mitigation option within the agricultural sector in the Negotiating Text for the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action Under the Convention (AWG-LCA), which was negotiated during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December 2009 in Copenhagen. Similarly one year later in November 2010, during the UNFCCC in Cancun, biochar was not included in the text deliberated, although the IBI hosted a side event in order to continue highlighting the potential role of sustainable biochar systems in combating climate change and benefiting the health and productivity of the world s soils. Today, the potential inclusion of biochar as a climate mitigation and adaptation technology within the UNFCCC remains uncertain and biochar is currently ineligible for carbon offsets under any carbon trading mechanism (Ernsting, 2013; IBI, 2013b). 1.3 Biochar in temperate regions like Flanders Because of its potential to improve soil quality, to reduce nutrient leaching and to sequester carbon, interest in biochar is growing not only in tropical but also in temperate regions. Since the early 1990 s, organic carbon content has been continuously decreasing in Belgian agricultural soils. The decreasing trend is explained by a combination of factors, among which an increasing plowing depth, less plowing in of crop residues and a strict Manure Decree (Maes et al., 2012). Soil organic carbon content is closely linked to soil quality, as it has an important effect on soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters, and thus also on crop growth (Weil and Magdoff, 2004). Innovative solutions will be needed to raise the soil organic carbon content to a higher level in Belgian agricultural soils. Furthermore, nitrate and phosphorus leaching losses need to be reduced in Flemish agricultural soils in order to improve surface and groundwater quality. Biochar could reduce nutrient leaching (Laird, 2008), but can contain itself considerable amounts of N and P. However, there is a big range in biochar N and P contents. For example, the biochar types summarized by Chan and Xu (2009) show total N and P contents ranging from 0.2 to 7.8% and 0.2 to 7.3%, respectively. This high variability is due to the range in feedstock 6

43 Introduction materials used and pyrolysis conditions under which the biochars were produced. However, bioavailable nutrient content is more relevant to plant and microbial growth. Little N has been shown to be released from biochar, which can been attributed to the minor amounts of N present as well as to the formation of heterocyclic N compounds which cannot be easily solubilized. Available P has shown a much larger variability (Knicker, 2010; Mukherjee and Zimmerman, 2013). Besides reduced nutrient leaching, biochar could also adsorb agricultural chemicals, thereby reducing leaching to surface and groundwater (Laird, 2008). Overall, biochar may provide a solution to increase soil fertility and water quality in a sustainable manner, while mitigating climate change. However, as mentioned above, it is uncertain whether the same beneficial effects can be obtained in temperate soils as in tropical soil types. Most research has been conducted in (sub)tropical soils, which generally are highly weathered and low in ph. A meta-analysis by Jeffery et al. (2011) revealed an on average small (ca. 10%), but statistically significant increase in crop productivity with biochar application in tropical and subtropical regions. Only one study from a temperate region (New Zealand) was included in their metaanalysis, showing the need for more research in temperate regions. Nowadays, biochar research is emerging throughout these regions, including lab, pot and field studies (e.g. Bruun et al. 2012; Kammann et al. 2011; Jones et al. 2012). This is also reflected in the meta-analysis from Biederman and Harpole (2013), which included several studies from temperate regions. Their study confirmed an overall positive effect of biochar application on aboveground plant production and yield, but the authors simultaneously stressed the importance of feedstock source and pyrolysis settings on the effect size of biochar treatments. European biochar field trials show contrasting results. Jones et al. (2012) did not find an effect on growth performance of maize the first year after biochar application in a Welsh field trial. In contrast, in the second year, foliar N content of a grass crop was increased after biochar addition, while no effect on dry matter yield was observed. In the third year, a significant increase in dry grass biomass production was observed with biochar addition, while there was no effect on foliar or grain N content. Vaccari et al. (2011) observed already in the first year after biochar application (30 and 60 t ha -1 ) an increased aboveground wheat biomass and grain yield in an Italian field trial, while no effect on N concentration was observed. These effects were confirmed in the second year. Also Baronti et al. (2010) observed increased aboveground wheat biomass but no effect on grain biomass the first year after biochar application in another Italian field trial. The study 7

44 Chapter 1 from Hammond et al. (2013), in which seven field trials in the UK are discussed, shows that in most cases, no significant effect from biochar addition on crop yield was observed, although in one trial the spring barley yield had doubled in the first year after applying biochar at a dose of 10 or 30 t ha -1. However, another trial showed a significant negative effect of biochar on spinach yield. These results show a changing effect over time, a complex interaction between biochar, soil and crop, and indicate that it is difficult to extrapolate results from one biochar-soil-crop combination. More research is thus needed in these regions in order to better understand biochar effects on crop and soil. 1.4 Biochar uncertainties Despite the promising results from certain studies, large-scale application of biochar to soil would not be without a risk as there is currently a high degree of uncertainty surrounding biochar effects on crop and soil. Short-term effects of biochar in temperate regions are poorly understood, and longer-term results are even lacking. However, long-term effects of biochar are important as they are expected to differ from the short-term ones due to a change in biochar properties over time. For example, in the short term biochar has been shown to reduce N availability, but it is uncertain what would happen to this immobilized N in the longer term. The same is valid for sorption of pesticides. In the short term, less pesticides could be leached, but this could reduce the efficacy of the pesticides applied through which higher doses of pesticides would be needed or in the worst case, biochar may render pesticides ineffective (Graber et al., 2012). And what happens in the long term to these sorbed pesticides? Furthermore, biochar properties depend on the feedstock used and the production conditions, resulting in a huge diversity of biochar types. This diversity complicates biochar research, as extrapolating results obtained when using a given biochar type is difficult. Moreover, biochar quality needs to be ensured, as biochar could contain heavy metals and during pyrolysis polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be produced. In order to ensure biochar quality and to guarantee sustainable biochar production in order to avoid for example deforestation or land-grabbing for monoculture plantations (EBC, 2013; Ernsting, 2013), recently biochar certificates have been developed (European Biochar Certificate and IBI Biochar Certification Programme). 8

45 Introduction Estimating biochar production costs is highly uncertain (Shackley et al., 2011). It is thus questionable whether biochar production and application would be economically feasible. According to the study from Galinato et al. (2011), that focuses on using biochar as a soil improver because of its liming value and for carbon sequestration benefits, biochar application to soil could be economically feasible in case (i) a carbon market exists that recognizes the avoided emissions (through using biochar instead of agricultural lime) and carbon sequestration through biochar application and (ii) the market price of biochar is low enough so that a farmer would earn profit through offsetting CO 2 after applying biochar. However, today commercially available biochar is expensive (for example, 5 ton of biochar produced by Swiss Biochar costs 3449 CHF (2786 ), which corresponds to 557 t -1 ) and biochar is currently not included in a carbon trading system like the EU emissions trading system (EU ETS), in which the price of a ton CO 2 had dropped below 5 in February 2013 (Figure 1.4). At the 16 th of September 2013, the price per ton CO 2 was 5.48 (Thomson Reuters Point Carbon). Figure 1.4 The price of carbon allowances (per ton CO 2 ) in the EU emission trading system (Source: Thomson Reuters Point Carbon and Aims and outline of the thesis General objectives This thesis aims at a better understanding of biochar effects on soil chemical (Chapters 3, 4, 7, 8), physical (Chapters 5, 8) and biological properties (Chapter 8), crop growth (Chapter 7, 8), and on soil N 2 O and NO emissions (Chapter 6) in temperate regions like Flanders (Figure 1.5). Special attention has been paid to biochar and soil nitrogen cycling, as the effect of biochar on soil nitrogen is believed to be an important factor determining its effect on crop growth. 9

46 Chapter Specific objectives: Research questions and hypotheses Do various biochar types show different effects on crop and soil? The main characteristics of biochar are described in Chapter 2. Differences in soil and crop response upon biochar addition between various biochar types are related to its properties. Does biochar influence gross N transformations in the soil? The effect of biochar on the N cycle is dealt with in Chapters 3 and 4. In order to study the effect of bicohar on gross N transformations, three 15 N tracing experiments were conducted. Using a numerical 15 N tracing analysis tool, more insight was gained into the effect of biochar on gross N mineralization, immobilization and nitrification rates. Two short-term experiments were carried out: the first with two biochar types produced from silage maize at 350 C and 550 C, the second with a woody biochar type. Through using soil from the biochar field trial (Chapter 8) we were able to investigate the effect of biochar on N cycling in the longer term. Hypothesis 1: Biochar application to soil would accelerate N cycling and this effect would persist through time. Does biochar increase soil water content, and is this water plant available? Chapter 5 deals with biochar and soil physical properties. By means of a lab experiment, the effect of biochar on the soil water retention curve and derived physical soil quality parameters is investigated. Hypothesis 2: Biochar addition to soil (i) decreases soil bulk density and increases porosity, (ii) improves plant available water capacity and (iii) improves soil quality as expressed in terms of indicators derived from the soil water retention curves. Does biochar decrease soil greenhouse gas emissions? In Chapter 6, the effect of biochar on soil N 2 O and NO emissions is studied by means of an incubation experiment, in which several biochar and fertilizer types were used. We tried to unravel the mechanism behind the observed emission reductions by discussing all possible mechanisms in detail. This chapter also includes a literature overview of studies about biochar and N 2 O. Hypothesis 3: Biochar addition to soil reduces both N 2 O and NO emissions. 10

47 Introduction Does biochar affect soil chemical, physical and biological parameters, and does it increase nutrient use efficiency and crop yield? This question is dealt with in Chapters 7 and 8. A combination of an incubation experiment and pot trial gives insight into the effect of biochar on soil chemical properties and the consequences for crop yield in the short term (Chapter 7). Both short- and longer-term effects of biochar are investigated by means of a biochar field trial, in which chemical, physical and biological soil properties and crop growth were studied (Chapter 8). Hypothesis 4: Biochar addition to soil (i) reduces soil mineral N availability in the short term, (ii) improves soil physical quality through decreasing soil bulk density and increasing porosity, (iii) increases volumetric soil water content, especially during dry periods, (iv) changes soil microbial community structure, and (v) increases crop growth in the longer term. In the final Chapter 9, results are summarized and general conclusions are drawn. Does biochar have a future in temperate regions like Flanders? Does it increase soil quality while combating climate change? These are the questions that will be tried to answer. In addition, general recommendations for future research will be outlined. 11

48 Chapter 1 Effects of biochar on soil processes, soil functions and crop growth Chapter 2: Biochar characterisation I. Effects of biochar on soil nitrogen cycling Short + longer term Chapter 3: Maize biochars accelerate short-term soil nitrogen dynamics in a loamy sand soil Chapter 4: Temporal evolution of biochar s impact on soil nitrogen processes under field conditions a 15 N tracing study II. Effects of biochar on soil physical properties III. Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions Short term Chapter 5: The effect of different biochar types on physical properties of two soils under laboratory conditions Chapter 6: Effect of different biochar and fertilizer types on N 2 O and NO emissions Short term Chapter 9: General discussion and conclusions IV. Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Short + longer term Chapter 7: Short-term effect of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics, soil and crop response in temperate soils Chapter 8: The impact of a woody biochar on soil properties and crop growth in a Belgian field trial Figure 1.5 Thesis outline. 12

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51 CHAPTER 2 2 Biochar characterization 2.1 Introduction Biochar can be produced by various thermal processes including slow and fast pyrolysis, and gasification. Each type of process is distinguished by different ranges of temperatures, heating rates, biomass and vapour residence times. Given this variability in pyrolysis processes and their accompanying process conditions, in combination with a wide range of available biomass feedstocks for biochar production, physicochemical biochar properties are expected to be highly diverse. Consequently, a large variability is also expected in the performance of biochar as a soil amendment and/or in their ability to store carbon permanently in the soil (Ronsse et al., 2013). Recently two biochar certificates have been developed: IBI Biochar Standards and the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). The first is intended to establish a common definition for biochar and testing and measurement methods for selected physicochemical biochar properties (IBI, 2013c). The goal of the EBC is to ensure control of biochar production and quality based on well-researched, economically viable and practically applicable processes (Schmidt et al., 2013). The IBI Biochar Standards identifies three categories of tests for biochar materials: (i) Basic utility properties, among which moisture, organic carbon, ash, nitrogen and ph, (ii) Toxicant reporting, among which germination tests and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) content, and (iii) Advanced analysis and soil enhancement properties, among which mineral N and volatile matter. Biochar properties defined by the EBC include among others carbon content, black-carbon content, molar H:C org and O:C org, ph, PAH content. It has to be noted that these quality parameters alone do not warrant the agronomic benefits of biochar by themselves, as soil type and climate properties also determine the net effect of biochar use (Ronsse et al., 2013). In this thesis, a range of biochar types is used to investigate the effect of biochar on soil properties and processes and crop growth. The main characteristics of biochar are described in this chapter and will be referred to in the Chapters 3 to 9. In these chapters, we try to relate differences in soil and crop response upon biochar addition between various biochar types to their properties. 15

52 Chapter Materials and methods Table 2.1 gives an overview of the biochar feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, time at treatment temperature, total residence time in the reactor and suppliers of the 11 biochars used in the different chapters of this thesis, which were all produced by slow pyrolysis. The willow and pine biochar types were produced in a batch pyrolysis unit at the UK Biochar Research Centre (University of Edinburgh) from willow and Scots pine at three different treatment temperatures (450 C, 550 C and 650 C). Each of the production operations ran from ambient up to the desired treatment temperature. Once the desired treatment temperature was obtained, this was sustained until the flammable and visible gas flow from the non-condensable fractions had ceased. The residence time was recorded for the total duration of each operation and for the length of time held at each desired treatment temperature (Table 2.1). In between the changeover of feedstock a steam clean of the entire equipment took place to minimize contamination. The two maize biochars were produced in a horizontal screw reactor at ECN (the Netherlands) from maize that was ensilaged during 7 months. The wood mixture biochar was produced during slow pyrolysis from hard- and softwood, including spruce, silver fir, Scots pine, beech and oak, and has been used for the biochar field trial (Chapter 8). No extra information was available for the other biochar types (beech, cane). Moisture content (mass of water : mass of dry biochar) was determined by oven-drying (24 h at 105 C). Total CHN contents were determined using an organic elemental analyzer (FLASH 2000, Thermo Scientific, US). Proximate analyses were performed according to ASTM D (2007). In brief, a biochar sample of approximately 1 g was heated in porcelain crucibles and the sample weight difference before and after heating was determined. For ash content, samples were heated to 750 C for a minimum of 7 hours (uncovered crucible) and for volatile matter determination to 950 C for 9 min (covered crucible; thus in the absence of oxygen). Total CHN contents and proximate analyses were conducted at the Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University. Biochar ph was measured in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 v:v) (ISO 10390). Mineral N content was extracted (1:5 w:v) in a 1 M KCl solution (ISO ) and measured using a continuous flow analyzer (FIAstar 5000, Foss, Denmark). The cation exchange capacities (CEC) were measured according to Chapman (1965) after saturation with a 1 M NH + 4 -acetate solution (ph 7, biochar-solution ratio of 1:50 (w:v) instead of the proposed ratio of 1:5) and extraction with 1 M KCl. The biochar-solution 16

53 Biochar characterization ratio had been changed due to the lower bulk density of biochar compared to soil. For all analyses, the number of replicates was two, except for CEC (n = 1). For the willow, pine, maize and wood mixture biochars, biochar labile C fraction was determined by assessing the C mineralization of the biochar over time. Therefore a microbial inoculum was added to 20 g sulphuric acid-washed sand mixed with 1 g of biochar (sieved at 1 5 mm) (and a control containing only sand) in a 200 ml glass penicillin bottle, with three replicates per treatment. The microbial inoculums were extracted from a deciduous forest soil, located close to the Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO). To make the inoculum, 200 g of top soil (0-5 cm) was mixed with 400 ml sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and shaken for 30 minutes at 150 rpm. The mixture was then sieved (< 1 mm), after which the sieved solution was poured into 445 ml centrifuge tubes. After centrifugation for 5 minutes at 2000 g, the supernatant was first filtered at 250 µm, second at 30 µm and last through a 12 µm filter. The filtrate was then poured into 225 ml centrifuge tubes and centrifuged for 15 minutes at 4000 g, after which the supernatant was discarded. The obtained pellet was suspended into 1.29 ml PBS and added to the bottles, together with 2 ml of a nutrient solution, containing 4 mm NH 4 NO 3, 4 mm CaCl 2, 2 mm KH 2 PO 4, 1 mm K 2 SO 4, 1 mm MgSO 4, 25 µm MnSO 4, 2 µm ZnSO 4, 0.5 µm CuSO 4 and 0.5 µm Na 2 MoO 4 as used by Cheng et al (2006). Moisture content was adjusted to 70% of field capacity as measured at gravity-drained equilibrium using distilled water. Field capacity of the sand and sand-biochar mixtures had been determined by water-saturating and subsequent draining of these mixtures during 16 hours. In order to measure the microbial respiration, the penicillin bottles were closed using rubber septa, incubated at 20 C, and O 2 and CO 2 concentrations of the headspace were measured over time. For the experiment in which the willow and pine biochars were included, headspace O 2 and CO 2 concentrations were measured at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 27, 34, 45, 64, 87, 111, 140, 199, 254 and 357 after closing the bottles using a gas chromatograph (Finnigan Trace GC Ultra, Thermo Scientific, US) equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). When the O 2 concentration in the bottles dropped below 15%, the bottles were opened and ventilated before a new septum was placed. The experiment was repeated for the maize and wood mixture biochars, but the time scheme of the measurements differed: CO 2 concentrations of the headspace were measured at days 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 16, 30, 65,171, 264 and 381 after closing the bottles. The C mineralized from the biochar was calculated by subtracting the CO 2 -C concentrations measured in the 17

54 Chapter 2 control treatment from the CO 2 -C concentrations measured in the biochar treatments. The experiment with the willow and pine biochars was stopped after 357 days, as then the amount of CO 2 -C produced was similar in the biochar as in the control treatments, indicating that all labile biochar C had been mineralized. The cumulative mineralized biochar C curves were fitted using a first order growth model: C (t) = C max (1 – e -kt ) (1) where C (t) is the amount of cumulative mineralized biochar C as measured at time (t), C max is the maximum of the growth function, which corresponds to the labile C fraction, and k is the mineralization rate constant. At 381 days after starting the experiment with the maize and wood mixture biochars, the experiment was stopped due to time constraint, although the flattening of the curve as observed for the willow and pine biochars was not reached yet. For each biochar characteristic, a one-way ANOVA including factor biochar type was conducted with the biochar characteristic as dependent variable. Treatment means were compared using a post-hoc Scheffé-test. As not all biochar characteristics were normally distributed, non-parametrical correlation analyses (Spearman s rho) were carried out between the biochar characteristics. For all statistical analyses, SPSS 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) was used. Table 2.1 Biochar feedstock, production conditions and suppliers. It is indicated which biochars are used in which chapters. Feedstock Pyrolysis Time at treatment Total time in reactor Supplier temperature temperature Used in Chapter C min Willow UK Biochar Research Centre (UK) 5, 6, 7 Willow UK Biochar Research Centre (UK) 5, 7 Willow UK Biochar Research Centre (UK) 5, 6, 7 Pine UK Biochar Research Centre (UK) 5, 6, 7 Pine UK Biochar Research Centre (UK) 5, 7 Pine UK Biochar Research Centre (UK) 5, 6, 7 Maize 350 NDA 30 ECN (the Netherlands) 3, 5, 6 Maize 550 NDA 30 ECN (the Netherlands) 3, 5, 6 Cane 600 NDA 60 Carbo BV (the Netherlands) 5 Beech 600 NDA 300 Carbo BV (the Netherlands) 5 Wood mixture (Field trial biochar) 480 NDA NDA Carbon Terra (Germany) 4, 6, 8 NDA = no data available. The wood mixture biochar has been produced by slow pyrolysis, but no exact information is known about the time in the pyrolysis reactor. 2.3 Results and discussion Table 2.2 shows the physico-chemical biochar properties. The willow and pine biochars showed higher carbon (C) contents (78.4% %) compared to the maize, beech, cane 18

55 Biochar characterization and wood mixture biochars (67.3% 74.4%). The pine chars showed nitrogen contents of less than 0.2% and therefore had a very high C:N ratio (> 456). Ammonium concentrations were less than 2 mg N kg -1 biochar, while NO – 3 concentrations were even lower (<1.1 mg N kg -1 biochar). The mineral N content of biochar is only a negligible fraction of the total N content, as TN contents vary between 1500 and mg N kg -1 biochar. At higher pyrolysis temperatures for a given biochar feedstock, biochar ph and CEC were increased, while volatile matter and H:C ratios were decreased. Also Ronsse et al. (2013) observed at higher pyrolysis temperature biochars (for a given feedstock) lower H:C ratios, volatile matter contents and higher ph-kcl compared to low temperature biochars. The H:C ratio can be used to make an estimate for the average size of the polyaromatic graphene clusters in the biochars, which is likely to be an indicative measure of the overall biochar stability in the soil (Ronsse et al., 2013). The maize-550 C biochar showed highest, while pine- 450 C showed the lowest ph-kcl (9.8 and 6.7, respectively). Cation exchange capacities ranged between 32.0 and 68.8 cmol c kg -1 biochar. For comparison, soil CEC from the loamy sand soil used in Chapter 3 was 5.0 cmol c kg -1. However, when biochar would be applied to soil at a dose of e.g. 10 g kg -1, the biochars would likely not affect soil CEC to a large extent in these soils, as the CEC added through biochar addition would be maximal 0.7 cmol c kg -1 soil. But, during exposure in soil, biochar particles could be chemically altered due to surface oxidation and interactions with non-biochar materials, resulting in an increasing CEC over time (Liang et al., 2006). The short-term degradability of biochar is commonly determined in incubation studies, where CO 2 respiration from soil amended with biochar is compared to soil without biochar. During the experiment the soil CO 2 flux originating from respiration is determined repeatedly by gas analysis or through the use of sodium hydroxide. The overall degradation (C loss) of the added biochar materials is then calculated using simple difference, i.e. CO 2 emission from the biochar amended soil minus the emission from the control soil (no biochar added) (e.g. Bruun et al., 2012). The difference in CO 2 emissions is then assumed to originate from biochar. However, potentially the increased CO 2 emission with biochar application could also be due to biochar accelerating the turnover (CO 2 emission) of native soil organic matter (priming). In order to differentiate between CO 2 originating from soil native carbon and biochar carbon, 14 C-labelled biochar can be used (e.g. Bruun et al., 2008). Incubating biochar without soil, but mixed with pure sand and inoculated with soil microbes and a nutrient solution, is another option in order to exclude measuring CO 2 19

56 Chapter 2 originating from native soil organic matter, and is the method used in our research to determine the labile C fraction of biochar. Figure 2.1 and Table 2.2 show the labile C fraction results from the biochars used in this thesis work. For the maize-550 C, the labile C fraction is negative, as the amount of CO 2 produced in this treatment was lower than in the control. This biochar type probably contains microbial-inhibiting compounds (e.g. certain volatile organic compounds) through which microbial activity is reduced (Spokas et al., 2011). For the other biochar types, the biochar-c mineralization rate was highest during the first days of incubation, after which the rate decreased as a function of time to reach, in case of the willow and pine biochars, a steady state at the end of incubation (Figure 2.1). For the maize-350 C and wood mixture biochar, the course of the curve shows that not all labile C had been mineralized when the experiment was stopped. As expected, the labile C fraction (C max ) increased with decreasing pyrolysis temperature. It was highest for the maize-350 C (13.65 mg C g -1 biochar-c) and lowest for pine-650 C (0.38 mg C g -1 biochar-c) (Table 2.2). The woody biochars showed lower labile C fractions than the maize-350 C biochar, indicating that not only temperature but also feedstock is important for biochar stability. Our labile C fraction results are in correspondence with other studies in which biochar labile C fraction is determined using sand and a nutrient-microbial inoculum solution (Table 2.3). For comparison, in the experiment from Bruun et al. (2012), in which biochar was incubated with soil, biochar (produced from wheat straw at 475 C-575 C) carbon losses of up to 120 mg g -1 biochar-c had been observed, which is considerably higher compared to results from incubation studies conducted in sand. This is ascribed to the pyrolysis technology used, as the biochar was made on a fast Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor which results in incompletely pyrolyzed biochar at the lower temperatures, and to the fact that most other studies use slow pyrolysis biochar, which contains less easy degradable substrate (Bruun et al., 2010). In the study of Bruun et al. (2008), in which 14 C-labelled biochar (produced from roots of barley at 225 C-375 C; slow pyrolysis) was incubated with soil, biochar labile C fractions were after 30 days of incubation 19 mg C g -1 biochar-c and 14 mg C g -1 biochar-c for the biochars produced at 225 C and 300 C, respectively, while the labile C fraction of the biochar produced at 375 C was 82 mg g -1 biochar-c, which was explained by evolved CO 2 likely coming from carbonate present in the biochar. 20

57 Biochar characterization Table 2.2 Physico-chemical properties (mean ± 1 standard error; n = 2; for CEC n = 1) of the biochar types used in this thesis based on oven-dry basis (105 C) except for ph-kcl. A range of moisture contents is given, as moisture content was determined at the start of each experiment. Biochar type Moisture content wt % wt % wt % wt % wt % wt % cmol c kg -1 mg C g -1 biochar-c Willow-450 C ± 0.5 cd 2.03 ± 0.03 d 0.82 ± 0.01 b 96 ± 2 bc ± d 11.2 ± 0.4 abc 4.3 ± 0.1 bc 7.3 ± 0.1 abc ± 0.51 cd Willow-550 C ± 0.4 ef 1.95 ± 0.07 cd 0.85 ± 0.10 b 102 ± 13 bc ± cd 6.7 ± 0.5 abc 3.2 ± 0.0 b 7.5 ± 0.0 bc ± 0.13 ab Willow-650 C ± 0.5 de 1.14 ± 0.01 a 1.00 ± 0.01 b 85 ± 1 ab ± a 6.0 ± 0.3 ab 4.9 ± 0.1 c 8.1 ± 0.2 cd ± 0.05 ab Pine-450 C ± 0.7 ef 2.80 ± 0.06 e 0.19 ± 0.04 a 457 ± 78 e ± e 12.1 ± 1.1 c 0.9 ± 0.1 a 6.7 ± 0.0 a ± 0.09 cd Pine-550 C ± 1.1 f 2.13 ± 0.01 d 0.19 ± 0.03 a 482 ± 67 e ± cd 7.3 ± 1.2 abc 1.0 ± 0.2 a 6.8 ± 0.0 ab ± 0.16 bc Pine-650 C ± 0.1 f 1.68 ± 0.01 bc 0.15 ± 0.00 a 617 ± 7 e ± b 6.0 ± 1.2 a 1.1 ± 0.1 a 7.7 ± 0.1 bc ± 0.03 ab Maize-350 C ± 0.4 a 4.25 ± 0.04 f 1.47 ± 0.04 c 46 ± 2 a ± g 32.6 ± 0.6 e 7.7 ± 0.4 d 8.3 ± 0.1 d 55.2 >13.65 ± 0.13 e Maize-550 C ± 0.3 abc 2.21 ± 0.00 d 1.52 ± 0.01 c 47 ± 1 a ± e 12.1 ± 0.5 c 10.9 ± 0.3 e 9.8 ± 0.0 e ± 0.08 a Cane-650 C ± 0.3 bc 2.78 ± 0.06 e 0.86 ± 0.07 b 87 ± 7 abc ± f 18.8 ± 0.3 d 8.9 ± 0.3 d 6.8 ± 0.1 a 57.6 Beech-600 C ± 0.2 ab 4.24 ± 0.02 f 0.34 ± 0.01 a 210 ± 8 d ± g 22.9 ± 0.5 d 0.6 ± 0.1 a 7.1 ± 0.1 ab 32.0 Wood mixture-480 C (Field trial biochar) C H N C:N * ± 2.5 ab 1.50 ± 0.00 bc 0.40 ± 0.00 a 164 ± 13 cd ± bc 12.0 ± 0.2 bc 8.3 ± 0.3 d 8.6 ± 0.1 d 46.3 >3.95 ± 0.48 d wt % = weight %; NDA = no data available; * mass ratio; ** atomic ratio Biochar types with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to Scheffé-tests H:C ** Volatile matter Ash ph-kcl CEC Labile C NDA NDA 21

58 Cumulative mineralized C (mg CO 2 -C g -1 biochar-c) Chapter Willow450 C Willow650 C Pine550 C Maize350 C Wood mixture480 C Willow550 C Pine450 C Pine650 C Maize550 C Figure 2.1 Cumulative carbon mineralization originating from the willow and pine biochar types measured during 357 days (symbols; mean ± standard error, n = 3) and predicted by the equation C(t) = C max (1 – e -kt ) (lines), and cumulative carbon mineralization originating from the maize and wood mixture biochars measured during 384 days (mean ± standard error, n = 3). Table 2.3 Overview of studies in which the labile C fraction of biochar was determined using sand and a nutrient-microbial inoculum solution. Table 2.4 shows the correlation coefficients between the biochar characteristics. For the labile C correlations, the maize-550 C results has been left out of the analysis, while for the beech and cane biochars no results were available. Biochar ph and ash content were significantly correlated (P < 0.05), indicating that biochar ph increased due to the higher amount of ash present. Furthermore, volatile matter and H:C ratios were significantly correlated, indicating that when H:C decreases, also volatile matter decreases. The labile C fraction of biochar is significantly correlated to H:C ratio and volatile matter content, indicating that these are good indicators for biochar stability. Also biochar C content is correlated (negatively) with the labile C fraction, indicating that when C content increases, the biochar is more stable. 0 Reference Time (days) Biochar feedstock Pyrolysis temperature ( C) Duration of experiment (days) Incubation temperature ( C) Labile C fraction Baldock and Smernik (2002) Pine mg g -1 biochar-c Cheng et al. (2008) Historic charcoal < 5 mg g -1 biochar-c Cross and Sohi (2011) Sugarcane bagasse mg g -1 biochar-c Maize 350 Hamer et al. (2004) Rye mg g -1 biochar Oak 800 Zimmerman (2010) Oak C < 20 mg g -1 biochar 22

59 Biochar characterization Table 2.4 Spearman s rho values of non-parametrical correlations (n = 11, except for correlations with labile C, for which n = 8) between the biochar characteristics. C H N C:N H:C Volatile matter Ash ph CEC H N C:N H:C Data in bold: correlation is significant at P = 0.05; Data in bold and italic: correlation is significant at P = 0.01 The protocol to determine biochar s labile C does not seem suitable for all biochar types, e.g. for the maize-550 C, but most likely, this biochar type does contain a labile C fraction. This is also indicated in Chapter 3, in which hot-water extractable carbon (HWC) of the maize biochars was determined. For the maize-350 C, biochar s HWC was 15.4 mg g -1 biochar, while for the maize-550 C, this was 9.4 mg g -1 biochar. As HWC is a measure for easily available carbon, it seems that both maize biochars do contain labile C. In addition, volatile matter and H:C ratio (which is a measure for biochar stability) were significantly correlated to labile C. The maize-550 C biochar (with a negative labile C fraction but a volatile matter of 12%) is an outlier. This indicates that the protocol works well for the other biochar types but not for the maize-550 biochar. Volatile matter Ash ph CEC Labile C Correlation coefficient P-value Correlation coefficient P-value Correlation coefficient P-value Correlation coefficient P-value Correlation coefficient P-value Correlation coefficient P-value Correlation coefficient P-value Correlation coefficient P-value Correlation coefficient P-value Conclusions The biochar characterization shows that, as expected, both feedstock and pyrolysis temperature influence biochar properties to a large extent. For a given feedstock, biochar ph and CEC increase with pyrolysis temperature, while volatile matter and H:C ratios decrease as biochar stability increases. This is confirmed by the labile C results of the biochar, which decrease when pyrolysis temperature increases. The maize-550 C likely contains microbial-inhibiting compounds. 23

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61 Part I: Effects of biochar on soil nitrogen cycling 25

62 26

63 CHAPTER 3 3 Maize biochars accelerate soil nitrogen dynamics in a loamy sand soil in the short term After: Nelissen, V., Rütting, T., Huygens, D., Staelens, J., Ruysschaert, G. & Boeckx, P., Maize biochars accelerate short-term soil nitrogen dynamics in a loamy sand soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 55, Abstract Biochar addition to soils has been proposed as a means to increase soil fertility and carbon sequestration. However, its effect on soil nitrogen (N) cycling and N availability is poorly understood. To gain better insight into the short-term effects of biochar on gross N transformation processes, a 15 N tracing experiment in combination with numerical data analysis was conducted. An arable loamy sand soil was used and mixed with two silage maize biochars, produced at 350 C and 550 C. The results showed accelerated soil N cycling following biochar addition, with increased gross N mineralization ( %), nitrification (10-69%) and ammonium (NH + 4 ) consumption rates ( %). Moreover, transfer of N from a recalcitrant soil organic N (N rec ) pool to a more labile soil organic N (N lab ) pool was observed. In the control treatment, 8% of the NH + 4 mineralized from N lab was immobilized to the N rec pool. In contrast, 79% and 55% of the NH + 4 mineralized from N rec were immobilized to the N lab pool in the treatment with biochar-350 C and biochar- 550 C, respectively. NH + 4 -N was adsorbed quickly to biochar at the start of the experiment, thereby buffering plant-available N. In conclusion, these types of biochar, produced from silage maize, accelerated soil N transformations in the short term, thereby increasing soil N bio-availability, through a combined effect of mineralization of the recalcitrant soil organic N pool and subsequent NH + 4 immobilization in a labile soil organic N pool. 27

64 Chapter Introduction In many parts of Europe, there is a decline in soil organic matter (SOM) due to an imbalance between build-up and decomposition of SOM (Akça et al., 2005). Adding biochar, the recalcitrant carbon (C) rich product obtained when biomass is pyrolyzed, to soil has been suggested to improve soil quality (Lehmann and Joseph, 2009) and to reduce nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions from soil (Gaunt and Cowie, 2009). Moreover, application of biochar to soil has been suggested to act as a large and long-term C sink (Lehmann et al., 2006). Therefore, biochar application to soils has gained interest as a climate change mitigation strategy. Although the positive effects of biochar need further verification, interest in biochar is growing among scientists and policy makers worldwide. Before biochar can be recommended for large-scale applications, its effect on crop and soil, including its effect on the nitrogen (N) cycle, must be better understood. Anderson et al. (2011) highlighted the potential of biochar to enhance the abundance and activity of microorganisms involved in soil N cycling. However, due to the activation of microorganisms that can mineralize more complex soil organic C (SOC), biochar can induce also a positive priming effect of native SOC (Luo et al., 2011), thereby reducing the SOC content. In the short term, biochar addition to soil could also result in net microbial immobilization of inorganic N as biochar can contain a small labile C fraction with a high C:N ratio (DeLuca et al., 2009). However, when bioavailable soil N is low, it can be hypothesized that upon biochar addition microorganisms will mine N from SOM. Steiner et al. (2008) showed that charcoal amendments to a highly weathered soil improved N fertilizer use efficiency due to microbial N immobilization or due to the high cation exchange capacity (CEC) of charcoal. The high porosity of biochar, accompanied by high surface areas, could contribute to nutrient adsorption through charge or covalent interaction (Major et al., 2009). In forest soils, nitrification rates have been found to increase with charcoal addition (Ball et al., 2011; DeLuca et al., 2006) but it is unclear if the same occurs in agricultural soils with a more active nitrifying community. Currently little is known about the effects of biochar on soil N transformations in the short and long term. In contrast to the commonly investigated net rates, gross N rates provide information on the actual dynamics of the soil N cycle and on the microbial activity. Therefore, to test the above hypotheses of increased N mineralization-immobilization, nitrification and adsorption upon silage maize biochar addition, a 15 N tracing experiment in 28

65 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling combination with numerical data analysis was conducted to investigate the gross rates of simultaneously occurring N transformations. The main advantage of this approach, compared with commonly used 15 N pool dilution techniques, is that it provides information on process-specific gross N rates (Rütting and Müller, 2007; Schimel, 1996). 3.2 Materials and methods Soil Soil was collected in spring 2010, before sowing, from the top layer (0-20 cm) of a loamy sand soil from a farmer s arable field plot in Meulebeke, Belgium ( N, E). Potatoes and leek were grown in this plot in the year 2008 and 2009, respectively. Immediately after sampling, the soil was air-dried and stored until the start of the 15 N experiments. The soil particle distribution was determined by the sieve-pipette method (ISO 11277). Soil ph was measured in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 v:v) (ISO 10390). The CEC was determined according to Chapman (1965) after extraction with a 1 M NH acetate solution (ph 7, soil-solution ratio of 1:5 (w:v)). SOC content was measured on oven-dried (70 C) soil samples by dry combustion at 1050 C (ISO 10694) using a TOC analyzer (Primacs SLC, Skalar, the Netherlands). Total N content was determined by dry combustion (Dumas principle, ISO 13878) (Flash 4000, ThermoFisher, US). At the start of the pre-incubation (see 2.3 below), mineral N was extracted in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 w:v) (ISO ) and measured using a continuous flow analyzer (FIAstar 5000, Foss, Denmark) Biochar Two biochars were produced at ECN (the Netherlands) from maize that was ensilaged during 7 months. Pyrolysis temperatures were 350 C and 550 C. Biochar characteristics are described in Chapter 2. Hot-water extractable carbon (HWC) was determined following the method of Haynes and Francis (1993). Biochar samples (equivalent of 0.5 g oven-dry weight) were weighed into 50 ml polypropylene centrifuge tubes and 25 ml of distilled water was added. The tubes were capped and left for 16 h in a hot-water bath at 70 C. At the end of the extraction period the tubes were centrifuged and the supernatants were 29

66 Chapter 3 filtered. HWC in the extracts was determined by dry combustion at 1050 C using a TOC analyzer (Primacs SLC, Skalar, the Netherlands) N tracing experiment One week prior to 15 N additions, the soil was sieved (2 mm), and water was added to the soil to obtain a gravimetric soil moisture content of 15%. Plastic tubes (180 ml, r = 2.5 cm, h = 10 cm) were filled with 69 g of moist soil, which corresponds to 60 g of oven-dry soil. The tubes were pre-incubated at 20 C in order to restore microbial activity. One day before 15 N additions, sieved biochar (1 mm) was mixed with the soil at a dose of 10 g fresh biochar kg -1 dry soil, and immediately after mixing, ph-kcl of the soil and soil-biochar mixtures was determined. There were three different treatments, a control and two biochar treatments (350 C and 550 C), and three replicates per treatment. Either 15 + N-labeled NH 4 or NO – 3 was added (50 atom%) at a rate of µg NH 4 Cl-N g -1 dry soil (25% of the standing NH + 4 -N pool) or 2 µg KNO 3 -N g -1 dry soil (10% of the standing NO – 3 -N pool), mixed in a 1 ml solution. After label addition, the soil was thoroughly mixed to ensure a homogeneous 15 N distribution. Temperature (20 C) and soil moisture content (15%) were kept constant during the entire experiment. Soils were extracted 0.25, 2, 4, 24, 72 and 168 h after label addition with 100 ml 1 M KCl and shaken for 120 min. Ammonium in the extract was determined colorimetrically by the salycilate nitroprusside method (Mulvaney, 1996) on an auto-analyzer (AA3, Bran and Luebbe, Germany). Nitrate was determined colorimetrically using the same auto-analyzer in form of NO – 2 after reduction of NO – 3 in a Cd Cu column followed by the reaction of the NO – 2 with N-1-napthylethylenediamine to produce a chromophore. The NO – 3 results were corrected for NO – 2 present in the soil samples. The 15 N contents of NH + 4 and NO – 3 were analyzed after conversion to N 2 O using a trace gas preparation unit (ANCA-TGII, PDZ Europa, UK) coupled to an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) (20-20, SerCon, UK). Ammonium was converted by adding MgO to soil extracts and absorbing NH 3 into H 2 SO 4, after which N 2 O was produced by reaction with NaOBr (Hauck, 1982; Saghir et al., 1993). Nitrate was reduced by Cd Cu at ph 4.7 to produce nitrite and NH 2 OH as intermediates of N 2 O (Stevens and Laughlin, 1994). Due to the low NH + 4 concentration in the KCl extract, NH + 4 had to be spiked with an NH 4 Cl solution at natural abundance in a ratio of 1:4 (mole:mole, sample:spike). 30

67 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling NH + 4 and NO – 3 concentrations 0.25 and 168 h after label addition were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance using SPSS 17. Treatment means were compared using Scheffé post-hoc tests for the effect of biochar type. The same statistical analysis was used for the adsorption data (concentrations and 15 N abundances) obtained as described in N tracing model A numerical 15 N tracing analysis tool was used to quantify multiple gross N transformation rates for each biochar treatment. The advantages of this approach compared with the more commonly used analytical equations with data from 15 N dilution experiments are (i) process-specific gross rates for multiple simultaneously occurring N transformation are quantified, while analytical equations only quantify the total gross production and consumption of the labeled pool (Rütting et al., 2011; Schimel, 1996); (ii) longer incubation periods (1 2 weeks) are possible as remineralization of previously immobilized labeled compounds is accounted for, providing better time-integrated gross rates; and (iii) possible interactions between N transformations are accounted for, which otherwise may bias quantifications of gross rates (Rütting and Müller, 2007). Moreover, the potential high abiotic 15 NH + 4 adsorption by biochar immediately after 15 N addition would bias the quantification of gross rates via the pool dilution approach if subsequently released, as it violates the assumption of no significant 15 NH + 4 production. Such an adsorption-desorption can though be explicitly considered in numerical tracing models (Müller et al., 2004). The 15 N tracing model was originally described by Müller et al. (2004). In the present experiment, we applied a modified version that relies on a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for parameter optimization (Müller et al., 2007; Rütting and Müller, 2007). This model enables to simultaneously quantify gross rates for a variety of N transformations described either as zero or first order kinetics by minimizing the misfit function in the form of a quadratic weighted error between the observed data and the model output. For that, the average and standard error of the measured soil NH + 4 and NO – 3 concentrations and their respective 15 N enrichments are used. The optimization results in a probability density function for each model parameter, from which average parameter values and standard deviations (SD) are calculated (Rütting and Müller, 2007; Staelens et al., 2012). 31

68 Chapter 3 Data analysis was conducted with a model setup of six N pools and twelve transformations (Figure 3.1). Several modifications in kinetic settings, considered N pools and included N transformations were tested to identify the model that best described the measured soil mineral N concentrations and 15 N contents, governed by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). A model with a smaller AIC is more likely to be correct and, hence, only modifications decreasing the AIC value were considered for the final data analysis (Burnham and Anderson, 2002). Various model setups were used to examine whether simpler models could describe the measured N dynamics and to assess the robustness of the obtained gross N fluxes (Staelens et al., 2012). In the final model, for each treatment six N pools were retained. For the control soil nine N transformations were retained, while for the biochar treatments eight transformations were retained (Table 3.3). The transformations that were not considered in the final model, based on the AIC, were likely not occurring in the soil and hence the gross rates can be assumed to be zero. The N pools considered in the tracing model (Figure 3.1) were ammonium (NH + 4 ), nitrate (NO – 3 ), a labile (N lab ) and a more recalcitrant (N rec ) organic N pool, and a pool related to the adsorption of NH (NH 4 ads ) and NO (NO 3 ads ). Of those, NH + 4 and NO – 3 were measured, + – while initial NH 4 ads and NO 3 ads were inferred from total 15 N recovery in the KCl extracts and the two organic N pools are conceptually defined. Different contributions of N lab and N rec to the total organic N pool (N org ) were tested for the control soil. When N lab contributed 1% to N org the lowest AIC value was obtained, indicating the most likely setup. This value was subsequently used for all three treatments. The N lab pool represents a microbially easily available N pool, while N rec is more difficult to mineralize, i.e. more recalcitrant, but not inert (Huygens et al., 2007; Müller et al., 2004; Rütting et al., 2010). N lab N rec I NH4 Nlab A NH4 NH 4 + ads M Nlab M Nrec I NH4 Nrec O Nrec NH 4 + NO 3 – O NH4 I NO3 D NO3 D NH4ads D NO3sto A NO3 NO 3 – ads Figure 3.1 Conceptual 15 N tracing model that was used for data analysis (N lab = labile soil organic N, N rec = recalcitrant soil organic N, NH 4 + = ammonium, NO 3 – = nitrate, NH 4 + ads = adsorbed NH 4 +, NO 3 – ads = adsorbed NO 3 -, see Table 3.3 for explanation of N transformations and abbreviations). Transformations in grey were not retained in the final model. 32

69 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling At the first soil extraction 15 min after label addition, 15 N recovery was 56-73% of added 15 NH + 4 and 88-92% of added 15 NO – 3. Therefore, it was necessary, in accordance with previous studies (Huygens et al., 2007; Müller et al., 2004; Rütting et al., 2010), to consider adsorbed NH (NH 4 ads ) and adsorbed NO (NO 3 ads ) pools in the final model setup (Figure 3.1), accounting for non-extractable N which is assumed to be adsorbed quickly to clay minerals, organic matter or in this experiment, to biochar (NH + 4 only). Including the biochar N as a separate N pool in the model did not improve the model fit, indicating no significant turn-over of this pool in the short term, and therefore such a pool was left out of the final model. The optimization algorithm was programmed in MatLab (Verion 7.11, The MathWorks Inc.). This algorithm called the 15 N tracing model, which was separately set up in Simulink (Version 7.6, The MathWorks Inc.). The initial (i.e. at t = 0 h) size and 15 N content of the NH + 4 and NO – 3 pools were obtained by extrapolating the + data for 0.25 and 2 h back to 0 (Müller et al., 2004). The initial values of the NH 4 ads and – NO 3 ads pools were calculated according to Münchmeyer (2001) (see 2.5 below). Based on the final kinetic settings and model parameters, mean gross N fluxes were calculated by integrating the rates of the 7-day period divided by the total time (Rütting and Müller, 2007; Staelens et al., 2012). The mean and net N fluxes were compared statistically between the treatments using the 85% confidence interval, which is equivalent to testing at a significance level of 0.05 (Payton et al., 2000; Rütting et al., 2010) NH 4 + ads and NO 3 – ads pool calculations The amounts of NH + 4 and NO – 3 that were instantaneously adsorbed after label addition (i.e. + – the NH 4 ads and NO 3 ads pools) were quantified following the method by Münchmeyer (2001), which assumes an equilibrium between extractable and adsorbed mineral N. The total amount of a mineral N moiety is the sum of added (N appl ) and native N (N nat ), as well as the sum of extractable (N extr ) and total adsorbed N (N ads ). The N ads pool contains both, native and added N that is adsorbed to soil particles. Of these pools, only N appl and N extr as well as their 15 N content in excess (a appl and a extr, respectively) are known. In addition, the N nat pool has natural 15 N abundance. As the added excess 15 N (= N appl * a appl ) will end-up either in the N extr or the N ads pool, which have due to the equilibrium the same 15 N excess (a extr ), the amount of N ads can be calculated by: 33

70 Chapter 3 N ads N appl a’ * a’ extr appl N extr (Eq. 1) In addition the amount of native N (N nat ) can be calculated by: N nat N N N (Eq. 2) extr ads appl However, for both biochar-amended soils, these equations resulted in a lower calculation of the native NH + 4 concentration than for the control soil, which is unlikely. We therefore concluded that the biochar poses an additional adsorption capacity for NH + 4, which is not in equilibrium with the extractable N in the soil (i.e., has a different 15 N enrichment) and + must be taken into consideration. Consequently, we first calculated a corrected NH 4 adsorption on soil particles for the biochar treatments (N ads_soil ), based on the results of the control soil and assuming a constant ratio of soil-adsorbed to extractable NH + 4 in the three treatments: N N N (Eq. 3), ads_ ctrl ads_ soil * Nextr _ ctrl extr _ bc with N ads_ctrl the amount of adsorbed NH + 4 in the control soil calculated via Eq. 1, and N extr_ctrl and N extr_bc the amount of extracted NH + 4 in the control and biochar amended soil, respectively. The amount of applied (N ads_nappl ) and native (N ads_nnat ) NH + 4 that is adsorbed on the biochar can now be calculated by mass balance of the added (i.e. excess) 15 N for applied NH + 4 and by a simple mass balance for total 14 N for native NH + 4 according to: N extr ads_ Nappl N appl N extr N ads_ soil * (Eq. 4) a’ appl a’ N ads_ Nnat N nat *(1 ana) ( Nappl Nads_ Nappl) *(1 aappl) ( Nextr Nads_ (1 a ) na soil ) *(1 a extr ) (Eq. 5) with a na the measured natural 15 N abundance ( ± ). Note that Eq. 5 uses 15 N abundance and not excess data. Finally, the corrected total NH + 4 adsorption (N ads_cor ) was calculated by: N ads_ cor N N N (Eq. 6) ads_ soil ads_ Nnat ads_ Nappl 34

71 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling The 15 N abundance of the corrected adsorbed pool was calculated by using the individual sub-pools and their respective 15 N abundance. 3.3 Results Soil and biochar characterization The soil particle distribution was 82% sand, 13% silt and 5% clay, and can be classified as a loamy sand soil (USDA). The soil had a ph-kcl of 4.98 and a low organic C content (0.7%) (Table 3.1). Biochar characteristics are described in Chapter 2. Both biochars had a high ph (8.3 for biochar-350 C, 9.8 for biochar-550 C). Immediately after mixing biochar with soil, soil ph increased (5.25 for biochar-350 C, 5.34 for biochar-550 C treatment). The biochar produced at 350 C contained more HWC than the biochar produced at 550 C (15.4 mg g -1 compared to 9.4 mg g -1 ). Table 3.1 Characteristics of the investigated arable soil. ph-kcl CEC TC TN C:N NO 3 – -N NH 4 + -N – cmol c kg -1 % % µg g -1 µg g -1 Soil <0.7 CEC = cation exchange capacity, TC = total carbon, TN = total nitrogen, C:N = carbon : nitrogen, NO 3 – -N = nitrate-n, NH 4 + -N = ammonium-n, HWC = hot-water extractable C Measured mineral N pools and 15 N enrichments The NH + 4 concentration results showed that a significantly (P < 0.05) smaller amount of + NH 4 was KCl-extractable at the start of the experiment (t = 0.25 h) in the biochar + treatments compared with the control soil (Figure 3.2a). However, NH 4 concentrations were very low and the difference between the treatments gradually decreased over time. – Similarly, NO 3 was significantly (P < 0.05) less KCl-extractable at the start of the experiment (t = 0.25 h) with biochar addition compared with the control soil (Figure 3.2c). After 168 h (7 d), this was still the case (P < 0.05). The fast decline in 15 N enrichment in the NH + 4 pool, especially in the biochar treatments, indicated a fast inflow of unlabeled NH + 4 and points to high gross NH + 4 production rates (Figure 3.2b). The 15 N enrichment in the NO – 3 pool declined slowly, indicating rather low gross nitrification rates (Figure 3.2d). 35

72 NO 3 – -N (µg N g -1 soil) NH 4 + -N (µg N g -1 soil) Chapter 3 (a) (b) Control Biochar350 Biochar N-NH4 + (atom%) Time (h) (c) Time (h) 150 (d) Time (h) Time (h) Figure 3.2 Measured concentrations and 15 + N enrichments (mean ± standard deviation) of the NH 4 – (a and b) and NO 3 (c and d) pools in the treatments after addition of 15 + N-labeled NH 4 or NO – 3, respectively. 15 N-NO3 – (atom%) Calculated NH 4 + ads and NO 3 – ads pools There was a 92% and 86% increase in initial NH 4 + adsorption for the biochar-350 C and biochar-550 C treatments, respectively, compared with the control soil (Table 3.2). For NO 3 – the differences were not significant. Table 3.2 Initial calculated concentrations and N abundances of the NH 4 ads and NO 3 ads pools in the three treatments. Control Biochar 350 C Biochar 550 C Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD NH 4 +ads (µg N g -1 ) 0.37 A B B 0.11 NO 3 -ads (µg N g -1 ) 4.00 A A A NH 4 + ads (atom%) 7.06 A B B NO 3 – ads (atom%) 3.38 A A A 0.04 Treatments with a different letter differ significantly (P<0.05) according to Scheffé tests. SD = standard deviation 36

73 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling Gross N transformation rates For the control treatment, the total gross mineralization of the organic N pool to the NH 4 + pool (M Nlab + M Nrec ) was 0.82 µg N g -1 day -1, with approximately 40% originating from the N rec pool and 60% from the N lab pool (Table 3.3). Gross immobilization of NH 4 + took only place into N rec (0.36 µg N g -1 day -1 ). The total net mineralization rate (M Nlab + M Nrec I NH4- Nrec – I NH4-Nlab ) was 0.46 µg N g -1 day -1 (Figure 3.3). The NH 4 + adsorption-desorption dynamics showed no net NH 4 + adsorption. For the control treatment, the NO 3 – adsorptiondesorption dynamics showed the greatest rates, with 5.26 µg N g -1 day -1 NO 3 – adsorption and 4.68 µg N g -1 day -1 NO 3 – release, resulting in net NO 3 – adsorption at a rate of 0.58 µg N g -1 day -1. The gross nitrification rate (O NH4 ) was 0.62 µg N g -1 day -1. Table 3.3 Description and gross rates (mean and SD) of soil N transformation in the control soil and the soils amended with biochar-350 C and -550 C. All gross N transformation rates differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the treatments. Abbreviation Description Kinetics a N transformation rate (µg N g -1 day -1 ) Control Biochar-350 C Biochar-550 C Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD M Nrec Mineralization of N rec to NH I NH4-Nrec Immobilization of NH 4 + to N rec M Nlab Mineralization of labile organic N I NH4-Nlab Immobilization of NH 4 + to N lab O NH4 Oxidation of NH 4 + to NO D NO3 Dissimilatory reduction of NO 3 – to NH A NH4 Adsorption of NH 4 + on exchange sites D NH4a Desorption of NH 4 + from exchange sites A NO3 Adsorption of NO 3 – on exchange sites D NO3a Desorption of NO – 3 from exchange sites a Kinetics: 0 = zero order, 1 = first order; SD = standard deviation, N lab = labile soil organic N, N rec = recalcitrant soil organic N, NH + 4 = ammonium, NO – 3 = nitrate; – = transformations not considered in final model (see 3.2.4) For soil with biochar produced at 350 C, total gross mineralization of the organic N pool to the NH + 4 pool (M Nlab + M Nrec ) was 2.63 µg N g -1 day -1, with ~75% coming from N rec and ~25% from N lab. For the soil with biochar produced at a higher temperature (biochar- 550 C), total gross N mineralization (2.34 µg N g -1 day -1 ) was lower than for biochar- 350 C, but the relative contribution of mineralization from N rec (75%) and N lab (25%) was similar. Gross immobilization of NH + 4 took only place into N lab, and was also lower for soil with biochar-550 C (1.56 µg N g -1 day -1 ) than with biochar-350 C (2.19 µg N g -1 day – 1 ). The net fluxes between the N pools (Figure 3.3) show that in the control treatment 8% of the NH + 4 mineralized from N lab was immobilized into the N rec pool. In the biochar 37

74 Chapter 3 treatments, the opposite occurred. From the NH + 4 mineralized from N rec, 79% (biochar- 350 C) and 55% (biochar-550 C) was immobilized into the N lab pool. So in the biochar treatments, there was a net transfer of N from a more recalcitrant N pool (N rec ) to a more labile N pool (N lab ). In contrast to gross N mineralization and NH + 4 immobilization, total net N mineralization was higher in the soil with biochar-550 C (0.78 µg N g -1 day -1 ) than with biochar-350 C (0.44 µg N g -1 day -1 ). Unlike in the control soil, the NH + 4 adsorptiondesorption dynamics showed no gross NH + 4 adsorption and a minor gross NH + 4 release in – the biochar treatments. Gross NO 3 adsorption and desorption rates decreased 28% and 34%, respectively, for the biochar-350 C and 8% and 17% for the biochar-550 C treatment – compared with the control soil. Nevertheless net NO 3 adsorption (A NO3 – D NO3a ) was higher in the biochar treatments (0.97 and 0.72 µg N g -1 day -1 for 550 and 350 C, respectively), because the gross adsorption and desorption rates did not decrease equally – (Figure 3.3). Yet, the increase in net NO 3 adsorption was only significant (P < 0.05) between the control and biochar-550 C treatment. Gross nitrification rates increased with biochar addition compared with the control soil. For the biochar-550 C treatment, more NO – 3 was produced by NH + 4 oxidation (O NH4 ; 1.05 µg N g -1 day -1 ) than with the biochar produced at 350 C (0.68 µg N g -1 day -1 ). 38

75 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling (a) N lab N rec NH 4 + ads NH + 4 NO NO 3 – ads (b) N lab N rec NH 4 + ads NH + 4 NO NO 3 – ads (c) N lab N rec NH 4 + ads NH + 4 NO NO 3 – ads Figure 3.3 Mean gross (in grey) and net (in black) N transformation rates (in µg N g -1 day -1 ) between the different N pools in the control (a), biochar-350 C (b) and biochar-550 C (c) treatment. For the net N transformation rates, the width of the arrow indicates the importance of the rate. 39

76 Chapter Discussion N mineralization and NH 4 immobilization, adsorption and release Gross N mineralization (M Nrec + M Nlab ) was stimulated when biochar was added to the soil. This increase was higher in the biochar-350 C than in the biochar-550 C treatment. Most of the mineralized NH + 4 in the biochar treatments came from N rec, while in the control soil, most mineralized NH + 4 originated from N lab. This could be due to the stimulation of microorganisms that can degrade more recalcitrant SOM in the presence of biochar, as suggested by Anderson et al. (2011). Because biochar is a very C-rich substrate with a high C:N ratio (Chapter 2), soil microorganisms will be triggered to decompose SOM in order to acquire N (Blagodatskaya and Kuzyakov, 2008). Luo et al. (2011) attributed their findings to the labile organic C material remaining in the biochar after pyrolysis. This available biochar C can stimulate microorganisms that respond quickly to the newly available biochar C ( r-strategists ), although these could also mineralize to some extent more complex SOC (Blagodatskaya and Kuzyakov, 2008; Fontaine et al., 2003; Kuzyakov, 2010; Luo et al., 2011; Zimmerman et al., 2011). As a consequence, biochar addition to the soil could increase SOM turnover (Anderson et al., 2011; Wardle et al., 2008) and result in a positive priming of native SOC (Luo et al., 2011). Nevertheless, other studies did not corroborate these priming effects of biochar (e.g. Cross and Sohi, 2011). The greater increase in gross mineralization rate in the biochar-350 C compared with the biochar-550 C treatment could be due to the larger labile C fraction in the lowertemperature biochar, resulting in an increased activation of soil microorganisms. The HWC results, which are a measure for easily available carbon, lend further support to this hypothesis. In addition to the biochar stimulation of gross mineralization of N rec in particular, there was also a faster immobilization rate into N lab in the biochar treatments than in the control soil. This was probably due to the high C:N ratio of biochar labile-c compounds, resulting in net microbial immobilization of inorganic N present in the soil solution after biochar addition (DeLuca et al., 2009). All together biochar addition to soil accelerated the gross NH + 4 turnover and transferred N from the N rec to the, partly microbial, N lab pool (Figure 3.3). As the gross total soil N mineralization rate was greater with biochar addition, it is thus suggested that biochar additions increases mineral N availability for plants by stimulating the production of NH + 4, the energetically most favorable inorganic N form for plant uptake. 40

77 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling Besides higher microbial immobilization with biochar addition, at the start of the experiment more initial NH + 4 adsorption was observed than in the control soil (Table 3.2), indicating a fast abiotic immobilization mechanism with biochar addition due to its high CEC (Chapter 2). The adsorption-desorption dynamics in the biochar treatments show no + gross NH 4 adsorption during the experiment. A possible explanation could be the initial lowered availability of NH + 4 in the biochar-amended soils, as initial NH + 4 adsorption was almost doubled in the biochar treatments compared with the control soil. Moreover, a fast gross biotic immobilization rate took place in the biochar-amended treatments and gross nitrification rates were increased, further reducing the standing NH + 4 pool. Gross desorption rates (D NH4a ) were very low, showing that NH + 4 was strongly bound to the biochar Production and consumption of NO 3 – Compared with the control soil, gross nitrification (O NH4 ) was stimulated by biochar addition, especially for the biochar-550 C treatment. In forest soils, nitrification rates have been shown to increase following charcoal addition. Ball et al. (2011) mentioned two mechanisms through which charcoal may influence autotrophic ammonia oxidation in forest soils. The first one is through absorbing potential allelochemical inhibitors of microbial metabolic pathways, such as monoterpenes and various polyphenolic compounds that are inhibitory to nitrification. The second mechanism relies on a change in local microsite ph due to the high alkalinity of charcoal. Autotrophic nitrification may occur in acidic soils only if there are near-neutral ph microsites available, as the key-enzyme in the + nitrification pathway, ammonia mono-oxygenase, uses NH 3 as a substrate rather than NH 4 (Ball et al., 2011). DeLuca et al. (2006) found an increase in net nitrification in a forest soil with (field-collected) charcoal, which was attributed to the potential adsorption of certain organic compounds that inhibit nitrification. However, when testing charcoal in a grassland soil with a naturally high rate of net nitrification, no effect on nitrification potential was observed (DeLuca et al., 2006). As indicated by DeLuca et al. (2009), no studies have so far reported a stimulation of nitrification due to biochar addition in more intensively managed soils. Clough and Condron (2010) attributed the lack of such reports to (i) the presence of a relatively active nitrifying community in intensively managed soils, (ii) a lack of naturally occurring nitrification inhibitors in these soils, and (iii) a lack of research on this aspect. Therefore to our knowledge, this is the first study that reports increased 41

78 Chapter 3 gross nitrification rates following biochar addition to an intensively managed arable soil. Plants, especially those growing under ecological stress conditions such as low ph, nutrient-poor conditions and short growing seasons, typically produce secondary metabolites such as terpenes and polyphenolic compounds (Thoss et al., 2004). Such stress conditions are often prevailing in boreal forests (Smolander et al., 2011). In contrast, crops grown in the agricultural soil used in our experiment normally do not experience ecological stress, which is why fewer secondary metabolites are expected to be present in this soil than in a forest soil. Therefore, it is suggested that the high ph of biochar is likely the main mechanism explaining the observed increase in gross nitrification rates after biochar addition in our soils. The ph of the biochar-550 C is 1.5 units larger compared with the biochar-350 C (Chapter 2) and could therefore explain the larger increase in gross nitrification rate for biochar-550 C. In addition, the greater gross N mineralization rates in the biochar treatments point to a continuously greater supply of substrate over the incubation period for autotrophic nitrifiers in these soils. – Gross NO 3 adsorption (A NO3 ) and desorption rates (D NO3a ) were lower with biochar addition compared with the control soil, indicating a reduction in soil anion exchange capacity (AEC) due to increased soil ph after biochar addition (see 3.1) (Qafoku et al., 2004). However, due to a disproportional decrease in gross NO – 3 adsorption and desorption rates, net adsorption rates (A NO3 – D NO3a ) were higher in the biochar treatments (only significantly for the biochar-550 C). This indicates that short-term abiotic NO – 3 adsorption – is larger with biochar addition than without, and could explain the net NO 3 immobilization observed with biochar addition (Figure 3.2c). However, the mechanism for the short-term disproportional decrease in gross NO – 3 adsorption and desorption rates is unclear. 3.5 Conclusion Addition of the maize biochars used in this study to a C-poor loamy sand soil accelerated various gross N transformation processes in the short term, thereby transferring N from a recalcitrant soil pool to a more labile soil pool, especially for biochar produced at a lower pyrolysis temperature. This may induce a concomitant positive priming of native SOC but leads to an increase in plant available N. However, this N was quickly biotically immobilized, minimizing soil N losses. At the start of the experiment NH + 4 -N was quickly immobilized by adsorption, thereby reducing plant available N but minimizing potential 42

79 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling soil N losses. Nitrification was stimulated, likely because of higher substrate availability for nitrifying bacteria through the combination of an increase in gross N mineralization rate and higher ph with biochar addition. In conclusion, these types of biochar, produced from silage maize, accelerated soil N transformations in the short term, thereby increasing soil N bio-availability, through a combined effect of mineralization of the recalcitrant soil organic N pool and subsequent NH + 4 immobilization in a labile soil organic N pool. 43

80 . 44

81 CHAPTER 4 4 Temporal evolution of the impact of a woody biochar on soil nitrogen processes a 15 N tracing study After: Nelissen, V., Rütting, T., Huygens, D., Ruysschaert, G. & Boeckx, P., Temporal evolution of biochar s impact on soil nitrogen processes a 15 N tracing study. GCB Bioenergy, in press. Abstract Biochar addition to soils has been proposed as a means to increase soil fertility and carbon sequestration. However, its effect on soil nitrogen (N) cycling and N availability is poorly understood. To gain better insight into the temporal variability of the impact of biochar on gross soil N dynamics, two 15 N tracing experiments in combination with numerical data analysis were conducted with soil from a biochar field trial, one day and one year after application of a woody biochar type. The results showed accelerated soil N cycling immediately following biochar addition, with increased gross N mineralization (+34%), nitrification (+13%) and ammonium (NH + 4 ) and nitrate (NO – 3 ) immobilization rates (+4500% and +511%, respectively). One year after biochar application, biochar seemed to act as an inert substance regarding N cycling. In the short term, biochar labile C fraction and a ph increase can explain stimulated microbial activity, while in the longer term, when the labile C fraction has been mineralized and the ph effect has faded, the accelerating effect of biochar on N cycling has disappeared. In conclusion, biochar accelerates soil N transformations in the short term through stimulating soil microbial activity, thereby increasing N bio-availability. This effect is, however, temporary. 45

82 Chapter Introduction Global climate change and the search for alternatives to fossil fuels are major social, political, and economic challenges. It is unlikely that one single solution will be found to meet these challenges. However, an integrated agricultural biomass waste-bioenergy system could possibly make a significant contribution to the solution, meanwhile having the benefits of improving soil quality (Laird, 2008). During pyrolysis of biomass (waste materials), bio-oil, syngas and char are produced. Char is also a potential energy product, but when applying it to soil, it could improve soil quality and reduce nutrient leaching while sequestering carbon (Laird, 2008). Furthermore, biochar has the potential to decrease soil emissions of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) (Van Zwieten et al., 2010a; Liu et al., 2011; Stewart et al., 2012). For these reasons, biochar application to soils has gained interest worldwide as i) a climate change mitigation strategy and as (ii) a soil improver, increasing crop yield. A meta-analysis by Jeffery et al. (2011) revealed an average increase in crop productivity by 10% with biochar application in tropical and subtropical regions. They suggest that two of the main mechanisms for yield improvement may be a liming effect and the influence on the soil water holding capacity. A recent meta-analysis study from Biederman and Harpole (2013), including several studies from temperate regions, confirmed the overall positive effect of biochar application on aboveground plant production and yield. Moreover, they concluded that biochar addition to soil does not affect soil inorganic N concentrations. In contrast to the findings from field experiments, results from incubation experiments often show net nitrogen (N) immobilization after applying biochar to soil (Novak et al., 2010; Bruun et al., 2011; Knowles et al., 2011; Ippolito et al., 2012; Nelissen et al., 2012 (Chapter 3)), which may reduce crop growth in the short term. Mostly, this observation is explained through microbial immobilization (e.g. Ippolito et al., 2012) or abiotic sorption (e.g. Knowles et al., 2011) of ammonium (NH + 4 ) and nitrate (NO – 3 ). Also the review paper by Clough et al. (2013) mentions several mechanisms through which biochar could influence the N cycle, among which cation or anion exchange reactions and enhanced microbial immobilization of N as a consequence of labile C addition present in biochar. Moreover, as shown in the 15 N tracing study in Chapter 3, maize biochars could accelerate gross mineralization-immobilization-turnover through a priming -type effect. It was indicated that the labile biochar C stimulated microbial activity for which the decomposition and gross N mineralization of the more recalcitrant soil organic matter 46

83 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling (SOM) pool was increased. In addition, gross nitrification rates could be increased after biochar addition because of higher substrate availability for nitrifying bacteria (Chapter 3). Soil microbial activity could not only be affected through the labile C fraction of biochar. Other micro-organism stimulating processes induced by biochar, e.g. a change in soil ph, microbial protection in biochar pores, bacterial adhesion or sorption of compounds that would otherwise inhibit microbial growth, could possibly increase the total microbial abundance or activity (Lehmann et al., 2011), thereby consuming more N and thus immobilizing N biotically. Clough et al. (2013) clearly highlighted the need for studies using a stable isotope modeling approach, as these can provide information on gross N dynamics. Moreover, the authors stress the need for biochar N studies that aim at investigating long-term analogues, such as charcoal-rich soils or aged versus fresh biochar studies. In order to investigate the temporal evolution of biochar effect on the gross rates of simultaneously occurring N transformations, we conducted two 15 N tracing studies in combination with numerical data analysis (Müller et al., 2007) using sandy loam soil from a field trial amended with a woody biochar. For the first experiment we sampled immediately after biochar application; for the second experiment one year later. We hypothesized that (i) the woody biochar type used in the field trial would accelerate N cycling and that this effect would persist through time, (ii) biochar labile C fraction and high ph are responsible for accelerated N cycling in the short term and (iii) considering the direct and indirect biochar effects on microbial growth and activity, biochar has a positive influence on PLFA microbial biomass and activity in the longer term, thereby affecting soil N cycling. 4.2 Materials and methods Field trial, soil and biochar Soil was collected from a field trial, established in October 2011 at Merelbeke, Belgium (50 58 N, 3 46 E). The soil was a sandy loam (USDA) soil containing 5.4% clay (<2 µm), 34.7% silt (2 50 µm) and 59.9% sand ( µm) in the 0-35 cm layer, and is classified as a Haplic Luvisol (WRB) (Dondeyne S., pers. comm., 2012). The experimental design was completely randomized. There were two treatments, including a control and biochar treatment, each in four replicates. Plot dimensions were 7.5 x 12 m², and the 47

84 Chapter 4 biochar dose applied was 20 t ha -1, calculated on an oven-dry base. The biochar was incorporated until a depth of 25 cm. The biochar used was produced at Carbon Terra (Germany). The feedstock used was a mixture from hard- and softwood (spruce, silver fir, Scots pine, beech and oak), and the pyrolysis temperature was 480 C. Biochar characteristics are described in Chapter 2. Spring barley was sown in spring 2012 and harvested in August. Soil moisture content was determined by oven-drying (24 h at 105 C). Soil ph was measured in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 v:v) (ISO 10390). Total carbon (TC) content was measured on oven dried (70 C) soil samples (ISO 10694) by dry combustion using a TC-analyzer (Primacs SLC, Skalar, the Netherlands). Total N content was also determined by dry combustion (Dumas principle, ISO 13878) (Flash 4000, Thermo Scientific, US). Soil mineral N was extracted in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 w:v) (ISO ) and measured using a continuous flow analyzer (FIAstar 5000, Foss, Denmark). All analyses were conducted at two different time points: one day and one year after biochar application (see below). Soil sampling for PLFA analysis occurred one year after biochar application (October 2012), at the same moment as when soil sampling for the 15 N tracing experiment took place (see 2.2). Soil was collected from the 0-25 cm of each plot in the field trial, and was frozen at -20 C. The extraction and quantification of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were performed based on the method described by Denef et al. (2007). Briefly, total lipids were extracted (1:3.9 soil/extractant) from 6 g freeze-dried soil using phosphate buffer/chloroform/methanol at a 0.9:1:2 ratio and partitioned into neutral, glyco- and phospho-lipids by silica gel solid phase extraction. The purified phospholipids were transesterified by mild alkaline (using methanolic KOH) to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), which were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (Trace GC 2000) coupled to mass spectrometry (Trace DSQ; Interscience, Belgium). Chromatographic separation was done on a FactorFour VF-23ms column (60 m x 0.25 mm with a df = 0.15 µm; Varian Inc., USA). Standard mixtures of FAMEs with known concentrations were used for calibration with the methyl esters of ic12:0 and C19:0 used as internal standards N tracing experiment Soil was collected twice from the 0-25 cm layer of each plot in the field trial: one day after biochar incorporation (October 2011), and one year after biochar application, in October 48

85 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling Twenty soil samples (0-25 cm) were taken in each plot (auger diameter = 30 mm), and subsequently mixed, thoroughly homogenized and transferred to the lab. The soil was sieved at 8 mm, and stored in the fridge during three days. Soil moisture, soil ph, TC, TN and mineral N content were determined as described in 2.1. Three days after soil sampling, plastic tubes (180 ml, r = 2.5 cm, h = 10 cm) were filled with the equivalent of 70 g ovendry soil, thereby reaching a bulk density of 1.3 g cm – ³. Subsequently, tubes were sealed with parafilm and incubated at 20 C. One day after filling the tubes, a water solution containing NH + 4 and NO – 3, in which one of the N moieties was labeled with 15 N, was applied to the soil. To assure an even distribution of the applied N, 1.4 ml of the solution was injected through seven equally distributed template holes using a 1-ml syringe and a 9 cm spinal needle that was inserted until the bottom of the tube and pulled up during the injection. In 2011, NH + 4 and NO – 3 were applied at a rate of 0.75 µg NH 4 Cl-N g -1 dry soil and 1.5 µg KNO 3 -N g -1 dry soil. NH + 4 or NO – 3 was 15 N-labeled at 50 atom% excess. In 2012, NH + 4 and NO – 3 were applied at a rate of 0.75 µg NH 4 Cl-N g -1 dry soil and 0.5 µg KNO 3 -N g -1 dry soil. NH + 4 or NO – 3 was 15 N-labeled: NH + 4 at 50 atom% excess and NO – 3 at – 30 atom% excess. In 2012, the NO 3 concentration and 15 N enrichment applied was adjusted compared to 2011 due to the lower NO – 3 concentrations in Like in the field trial, there were two treatments (a control and biochar treatment) and four replicates (the field repetitions) per treatment. Temperature (20 C) was kept constant during the entire experiment. Soils were extracted 0.25, 2, 5, 28, 96 and 216 h after label addition with 120 ml 1 M KCl and shaken for 60 min. Ammonium in the extract was determined colorimetrically by the salycilate nitroprusside method (Mulvaney 1996) on an auto-analyzer (AA3, Bran and Luebbe, Germany). Nitrate was determined colorimetrically using the same auto-analyzer in form of NO – 2 after reduction of NO – 3 in a Cd Cu column followed by the reaction of the NO – 2 with N-1-napthylethylenediamine to produce a chromophore. The NO – 3 results were corrected for NO – 2 present in the soil samples. The 15 N contents of NH + 4 and NO – 3 were analyzed after conversion to N 2 O using a trace gas preparation unit (ANCA-TGII, PDZ Europa, UK) coupled to an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) (20-20, SerCon, UK). Ammonium was converted by adding MgO to soil extracts and absorbing NH 3 into H 2 SO 4, after which N 2 O was produced by reaction with NaOBr (Hauck, 1982; Saghir et al., 1993). Nitrate was reduced by Cd Cu at ph 4.7 to produce nitrite and NH 2 OH as intermediates of N 2 O (Stevens and Laughlin, 1994). 49

86 Chapter 4 For the 2011 and 2012 experiments, for each sampling time, the soil sample from each tube was mixed and ca. 10 g of soil was taken out immediately before KCl-extraction (after which the remaining amount of soil was KCl-extracted). The non-extracted soil was dried at 65 C for 24 h, after which it was ground and analyzed for TN and 15 N enrichment to control for gaseous 15 N losses. In this way, it could be checked whether 15 N was lost during the experiment, which would indicate gaseous losses N tracing model A numerical 15 N tracing analysis tool was used to quantify multiple gross N transformation rates for each treatment (Müller et al., 2007). The advantages of this approach compared with analytical equations and more information about the model used can be found in Chapter 3. However, some important details, which were changed compared the model used Chapter 3 (e.g. pools and transformation rates used in the model), are given below. Data analysis was conducted with an initial model setup of six N pools and twelve transformations (see also Chapter 3). Several modifications in kinetic settings, considered N pools and included N transformations were tested to identify the model that best described the measured soil mineral N concentrations and respective 15 N contents, governed by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), and modifications decreasing the AIC value were considered for the final data analysis (Burnham and Anderson, 2002; See Appendix Tables A1-A4). Four and five N pools were retained in the final models for the 2011 and 2012 experiments, respectively. For both the 2011 and 2012 experiments, six N transformations were retained (Table 4.4). The transformations that were not considered in the final model, based on the AIC, were likely not occurring in the soil and hence the gross rates can be assumed to be zero. The N pools considered in the tracing model (Figures 4.3 and 4.4) were ammonium (NH + 4 ), nitrate (NO – 3 ), an organic N pool (N org ), and a pool related to the adsorption of NH (NH 4 ads ) and, for 2012, adsorbed NO (NO 3 ads ). Of those, NH + 4 and NO were measured, while initial NH 4 ads and NO 3 ads, being the amounts of NH + 4 and NO – 3 that were instantaneously adsorbed after label addition, were inferred from 15 N recovery in the KCl extracts following the method by Münchmeyer (2001), as described in Chapter 3. The calculations showed that biochar did not have an additional adsorption capacity for NH + 4. Therefore, it was not necessary to correct this value, as was done for the experiment in Chapter 3. At the first soil extraction 15 min after label 50

87 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling addition, 15 N recovery in both 2011 and 2012 was 42-51% of added 15 NH + 4. Of added 15 NO – 3, 15 N recovery was 100% in 2011 and 81-86% in Therefore, in the final model setup adsorbed NH (NH 4 ads ) was considered in both years and adsorbed NO (NO 3 ads ) in 2012 (Figures 4.3 and 4.4). While in the 15 N tracing experiment in Chapter 3 the organic N pool was divided into a labile and recalcitrant organic N pool (N lab and N rec ), this subdivision did not reduce the AIC value for this study, and therefore this subdivision has not been made. Thus, while in the Chapter 3, using two different mineralizationimmobilization kinetics improved the model fit, the experiments discussed here could be modeled using one overall mineralization-immobilization kinetics. The optimization algorithm was programmed in MatLab (Version 8.1 (R2013a), The MathWorks Inc.). This algorithm called the 15 N tracing model, which was separately set up in Simulink (Version 8.1, The MathWorks Inc.). The initial (i.e. at t = 0 h) size and 15 N content of the NH + 4 and NO – 3 pools were obtained by extrapolating the data for 0.25 and 2 h back to 0 (Müller et al., 2004). Based on the final kinetic settings and model parameters, mean gross N fluxes were calculated by integrating the rates of the 216-h period divided by the total time (Rütting and Müller, 2007; Staelens et al., 2012) Model efficiency In order to assess the goodness of fit of the model, the Nash Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970) was calculated for each measured variable (NH + 4, NO – 3, 15 N-NH + 4, 15 N-NO – 3 ) for each labeled treatment ( 15 NH 4 NO 3 or NH 15 4 NO 3 ) for both years, according to the following equation: in which Yi and are the observed and modeled values on day i, and is the mean of the observed values. Nash Sutcliffe efficiencies can range from to 1, with E = 1 being the optimal value. An efficiency of E = 0 indicates that the model predictions are as accurate as the mean of the observed data, whereas an efficiency less than zero (E < 0) occurs when the observed mean is a better predictor than the model (Moriasi et al., 2007). 51

88 Chapter Statistical analyses Soil ph-kcl, TC, TN, C:N data and NH + 4 and NO – 3 concentrations 0.25 and 216 h after label addition were analyzed using independent t-tests using SPSS 20. Independent t-tests were also used to test whether the relative abundance of a given PLFA was significantly different between the control and biochar treatment. Also the sum of the absolute PLFA concentrations was analyzed using an independent t-test. The mean gross N transformation rates were compared statistically between the treatments using the 85% confidence interval, which is equivalent to testing at a significance level of 0.05 (Payton et al., 2000; Rütting et al., 2010). 4.3 Results Soil characterization Soil TC and C:N ratio were significantly (P < 0.02) increased by biochar addition, both in 2011 and 2012 (Table 4.1). Biochar application to soil did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect soil ph and TN, neither in 2011 nor in 2012 (Table 4.1). One year after biochar application, soil microbial community structure was hardly changed in the biochar treatment compared to the control, as only the PLFA 10Me-C18:0, which is an indicator for actinomycetes, was significantly increased in the biochar treatment compared to the control (Table 4.2). Moreover, the sum of the absolute PLFA concentrations, which is indicative for the amount of microbial biomass, was not changed by biochar addition (386 ± 31 and 371 ± 25 nmol PLFA-C g -1 soil for the control and biochar treatment, respectively; mean ± standard error). Table 4.1 Soil characteristics at the start of the field trial (October 2011), and one year after biochar application (October 2012) (mean ± standard error; n = 4). ph-kcl TC TN C:N Moisture – % % % Control 6.4 ± ± ± ± ± Biochar 6.4 ± ± ± ± ± 0.4 Control 6.5 ± ± ± ± ± Biochar 6.4 ± ± ± ± ± 0.2 TC = total carbon; TN = total nitrogen; C:N = carbon : nitrogen; moisture = (mass of water : mass of dry soil) x100 Data in bold indicate significant mean differences between the control and biochar treatments (P < 0.05). 52

89 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling Table 4.2 Mean relative abundance (mol % PLFA-C) ± standard error (n = 4) of individual PLFAs in the control and biochar treatment one year after biochar application. Community PLFA Control Biochar P-value Gram-positive bacteria i-c14:0 1.1 ± ± i-c15: ± ± a-c15:0 6.8 ± ± i-c16:0 2.6 ± ± i-c17:0 2.1 ± ± a-c17:0 1.2 ± ± Gram-negative bacteria C16:1ω7c 10.1 ± ± C16:1ω7t 1.8 ± ± C17:0cy 4.5 ± ± C18:1ω7c 10.5 ± ± C19:0cy 4.2 ± ± Actinomycetes 10Me-C16:0 2.8 ± ± Me-C17:0 0.1 ± ± Me-C18:0 1.0 ± ± Fungi C18:1ω9c 7.1 ± ± C18:2ω6,9c 5.3 ± ± AM Fungi C16:1ω5c 5.6 ± ± Non-specific bacteria C14:0 1.2 ± ± C15:0 0.7 ± ± C16: ± ± C17:0 0.5 ± ± C18:0 2.5 ± ± Data in bold indicate significant mean differences between the control and biochar treatments. Standard fatty acid nomenclature is used to describe PLFAs. The number before the colon refers to the total number of C atoms; the numbers following the colon refer to the number of double bonds and their location (after the ω ) in the fatty acid molecule counting from the terminal (ω) methyl carbon. The prefixes Me, cy, i, and a refer to a methyl group, a cyclopropyl group, and iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids, respectively. PLFAs were used as markers for specific bacterial or fungal groups according to Kroppenstedt et al. (1984), Brennan (1988), O’Leary and Wilkinson (1988), Frostegård and Bååth (1996), Stahl and Klug (1996), Zelles (1997) and Olsson (1999). The universal PLFA C16:0, occurring in the membranes of all organisms, is generally the most abundant PLFA. 53

90 Chapter Measured mineral N pools and 15 N enrichments In both 2011 and 2012 experiments, NH + 4 concentrations were low (< 1.2 µg N g -1 soil) and decreased at the start of the experiment, after which they remained approximately constant (Figures 4.1a and 4.2a). In 2011, NO – 3 concentrations increased until t = 96 h, after which they remained constant (Figure 4.1c). In 2012, NO – 3 concentrations fluctuated in function of time (Figure 4.2c). NH and NO 3 concentrations were not significantly (P 0.05) affected by biochar application, neither at the start (t = 0.25 h), nor at the end (t = 216 h) of the two experiments. In the 15 NH 4 NO 3 treatments, the fast decline in 15 N enrichment in the NH + 4 pool indicates a fast inflow of unlabeled NH + 4 and points to high gross NH + 4 production rates (Figures 4.1b and 4.2b). In addition, in these treatments the increase in 15 N enrichment in the NO – 3 pool indicates that labeled NH 4 has been converted into 15 NO – 3 (Figures 4.1d and 4.2d). In the NH 15 4 NO 3 treatments, the decline in 15 N enrichment in the NO – 3 pool is due to inflow of unlabeled NO – 3 originating from nitrification of unlabeled NH + 4 (Figures 4.1d and 4.2d). The 15 N enrichment in TN from the 2011 and 2012 experiments show that there was no evidence for gaseous N losses, as at the end of the experiment on average 100% and 96% of the added 15 N was recovered for the 2011 and 2012 experiment, respectively. The model efficiency results (Table 4.3) show that in 2011 both NH and NO 3 concentrations in the 15 NH 4 NO 3 treatment could not be fitted well, especially in case of the control soil. However, NH + 4 concentrations were overall very low. Furthermore the 15 N- NH + 4 results in the NH 15 4 NO 3 treatment showed a negative E-value, indicating that the model did not predict the measured values better than the average of the measured values, which was expected as the data are constant over time. This was also the case in In – – that year, the negative E-values for the NO 3 concentrations were due to the NO 3 concentration at t = 28 h. 15 N-NO 3 – results in the 15 NH 4 NO 3 treatment were underestimated, indicating that nitrification rates might be underestimated as well for both the control and biochar treatment. 54

91 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling Table 4.3 Nash Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient for each measured variable (NH + 4, NO – 3, 15 N-NH + 4, 15 N-NO – 3 ) for each labeled treatment ( 15 NH 4 NO 3 or NH 15 4 NO 3 ) in 2011 and NH 4 + (µg g -1 soil) 15 N-NH 4 + (atom%) NO 3 – (µg g -1 soil) 15 N-NO 3 – (atom%) NH 4 + (µg g -1 soil) 15 N-NH 4 + (atom%) NO 3 – (µg g -1 soil) 15 N-NO 3 – (atom%) Treatment 15 NH 4 NO 3 15 NH 4 NO 3 Control Biochar NH 15 4 NO 3 NH 15 4 NO 3 Control Biochar

92 NO3 – (µg N g -1 soil) NH4 + (µg N g -1 soil) Chapter 4 (a) (b) 1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 Control LA 15 NH 4 NO 3 Control LNNH 15 4 NO 3 Biochar LA 15 NH 4 NO 3 BiocharNH 15 LN 4 NO 3 15 N-NH4 + (atom%) , Time (h) Time (h) (c) (d) N-NO3 – (atom%) Time (h) Time (h) Figure 4.1 Measured (symbols) and modeled (lines) concentrations and 15 N enrichments (mean ± standard error) of the NH 4 + (a and b) and NO 3 – (c and d) pools in the 2011 experiment. 56

93 NO3 – (µg N g -1 soil) NH4 + (µg N g -1 soil) Effects of biochar on soil N cycling (a) (b) 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0 Control LA 15 NH 4 NO 3 Control LNNH 15 4 NO 3 Biochar LA 15 NH 4 NO 3 BiocharNH LN 15 4 NO Time (h) 15 N-NH4 + (atom%) Time (h) (c) (d) 4,0 3,5 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0, Time (h) 15 N-NO3 – (atom%) Time (h) Figure 4.2 Measured (symbols) and modeled (lines) concentrations and 15 N enrichments (mean ± standard error) of the NH 4 + (a and b) and NO 3 – (c and d) pools in the 2012 experiment. 57

94 Chapter Gross N transformation rates In the short-term experiment (October 2011), gross mineralization of the organic N pool to the NH + 4 pool (M Norg ), gross immobilization of NH + 4 and NO – 3 into N org (I NH4 and I NO3 ), net mineralization (M Norg I NH4 ) and gross nitrification (O NH4 ) rates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the biochar treatment compared to the control (Table 4.4, Figure 4.3). M Norg was 0.73 µg N g -1 day -1 for the control and 0.98 µg N g -1 day -1 for the biochar treatment (+34%), I NH4 was µg N g -1 day -1 for the control compared to 0.14 µg N g -1 day -1 for the biochar treatment (+4500%), while M Norg I NH4 was 0.73 µg N g -1 day -1 in the control and 0.84 µg N g -1 day -1 in the biochar treatment (+15%). Also the gross (O NH4 ) and net (O NH4 – D NO3 ) nitrification rates were significantly (P < 0.05) increased with biochar addition (O NH4 equals 0.90 in the biochar compared to 0.80 µg N g -1 day -1 in the control treatment; +13%). Immobilization of NO – 3 into N org (I NO3 ) was five times higher in the biochar treatment (0.53 µg N g -1 day -1 ) compared to the control (0.09 µg N g -1 day -1 ). Despite ca. half of the labeled NH + 4 was instantaneously adsorbed after label addition (see 2.3), the NH + 4 adsorption-desorption dynamics showed no gross NH + 4 adsorption during + the experiment, while there was a very slow release of NH 4 (D NH4a ) in both treatments (0.008 and µg N g -1 day -1 for the control and biochar treatment, respectively) (Table 4.4, Figure 4.3). In 2012, one year after biochar application, M Norg, O NH4, D NO3 and D NH4a in the control treatment showed similar rates as in Moreover, differences in gross transformation rates between the biochar and control treatments were significant (P < 0.05) but small (Table 4.4, Figure 4.4). The most important gross rates M Norg (-4%), O NH4 (-4%), A NO3 (- 12%) and D NO3a (-17%) were lower in the biochar than in the control treatment. Net nitrification (O NH4 – D NO3 ) and NO – 3 adsorption (A NO3 – D NO3a ) rates were not significantly affected by biochar (P > 0.05). Despite quick NH + 4 adsorption instantaneously after label addition (see 4.2.3), adsorption-desorption dynamics showed no gross NH + 4 adsorption and a minor gross NH release in both treatments. In contrast to the 2011 experiment, NO 3 adsorption and release took place in 2012 in both treatments. 58

95 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling (a) (b) N org N org NH 4 + ads NH + 4 NO NH 4 + ads NH + 4 NO Figure 4.3 Mean gross (in gray) and net (in black) N transformation rates (in µg N g -1 day -1 ) between the different N pools in the control (a) and biochar (b) treatment for the 2011 experiment. For the net N transformation rates, the width of the arrow indicates the importance of the rate. (a) N org NH 4 + ads NH NO NO 3 – ads (b) N org NH 4 + ads NH NO NO 3 – ads Figure 4.4 Mean gross (in gray) and net (in black) N transformation rates (in µg N g -1 day -1 ) between the different N pools in the control (a) and biochar (b) treatment for the 2012 experiment. For the net N transformation rates, the width of the arrow indicates the importance of the rate. 59

96 Chapter 4 Table 4.4 Gross rates (mean and standard errors (SE)) of soil N transformation processes in the control and biochar-amended treatments in 2011 and All gross N transformation rates differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the treatments. Abbreviation Description Kinetics a a Kinetics: 0 = zero order, 1 = first order; N org = soil organic N, NH 4 + = ammonium, NO 3 – = nitrate; – = transformations not considered in final model (see 2.3) N transformation rate (µg N g -1 day -1 ) Control Biochar Control Biochar Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE M Norg Mineralization of N org to NH I NH4 Immobilization of NH 4 + to N org I NO3 Immobilization of NO 3 – to N org O NH4 Oxidation of NH 4 + to NO D NO3 Dissimilatory reduction of NO 3 – to NH D NH4a Desorption of NH 4 + from exchange sites A NO3 Adsorption of NO 3 – on exchange sites D NO3a Desorption of NO 3 – from exchange sites

97 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling 4.4 Discussion The general trends observed in the short-term experiment described in Chapter 3, in which two maize biochars were applied to a loamy sand soil one day before 15 N addition, were confirmed in the 2011 experiment (which was started just after biochar application), being (i) stimulation of gross N mineralization and immobilization and (ii) stimulation of gross (and net) nitrification. An increase in gross N mineralization could be explained by stimulation of microorganisms degrading more recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) (Anderson et al., 2011), resulting in positive priming of native soil organic C. An increase in gross immobilization could be due to the labile C fraction of biochar (Chapter 2), resulting in microbial demand for inorganic N present in the soil solution (DeLuca et al., 2009). However, also other micro-organism stimulating processes induced by biochar, e.g. a change in soil ph, microbial protection in biochar pores, bacterial adhesion or sorption of compounds that would otherwise inhibit microbial growth, could possibly increase the total microbial abundance or activity (Lehmann et al., 2011), thereby consuming more N and thus immobilizing N biotically. An increase in gross nitrification could be expected, as biochar application is supposed to enhance nitrification due to adsorption of certain organic compounds like phenolics (DeLuca et al., 2006) or due to soil ph increase with biochar addition (Chapter 3). However, as explained in Chapter 3, the first mechanism is unlikely to be dominant as an agricultural soil was used in our study (the biochar field trial). In addition to stimulation of autotrophic nitrification in high ph microsites due to the high alkalinity of the biochar, the NH + 4 substrate supply for autotrophic nitrifiers could be increased due to the faster mineralization rate with biochar application. Altogether, biochar addition to soil resulted in a closing of the N cycle, meaning that a large fraction of mineralized, hence available N was subsequently immobilized again, either in the form of NH + 4 or NO – 3 (Figure 4.3). In contrast, in the control the N-cycle was more open, as only a small fraction of mineralized N was immobilized, which poses a risk for NO – 3 leaching losses, which could not be measured in our study. Our findings are in contrast to results from Cheng et al. (2012), who did not observe differences in gross N mineralization, nitrification and NH + 4 and NO – 3 immobilization rates during 7 days after biochar addition to an agricultural soil, potentially because of the rather low biochar dose applied (0.29%). Also in our study, a rather low biochar dose was applied (20 t ha -1, which corresponds to 6 g kg -1 (0.60%) assuming a soil depth of 0.25 m and a soil bulk density equal to 1.3 g cm -3 ). However, the C content of the soil used in the study from Cheng et al. (2012) was 7.3%, 61

98 Chapter 4 while in our study, this was 0.8%. It seems therefore likely that biochar addition to a soil type with a low C content has a much larger effect compared to adding biochar to a high-c content soil type. The study from Castaldi et al. (2011), in which rather high biochar doses were applied (30 and 60 t ha -1 ) to a soil type with a C content of 2.1%, shows no differences in net nitrification rates three months after biochar application (which is midterm compared to our time frame), but shows net mineralization in the biochar treatment while in the control net NH + 4 immobilization took place. Also an increased soil respiration was observed at that time in the biochar treatments. These effects were in part explained by the increased soil ph after biochar application, which could also be the case in our study in high ph microsites close to biochar particles, despite the lack of a significant difference in bulk soil ph between the control and biochar treatments. In contrast to the short-term response, one year after biochar application, the accelerating effect upon biochar application on the N cycle had disappeared; gross transformation rates were slightly but significantly decelerated compared to the control while net nitrification – and NO 3 adsorption was not significantly affected. This indicates that the stimulating effect of biochar on key gross N transformation rates is temporarily, probably due to the fact that biochar properties have changed over one year. Biochar labile C fraction, which could have been responsible for the short-term increase in (i) gross N immobilization and (ii) gross N mineralization through stimulating microorganisms able to degrade more recalcitrant SOM (Anderson et al., 2011), has been mineralized, and the effect of biochar ph, through which microbial activity or abundance could be affected and gross nitrification could be increased, is transient, as shown by Jones et al. (2012) and Castaldi et al. (2011). Jones et al. (2012) observed that the biochar ph-h 2 O had decreased from 8.8 when fresh to 6.7 three years after burying in the soil. Also Castaldi et al. (2011) observed a transient biochar ph-effect in a biochar field trial, as soil ph-h 2 O was significantly higher in the biochar treated soil compared to the control three months after biochar incorporation, while 11 months later no significant difference was observed. Moreover, the same trend regarding net mineralization was observed like three months after biochar + application (i.e. net mineralization in the biochar treatment while in the control net NH 4 immobilization took place), but the differences were not statistically significant anymore. One year after biochar application, also our results suggest that, regarding N cycling, biochar acts as an inert substance. This is in part confirmed by the PLFA results, showing that the amount of microbial biomass and soil microbial community structure was not 62

99 Effects of biochar on soil N cycling affected by biochar addition, except for 10Me-C18:0 being higher in the biochar compared to the control. This increase could be explained by the physiologically adaptation of actinomycetes to degrade carbon-rich, recalcitrant materials (O Neill et al., 2009). These results are in contrast to our hypothesis that biochar would affect the soil microbial community structure to a greater extent in the longer term. 4.5 Conclusion Altogether, our results show that application of a woody biochar type to a C-poor sandy loam soil accelerated N cycling just after biochar addition through stimulating soil microbial activity, thereby increasing N bio-availability through increased mineralization and nitrification rates. In the short term, plant available N is thus likely to increase, but in the absence of plants, available N was quickly biotically immobilized. One year after biochar addition, results show that these effects are temporarily, probably due to the transient effects of biochar ph and labile C fraction. In the short term, possibly a positive priming effect took place, thus reducing SOM content. 63

100 64

101 Part II: Effects of biochar on soil physical properties 65

102 66

103 CHAPTER 5 5 The effect of different biochar types on physical properties of two soils under laboratory conditions After: Nelissen, V., Manka Abusi, D., Ruysschaert, G., Boeckx, P. & Cornelis, W., submitted. The effect of different biochar types on physical properties of two soils under laboratory conditions. Geoderma. Abstract Agriculture will have to adapt to climate change. Increasing the soil water storage capacity is in this context important to resist periods of drought. Biochar could be part of a longterm adaptation strategy, as it could improve soil physical properties. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the effect of various biochar types and doses on physical properties of a sandy loam and a loam soil type. To reach this objective, bulk density, porosity and soil water retention curves of biochar-soil treatments were determined, and physical soil quality parameters were derived from the curves. A biochar dose of 5 g kg -1 was not sufficient to reduce soil bulk density. At higher biochar doses (10 or 20 g kg -1 ), bulk density was decreased and in the loam soil at both biochar doses, total porosity increased. Despite these differences, no effects on soil water retention characteristics and its derived physical soil quality parameters were detected except for soil water content at high matric heads (between h = -10 and -100 cm), which was decreased in the sandy loam soil with biochar addition. However, soil macroporosity (pores > 300 µm corresponding to h > -10 cm) possibly increased after biochar addition. Plant available water holding capacity did not increase, which implies that biochar addition to soil does not positively affect soil water storage under any conditions. 67

104 Chapter Introduction Agriculture will have to adapt to climate change. According to the IPCC Third Assessment Report (Alcamo et al., 2007), climate modeling results show an increase in annual temperature in Europe of 0.1 to 0.4 C decade -1 over the 21 st century. Precipitation in northern Europe is predicted to increase and in southern Europe to decrease, and it is likely that the seasonality of precipitation will change and the frequency of intense precipitation events will increase, especially in winter. Moreover, it is very likely that the intensity and frequency of summer heat waves will increase throughout Europe. Short-term adaptation of agriculture may include changes in crop species, cultivars and sowing dates, whereas feasible long-term adaptation measures may include changing the allocation of agricultural land according to its changing suitability under climate change (Alcamo et al., 2007). Also biochar, the stable carbon rich product obtained when biomass is pyrolyzed, could be part of a long-term adaptation strategy. As biochar could affect soil physical properties like soil structure, porosity, particle density and water storage capacity (Atkinson et al., 2010), soil to which biochar is added has the potential to retain more soil water during periods of drought. The way in which biochar influences soil physical properties depends a.o. on feedstock type, pyrolysis conditions, biochar application rate and environmental conditions (Mukherjee and Lal, 2013). Soil bulk density has been shown to decrease (e.g. Laird et al., 2010; Basso et al., 2013) whereas porosity could increase with biochar application (Oguntunde et al., 2008). Basso et al. (2013), Brockhoff et al. (2010) and Liu et al. (2012) determined soil water retention curves from biochar-soil mixtures, and observed an increased plant available water capacity (PAWC) with biochar addition. Determination of soil water retention curves is important, as an increase in soil water content or field capacity with biochar addition does not automatically imply an increase in plant available water content. Kinney et al. (2012) observed biochar field capacities ranging between 1 g g -1 and 11 g g -1 ; some biochars are thus able to hold more than ten times their own mass in water. Tryon (1948) showed that plant available water was increased in a sandy soil amended with biochar, whereas plant available water did not change in a loam soil and even decreased in a clay soil. This demonstrates that biochar effects on physical soil properties is not only biochar type but also soil texture dependent. In general little scientific literature has been published on effects of biochar on physical soil properties, and most studies only investigate one or a limited number of biochar types. Moreover, soil water retention curves are not always completely determined. When the 68

105 Effects of biochar on soil physical properties shape of the curve changes, the pore-size distribution changes, thereby possibly influencing the PAWC. This capacity could also be affected when the water retention curve shifts. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of various biochar doses and biochar types, produced from a range of feedstocks and pyrolysis temperatures, on soil physical properties in a sandy loam and loam soil type. In order to reach this objective, soil water retention curves, bulk density and porosity of soil-biochar mixtures were determined, and physical soil quality indicators were derived from the retention curves. Our main hypotheses were that biochar addition to soil (i) decreases soil bulk density and increases porosity, and thus also saturated volumetric water content; (ii) changes the soil water retention curve in a way that plant available water capacity increases; (iii) improves soil quality as expressed in terms of indicators derived from the water retention curves. 5.2 Materials and Methods Biochar In this experiment, all biochars described in Chapter 2 are used, except for the wood mixture biochar. Biochar characteristics are described in Chapter Soil Two soil types were used in the experiments. The first was a sandy loam (USDA) soil containing 5.4% clay (<2 µm), 34.7% silt (2 50 µm) and 59.9% sand ( µm). It was collected in August 2011 from the 0-25 cm layer of an agricultural field located at ILVO in Merelbeke, Belgium (50 58 N, 3 46 E). The second soil type was a loam (USDA) soil containing 19.6% clay, 41.7% silt and 38.7% sand. It was collected in August 2011 from the top layer of an embankment located in Drechterland, the Netherlands (52 38 N, 5 12 E). After sampling, the soil was air-dried and sieved to obtain the < 2 mm fraction. Soil ph was measured in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 v:v) (ISO 10390). Total organic carbon (TOC) content was measured on oven dried (70 C) soil samples by dry combustion at 1050 C (ISO 10694) using a TOC-analyzer (Primacs SLC, Skalar, the Netherlands), and total nitrogen (TN) content was determined by dry combustion according to the Dumas principle (ISO 13878) (Flash 4000, Thermo Scientific, US). 69

106 Chapter Soil water retention characteristics, bulk density and derived physical soil quality indicators Biochar of all ten types, sieved to 1-5 mm size fraction, was mixed with the sandy loam soil at a dose of 5 g dry biochar kg -1 dry soil. For the willow-550 C, pine-550 C, maize- 550 C, beech and cane biochars, extra treatments with a biochar dose of 10 g kg -1 were prepared. The loam soil was amended with two contrasting biochar types (beech and cane) at two different biochar doses: 5 g kg -1 and 20 g kg -1. Also a control without biochar was included for each soil type. Kopecky rings were entirely filled with an unknown amount of these mixtures, without compressing the soil to a predetermined bulk density. Thereafter, the 1000-knock method was used using a volumetric analyzer (J. Engelsmann AG, Germany) in order to establish the bulk density in the ring. The resulting bulk density in each ring was measured afterwards by determining the filled ring height and the mass of the soil or soil-biochar mixture, as explained further. This method was chosen since compressing the soil to a predetermined bulk density was not possible due to the diverse particle densities of the biochar types and doses used in the experiment. There were four replicates per treatment. After filling the rings, soil water retention curves (SWRC) of the rings were constructed by measuring soil water content at nine soil matric heads following the procedure described by Cornelis et al. (2005). For the pressure heads -10 cm, -30 cm, – 50 cm, -70 cm and -100 cm, a sand box apparatus (Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment, Giesbeek, the Netherlands) was used. After having determined the sample mass at equilibrium at -100 cm, the filled ring height was measured and four subsamples were taken from the Kopecky-ring. One subsample (20-30g) was oven dried at 105 C during 24 hours, after which bulk density as well as water content on a volumetric basis at the pressures between -10 and -100 cm could be calculated. The other three subsamples were used to determine water content at the pressure heads -340 cm, cm and cm, using a pressure plate (Soilmoisture Equipment, Santa Barbara, California, US), following the procedure described by Cornelis et al. (2005). Porosity (Φ) was calculated as: (1) where ρ b is the bulk density in g cm -3 and ρ s is the particle density in g cm -3, which was determined with the pycnometer method (Blake and Hartge, 1986). 70

107 Effects of biochar on soil physical properties The water retention data were fitted using the function of van Genuchten (1980) using RETC (RETention Curve) software version 6.0 (van Genuchten et al., 1991): (2) where θ is the volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) as function of the soil matric head h (cm) (taken as a positive value); θ r and θ s are the residual and saturated soil water contents (cm 3 cm -3 ), respectively, obtained by fitting the van Genuchten function to the measured retention data. Also α, n and m (= 1 1/n) are parameters obtained by fitting the van Genuchten function to the measured retention data, with α expressed in cm -1 and n and m being dimensionless. α is related to the inverse of the air entry pressure, and n is a measure of the pore-size distribution (van Genuchten and Nielsen, 1985). Modelled volumetric water content values were used to evaluate the specific water capacity δθ/δh versus h. The relative maximum of this function indicates the inflection point of the SWRC (Baetens et al., 2009), corresponding to the size of pores that are, according to the capillary equation, most subjected to draining when drying out and that are most abundant. Physical soil quality parameters were derived from the SWRC experiment. The soil quality indicators matrix porosity (MatPor), macroporosity (MacPor), air capacity (AC), plant available water capacity (PAWC) and relative water capacity (RWC) were calculated as follows (Reynolds et al., 2007): (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) where θ m (cm 3 cm -3 ) is the soil matrix porosity (cm 3 cm -3 ), which can be defined as the saturated volumetric water content of the soil matrix exclusive of macropores, as derived from the van Genuchten equation. In this study, θ m was determined at matric heads of -50 cm, which corresponds to matrix pore diameters of 60 µm. Macroporosity (MacPor) thus 71

108 Chapter 5 comprises pore diameters of > 60 µm. θ FC and θ PWP are the volumetric water contents at field capacity (h = -340 cm) and permanent wilting point (h = ), respectively, as derived from the van Genuchten equation. Soil AC is an indicator of soil aeration, PAWC indicates the potential of to store and provide water that is available to plant roots, and RWC expresses the potential to store water (and air) relative to the soil total pore volume, as represented by θ s (Reynolds et al., 2007). Moreover, the S-index of Dexter (2004), a measure of soil microstructure that can be used as a physical soil quality parameter, was calculated using following equation: ( ) (8) A more negative S-value indicates a better physical soil quality Statistical analyses Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 20. First, it was tested whether bulk density, particle density, porosity, the soil quality indicators derived from the water retention curves, and measured θ h=-10cm, θ FC and θ PWP were affected by biochar addition, using a one-way ANOVA with factor biochar treatment, including the biochar types and the control. This one-way ANOVA was undertaken for each biochar dose and each soil type separately. Thus, for the sandy loam soil, there were 11 levels for the low and six levels for the high dose, while for the loam soil, there were three levels for both biochar doses. In case the factor biochar type was significant, post-hoc tests were used to compare treatment means: a LSD-test was performed to compare the biochar treated soils with the control, as these are planned comparisons, while a Scheffé-test was used to compare the treatment means in between the biochar treated soils, as these are unplanned comparisons. Second, a two-way ANOVA with factors biochar dose and biochar type was used to test whether biochar dose affected the measured and derived parameters. In this ANOVA, only the biochar types for which two biochar doses were tested were included. In case a P-value was 0.10, the P-value is mentioned in the results section; a P-value < 0.05 is considered to be statistically significant. A P-value > 0.10 indicates statistical insignificance and is therefore not mentioned in the text. 72

109 Effects of biochar on soil physical properties 5.3 Results Soil characterization The ph-kcl of the sandy loam soil was neutral (6.5), and TOC and TN were 0.83% and 0.08%, respectively. The loam soil showed a higher ph (7.8) but a very low TOC content (0.57%); TN was 0.12% Bulk and particle density, soil water retention characteristics and derived soil quality indicators In the sandy loam soil, bulk density was not significantly influenced when a biochar dose of 5 g kg -1 was applied, while at a dose of 10 g kg -1, bulk density generally decreased (P = 0.08) compared to the control. Moreover, bulk density was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) with 10 g kg -1 biochar addition (on average 1.37 g cm -3 ) compared to when 5 g kg -1 biochar was applied (on average 1.43 g cm -3 ). In the loam soil, bulk density decreased with beech and cane biochar application, although only significantly (P = 0.002) at a dose of 20 g kg -1 (on average 1.11 g cm -3 compared to 1.23 g cm -3 in the control) (Table 5.1). Particle density in the control was 2.64 g cm -3 for the sandy loam and 2.55 g cm -3 for the loam soil, and these values were not significantly affected with biochar addition (Table 5.2). There was a trend for a lower particle density with 5 g kg -1 biochar application in the sandy loam soil (P = 0.06). In this soil type, biochar application did not affect porosity when compared to the control. However, porosity was significantly higher (P < 0.01) with 10 g kg -1 biochar addition (0.47 cm 3 cm -3 ) compared to when a dose of 5 g kg -1 was applied (0.45 cm 3 cm -3 ). In the loam soil, porosity significantly increased from 0.52 cm 3 cm -3 in the control to 0.55 and 0.57 for the 5 g kg -1 (P = 0.04) and 20 g kg -1 (P < 0.001) biochar doses, respectively (Table 5.3). Porosity was significantly higher at the 20 g kg -1 biochar dose compared to the 5 g kg -1 dose (P = 0.03). 73

110 Chapter 5 Table 5.1 Bulk density (g cm -3 ) in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (mean ± standard error). Sandy loam Loam 0 g kg -1 5 g kg g kg -1 0 g kg -1 5 g kg g kg -1 Control 1.41 ± ± 0.02 Beech-600 C 1.46 ± ± ± ± 0.03 Cane-600 C 1.41 ± ± ± ± 0.02 Willow-450 C 1.36 ± 0.04 Willow-550 C 1.46 ± ± 0.03 Willow-650 C 1.47 ± 0.05 Pine-450 C 1.43 ± 0.02 Pine-550 C 1.44 ± ± 0.01 Pine-650 C 1.41 ± 0.05 Maize-350 C 1.41 ± 0.03 Maize-550 C 1.42 ± ± 0.05 Mean Table 5.2 Particle density (g cm -3 ) in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (mean ± standard error). Sandy loam 0 g kg -1 5 g kg g kg -1 0 g kg -1 5 g kg g kg -1 Control 2.64 ± ± 0.04 Beech-600 C 2.61 ± ± ± ± 0.02 Cane-600 C 2.54 ± ± ± ± 0.01 Willow-450 C 2.59 ± 0.01 Willow-550 C 2.62 ± ± 0.01 Willow-650 C 2.56 ± 0.02 Pine-450 C 2.60 ± 0.01 Pine-550 C 2.59 ± ± 0.02 Pine-650 C 2.59 ± 0.01 Maize-350 C 2.55 ± 0.01 Maize-550 C 2.53 ± ± 0.02 Mean Loam Table 5.3 Porosity (cm cm -3 ) in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (mean ± standard error). Sandy loam Loam 0 g kg -1 5 g kg g kg -1 0 g kg -1 5 g kg g kg -1 Control 0.46 ± ± 0.00 Beech-600 C 0.44 ± ± ± ± 0.01 Cane-600 C 0.45 ± ± ± ± 0.01 Willow-450 C 0.47 ± 0.01 Willow-550 C 0.45 ± ± 0.01 Willow-650 C 0.43 ± 0.02 Pine-450 C 0.45 ± 0.01 Pine-550 C 0.44 ± ± 0.00 Pine-650 C 0.46 ± 0.02 Maize-350 C 0.45 ± 0.01 Maize-550 C 0.44 ± ± 0.02 Mean

111 Volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) Volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) Volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) Volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) Effects of biochar on soil physical properties Figures 5.1 and 5.2 show the modelled (lines) and observed (symbols) soil water retention curves for the control and biochar amended treatments in the sandy loam and loam soil, respectively. In the sandy loam soil, measured volumetric soil water contents were generally lower in the biochar treatments compared to the control soil at high soil matric heads ranging from h = -10 to h = -100 cm. At h = -10 cm, volumetric soil water content was significantly lower in the willow-450 C, pine-450 C, pine-550 C and cane biochar treatments at a 5 g kg -1 dose compared to the control (P < 0.04). Also willow-550 C and beech biochar addition seem to reduce the water content at h = -10 cm (P = 0.05) (LSDtest). At a biochar dose of 10 g kg -1, all biochar types reduced soil water content at h = -10 cm significantly (P < 0.03) (LSD-test). No significant differences were found between the biochar doses or types (Scheffé-test). In the loam soil, biochar addition did not affect volumetric water content at h = -10 cm. In both soil types, measured θ FC and θ PWP were not significantly affected by biochar addition, and no biochar dose effect was observed. (a) Sandy loam – Control 0.25 Willow450 C – 5 g/kg Willow550 C – 5 g/kg 0.20 Willow650 C – 5 g/kg 0.15 Willow550 C – 10 g/kg FC WP Soil matric head (cm) (b) Sandy loam – Control 0.25 Pine450 C – 5g/kg Pine550 C – 5g/kg 0.20 Pine650 C – 5g/kg 0.15 Pine550 C – 10g/kg FC WP Soil matric head (cm) (c) Sandy loam – Control Maize350 C – 5g/kg Maize550 C – 5g/kg Maize550 C – 10g/kg 0.00 FC WP Soil matric head (cm) Figure 5.1 Observed mean water contents (symbols; n = 4) at several pressure heads and modeled (lines) soil water retention curves for the control and biochar amended treatments in the sandy loam soil: (a) willow, (b) pine, (c) maize and (d) beech and cane biochar treatments. Soil matric heads at which field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) were measured are indicated on the x-axis. (d) Sandy loam – Control Beech600 C – 5g/kg Beech600 C – 10g/kg Cane600 C – 5g/kg Cane600 C – 10g/kg 0.00 FC WP Soil matric head (cm) 75

112 Specific water capacity (cm -1 ) Specific waer capcity (cm -1 ) Specific water capacity (cm -1 ) Specific water capacity (cm -1 ) Volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) Chapter 5 Figure 5.2 Observed mean water contents (symbols; n = 4) at several pressure heads and modelled (lines) soil water retention curves for the control and biochar amended treatments in the loam soil. Soil matric heads at which field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) were measured are indicated on the x-axis. Specific water capacity results (Figures 5.3 and 5.4) show that generally (i) the maximum of this function is higher in the control than in the biochar treatments and (ii) the maximum is reached at lower soil matric heads. This indicates that the biochar treatments show (i) a broader pore size distribution and (ii) a smaller dominant pore size compared to the control Loam – Control Beech600 C – 5g/kg Beech600 C – 20g/kg Cane600 C – 5g/kg Cane600 C – 20g/kg 0.00 FC WP Soil matric head (cm) (a) (b) Sandy loam – Control Willow450 C – 5 g/kg Sandy loam – Control Pine450 C – 5g/kg Willow550 C – 5 g/kg Willow650 C – 5 g/kg Willow550 C – 10 g/kg Pine550 C – 5g/kg Pine650 C – 5g/kg Pine550 C – 10g/kg (c) Soil matric head (cm) (d) Soil matric head (cm) Sandy loam – Control Maize350 C – 5g/kg Maize550 C – 5g/kg Maize550 C – 10g/kg Sandy loam – Control Beech600 C – 5g/kg Beech600 C – 10g/kg Cane600 C – 5g/kg Cane600 C – 10g/kg Soil matric head (cm) Soil matric head (cm) Figure 5.3 Mean specific water capacity (δθ/δh) versus soil matric head h (n = 4) for the control and biochar amended treatments in the sandy loam soil: (a) willow, (b) pine, (c) maize and (d) beech and cane biochar treatments. 76

113 Specific water capacity (cm -1 ) Effects of biochar on soil physical properties Loam – Control Beech600 C – 5g/kg Beech600 C – 20g/kg Cane600 C – 5g/kg Cane600 C – 20g/kg Soil matric head (cm) Figure 5.4 Mean specific water capacity (δθ/δh) versus soil matric head h (n = 4) for the control and biochar amended treatments in the loam soil. Table 5.4 shows the van Genuchten parameters, saturated soil water content, field capacity, permanent wilting point and residual water content as derived from the water retention curves, and the derived soil quality indicators for the control and biochar treatments in the sandy loam and loam soil at biochar doses of 10 g kg -1 and 20 g kg -1, respectively. Data for the biochar dose of 5 g kg -1 soil are not shown here. In the sandy loam soil, θ s was significantly lower in the biochar treatments compared to the control soil at a biochar dose of 5 g kg -1 (P 0.05), except for the pine-650 C and maize-350 C treatments (LSD-test), for which P values were 0.08 and 0.07, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the biochar treated soils (Scheffé-test). At 10 g kg -1, there was a trend for a lower θ s with biochar addition, but this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). MatPor was significantly reduced (P 0.02) in the biochar treatments compared to the control (LSD-test) soil at a dose of 5 g kg -1, except for pine-650 C and maize-350 C, but no differences were observed between the biochar treated soils (Scheffé-test). At 10 g kg -1, no significant effect of biochar was observed. Regarding the parameters α, n, m, θ FC, θ PWP, θ r, S, MacPor, AC, PAWC and RWC, no significant differences or trends were observed. In the loam soil, neither significant differences between the treatments nor trends were observed for the parameters tested (α, n, m, θ s, θ FC, θ PWP, θ r, S, MacPor, MatPor, AC, PAWC, RWC). 77

114 Chapter 5 Table 5.4 van Genuchten parameters, saturated soil water content, field capacity, permanent wilting point, residual water content and derived soil quality indicators in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam (biochar dose: 10 g kg -1 ) and loam (biochar dose: 20 g kg -1 ) soil (mean ± standard error) Parameter Sandy loam Loam Control Beech-600 C Cane-600 C Willow-550 C Pine-550 C Maize-550 C Control Beech-600 C Cane-600 C α (x 10-2 ) (cm -1 ) 0.73 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.92 n (-) 2.92 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.08 m (-) 0.63 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.03 θ s (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.44 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.02 θ FC (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.14 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 θ PWP (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.07 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 θ r (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.07 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 MatPor (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.42 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 MacPor (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.02 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.03 AC (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.30 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 PAWC (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.07 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 RWC (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.32 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 S-index ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 α, n and m are parameters obtained by fitting the van Genuchten equation to the measured retention data; θ s = saturated soil water content; θ FC = volumetric water content at field capacity; θ PWP = volumetric water content at permanent wilting point; θ r = residual soil water content; MatPor = matrix porosity; MacPor = macroporosity; AC = air capacity; PAWC = plant available water capacity; RWC = relative water capacity 78

115 Effects of biochar on soil physical properties 5.4 Discussion A biochar dose of 5 g kg -1 was not sufficient to reduce the bulk density in the sandy loam and loam soil. At higher biochar doses (10 g kg -1 for sandy loam and 20 g kg -1 for loam soil), bulk density was decreased with biochar application (although not significantly in the sandy loam soil). This is in agreement with findings from lab experiments from Basso et al. (2013), Brockhoff et al. (2010), Laird et al. (2010), Novak and Watts (2013) and Rogovska et al. (2011), and the field experiment from Oguntunde et al. (2008). These authors all observed lower bulk densities with biochar addition (doses varying from 0.5 to 6 % w:w and 5 to 25% v:v) (Figure 5.5). In contrast to our results, Laird et al. (2010) observed eight weeks after the start of their column experiment already a significant reduction in bulk density at a biochar dose of 5 g kg -1. Rogovska et al. (2011) observed increased bulk densities over time in both control and biochar treatments in a column experiment due to effects of gravity and induced leaching events. However, they observed slower compaction in the biochar treatments compared to the control. In contrast to the column experiments from Laird et al. (2010) and Rogovska et al. (2011), who packed the soil initially to a bulk density of 1.1 g cm -3 and determined bulk density throughout their experiments by measuring the distance from the soil surface to the top of the column, we established soil bulk density in the rings using the 1000-knock method. In this way, soil bulk density in the ring was fixed using a standardized method instead of packing the soil to a predetermined bulk density. As a consequence, effects of gravity were already taken into account. Particle density was not affected by biochar, but the bulk density reduction in the loam soil resulted in higher soil porosities compared to the control. Also Oguntunde et al. (2008) observed a higher total porosity in a charcoal-site soil (under charcoal kilns) compared to an adjacent field. 79

116 Bulk density biochar treatments (g cm -3 ) Chapter Sand (Brockhoff et al., 2010) Loamy sand (Novak & Watts, 2013) Sandy (Oguntunde et al., 2008) Sandy loam (Basso et al., 2013) Sandy loam (own data) Fine-loamy (Laird et al., 2010) Fine-loamy (Rogovska et al., 2011) Loam (own data) Bulk density control (g cm -3 ) Figure 5.5 Bulk density in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (own data, data in grey), and in studies from literature (data in black). Data above the black 1:1 line indicate a higher bulk density in the biochar treatments, whereas data below the line indicate a lower bulk density in the biochar treatments than in a control without biochar. Stacked symbols indicate different biochar treatments (biochar dose, biochar type or biochar incorporation depth). Despite the effect on soil bulk density and porosity, soil water characteristics or derived physical soil quality indicators were only to a limited extent influenced by biochar application. It is remarkable that in the sandy loam soil, θ s was reduced with biochar addition at both biochar doses. This was surprising, as we expected, based on findings from Tryon (1948) and Kinney et al. (2012), a positive effect of biochar on water retention characteristics in the sandy loam soil. Tryon (1948) showed that plant available water increased to a limited extent with charcoal addition in a sandy soil, but did not change in a loam soil, which is in accordance to our loam soil observations, and even decreased in a clay soil. Also Kinney et al. (2012) observed contrasting results depending on soil type with biochar from magnolia tree leaves pyrolyzed at 300 C. This biochar type had a low field capacity (about 1 g g -1 ) compared to that of higher temperature biochars (6 11 g g -1 ), but increased field capacity in a sandy soil while having no effect in a clay-rich soil. Also the biochars produced at 500 C increased soil field capacity in the sandy soil in the same way as the 300 C-biochar, but these were not tested in the clay-rich soil. Moreover, they found that measured field capacities of biochar-soil mixtures were lower than predicted based on the measured biochar field capacities in three of the four cases. Possibly water could be retained both inside the biochar pores and between biochar particles as a result of capillary forces and/or attraction of water to the exterior surfaces of biochar. This could then explain the extremely high biochar field capacities measured, with some biochars 80

117 Effects of biochar on soil physical properties holding more than ten times their own mass in water (Kinney et al., 2012). It has to be noticed that Kinney et al. (2012) measured field capacity at gravity-drained equilibrium after 30 minutes, which corresponds to near saturation conditions, which cannot be compared to field capacity as defined in our study. Figure 5.6 gives an overview of studies in which the effect of biochar on PAWC is investigated. It seems that this effect is larger when biochar is added to soils with a low PAWC and usually coarser texture, although in case of our sandy loam results, no significant effect of biochar on PAWC was observed. In contrast to our results, a column experiment with a sandy loam soil by Basso et al. (2013) generally resulted in higher water contents in biochar treatments compared to the control at matric heads ranging between -1 and cm. Moreover, as this increase was relatively larger at the higher pressure heads (a.o. FC), compared to the low ones (a.o. WP), PAWC was significantly larger in biochar treatments than in the control 91 days after starting the incubation experiment (Figures 5.6 and 5.7). They did not detect significant changes in parameters α and n of the Gardner s function (a slight modification of the van Genuchten equation in which m = 1), which determine the shape of the water retention curve. This indicates that biochar addition did not influence capillarity and pore-size distribution. The differences they observed in water content between the control and biochar treatments were explained by the higher total porosity in the biochar treatments. Although our results also show no effect of biochar on α and n, the specific water capacity results suggest that the reduction in hydraulic conductivity as the soil gets drier (decreasing matric head) will be more gradual and occurs at a lower matric head in the biochar treatments (Jury and Horton, 2004). Consequently, drainage in the biochar treatments is expected to be slower as compared to the control. Furthermore, in the sandy loam soil MatPor was generally reduced with biochar application, indicating that porosity at pore diameters 60 µm was smaller in the biochar treatments compared to the control. MacPor, calculated as the difference between θ s and MatPor, was not affected by biochar addition, as not only MatPor but also modelled θ s was decreased with biochar addition. However, as porosity was not affected and MatPor was reduced by biochar addition, it is possible that biochar increased the amount of soil macropores and θ s was underestimated: assuming θ s being larger than θ h=-10cm, these pores could already have been drained at h = -10 cm, resulting in a lower volumetric water content at this matric head for the biochar treatments compared to the control. This could then positively influence the soil infiltration capacity at heavy rainfall events, when -10 cm 81

118 PAWC biochar treatments (cm 3 cm -3 ) Chapter 5 < h 0 cm. It is thus questionable whether θ s was well modelled for the biochar treatments. As biochar macroporosity has shown cavities up to 500 µm (Downie et al., 2009) and θ- values > -10 cm correspond to pore diameters > 300 µm (Reynolds et al. 2007), biochar thus possibly increased soil macroporosity > 300 µm. Another hypothesis to explain the reduced volumetric water content at θ h=-10cm, is the use of the 1000-knock method. During this process, biochar particles possibly clogged soil macropores, through which θ h=-10cm was decreased. However, this was not reflected in the total porosity results, as total porosity determined was similar for the control and biochar treatments. While in the loam soil, porosity was increased with biochar addition, no significant effects of biochar on the van Genuchten parameters and derived soil quality indicators were observed Sand (Brockhoff et al., 2010) Loamy sand (Liu et al., 2012) Sandy loam (Basso et al., 2013) Sandy loam (own data) Fine-loamy (Laird et al., 2010) Loam (own data) PAWC control (cm 3 cm -3 ) Figure 5.6 Plant available water capacity (PAWC) (calculated as water retained between h = -340 and h = cm) in the control and biochar treatments in a sandy loam and loam soil (own fitted data, data in grey), and as calculated from literature studies (data in black). Data above the black 1:1 line indicate a higher PAWC in the biochar treatments, whereas data below the line indicate a lower PAWC in the biochar treatments than in a control without biochar. Stacked symbols indicate different biochar treatments (biochar dose or biochar incorporation depth). 82

119 VWC biochar treatments (cm 3 cm -3 ) Effects of biochar on soil physical properties Sand (Brockhoff et al., 2010) Loamy sand (Liu et al., 2012) Sandy loam (Basso et al., 2013) Fine-loamy (Laird et al., 2010) VWC control (cm³ cm – ³) Figure 5.7 Volumetric water content (VWC) in the control and biochar treatments from literature studies. Data in black indicate VWC at h = -10 cm, data in grey at h = cm (= FC) and open symbols at h = cm (= PWP). Data above the black 1:1 line indicate a higher VWC in the biochar treatments, whereas data below the line indicate a lower VWC in the biochar treatments than in a control without biochar. Stacked symbols indicate different biochar treatments (biochar dose or biochar incorporation depth). Like the results from Basso et al. (2013), Brockhoff et al. (2010) (lab experiment) and Liu et al. (2012) (field experiment) show an increased PAWC with biochar addition (Figure 5.6), which was due to an increased θ FC with biochar addition (Figure 5.7). Laird et al. (2010) determined water retention from soil and soil-biochar (5 20 g kg -1 ) treatments at four matric heads. They observed a significantly higher water content in a fine-loamy soil with biochar application at and cm, whereas at -340 (FC) and cm (WP), no difference was detected (Figures 5.6 and 5.7). When the amount of water retained by soil at gravity drained equilibrium was measured, which is close to saturation, this amount increased with biochar application. Also Novak et al. (2009) determined the amount of water retained by soil (loamy sand) or a soil-biochar (2% w:w) mixture at gravity drained equilibrium and observed, depending on the type of biochar, an increase or no effect of biochar. Stewart et al. (2012) observed in a lab experiment increased soil water holding capacity with increasing rates of biochar addition in several soil types. Although total porosity increased with biochar addition in the loam soil, our results did not show an increase in soil water with biochar application. On the contrary, measured soil water contents were usually lower after biochar application between near saturation and field capacity in the sandy loam soil. 83

120 Chapter 5 Jeffery et al. (2011) conclude that the effect on soil water holding capacity is a possible main mechanism for yield improvement with biochar addition, as the greatest positive effects on crop yield were observed in coarse or medium textured soils. Our results show that biochar addition to the soil types used did not improve soil water retention characteristics, except for possibly a better permeability close to saturation, despite other authors finding positive effects in soil types with a similar soil texture. 5.5 Conclusion The effect of ten biochar types on soil physical properties and water retention characteristics was investigated. A biochar dose of 5 g kg -1 was not sufficient to reduce soil bulk density. At higher biochar doses (10 or 20 g kg -1 ), bulk density was decreased and in the loam soil at both biochar doses, total porosity increased. Despite these differences, no effects on soil water retention characteristics and its derived physical soil quality parameters were detected, except for water contents at high matric heads which were decreased in the sandy loam soil with biochar addition. However, biochar addition to soil could possibly increase the permeability at volumetric water contents very close to saturation, for example after a heavy rainfall event, in this soil type. Moreover, drainage is expected to be slower in the biochar treatments compared to the control. Despite these findings, our results contradict our initial formulated hypotheses, being an increased PAWC and physical soil quality with biochar addition. 84

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123 Part III. Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions 87

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125 CHAPTER 6 6 Effect of different biochar and fertilizer types on N 2 O and NO emissions After: Nelissen, V., Saha, B.K., Ruysschaert, G., Boeckx, P., submitted. Effect of different biochar and fertilizer types on N 2 O and NO emissions. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. Abstract The use of biochar as soil improver and climate change mitigation strategy has gained much attention, although at present the effects of biochar on soil properties and greenhouse gas emissions are not completely understood. The objective of our incubation study was to investigate the effect of biochar on N 2 O and NO emissions from an agricultural Luvisol upon fertilizer (urea, NH 4 Cl or KNO 3 ) application. Seven biochar types were used, which were produced from four different feedstocks pyrolyzed at various temperatures. At the end of the experiment, after 14 days of incubation, soil nitrate concentrations were decreased upon biochar addition in all fertilizer treatments by 6 to 16%. Biochar application decreased both cumulative N 2 O (52 to 84%) and NO (47 to 67%) emissions compared to a corresponding treatment without biochar after urea and nitrate fertilizer application, and only NO emission after ammonium application. N 2 O emissions were more decreased at high compared to low pyrolysis temperature. Several hypotheses for our observations exist, which were assessed against current literature and discussed thoroughly. In our study, the decreased N 2 O and NO emission is expected to be mediated by multiple interacting phenomena such as stimulated NH 3 volatilization, microbial N immobilization, non-electrostatic sorption of NH + 4 and NO – 3, and biochar ph effects. 89

126 Chapter Introduction Both nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions have been increased since pre-industrial times through human activities like fertilizer application and fossil fuel combustion (Smith et al., 2007). Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas, which has been calculated to have 298 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) over a 100 year period (Forster et al., 2007). In contrast, NO x, which is mainly emitted as nitric oxide (NO), do not directly affect the earth’s radiative balance, but they catalyze tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), which is in turn a greenhouse gas. Agricultural and natural ecosystems are important N 2 O and NO x sources, as nitrification and denitrification are principal sources of NO and N 2 O emissions in soils (Hutchinson and Davidson, 1993; Ehhalt et al., 2001). Agriculture contributes about 58% of the total anthropogenic emissions of N 2 O, and this amount is estimated to increase by 35-60% by 2030 due to increased nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and increased animal manure production (Smith et al., 2007). The major source (> 60%) of global tropospheric NO x emissions is fossil fuel combustion, while soil emissions amount about 10% (Ehhalt et al., 2001). Biochar, the stable carbon rich product obtained when biomass is pyrolyzed, could act as a long-term carbon sink (Lehmann et al., 2006) and has been shown in several laboratory studies to decrease N 2 O emissions under certain conditions (e.g. Van Zwieten et al., 2010a; Stewart et al., 2012). However, other incubation studies show no effect (e.g. Cheng et al., 2012) or increased (e.g. Clough et al., 2010) N 2 O emissions with biochar application. Moreover, studies in which various biochar pyrolysis temperatures, fertilizer doses, soil types or soil water contents are used often show contrasting results (Augustenborg et al., 2012; Case et al., 2012; Zheng et al., 2012; Ameloot et al., 2013), demonstrating the complex interaction between the effect of biochar on N 2 O emissions and these factors. Also field experiments show mixed results. Castaldi et al. (2011) observed in an Italian field trial generally higher N 2 O emissions in the control compared to the biochar treated plots, but this difference was only statistically significant in 2 occasions. In contrast, higher N 2 O emissions were observed in the biochar treatments compared to the control after the third fertilization event with urea when emissions were highest, although the difference was not significant. Taghizadeh-Toosi et al. (2011) observed decreased N 2 O emissions at a biochar dose of 30 t ha -1, while at a dose of 15 t ha -1, no effect was observed. Zhang et al. (2012) found lower emissions with biochar in a fertilized treatment, while the unfertilized treatment showed no effect of biochar. So also field trials corroborate the complex 90

127 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions interaction between the effect of biochar and weather conditions, fertilizer and biochar dose. Several mechanisms could be responsible for decreased N 2 O emissions, among which improved soil aeration through which denitrifier activity is suppressed or ph increase through which the N 2 O:N 2 ratio is decreased (e.g. Van Zwieten et al., 2010a). However, the main mechanism behind the observed emission decreases could not be elucidated yet. In some studies biochars produced at various pyrolysis temperatures are tested (e.g. Ameloot et al., 2013), while most often only one single fertilizer type is used. However, studying the effect of biochar pyrolysis temperature on N 2 O emissions and the use of various fertilizer types could provide valuable information in order to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Moreover, to our knowledge, the effect of biochar on NO emissions has not been investigated yet. The objective of this incubation study was to investigate the effect of biochar on N 2 O and NO emissions from a common agricultural Luvisol. Three fertilizer types (urea, ammonium chloride, potassium nitrate) were applied, and seven biochar types produced from four different feedstocks were used. Three of these feedstocks were pyrolyzed at two different temperatures. In this way, it can be investigated whether biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature influence N 2 O and NO emissions, and how the effect of biochar changes when a range of fertilizer types is used. Through using these different fertilizer types, it is possible to investigate whether biochar affects the processes of (i) nitrification, as we hypothesize that NO is mainly produced during nitrification, (ii) denitrification, as we hypothesize that N 2 O is mainly produced during denitrification, (iii) or both. Moreover, we aimed to get better understanding of the underlying mechanisms through discussing all possible hypotheses for our observations thoroughly and comparing these hypotheses with those found in literature. 6.2 Materials and methods Soil The soil used for this study was collected in January 2012 from the 0-10 cm layer of an agricultural field in Maulde (50º37 N and 3º34 E), Belgium. The soil was under conventional tillage management and bare during soil sampling. The soil contains 16.2% 91

128 Chapter 6 sand ( µm), 66.5% silt (2 50 µm) and 17.3% clay (< 2 µm) (Boeckx et al., 2011) and is classified as a silt loam soil (USDA) or a Luvisol (WRB). After sampling, the soil was air-dried and subsequently sieved at 2 mm. Soil ph was measured in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 v:v) (ISO 10390). Total carbon (TC) content was measured on oven-dried (70 C) soil samples by dry combustion at 1050 C (ISO 10694) using a TC-analyzer (Primacs SLC, Skalar, the Netherlands). Total N content was determined by dry combustion (Dumas principle, ISO 13878) (Flash 4000, ThermoFischer, US) Biochar In this experiment, the biochars used are willow-450 C, willow-650 C, pine-450 C, pine- 650 C, maize-350 C, maize-550 C and the wood mixture biochar. Biochar characteristics are described in Chapter Incubation experiment The effect of biochar on N 2 O and NO emissions was tested by means of an incubation experiment. One week prior to fertilizer addition, demineralized water was added to the soil to obtain a water content of 60% WFPS. PVC tubes (h = 9 cm, r = 1.3 cm) were filled with g moist soil, which corresponds to g oven-dried soil in order to reach a bulk density of 1.3 g cm – ³. Subsequently, tubes were sealed with parafilm and preincubated at 20 C in order to optimize microbial activity. One day before fertilizer addition, sieved biochar (1-5 mm) was mixed with the soil at a dose of 5 g dry biochar kg -1 dry soil, which corresponds to 20 t ha -1, if biochar would be mixed in the 0-30 cm soil layer with a soil bulk density of 1.3 g cm -3. Bulk density was slightly increased (from 1.30 to 1.31 g cm – ³) as we did not change the soil volume after applying the biochar. After biochar addition, the tubes were left uncovered (thus without parafilm) for one day. After one day, when fertilizer was applied, between 1.1 and 1.3 ml of water had been evaporated. Three fertilizer types were tested at a dose of 51.3 mg N kg -1, which corresponds to 200 kg N ha -1. These fertilizer types were urea ((NH 2 ) 2 CO), ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) and potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ). One ml of each solution was added and mixed with the soil one day after biochar application. Demineralized water was added at the same moment in order to reach again 60% WFPS. After mixing the soil with fertilizer solution and water, the tubes were (again) sealed with parafilm. In total, there were 24 incubation treatments 92

129 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions (seven biochar treatments and a control treatment without biochar; three fertilizer types) in three replicates each. Mineral N content of the soil-biochar mixtures was determined at the end of the experiment (14 days after fertilizer addition), by extraction (1:5 w:v) in a 1 M KCl solution (ISO ) and measurement using a continuous flow analyzer (FIAstar 5000, Foss, Denmark). Twenty-four extra tubes (seven biochar treatments and a control treatment without biochar, three replicates per treatment) were incubated in order to determine mineral N content one day after biochar addition but before fertilizer addition. Measurements of N 2 O and NO gases were performed at day 1, 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14 days after fertilizer addition. At those moments, the incubated tubes were placed into glass containers with a volume of 1160 ml and subsequently airtight sealed. Headspace concentrations of N 2 O and NO were measured 0, 40, 80 and 120 min after closing the containers at each measuring day. NO concentrations were measured using a NO analyzer (CLD 77AM, Eco Physics, Duernten, Switzerland). Detection is based on the chemiluminescent oxidation of NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the presence of O 3. The NO analyzer was calibrated using a NO reference gas, with a known concentration of ppm. The headspace NO concentration was measured during 10 seconds, after which the data of the last 5 seconds of this measuring period were averaged. In order to measure N 2 O, a 12 ml gas sample was taken out of the headspace immediately after measuring NO by means of a syringe and was transferred into a 12 ml air-tight evacuated glass vial. It was stored until N 2 O measurement, which occurred via a gas chromatograph (14B, Shimadzu, Japan) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) and two packed columns. The operating conditions were carrier gas N 2 (55 ml min -1 ), column and oven temperature of 55 C and detector temperature of 250 C. One ml of each glass vial was then injected into the GC with a Hamilton airtight syringe. N 2 O concentrations were calculated using a calibration curve, which was obtained by injecting two times 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µl of a N 2 O reference gas with a known concentration of 2.46 ± 0.12 ppm. The change of N 2 O or NO headspace concentrations over 120 minutes was calculated in ppm h -1 using linear regression. The fluxes in µg N 2 O-N or NO-N kg -1 soil h -1 were subsequently calculated by using the ideal gas law and molecular weight of the gases. Cumulative N 2 O and NO emissions during the 14-days incubation period were calculated by linear integration of hourly fluxes. 93

130 Chapter Statistical analyses For each biochar characteristic, a one-way ANOVA including factor biochar type was conducted with the biochar characteristic as dependent variable. Treatment means were compared using a post-hoc Scheffé-test, as these are unplanned comparisons. Ammonium (NH + 4 ) and nitrate (NO – 3 ) concentrations before fertilizer addition were analyzed by a one-way ANOVA with biochar type as factor (including the control). The + – effect of biochar addition on NH 4 and NO 3 concentrations 14 days after fertilizer addition was investigated using a two-step approach. First, a two-way ANOVA including factors biochar type (including the control) and fertilizer type was run. To verify which biochar types were significantly different from the control, post-hoc LSD-tests were performed to compare treatment means, as these are planned comparisons. Post-hoc LSD-tests were also used to compare the effect of the individual levels of factor fertilizer, in case this factor was significant. Second, we investigated the effect of biochar feedstock, pyrolysis temperature (2 levels: high when 550 C and low when < 550 C) and fertilizer type on – – NO 3 concentrations using a three-way ANOVA, with the relative difference (in %) in NO 3 concentrations between the biochar and control treatments as dependent variable. In order to have a balanced experimental design, in this analysis only the biochar feedstocks for which two pyrolysis temperatures were available were included. For this reason, the wood mixture biochar was left out of the analysis. Post-hoc LSD-tests were used to compare the effect of the individual levels of factor fertilizer, in case this factor was significant. The 3- way ANOVA was not run for NH + 4, as the two-way ANOVA including factors biochar type and fertilizer did not show a significant effect of biochar on NH + 4 concentrations 14 days after fertilizer addition. Cumulative N 2 O and NO emissions (after 14 days of incubation) were analyzed using the same approach as for NO – 3 concentrations. First, a two-way ANOVA including factors biochar type (including the control) and fertilizer type were run. As the interaction term was significant (P < 0.001), a one-way ANOVA including the factor biochar type (including the control) was run for each fertilizer type separately. To verify which biochar types were significantly different from the control, post-hoc LSD-tests were performed to compare treatment means. Second, we investigated the effect of biochar feedstock, pyrolysis temperature (2 levels: high when 550 C and low when < 550 C) and fertilizer type on cumulative N 2 O and NO emissions using a three-way ANOVA, with the relative difference (in %) in cumulative N 2 O and NO emissions between the biochar and control 94

131 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions treatments as dependent variable. The wood mixture biochar was omitted from the analysis in order to have a balanced experimental design. Furthermore, for N 2 O, the NH + 4 fertilizer treatment was not included in the three-way ANOVA analysis, as the two-way ANOVA + revealed that biochar did not affect N 2 O emissions after NH 4 fertilizer application. In case the three-way interaction was significant (P < 0.05), which was the case for NO, two-way ANOVAs including factors feedstock and temperature were run for each fertilizer type separately. In case the two-way interaction was significant (P < 0.05), a one-way ANOVA with as factor pyrolysis temperature (two levels: high and low) was run for each feedstock separately. As not all biochar characteristics were normally distributed, non-parametrical correlation analyses (Spearman s rho) were carried out between biochar characteristics and the relative – difference (in %) in N 2 O or NO emissions or NO 3 concentrations (after 14 days of incubation) between the biochar and control treatments. All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). 6.3 Results Soil characterization Soil ph-kcl was neutral (6.5). TC and TN were 1.19 and 0.12%, respectively, resulting in a C:N ratio of Incubation experiment One day after biochar addition and before fertilizer application, no significant differences + – were found in NH 4 and NO 3 concentrations between the control and the biochar treatments (on average 1.9 mg NH + 4 -N kg -1 and 19.6 mg NO – 3 -N kg -1 ) (Tables 6.1 and 6.2a). At the end of the experiment, i.e. 14 days after applying a fertilizer dose of 51.3 mg N kg -1, NH + 4 concentrations were very low in all treatments ( 1 mg N kg -1 ), indicating that nitrification rates were high in this soil type. The 2-way ANOVA including factors biochar and fertilizer type (Table 6.2a) and the post-hoc LSD tests revealed that (i) adding biochar to soil did not affect soil NH + 4 concentrations, but (ii) soil NO – 3 concentrations were significantly decreased in each biochar treatment compared to the control (LSD-tests: 95

132 Chapter 6 P 0.001) 14 days after fertilizer addition in all fertilizer treatments (Figure 6.1). In the urea, NH + 4 and NO – 3 fertilizer treatments, NO – 3 concentrations were decreased from 90.1, 79.1 and 95.6 mg N kg -1, respectively, in the control soil to on average 78.2, 74.3 and 80.7 mg N kg -1 in the biochar treatments. Also the factor fertilizer type was significant (P = 0.000), as significantly higher NO – 3 concentrations were found in the NO – 3 treatments (on average 82.6 mg N kg -1 ) compared to the urea (on average 79.7 mg N kg -1 + ) and NH 4 treatments (on average 74.9 mg N kg -1 – ), while the latter showed significantly lower NO 3 concentrations compared to the urea treatments. The 3-way ANOVA revealed no feedstock or temperature effect (Table 6.2a). Table 6.1 Soil NH 4 + -N and NO 3 – -N concentrations one day after biochar but before fertilizer addition (mean ± standard error). Treatment NH 4 + NO 3 – mg N kg -1 mg N kg -1 Control 2.65 ± ± 5.39 Willow-450 C 1.49 ± ± 5.16 Willow-650 C 1.65 ± ± 1.83 Pine-450 C 1.13 ± ± 1.17 Pine-650 C 1.56 ± ± 3.65 Maize-350 C 1.50 ± ± 1.78 Maize-550 C 2.09 ± ± 2.55 WoodMixture-480 C 3.10 ± ± concentrations (mg N kg -1 ) NO Urea Ammonium Nitrate 60 Control Willow-450C Willow-650 C Pine-450C Pine-650C Maize-350C Maize-550C WM-480C Figure 6.1 Soil NO 3 – -N concentrations 14 days after urea, NH 4 + and NO 3 – fertilizer addition. Error bars indicate the standard error. 96

133 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions Table 6.2 P-value results from (a) one-way ANOVAs for NH 4 + and NO 3 – concentrations before fertilizer addition, two-way ANOVAs for NH 4 + and NO 3 – concentrations and cumulative N 2 O and NO emissions after 14 days of incubation, and three-way ANOVAs for relative reductions compared to the control, (b) one-way ANOVAs with biochar type as factor for each fertilizer type separately for cumulative N 2 O and NO emissions, and (c) two- and one-way ANOVAs for NO emission reductions. N/A = not applicable (a) Factor + NH 4 – NO 3 N 2 O NO Concentrations before fertilizer addition Biochar type Concentrations 14 days after fertilizer addition Cumulative emissions Biochar type Fertilizer Biochar type x Fertilizer (b) (b) Concentration reduction 14 days after fertilizer addition Emission reductions Feedstock Temperature Fertilizer Feedstock x Temperature N/A Feedstock x Fertilizer Temperature x Fertilizer Feedstock x Temperature x Fertilizer (c) (b) Due to significant interaction between the factors biochar type and fertilizer, a one way-anova including factor biochar type (including the control) was run for each fertilizer type separately (see Table 6.2b). (c) Due to a significant three-way interaction, two-way ANOVAs including factors feedstock and temperature were run for each fertilizer type separately (see Table 6.2c). (b) (c) Factor N 2 O NO Cumulative emissions Biochar type – Urea Biochar type – Ammonium Biochar type – Nitrate Factor Urea Ammonium Nitrate Two-way ANOVA Feedstock Temperature Feedstock x Temperature * 0.000* Factor Urea Ammonium Nitrate One-way ANOVA * Temperature – Willow Temperature – Pine N/A Temperature – Maize *Due to significant interaction between the factors feedstock and pyrolysis temperature, a one-way ANOVA with as factor pyrolysis temperature (two levels: high and low) was run for each feedstock separately. 97

134 Chapter 6 Generally, the highest emissions of both N 2 O and NO were reached 1 day after fertilizer – addition (Figures 6.2 and 6.3). N 2 O emissions were highest when NO 3 fertilizer was applied, whereas adding NH + 4 fertilizer resulted in highest NO emissions. Both N 2 O (27.7 µg kg -1 h -1 ) and NO (2.75 µg kg -1 h -1 ) emissions were highest in the control treatment 1 day – after NO 3 and NH + 4 fertilizer addition, respectively. Figures 6.4a and b depict the cumulative N 2 O and NO emissions for the entire 14-day period. Cumulative N 2 O emissions were higher than total NO emissions. For both N 2 O and NO, there was a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between the factors biochar and fertilizer type, indicating a different effect of biochar on N 2 O and NO emissions for different fertilizers (Table 6.2a, b). LSD post-hoc tests show that, when urea and NO – 3 fertilizers were applied, N 2 O emissions were significantly (P 0.001) decreased in all biochar treatments compared to the control with on average 52% (from 618 to 295 µg N kg -1 ) and 84% (from 3356 to 529 µg N kg -1 ), respectively (Figure 6.4a). For the urea and NO – 3 fertilizer treatments, factor pyrolysis temperature was significant, indicating that N 2 O emission reductions were significantly higher at high compared to low pyrolysis temperatures (Table 6.2a). In the NH + 4 fertilized treatments, there was no significant effect of biochar on N 2 O emissions (Table 6.2b). Biochar addition decreased NO emissions significantly compared to the control soil in all fertilizer treatments (LSD-tests: P = 0.000), except for willow-650 C for the NH + 4 fertilizer treatment (P = 0.068). NO emissions were decreased on average from 49 to 26 µg kg -1 (- 47%), 369 to 173 µg kg -1 (-53%) and 29 to 10 µg kg -1 (-67%) in the urea, NH and NO 3 fertilizer treatments, respectively (Figure 6.4b). When urea was applied, a significant temperature effect (P = 0.001) was observed (Table 6.2c). NO emissions were less decreased at high compared to low pyrolysis temperature biochars. In the NH and NO 3 fertilizer treatments, the interaction term between feedstock and temperature was significant (P < 0.001) (Table 6.2c). For this reason no trends regarding temperature could be observed. However, in the NO – 3 fertilizer treatment NO emissions were more reduced in the high compared to the low temperature biochar treatments, although only significantly for one feedstock (Table 6.2c, Figure 6.4). 98

135 N 2 O-N (µg kg -1 h -1 ) N 2 O-N (µg kg -1 h -1 ) N 2 O-N (µg kg -1 h -1 ) Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions (a) Control Willow-450 C Willow-650 C Pine-450 C Pine-650 C Maize-350 C Maize-550 C WoodMixture-480 C 5 (b) Time (day) Control Willow-450 C Willow-650 C Pine-450 C Pine-650 C Maize-350 C Maize-550 C WoodMixture-480 C 5 (c) Time (day) Control Willow-450 C Willow-650 C Pine-450 C Pine-650 C Maize-350 C Maize-550 C WoodMixture-480 C Time (day) Figure 6.2 Soil N 2 O emissions after (a) urea, (b) NH 4 + and (c) NO 3 – fertilizer (51.3 mg N kg -1 ) addition at day 0. Error bars indicate the standard error (n = 3). 99

136 NO-N (µg kg -1 h -1 ) NO-N (µg kg -1 h -1 ) NO-N (µg kg -1 h -1 ) Chapter 6 (a) Control Willow-450 C Willow-650 C Pine-450 C Pine-650 C Maize-350 C Maize-550 C WoodMixture-480 C Time (day) (b) Control Willow-450 C Willow-650 C Pine-450 C Pine-650 C Maize-350 C Maize-550 C WoodMixture-480 C Time (day) (c) Control Willow-450 C Willow-650 C Pine-450 C Pine-650 C Maize-350 C Maize-550 C WoodMixture-480 C Time (day) Figure 6.3 Soil NO emissions after (a) urea, (b) NH 4 + and (c) NO 3 – fertilizer (51.3 mg N kg -1 ) addition at day 0. Error bars indicate the standard error (n = 3). 100

137 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions (a) 4000 Urea Ammonium Nitrate N 2 O ( g N kg -1 ) Control Willow-450C Willow-650 C Pine-450C Pine-650C Maize-350C Maize-550C WM-480C (b) Urea Ammonium Nitrate NO (µg N kg -1 ) Control Willow-450C Willow-650 C Pine-450C Pine-650C Maize-350C Maize-550C WM-480C Figure 6.4 Cumulative (a) N 2 O-N and (b) NO-N emissions from soil amended with urea, NH 4 + and NO 3 – fertilizer for the entire experiment (14 days). Error bars indicate the standard error (n = 3). 101

138 Chapter 6 Biochar characteristics were not significantly correlated with relative NO – 3 decreases in the biochar treatments compared to the control, except for CEC in the NH + 4 and ash in the NO – 3 fertilizer treatment (Table 6.3). For the NH + 4 and NO – 3 fertilizer treatments, there were no significant non-parametrical correlations between the biochar characteristics and the N 2 O and NO emission reductions. In the urea treatments, there was a significant correlation between i) N 2 O emission decrease and biochar CEC, ii) NO emission decrease and biochar ash content and iii) NO emission decrease and biochar ph (Table 6.3). Biochar ph and ash content were significantly correlated, indicating that biochar ph increased due to the higher amount of ash present (Chapter 2). Biochar ph was not significantly correlated with the N 2 O emission decreases, expressed in % relative to the control (P = 0.052, P = 0.38 and P = 0.15 for urea, NH + 4 and NO – 3 treatments, respectively). However, despite this insignificant correlation, a trend can be observed in Figure 6.5, showing higher – N 2 O emission decreases at higher biochar ph-values in the urea and NO 3 fertilizer treatments. 100 Urea Nitrate N 2 O emission reduction (%) ρ = 0.61 ρ = ph-kcl Figure 6.5 Correlation of N 2 O emission decreases and biochar ph for the urea and NO 3 – fertilizer treatments. Spearman s rho values are indicated as ρ. 102

139 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions Table 6.3 Spearman s rho values of non-parametrical correlations (n = 7) between the biochar characteristics and relative N 2 O and NO emission decreases and NO 3 – concentration decreases (after 14 days of incubation) in the biochar treatments compared to the control. N 2 O NO Urea Ammonium Nitrate Urea Ammonium Nitrate Urea Ammonium Nitrate C H N C:N H:C Volatile matter Ash ph CEC Correlation coefficient Correlation coefficient Correlation coefficient Correlation coefficient Correlation coefficient Correlation coefficient Correlation coefficient Correlation coefficient Correlation coefficient * * * ** ** P-value P-value P-value P-value P-value P-value P-value P-value P-value *Correlation is significant at P = 0.05; **Correlation is significant at P = 0.01 NO 3-103

140 Chapter Discussion Effect of biochar on N 2 O emissions In the control soil, N 2 O emissions were highest after NO – 3 fertilizer application. This was expected, as high rates of N 2 O production are more commonly associated with denitrification rather than nitrification (Firestone and Davidson, 1989), especially for the soil used in this study (Boeckx et al., 2011). N 2 O emissions were significantly decreased with biochar addition after both urea and NO – 3 fertilizer addition. This decrease was higher in the latter than in the former in both absolute and relative terms. Decreased N 2 O emissions have been observed in several studies investigating the effect of biochar on N 2 O emissions, although some studies show no effect or even increased emissions with biochar application (Table 6.4). Table 6.4 indicates a complex interaction between soil type, soil moisture content, biochar type and dose, and fertilizer type and dose. Studies in which various fertilizer doses, biochar types and doses or soil moisture contents are used often show contrasting results. Data in Table 6.4 and our results show that also at low (compared to other incubation studies) biochar doses (e.g. in our study 0.5% w:w), N 2 O emissions can be reduced. Our results demonstrate a significant pyrolysis temperature effect: N 2 O emissions after urea and NO – 3 fertilizer application were more decreased at high compared to low pyrolysis temperatures (Table 6.2a). Also Ameloot et al. (2013) observed a temperature effect, as N 2 O emissions were decreased when applying high temperature biochars, while this was not the case for low temperature ones. 104

141 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions Table 6.4 Overview of studies investigating the effect of biochar on N 2 O emissions. Reference Country Soil type Biochar feedstock Ameloot et al. (2013) Belgium Sandy loam Augustenborg et al. (2012) * Bruun et al. (2011) Wood Swine manure digestate Pyrolysis temperature ( C) * In this table only results without earthworms are taken into account; ** For details, see the corresponding paper. Biochar dose (% w:w) Fertilizer type Fertilizer dose Water content Effect on N 2 O emissions Incubation experiment KNO 3 40 mg N kg -1 70% WFPS 700 Typic Hapludalf Peanut hull kg ha -1 Ireland 4 (NH 4) 2SO 4 50% WFPS Luvisol Miscanthus kg ha N ha -1 Denmark Loamy Wheat Slurry 80% WFPS 150 kg N ha % (w:w) 0 Case et al. (2012) UK Sandy loam Hardwood / 0 After wetting event (28% w:w) % WFPS Cheng et al. (2012) China Black Chernozem Wheat straw NH 4NO mg N kg -1 60% WHC 0 Clough et al. (2010) New Zealand Silt loam Pine Urine 0 or 760 kg N ha -1 Luvisol Various Various 8 NH 4NO 3 65% WHC Kammann et al. (2012) Germany 50 mg N kg Luvisol Peanut hull NH -1 after > 4NO 3 80% WHC (after fertilizer application) 18 mo of incubation Rogovska et al. (2011) USA Fine-loamy Hardwood Swine manure 0 or 5 g kg -1 (11 mo after fertilizer Field capacity application) Alfisol Poultry manure Singh et al. (2010) Australia N, P, K, glucose-c ** Wetting-drying cycles, 0 or Vertisol Eucalyptus Spokas & Reicosky (2009) USA Silt loam Various Various 10 / 0 Field capacity Stewart et al. (2012) USA Various Oak / 0 60% WHC Pig manure digestate 0 Start: 26% (w:w); 0 Troy et al. (2013) Ireland Acid brown earth Pig manure Sitka Spruce 170 kg N ha -1 leached twice weekly Urea 65-70% WFPS van Zwieten et al. (2010) Australia Ferrosol Various Various kg N ha days after urea application % WFPS % WFPS Yanai et al. (2007) Japan (Clay) loam Municipal biowaste 700 / % WFPS Zheng et al. (2012) USA Silt loam 0 Oak NH 4NO 3 0 or 100 kg N ha -1 60% WHC Loam 0 or Pot experiment Kammann et al. (2012) Germany Luvisol Peanut hull (50 t ha -1 ) NH 4NO kg N ha -1 Field experiment (+ extra N at end of experiment) Pots slowly watered until water emerged at the pot bottom Case et al. (2013) UK Sandy loam Hardwood (49 t ha -1 ) / 0 Field conditions 0 Castaldi et al. (2011) Italy Silty loam Hardwood (30-60 t ha -1 ) N, P ** Field conditions, 0 or Karhu et al. (2011) Finland Silt loam Birch (9 t ha -1 ) Green manure Field conditions 0 Scheer et al. (2011) Australia Ferrosol Cattle feedlot waste (10 t ha -1 ) N, P, K ** Field conditions, 0 or Suddick & Six (2013) USA Silt loam Walnut shells % (5 + 5 t ha -1 ) N, cover crop ** Field conditions (15 t ha -1 ) 0 Taghizadeh-Toosi (2011) New Zealand Silt loam Pine 350 Urine + urea 930 kg N ha -1 Field conditions 2.4 (30 t ha -1 ) 0 0 Zhang et al. (2012) China Loamy Wheat straw (20-40 t ha -1 ) Urea Field conditions 300 kg N ha

142 Chapter 6 Table 6.5 provides an overview of the hypotheses put forward for reduced N 2 O emission and/or mineral N availability with biochar addition in the literature. These hypotheses can be summarized as follows. Biochar (i) contains microbial inhibiting compounds which could decrease the formation of NO – 3 and N 2 O (Spokas and Reicosky, 2009; Spokas et al., 2010), (ii) stimulates NH 3 formation and subsequent sorption of NH 3 (Taghizadeh-Toosi et al., 2011), (iii) decreases mineral N availability through biotic or abiotic immobilization processes, thereby decreasing substrate availability for nitrification and denitrification and subsequently decreasing N 2 O emissions (e.g. Case et al., 2012; Kammann et al., 2012), (iv) decreases the N 2 O:N 2 ratio through increasing soil ph (e.g. Singh et al., 2010), (v) improves soil aeration, thereby suppressing denitrifier activity (e.g. Yanai et al., 2007), (vi) sorbs N 2 O (Van Zwieten et al., 2009). These hypotheses will now be discussed in more detail in relation to our results. Microbial inhibition (hypothesis i) was in our study unlikely, as when nitrification or denitrification would be suppressed higher NH + 4 (after urea and NH addition) or NO 3 – (after NO 3 fertilizer addition) concentrations would be expected with biochar addition compared to the control, which was not the case. Taghizadeh-Toosi et al. (2011) (Table 6.4) explain the lower NO – 3 concentrations and N 2 O emissions with pine biochar addition (30 t ha -1 ) in a field trial after applying a high amount of urine (930 kg N ha -1 ) by NH 3 formation and subsequent adsorption on- and/or into biochar. This hypothesis (ii) could be valid for our urea fertilizer treatment, but can be excluded for the NO – 3 fertilizer treatment. The decreased NO – 3 concentrations in the biochar treatments compared to the control 14 days after addition of N fertilizer are also in agreement with findings from Case et al. (2012) and Kammann et al. (2012). They explain lower N 2 O emissions with biochar addition by lower mineral N availability through abiotic or biotic N immobilization (hypothesis iii). In contrast, according to Zheng et al. (2012), a lower N availability with oak biochar (550 C) addition is an unlikely mechanism for the decreased N 2 O emissions, – as a lower NO 3 availability with biochar addition was not always accompanied by decreased N 2 O emissions. Also results from Bruun et al. (2011) are in contrast to our findings, as they observed higher N 2 O emissions despite reduced NO – 3 concentrations upon biochar addition. However, in both experiments cumulative N 2 O emissions were very low, being maximum 0.7 µg N 2 O-N g -1 soil (Bruun et al., 2011) and 250 ng N 2 O-N g -1 soil (Zheng et al., 2012) 55 days and 123 days, respectively, after starting the incubation. In – contrast, in our experiment total N 2 O emissions in the control soil 14 days after NO 3 106

143 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions fertilizer addition was 3.36 µg N 2 O-N g -1 soil. Despite that N 2 O emission reduction was positively correlated to CEC for the urea treatments, results from a sorption experiment conducted with the willow-450 C, willow-650 C, pine-450 C and pine-650 C biochars show that quick electrostatic NH and NO 3 sorption to biochar was unlikely (max mg NH + 4 -N kg -1 biochar and 19.0 mg NO – 3 -N kg -1 biochar which corresponds to 0.08 mg NH + 4 -N kg -1 soil and 0.10 mg NO – 3 -N kg -1 soil at a biochar dose of 5 g kg -1 ; see Chapter 7). Sorption of N in this experiment was calculated as the difference between the amount of added N (NH + 4 or NO – 3 ) and the amount of N in the extract after shaking the biocharsolution mixture for one hour. However, these results probably do not exclude a nonelectrostatic sorption mechanism, as the behavior of N containing water was most probably different under soil circumstances compared to during the N sorption experiment. Biochar porosity could contribute to nutrient adsorption by trapping nutrient-containing water (Major et al., 2009), making it temporally unavailable for microorganisms, which possibly occurred here. Moreover, the pore volume of biochar increases with higher pyrolysis temperatures (Downie et al., 2009), which could possibly explain our observation that N 2 O emissions were more suppressed at higher pyrolysis temperatures, which was the case for both urea and NO – 3 fertilizer treatments. Biochar labile carbon fractions (Chapter 2) are generally too low to cause microbial N immobilization (see Chapter 7), but other microbial stimulating processes induced by biochar, e.g. a change in soil ph, microbial protection in biochar pores, bacterial adhesion or sorption of compounds that would otherwise inhibit microbial growth, could possibly increase the total microbial abundance or activity (Lehmann et al., 2011), thereby consuming more N and thus immobilizing N biotically. 107

144 Chapter 6 Table 6.5 Possible mechanisms for observed N 2 O reduction and/or observed reduced mineral N availability with biochar application, according to the respective authors. Reference Microbial inhibition NH 3 formation + adsorption Electrostatic N immobilization Physical Ameloot et al. (2013) x x x Angst et al. (2013) o x Augustenborg et al. (2012) o x Case et al. (2012) x x o o Kammann et al. (2012) x x x o Rogovska et al. (2011) x Singh et al. (2010) x x Spokas & Reicosky (2009) x Stewart et al. (2012) o x x x x Taghizadeh-Toosi et al. (2011) x x x van Zwieten et al. (2010) x x Yanai et al. (2007) o x Zheng et al. (2012) o x x o = mechanism considered to be unlikely, x = mechanism considered to be likely Abiotic Biotic ph increase Improved soil aeration 108

145 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions Simek and Cooper (2002) conclude first that the overall biological rate of production of nitrogen gases (N 2 O, NO, N 2 ) formed in and emitted from the soil is less in acidic soils than in neutral or slightly alkaline soils, and second that at higher soil ph, denitrification yields relatively less N 2 O leading to a lower N 2 O:N 2 ratio. Thus, in case the ph hypothesis – (iv) is valid, the N 2 O:N 2 ratio should decrease with biochar addition, and NO 3 concentrations could be decreased. However, as a rather low biochar dose was used (5 g kg -1 soil), it is expected that soil ph would only be slightly increased, and in case bulk soil ph would not be affected, microorganisms could still experience higher ph values in microsites close to biochar particles (Lehmann et al., 2011). It is highly questionable if this small ph increase (in bulk soil or as experienced by microorganisms) would cause N 2 O emissions to decrease by on average 83%. Moreover, the soil ph is in the same range as the pine-450 C biochar ph, while N 2 O emissions were also decreased when this biochar was applied. Also Case et al. (2012) consider the ph hypothesis as unlikely, as in their water holding capacity (WHC) experiment, cumulative N 2 O emissions decreased by 92% from 1 to 10% biochar addition, while soil ph only increased from 8 to 8.2. Also Yanai et al. (2007) exclude this hypothesis as main mechanism, as they found that adding ash (ph 11.6) did not suppress N 2 O emissions, in contrast to adding charcoal (ph 9.3) reducing N 2 O emissions with 80%. However, in our study, biochar ph was not significantly correlated with the N 2 O emission decreases, but a trend towards enhanced N 2 O emission reduction for higher biochar ph-values, and thus higher pyrolysis temperatures, for the urea and NO – 3 fertilizers was observed (Figure 6.5). This indicates that biochar ph could have contributed to the emission reduction and could explain differences between biochar treatments but is likely not the main factor explaining the N 2 O emission decrease in the biochar treatments. It has to be noticed that at higher pyrolysis temperature, both biochar ph and pore volume increase. Possibly both mechanisms act simultaneously, resulting in decreased N 2 O emissions at high compared to low pyrolysis temperature biochars. Biochar could have adsorbed water, thereby improving the aeration of the soil (Yanai et al., 2007) and reducing N 2 O emissions (hypothesis v). However, improvement of soil structure and soil aeration does not seem likely in our study: if suppression of denitrification through increased aeration would be the main mechanism reducing N 2 O emissions, this would be contradictory to the observed decrease in soil NO – 3 concentrations with biochar addition, which is valid for both urea and NO – 3 fertilizer treatments. Case et al. (2012) tested the aeration hypothesis through soil incubations at uniform water holding 109

146 Chapter 6 capacity, and observed that the effect of increased soil aeration with biochar was minimal. Also results from Scheer et al. (2011) do not support this hypothesis. Scheer et al. (2011) observed generally lower N 2 O emissions from biochar (cattle feedlot waste) amended plots (10 t ha -1 ) in a field trial when WFPS was below 75%, while after a heavy rainfall event, when WFPS exceeded 80%, higher N 2 O emissions were found in the biochar amended plots compared to the control soil. In contrast, Stewart et al. (2012) found that the higher the biochar dose, the higher the soil WHC and the lower the N 2 O emissions. So the increased WHC suggested an increased pore space with biochar addition. The first five hypotheses directly influence mineral N availability in soil. This is not valid for the N 2 O sorption hypothesis (vi). As soil N availability and N 2 O emissions are likely related, this hypothesis as main N 2 O emission reduction mechanism is therefore unlikely, as it cannot explain the decreased NO – 3 availability with biochar. It cannot be excluded though, that N 2 O emissions were higher in the biochar treatments than in the control soil and subsequently sorbed to biochar. The most likely mechanisms suppressing N 2 O that remain in our study are (i) biotic N immobilization (not caused by the labile C fraction of biochar), (ii) non-electrostatic sorption of NH + 4 or NO – 3 through biochar micropores, and (iii) in case of the urea fertilizer treatment, stimulated NH 3 emissions. Biochar ph could have contributed to the emission reduction. Also Nelissen et al. (2012) (Chapter 3) concluded that biochar enhances microbial N immobilization and they observed higher net abiotic NO – 3 immobilization with biochar application compared to a control loamy sand soil Effect of biochar on NO emissions In the control soil, NO emissions were highest after NH + 4 fertilizer application. This was expected, as nitrification is the dominant source of NO in many agricultural soils in temperate climates (Skiba et al., 1997). NO emissions were significantly decreased by biochar in all fertilizer treatments. As this is, to our knowledge, the first study investigating the effect of biochar on NO emissions, our findings cannot be compared to other literature results and the mechanisms through which biochar can decrease NO emissions are not elucidated yet. However, similar to N 2 O it is probable that biochar affected NO emissions by influencing properties such as ph and mineral N availability. The questions asked were: could biochar influence 110

147 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions nitrification in such a way that NO emissions were decreased and is there a link with the decrease of N 2 O emissions? We suggest following hypotheses: biochar (i) sorbs NO, (ii) + stimulates NH 3 volatilization, (iii) affects the nitrification process or (iv) decreases NH 4 availability through an abiotic or biotic process, thereby decreasing substrate availability for nitrification and subsequently decreasing NO emissions. The highly porous surfaces of biochar have been shown to adsorb N 2 O, CO 2 and CH 4 (Van Zwieten et al., 2009), and evidence of NO adsorption on activated coconut charcoal exists (Hanono and Lerner, 1976). Therefore, it could be hypothesized that biochar could also adsorb NO (hypothesis i). However, more research is needed to investigate the potential of biochar to sorb NO when dispersed in the soil matrix and, in case NO sorption occurs, this would not explain the decreased NO – 3 concentrations in the biochar treatments compared to the control. Biochar could have stimulated NH 3 emission from high ph micro-sites close to biochar particles (hypothesis ii), after which the produced NH 3 could have been adsorbed, as suggested by Taghizadeh-Toosi et al. (2011), or lost. They also observed decreased NO – 3 concentrations with biochar addition, and explain this by less inorganic N available for nitrification. However, this mechanism could not be valid for the decreased N 2 O emissions after NO – 3 application in our study. A faster nitrification rate (hypothesis iii) is likely to occur with biochar application due to adsorption of certain organic compounds that inhibit nitrification (DeLuca et al., 2006) or due to a soil ph increase upon biochar addition (Nelissen et al., 2012; Chapter 3), as ammonia mono-oxygenase, the key first enzyme in the nitrification pathway, uses NH 3 as a substrate rather than NH + 4 (Ball et al., 2011). However, in the soil type used, nitrification rates are already generally high, as 14 days after fertilizer application, almost all NH + 4 (that not has been volatilized or immobilized) had been nitrified. In contrast, biochar could contain microbial inhibiting compounds, which could inhibit the nitrification process (Spokas et al., 2010), but if this hypothesis would be valid, higher NH + 4 concentrations would be expected in the biochar treatments compared to the control, which was not the case. For these reasons, also the third hypothesis is considered as improbable. The correlation between NO emission decrease after urea addition and ph was significantly negative (which can be related to the significant pyrolysis temperature effect on NO emissions after urea application; Table 6.2c), showing that when biochar ph increases, NO emissions were less decreased, which is opposite to the pyrolysis temperature trend observed for N 2 O emissions. After NH + 4 and NO – 3 fertilizer addition, NO emission reductions were not correlated with biochar ph and 111

148 Chapter 6 no clear trend regarding pyrolysis temperature was observed (Table 6.2c), although in the NO – 3 fertilizer treatment NO emissions were more reduced in the high compared to the low temperature biochar treatments, but only significantly for one feedstock (Table 6.2c). In this fertilizer treatment, NO was produced during denitrification. Possibly, biochar ph or pore volume contributed to the emission reduction. As already mentioned, sorption results for the willow and pine biochars show that quick electrostatic sorption of NH + 4 or NO – 3 to biochar is unlikely (Chapter 7) (hypothesis iv). As not the same temperature trend was observed as for N 2 O, possibly non-electrostatic sorption of NH + 4 was not important for reducing NO emissions in the urea and NH + 4 fertilizer treatments. For these reasons, the most likely mechanisms suppressing NO emissions are (i) biotic N immobilization, (ii) in case of the urea and NH + 4 fertilizer treatments, stimulated NH 3 volatilization and (iii) in case of the NO – 3 fertilizer treatments, possibly biochar ph or pore volume contributed to the emission reduction. 6.5 Conclusions The effect of seven different biochar types on soil mineral N concentrations and N 2 O and NO emissions after urea, NH + 4 and NO fertilizer addition was investigated. Soil NO 3 concentrations were decreased with biochar addition in all fertilizer treatments by 6 to 16%. Moreover, biochar application decreased both cumulative N 2 O (52 to 84%) and NO (47 to 67%) emissions compared to a corresponding treatment without biochar upon urea and NO – 3 fertilizer application, and only NO emission after NH + 4 fertilizer application. N 2 O emissions were more decreased at high compared to low pyrolysis temperature. As NO and N 2 O were mainly produced upon NH + 4 and NO – 3 addition, respectively, our study indicates that biochar affects nitrification as well as denitrification. Generally, emission reductions could not be correlated to the biochar characteristics measured, although there was a trend towards higher N 2 O emission reduction at higher biochar phs. Improved soil aeration, electrostatic NH + 4 and NO – 3 immobilization, microbial inhibition of (de)nitrification, and N 2 O and NO sorption are unlikely mechanisms explaining the decreased N 2 O and NO emissions in this study. N 2 O emissions were likely reduced because of reduced substrate availability for denitrification due to (i) biotic N immobilization (not caused by the labile C fraction of biochar), (ii) non-electrostatic sorption of NH + 4 or NO – 3 through biochar micropores, and (iii) in case of the urea fertilizer 112

149 Effects of biochar on soil greenhouse gas emissions treatment, stimulated NH 3 emissions. Biochar ph could have contributed to the emission reduction. NO emissions were likely reduced because of reduced substrate availability for + nitrification due to (i) biotic N immobilization, and (ii) in case of the urea and NH 4 fertilizer treatments, stimulated NH 3 volatilization. In case of the NO – 3 fertilizer treatments, – non-electrostatic sorption of NO 3 and/or biochar ph could have contributed to the emission reduction. Most likely, the effect of biochar on N 2 O and NO emissions is regulated by several mechanisms acting simultaneously. 113

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151 Part IV: Effects of biochar on soil and crop response 115

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153 CHAPTER 7 7 Short-term effect of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics, soil and crop response in temperate soils After: Nelissen, V., Ruysschaert, G., Müller-Stöver, D., Bodé, S., Cook, J., Ronsse, F., Shackley, S., Boeckx, P. & Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., submitted. Short-term effect of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics, soil and crop response in temperate soils. Agronomy. Abstract Background and aims At present, there is limited understanding of how biochar application to soil could be beneficial to crop growth in temperate regions and which biochar types are most suitable. The effect of biochar (2 feedstocks: willow, pine; 3 pyrolysis temperatures: 450 C, 550 C, 650 C) on nitrogen (N) availability, N use efficiency and crop yield was studied in northwestern European soils using a combined approach of process-based and agronomic experiments Methods Biochar labile carbon (C) fractions were determined and a phytotoxicity test, sorption experiment, N incubation experiment and two pot trials were conducted. – Results Generally, biochar caused decreased soil NO 3 availability and N use efficiency, and reduced biomass yields compared to a control soil. Soil NO – 3 concentrations were more reduced in the willow compared to the pine biochar treatments and the reduction increased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures, which was also reflected in the biomass yields. Conclusions Woody biochar types can cause short-term reductions in biomass production due to reduced N availability. This effect is biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature dependent. Reduced mineral N availability was not caused by labile biochar C nor electrostatic NH /NO 3 sorption. Hence biochar addition might in some cases require increased fertilizer N application to avoid crop growth retardation. 117

154 Chapter Introduction Biochar application to soils has gained attention as a climate change mitigation strategy, as it could act as a long-term carbon (C) sink (Lehmann et al. 2006). If in addition biochar could increase crop yields and improve soil quality, this would distinguish it from costly geo-engineering measures to mitigate climate change (Sohi 2012). A meta-analysis by Jeffery et al. (2011) revealed a small (ca. 10%), but statistically significant, average increase in crop productivity with biochar application in tropical and subtropical regions. Only one study from a temperate region (New Zealand) was included in their metaanalysis, showing the need for more research in temperate regions. Three years later, biochar research is emerging throughout these regions, including lab, pot and field studies (e.g. Bruun et al. 2012; Kammann et al. 2011; Jones et al. 2012). This is also reflected in the meta-analysis from Biederman and Harpole (2013), which included several studies from temperate regions. Their study confirmed the overall positive effect of biochar application on aboveground plant production and yield, but the authors simultaneously stressed the importance of feedstock source and pyrolysis settings on the effect size of biochar treatments. At present, there is limited understanding of which biochar types are most suited for enhancing soil properties and processes in function of crop growth in temperate regions. Consequently, more insight is needed into the effect of biochar on soil properties and processes, and crop growth. Results from incubation experiments often show net nitrogen (N) immobilization after applying biochar to soil (Bruun et al. 2011; Ippolito et al. 2012; Knowles et al. 2011; Nelissen et al (Chapter 3); Novak et al. 2010). Mostly, hypotheses for this observation include microbial immobilization (e.g. Ippolito et al. 2012) or ammonium (NH + 4 ) and nitrate (NO – 3 ) sorption (e.g. Knowles et al. 2011). However, these studies are not linked to pot or field trials using the same soil and biochar types and hence cannot confirm if the observed N immobilization would reduce crop growth in the short term. Pot trials and field experiments with other biochar types did mostly not support the N immobilization results from incubation experiments, as equal or higher crop yields were often observed with biochar addition (Jones et al. 2012; Kammann et al. 2011; Lugato et al. 2013; Vaccari et al. 2011). It is thus questionable whether incubation tests are of any value for the indication of short-term effects on crop growth. Therefore, there is a need for combining laboratory, pot and field experiments in order to get a better mechanistic insight into biochar soil-plant effects. Moreover, biochar properties depend on 118

155 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response both feedstock and production conditions (Ronsse et al. 2013), which complicates identifying biochar types that are best suited to apply in temperate regions. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of the application of biochar produced from different woody feedstocks (willow and pine) and pyrolysis temperatures (450 C, 550 C and 650 C) on soil properties and processes, as well as crop growth through conducting a series of experiments, being 1) a mineral N adsorption experiment, 2) a phytotoxicity test, 3) an incubation experiment in which the effect of biochar on soil mineral N availability was tested, and 4) pot experiments using two temperate soil types to assess biomass production and N use efficiency. The biochars were characterized and an incubation study was conducted to determine the labile carbon fractions. We hypothesized that biochar addition to soil reduces soil mineral N availability, which would be reflected in reduced crop yield. We further hypothesized that reduced mineral N availability would be due to N adsorption to biochar because of its high CEC or due to biotic N immobilization because of the labile C fraction of biochar. 7.2 Materials and methods The six biochars were characterized and a phytotoxicity test, N incubation experiment and a pot trial were conducted at the Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO) (Belgium). The pot trial was repeated at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical university of Denmark (DTU), Campus Risø. In the pot trials, a set of parameters was measured in common (soil ph, soil mineral N and dry matter yield); at ILVO, extra crop analyses, while at DTU, extra soil analyses were conducted Soil The soil used in the phytotoxicity test, N incubation experiment and pot trial conducted at ILVO was a sandy loam (USDA) soil containing 8.8% clay (< 2 µm), 24.6% silt (2 50 µm) and 66.6% sand ( µm). It was collected in August 2009 from the 0-20 cm layer of an agricultural field located at ILVO in Melle, Belgium (50 59 N, 3 47 E). It was air-dried until a water content below 50% WFPS (water-filled pore space) was reached after which it was sieved to obtain the < 1 cm fraction. Soil ph was measured in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 v:v) (ISO 10390). Total carbon (TC) content was measured on oven dried 119

156 Chapter 7 (70 C) soil samples (ISO 10694) by dry combustion using a TC-analyzer (Primacs SLC, Skalar, the Netherlands). Total N content was also determined by dry combustion (Dumas principle, ISO 13878; Flash 4000, Thermo Scientific, US). The soil used in the pot trial conducted at DTU was a sandy loam (IUSS) soil containing 11% clay (< 2 µm), 14% silt (2 20 µm), 49% fine sand ( µm), and 25% coarse sand ( µm). The soil was collected in March 2009 from the 0-25 cm layer of an agricultural field located at Campus Risø in Roskilde, Denmark (55 41 N, E). It was air-dried and sieved to obtain the < 1 cm fraction. Soil ph was measured in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 v:v) (ISO 10390), while TC and TN were measured using an elemental analyzer (EA-1110 CHN, CE Instruments, UK) Biochar characterization The six biochar types used were produced in a batch pyrolysis unit at the UK Biochar Research Centre (University of Edinburgh) from willow (Salix viminalis L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at three different treatment temperatures (450 C, 550 C and 650 C). Biochar characteristics are described in Chapter 2. Total metal concentrations were measured using ICP-OES after ashing at 750 C followed by extraction with aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid). Biochar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by extracting 4 g of biochar with DCM-Acetone (1:1) on an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE300, Thermo Scientific Dionex, US). Extracts were reduced in volume to 5 ml using a Turbovap under a flow of N 2 -gas. A surrogate (ortho-terphenyl) was added to the sample prior to extraction and was used to determine PAH recovery. An internal standard (5-alpha androstane) was added to the extract after extraction / solvent volume reduction but prior to analysis by GC-MS. Sixteen PAHs were determined individually and corrected using the recovery of the surrogate. To test how much NH + 4 -N and NO – 3 -N could be adsorbed to biochar, first a preliminary sorption experiment was conducted with the willow-450 C, willow-650 C, pine-450 C and pine-650 C biochars. Twenty-five ml of NH 4 Cl or KNO 3 solutions with different N concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100 mg N l -1 for NH 4 Cl; 1, 5, 10 mg N l -1 for KNO 3 ) was added to 0.5 g (oven-dry basis) of each biochar type (1 replicate). Also a control treatment without biochar (so only solution) was included. These mixtures were shaken for 1 hour and then filtered (MN 640 w filters), after which NH or NO 3 concentrations were 120

157 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response measured in the filtrates using a continuous flow analyzer (FIAstar 5000, Foss, Denmark). Sorption of N was calculated as the difference between the amount of added N, as + measured in the control, and the amount of N in the extract after shaking. For both NH 4 and NO – 3, sorption did not increase when adding higher N concentrations (data not shown). After this preliminary study, the experiment was repeated with 3 replicates per treatment and with a concentration of 10 mg N l -1 for both NH 4 Cl and KNO Phytotoxicity test Phytotoxicity was tested in soil mixed with biochar, as well as in sulphuric acid-washed sand mixed with biochar. For the former, the soil was sieved (2 mm), and water was added to obtain a moisture content of 50% water filled pore space (WFPS). The six biochar types (sieved to < 0.5 cm) were mixed with soil at a dose of 10 g fresh biochar kg -1 dry soil each. Petri dishes were packed with moist soil (equivalent to 60 g oven-dried soil) until a bulk density of 1.3 g cm – ³ was obtained. For the second toxicity test, which was based on a standard phytotoxicity test for compost (CMA/2/IV/12, in Dutch), the sand was mixed with each of the six biochars in a 50:50 volume ratio. These mixtures were brought to 50% FC (determined as described previously) and spread in the petri dishes. Control treatments contained only sand or soil. For both toxicity tests, 50 Lepidium sativum L. seeds were spread on top of every mixture and all petri dishes were covered and artificially lighted (12/12 hrs, 750 to 1250 lux, 20 C ± 2 C) for 10 days. The experimental design used was a randomized block design with four replicates. Germinated seeds were counted, investigated for normal root and shoot growth, and removed after 4 and 10 days. Phytotoxicity was then calculated using the equation (CMA/2/IV/12): Phytotoxicity (%) = (Kr Ks)/Kr x 100 (2) where Kr is the germinative capacity (sum of the normally developed seeds from both counts) of L. sativum in the control treatments (sand or soil) and Ks the germinative capacity of L. sativum in sand- or soil-biochar mixtures Nitrogen incubation experiment The effect of biochar on soil NH + 4 and NO – 3 concentrations was tested in a four-week incubation experiment. Sieved biochar (< 0.5 cm) was mixed with moist soil (equivalent to 121

158 Chapter g oven-dried soil; adjusted with distilled water to 50% WFPS) at a dose of 10 g fresh biochar kg -1 dry soil. PVC tubes (h = 12 cm, r = 2.3 cm) were filled with these mixtures in order to reach a bulk density of 1.3 g cm -3. To each biochar treatment and a control treatment without biochar, N fertilizer was added as NH 4 NO 3 solution in 3 different dosages: 0, 12.8 and 38.5 mg N kg -1, corresponding to field application rates of 0, 50, and 150 kg N ha -1 (assuming a soil depth of 0.30 m and soil bulk density equal to 1.3 g cm -3 ), resulting in 21 treatments in total. The tubes were covered with a single layer of gas permeable parafilm to avoid water evaporation and subsequently incubated at 15 C and 70% relative humidity. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design with three replicates. Twelve tubes per treatment were set up in order to be able to analyze soil mineral N (NO NH + 4 ) destructively at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the start of the incubation. For that purpose, soil from three replicates per treatment was extracted using 1 M KCl (1:5 w:v) (ISO ) after which the mineral N concentration of the extracts was measured using a continuous flow analyzer (FIAstar 5000, Foss, Denmark). One extra soil or soil-biochar sample per treatment was prepared and immediately extracted in order to analyze mineral N at the start of the experiment ILVO pot trial A pot trial was conducted in a greenhouse with a light regime of 16 h day/8h night using two crops (radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)), 2 fertilizer doses (0 and 12.8 mg N kg -1, equating to field application rates of 0 and 50 kg N ha -1, assuming a soil depth of 0.30 m and soil bulk density equal to 1.3 g cm -3 ) and 2 biochar doses (0 and 10 g fresh biochar kg -1 dry soil). Tap water and fertilizer solution (NH 4 NO 3 ) were added to the soil in order to reach a water content of 50% WFPS, after which sieved biochar (< 0.5 cm) was added and mixed thoroughly with the soil. For growing radish and spring barley, respectively, two sizes of plastic pots were used: 2 l (h = 13.2 cm; d = 16.7 cm; 2 kg soil on a dry weight basis) and 5 l pots (h = 18.1 cm; d = 22.5cm; 5 kg soil on a dry weight basis). The soil bulk density was 1.3 g cm – ³. Ten seeds of radish or 14 seeds of spring barley were sown. The experimental design used was a randomized block design with four replicates. One extra soil or soil-biochar sample per treatment was prepared at the start of the experiment in order to determine soil mineral N content and ph-kcl (analyzed as described previously). After emergence, seedlings were 122

159 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response thinned to 5 for radish and 8 for spring barley. During the experiment, the soil moisture content was kept at 50% WFPS. The experiment was terminated 5 weeks after sowing and ph-kcl and soil mineral N content were determined as described previously. Since no tuber growth was observed in radish plants (probably due to light deficiency in the initial growth stadium), only aboveground biomass (per pot) was harvested in both radish and spring barley. Subsequently, the plant material was dried at 70 C to constant weight and dry matter yield (per pot) was determined. N content was determined in ground plant material by the block digestion/steam distillation method (Kjeldahl method, ISO ). Aboveground biomass N uptake (per pot) was calculated by multiplying the aboveground dry matter production per pot by the aboveground biomass N concentration. N use efficiency (NUE) was calculated as follows: NUE (%) = [(N f ) (N nf )] / R (3) where N f is the aboveground biomass N uptake in the fertilized treatment (mg N kg -1 dry soil), N nf the aboveground biomass N uptake in the unfertilized control treatment (mg N kg -1 dry soil) and R the fertilizer dose applied (12.8 mg N kg -1 dry soil) DTU pot trial A pot trial with identical treatments as for the ILVO pot trial was conducted in a growth chamber with a light regime of 16 h day/8 h night and a temperature regime of 19 C day/12 C night. One extra soil sample for each treatment (analyzed in triplicate) was prepared at the start of the experiment in order to determine initial mineral N content, ph- KCl, total N (TN), total dissolved N (TDN), total carbon (TC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Soil was extracted in a 0.01 M CaCl 2 solution (1:5 w:v), after which mineral N and TDN was measured in the extracts using a continuous flow analyzer (AA3, Bran and Luebbe, Germany). DOC was analyzed in the same extracts on a TOC-VCPH (Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). Soil ph was measured in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 v:v) (ISO 10390). TC and TN were measured using an elemental analyzer (EA-1110 CHN, CE Instruments, UK). At the end of the experiment, six weeks after sowing, mineral N content, ph-kcl, TDN and DOC were determined as described above. For radish, belowground (roots) and aboveground (leaves) fresh biomass were harvested separately. Spring barley 123

160 Chapter 7 was harvested by cutting it just above soil level. The plant material was dried at 70 C to constant weight in order to determine dry matter yield (per pot) Statistical analyses Phytotoxicity data were analyzed using a one-tailed t-test, in order to verify whether phytotoxicity was larger than zero. For the N incubation experiment, the effect of biochar addition on NO – 3 concentrations after four incubation weeks was investigated using a three step approach. First, we determined if the presence of biochar or not (factor 1; levels: yes or no) and fertilizer dose – (factor 2) had an effect on NO 3 concentrations using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, we tested which biochar treatments were different from the control – regarding NO 3 concentrations at the end of the incubation period for every biochar treatment individually, separately for each fertilizer dose, using independent t-tests. Last, we investigated the effect of biochar feedstock, pyrolysis temperature and fertilizer dose using a three-way ANOVA, with the relative difference (in %) in NO – 3 concentrations between the biochar and control treatments as dependent variable. There were no significant interactions between the factors. A post-hoc Scheffé test was used to compare – the effect of the individual levels of factor pyrolysis temperature on the NO 3 concentration. The effect of biochar addition on NH + 4 concentrations after four weeks of incubation was investigated using a two-way ANOVA including the factors presence of biochar and fertilizer dose. As the factor presence of biochar was not significant, no further analyses were undertaken. The data from the pot trials, except for NUE, were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, including the factors biochar type (including the control) and fertilizer dose. In case the interaction term was significant (P < 0.05), a one-way ANOVA including the factor biochar type was run for each fertilizer dose separately. A post-hoc Scheffé-test was used to compare the effect of the individual levels of the factor biochar type. For the NUE data, a one-way ANOVA was conducted, and treatment means were compared using a post-hoc Scheffé-test. For all statistical analyses, SPSS 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) was used. 124

161 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response 7.3 Results Soil and biochar characterization The soil from ILVO was rather low in C content (TC = 1.00%) and ph-kcl (5.5), while DTU soil had a slightly higher C content (TC = 1.47%) and neutral ph-kcl (7.1). Total N of the ILVO and DTU soil were respectively 0.11% and 0.16%, resulting in C:N ratios of 9.1 and 9.2. Soil NH + 4 and NO – 3 concentrations were respectively 1.1 and 12.9 mg N kg -1 at ILVO and 1.5 and 21.6 mg N kg -1 at DTU. Biochar characteristics are described in Chapter 2. From the sorption experiment, it was observed that the willow-450 C, willow-650 C, pine-450 C and pine-650 C biochars can adsorb 4.9 ± 2.8, 5.9 ± 2.3, 10.0 ± 2.7 and 15.3 ± 5.3 mg NH + 4 -N kg -1 biochar, and 3.7 ± 1.4, 19.0 ± 1.6, 12.2 ± 5.9 and 12.3 ± 2.3 mg NO – 3 -N kg -1 biochar, respectively (mean ± standard deviation). Consequently, when biochar is applied to soil at a dose of 10 g biochar (dry base) kg -1 soil (dry base), a maximum of 0.15 mg NH + 4 -N kg -1 soil and 0.19 mg NO N kg -1 soil can be adsorbed to biochar. Total Cu, Zn, Na, Ca, Mg, K, Sr, and B concentrations were higher in the willow biochars compared to the pine biochars, while for Fe and Ti the opposite was the case (Table 7.1). Napthalene was the dominant PAH for all biochar types and the highest concentration was found in pine-650 C, that consequently also had the highest total PAH concentration (Table 7.2). The cumulative biochar-c mineralization rate (Chapter 2) was highest during the first days of incubation, after which the rate decreased as a function of time to reach a steady state at end of incubation. As expected, the labile C fraction (C max ) increased with decreasing pyrolysis temperature. It was highest for willow-450 C (3 mg C g -1 biochar-c) and lowest for pine-650 C (0.38 mg C g -1 biochar-c), but generally, labile C fractions were low (max. 0.3 % of biochar-c) (Chapter 2). 125

162 Chapter 7 Table 7.1 Total metal concentrations of the biochars used (n = 1) Al Cu Fe Mn Ni Si Ti Zn mg kg -1 Willow Willow-550 C Willow-650 C Pine-450 C Pine-550 C Pine-650 C V Ba Na Ca Mg K Sr B mg kg -1 Willow Willow-550 C Willow-650 C < Pine-450 C < Pine-550 C < Pine-650 C < Concentrations of As, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg were below the detection limit (being respectively 2.5, 5.0, 0.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg kg -1 ). Table 7.2 Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the biochars (n = 1). PAH (mg kg -1 ) Willow-450 C Willow-550 C Willow-650 C Pine-450 C Pine-550 C Pine-650 C Acenapthene Acenaphthylene Fluorene Napthalene Phenanthrene Sum Concentrations of anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, indeno (1,2,3- cd)pyrene and pyrene were below the detection limit Phytotoxicity test When a biochar dose of 10 g kg -1 was added to soil, the 6 biochars were not phytotoxic (P 0.14; Table 7.3). At a very high biochar dose (50:50 v:v, biochar:sand), three of the six biochars turned out to be phytotoxic (P 0.05; Table 7.3). This was the case for the two chars produced at 650 C and the willow char produced at 550 C. In these three treatments, it was visually observed that root and shoot growth were suppressed, although 97% (± 2.7) of the seeds had germinated. 126

163 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Table 7.3 Mean phytotoxicity of 6 biochars (± 1 standard deviation; n = 4) at a biochar application rate of 10 g kg -1 soil and in a biochar-sand mixture (50:50 v:v). Phytotoxicity (% ) 10 g kg -1 50:50 v:v Willow-450 C 0.5 ± ± 2.9 Willow-550 C 1.0 ± ± 4.2 Willow-650 C 2.0 ± ± 14.1 Pine-450 C 2.5 ± ± 1.9 Pine-550 C 0.0 ± ± 1.9 Pine-650 C 0.0 ± ± Nitrogen incubation experiment Biochar addition to soil did not significantly affect NH + 4 concentrations when compared to the control treatment four weeks after fertilizer application (Figure 7.1a for 150 kg N ha -1 ; data for 0 and 50 kg N ha -1 are similar and not shown). In the fertilized treatments, added + NH 4 was nitrified within one week (Figure 7.1b). After four weeks of incubation, biochar addition to soil reduced NO – 3 concentrations significantly compared to the control (twoway ANOVA, P < 0.001). However, t-tests show that NO 3 – concentrations were not significantly decreased in all biochar treatments (Table 7.4). The relative difference (in %) in NO – 3 concentrations between the biochar and control treatments was significantly higher in the willow compared to the pine biochar treatments (P < 0.001), and this relative difference was significantly higher at 650 C than at 450 C and 550 C (P < 0.001) (threeway ANOVA). This means that generally, (i) willow biochar addition reduced NO concentrations more than pine biochar addition compared to the control and (ii) this NO 3 reduction increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Therefore, applying willow- 650 C to the soil reduced NO 3 – concentrations to the largest extent compared to the control, i.e. by 24.0 mg N kg -1 soil at the highest fertilizer dose (Figure 7.1b, Table 7.4). This corresponds to 93.6 kg N ha -1 when assuming a soil depth of 0.30 m and a soil bulk density equal to 1.3 g cm

164 NO3 – concentration (mg N kg -1 ) NH4 + concentration (mg N kg -1 ) Chapter 7 (a) Time after fertilizer addition (days) Control Willow-450 C Willow-550 C Willow-650 C Pine-450 C Pine-550 C Pine-650 C (b) Time after fertilizer addition (days) Figure 7.1 NH (a) and NO 3 (b) concentrations in the control soil and biochar-amended treatments at a fertilizer dose of 150 kg N ha -1 (38.5 mg N kg -1 ); error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 3) – Table 7.4 NO 3 concentrations (mg N kg -1 ) in the control and biochar treatments (mean ± 1 standard deviation; n = 3) after four incubation weeks for three fertilizer doses (0, 50 and 150 kg N ha -1 ). Fertilizer dose (kg N ha -1 ) Control ± ± ± 2.27 Willow-450 C ± 0.36 ** ± 1.53 * ± 2.16 * Willow-550 C ± 3.77 ns ± 1.87 * ± 1.99 * Willow-650 C 6.73 ± 0.53 ** ± 1.96 * ± 4.63 * Pine-450 C ± 0.31 * ± 1.67 ns ± 0.46 ns Pine-550 C ± 1.36 * ± 1.27 ns ± 3.9 * Pine-650 C ± 0.37 * ± 2.17 * ± 0.87 * Treatments with * or ** are significantly different from the control at P < 0.05 (*) or at P < (**) (ns = not significant). 128

165 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response ILVO pot trial At radish harvest, soil ph was significantly higher in all biochar treatments (P < 0.05) compared to the control, except for the pine-450 C treatment (Figure 7.2a). The ph results at spring barley harvest confirm this observation (Figure 7.2b). Similar to the biochar phs, soil ph results demonstrated two trends, (i) a higher ph increase with willow biochar addition compared to pine biochar addition and (ii) a higher ph increase with increasing pyrolysis temperatures (Figure 7.2a, b). At radish and spring barley harvest, there were no significant differences between the treatments for soil NH + 4 concentrations, which were very low in all treatments (< 1.5 mg N kg -1 – ). Soil NO 3 concentrations were generally – increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. For radish, NO 3 concentrations in the willow-650 C and pine-650 C treatments were significantly higher than in the control soil (Figure 7.2c). For spring barley, no significant differences were found except for lower NO – 3 concentrations in the unfertilized pine-550 C treatment than in the control (Figure 7.2d). For both fertilizer treatments, radish dry matter yields were generally decreased with biochar addition, and this decrease became more pronounced with increasing pyrolysis temperatures (Figure 7.3a, b). The yield reduction was significant for all biochars produced at 550 C and 650 C. For spring barley, this was only the case for the 650 C-treatments. Aboveground biomass N uptake was significantly lower in the biochar treatments (both unfertilized and fertilized) compared to the control, except for the unfertilized radish control versus pine-450 C and the fertilized spring barley control versus pine-450 C and pine-550 C treatments (Figure 7.4a, b). The N use efficiency results demonstrate lower NUE-values in the biochar treatments compared to the control soil (Figure 7.5). In some cases NUE was even negative, meaning that N uptake in these fertilized biochar treatments was lower than in the unfertilized control. 129

166 Dry matter yield (g) Dry matter yield (g) NO 3 – concentration (mg N kg -1 ) NO 3 – concentration (mg N kg -1 ) ph-kcl ph-kcl Chapter 7 (a) A D D E AB B C 0 kg N/ha (b) A C C D AB AB B 0 kg N/ha kg N/ha kg N/ha (c) (d) 8 7 C C b AB A BC A AB 0 kg N/ha 50 kg N/ha BC ab AB a ab BC C ABC a ab BC ab 0 kg N/ha 50 kg N/ha 1 2 A Figure 7.2 ph-kcl (a, b) and NO 3 concentrations (c, d) in the control and biochar-amended treatments at two fertilizer doses (0 and 50 kg N ha -1 ) in the ILVO pot trial with radish (a, c) and spring barley (b, d); error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test. In case of no interaction between the factors biochar type and fertilizer dose, there is only one letter per biochar treatment (a, b, c); in case of interaction, there is one letter on top of each bar (d) (capital and lowercase letters for unfertilized treatments and fertilized treatments, respectively). (a) D CD BC A CD BC AB (b) CD CD D BC A CD AB kg N/ha 50 kg N/ha kg N/ha 50 kg N/ha 0 0 Figure 7.3 Radish (a) and spring barley (b) dry matter yield (per pot) in the control and biocharamended treatments at two fertilizer doses (0 and 50 kg N ha -1 ) in the ILVO pot trial; error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test (one letter per biochar treatment due to no interaction between factor biochar type and fertilizer dose). 130

167 Nitrogen use efficieny (%) Aboveground biomass N uptake (g) Aboveground biomass N uptake (g) Effects of biochar on soil and crop response (a) (b) D d BC c AB bc A ab CD c BC c a AB 0 kg N/ha 50 kg N/ha D c BC b AB b A a C c C c AB ab 0 kg N/ha 50 kg N/ha 0 0 Figure 7.4 Aboveground biomass N uptake for radish (a) and spring barley (b) in the control and biochar-amended treatments at two fertilizer doses (0 and 50 kg N ha -1 ) in the ILVO pot trial; error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test (capital and lowercase letters for unfertilized treatments and fertilized treatments, respectively) D c c C C C c b BC b AB a A ab Radish Barley Figure 7.5 Nitrogen use efficiency in the control and biochar-amended treatments in the ILVO pot trials; error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test (capital and lowercase letters for radish DTU pot trial) DTU pot trial Soil ph was not influenced by biochar addition at the start of the pot trial (data not shown). Also TN, TDN and DOC concentrations were not significantly affected by biochar addition, while TC was, as expected, significantly increased in the biochar treatments compared to the control (data not shown). In contrast to the ILVO radish trial, no significant differences were found in ph-kcl between the control and biochar treatments at harvest (data not shown), probably because + the initial soil ph was already rather high and in the range of the biochar ph. Both NH 4 (1.3 ± 0.9 mg N kg -1 ) and NO – 3 (0.5 ± 0.1 mg N kg -1 ) concentrations were not significantly 131

168 Dry matter yield (roots + leaves) (g) Dry matter yield (g) Chapter 7 influenced by biochar at harvest, and had decreased compared to the initial values (1.7 ± 0.7 mg NH + 4 -N kg -1 ; 21.3 ± 2.2 and 31.6 ± 2.5 mg NO – 3 -N kg -1 for the unfertilized and fertilized treatments, respectively). DOC and TDN concentrations were not influenced by biochar addition, but were lower (26.1 ± 6.0 mg DOC kg -1 ; 15.7 ± 3.1 and 16.9 ± 2.9 mg TDN kg -1 for unfertilized and fertilized radish treatments, respectively) compared to the initial values (31.7 ± 8.2 mg DOC kg -1 ; 37.7 ± 3.2 and 47.8 ± 4.0 mg TDN kg -1 for unfertilized and fertilized treatments, respectively). For spring barley, the soil results at harvest were similar to those for radish (data not shown). Radish dry matter yield was decreased with biochar addition in the unfertilized treatments, although not statistically significant, while in the fertilized treatments no trend was observed (Figure 7.6a). The barley dry matter yield at harvest was significantly lower in the 650 C-biochar treatments compared to the control soil (Figure 7.6b). (a) (b) kg N/ha Leaves 0 kg N/ha Roots 50 kg N/ha Leaves 50 kg N/ha Roots C BC ABC AB ABC ABC A 0 kg N/ha 50 kg N/ha Figure 7.6 Radish (a) and spring barley (b) dry matter yield (per pot) in the control and biocharamended treatments at two fertilizer doses (0 and 50 kg N ha -1 ) in the DTU pot trial; error bars indicate ± 1 standard deviation (n = 4); for (a) no significant differences were found; for (b) treatments with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05) according to a Scheffé-test (one letter per biochar treatment due to no interaction between factors biochar type and fertilizer dose). 7.4 Discussion Biochar and toxicity The PAH results are consistent with other studies, as naphthalene is often the most abundant PAH in biochar (Fabbri et al. 2012). When the heavy metal and PAH concentrations are compared to the maximum concentrations allowed for waste materials used as a soil improver according to the Flemish waste legislation (VLAREMA), naphthalene exceeds the maximum concentration (2.3 mg kg -1 ), except for willow-450 C 132

169 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response (Table 7.2). However, it has to be noted that the analysis method prescribed by the Flemish waste legislation and the method used in our study differ, and that the Flemish waste legislation does not prescribe a maximum concentration for all parameters measured in our study. Depending on country specific waste legislations and required PAH analyses methods, some of the biochars used in our studies could possibly not be used in practice. The formation of PAH during biochar production can be minimized by appropriate selection of operating conditions of the pyrolysis process (Shackley and Sohi, 2010). Our phytotoxicity results (Table 7.3) at a biochar dose of 10 g kg -1 (corresponding to 40 ton ha -1 ) are comparable to results from Van Zwieten et al. (2010b). Their germination test with various biochar (10 ton ha -1 ), crop and soil types did not reveal negative effects of biochar on plant germination. In contrast, our results at a 50:50 (v:v) dose, which is an unrealistically high application rate in agriculture, demonstrate that three out of six biochar types suppressed root and shoot growth (Table 7.3). Rogovska et al. (2012) performed germination tests using aqueous biochar extracts and attributed differences in shoot lengths to the inhibiting effect of PAHs and/or other organic compounds present in water extracts of biochars. However, in our study the willow-550 C and willow-650 C were phytotoxic, although their PAH contents were in the same range as for the non-phytotoxic pine-550 C biochar (Tables 7.2 and 7.3). The biochars heavy metal content (Table 7.1) cannot be related to phytotoxicity, but the presence and inhibiting effect of unidentified organic compounds cannot be excluded Mechanisms for reduced N availability after biochar application Generally, biochar treatments reduced NO – 3 availability compared to the control (up to 93.6 kg N ha -1 after applying 150 kg N ha -1 ), implying a risk for retarded crop growth and lower crop yield in the short term, especially at the high temperature biochars (Figure 7.1 and Table 7.4). The reduced N availability was also feedstock dependent, as it was larger for willow than for pine biochar. There are five possible explanations for these + – observations: biochar addition caused (i) biotic or (ii) abiotic NH 4 and/or NO 3 immobilization, (iii) reduced soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization, (iv) suppressed nitrification or (v) increased gaseous losses. The labile C fractions of the chars were too low (maximum 3 mg C g -1 biochar-c (Chapter 2), which corresponds in our study to 30 mg C kg -1 soil) to cause microbial immobilization 133

170 Chapter 7 (hypothesis i). Assuming an average microbial biomass C:N ratio of 8 and a microbial efficiency of 0.4 (White 2006), microorganisms could immobilize a maximum of 1.5 mg N kg -1 soil, while e.g. in the willow-650 C treatment 24 mg NO – 3 -N kg -1 soil was immobilized. Moreover, biochar labile fractions are increased with decreasing pyrolysis temperature while the opposite is true for the observed amounts of available NO – 3. However, other micro-organism stimulating processes induced by biochar, e.g. bacterial adhesion or a change in soil ph, could possibly increase the total microbial abundance or activity (Lehmann et al. 2011), thereby consuming more N and thus immobilizing N biotically. Also Bruun et al. (2011) observed short-term N immobilization with biochar addition, and explained this by the high C:N ratio and labile C fraction of the fast-pyrolysis biochar produced at 525 C. They hypothesize that a biochar produced at high temperatures by slow pyrolysis would probably have less impact on short-term N dynamics, but our results show the opposite. Reduced soil organic matter mineralization in the presence of biochar (hypothesis iii), as – hypothesized e.g. by Knowles et al. (2011), seems unlikely, as the reduced NO 3 availability in the biochar treatments occurred already after one week. At that time, a significant mineralization was not yet observed in the control treatment, as the increase in NO – 3 measured after the first week was equal to the decrease in (nitrified) NH If suppression of autotrophic nitrification (hypothesis iv) had occurred, a higher NH 4 content would have been measured in the biochar treatments compared to the control, which was not the case. Moreover, biochar application is supposed to enhance nitrification due to adsorption of certain organic compounds like phenolics (DeLuca et al. 2006) or due to a soil ph increase with biochar addition (Chapter 3). Whereas water-filled pore space (50%) was probably too low for high N 2 O and N 2 emissions, biochar could have stimulated NH 3 volatilization (hypothesis v) in high ph micro-sites close to biochar particles. Moreover, the biochar types with higher ph tended to cause higher NO – 3 reduction, indicating that biochar ph could have contributed to NH 3 volatilization. The produced NH 3 itself can be sorbed on or within biochar in multiple ways (physical or chemical) (Spokas et al. 2012). Taghizadeh-Toosi et al. (2012) also showed that biochar can adsorb NH 3, whereby it was reasonable to assume that this was a more dominant adsorption mechanism compared to NH + 4 -N adsorption, and that the adsorbed NH 3 -N remained bioavailable. 134

171 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Another possible explanation for the lower NO – 3 levels is abiotic N immobilization upon + biochar addition (hypothesis ii). Due to the high CEC of the biochars, (mineralized) NH 4 – might be adsorbed and thus become unavailable for nitrification, resulting in reduced NO 3 production. This could explain the lower NO – 3 availability at higher pyrolysis temperatures as these biochars show an increased CEC. However, adsorption did not seem to have occurred immediately, as differences in NH + 4 (and NO – 3 ) concentrations between the treatments at the start of the experiment were small. Moreover, as 1 M KCl was the extraction agent for both CEC and mineral N determination, it would also be expected that NH + 4 adsorbed to biochar due to CEC was KCl-extractable. The sorption experiment indicates that the biochars could not adsorb much NH + 4 and NO – 3 (maximum 0.15 mg NH + 4 -N kg -1 soil and 0.19 mg NO – 3 -N kg -1 soil compared to 24 mg N kg -1 soil immobilized in the willow-650 C treatment). As a consequence, our findings do not support abiotic electrostatic NH /NO 3 immobilization as main immobilization mechanism. However, other papers show the capacity of biochar to adsorb NH + 4. Yao et al. (2012) conducted a sorption experiment, in which most biochars had capacity for removing NH + 4 from aqueous solutions, independent of the biochar production temperature. In contrast, most tested biochars showed no sorption ability for NO – 3, except for the ones produced at the highest pyrolysis temperature (600 C). Jones et al. (2012) observed a similar trend, as – sorption isotherms of NO 3 and NH with a woody high ph biochar revealed NH 4 (maximum about 30 mg N kg -1 biochar) but almost no NO – 3 sorption. It can, however, not be excluded that non-electrostatic sorption of NH + 4 or NO – 3 occurred. The latter could be explained by the high pore volume of biochar, which increases at higher pyrolysis temperatures (Downie et al. 2009). Major et al. (2009) mention that biochar porosity could contribute to nutrient adsorption by trapping nutrient-containing water, which possibly also occurred in our experiment. This does not correspond to the observations in the sorption experiment, but the behavior of N containing water was most probably different under soil circumstances compared to during the N sorption experiment. Also Knowles et al. (2011), – Nelissen et al. (2012) (Chapter 3) and Novak et al. (2010) observed net NO 3 immobilization with biochar addition, but the mechanism could not be elucidated Crop growth effects The biomass yield data from both pot experiments corroborated the reduced N availability data obtained in the incubation study, as generally dry matter yield, crop N uptake and 135

172 Chapter 7 NUE were decreased with biochar addition, especially at the high pyrolysis temperatures (Figure 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6). For the willow-650 C treatment, aboveground biomass N uptake was less than 50% of the N uptake in the control treatment. In some fertilized biochar treatments, N uptake was even lower compared to the unfertilized control treatment, resulting in a negative NUE. Only the radish dry matter yield in the DTU experiment was not significantly affected by biochar application. However, radish plant growth showed a high variation and there was no clear positive growth response to N addition even in the untreated controls. Therefore, a reduced N availability can probably not be expected to show any distinct effects. Deenik et al. (2010) observed reduced crop growth and N uptake when charcoal with a high content of volatile matter was applied, which was explained by the presence of readily available C sources stimulating microbial activity and N immobilization. Our results show that also a biochar low in volatile matter can decrease crop growth. In contrast to our results, an increased dry matter yield and N fertilizer use efficiency were observed with biochar application in several pot and field experiments (Chan et al. 2007; Vaccari et al. 2011; Van Zwieten et al. 2010b, c). However, many of these experiments have been carried out at very low ph soils, as e.g. Van Zwieten et al. (2010b) observed an increased dry matter yield and N uptake efficiency in soil with ph-cacl 2 4.2, while in a higher ph soil (ph-cacl 2 7.7), the effects of biochar were inconsistent. This indicates that the positive response in the low ph soil could be partly explained by the liming value of biochar. Soil ph was also significantly increased in the ILVO pot trial (by 0.02 to 0.25 units), but this was not translated into positive yield results, probably because the initial value of ph 5.5 was not limiting to plant growth and soil processes. Vaccari et al. (2011) hypothesized that the improvement of physical soil factors such as lower bulk density and higher soil temperatures contributed to positive yield responses after biochar application in the field. However, such factors are probably not crucial for plant growth in pots and the reduced N availability outweighed potential positive effects. – In the ILVO trial, the higher soil NO 3 concentrations with biochar-650 C addition compared to the control in the radish experiment seem unexpected. One possible explanation could be again the higher pore volume of the high temperature biochars. Some N could have been trapped into the micropores, unavailable for plant roots but still KClextractable. Biochar did not influence the DOC and TDN concentrations, nor at the start, nor at the end of the DTU experiment. This could be expected as both the labile biochar-c 136

173 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response fractions and mineral N contents were very low, and is in line with results from Bruun et al. (2012). 7.5 Conclusion The results from our pot trials confirmed the expected reduced crop growth and NUE upon – woody biochar application due to reduced soil NO 3 availability, as observed in an incubation test. This effect was biochar type dependent: the higher the pyrolysis – temperature, the greater the reduction in NO 3 availability; adding willow biochar lowered NO – 3 availability more than applying pine biochar. The reduced NO – 3 availability was not caused by the labile C fraction of biochar nor electrostatic NH /NO 3 sorption to biochar. Hypotheses that deserve further investigation are non-electrostatic sorption of NH + 4 or NO – 3 and stimulation of NH 3 volatilization. In conclusion, our research demonstrates that care has to be taken when applying biochar to the field in temperate regions, as it could reduce short-term crop yield as a result of N immobilization. Hence biochar addition might in some cases require increased fertilizer N application to avoid crop growth retardation or biochar may be applied after the growing season, to avoid negative effects of N immobilization on crop performance during the subsequent growing season. More research is needed to (i) further clarify the exact mechanism causing reduced N availability and (ii) to study the fate of the immobilized N. Furthermore, our results indicate that attention has to be paid when extrapolating results from one biochar-soil-crop combination. Our study also shows the need for combining process and agronomic experiments in order to get a better mechanistic insight into biochar soil-plant effects. The risk of biochar application with regard to its PAH content needs to be further addressed. 137

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175 CHAPTER 8 8 The impact of a woody biochar on soil properties and crop growth in a Belgian field experiment After: Nelissen, V., Ruysschaert, G., Manka Abusi, D., D Hose, T., De Beuf, K., Al-Barri, B., Cornelis, W. & Boeckx, P., in preparation. The impact of a woody biochar on soil properties and crop growth in a Belgian field trial. European Journal of Agronomy. Abstract Biochar is often proposed to increase soil quality and crop yield, while sequestering carbon. However, most biochar research has been mainly conducted in tropical regions. Despite the growing number of studies in temperate regions, the claimed positive effects are still unsure for northwestern European soils, which are often more fertile. Moreover, there is a need to upscale results from lab and pot studies in these soil types to field experiments. The objectives of this study were therefore to investigate the effect of biochar application to a temperate agricultural soil on soil chemical, physical and biological properties, and on crop growth and quality under field circumstances. A field trial, located in Merelbeke (Belgium), was established in October 2011 and monitored until August The biochar applied was produced from a mixture of hard- and softwood at 480 C. The biochar dose was 0 (control) or 20 t ha -1 (on dry weight basis). Over two years, biochar addition to soil did not affect soil chemical properties, except for organic carbon content and C:N ratios. Effects on bulk density, porosity and soil water retention curves were non-consistent over time, possibly due to interaction with tillage operations. Biochar increased soil water content in 2012, although mostly not significantly. However, in 2013, when soil water content was overall lower compared to during 2012, it was not affected by biochar addition. Soil temperature, as measured at a soil depth interval of 8-20 cm, was not changed by biochar addition. Furthermore, biochar addition to soil did only slightly influence soil microbiological community structure during the first year after biochar application, as only certain bacterial biomarker PLFAs were significantly affected by 139

176 Chapter 8 biochar addition, but no fungal biomarker PLFAs. No effects of biochar on crop yield, N or P uptake were measured during the first two years after biochar application. In conclusion, addition of a woody biochar type to soil did not to affect soil quality to a large extent in the first two years after application. However, our study shows relatively short-term results, and longer term data are needed. 140

177 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response 8.1 Introduction Biochar application to soils has gained interest as a climate change mitigation strategy, since it could act as a long-term carbon (C) sink (Lehmann et al. 2006). If in addition biochar could increase crop yields and improve soil quality, this would distinguish it from costly geo-engineering measures to mitigate climate change (Sohi, 2012). Moreover, as agriculture will have eventually to adapt to climate change, biochar could possibly be part of a long-term adaptation strategy. Biochar could affect soil physical properties like soil structure, porosity, particle density and water storage capacity (Atkinson et al., 2010), through which biochar-amended soil has the potential to retain more water during periods of drought. A meta-analysis by Jeffery et al. (2011) revealed an average increase in crop productivity of 10% with biochar application in tropical and subtropical regions. Only one study from a temperate region (New Zealand) was included in their meta-analysis, showing the need for more research in temperate zones. Three years later, biochar research is emerging throughout these regions, including lab, pot and field studies (e.g. Bruun et al. 2012; Kammann et al. 2011; Jones et al. 2012). This is also reflected in the meta-analysis of Biederman and Harpole (2013), which included several studies from temperate regions. Their study confirmed the overall positive effect of biochar application on aboveground plant production and yield, although the effect of biochar was more positive in tropical regions than in temperate zones. However, despite the growing number of biochar studies, there is still a need for field experiments to confirm results from lab and pot trials. For example, net nitrogen (N) immobilization after applying biochar to soil shown in many incubation studies (Bruun et al. 2011; Ippolito et al. 2012; Knowles et al. 2011; Nelissen et al. 2012; Novak et al. 2010), is so far not supported by field experiments, as these often resulted in equal or higher crop yields (Jones et al. 2012; Lugato et al. 2013; Vaccari et al. 2011). Furthermore, in general little scientific literature has been published on biochar s effect on soil biological and physical properties under field circumstances, and it is unsure whether biochar could increase soil water content since for example results from the field trials from Case et al. (2013) and Karhu et al. (2011) show no effect of biochar on gravimetric soil water content. Furthermore, lab and pot trials are usually short-term, but long-term data are needed to get better insight into biochar s long-term effect under cropping conditions. 141

178 Chapter 8 The objectives of this study were therefore to investigate the effect of biochar application to a temperate agricultural soil on soil chemical, physical and biological properties, and on crop growth and quality under field circumstances. Furthermore, the effect of biochar on soil microbial community structure was tested in six biochar field trials, established according to a common protocol, across the North Sea region, which are part of the Interreg IVB North Sea Region Biochar: climate saving soils project (Figure 8.1). Our main hypotheses are that biochar addition to soil (i) reduces soil mineral N availability in the short term, (ii) improves soil physical quality through decreasing soil bulk density and increasing porosity, (iii) increases volumetric soil water content (VWC), especially during dry periods, (iv) changes soil microbial community structure, and (v) increases crop yield in the longer term. Figure 8.1 Overview of the field trial locations, established within the Interreg IVB North Sea region project Biochar: climate saving soils, in which PLFAs were analyzed (Source: Google Maps). 142

179 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response 8.2 Materials and Methods Field trial The field trial was established the 20 th of October 2011 in Merelbeke, Belgium (50 58 N, 3 46 E; 29 m above sea level). Prior to the start of the experiment, during the 2011 growing season, the field had been cropped with maize. The different soil horizons were analyzed for soil texture and organic carbon (Table 8.1). The A p horizon (0-35 cm) can be classified as sandy loam (USDA), and contains only 0.71% organic carbon. According to WRB, this soil can be classified as a Haplic Luvisol (Dondeyne S., pers. comm., 2012). Table 8.1 Organic carbon (OC) and texture analyses of the soil horizons in the field trial. Depth (cm) Horizon OC (%) Sand (%) Silt (%) Clay (%) ( µm) (2 50 µm) (< 2 µm) 0-35 A p E B t B t The biochar applied in the field trial was produced during slow pyrolysis at 480 C from hard- and softwood, including spruce, silver fir, Scots pine, beech and oak. Biochar C, H and N contents were 68.1%, 1.5% and 0.4%, respectively; C:N mass ratio and H:C atomic ratio were 164 and 0.257, respectively. Biochar ph-kcl was 8.6 and cation exchange capacity 46.3 cmol c kg -1. Volatile matter and ash content were 12.0% and 8.3%, respectively (Chapter 2). The treatments of the field trial were a biochar dose of 0 or 20 ton/ha (on oven-dry weight base) and there were four replicates (plot size = 7.5 x 12 m²) in a completely randomized design (Figure 8.2). The plots were separated 3 m from each other in the tillage direction. The biochar dose of 20 ton/ha corresponds to 5.4 g kg -1 soil (= 3.7 g C kg -1 soil) when the incorporation depth is 0.25 m (see below) and the soil bulk density equals 1.47 g cm -3 (see Table 8.5). Each plot was subdivided into eight sub-plots, after which kg of fresh biochar (which is the equivalent of kg oven-dry biochar) was weighed, mixed with water in order to avoid dust losses (12 l per subplot), and applied by hand to each sub-plot. After application, the biochar was non-inversely incorporated using a rigid tine cultivator. One day after biochar application, the field was cultivated using a spading rotary cultivator 143

180 Chapter 8 in order to incorporate the biochar in the profile until 25 cm depth (Figure 8.3). The field was left fallow during winter. In March 2012, the field was cultivated using a rigid tine cultivator. At the beginning of April, the field was ploughed and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (cv. Quench)) was sown at seeds ha -1. In May, the field was fertilized using calcium ammonium nitrate at a dose of 70 kg N ha -1. Harvest took place in August. In October, the field was cultivated using a rigid tine cultivator and a spading rotary cultivator, after which winter rye was sown (150 kg ha -1 ) as cover crop. At the beginning of April 2013, the field was cultivated using a rigid tine cultivator and ploughed. Spring barley was sown at seeds ha -1. In May, the field was fertilized using the same fertilizer and dose as in 2012, and the field was harvested in August. In both 2012 and 2013, weeds were controlled using Bofix (4 l ha -1 ) and grain beetles using Karate 2.5WG (200 ml ha -1 ) or KarateZeon (50 ml ha -1 ), in 2012 and 2013, respectively. From October 2011 until August 2013, several soil chemical, physical and biological soil properties were monitored. Also several crop properties were analyzed. A time schedule of all measured parameters is given in Table ,5 m 1,5 m 15 m 12 m Control (11/ /2013) Control (10/ /2012) Biochar Control (10/ /2012) Control (11/ /2013) 3 m 1,5 m Biochar Control Biochar Biochar Control Figure 8.2 Field trial lay-out. 144

181 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Figure 8.3 After cultivating the field using a spading rotary cultivator, the biochar has been incorporated in the soil profile until a depth of 25 cm. Biochar spots are encircled. 145

182 Chapter 8 Table 8.2 Overview of the field trial measurements Measured variable a b a b Chemical ph, TOC, TN, PAN x x x x x NH /NO 3 x x x x x xx* x x x x x xx* x Hydraulic conductivity x x SWRC x x x x Bulk density x x x x Physical Aggregate stability x x Particle density x x VWC x x x x x x x x Soil temperature x x x x x x x x Biological PLFA x x Earthworms x Germinated seeds x Dry matter yield x x Crop hl weight x x N uptake x x P uptake x x TOC = total organic carbon, TN = total nitrogen, PAN = plant available nutrients (P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, Fe), SWRC = soil water retention curve, VWC = volumetric soil water contents measured with the water content reflectometer sensors, PLFA = phospholipid fatty acid, hl weight = grain hectolitre weight; a Soil chemical and physical properties were measured before tillage operations and sowing; b Soil chemical soil properties, soil water retention curves and bulk density were measured after harvest; * NH + 4 and NO – 3 concentrations were determined before and one week after fertilizer application. 146

183 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Weather data Daily average temperature and precipitation data were collected from the weather station located at the ILVO research institute, where the field trial is located Soil chemical properties Ten soil subsamples were collected (i) from the upper 25 cm layer of each plot (auger diameter = 30 mm) to form one composite sample for analyses of soil ph, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and plant available nutrients (PAN), and (ii) at depth intervals of 0-30, and cm (auger diameter = 30 or 20 mm for 0-60 or cm depth interval, respectively) to form one composite sample for analysis of mineral N concentrations (NH + 4 -N and NO – 3 -N). Soil ph was measured in a 1 M KCl solution (1:5 v:v) (ISO 10390). TOC content was measured on oven-dried (70 C) soil samples (ISO 10694) by dry combustion using a TOCanalyzer (Primacs SLC, Skalar, the Netherlands). TN content was also determined by means of dry combustion (Dumas principle, ISO 13878; Flash 4000, Thermo Scientific, US). Plant available nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe) were determined by shaking 5 g of air-dried soil in 100 ml ammonium lactate for four hours (Egnèr et al., 1960), followed by a 1 h destruction with 3.0 ml HCl (37%) and 1.0 ml HNO 3 (65%) in a microwave oven. The nutrients were measured using a CCD simultaneous ICP-OES (VISTA-PRO, Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Mineral N content was extracted (1:5 w:v) in a 1 M KCl solution (ISO ) and measured using a continuous flow analyzer (FIAstar 5000, Foss, Denmark). Concentrations expressed as mg N kg -1 soil were converted into kg N ha -1 for all layers by using the soil bulk density measured as described in section This bulk density was used for all three layers (0-30, 30-60, cm) Soil physical properties Soil bulk density and water retention curves (SWRC) were determined on undisturbed soil samples taken from each plot (2 replicates per plot) using Kopecky rings (h = 5.1 cm, r = 2.5 cm). The sampling depth was cm in October 2011 (after biochar application) and April 2013 (before tillage operations and sowing) and 5-10 cm in March 2012 (before 147

184 Chapter 8 tillage operations and sowing) and August 2012 (after harvest). Soil depths differed based on visual observations in the field of the biochar distribution in the top soil. In October 2011, March 2012 and August 2012, SWRCs were constructed at Ghent University (Department of Soil Management) by measuring soil water content at nine soil matric heads (-10 cm, -30 cm, -50 cm, -70 cm, -100 cm, -340 cm, cm and cm) following the procedure described by Cornelis et al. (2005). A sand box apparatus (Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment, Giesbeek, the Netherlands) was used for the matric heads ranging from -10 to -100 cm, while a pressure plate (Soilmoisture Equipment, Santa Barbara, California, US) was used for -340 to cm. Once equilibrium at -100 cm was reached, sample mass and soil height inside the ring were measured and four subsamples were taken from the Kopecky-ring. One subsample (20 30 g) was oven dried at 105 C for 24 hours, after which bulk density as well as water content on a volumetric basis at the pressures between -10 and -100 cm could be calculated. The other three subsamples were used to determine water content at the pressure heads -340 cm, cm and cm, using a pressure plate (Soilmoisture Equipment, Santa Barbara, California, US), following the procedure described by Cornelis et al. (2005). In April 2013, soil volumetric water content was determined at Wageningen UR (Alterra) at ten matric heads (-5 cm, -10 cm, -30 cm, -50 cm, -70 cm, -100 cm, -200 cm, -700 cm, cm, cm) using a sand box apparatus (for matric heads ranging from -5 cm to -100 cm; apparatus constructed at Alterra-Wageningen UR), a suction plate (-200 cm and -700 cm; ecotech, Bonn, Germany) and a pressure plate (-3000 cm and cm; Soilmoisture Equipment, Santa Barbara, California, US). Porosity (Φ) was calculated as: (1) where ρ b is the bulk density in g cm -3 and ρ s is the particle density in g cm -3, which was determined with the pycnometer method (Blake and Hartge, 1986). The water retention data were fitted using the function of van Genuchten (1980) using RETC (RETention Curve) software version 6.0 (van Genuchten et al., 1991): (2) 148

185 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response where θ is the volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) as function of the soil matric head h (cm) (taken as a positive value); θ r and θ s are the residual and saturated soil water contents (cm 3 cm -3 ), respectively, obtained by fitting the van Genuchten function to the measured retention data. Also α, n and m (= 1 1/n) are parameters obtained by fitting the van Genuchten function to the measured retention data, where α, related to the inverse of the air entry pressure, is expressed in cm -1 ; n and m, measures of the pore-size distribution, are dimensionless (Van Genuchten and Nielsen, 1985). Soil physical quality parameters were derived from the SWRC experiment. The soil quality indicators matrix porosity (MatPor), macroporosity (MacPor), air capacity (AC), plant available water capacity (PAWC) and relative water capacity (RWC) were calculated as follows (Reynolds et al., 2007): (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) where θ m (cm 3 cm -3 ) is the soil matrix porosity, which can be defined as the saturated volumetric water content of the soil matrix exclusive of macropores, as derived from the van Genuchten equation. In this study, θ m was determined at a matric head of -50 cm, which corresponds to matrix pore diameters of 60 µm. Macroporosity (MacPor) thus comprises pore diameters of > 60 µm. θ FC and θ PWP are the volumetric water contents at field capacity (h = -340 cm) and at permanent wilting point (h = ), respectively, as derived from the van Genuchten equation. Soil AC is an indicator of soil aeration, PAWC indicates the capacity of the soil to store and provide available water to plant roots, and RWC expresses the capacity of the soil to store water and air relatively to its total pore volume, as represented by θ s (Reynolds et al., 2007). Moreover, the S-index of Dexter (2004), a measure of soil microstructure used as a physical soil quality parameter, was calculated using the following equation: 149

186 Chapter 8 ( ) (8) where θ r, θ s and n are as expressed previously in the van Genuchten equation. A more negative S-value indicates a better physical soil quality. In October 2011 (one week after biochar application) and March 2012 (before tillage operations and sowing), soil samples (two per plot) were taken carefully using a trowel from the 0 20 cm layer in order to determine aggregate stability. Aggregate stability was determined on air-dried soil samples using the dry and wet sieving method of De Leenheer and De Boodt (1959), adjusted by Hofman (1973) as described by Leroy et al. (2008). The instability index was calculated as the difference between the mean weight diameter (MWD) of the dry sieving minus the MWD of the wet sieving. The inverse of the instability index, i.e. the stability index (SI), was taken as a measure of the stability of the aggregates (De Leenheer and De Boodt, 1959; De Boodt and De Leenheer, 1967). In October 2011 (one week after biochar application) and March 2012 (before tillage operations and sowing), infiltration rates were measured in the field at four pressure heads (-120, -60, -30 and -10 mm) using a tension-infiltrometer with Guelph-reservoir (Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment, Giesbeek, the Netherlands) (two measurements per plot), after which saturated hydraulic conductivity K(0) (cm s -1 ) and fitting parameter α (cm -1 ) were estimated through non-linear regression of q as a function of h, using SigmaPlot: where q(h) (cm s -1 ) is the steady-state infiltration rate at pressure head h as applied in the field and R is the tension-infiltrometer disc radius (cm). Hydraulic conductivity at pressure h can then be calculated as follows (Wooding, 1968; Logsdon and Jaynes, 1993; Verbist, 2012): Water content reflectometer sensors (two rods: length 120 mm, diameter 3.2 mm, spacing 32 mm; CS655, Campbell Scientific, USA) were installed vertically in the field (two per plot) at the 8-20 cm depth in order to monitor dielectric permittivity and soil temperature hourly. Soil water content and soil temperature were measured from 1/07/2012 until 150

187 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response 10/10/2012 and from 24/05/2013 until 6/08/2013. The sensors were temporarily removed from the 12 th until the 23 rd of August for the 2012 harvest, and from the 1 st to the 3 rd of July 2013, for insecticide application. In October 2012, the sensors were removed for calibration. In 2013, they were installed in the field after fertilizer application (May 2013). The sensors were calibrated in the lab in order to find the optimal field-specific relation between recorded permittivity and corresponding soil volumetric water content. For this calibration, five PVC-tubes (two for the control and three for the biochar treatment; d = 8.64 cm, h = 13 cm) were filled with air-dry soil (with known water content) sampled from the field trial (until a depth of 25 cm). While filling the tubes, field bulk density was respected. The soil was subsequently saturated by capillary rising, after which each tube was placed on a balance, and the weight was recorded. Each balance was connected to a datalogger, which recorded the balance readings whenever the weight changed 0.1% of the total weight of the column (through water evaporation). Water content reflectometer sensors, connected to a datalogger for measuring permittivity on minute basis, were put vertically into the soil, and the tubes were left evaporating until the balance readings stabilized over time. In this way, a calibration curve could be developed for each tube of the control and the biochar treatment. These calibration curves were then averaged for each treatment separately. Calibrated sensor readings were validated in the field by taking two composite samples (four soil subsamples per composite sample; auger diameter = 20 mm) close to each sensor (max. 50 cm from the sensor) at 8-20 cm depth three times during the 2013 growing season. Soil water content was determined gravimetrically by oven-drying during 24 hours at 105 C, after which volumetric water content (VWC) was calculated using soil bulk density as determined using Kopecky-rings at the cm soil layer in the same period of sampling for validation (June-July 2013). In order to assess the goodness of fit of the calibration curves, the Nash Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970) was calculated for each treatment (control and biochar), according to the following equation: in which Yi and are the observed and modeled values on day i, and is the mean of the observed values. Nash Sutcliffe efficiencies can range from to 1, with E = 1 being the 151

188 Chapter 8 optimal value. An efficiency of E = 0 indicates that the model predictions are as accurate as the mean of the observed data, whereas an efficiency less than zero (E < 0) occurs when the observed mean is a better predictor than the model (Moriasi et al. 2007). Furthermore, the correlation coefficient between the measured VWC and the permittivity derived VWC was calculated for the control and biochar treatment Soil biological properties Soil sampling for PLFA analysis occurred during the 2012 growing season in six biochar field trials across the North Sea region. In these field trials, the same biochar type was applied at the same biochar dose (20 t ha -1 on dry weight basis, except for Germany, where 20 t ha -1 was applied on fresh weight basis) as described above. Table 8.3 gives more information about these field trials and the PLFA sampling dates. For PLFA analysis 10 subsamples (0-25 cm) for one composite sample per plot were taken (auger diameter = mm) and immediately frozen at -20 C. The PLFA analysis procedure has been described in Chapter 4. For all countries, the number of replicates was four, except for the Netherlands, where it was three. The crop grown was spring barley in all countries, except for Germany, where it was winter wheat. Earthworm sampling (two samples per plot) took place during cereal flowering in June 2012 using mustard powder, based on Leroy et al. (2007). The day before sampling, 20 ml of water was added to 6 g of mustard powder, and the mixture was stirred overnight. Immediately prior to sampling, water was added to this paste until a volume of 0.8 L was reached and mixed thoroughly. A metal frame of 20 x 20 cm² was placed on the soil and all surface plant litter within the frame was removed. The mustard solution was then poured evenly across the frame. During the following 15 minutes, the emerging earthworms were collected. After 15 minutes, the soil in the quadrant (20 x 20 cm²) was excavated to a depth of 20 cm. The excavated soil was spread on a white plastic sheet and hand sorted to recover remaining earthworms. The worms were washed gently with water to remove all soil particles, air-dried and the number and mass of the worms per sample were determined. 152

189 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Table 8.3 Overview of European field trials, established within the Interreg IVB North Sea region project Biochar: climate saving soils, in which PLFAs were analyzed a. Country Field trial location Application date (MM/YYYY) Incorporation depth b Based on USDA soil texture triangle *Field was ploughed and biochar was mainly in the cm layer in rich veins. $ Estimate NDA = No data available Clay Silt Sand Organic Soil texture b (< 2 µm) (2-50 µm) ( µm) carbon C:N ph-kcl PLFA sampling date (cm) % % % % Belgium Merelbeke 10/ Sandy loam /06/2012 Denmark Roskilde 3/ Sandy loam /07/2012 Germany Lathen 10/ NDA /06/2012 Netherlands Valthermond 11/ Sand /06/2012 Norway Ås 5/ NDA /07/2012 UK Boghall 11/ * Loam$ 20$ 40$ 40$ /08/2012 a Personal communication (Denmark: H. Hauggaard-Nielsen, Germany: J.-M. Rödger, the Netherlands: R. Postma, Norway: A. O Toole, UK: J. Hammond) 153

190 Chapter Crop analyses In 2012, two weeks after sowing, germinated seeds were counted in two subplots of 1 m² in each plot. In both 2012 and 2013, fresh straw and grain yield was determined in August after harvesting an area of 10 x 1.5 m² in 2012 and 10 x m² in 2013 using a combine harvester. Dry matter straw and grain yield were determined by oven drying subsamples (± 200 g and ± 600 g for straw and grain per plot, respectively) at 70 C for 48 h, and hectolitre (hl) weight of the grains was determined (Aqua-TRII, Tripette & Renaud, France). Crop N concentration was determined according to ISO (Dumas method). Crop P concentration was determined using ICP-OES (CMA/2/I/B.1) after destructing plant material in a microwave oven using HNO 3 and H 2 O Statistical analyses Independent t-tests were used to test whether the biochar treatment was different from the control regarding soil chemical, physical and biological properties, except for mineral N and PLFA data. NH + 4 and NO – 3 data, and the sum of both, were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with treatment (control or biochar) and soil depth (0-30, and cm) as factors. Relative PLFA concentrations were analyzed using redundancy analysis (RDA, Chord distance) and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), with field trial location and treatment (control or biochar) as factors. In the RDA analysis, soil ph, plant available nutrients, TC and TN data (soil sampling occurred after harvest; soil sampling and analysis methods are described previously) are included as explanatory variables. Moreover, independent t-tests were used to test whether the relative abundance of a given PLFA in the biochar treatment was significantly different from the control for each field trial location individually. The sum of the absolute PLFA concentrations were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA with field trial location and treatment (control or biochar) as factors. The point-wise VWC measurements (as calculated from the permittivity results) can be treated as observations from separate underlying functions representing the true volumetric soil water content for each sensor over time. These functions were first estimated using penalized regression splines (Heckman and Ramsay, 2000), using a small smoothing parameter of λ = to maintain the interesting distinctive features in the observed data. 154

191 Precipitation (mm month -1 ) Temperature ( C) Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Next, individual point-wise bootstrap-based Student t-tests were performed at a 5% level of significance using the fitted values of these functions at each time point. 8.3 Results Weather data The ILVO station (Merelbeke/Lemberge) has a mean annual temperature of 10.7 C and a mean annual rainfall of 879 mm ( ). The 2012 growing season (April-August) was rather wet (Figure 8.4), especially in July. The first half of the 2013 growing season (April-May) was cold, while the second half (June-August) was warm and dry (Figure 8.4), except for some heavy rainfall events (Figure 8.11) Long-term average Long-term average Figure 8.4 Long-term ( ) average monthly precipitation (mm) and daily temperature ( C) in Merelbeke, Belgium, and monthly precipitation (mm) and average daily temperature ( C) data from October 2011 until August 2013 in Merelbeke, Belgium Chemical soil properties The soil ph-kcl is 6.4, while TOC and TN (at soil depth of 0 25 cm) are 0.9% and 0.07%, respectively (Table 8.4). Over two years, biochar addition to soil did not have a significant impact on soil chemical properties (P > 0.05), except for organic carbon content, which was, as expected, higher in the biochar treatment compared to the control (P 0.003). Also C:N ratios were significantly higher in the biochar treatments compared to the control (P 0.01), except for April 2013 (P = 0.07). The C:N ratio in August 2013 was 155

192 SOC content (%) Chapter 8 not changed compared to October 2011 in the biochar treatment (14.5 compared to 14.4; P- value independent t-test = 0.94). The theoretical amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) present in the biochar treatment for each sampling date can be calculated as the sum of the SOC in the control treatment plus the amount of C added to the soil through applying a biochar dose of 5.4 g kg -1 (carbon content = 68.1%). The amount of C added equals 3.7 g biochar-c kg -1 soil (= 0.37%) for the incorporation depth of 25 cm and a soil bulk density (as measured in October 2011) of 1.47 g cm -3. When comparing the measured and theoretical values of SOC in the biochar treatments, it is observed that the measured values are generally lower than those calculated theoretically, although only significantly in April 2013 (P < 0.05) (Figure 8.5). Neither NH + 4 nor NO – 3 concentrations were significantly influenced by biochar addition at any of the depths nor sampling dates (P > 0.05), except for NO concentrations at the 14 th of December at a depth interval of cm, which were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the biochar compared to the control treatment (Figure 8.6). In both 2012 and 2013, soil NH nor NO 3 concentrations had been determined just before and one week after fertilizer application; biochar did not affect these concentrations. Consequently, biochar did not affect soil mineral N directly in the upper layer (0-30 cm), and did not affect N leaching losses 1.5 Measured Theoretical /10/ /03/ /08/2012 2/04/ /08/2013 Figure 8.5 Measured and theoretical soil organic carbon contents (mean ± standard error; n = 4) in the biochar treatment at the different sampling dates. The theoretical SOC content is calculated as the sum of SOC in the control treatment plus the added biochar-c (3.7g biochar-c kg -1 soil). 156

193 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Table 8.4 Soil chemical properties in the control and biochar treatments as measured over time at a soil depth of 0-25 cm(mean ± standard error; n = 4). After biochar application 21/10/2011 ph-kcl OC TN C:N Mg Ca Mn Na P Fe K – % % mg kg -1 mg kg -1 mg kg -1 mg kg -1 mg kg -1 mg kg -1 mg kg -1 Control 6.38 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 5 Biochar 6.41 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 3 19 ± ± ± ± 5 Before sowing After harvest Before sowing 20/03/ /08/2012 2/04/2013 Control 6.32 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 9 19 ± ± ± ± 9 Biochar 6.39 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 6 21 ± ± ± ± 16 Control 6.39 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 12 9 ± ± ± ± 8 Biochar 6.39 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 7 10 ± ± ± ± 1 Control 6.22 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 6 19 ± ± ± ± 4 Biochar 6.15 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 7 19 ± ± ± ± 7 Control 6.50 ± ± ± ± 0.2 After harvest 14/08/2013 NDA NDA NDA NDA NDA NDA Biochar 6.36 ± ± ± ± 0.8 OC = Organic carbon; TN= Total nitrogen; NDA = No data available Data in bold indicate significant mean differences between the control and biochar treatments (P < 0.05). NDA 157

194 NH 4 + and NO3 – (kg N ha -1 ) NH 4 + and NO3 – (kg N ha -1 ) NH 4 + and NO3 – (kg N ha -1 ) Chapter 8 (a) cm Control NH Control NO Biochar NH Biochar NO B S F H S F H (b) cm Control NH Control NO Biochar NH Biochar NO (c) cm Control NH Control NO Biochar NH Biochar NO Figure 8.6 Mineral N (NH 4 + and NO 3 – ) concentrations in the control soil and biochar-amended treatment at a soil depth of (a) 0-30 cm, (b) cm and (c) cm; error bars indicate ± 1 standard error (n = 4). On the x-axis of Figure a, biochar application and incorporation (B), spring barley sowing (S), fertilizer application (F) and harvest (H) are indicated. 158

195 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Soil physical properties Neither bulk density, nor particle density or porosity were significantly affected (P > 0.2) by biochar addition in October 2011 and April However, there was a tendency for a higher porosity (P 0.06) and lower bulk density (P 0.06) in March and August 2012 (Table 8.5). Figure 8.7 shows the modeled and observed soil water retention curves for the control and biochar amended treatments in October 2011 (after biochar application), March 2012 (at the start of the growing season before tillage operations and sowing), August 2012 (after harvest) and April 2013 (at the start of the growing season before tillage operations and sowing). In October 2011, VWC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the biochar compared to the control treatment at high soil matric heads ranging from h = -10 cm to h = -100 cm. θ s and MatPor were significantly higher too (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively) in the biochar treatment. The other parameters (α, n, m, θ FC, θ PWP, θr, S-index, MacPor, AC, PAWC and RWC) were not significantly affected. In March and August 2012, none of the previously mentioned parameters was changed by biochar application. In April 2013, VWC was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the biochar treatment at soil matric heads between h = -50 cm to h = cm. Furthermore, α, n, θ FC, AC, PAWC and RWC were significantly increased (P < 0.05) (Table 8.5). The stability index, which is a measure for aggregate stability, was significantly higher (P = 0.02) in the biochar treatment compared to the control in March 2012, while this was not the case in October 2011 (Table 8.5). Hydraulic conductivity was not significantly (P > 0.06) affected by biochar addition (as determined by t-tests which were performed for each pressure head), although in October 2011 the mean hydraulic conductivity values tended to be higher in the biochar compared to the control treatment (P = ) (Figure 8.8). 159

196 Chapter 8 Table 8.5 Bulk density, particle density, porosity, van Genuchten parameters of the modeled soil water retention curve, derived soil quality indicators and stability index in the control and biochar treatments measured over two years ( ) (mean ± standard error; n = 8). Parameter October 2011 March 2012 August 2012 April 2013 Control Biochar Control Biochar Control Biochar Control Biochar Bulk density (g cm -3 ) 1.47 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.02 Particle density (g cm -3 ) 2.56 ± ± ± ± 0.01 NDA NDA NDA NDA Porosity (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.43 ± ± ± ± ± ± α (x 10-2 ) (cm -1 ) 0.96 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.05 n (-) 1.77 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 m (-) 0.43 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.03 θ s (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.39 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 θ FC (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.19 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 θ PWP (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.07 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 θ r (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.06 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 MatPor (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.35 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 MacPor (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.03 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 AC (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.20 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 PAWC (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.12 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 RWC (cm 3 cm -3 ) 0.49 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 S-index ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 Stability index (mm -1 ) 0.81 ± ± ± ± 0.06 NDA NDA NDA NDA NDA = No data available. Porosity in August 2012 and April 2013 was calculated using a particle density of 2.65 g cm -3. α, n and m are parameters obtained by fitting the van Genuchten equation to the measured retention data; θ s = saturated volumetric water content; θ FC = volumetric water content at field capacity; θ PWP = volumetric water content at permanent wilting point; θ r = residual volumetric water content; MatPor = matrix porosity; MacPor = macroporosity; AC = air capacity; PAWC = plant available water capacity; RWC = relative water capacity. Data in bold indicate significant mean differences between the control and biochar treatments (P < 0.05). 160

197 Volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) Volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) Volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) Effects of biochar on soil and crop response (a) (b) (c) Control 0.20 Biochar FC WP Soil matric head (cm) Control 0.20 Biochar FC WP Soil matric head (cm) Control 0.20 Biochar FC WP Soil matric head (cm) 161

198 Hydraulic conductivity K(h) (cm s -1 ) Hydraulic conductivity K(h) (cm s -1 ) Volumetric water content (cm 3 cm -3 ) Chapter 8 (d) Control Biochar 0.00 FC WP Soil matric head (cm) Figure 8.7 Observed volumetric water contents (symbols) at several pressure heads and modeled (lines) soil water retention curves for the control and biochar-amended treatments in (a) October 2011, (b) March 2012, (c) August 2012 and (d) April Soil matric heads at which field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) were measured are indicated on the x-axis; error bars indicate ± 1 standard error (n = 8). (a) Control Biochar (b) Pressure head h (m) Control Biochar Pressure head h (m) Figure 8.8 Hydraulic conductivity in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured in (a) October 2011 and (b) March 2012; error bars indicate ± 1 standard error (n = 8). 162

199 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response The calibration curves developed for the water content reflectometer measurements (Figure 8.9a) are: VWC(%) = *P *P *P (control treatment) VWC(%) = *P *P *P (biochar treatment) in which P is the dielectric permittivity as measured by the sensors. In Figure 8.9a, the Topp equation (Topp et al., 1980) is also added for comparison. Correlation coefficients between the measured VWC and the permittivity derived VWC were 0.84 and 0.89 for the control and biochar treatments, respectively, while the model efficiency coefficient E ranged between 0.82 and 0.88 (Figure 8.9b). Figures 8.10a and 8.11a show the hourly soil VWC results for 2012 and 2013, respectively. Whenever a permittivity value measured by a sensor in the field exceeded the highest permittivity value in the calibration curve (Figure 8.9a), this value was omitted from the dataset. In 2012, VWC was generally higher in the biochar than in the control treatment, but only significantly (P < 0.05) at certain moments, more specifically between the 15 th and 18 th of July 2012, and the 23 rd of August and 10 th of September (Figure 8.10b). However, no pattern can be observed between these moments (e.g. after a heavy rainfall event, during a dry period etc.). In 2013, differences between the control and biochar treatment were smaller and not significant (P > 0.05, Figure 8.11b). It should be noted that variation in measured permittivity was generally high between the sensors in both control and biochar treatment, which was likely due to a high variability in the field. Furthermore, standard errors were larger for the biochar than for the control treatment, especially in Figures 8.12a and 8.13a demonstrate the soil temperature results for 2012 and 2013, respectively. Differences in soil temperature between the biochar and control treatments were small, as the differences were larger than 0.2 C in only 9.6% and 8.4% of the observations, in 2012 and 2013, respectively (Figure 8.12b and 8.13b). These differences were generally maximal during in the afternoon, when soil temperature was the highest, but not consistently positive or negative and not significant (P > 0.05; Figure 8.12c and 8.13c). 163

200 Measured VWC (%) VWC (%) Chapter 8 (a) Control Biochar Topp (b) Permittivity (-) Permittivity derived VWC (%) Control R² = 0.84 E = 0.82 Biochar R² = 0.89 E = 0.88 Figure 8.9 Water content reflectometer sensors were calibrated in the lab in order to find the optimal field-specific relation between recorded permittivity and corresponding soil volumetric water content (VWC). (a) Topp equation and developed calibration curves for the control and biochar treatment (error bars indicate ± 1 standard error, n = 2 for the control and 3 for the biochar treatment); (b) Correlation between permittivity derived and measured VWC (error bars indicate ± 1 standard error, n = 8). The 1:1 line, correlation coefficients (R²) and model efficiency coefficients (E) are indicated. 164

201 P-value Vomumetric soil water content (%) Rainfall (mm h -1 ) Effects of biochar on soil and crop response (a) 50 Control 45 Biochar /07/ /07/ /08/ /08/ /09/2012 9/10/ (b) /07/ /07/ /08/ /08/ /09/2012 9/10/2012 Figure 8.10 (a) Soil volumetric water content in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured by reflectometer sensors in the field in 2012; error bars (in light-grey) indicate standard errors (n = 8). The y-axis at the right indicates hourly rainfall (mm h -1 ). (b) P-values resulting from the t-tests conducted to verify significant differences in VWC between the control and biochar treatment for The grey line indicates a P-value of

202 P-value Volumetric soil water content (%) Rainfall (mm h -1 ) Chapter 8 (a) 50 Control 45 Biochar /05/2013 7/06/ /06/2013 5/07/ /07/2013 2/08/ (b) /05/2013 7/06/ /06/2013 5/07/ /07/2013 2/08/2013 Figure 8.11 (a) Soil volumetric water content in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured by reflectometer sensors in the field in 2013; error bars (in light-grey) indicate standard errors (n = 8). The y-axis at the right indicates hourly rainfall (mm h -1 ). (b) P-values resulting from the t-tests conducted to verify significant differences in VWC between the control and biochar treatment for The grey line indicates a P-value of

203 P-value Soil temperature Biochar – Control ( C) Soil temperature ( C) Effects of biochar on soil and crop response (a) Control Biochar (b) 8 1/07/ /07/ /08/ /08/ /09/2012 9/10/ (c) /07/ /07/ /08/ /08/ /09/2012 9/10/ /07/ /07/ /08/ /08/ /09/2012 9/10/2012 Figure 8.12 (a) Hourly soil temperature in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured by reflectometer sensors in the field in 2012 (error bars in light-grey indicate standard errors; n = 8); (b) Difference in soil temperature between the biochar and control treatment in 2012; (c) P-values resulting from the t-tests conducted to verify significant differences in soil temperature between the control and biochar treatment for The grey line indicates a P-value of

204 P-value Soil temperature Biochar – Control ( C) Soil temperature ( C) Chapter 8 (a) Control Biochar (b) 5 24/05/2013 7/06/ /06/2013 5/07/ /07/2013 2/08/ (c) /05/2013 7/06/ /06/2013 5/07/ /07/2013 2/08/ /05/2013 7/06/ /06/2013 5/07/ /07/2013 2/08/2013 Figure 8.13 (a) Hourly soil temperature in the control and biochar-amended treatments as measured by reflectometer sensors in the field in 2013 (error bars in light-grey indicate standard errors; n = 8); (b) Difference in soil temperature between the biochar and control treatment in 2013; (c) P-values resulting from the t-tests conducted to verify significant differences in soil temperature between the control and biochar treatment for The grey line indicates a P-value of

205 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Biological soil properties No significant difference was found between the control and biochar treatments regarding number of earthworms (P = 0.50) and earthworm biomass (P = 0.56) per square meter (Table 8.6). Table 8.6 Number of earthworms and earthworm biomass in the control and biochar treatment (mean ± standard error; n = 8). As the PERMANOVA analysis for the relative PLFA data (expressed as mol % PLFA-C) showed a significant interaction between field trial location and treatment (P = 0.04), the analysis was repeated for each field trial location separately. These analyses show that only for Scotland (Great Britain) the soil microbial community structure was significantly different between the control and biochar treatments (P = 0.03). However, the t-tests show that some individual PLFAs were significantly different in the biochar compared to the control soil in four countries, but no trends could be observed, except for fungal PLFAs, which were nowhere significantly affected by biochar addition (Table 8.7). In the Netherlands, four out of five of the gram-negative bacterial biomarkers were significantly affected (positive or negative) by biochar. The RDA triplot indicates that the variation in soil microbial community structure between field trial locations can be partly explained by the soil chemical parameters measured (Figure 8.14). For example, soil carbon content in the Netherlands was high, while soil ph was so in Denmark, which can be correlated to differences in soil microbial community structure between these countries. Furthermore, the triplot indicates that soil microbial community structure was rather similar in Scotland, Norway, and Denmark, as these countries are located together. In contrast, variation was larger between Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. The sum of the absolute PLFA concentrations (expressed as mol PLFA-C g -1 soil), which is indicative for the amount of microbial biomass, was not significantly affected by biochar in none of the countries (data not shown). Number of Earthworm earthworms m -2 biomass (g m -2 ) Control ± ± 1.7 Biochar 78.1 ± ±

206 Chapter 8 Table 8.7 Mean relative abundance (mol % PLFA-C) of individual PLFAs in the control and biochar treatment (± standard error; n = 4, except for the Netherlands, where n = 3). Community PLFA Belgium Denmark Germany the Netherlands Norway Scotland Control Biochar Control Biochar Control Biochar Control Biochar Control Biochar Control Biochar Gram-positive bacteria i-c14: ± ± 0.02 * 1.55 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.08 i-c15: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.07 *** a-c15: ± ± ± ± 0.10 * 6.99 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.24 i-c16: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.16 i-c17: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.03 * 2.16 ± ± ± ± 0.05 a-c17: ± ± ± ± 0.03 ** 1.40 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.06 Gram-negative bacteria C16:1ω7c 8.82 ± ± ± ± 0.11 * 6.51 ± ± ± ± 0.12 * 8.07 ± ± ± ± 0.09 C16:1ω7t 1.69 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.14 C17:0cy 4.67 ± ± 0.07 * 4.08 ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.15 * 3.99 ± ± ± ± 0.09 C18:1ω7c ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.32 ** ± ± ± ± 0.26 C19:0cy 4.09 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 1.53 * 4.52 ± ± ± ± 0.13 ** Actinomycetes 10Me-C16: ± ± ± ± 0.15 * 4.49 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Me-C17: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Me-C18: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.04 * 2.11 ± ± ± ± 0.21 Fungi C18:1ω9c 5.88 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.15 C18:2ω6,9c 6.26 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.19 AM Fungi C16:1ω5c 5.84 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.32 Non-specific bacteria C14: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.03 C15: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.02 C16: ± ± 0.14 * ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.22 C17: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.02 * 0.57 ± ± ± ± 0.05 C18: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.05 Data in bold indicate significant mean differences between the control and biochar treatments per field trial location (*: P<0.05; **: P<0.01; ***:P<0.001). AM Fungi = Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi 170

207 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response Figure 8.14 Two-dimensional ordination of the PLFA microbial communities in the experimental biochar (blue) and control (red) plots using Redundancy Analysis (RDA, Chord distance) and fitted vectors for chemical soil properties (NL: the Netherlands, DE: Germany, NO: Norway, DK: Denmark, GB: Great Britain (Scotland), BE: Belgium). Significant correlations between the ordination and vectors are indicated by an asterix (*: P <0.05; **: P < 0.01***: P<0.001). Only PLFAs ( RDA species ) with a RDA axis score >1 are plotted on the triplot Crop analyses At the start of the 2012 growing season there were 360 ± 7 and 350 ± 9 germinated seeds m -2 (mean ± standard error; n = 8) for the control and biochar treatment, respectively. The difference was not significantly different (P = 0.41). No significant differences (P > 0.30) were found between the control and biochar treatments regarding the dry matter straw and grain yield, P and N concentrations in grain and straw and grain hl weight, in none of the growing seasons (Table 8.8). 171

208 Chapter 8 Table 8.8 Grain and straw dry matter yield, P and N concentration and hl weight in the control and biochar treatment (mean ± standard error; n = 4) 2012 Treatment Grain Dry matter yield (t ha -1 ) P (%) N (%) hl weight (kg hl -1 ) Dry matter yield (t ha -1 ) P (%) N (%) Control 5.90 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 Biochar 5.87 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.02 Straw 2013 Control 4.87 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.04 Biochar 4.48 ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

209 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response 8.4 Discussion The effect of biochar on soil properties In the first two years after biochar application, biochar did not affect soil chemical quality, except for, as expected, soil organic carbon content and the C:N ratio. There is a trend for a lower measured SOC content than theoretically calculated, although this was only significant in April This could be due to a deeper biochar incorporation than sampling depth (25 cm), through which the biochar concentration has been diluted, or to biochar losses through water (both laterally and leaching losses) or wind processes. However, these hypotheses are unlikely, as already immediately after biochar incorporation, measured SOC content was lower than what was theoretically expected, and biochar was not observed deeper than 25 cm. Furthermore wind losses did not occur during biochar application as biochar was (i) wetted before application and (ii) immediately after application incorporated. Other hypotheses are a heterogeneous biochar distribution in the soil profile or displacement of the biochar laterally due to tillage operations. The latter had been observed after biochar incorporation in 2011, when also maize stubble was incorporated. At that time, biochar was horizontally dragged together with the maize stubble. As soil C:N ratio in August 2013 was not changed compared to October 2011, the biochar proves to be stable under field circumstances. The labile C fraction of the biochar amounted 3.95 mg C g -1 biochar-c (= 0.4%) 381 days after the start of the incubation experiment, but not all labile C had been mineralized when the experiment was stopped (Chapter 2). Just after biochar application in autumn (October 2011), it was expected that soil mineral N would be immobilized, but that this effect would be transient and vanished by the start of the 2012 growing season. Unlike hypothesized, biochar did not influence soil mineral N concentrations, neither immediately after biochar application, nor during winter and the growing season. However, despite not affecting net mineral N availability, accelerated N cycling has been shown just after biochar application in October 2011, thereby increasing N bio-availability through increased gross mineralization and nitrification rates (Chapter 4). This available N was quickly biotically immobilized. One year after biochar addition, results show that these effects are temporarily, probably due to the transient effects of biochar ph and labile C fraction (Chapter 4). Bulk soil ph was not affected by biochar addition, despite the fact that biochar s ph-kcl is more than 2 units higher than the soil ph 173

210 Chapter 8 (8.6 compared to 6.4). However, ph measurements of bulk soils do not reflect ph values experienced by microorganisms located around biochar particles (Lehmann et al., 2011). + In an Italian field trial 14 months after biochar application, it was observed that NH 4 availability was reduced in the biochar treatment compared to the control (17 mg N kg -1 in the 60 t biochar ha -1 treatment compared to 69 mg N kg -1 in the control), while this was not – the case for NO 3 (Castaldi et al., 2011). In contrast to our results, Castaldi et al. (2011) observed a significant increase in soil ph three months after the application of a woody biochar type (ph-h 2 O 7.2) to a silty-loam soil (ph-h 2 O 5.4), while 11 months later, the difference was not significant anymore. It should be noted, however, that Castaldi et al. (2011) applied a higher dose compared to our experiment (30 or 60 t ha -1 compared to 20 t ha -1 in our experiment). Also Jones et al. (2012) showed that the biochar ph-effect is transient, as the ph-h 2 O of three year field-aged biochar was significantly lower than the ph of fresh biochar (6.70 and 8.81, respectively). Unlike our 2012 results, Jones et al. (2012) did not detect differences in soil bulk density three years after biochar addition in a UK field trial, probably because, soil bulk density was already rather low (1.0 g cm -3 ). Immediately after biochar application, in October 2011, VWC at high matric heads was increased with biochar addition, and consequently θ s and MatPor were so. In this study, MatPor comprises matrix pore diameters of 60 µm (which corresponds to matric heads -50 cm), while MacPor comprises pore diameters of > 60 µm. As at matric heads < -100 cm, corresponding to pore diameters < 30 µm (Reynolds et al., 2007), no significant differences were found in measured VWC between the control and biochar treatments, the increase in MatPor was due to an increase in pore diameters between 30 and 60 µm. However, in March and August 2012, no differences in VWC were found anymore. In contrast, bulk density was decreased and porosity increased at those moments. In October 2011, surprisingly this was not the case although the soil water retention curve was affected at that time. In October 2011, Kopecky-rings were taken one week after biochar application and soil cultivation, therefore the soil was disturbed at that time. Despite no effect on soil bulk density, in April 2013, VWC was increased with biochar application at soil matric heads ranging from h = -50 cm to h = , resulting in increase of θ FC, AC, PAWC and RWC, indicating a better soil aeration and water storage capacity. The S-index was slightly but significantly decreased in the biochar treatment compared to the control, indicating that soil physical quality was improved. θ PWP was not influenced by biochar addition at none of the sampling moments, 174

211 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response indicating that biochar-treated soil would not retain more water in periods of drought. Overall, our results show a complex interaction between soil water retention curve, time after biochar application and time of tillage operations. Each half year, the soil was cultivated; therefore possibly effects on bulk density and porosity were non-consistent. However, the results from April 2013 indicate that biochar develops capacity to retain more soil water over time, but this was not due to increased porosity. This finding was not supported by the VWC results as measured with reflectometer sensors in 2013 (Figure 8.11a), which are in agreement with findings from Case et al. (2013) and Karhu et al. (2011). Case et al. (2013) found in a UK field trial that biochar amendment did not significantly affect soil gravimetric water content (measured at 0-6 cm soil depth) during the first two years after biochar application, and also Karhu et al. (2011) observed no significant differences in soil gravimetric water content (measured at 0-5 cm soil depth) in a Finnish biochar field trial (9 t ha -1 ) the first six weeks after biochar application. During the 2012 growing season, VWC (measured at the 8-20 cm soil depth interval) was increased after biochar application in our study, although only significantly on a few moments. Differences in VWC between the control and biochar treatment were smaller in 2013 despite lower VWC values that year. Standard errors were generally higher in the biochar compared to the control treatment in both 2012 and 2013, possibly due to a heterogeneous biochar particle distribution across the soil depth. This might be the reason why only few significant differences were found in VWC between the control and biochar treatment although VWC was consistently higher in the biochar plots in It can be calculated how many sensors would have to be installed in the field in order to find more significant differences. The amount of replicates needed to find a significant difference between two treatments, with a probability of 1 – α (or greater) to identify correctly the treatment with the highest mean, can be calculated using the formula for determining the sample size to find the treatment with the highest or lowest mean: when 1 α = 0.95, or when 1 α =

212 Chapter 8 in which λ is the smallest difference between the treatment means that is important to recognize, n is the number of replicates, and σ is the standard deviation. These formulas are valid when the number of treatments is two (Bechhofer, 1954; Kutner et al., 2005). The average standard deviation of the VWC in the biochar treatment was 4.78% in 2012 and 3.30% in The average difference between the VWC measured in the biochar and control treatment was 2.98% in 2012 and 1.06% in Table 8.9 shows that the number of replicates (thus sensors) needed to obtain significant differences given the standard deviation and average difference between the treatments equals 14 in 2012 (under wet circumstances) and 52 in 2013 (under dry circumstances), when1 α equals When 1 α decreases, the number of replicates for a certain λ decrease. It has to be noticed that this is an approximation, as standard deviations were not equal for the control and biochar treatment. Table 8.9 Sample size (n) calculations for a given standard deviation σ and a certain λ, which is the smallest difference between the treatment means that is important to recognize. 1 – α = α = 0.90 σ λ n σ λ n λ in bold indicates the average difference between the VWC measured in the biochar and control treatment. Despite R²-values of 0.84 and 0.89, and E-values of 0.82 and 0.88, the reflectometer sensor validation results show that the difference between measured and permittivity derived VWC varies between 0 and 5.9% VWC. This is probably mainly due to a high variability in the field, to which the sensor measurements are likely more sensitive compared to the gravimetric measurements. Errors induced by the calibration curves and the bulk density used to convert gravimetric to volumetric water content could also play a role. However, despite the high variation in measured permittivity between the sensors, there is a good correspondence between the average permittivity derived VWC and the measured VWC measurements (Figure 8.9b). 176

213 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response In our study, the significant increase in stability index with biochar addition five months after biochar application compared to the control points to more stable aggregates in this treatment. Furthermore, a better soil structure could have contributed to the better soil water retention observed in April Biochar could affect soil aggregation due to interactions with soil organic matter, minerals and microorganisms. For example, aged biochar could potentially act as a binding agent of organic matter and minerals as it has a high CEC (Verheijen et al., 2010). Possibly this occurred in our field trial, and would be in correspondence with findings from Brodowski et al. (2006). They concluded that biochar could contribute to the formation and stabilization of microaggregates. However, in our study the stability indices were reduced in March 2012 compared to at the start of the field trial, in October Hydraulic conductivity measurements showed a similar trend, as also hydraulic conductivity was lower in March 2012 compared to October This can be explained by differences in soil disturbance (disturbed in October 2011 due to tillage operations while undisturbed in March 2012). Just after biochar application, hydraulic conductivity tended to increase in the biochar compared to the control treatment, which can possibly be related to the higher VWCs in the biochar compared to the control treatment at high soil matric heads ranging from h = -10 cm to h = -100 cm. Despite the positive effect of biochar on the stability index in March 2012, saturated hydraulic conductivity was not significantly affected by biochar addition at that time, which is in agreement with findings from Laird et al. (2010). In contrast, Ayodele et al. (2009) found an increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity under charcoal site soils compared to an adjacent soil. Overall, in the first year after application, biochar addition to soil seems to improve soil physical quality to a certain extent, through reducing soil bulk density, increasing porosity, and improving soil aggregation. However, this was not (yet) reflected in improved hydraulic conductivity and increased plant available water availability. During the second year after biochar application, the soil water retention characteristics were positively affected by biochar addition, possibly due to a better soil structure, although the continuously measured VWC was not influenced by biochar. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) are essential structural components of the cell membranes of all living cells. They are synthesized during microbial growth and, in general, rapidly decompose after cell death. Therefore, the concentration of total PLFAs is a measure of the microbial biomass, and the individual fatty acids provide details about the groups of organisms or community structure (Burns, 2011). In this way, it can be investigated 177

214 Chapter 8 whether biochar influences the presence of (arbuscular mycorrhizal) fungi, actinomycetes, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in soil. Biochar could change the microbial community structure by inducing an altered soil environment through changing the resource base (e.g., available C, nutrients, water) or abiotic factors (e.g., ph, toxic elements), or through providing a different habitat (Lehmann et al., 2011). However, our results from six different field trials across the North Sea region show that biochar application in the field trials did not clearly affect the soil microbial community structure during the 2012 growing season. In some countries, certain bacterial biomarker PLFAs were significantly affected, but the amount of microbial biomass was not significantly changed, which was not surprising as soil chemical and physical characteristics were hardly influenced at that time. It was remarkable that fungal biomarker PLFAs were not significantly affected by biochar addition. Fungi are often hypothesized to be positively affected by biochar addition. For example, Lehmann et al. (2011) mention that the two most commonly occurring types of mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal) are often positively affected by the presence of biochar. Possibly in the short term, biochar stimulated soil microbial activity and/or changed microbial community structure through its labile C fraction and ph-effect, but in the longer term, these effects have vanished as they are transient (Chapter 4). Except for soil microbial life, also the number of earthworms m -2 and earthworm biomass were not affected by biochar addition. From the limited number of studies investigating the effect of biochar on earthworm activity, which show contrasting results, it can be concluded that the earthworm response is function of both soil and biochar properties (Weyers and Spokas, 2011) The effect of biochar on crop yield and properties Biochar addition to soil did not affect crop yield and properties in the first two years after biochar application. This was not surprising, as biochar addition to soil did not affect soil chemical, physical and biological properties to a large extent. Our results are in agreement with findings from Hammond et al. (2013), in which seven field trials in the UK are discussed. In most cases, no significant effect from biochar addition on crop yield was observed. Also Jones et al. (2012) did not find an effect on growth performance of maize the first year after biochar application (25 or 50 t ha -1 ). In contrast, in the second year of the same study (Jones et al., 2012), foliar N content of a grass crop was increased after biochar addition, but no effect on dry matter yield was observed. In the third year, a 178

215 Effects of biochar on soil and crop response significant increase in dry grass biomass production was observed with biochar addition, while there was no effect on foliar or grain N content. The contrasting results between maize and grass are partly explained by the differences in rooting depth. Possibly also in our field trial, spring barley rooted too deep to take advantage of the biochar present in the 0-25 cm layer. Nevertheless, other authors show that also a deep rooting crop can take advantage of biochar application. Vaccari et al. (2011) observed already in the first year after biochar application (30 and 60 t ha -1 ) an increased aboveground wheat biomass and grain yield, while no effect on N concentration was observed. These effects were confirmed in the second year. Suggested explanations were an increase in soil ph, higher soil temperatures during seed germination, reduced weed competition, and mitigation of drought effects. Also Baronti et al. (2010) observed increased aboveground wheat biomass but no effect on grain biomass the first year after biochar application of 10 t ha -1 in an Italian field trial. Suggested explanations were improved soil water conditions, reduced nutrient leaching, and improved soil structure and aggregate formation. In contrast, a field experiment with maize did not reveal significant differences between the control and biochar treatment (Baronti et al., 2010). Our data suggest that biochar addition would not promote seed germination or youth growth due to its effect on soil temperature, as no consistent higher soil temperature in the biochar treatment (compared to the control) at lower temperatures was observed. However, it has to be noted that soil temperature in our field experiment was measured at 8-20 cm, possibly too deep to observe an effect. In contrast, Vaccari et al. (2011) observed increased soil temperature at 5 cm of soil depth in the biochar (30 or 60 t ha -1 ) compared to the control treatment. Soil water content was increased in the biochar compared to the control treatment in 2012, although mostly not significantly, but this was not translated into a positive effect on crop biomass as soil water contents were generally rather high. In contrast, in 2013, when soil water contents were lower compared to 2012, biochar did not affect soil water content. Soil physical parameters seemed to be positively affected by biochar addition over time, but not sufficiently to be translated into higher crop yields. 8.5 Conclusion In the first two years after application, addition of a woody biochar type did not affect soil quality to a large extent. Soil chemical and biological parameters were not affected by 179

216 Chapter 8 biochar addition, except for soil organic carbon, the C:N ratio and some bacterial biomarker PLFAs. Fungal biomarker PLFAs were not influenced by biochar addition. Biochar increased soil VWC in 2012, although mostly not significantly. Differences in VWC between the control and biochar treatment were smaller in 2013 despite lower VWC values that year. This indicates that the biochar used does not improve water retention during drought periods. The soil water retention curves measured in the first year after biochar application indicate that biochar does not increase the amount of plant available water. However, 18 months after biochar addition, the SWRC was positively affected by biochar addition, which was reflected in a better soil aeration and PAWC. Our data cannot confirm that biochar application can promote youth growth due to a positive effect on soil temperature, although our sensors were possibly installed too deep (8-20 cm) to observe an effect. To conclude, despite some positive effects from biochar on soil physical properties, biochar did not influence crop yield and quality the first two years after biochar application. Possibly the Flemish soil type used in this study was too fertile (compared to highly weathered tropical soils) to respond positively to biochar addition, although the soil had a low organic carbon content. Furthermore, biochar may not have been weathered sufficiently to show positive effects on soil quality and consequently crop yield. Longerterm results are needed to verify this hypothesis. 180

217 181

218 182

219 CHAPTER 9 9 General discussion and conclusions Biochar production and application to soil is often associated with raising agricultural productivity while mitigating climate change, as biochar could affect soil properties and processes, carbon could be sequestered, and as bioenergy is produced during pyrolysis. Especially in (tropical) highly weathered soils, biochar has shown positive effects on soil properties and crop yields, but it is uncertain whether the same positive effects can be obtained in (temperate) more fertile soils. Therefore the main aim of this research was to get a better understanding of the effect of biochar on soil chemical, physical and biological properties, crop growth, and soil greenhouse gas emissions in typical agricultural northwestern European soils. Lab, pot and field experiments were conducted to gain insight into biochar effects on plant and soil. In this chapter, the results from Chapters 2 to 8 are synthesized, and general conclusions are drawn. Feedback is given to the initial formulated hypotheses (Section 1.5.2), being: Hypothesis 1: Biochar application to soil would accelerate N cycling and this effect would persist through time. Hypothesis 2: Biochar addition to soil (i) decreases soil bulk density and increases porosity, (ii) improves plant available water capacity and (iii) improves soil quality as expressed in terms of indicators derived from the soil water retention curves. Hypothesis 3: Biochar addition to soil reduces both N 2 O and NO emissions. Hypothesis 4: Biochar addition to soil (i) reduces soil mineral N availability in the short term, (ii) improves soil physical quality through decreasing soil bulk density and increasing porosity, (iii) increases volumetric soil water content, especially during dry periods, (iv) changes soil microbial community structure, and (v) increases crop growth in the longer term. To end this chapter, suggestions for future research are proposed. 183

220 Chapter Biochar characterization In this PhD research, a range of biochar types was used to investigate the effect of biochar on soil properties and processes and crop growth. The biochar characterization shows that both feedstock and pyrolysis temperature influence biochar properties to a large extent. For a given feedstock, at higher pyrolysis temperatures biochar ph and CEC increase, while volatile matter and H:C ratios decrease as biochar stability increases. This is confirmed by the labile C results of the biochar, which decrease when pyrolysis temperature increases. The labile C fraction was highest for the maize-350 C biochar, while the woody biochar types showed to be more stable. 9.2 Biochar effects on plant and soil Soil chemical properties Soil N cycling The incubation and pot experiments (Chapter 7) have shown that the application of woody biochar types can cause a reduction in soil mineral N availability in the short term, which corresponds with our hypothesis (Hypothesis 4-i). The labile C fraction of biochar was not responsible for this observation, as these fractions were too small for the biochars tested. However, other microbial stimulating processes induced by biochar, e.g. a change in soil ph, could possibly increase total microbial abundance or activity (Lehmann et al., 2011), thereby consuming more N and thus immobilizing N biotically. Other hypotheses put forward are non-electrostatic N sorption or volatilization of NH 3. The 15 N-experiment with maize biochars (Chapter 3) also demonstrated reduced mineral N availability in the biochar treatments compared to the control. In contrast, mineral N concentrations measured in the field trial, in which a woody biochar type was applied, showed that biochar addition to soil does not affect mineral N availability, neither in the short nor in the longer term. However, it has to be noted that the mineral N concentrations in the field trial were very low compared to the mineral N concentrations in the maize biochar 15 N experiment, incubation-pot experiments and greenhouse gas experiment (Table 9.1). Maybe for this reason, no net reduced mineral N availability was observed in the biochar treatment compared to the control in the field trial. 184

221 General discussion and conclusions Table 9.1 Overview of mineral N concentrations at the end of the different experiments. It is indicated whether biochar addition to soil caused a significant N reduction at the end of the experiment at P < 0.05 (reduction = X; no reduction = O). Biochar type Biochar dose Chapter Type of experiment Soil type (g kg -1 ) Feedstock Temperature ( C) 3 15 N tracing 10 Maize 350, 550 Loamy sand 29.3 X 4 15 N tracing short-term 10.9 O 5 Wood mixture 480 Sandy loam 4 15 N tracing long-term 3.4 O 6 Incubation 5 Several Silt loam 7 Incubation 10 Willow-Pine 450, 550, 650 Sandy loam 7 Pot (radish) 10 Willow-Pine 450, 550, 650 Sandy loam NH NO 3 in control at end experiment (mg N kg -1 ) Significant N reduction in biochar treatment(s) at end experiment? 90.9 X 79.9 X 96.4 X 19.3 X 30.6 X 61.0 X 18.9* X 28.0* X 8 Field 5 Wood mixture 480 Sandy loam < 12** O *These values are the sum of the mineral N concentration and crop N uptake at the end of the experiment. **12 mg N kg -1 soil is the maximum amount of mineral N measured in the field trial between October 2011 and August The 15 N-tracing experiments with maize biochars (Chapter 3) suggested that in the short term, biochar addition to soil stimulated mineralization of more complex SOC, thereby increasing soil N bioavailability. However, this available mineral N was quickly biotically immobilized. Furthermore, nitrification rates were increased with biochar addition. Also the short-term field trial 15 N-tracing experiment showed accelerated N cycling after biochar addition (Chapter 4), confirming our initial formulated hypothesis (Hypothesis 1). In contrast, in the longer term, these effects faded, probably due to the transient effects of biochar labile C fraction and high ph (Chapter 4), which is in contrast to our hypothesis that accelerated N cycling would persist through time. When the abovementioned experiments are compared, we conclude that most likely, biochar affects soil mineral N availability in the short term due to (i) biotic N immobilization, possibly but not necessarily caused by the labile C fraction of biochar, as it was shown in Chapter 7 that biochar labile C fractions were too small to explain the reduced N availability after biochar application, (ii) abiotic N immobilization due to physicochemical properties of biochar and (iii) volatilization of NH 3. The field trial results (Chapter 8) show that, at least for the wood mixture biochar, in the longer term, biochar does not affect the soil N cycle. In case mineral N availability was reduced through trapping mineral N containing water in biochar micropores, it is unknown whether and when this mineral N could be released again. 185

222 Chapter Soil ph Despite the high ph of biochar, bulk soil ph was not always significantly affected by biochar addition (Table 9.2). There was a trend for a higher increase in soil ph after biochar application in low ph soils while at more neutral soil ph, this was not the case as observed in the biochar field trial. However, it cannot be excluded that elevated ph microsites close to biochar particles occur and affect soil processes, despite biochar having no effect on bulk soil ph. Through affecting soil ph, biochar can influence several soil processes. For the incubation experiment (Chapter 7), it was hypothesized that stimulated NH 3 volatilization in elevated ph micro-sites close to biochar particles could have contributed to reduced N availability after biochar application. Furthermore, at higher ph, denitrification yields relatively less N 2 O leading to a lower N 2 O:N 2 ratio, through which N 2 O emissions could be reduced (Chapter 6). The 15 N tracing experiments showed that gross nitrification rates were increased after biochar application, probably due to an increased soil ph enhancing NH 3 availability (Chapter 3). Table 9.2 Overview of soil ph-kcl, biochar ph-kcl, and soil ph-kcl after biochar addition. Data in bold indicate whether biochar addition to soil caused a significant ph-increase at P < Chapter Feedstock Temperature ( C) N tracing 10 Maize Loamy sand N tracing short-term Wood mixture 480 Sandy loam N tracing long-term Type of experiment Pot (radish, unfertilized) Biochar dose (g kg -1 ) 10 Willow Pine Biochar type Soil type Soil ph-kcl Biochar ph-kcl Soil ph-kcl after biochar application Sandy loam Field 5 Wood mixture 480 Sandy loam Soil physics It was expected that biochar application to soil would improve soil physical properties through decreasing soil bulk density and increasing porosity, thereby improving plant available water content (Hypothesis 2). In the lab experiment (Chapter 5), no effects on soil water retention characteristics and its derived physical soil quality parameters were detected, except for water contents at high matric heads which were decreased in a sandy loam soil with biochar addition. This was probably caused by increased permeability at 186

223 General discussion and conclusions volumetric water contents very close to saturation, for example after a heavy rainfall event, in this soil type. Our results contradict our initial formulated hypotheses, being an increased plant available water capacity and physical soil quality with biochar addition. In the field trial (Chapter 8), a complex interaction between soil physical parameters, time after biochar application and time of tillage operations was observed. Effects on bulk density, porosity and soil water retention curves were non-consistent over time, possibly due to the tillage operations that took place each half year. Despite some positive effects of biochar on soil physical properties, generally biochar did not improve soil water content as measured by the reflectometer sensors significantly, even not during dry periods. This was confirmed by the soil water retention curves measured in the first year after biochar application, and disproves the hypothesis that biochar could increase the amount of plant available water. However, 18 months after biochar addition in the field, the soil water retention curve was positively affected by biochar addition, possibly due to a better soil structure and aggregation in the biochar treatment, although this was not confirmed by the continuously measured volumetric water contents. It was remarkable that standard errors for VWC were generally higher in the biochar compared to the control treatment in both 2012 and 2013, possibly due to a heterogeneous biochar particle distribution across the soil depth, through which only few significant differences were found in VWC between the control and biochar treatment. The initial formulated hypotheses (Hypothesis 4-ii,iii), being improved soil physical quality through decreased soil bulk density and increasing porosity and increased volumetric soil water content after biochar application in the field, can be partially accepted Soil biology Unlike hypothesized (Hypothesis 4-iv), results from six different field trials across the North Sea region show that application of a woody biochar type did not clearly affect the soil microbial community structure during the 2012 growing season. In some countries, certain bacterial biomarker PLFAs were significantly affected, but the amount of microbial biomass was not significantly changed, which was not surprising as soil chemical and physical characteristics were hardly influenced at that time. It was remarkable that fungal biomarker PLFAs were not significantly affected by biochar addition. Possibly in the short term, biochar stimulated soil microbial activity and/or changed microbial community 187

224 Chapter 9 structure through its labile C fraction and ph-effect, but in the longer term, these effects have vanished as they are transient (Chapter 4). Not much is known about biochar effects on soil macrofauna. However, evidence exists that biochar would positively influence earthworms, but generally contrasting results show that earthworm response is function of both soil and biochar properties (Weyers and Spokas, 2011). We observed in the field experiment that earthworm abundance was not affected by addition of a woody biochar type N 2 O and NO emissions As expected (Hypothesis 3), biochar addition to soil reduced N 2 O emissions compared to the control soil when urea and NO – 3 fertilizers were applied with on average 52% and 84%, respectively. Pyrolysis temperature affected the extent of the N 2 O emission decrease. Also NO emissions were reduced after biochar addition in the urea, NH + 4 and NO – 3 fertilizer treatments with on average 47%, 53% and 67%, respectively. Furthermore, also mineral N availability was reduced in the biochar treatments compared to the control. We hypothesize that decreased N 2 O and NO emissions were mediated by multiple interacting phenomena: + stimulated NH 3 emissions, microbial N immobilization, non-electrostatic sorption of NH 4 and NO – 3, and ph effects. Despite this effect being favorable for climate change mitigation, more research is needed to study whether the same effect would be obtained under field conditions and when lower N fertilizer doses are applied. Furthermore, longer-term results are needed to verify the short-term effects Plant growth Pot trial results showed reduced plant growth in the short term after addition of woody biochar types to soil due to reduced NO – 3 availability in the biochar treated soils. This effect was biochar feedstock (willow or pine) and pyrolysis temperature dependent. However, under field circumstances, the addition of a woody biochar type to soil did not affect spring barley grain or straw yield, nor N or P uptake during the first two years after biochar application. These results are in in contrast to our hypothesis of increased crop growth in the longer term (Hypothesis 4-v). However, our study shows relatively short- 188

225 General discussion and conclusions term results, and long-term data are needed to confirm these first findings. Furthermore, only one biochar type was tested in the field. 9.3 Does biochar improve soil quality? Soil quality is usually defined as the capacity of the soil to carry out ecological functions that support terrestrial communities, resist erosion, and reduce negative impacts on associated air and water resources (Weil and Magdoff, 2004). Soil quality related indicators include chemical, physical and biological soil properties like organic matter, ph, nutrient availability, bulk density, porosity, aggregate stability, water holding capacity, and microbial biomass (Karlen et al., 1997). Our results indicate that biochar has mixed effects on soil quality properties in the short term, as effects can be negative (e.g. reduced mineral N availability (Table 9.1)), positive (e.g. increased soil ph (Table 9.2)), or biochar has no effect (e.g. soil water retention curves after biochar addition to loam soil (Chapter 5)). The field trial results showed that in the longer term, biochar does hardly affect soil quality. It was hypothesized that biochar would increase plant available water capacity during dry periods, but this was not the case. However, it has to be noted that in our field trial, only one biochar type, one biochar dose, and one soil type was used, and the results are relatively short-term. Biochar has been said to increase fertilizer use efficiency and reduce nitrate leaching. In this way, less fertilizer input would be needed and water quality could be increased. Our results do not support these hypotheses. During exposure in soil, biochar particles would be chemically altered due to surface oxidation and interactions with non-biochar materials, resulting in a higher CEC (Liang et al., 2006). Possibly, the biochars used in our study had not been sufficiently weathered to increase soil CEC. 9.4 Does biochar have a future in Flanders? Despite not improving soil quality to a large extent, our results show possibilities for biochar as a climate change mitigation tool, as we observed short-term reduction in soil N 2 O and NO emission upon biochar application, and as biochar labile C fractions are low, especially from the woody biochar types. Furthermore, soil C:N ratio in the biochar treatment was not changed 22 months after biochar application in the field trial, indicating 189

226 Chapter 9 the carbon sequestration potential of biochar. However, as it is uncertain whether biochar does improve soil quality to a large extent and whether biochar would be included in a carbon market system, it is uncertain that pure biochar addition has a future in Flanders. However, again it needs to be stressed that this thesis contains relatively short-term effects and only a limited number of biochar-soil types was tested. In the longer term, biochar properties change due to for example increased surface oxidation, possibly resulting in a changing effect on soil and crop. However, these long-term agronomic effects need to be understood before biochar could be applied on a larger scale. Even in case farmers would like to apply biochar to arable land in Flanders (Belgium), legal constraints applying to biochar need to be taken into account. For instance, it is unclear whether biochar would receive the status of waste, byproduct or end of waste. This has important consequences regarding legislation. When biochar would be classified as waste, biochar would have to comply with all legal regulations regarding waste and the arising constraints. Qualifying the status of biochar as byproduct or end of waste would not be without constraints neither, as biochar should comply with REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & restriction of Chemicals) regulation. Furthermore, legislation regarding sustainability criteria for biomass and the use of fertilizers could be applicable to biochar (Van Laer et al., 2013). Van Laer et al. (2013) conclude that several policies and legislative measures have to be analyzed and taken into account before a biochar industry could be successfully developed in Flanders. Biochar is referred to close the cycle of a carbon-negative bio-based economy (Figure 9.1), which relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed. Thus not only energy, but also materials would be derived from renewable resources. Plants use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide into biomass, mainly plant cell walls with cellulose as most abundant polymer. This polymer is enzymatically converted to glucose monomers, which are used as carbon source by microorganisms to produce chemical compounds, among which bioethanol. Waste streams are minimized or concentrated to feed anaerobic digesters for the production of biogas that can be integrated in the system. Rest fractions are converted into added value compounds, energy, or biochar by pyrolysis. Through applying the biochar produced to soil as a soil improving agent, the cycle of a carbon-negative (as atmospheric carbon is sequestered)) bio-based economy can be closed (Vanholme et al., 2013). However, when biochar would not increase crop productivity and as a legislative biochar framework is not yet available, it is uncertain 190

227 General discussion and conclusions whether it is possible to close the cycle of a carbon-negative bio-based economy through applying biochar to soil. Figure 9.1 Recycling of energy and nutrients within the carbon-negative bio-based economy (Source: Vanholme et al. 2013) Biochar is often compared to compost, as also compost is applied to soil in order to improve soil quality and to close a cycle in which biomass waste can be recycled. Biochar is even carbon-richer than compost, but generally has a low nutrient content, although this also depends on the feedstock used. However, Terra Preta soils were most likely formed by mixing charred residues with biogenic waste from human settlements, which resulted in a biochar-compost-like substrate. Co-composting of biochar and fresh organic material would have a number of benefits compared to the application of either biochar or compost to the soil, among which enhanced nutrient use efficiency and biological activation of biochar (Fischer and Glaser, 2012). Not only biochar characteristics are affected by mixing compost with biochar, also the compost is affected by biochar. According to Dias et al. (2010), the use of biochar as bulking agent for the composting of poultry manure allows to optimize the composting process by reducing odor emissions and the losses of N as well as producing mature composts with a balanced nutrient composition. Biochar can be used as a feedstock in the composting process, but could also be mixed with mature compost. Vandecasteele et al. (2013) observed that in this way, the amount of easily available P in chicken manure compost can be reduced, through which the water-extractable P prone to leaching is reduced. 191


Differential response of biochar derived from rice-residue waste on phosphorus availability in soils …

3 November, 2019
 

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The Biochar Solution Carbon Farming And Climate Change

3 November, 2019
 

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Fine Biochar Powder Market Forecast, Manufacture Size, Developments and Future Scope To 2024

3 November, 2019
 

The Fine Biochar Powder market has continued to have solid performance amidst a number of dynamic forces shaping the Fine Biochar Powder market, such as a potential trade war, skilled talent shortages, and straining supply chains. . The report firstly introduced the Fine Biochar Powder basics: definitions, classifications, applications and market overview; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures, raw materials and so on.

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For geography segment, regional supply, application-wise and type-wise demand, major players, price is presented from 2013 to 2023. This Fine Biochar Powder market report covers following regions:

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The key countries in each region are taken into consideration as well, such as United States, China, Japan, India, Korea, ASEAN, Germany, France, UK, Italy, Spain, CIS, and Brazil etc.

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Biochar in waste water treatment to produce safe irrigation water, recover nutrients and reduce …

3 November, 2019
 

In many arid and semi-arid areas, agricultural production relies on irrigation for which often wastewater is the only available water source. While having the advantage of also providing nutrients for plant growth, wastewater carries the risk of contaminating the products and soils with pathogens and pollutants. Among other technologies to treat waste water for irrigation purpose like settling ponds and sand filter, the use of carbonaceous material like activated carbon is well known in drinking water treatment but low availability and too high cost hamper application especially for farmers in developing countries. One alternative could be a biochar filter system. Biochar can be produced by simple means while generating heat which can be used for cooking or as process heat. The material has a high surface are and because of it reactivity it can be used in water filters to remove pathogens and organic substances like lipids or phenols from the water. This could help to avoid negative impacts of waste water reuse on soil properties. It is also possible to reclaim nutrients from effluents. As an additional benefit, the “filterchar” can be used as valuable soil amendment after the life time of the filters. In tests on lab and field scale biochar removed up to 4 log units of pathogen from irrigation water in Ghana. Irrigation with water treated in a biochar filter produced even more crop yields (+ 40%) in leafy green vegetable production in Ghana than non-treated waste water. However, processes in the filter, influence of biochar characteristics and implication in social and economic systems are not fully understood and needs more research.

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Biochar Market: Recent Industry Trends and Projected Industry Growth, 2017 – 2025

4 November, 2019
 

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Global Biochar market report

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Analysts at TMRR, influenced by the potential, have published a report on the global Biochar market. As per the report, government support, rising consumption of Biochar , and enhanced purchasing capacity of consumers are characterizing the Biochar market is expected to grow at a CAGR of xx% over the forecast timeframe 2019-2029

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Competitive Landscape 

Players in the biochar market receive support from companies supplying pyrolysis technology and wood pellets and residue. Phoenix Energy, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis, and 3R ENVIRO TECH Group are some of the top firms involved in the pyrolysis technology business. Wood pellets and residue are primarily provided by timber businesses such as West Fraser, Georgia-Pacific, and Weyerhaeuser. Out of the prominent biochar players in the international market, Biochar Supreme, LLC is prophesied to make the cut. The analysts anticipate the market to own a fragmented character.

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Sugarcane bagasse derived biochar – a potential heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification …

4 November, 2019
 

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Global Granular Biochar Market Analysis, Growth Opportunities, Trends, Forecast and Outlook …

4 November, 2019
 

‘Global Granular Biochar Market, 2018 — 2023 Market Research Report’ is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Granular Biochar industry with a focus on the Chinese market.

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In this part, the report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, and 2013-2018 market shares for each company. Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Granular Biochar industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export.

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Synthesis of enriched biochar as a vehicle for phosphorus in tropical soils

4 November, 2019
 

Phosphorus (P) is one of the nutrients that most limits agricultural productivity, especially in tropical soils. Enriched biochar has been proposed to increase the bioavailability of P and other nutrients in the soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the availability of P in phosphate biochar (composed of biomass and soil) as a function of the triple superphosphate mixture before and after the pyrolysis process. We produced eight types of enriched biochar via pyrolysis by combining sandy or clayey soil with rice or coffee husk, and by adding triple superphosphate before or after pyrolysis. The heating of the phosphate fertilizer during the pyrolysis process resulted in a higher crystallinity of the phosphates, lower content of labile fractions of P and lower content of available P in phosphate biochars than when the superphosphate was added after pyrolysis.

Keywords: Amazonian soils; coffee husk; rice husk; pyrolysis; triple superphosphate; biochar quality

O fósforo (P) é um dos nutrientes que mais limita a produtividade agrícola, principalmente em solos tropicais. Biocarvão enriquecido tem sido proposto com o intuito de incrementar a biodisponibilidade de P e de outros nutrientes no solo. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilidade do fósforo em biocarvão fosfatado (composto de biomassa e solo) em função da mistura de superfosfato triplo antes e após o processo de pirólise. Produzimos oito tipos de biocarvão enriquecido via pirólise, combinando solo arenoso ou argiloso com casca de arroz ou de café, e adicionando superfosfato triplo antes ou depois da pirólise. O aquecimento do fertilizante fosfatado durante o processo de pirólise resultou em maior cristalinidade dos fosfatos, menor teor de frações lábeis de P e menor teor de P disponível nos biocarvões fosfatados do que quando o superfosfato foi adicionado após a pirólise.

Palavras-chave: solos amazônicos; casca de café; casca de arroz; pirólise; superfosfato triplo; qualidade do biocarvão

Phosphorus (P) is a primary macronutrient, required in large quantities in fertilization of crops, specially in tropical soils. It has been estimated that up to 90% of the soluble P applied in these soils rapidly assumes insoluble forms due to the fixation reactions of phosphate (Broggi et al. 2010; Behera et al. 2014). Therefore, the increase in agricultural production has resulted in high demand for phosphate fertilizers. In Brazil alone, 5 x 10-6 Mg of P2O5 were consumed in 2017, a 25% increase when compared to 2007, and a 241% increase when compared to 1995 (IPNI 2018).

In this context, Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) soils are an exception. These are soils, usually with a high degree of weathering, distinguished from other soils by their high level of fertility associated with the higher content of organic pyrogenic carbon (C) (Cunha et al. 2009; Macedo et al. 2017). The levels of available P in these soils are considered very high and can reach 4,500 mg kg-1 (Lima et al. 2002; Macedo et al. 2017). ADE pedogenesis has been attributed to a melanization process associated with homogenization of the soil through biological and human action (Macedo et al. 2017).

Based on this knowledge, several experiments have been carried out to reproduce ADE (Novotny et al. 2015). In this sense, the biochar (C-rich solid material obtained by biomass pyrolysis) is intentionally produced and used as soil amendment to increase fertility or sequester atmospheric CO2 (Mukherjee et al. 2011). Biochar production in the presence of mineral additives has been proposed to obtain a new product (enriched biochar) to improve the bioavailability of inorganic nutrients to crop soils (Chia et al. 2012; 2014; Lin et al. 2013; Blackwell et al. 2015).

Enriched biochar is usually obtained by the pyrolysis of biomass at 350 to 600 °C, followed by doping with clay minerals and diverse sources of nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, rock phosphate, poultry litter and liquid fertilizer, and subsequent drying (105 °C) or torrefaction (180 to 220 °C) of the mixture (Lin et al. 2013; Chia et al. 2014; Kim et al. 2014; Blackwell et al. 2015). These products have high available P content, attributed to the strong interactions between clay mineral phases and organic acids during torrefaction, which blocks phosphate adsorption sites and increases the solubility of P (Lin et al. 2013; Chia et al. 2014).

The synthesis of ernriched biochars, though promising, increases operational and energy costs when compared to the traditional way of producing biochar, since it requires more stages of drying and torrefaction of the product (Lin et al. 2013; Chia et al. 2014; Kim et al. 2014; Blackwell et al. 2015). Therefore, it is important to test new methods and organomineral combinations to obtain enriched biochar. In the present study, we propose an alternative method to obtain enriched biochar (denominated phosphate biochar) through the pyrolysis of biomass mixed with mineral materials, thus rendering the doping process and subsequent drying and/or torrefaction unnecessary.

The biomasses (rice and coffee husks) were selected due to their high availability and worldwide distribution (Abbasi and Abbasi 2010). Mineral sources were chosen due to their location and availability. We used Amazonian soils to enrich biochar from areas near ADE sites, and the triple superphosphate is a typical phosphate fertilizer used as a source of P in agriculture (Reetz Jr. 2016). Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the availability of P in enriched biochar (composed of biomass and soil) as a function of the triple superphosphate mixture before and after the pyrolysis process.

Eight phosphate biochars consisting of organomineral mixtures were produced. Four biochars were obtained by the pyrolysis of biomass (rice or coffee husks) mixed with soil samples of sandy or clayey texture and phosphate fertilizer (triple superphosphate). Four other biochars were produced by the pyrolysis of the same combinations of biomass and soil samples but adding triple superphosphate after the pyrolysis process.

Rice and coffee husks were obtained from a grain processing company, dried in a forced ventilation oven at 105 °C for 48 h and milled in a Wiley knife mill (TE-340/Tecnal, Brazil) equipped with a 0.7 mm sieve. The soil samples were obtained in two areas of cultivated pasture (Brachiaria sp.), in the municipality of Cabixi, Rondônia state, Brazil, both adjacent to ADE sites. A soil profile was opened and classified in each area, and a single sample (approximately 30 kg) was collected at the depth of 10-20 cm from each profile.

Soil and biochar analyses were carried out at the Soil Mineralogy Laboratory of Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Brazil) and the Edaphology and Agricultural Chemistry Laboratory at Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). The soil samples belonged to the order of Oxisols (Soil Survey Staff 2014), with a similar mineralogical composition characterized by the presence of kaolinite, goethite, hematite and gibbsite (Table 1). The soil analysis was performed in duplicate. The soil pH was measured in water (1:2.5) using a glass electrode. The total C and nitrogen (N) were determined using an elemental analyzer (LECO model TruSpec CHNO, USA). The exchangeable cations, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Al3+, were extracted using 1.0 M of KCl and measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer 1100B, Germany). H+ and Al3+ were extracted with calcium acetate (0.5 M) at pH 7.0 and determined by titration (NaOH at 0.025 M). Available potassium (K) and P were extracted with a Mehlich-1 solution. K was determined by flame photometry (Perkin Elmer 1100B, Germany), and P was measured using colorimetry (JASCO V630, Japan) (Sparks et al. 1996).

Table 1 Chemical, granulometric and mineralogical properties of sandy and clayey Oxisol soil samples from Rondônia state (northern Brazil) used in the experimental composition of phosphate biochar. 

PropertySandyClayey
pH4.24.5
Total C (%)0.471.32
Total N (%)0.100.26
Available P (mg kg-1)1.001.00
Available K (mg kg-1)0.050.05
Exchangeable Ca (cmolc kg-1)0.150.48
Exchangeable Mg (cmolc kg-1)0.080.15
Exchangeable H (cmolc kg-1)1.704.90
Exchangeable Al (cmolc kg-1)1.000.60
Total Al (g kg-1)41.81149.25
Al-ox (g kg-1)0.502.32
Total Fe (g kg-1)13.9910.71
Fe-ox (g kg-1)0.141.54
Sand (g kg-1)784292
Silt (g kg-1)95104
Clay (g kg-1)121604
MineralogyKaolinite, goethite, gibbsiteKaolinite, goethite, hematite, gibbsite

Al-ox: oxalate extractable Al; Fe-ox: oxalate extractable.

Al-ox: oxalate extractable Al; Fe-ox: oxalate extractable.

The total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) content were determined by acid digestion using nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid (5:3:5) and measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer 1100B, Germany) (Kimbrough and Wakakuwa 1989). The amorphous Fe and Al oxyhydroxides (Fe-ox and Al-ox) were obtained by extraction with ammonium oxalate (pH 3.0) in a dark environment, and the quantification of Fe and Al was performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer 1100B, Germany) (Sparks et al. 1996). The mineralogy was determined from samples in the form of non-oriented powder. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed using a XRD diffractometer with Cu Kα radiation (Shimadzu 6000-XRD, Japan). The X-ray source was operated at 40 kV and 30 mA. The instrument was equipped with a graphite monochromator. The scan rate was 1° 2θ min-1 from 3 to 70º (2θ).

According to their granulometric composition, the soil samples were designated as sandy (sand = 784 g kg-1) or clayey (clay = 604 g kg-1). The sandy sample was characterized by a very acidic reaction (pH = 5.2), low content of total C and N, low cation exchange capacity (CEC) and was dominated by exchangeable Al and H. The clayey sample had similar characteristics, but the contents of amorphous Fe and Al oxyhydroxides (FeOx and AlOx) were 3 to 10 times greater, respectively, than those in the sandy sample.

Part of the soil samples were dried in an oven (105 °C for 48 h) and sieved with a 2-mm mesh, then mixed with the organic material (either rice or coffee husk) in the proportion of 1.5:1.0 (biomass:soil). The solid mixture was placed in closed aluminum containers, and pyrolysis proceeded in a muffle at 350 °C for 2 h, discounting the equipment heating time and material cooling time to room temperature (Cao and Harris 2010; García-Jaramillo et al. 2015; Tian et al. 2017). The four biochars obtained were mixed after pyrolysis with triple superphosphate (macerated) at a ratio of 0.65:0.35 (biochar:fertilizer). This ratio was chosen to maintain a proportion similar to that of other studies on biochars enriched with minerals (Lin et al. 2013; Chia et al. 2014). The mixture was homogenized in an agate mortar, sieved with a 0.177-mm mesh and stored in polyethylene containers at room temperature. These phosphate biochars were designated as:

RiS+P: biochar derived from rice husk+sandy soil+triple superphosphate added after pyrolysis ;

RiC+P: biochar derived from rice husk+clayey soil+triple superphosphate added after pyrolysis ;

CfS+P: biochar derived from coffee husk+sandy soil+triple superphosphate added after pyrolysis ;

CfC+P: biochar derived from coffee husk+clayey soil+triple superphosphate added after pyrolysis .

The other part of the soil was dried and seived in the same way, then mixed with the organic material (either rice or coffee husk) and triple superphosfate in the proportion of 1.5:1.0:1.0 (biomass:soil:triple superphosphate). These proportions were adopted according to the mass loss control of the mixtures and the raw materials isolated during the pyrolysis by mass calibration before and after the heat treatment. A final composition of approximately 0.27:0.38:0.35 (biochar:soil:triple superphosphate) was obtained. The resulting four phosphate biochars were defined as:

P−RiS: biochar derived from rice husk+sandy soil+triple superphosphate added before pyrolysis ;

P−RiC: biochar derived from rice husk+clayey soil+triple superphosphate added before pyrolysis ;;

P−CfS: biochar derived from coffee husk+sandy soil+triple superphosphate added before pyrolysis ;

P−CfC: biochar derived from coffee husk+clayey soil+triple superphosphate added before pyrolysis .

The crystallographic structure of the biochar samples was qualitatively analyzed in the same form as described above for the soil samples. The quantitative physicochemical parameters were determined in duplicate for all biochars according to Klmbrough and Wakakuwa (1989) and Gaskin et al. (2008). pH was measured using a digital pH meter, with a biochar to deionized water ratio of 1:5, after stirring for 5 min and 1 h equilibration. Elemental C analysis was conducted using an elemental analyzer (LECO model TruSpec CHNO, USA).

The total content of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn) and phosphorus (P) was determined in samples macerated and sieved with a 0.074-mm mesh. K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Al were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence using a Rigaku ZSX Primus II X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Japan), equipped with a Rh tube and seven-crystal analyzer, after six previous calibrations with different certified reference materials (for sediments and soils) from NIST (SRM 1333, SRM 1646, SRM 2710, SRM 2711), Canadian Certified Reference Material Project (LKSD1, LKSD2, LKSD3, LKSD4) and USGS (MAG1, G2). Total Mn and P were extracted with acidic digestion at 90 °C using nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid (5:3:5). Mn was measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer 1100B, Germany), while the P content was determined by the colorimetric method with absorbance measured at 880 nm using a JASCO spectrophotometer model V630 (Japan).

The available P content was extracted with neutral ammonium citrate + water (NAC + water) and determined by the colorimetric method with absorbance measured at 420 nm (Wang et al. 2012). Sequential fractionation of P was performed by adapting the method described by Ruttenberg (1992). The samples of biochar (0.5 g) were extracted stepwise using [1] MgCl2 (1 M), [2] NaHCO3 (0.11 M) + Na2S2O4 (0.11 M), [3] NaOH (0.1 M), and [4] HCl (0.5 M). The P content in the extracts was then determined by the colorimetric method measured by spectrophotometry at 880 nm, and corresponds to [1] P poorly adsorbed and soluble (labile P), [2] P associated with Fe oxyhydroxides (Fe-P), [3] P bonded to clay minerals and hydroxides of Al (Al-P), and [4] P associated with calcium (Ca-P).

The extracts from step [3] were acidified with H2SO4 (1:5) to pH ≈ 1, and, after 16 h, they were filtered. The filters were dried (40 °C for 12 h), calcinated (520 °C for 2 h) and digested in HCl (1 M) for the determination of P associated with humic substances (HS-P). The black-carbon P (BC-P) was obtained by calcination (520 °C for 2 h) and digestion (1 M HCl) of the biochar samples after extraction. The difference between total P content and the sum of all the determined fractions was considered a form of occluded P.

The ability of the biochars to adsorb phosphate was determined in samples of biochars derived from mixtures of biomass and soil without the addition of triple superphosphate, designated as RiS (rice husk + sandy soil), RiC (rice husk + clayey soil), CfS (coffee husk + sandy soil) and CfC (rice husk + clayey soil). Two grams of each material (in duplicate) were conditioned in 50-ml centrifuge tubes, adding 20 ml of 0.01 M KCl solution containing 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg L-1 of P in the form of monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4). The samples were shaken for 24 h at room temperature, centrifuged at 3,200 g for 10 min and filtered. Tubes filled with P solutions but without biochar were analyzed to determine P sorption on the surfaces of the tubes and filters. The remaining P content in the extracts was determined by the colorimetric method measured by spectrophotometry at 880 nm (JASCO V630, Japan) (Graetz and Nair 2000).

The adsorbed P content was determined by the difference between the initial P concentration in the solution and the remaining P concentration in the equilibrium solution. For the samples in which P retention was found, the content of adsorbed P at each dose was adjusted by the Langmuir equation:

Q=KL×Qmax×Ceq/1+KL×Ceq

where Q is the total amount of adsorbed P (mg kg-1); KL is a constant related to the binding strength; Qmax is the sorption maximum (mg kg-1); and Ceq is the concentration of P remaining in the solution after the 24 h equilibrium (mg L-1).

Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the relative importance of biochar physicochemical components and phosphorus availability. Statistical analysis was performed in the Xlstat software (Addinsoft 2016).

Although the mineralogy of the two soil samples was similar (Table 1), the clayey sample still contained hematite (Figure 1a). The biochars preserved the soil minerals, except for gibbsite (Figures 1a, b), which collapsed due to the temperature reached during pyrolysis (Cornell and Schwertmann 2003; Löhr et al. 2017).

The biochars that were amended with triple superphosphate before pyrolysis (P-RiS, P-RiC, P-CfS and P-CfC) presented XRD peaks related to the presence of phosphates, characterized as leucophosphite (potassium and iron phosphate), fluorapatite (calcium halophosphate) and hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) (Figures 1c, d). These minerals were also observed in the original composition of the triple superphosphate and persisted in the fertilizer after heating at 350 °C for 2 h (Figure 1b). However, the heat treatment of the phosphate fertilizer resulted in a higher degree of crystallinity of the phosphates, identified by a higher peak intensity (Figure 1b).

Phosphate neoformation in the biochars and in the superheated triple superphosphate alone was not observed (Figures 1b, c, d). Peaks corresponding to bassanite (β-CaSO4.1/2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4) were also identified in triple superphosphate (in natura), but only the bassanite persisted after the heat treatment (Figure 1b). This pattern was repeated in P-RiS, P-RiC, P-CfS and P-CfC (Figures 1c, d).

The pH of our phosphate biochars was characterized by a very acidic reaction, varying from 3.0 to 4.1 (Table 2), due to the low pH of the triple superphosphate (2.8). The coffee husk (CfS+P, CfC+P, P-CfS and P-CfC) provided higher pH in relation to the rice husk (RiS+P, RiC+P, P-RiS and P-RiC).

Table 2 pH (H2O) and elemental composition (g kg-1) of eight experimental phosphate biochars derived from rice and coffee husk mixed with sandy and clayey Oxisol soil samples from Rondônia state, northern Brazil.  

BiocharspHCPCaMgKAlFeMn
RiS+P3.5130.8074.3890.772.416.6411.118.550.29
RiC+P3.8158.4074.7971.471.814.9841.2843.480.30
CfS+P4.1158.0072.57103.633.0229.8911.649.270.16
CfC+P4.1184.9070.0877.192.4127.4046.0548.470.17
P-RiS3.0192.5075.5188.622.416.648.478.550.31
P-RiC3.1173.5073.1772.191.814.9838.6446.330.30
P-CfS3.8176.2082.3092.912.4129.8910.069.270.17
P-CfC4.0198.3072.7981.482.4126.5739.6947.050.17

RiS: biochar derived from rice husk + sandy soil; RiC: biochar derived from rice husk + clayey soil; CfS: biochar derived from coffee husk + sandy soil; CfC: biochar derived from coffee husk + clayey soil; +P: triple superphosphate added after pyrolysis; P-: triple superphosphate added prior to pyrolysis.

RiS: biochar derived from rice husk + sandy soil; RiC: biochar derived from rice husk + clayey soil; CfS: biochar derived from coffee husk + sandy soil; CfC: biochar derived from coffee husk + clayey soil; +P: triple superphosphate added after pyrolysis; P-: triple superphosphate added prior to pyrolysis.

The raw material and the triple superphosphate addition method influenced the elemental composition of the phosphate biochars. Biochars derived from clayey soil had lower total Ca content (up to 26%) and higher amounts of Al and Fe (up to 356% and 423%, respectively) in relation to biochars from sandy soil (Table 2). Mn content was higher (up to 76%) and K content was lower (by 78%) in rice-husk than in coffee-husk biochars (Table 2). Biochars phosphated prior to pyrolysis had higher C content (up to 47%) than those phosphated after pyrolysis. Total P content of the phosphate biochars ranged from 70.1 to 82.3 g kg-1 (Table 2).

The heat treatment of the triple superphosphate affected the available P content and the distribution of the different forms of P in the samples (Table 3). Biochars phosphated prior to pyrolisis had lower available P content (up to 43%), lower content of the labile P fraction and higher Fe-P, Ca-P, BC-P and occluded P when compared to biochars phosphated after pyrolysis.

Table 3 Available P (g kg-1) and P fractions (g kg-1) of eight experimental phosphate biochars derived from rice and coffee husk mixed with sandy and clayey soils Oxisol soil samples from Rondônia state, northern Brazil. 

BiocharsAvailable PP fractions
Labile PFe-PAl-PHS-PCa-PBC-POccluded P
RiS+P60.3158.331.585.980.325.500.072.59
RiC+P70.2260.242.6611.910.675.870.31-6.87
CfS+P61.8262.072.976.100.406.450.10-5.53
CfC+P69.1757.562.208.320.655.430.44-4.52
P-RiS42.7731.801.705.900.6018.901.7514.87
P-RiC40.3519.512.6813.601.5014.943.6517.29
P-CfS38.0828.191.095.730.7122.431.3622.78
P-CfC41.7917.451.6410.791.1819.093.4219.22

RiS: biochar derived from rice husk + sandy soil; RiC: biochar derived from rice husk + clayey soil; CfS: biochar derived from coffee husk + sandy soil; CfC: biochar derived from coffee husk + clayey soil; +P: triple superphosphate added after pyrolysis; P-: triple superphosphate added prior pyrolysis.

RiS: biochar derived from rice husk + sandy soil; RiC: biochar derived from rice husk + clayey soil; CfS: biochar derived from coffee husk + sandy soil; CfC: biochar derived from coffee husk + clayey soil; +P: triple superphosphate added after pyrolysis; P-: triple superphosphate added prior pyrolysis.

Biomass type did not change the availability of P in the phosphate biochars, with a variation of less than 8.5% in the available P content. Soil texture affected the distribution of P forms, as clayey-soil phosphated biochars had higher contents of Al-P, Fe-P and HS-P fractions (up to 131%, 68%, and 151%, respectively) than sandy-soil phosphate biochars (Table 3). Al-P content was higher than that of Fe-P in all phosphate biochars (Table 3).

The remaining P concentration determined in the equilibrium solution (24 h) was higher than the P added at all doses applied to the RiS, CfS and CfC biochars (Table 4). In RiC, however, the remaining P content was lower than the added P. The adjustment of the P content adsorbed by the Langmuir equation (Figure 2) resulted in Qmax of P = 769.23 mg kg-1, with KL = 0.06. However, no difference in available P content was observed in RiC+P and P-RiC (which were derived from RiC) when compared to the other biochars (Table 3).

Table 4 Remaining P in the equilibrium solution (mg L-1) of biochars derived from rice and coffee husk mixed with sandy and clayey Oxisol soil samples from Rondônia state (northern Brazil) when the samples were loaded with solutions containing different levels of P (mg L-1). 

Added PRemaining P
RiSRiCCfSCfC
02.8137.670.1936.64
1518.7952.020.9346.08
3033.4744.875.5157.58
6061.6994.2123.1878.79
120177.50147.9566.92256.84
240532.18291.42164.67527.69

RiS: biochar derived from rice husk + sandy soil; RiC: biochar derived from rice husk + clayey soil; CfS: biochar derived from coffee husk + sandy soil; CfC: biochar derived from coffee husk + clayey soil.

RiS: biochar derived from rice husk + sandy soil; RiC: biochar derived from rice husk + clayey soil; CfS: biochar derived from coffee husk + sandy soil; CfC: biochar derived from coffee husk + clayey soil.

All variables determined for the eight phosphate biochars were used in the PCA, except total P content, due to the small correlation with the other variables and its high proximity to the centroid (data not shown). The F1 and F2 axes of the PCA accumulated 71% of the variance in the original data matrix (Figure 3). Biochars were grouped by phosphate-addition timing along the F1 axis (40.5% variance). Biochars phosphated after pyrolysis (RiS+P, RiC+P, CfS+P and CfS+P) were defined mainly by the higher content of available P and labile P, while biochars phosphated prior to pyrolysis (P-RiS, P-RiC, P-CfS and P-CfC) were characterized by the higher content of total C, BC-P, HS-P, Ca-P and occluded P. Along the F2 axis (30.5% variance) the biochars were grouped according to soil texture, influenced by total Al, total Fe and Al-P, which had a negative correlation with Ca, Mg and K levels. The type of biomass had no influence on the grouping of biochars along in the PCA axes, as pH, Mn and K content did not correlate with the other variables that influenced the groupings.

Total P content was not affected in any of our biochars, because there are no P losses at low pyrolysis temperature (350 °C), and temperatures of more than 760 °C are needed to vaporize P (Knicker 2007). On the other hand, the form of triple superphosphate incorporation was the determining factor of P availability in the biochars. Studies of sintering used to obtain ceramic and biomedical materials showed a significant positive correlation between temperature and the degree of crystallinity of phosphates (Denry and Holloway 2014; Ramirez-Gutierrez et al. 2017). Thus, lower available P and labile P, and higher Ca-P and occluded P in biochars phosphated prior to pyrolysis can be explained as a consequence of the increased degree of crystallinity of the phosphates. Similar results were found with the increase in the pyrolysis temperature of biomass (Cao and Harris 2010) and the heat treatment of organomineral mixtures containing biochar (Kim et al. 2014).

The increase of HS-P and BC-P fractions in the biochars phosphated prior to pyrolysis demonstrated that, although the product was formulated from a solid mixture, the organic molecules in the liquid and gas forms produced during thermal decomposition of the biomass reacted with the mineral fraction forming organomineral compounds. A similar reaction occurred in the clayey-soil biochars, which had a higher content of HS-P when compared to sandy-soil biochars. This premise is supported by other studies (Lin et al. 2013; Chia et al. 2014; Yao et al. 2014).

The presence of mineral elements during pyrolysis may have contributed to the greater conservation of C in the biochars. Meszaros et al. (2007) evaluated the thermal degradation of different biochars and found that materials with higher mineral content, such as K, P, Mg and Na, emit less CO2 during decomposition. Corroborating this premise, pyrolysis in conjunction with triple superphosphate increased the total C content of the our biochars.

Our data indicate that, in order to use enriched biochar as a vehicle for phosphorus in tropical soils, it is more appropriate to mix triple superphosphate after pyrolysis, as in this way the highest available P content and lower content of the most recalcitrant fractions of P were obtained. The addition of the superphosphate prior to pyrolysis can be better studied in soils that occur losses of P by leaching.

The groups formed along the F2 axis of the PCA can be explained by the texture classes of the soils used and the result of the heating of these soils. Higher clay content provided more available sites for bonding with P. Thus, the Al-P fraction, which represents the P associated with the clay minerals and hydroxides of Al (Ruttenberg 1992), was higher in the biochars composed with clayey soil. This was due to the higher Al-ox content in comparison to Fe-ox (Table 1), as low-crystallinity Al compounds have a high affinity for P (Cui and Weng 2013; Eriksson et al. 2015).

The soil mineralogy influenced the Al-P fraction. Kaolinite and goethite observed in the soil samples were maintained in the biochars. The presence of goethite in biochars was not expected, but this mineral was identified by the peaks at 0.418 and 0.269 nm (XRD) in the biochars produced with clayey soil. The goethite likely underwent partial substitution (up to one third) of Fe3+ by Al3+, leading to a higher thermal resistance (up to 400 ºC) (Cornell and Schwertmann 2003). In addition, the gibbsite was dehydroxylated during heat treatment (Löhr et al. 2017), therefore the reactivity of this mineral was increased (Kitamura et al. 2001), contributing to the higher Al-P content in the biochars composed with clayey soil.

The reaction of the Fe oxides during the pyrolysis process cannot be clarified by the analytical techniques used. Neoformation of magnetic Fe oxide could have occurred during pyrolysis (350 °C) of biomass (Cornell and Schwertmann 2003), but the magnetite and/or maghemite peaks (0.253 and 0.297 nm) (Schaetzl and Anderson 2005) were not observed in the biochars, nor was a hematite peak (0.251 nm). A possible explanation for these results is that part of the hematite was reduced to magnetite, but in an insufficient quantity to be detected by XRD. Also, the increase of noise in the XRD patterns of the C-rich material made it difficult to identify the Fe oxide peaks (Cornell and Schwertmann 2003).

A comparison of the groups formed along the PCA F2 axis with the results of the adsorption of P and the fractionation of P indicated that the higher content of Al-P, Fe and Al, associated with the lower labile P fraction in the clayey-soil biochars, did not affect the available P content of these biochars. Adsorption rate of P is mainly controlled by specific surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter of the biochar (Jiang et al. 2018). As these properties of biochars have an inverse relationship with the pyrolysis temperature (Brewer et al. 2014), the biochars produced at 350 ºC did not have the ability to adsorb P. Furthermore, the fractionation of P is carried out sequentially with extractors of lower and higher reactivity to the different P phases, thus allowing the separation of labile, moderately labile and non-labile forms of P (Ruttenberg 1992). Therefore, part of the Al-P and Fe-P fractions is still bioavailable and can be extracted with NAC + water, specially when formed by monodentate bonds (Tan 1998).

Larger differences in the total P and available P content are commonly found with the use of different biomasses to produce biochars (Novak et al. 2009; Wang et al. 2012). However, comparisons are usually carried out between residues of heterogeneous chemical and structural compositions, such as between peanut hulls and poultry litter (Novak et al. 2009), or between biosolids and cattle manure (Wang et al. 2012), which rendered differences of up to 2,450%.

Our results indicate that the mixture of mineral P sources with enriched biochar (i.e. biochar formed from biomass and soil) can be a viable alternative to carrying P into soil, considering that the biochar did not affect the availability of P in the triple superphosphate when added after pyrolysis. Biochars composed of organic and mineral fractions have the benefit of being a recalcitrant product with a gradual release of nutrients (Lin et al. 2013; Chia et al. 2014). In addition, the functional acidic surface groups of the biochar can aid in the availability of P by blocking the phosphate adsorption sites in the soil mineral phases (Lin et al. 2013).

The different biomasses used to produce enriched biochars (rice husks and coffee husks), did not affect the content and forms of P in the biochars. Biochars composed with clayey soil had higher P content associated with Al oxides and hydroxides when compared to sandy-soil biochars, without affecting the available P content. The thermal treatment of the triple superphosphate resulted in a higher degree of crystallinity of the phosphates and a lower content of available P in the biochars. Thus, in order to use phosphate biochar as a vehicle for phosphorus in tropical soils, our results indicate that it is more appropriate to mix triple superphosphate after the pyrolysis process. More studies will be needed to test this process under different experimental conditions.

The authors are grateful to Embrapa Rondônia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (CRETUS Strategic Partnership – AGRUP2015/02, co-funded by FEDER-UE), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil) for their financial and logistical support. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Vidal Barrón (Universidad de Córdoba, Spain) for his assistance in interpreting XRD patterns, and to Miss Vanessa Young for editing the English language.

CITE AS: Matoso, S.C.G.; WADT, P.G.S.; Souza Júnior, V.S. de.; Pérez, X.L.O. 2019. Synthesis of enriched biochar as a vehicle for phosphorus in tropical soils. Acta Amazonica 49: 268-276.

Received: September 30, 2018; Accepted: August 16, 2019


Biochar Market Product Functional Survey 2018 – 2028

4 November, 2019
 

Global Biochar market – A synopsis

The Biochar market study presents a compilation of market share, demand analysis, and future outlook associated with each segment as well as sub-segment. The key segments include, product type, end use, region, and relevant competitors. Important product-wise segments covered in the report contain product 1, product 2, product 3, and product 4, while important end uses include end use 1, end use 2, end use 3, and end use 4.

The global Biochar market is estimated to reach ~US$ xx Mn/Bn in 2019. With a CAGR of xx% throughout the historic period 2014-2019, the Biochar market is expected to grow at healthy CAGR of xx% over the foreseeable timeframe 2019-2029. In this research study, 2018 is considered as the base year.

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Competitive Landscape 

Players in the biochar market receive support from companies supplying pyrolysis technology and wood pellets and residue. Phoenix Energy, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis, and 3R ENVIRO TECH Group are some of the top firms involved in the pyrolysis technology business. Wood pellets and residue are primarily provided by timber businesses such as West Fraser, Georgia-Pacific, and Weyerhaeuser. Out of the prominent biochar players in the international market, Biochar Supreme, LLC is prophesied to make the cut. The analysts anticipate the market to own a fragmented character.

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Global Biochar Fertilizer Market 2018 Important Research, Market Trends and Development 2023 …

4 November, 2019
 

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Biochar Fertilizer Market is expected to grow $XX million in 2018 with XX CAGR from 2014 to 2018, and it is expected to reach $XX million by the end of 2024 with a CAGR of XX% from 2019 to 2024.

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Global Graphene Electronics Market 2019 Forecast To 2023 With Key Companies Profile, Supply …

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The research study on Graphene Electronics market presents a pervasive analysis of current market size, drivers, trends, opportunities, challenges, as well as key market segments. Further, it explains various definitions and classification of the industry, applications, and chain structure. Continuing with the above data, this report gives different strategies of marketing pursue by distributors and key players.

Then illustrates Graphene Electronics potential buyers, marketing channels, and development history. The intention of global Graphene Electronics report is to characterize the information to the readers related to Graphene Electronics market forecast and dynamics for the forthcoming years. This study index the necessary aspect that impacts the development of Graphene Electronics market. Durable assessment of the worldwide market share from distinct regions and countries is enclosed within the report.

The report gives a far-reaching examination of the Graphene Electronics industry advertise by sorts, applications, players and locales. This report additionally shows the 2014-2023 generation, Consumption, income, Gross edge, Cost, Gross, piece of the overall industry, CAGR, and Market impacting elements of the keyword industry.

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Global Graphene Electronics Market Report Figures The Below Companies:
Graphene Frontiers, Graphene Laboratories, Graphene Square, Grafoid, Graphenea, Skeleton Technologies, Samsung Electronics, IBM Corporation, SanDisk Corporation, Galaxy Microsystems

Integration of the Global Graphene Electronics Market 2019:

Geographically Global Graphene Electronics Market 2019 report also covers all the regions and countries of the world, which shows a regional development status. Regional Segmentation:

• North America (U.S., Canada, Mexico)
• Europe (Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, Spain, etc.)
• Asia-Pacific (China, India, Japan, Southeast Asia, etc.)
• South America (Brazil, Argentina, etc.)
• Middle East & Africa (Saudi Arabia, South Africa, etc.)

The market is primarily split into application and type as follows
By the product type:

hoto-Voltaic Graphene Materials, Graphene Nano-Technology Materials, Structured Materials, Electronic Materials, Nanotechnology Materials

By the Application:

Batteries and ultracapacitors, Display, Sensors, Electro Mechanical Systems EMS, Solar Cells

The Global Graphene Electronics business report enhances a professional-level practice which guides a customer to upgrade their strategies. Also, the Global Graphene Electronics market studies can be surely an extensive analysis which includes most of the features of Global Graphene Electronics business. In addition, the Global Graphene Electronics secondary and primary research include calculations from Global Graphene Electronics industry pros interrelationship, relapse, and time series. These models are within the accounts that it might provide spontaneous analysis of Global Graphene Electronics.

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Highlights of the Graphene Electronics market report:

• A complete backdrop analysis, which includes an assessment of the parent market.

• Important changes in market dynamics.

• Market segmentation up to the second or third level.

• Historical, current, and projected size of the market from the standpoint of both value and volume.

• Reporting and evaluation of recent industry developments.

• Market shares and strategies of key players.

• Emerging niche segments and regional markets.

• An objective assessment of the trajectory of the market.

• Recommendations to companies for strengthening their foothold in the market.

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Massive growth of Preservation Artificial Intelligence in Video Games Market 2023 with high CAGR In Coming Years with Focusing Key players like Ubisoft, EA, Tencent, etc.

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Global Cloud Infrastructure Services Market Overview:

The research report on the Global Cloud Infrastructure Services Market is a comprehensive study of the current scenario of the market, covering the key market dynamics. The report also provides a logical evaluation of the key challenges faced by the leading pioneers operating in the market, which helps the participants in understanding the difficulties they may face in the future while functioning in the global market over the forecast period.

The report for Cloud Infrastructure Services Market includes broad essential research with the definite investigation of subjective just as quantitative perspectives by different industry specialists, key feeling pioneers to pick up the more profound knowledge of the market and industry execution. The report gives a reasonable image of the present market situation which incorporates authentic and anticipated market estimates as far as esteem, mechanical progression, macroeconomic and administering factors in the market. The report gives subtleties of the data and methodologies of the top key players in the business.

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Manufacturer Detail: Cisco Systems, Inc., Equinix, Inc., Google Inc., International Business Machines Corporation, Salesforce.Com, AT&T, Inc., Amazon Web Services, Inc., Computer Sciences Corporation, Hewlett-Packard Company, Rackspace Hosting, Inc.

Product Type Segmentation: Public Cloud, Private Cloud, Hybrid Cloud

Industry Segmentation: Platform as a Service (PaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Content Delivery Network (CDN)/ Application Delivery Network (ADN), Managed Hosting, Colocation Services

Cloud Infrastructure Services Market report, all the participants and the vendors will be aware of the growth factors, shortcomings, threats, and the lucrative opportunities that the market will offer in the near future. The report also features the revenue; industry size, share, production volume, and consumption in order to gain insights about the politics and tussle of gaining control of a huge chunk of the market share.

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Cloud Infrastructure Services Market Competitive Analysis:

The Cloud Infrastructure Services Industry is intensely competitive and fragmented because of the presence of several established players participating in various marketing strategies to expand their market share. The vendors available in the market compete centered on price, quality, brand, product differentiation, and product portfolio. The vendors are increasingly emphasizing product customization through customer interaction.

Market Segmentation: Global Cloud Infrastructure Services Market
– The market is based on type, application, and geographical segments.
– Based on type, the market is segmented into Mechanical Cloud Infrastructure Services, Smart Cloud Infrastructure Services.
– Based on the application, the market is segmented into Residential Use, Commercial Use, Industrial Use.

The study offers the market growth rate, size, and forecasts at the global level in addition to the geographic areas: North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, and the Middle East and Africa. Also, it analyses and provides the global market size of the main players in each region. Furthermore, the report provides knowledge of the major market players within the Cloud Infrastructure Services market. The industry-changing factors for the market segments are explored in this report. This analysis report covers the growth factors of the worldwide market based on end-users.

Reasons for Buying Global Cloud Infrastructure Services Market Report:
The report provides a detailed analysis of the changing competitive landscape that keeps the reader/client ahead of the competitors.
It also provides an in-depth view of the different factors driving or restraining the growth of the global market.
The Global Cloud Infrastructure Services Market report provides an eight-year forecast evaluated on the basis of how the market is estimated to grow.
It assists in making informed business decisions by having thorough insights into the global market and by making a comprehensive analysis of the key market segments and sub-segments.

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In the end, Cloud Infrastructure Services Market Report delivers a conclusion that includes Breakdown and Data Triangulation, Consumer Needs/Customer Preference Change, Research Findings, Market Size Estimation, Data Source. These factors will increase the business overall.

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Overview

TMR’s report on the Mining Lubricants Market is an all-important tool for Market stakeholders in their pursuit to discover avenues for innovation, and further undertake strategic planning for the launch of products and services.

Our research report on the Mining Lubricants Market serves as a valuable guide for Market stakeholders. The report deep dives into demand drivers, challenges, and opportunities that are likely to influence the Mining Lubricants Market over the 2017-2025 forecast period. These Market indicators help businesses pave way in a crowded business landscape, and tread ahead in the competition with confidence.

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Further, the report carries out solid groundwork and divulges details of Markets share of key segments of the Market under product, application, and geography.

To ascertain Market indicators, analysts employed proven research tools and techniques for the same. The analysis of Market indicators helps business carry out the most strategic planning for competitive advantage. These indicators also help businesses gauge investment proposition and scope of expansion in the Mining Lubricants Market over the forecast period.

The report analyzes the competitive landscape of the Mining Lubricants Market at length. The section includes detailed insights into key business strategies used by prominent players. Further, the report analyzes impact of growth strategies on the competitive dynamics and valuable insights into Market share projections of key players in the Mining Lubricants Market over the forecast period.

The report includes an exhaustive list of prominent players in the Mining Lubricants Market:

Total Oil (Australia), Exxon Mobile Lubricants & Specialties (the U.S.), Royal Dutch Shell Plc. (the Netherlands), Chevron (the U.S.), Perma-tec GmbH & Co. KG (Germany), Quaker Chemical Corporation (the U.S.), Petro Canada Lubricants Inc (Canada), BP Lubricants (the U.S.), Conoco Phillips Inc (the U.S.), Aarna Lube Private Limited (India), Lubrication Engineers, Inc. (the U.S.), Engen Botswana Limited (South Africa), Vivo Energy (Mauritius), and Interlube Limited (the U.K.).

For further know-how of competitive outlook, the report discusses SWOT analysis of prominent players, and how this will impact the competitive hierarchy until the end of the forecast period. This serves as a crucial Market intelligence indicator to gauge growth strategies adopted by Market stakeholders, and their stance on mergers, acquisitions, partnerships, and collaborations that can help remain competitive.

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 Key Questions Answered in the Mining Lubricants Report

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The Multi-Function Infrared Thermometers market report provides a detailed analysis of the on-going trends, opportunities/ high growth areas, market drivers, which would help to understand upcoming market strategies according to the current and future market dynamics.

The readers will find Multi-Function Infrared Thermometers Market very helpful in understanding the market in depth. The data and the information regarding the market are taken from reliable sources such as websites, annual reports of the companies, journals, and others and were checked and validated by the industry experts. The facts and data are represented in the report using diagrams, graphs, pie charts, and other pictorial representations. This enhances the visual representation and also helps in understanding the facts much better.

Manufacturer Detail: FLUKE, MEM, American Diagnostic, Zumax Medical, Welch Allyn, HealthSmart, Microlife, Phoenix Medical, Natus Medical, KARKNEE, Tzron, HOLDJOY

Product Type Segmentation: Multi-Function Ear Infrared Thermometers, Multi-Function Forehead Infrared Thermometers

Industry Segmentation: Industrial, Medical, Laboratory

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Multi-Function Infrared Thermometers Market

Regions Covered in this report:

• North America Country (United States, Canada)

• South America

• Asia Country (China, Japan, India, Korea)

• Europe Country (Germany, UK, France, Italy)

• Other Country (Middle East, Africa, GCC)

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Points Covered in The Report :

• The points that are discussed within the report are the major market players that are involved in the market such as manufacturers, raw material suppliers, equipment suppliers, end users, traders, distributors and etc.

• The complete profile of the companies is mentioned. And the capacity, production, price, revenue, cost, gross, gross margin, sales volume, sales revenue, consumption, growth rate, import, export, supply, future strategies, and the technological developments that they are making are also included within the report.

• The growth factors of the market are discussed in detail wherein the different end users of the market are explained in detail.

• Data and information by manufacturer, by region, by type, by application and etc, and custom research can be added according to specific requirements.

• The report contains a SWOT analysis of the market. Finally, the report contains the conclusion part where the opinions of the industrial experts are included.

Key Reasons to Purchase Multi-Function Infrared Thermometers Market Report :

• To gain insightful analyses of the market and have a comprehensive understanding of the global Multi-Function Infrared Thermometers market and its commercial landscape.

• Assess the production processes, major issues, and solutions to mitigate the development risk.

• To understand the most affecting driving and restraining forces in the Multi-Function Infrared Thermometers market and its impact on the global market.

• Learn about the market strategies that are being adopted by leading respective organizations.

• To understand the future outlook and prospects for the Multi-Function Infrared Thermometers market.

• Besides the standard structure reports, we also provide custom research according to specific requirements.

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Biochar Market Value Share, Supply Demand, share and Value Chain 2019-2024

4 November, 2019
 

Global Biochar market 2019 analysis report supplies an extensive analysis of market trends and stock to grow with CaGR. The report examines the economic dimensions, recent Biochar market trends, key sections and prospects of this global industry (2019-2024). The industry stocks of sections (players, type, application, and regions) are all well prepared to offer an opportunistic roadmap to the global sector. The analysis additionally has the research of drivers, restraints, and also trends that influence the present scenario of this Biochar international market and its particular effect on the worldwide economy for the forecast period 2019 — 2024.

Description:

This Biochar market comprehensive research of this industry condition and also the competitive analysis internationally. It analyzes the primary variables of this market predicated on market scenarios, manufacturer’s performance, and forecast, etc. This report also provides an invaluable resource for Biochar businesses such as manufacturing companies, providers, vendors, investors, clients, investors and people that have interests within this business.

Request Sample Report at: http://globalmarketfacts.us/global-biochar-market/2520/#request-sample

Top manufacturers/players, together using Biochar revenue quantity, price (USD/Unit), earnings (Mn/Bn USD) and market share for every single manufacturer/player; the leading players such as: BlackCarbon, Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy, Vega Biofuels, Carbon Gold, Cool Planet, Kina, Diacarbon Energy, Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, Carbon Terra, Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai), Swiss Biochar GmbH, Agri-Tech Producers, BioChar Products, The Biochar Company, Liaoning Jinhefu Group and ElementC6

Report Covered Segments:

The sections that global Biochar market dependent on the kind of product, end-users, as well as global regions. It clarifies the functioning of the unique segment in market development. Researching the market using the info recorded by the secondary and primary search group of industry professionals in addition to the databases.

Type-wise section:
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar

End-user/Application wise section:
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer

Scope of this Market Report: This report centers upon the Biochar in the worldwide marketplace, particularly in Asia-Pacific, North America, Europe, Oceanian Sub-Region, The Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. This report divides industry predicated on manufacturers, regions, types, and applications.

Biochar market report provides chances, hazard, and driving force that shows future and current economy requirements connected to manufacturers and regions. It gives up to date company conclusions giving broad understandings of this current market and comprehensive analysis of market sections.

Have Any Query? Ask Our Expert: http://globalmarketfacts.us/global-biochar-market/2520/#inquiry

Fundamental Reasons to Acquire Market Report:

1. Ascertain prospective Biochar investment is as dependent on a comprehensive trend analysis of this market in the upcoming decades;
2. Gain in-depth knowledge of the underlying factors driving requirement for different sections from the top paying nations around the planet and establish the opportunities provided by every one of these;
3. Strengthen your comprehension of global Biochar industry concerning demand drivers, industry trends, and the newest technological advancements, amongst others;
4. Identify the Biochar significant stations which are forcing the market, providing a crystal unambiguous picture regarding future changes which may be exploited, leading to sales expansion;
5. Channelize funds by concentrating on the most Biochar application which is increasingly now being undertaken by different states within the market;
6. Create proper company decisions based on a thorough investigation of this complete Biochar competitive landscape of this industry together with in-depth profiles of their best solution providers across the globe
7.Biochar information regarding their merchandise, alliances, and recent contract wins along with financial investigation wherever available;

Global Biochar Market Forecast 2019-2024

At the end, Biochar report covers the industry landscape and its growth prospects within the next several years, the report also brief addresses the types lifecycle, comparing it to the important services and products from across businesses that had been commercialized details the possibility for a variety of applications, talking about recent product inventions and gives a review about potential regional markets.

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A comprehensive analysis of the Low Iron Glass for Concentrating Solar Power CSP Market including market sizing, market share by competitor, market share by distribution channel, drivers,

A comprehensive analysis of the Low Molecular Weight Fluoropolymer Market including market sizing, market share by competitor, market share by distribution channel, drivers, restraints, product pricing trends,

2019 – All Rights Reserved By Marketing Strategies24


Global Biochar Market Insights 2019 : Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char …

4 November, 2019
 

The report on the global "Biochar market" offers detailed data on the Biochar market. Elements such as dominating companies, classification, size, business atmosphere, SWOT analysis, and most effectual trends in the industry are comprised in this research study. In this report, the global Biochar market is valued at USD XX million in 2018 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2018 and 2025. In addition to this, the report sports charts, numbers, and tables that offer a clear viewpoint of the Biochar market. The dominant companies Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels, Carbon Gold, Kina, Swiss Biochar GmbH, BlackCarbon, Carbon Terra, Sonnenerde, Biokol, ECOSUS, Verora GmbH are additionally mentioned in the report.

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The latest data has been presented in the global Biochar market study on the revenue numbers, product details, and sales of the major firms. In addition to this, this information also comprises the breakdown of the revenue for the Biochar market in addition to claiming a forecast for the same in the estimated timeframe. The strategic business tactics accepted by the noteworthy members of the global Biochar market have also been integrated in this report. Key weaknesses and strengths, in addition to claiming the dangers encountered by the main contenders in the Biochar market, have been a fraction of this research study. Furthermore, main product type and segments Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar and the sub-segments Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others of the global market are depicted in the report.

The global Biochar market report includes a profound summary of the key sectors of the Biochar market. Both quickly and slowly growing sectors of the Biochar market have been examined via this study. Forecast, share of the market, and size of each s and sub-segment is obtainable in the study. The key up-and-coming chances associated to the most quickly growing segments of the market are also a fracturing of this report. Furthermore, classification based on geographies as well as the trends powering the leading regional markets and developing geographies is offered in this research study. The global Biochar market report wraps regions that are mainly classified into: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa.

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The report on the global Biochar market furthermore offers a chronological factsheet relating to the strategically mergers, acquirements, joint venture activities, and partnerships widespread in the Biochar market. Remarkable suggestions by senior experts on tactically spending in research and development might help up-and-coming entrants as well as reputable companies for enhanced incursion in the developing segments of the Biochar market. Market players might accomplish a clear perception of the main rivals in the Biochar market in addition to their future forecasts. The report also analyses the market in terms of volume [k MT] and revenue [Million USD].

There are 15 Chapters to display the Global Biochar market

Chapter 1, Definition, Specifications and Classification of Biochar , Applications of Biochar , Market Segment by Regions;
Chapter 2, Manufacturing Cost Structure, Raw Material and Suppliers, Manufacturing Process, Industry Chain Structure;
Chapter 3, Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Biochar , Capacity and Commercial Production date, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status and Technology Source, Raw Materials Sources Analysis;
Chapter 4, Overall Market Analysis, Capacity Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment);
Chapter 5 and 6, Regional Market Analysis that includes United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea & Taiwan, Biochar Segment Market Analysis (by Type);
Chapter 7 and 8, The Biochar Segment Market Analysis (by Application) Major Manufacturers Analysis of Biochar ;
Chapter 9, Market Trend Analysis, Regional Market Trend, Market Trend by Product Type Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar, Market Trend by Application Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others;
Chapter 10, Regional Marketing Type Analysis, International Trade Type Analysis, Supply Chain Analysis;
Chapter 11, The Consumers Analysis of Global Biochar ;
Chapter 12, Biochar Research Findings and Conclusion, Appendix, methodology and data source;
Chapter 13, 14 and 15, Biochar sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

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Global Granular Biochar Market Competitive Dynamics 2024

4 November, 2019
 

The Granular Biochar market 2019-2024 research report provides a comprehensive and total analysis of the market. Product or Service from supplier to customer, organizations, resources which involved is well explained for business improvement.

The Granular Biochar market report is a useful source of well-observed data for the business organizer. It provides the industry outline with growth analysis and historical & futuristic cost, revenue, demand. The report basically examines the current outlook in the global market and key regions from particular players, product type, product applications, countries. This Granular Biochar Market study provides knowledgeable data which increases the understanding, scope, and application of this report.

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The following manufacturers are covered:

The Biochar Company
Biochar Now
Carbon Gold
Diacarbon Energy
BlackCarbon
Carbon Terra
Agri-Tech Producers
BioChar Products
ElementC6
Swiss Biochar GmbH
Cool Planet
Kina

Segment by Regions — Complete research report on the world’s superior regional market situations, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East, and Africa).

Segment by Type:

Wood Source Biochar
Corn Source Biochar
Wheat Source Biochar

Segment by Application:

Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer

Scope of Global Granular Biochar Market:

Global Granular Biochar Market basically gives information related manufacturers, vendors, top companies, different organizations who basically carry large count in regards to revenue, end-user requirement, sales, rules through their authentic services, types, constricted elements. So this report has a full abstract of the market.

The main aim of our researcher is providing an expansive analysis of the Granular Biochar market Demand, Insight, Analysis, Opportunities, Segmentation and Industry Size, Share, Growth, Trends, Forecast Analysis For 2019 – 2024. Which are the market trends? and What are the benefits of it to the investors all updated things we are providing that is one of our targets.

For Inquiry Or Customization: https://market.biz/report/global-granular-biochar-market-2017-mr/186834/#inquiry

Segment Analysis of the Granular Biochar market: In this section basically Global Granular Biochar Market size by various product applications and various product types, category, in terms of utility mentioned.

Geographical Outlook of the Granular Biochar market: To study and analyze the global Granular Biochar market size breakdown by key regions such as North America, Europe, and Asia & Rest of World.it also involves history data from 2014 to 2018.

Granular Biochar market key manufacturers: As the name gives the idea, this section provides 2019 Industry Trends, Sales, Supply & Demand Analysis along with sales data of different manufacturers. Providing helpful, necessary information to investors for business through analysis of manufacturers is the main goal. It points out revenue, products, competitors, manufacturing base and the foremost business of players operating in the global Granular Biochar market.

Granular Biochar Market: Major Table of Contents

1 Market Overview

2 Competitions by Players

3 Competitions by Types

4 Competitions by Applications

5 Production Market Analyses by Regions

6 Market Analysis by Region

7 Imports and Exports Market Analysis

8 Players Profiles and Sales Data

9 Upstream and Downstream Analysis

10 Market Forecast (2019-2024)

11 Research Findings and Conclusion

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Quantitative analysis on Wood Vinegar Market Growth, Demand, Scope, Technological …

5 November, 2019
 

According to the report, the “Wood Vinegar Market: Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2019-2028” share of global Wood Vinegar industry is dominate by companies like Vendors Covered, Vendor Classification, Market Positioning Of Vendors. Some of Major Eminent Key Players are: Canada Renewable Bioenergy Corp., Byron Biochar, Verdi Life, Wood Vinegar Australia, Mizkan Americas Inc, Doi & Co Ltd, Green Man Char, Nettenergy BV, Taiko Pharmaceutical Co Ltd and Ace (Singapore) Pte Ltd and others which are profiled in this report as well in terms of Revenue, Sales, Price, Gross Margin and Market Share (2019-2028).

Furthermore, the report offers an extensive standpoint of current patterns and new item dispatch in the worldwide market. Highlighting worldwide and provincial information and overdriving key players profiles, this report serves a definitive manual for investigating openings in the Wood Vinegar business all-inclusive. The creator of the report has utilized basic language and uncomplicated factual figures that contained intensive data and complete data on the worldwide market. The report gives market players helpful data and proposes result-arranged strategies to increase an aggressive edge in the Wood Vinegar market.

Download Free Sample Copy of Wood Vinegar Market Report Study 2019-2028 At: https://marketresearch.biz/report/wood-vinegar-market/request-sample

The report offers the Wood Vinegar business development rate, size, and figures at the worldwide level likewise concerning the geographic territories. The industry-changing components for the market portions are investigated in this report. The report covers the development components of the overall market dependent on end-clients. Likewise, this report talks about the key drivers affecting market development, openings, the difficulties, and the dangers looked by key producers and the market in general. It likewise breaks down key rising patterns and their effect on present and future advancement.

Segments of Wood Vinegar Market by :

Segmentation by Method:

Slow Pyrolysis
Intermediate Pyrolysis
Fast Pyrolysis
Segmentation by application:

Agriculture
Animal-Feed
Food
Medicinal
Consumer Products

The study objectives of this report are:

— Analyzing the outlook of the market with recent trends and SWOT analysis.

— Wood Vinegar Market dynamics scenario, along with growth opportunities of the market in the years to come.

— Wood Vinegar market segmentation analysis including qualitative and quantitative research incorporating the impact of economic and non-economic aspects.

— Regional and country-level Wood Vinegar analysis integrating the demand and supply forces that are influencing the growth.

— Wood Vinegar market value (USD Million) and volume (Units Million) data for each segment and sub-segment.

— Competitive landscape involving the market share of major players, along with the new projects and strategies adopted by players in the past five years.

— Comprehensive company profiles covering important economic data, product offerings, latest trends, SWOT analysis and strategies used by significant players in the market.

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The Wood Vinegar Market report answers the questions below:

— Who will be the target customers for Wood Vinegar Market for the forecast period, 2019 to 2028?

— Where are most buyers located?

— What are the latest trends in the Wood Vinegar Market? How will they impact the future of the industry during the estimated period?

— Is the Wood Vinegar Market share growing fast or declining?

— Is the market large enough for the major vendors to expand their business and increase the customer base?

— How many potential customers are there in a particular region?

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Global Biochar Market Supply Demand And Sales Purchase Exclusive Report 2028

5 November, 2019
 

Biochar Market has witnessed continuous growth within the past few years and is projected to grow even more throughout the forecast amount (2019-2028). The analysis presents a whole assessment of the market and contains Future trend, Current Growth Factors, attentive opinions, facts, historical information, and statistically supported and business valid market information.

The Scope of Global Biochar Industry: This report assesses the expansion rate and therefore the current market price on the grounds of the market dynamics, additionally to the expansion sides. The analysis is predicated on the Biochar market info, growth potentials, and market trends. It contains an in-depth investigation of this sector and state of affairs, at the side of the analysis of their leading competitors.

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Competitor’s Landscape:

Leading Key players Listed in this Report covers their insights upto 2019, some coverage from the competitor covers the following information:

• Company Profile

• Product Information (Biochar)

• Production Information (2013-2019)

• Development of Biochar Manufacturing Technology

• Analysis of Biochar

• Trends of Biochar

• Contact Information

Biochar Market SWOT Analysis by Leading Key Players Includes:Agri-Tech Producers LLC, Genesis Industries LLC, Diacarbon Energy Inc, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc, Vega Biofuels Inc, Earth Systems Bioenergy, Biochar Products Inc, Earth Systems PTY. LTD., Waste to Energy Solutions Inc, Swiss Biochar GmbH

The Segmentation for the report:

By technology: Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal, Others, By application: Agriculture, Water & waste water treatment, Others

The research provides answers to the following key questions:

-What are the key barriers and threats believed to hinder the development of the industry?

-What are the future opportunities in the Biochar market?

-What will be the growth rate and the market size of the Biochar industry for the forecast period 2019-2028?

-What are the major driving forces expected to impact the development of the Biochar market across different regions?

-Who are the major driving forces expected to decide the fate of the industry worldwide?

-Who are the prominent market players making a mark in the Biochar market with their winning strategies?

-Which industry trends are likely to shape the future of the industry during the forecast period 2019-2028?

The report is distributed over the following Chapters to display the analysis of the Biochar market.

Chapter 1 Study Coverage of Biochar

Chapter 2 Executive Summary

Chapter 3 Market Size by Manufacturers

Chapter 4 Production by Regions

Chapter 5 Consumption by Regions

Chapter 6 Research Discoveries and Conclusion

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Stabilization and solidification of arsenic and iron contaminated canola meal biochar using …

5 November, 2019
 

Adsorption is a widely used process for removal of heavy metals, but the management of spent adsorbent containing concentrated amounts of heavy metals is a problem due to potential risk of groundwater contamination from leaching of heavy metals. Generally, cementitious binder and additives are used for stabilization and solidification treatment, however heavy metals tend to leach from such matrices. Therefore, this research investigated the effectiveness of chemically modified phosphate biochar (CMPB) composite for the simultaneous solidification and stabilization of arsenic (As) and iron (Fe) contaminated canola meal biochar. Results showed that the performance of spent biochar added CMPB composites was significantly better than the pure composites (without biochar) due to filling of inter-aggregate pores using biochar and availability of sufficient amount of MgKPO4 for binding of biochar particles. Moreover, leaching test and risk assessment studies indicated that there is no potential adverse effect as the concentrations of As and Fe in TCLP leachate were well below the Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) in optimized CMPB composites. In conclusion, chemically modified phosphate binders were found effective in stabilization and solidification of As and Fe contaminated biochar into thermodynamically stable material with high immobilization capacity and low leachability.

 


Biochar Market to Discern Magnified Growth During 2017 – 2025

5 November, 2019
 

The research study presented in this report offers complete and intelligent analysis of the competition, segmentation, dynamics, and geographical advancement of the Global Biochar Market. The research study has been prepared with the use of in-depth qualitative and quantitative analyses of the global Biochar market. We have also provided absolute dollar opportunity and other types of market analysis on the global Biochar market.

It takes into account the CAGR, value, volume, revenue, production, consumption, sales, manufacturing cost, prices, and other key factors related to the global Biochar market. All findings and data on the global Biochar market provided in the report are calculated, gathered, and verified using advanced and reliable primary and secondary research sources. The regional analysis offered in the report will help you to identify key opportunities of the global Biochar market available in different regions and countries.

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The authors of the report have segmented the global Biochar market as per product, application, and region. Segments of the global Biochar market are analyzed on the basis of market share, production, consumption, revenue, CAGR, market size, and more factors. The analysts have profiled leading players of the global Biochar market, keeping in view their recent developments, market share, sales, revenue, areas covered, product portfolios, and other aspects.

Key players profiled in this report are Howa Machinery Company Ltd. (Japan), Sturm, Ruger & Co. (United States), Smith & Wesson Holding Corp. (United States), Creedmoor Sports, Inc. (United States), German Sport Guns GmbH (Germany), Dick's Sporting Goods, Inc. (United States), Beretta Holding S.p.A. (Italy), J.G. Anschutz & Co. (Germany), Browning Arms Company (United States), and Miroku Corporation (Japan).

The segments covered in the global sports gun market are as follows:

Global Sports Gun Market: By Application

Global Sports Gun Market: By Type

Global Sports Gun Market: By Geography

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Biochar Market Size and Forecast

In terms of region, this research report covers almost all the major regions across the globe such as North America, Europe, South America, the Middle East, and Africa and the Asia Pacific. Europe and North America regions are anticipated to show an upward growth in the years to come. While Biochar Market in Asia Pacific regions is likely to show remarkable growth during the forecasted period. Cutting edge technology and innovations are the most important traits of the North America region and that’s the reason most of the time the US dominates the global markets. Biochar Market in South, America region is also expected to grow in near future.

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The Biochar Market report highlights is as follows: 

This Biochar market report provides complete market overview which offers the competitive market scenario among major players of the industry, proper understanding of the growth opportunities, and advanced business strategies used by the market in the current and forecast period.

This Biochar Market report will help a business or an individual to take appropriate business decision and sound actions to be taken after understanding the growth restraining factors, market risks, market situation, market estimation of the competitors.

The expected Biochar Market growth and development status can be understood in a better way through this five-year forecast information presented in this report

This Biochar Market research report aids as a broad guideline which provides in-depth insights and detailed analysis of several trade verticals.

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Pre charged biochar

5 November, 2019
 

cmake_logo-main "e technology for using biochar in agriculture was also independently developed by indigenous pre-Columbian Indians in the Amazon basin Our biological activation process to improve biochar materials does three critical things among other benefits. Traditional terra preta, on which current biochar research is based, was made by mixing charcoal, bones, pottery shards, human waste, and other trash together in a pit, and recent studies have shown that it's best to mimic this by adding some sort of high nitrogen fertilizer to your charcoal before applying it to the garden. The mechanism could be explained considering the electrostatic interaction between the surface of the biochar, which is usually negatively charged, with the positively charged MB [ 141, 245] Montmorillonite is the main factor for MB uptake (70. by inyang mandu ime a thesis presented to the graduate school of the university of florida in partial fulfillment of the requi rements for the degree of master of science university of florida 2010 page 2 2 2010 inyang mandu ime page 3 Uncharged biochar at the <1mm size is blended in with that. Specifically, retention and transport behaviors of P in acidic and alkaline soils were examined in the absence and presence of colloidal biochar NPs by column breakthrough experiments; pre-deposited biochar NPs or P in soils Biochar is a catalyst that brings essential elements, especially charged ions, together to encourage their reaction, but biochar itself remains largely unchanged by these reactions. the use of nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium (NPK) pre-charged biochar and zeolite as soilless substrate amendments in order to increase greenhouse production sustainability. Composting Any gardener interested in improving their soil – that's all of us – should be tuned in to the arguments for, and against, biochar. For plants that require high potash and elevated pH, biochar can be used as a soil amendment to improve yield. So far we've included biochar into the floor of their corrals to grab nutrients, put in a compost pile on the property to make charged biochar, and have started feeding the cows 100g of biochar a day to increase their milk production! I'll keep you posted with the results! Terra preta owes its characteristic black color to its weathered charcoal content, and was made by adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, broken pottery, compost and manure to the otherwise relatively infertile Amazonian soil. When pre charged with these beneficial organisms biochar becomes an extremely effective soil amendment promoting good soil, and in turn plant, health. s. Biochar is a very efficient adsorber of electromagnetic radiation, meaning that biochar-mud plaster is very good at preventing “electrosmog”. Biochar. The strongest Removal of Copper, Lead, Methylene Green 5, and Acid Red 1 by Saccharide-Derived Spherical Biochar Prepared at Low Calcination Temperatures: Adsorption Kinetics, Isotherms, and Thermodynamics Biochar: Panacea or peril? July 19th, 2010 By Francesca Rheannon Green Right Now Biochar has emerged over the last couple years as a ray of hope on the otherwise bleak horizon of the planet’s environmental future. How to Charge Up Your Biochar Evidence, both from physical remains and via the accounts of 16 th century European explorers, shows that pre-Columbian Amazonian peoples commonly used biochar as a soil amendment. and bands responsible for generating negative charges were lost,  Long-term effects of biochar on contaminant stability in soil should be investigated. effects of wood chip-derived biochar NPs on retention and trans-port of P in acidic and alkaline soils. Biochar (carbonized biomass for agricultural use) has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for Brazil, since its "inspiration" is from the historical Terra Preta de Índios(Amazon Dark Earth), and also because Brazil is the world's largest charcoal producer, generating enormous residue quantities in form of fine charcoal and due to the Biochar is a rather non-reactive, negatively charged organic compound (Hollister et al. Quite the same Wikipedia. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Pre flower working on the outdoors this week. This could be used for making charcoal, charged with urine, vermi-compost, Terra Cottam and used as a very effective soil improver / fertiliser. Biochar for Climate Change Mitigation: Fact or Fiction? – 4 – connected with the new administration. 44 Stage 2: Dry residues (Volatile and Gases) + Pre-biochar 45 46 Stage 3: Pre-biochar (Volatile and Gases) + Biochar 47 48 The first step is loss of moisture from the biomass, which becomes dry feedstock by heating. Pre-charged char can become ‘seed’ for composting – possibly speeding up process Guide for composting biochars: J. Hundreds of Alaska children expected to lose access to pre-K under governor How Can It Help Farmers? Biochar provides a unique opportunity to improve soil fertility for the long term using locally available materials. Fig. Where things get more interesting is in the using this as a soil amendment. A microbe culture for seed planting is different than for compost tea, or cooking compost, or foliar feeding spray, or planting trees; each must be modified to meet its specialized environment and purpose. These ancient farmlands are still fertile as a result of biochar. . Pre-Germination soak or spray, to give you seeds the best start $9. Biochar: A Solution to Oakland’s Green Waste? Amanda R. specifically brewed biochar teas innoculated with these two different microbes . The field study also explored the practical side of handling biochar on farm and experience with mechanical spreading is included alongside trial results. From the Abstract: “The presence of charcoal in soils for about 120 years elevated significantly the black carbon, total OC, natural soil OC, total nitrogen, dissolved organic matter, soil OC density, exchangeable bases, saturated hydraulic conductivity, available water capacity and available Fe, Mn and Zn compared to the adjacent reference soils. Biochar can also be charged by soaking it for two to four weeks in any liquid nutrient (urine, plant tea, etc. By contrast, the increase of SOC was significant in BC20 (+39%) and BC40 (+58%). Pre-trial benchmark monitoring complete with a secondary benefit of the resultant manure being a charged biochar with Uncertainty remains about the influence of biochar on native SOC mineralisation in terrestrial ecosystems 11,12. 2010) and so the positively charged Al was readily adsorbed on its surfaces. Since 2010, livestock farmers increasingly use biochar as a regular feed supplement to improve animal health, increase nutrient intake efficiency and thus productivity. Add biochar to the soil at the root level when planting saplings in the field. The mechanisms that give biochar such highly prized characteristics are largely due to its high cation exchange capacity (CEC). The biochar samples produced at 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C in the CO 2 atmosphere are labelled C300, C400, C500, C600, and C700, respectively, and the original straw is labelled RS. e. , 2011). The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production . We’re here at the 3rd annual National Heirloom Expo. Biochar could also affect the adsorption and desorption of signaling compounds that would otherwise promote root–fungi connections (Akiyama et al. . Oct 1, 2019- Explore flood1982's board "biochar" on Pinterest. The form, type, preliminary preparation steps and size of the biomass  “Activated” or “charged” biochar mixed with compost and nutrients helps plants If you use Deep Roots Super Growth Garden Soil blend, 10-15% biochar is  biochar is negatively charged and binds to metal cations such as. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. 4000 metric tonnes available to make charcoal. COM ALL THE OLD TURKEYSONG POSTS ARE THERE AND MORE, CHECK IT OUT! Biochar is an amendment intended for long-term plant viability. It results in a biochar that has: 1. First, the German Renewable Energy Act (EEG) sets a favorable feed-in tariff for electricity from bio-waste, respectively the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), which is currently at 15. Abstract. is needed in order to fully assess the impacts of biochar on Increased Cation Exchange Capacity resulting from negative charges on. The primary aim of  26 Aug 2019 This negative charge interacts with the positively charged metals to keep them Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox  24 Apr 2018 Biochar is the matter that is leftover after organic materials (for example, It is purposefully made and sometimes used in agricultural settings to help 50% biochar that has also been “charged” with a boost of extra nutrients,  benefits of biochar used as a soil amendment in terms of both crop yield/soil quality and for soil carbon . For blends, roof top gardens, soil or soil-less media. Apply pre-charged biochar directly to root zone or in seed furrows at a rate of 1 to 10% biochar by volume of amendments applied. Step 1: Choose your biomass. Carbon, in the form of biochar, is very very stable in the soil and can last for centuries. In more technical terms, biochar is produced by thermal decomposition of or Biochar Promises New Recycling Options and Better Food Biochar is electrically charged and incredibly porous. Materials and Methods Biochar and plant growth medium GHW-350 biochar was produced at 350°C highest treatment temperature (HTT) from glasshouse pepper plant pH, and AlCl3 pre-pyrolysis feedstock treatments on biochar anion exchange capacity (AEC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), point of zero net charge (PZNC), and point of zero salt effect (PZSE). Migliaccioa,c a Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Homestead, FL 33031, United States Pre-and post-trial soil sampling and mid-season foliar sampling were carried out and assessed. [. In an enclosed area, the amendment reduces odor (it scavenges ammonia) and the used litter becomes a very potent (and charged) compost and/or garden amendment 2. ] Biochar will cut any farms fertilizer budget in half, easy. Three Birds ™ BioChar with Worm Tea comes fully charged, infused with worm tea ready to be added to your garden. Are there any distributors? Would it be more cost effective to make it myself (given that I have a relative infinite supply of wood chips/waste wood)? Environmentally friendly and low-cost catalysts are important for the rapid mineralization of organic contaminants in powerful advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Cd . Pre-Columbian Amazonians are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity. Negatively charged ions in AquaChar magnetically pull fine particulates out of the water creating crystal clear water in 12-48 hours. in R Gilkes (ed. At 2M tall and 1. 16 Jan 2018 The negatively charged biochar surface area can also increase the amount of plant microbes is fully utilized when it is blending with compost. GreenBack Biochar's high adsorption effect is observable by the shrinkage to the plastic bag within hours in which it is sealed in. This is material that would otherwise be left to decompose, or burnt. Biochar reduces soil acidity which decreases liming needs, but in most cases does not actually add nutrients in any appreciable amount. Move forward with Remineralizing, Inoculating, Carbonizing, Hydrating (RICH) Custom Formulations Encouraged. She uses biochar in her green roofs and urban landscaping projects. She points out that when pre-charged with these beneficial organisms biochar becomes an extremely effective soil amendment  Biocharm™ “Pre-charged” Biochar Soil Amendment Biocharm™ is a soil amendment containing biochar, a charcoal-like substance that has been scientifically  Weight is approximate because we pack by volume. See more Close-up of biochar soil aggregates and mycorrhizal fungal associations on plant roots (Richard Haard) By pre-charging the biochar with nutrients prior to application we can greatly speed up this absorption process and thereby mitigate any negative effects the biochar may initially have as it tries to satisfy its craving for filling nutrients. However, studies of biochar soaked in solutions of iron (Fe3+/Fe2+) and pyrolysis at different temperatures, 250 °C, 400 °C and 700 °C have been shown to precipitate magnetite on the biochar’s surface (Chen et al. Sustainable agriculture and soil fertility have been central to the terra preta/agrichar/biochar development since the beginning of the current development efforts (2003-2017). The work as a research assistant includes but not limited to: Scattering a light layer of biochar on the barn oor will let the biochar absorb the nutrients from the straw-manure litter while keeping the barn oor sweet and protecting livestock feet from diseases. AMF inoculant). (It is recommended the biochar used has been charged by passing  Mother Earth® Premium BioChar is a fast and easy way to boost the performance of new soil and can improve the effectiveness of compost teas and mycorrhizal  putting forth preliminary estimates of net carbon . Department  25 Mar 2019 Biochar is an organic potting soil and garden soil amendment that Fully charged and ready to use on all types of plants; Alfalfa Meal and Kelp  “Cations” are positively charged ions, in this case we refer specifically to plant nutrients such as calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) and others . International Union of Soil Sciences, Crawley, pp. 4 Dec 2009 pyrolysis plants, before the biochar is redistributed back to farms for negatively charged sites on the reactive surface area of biochar (and  Incorporated into the ground, bio-char is a porous soil enhancer that can lock up Moreover, these properties can be manipulated by pre- and post-processing. Joyce: Conditioning Biochars for application to Soils Acts as a ‘black’ carbon source, with your ‘browns’ and ‘greens’. The biochar becomes a "reef" onto which a broad variety of microbial life attach. So that biochar can quickly and effi­cient­ly develop its soil-improv­ing effect in the garden, city park or on the field, biochar must first be “charged”. The story goes that charcoal buried in the soil is stable for thousands if not hundreds of thousands of years and increases crop yields. Thoughts? Thanks! — Karen. Biochar as a filter media for removing lead and arsenic in water Oxisol-turned-anthrosol by the interntional slash-and-char practice of pre-Columbian farmers that Biochar can be applied to any soil and is best made from invasive weeds preventing ecosystem recovery. The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah. Biochar must be pre-inoculated for best results. biochar affects the soil ecology is a very active area of research. Learn more about them here. While those who sell biochar want to create something that makes it different from charcoal, the reality is that both are created through pyrolosis from the same materials, using the same process. That Mantria was currently producing large quantities of biochar, although they knew that Mantria was not producing large amounts of biochar. Download with Google Download with Facebook Therefore, it can bind up soil nutrients when first added to the soil. Charging up your soil with biochar In the rare case that your soil is already very fertile, biochar can be directly added to the soil. ). Eco-friendly biochar produced from cost-effective and readily available agricultural waste will likely pose no threat on the aqueous phases, other environmental media, human health and emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Starting in 2008, with a large supply of clean dry wood waste from local sawmills to play with, I developed a technique that proved to be a very efficient way to transform wood into biochar. The application of biochar to soil has shown Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by biochars derived from anaerobically digested biomass Mandu Inyanga, Bin Gaoa,⇑, Ying Yaoa, Yingwen Xueb,a, Andrew R. Applied at thicknesses of up to 20 cm, it is a substitute for styrofoam. Swine manure is potentially harmful to the environment but is also a readily accessible local source of phosphorus (P) for agricultural use. Process of charging (adding nutrients) and Inoculating (adding microbes) to biochar Remember the adsorptive qualities of biochar will ‘suck in’ nutrients in your soil when applied raw Important to understand that nature will take it’s course… if you have the patience to wait (1-2 growing seasons?), then you can skip this step. It has to be pre charged in compost, as a filter in a pond recirc system, urinated on for a few months, etc. When done like that, it can be a net negative for a while. In soil, it is best to add biochar in small amounts every year and allow it to slowly build up in the soil where it gets charged with nutrients. 1 M CsCl was added to biochar samples and filter papers retained from previous experiment (pre-treatments) and shaken end over end for 2 hours (3 replicates/biochar). Raw biochar inhibits growth. Wakefield Kickstart is a charged biochar with ~35% carbon and a higher level of oxygen and potassium, . Biochar does have several benefits as a soil amendment but one of its Pre-Columbian Amazonians are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can Pre-Columbian Amazonians are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity. , 1994). Useful Info Available Raw or Pre-Charged Our Pre-Charged Char is soaked in a mixture of Ferti Nitro soy  Pre-charged biochar and zeolite as soilless substrate amendments and slow release fertilizers: effects on basil and spinach quality. Biochar provides sheltered spaces and selective surfaces for ions and microbes to assemble and interact. Providing remedial benefits to the soil, whilst also in a sponge like manner being excellent at water retention. Biochar Blend. Characterisation of biochar. Slow pyrolysis chars (our methods) would benefit from pre-treatment before composting This outcome may be the result of varying biochar concentrations having differing effects in the presence of other treatments (i. 1986; Butnan et al. I asked if the pellet machine would be able to convert bio-char into a pellet form. Yes Karen your burlap bag technique is the simplest low tech but very effective method of charging biochar. Available Raw or Pre-Charged. Biochar may look like charcoal but it isn’t made the same way, so don’t start dumping your fireplace ashes into your garden. Soil biologist Elaine Ingham indicates the extreme suitability of biochar as a habitat for many beneficial soil micro organisms. Also, the biggest mistake people make with it is put uncharged charcoal in their soil, and it charges itself on the soil nutrient. , so-called “Terra Preta” soil. ) Improved macronutrient profile, specifically in regards to nitrogen. thirdeyeorganix precharged # biochar positively charged with our family grown organic amendments. I’d love to get you guys some biochar when we have it for the giving, but it flies off our “shelf” the moment we make any (we have a long list of researchers wanting to test it out). It has been hailed as a possible solution to climate change, world hunger, and rural poverty — Biochar amendment to soil changes dissolved organic matter content and composition. You’ll note in the terra preta video that the terra preta was built by combining other organic wastes with the waste charcoal, and then the combination was left to age before it was planted in. If applying bulk, pure biochar directly, go for 1000 to 2000 lbs biochar/acre (raw or pre-charged) The key to a highly productive, low tech/low cost biochar pit burn: Start your fire in the bottom of the empty pit Biochar is a very efficient adsorber of electromagnetic radiation, meaning that biochar-mud plaster is very good at preventing “electrosmog”. Composting with biochar. An evaluation of biochar pre-conditioned with urea ammonium nitrate on maize (Zea mays L. Cd2ю, Pb2ю accounted for 100% sorption of Cd, with 22% from phosphate pre- cipitates  10 Apr 2018 Biochar is a form of charcoal used to improve compost and top soil. Biochar’s probiotic benefits improve if char is pre-inoculated with digestive microbes. PDF | Biochar is organic matter that has undergone combustion under low to no oxygen conditions (i. 2. Zimmermanc, Pratap Pullammanappallila, Xinde Caod a Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States Knowledge Center :: AmericanHort News Back to AmericanHort AmericanHort News Back to AmericanHort. presence of other treatments (i. August 2010 . Biochar is not a fertilizer, but rather a nutrient carrier and a habitat for microorganisms. There’s over 3000 varieties of heirlooms of different types here in the building. Biochar has also been shown to reduce leaching of E-coli through sandy soils depending on application rate, feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, soil moisture content, soil texture, and surface properties of the bacteria. The proposal to grow crops on hundreds of millions of hectares to be turned into buried ‘biochar’ is therefore widely seen as a “carbon negative Two years after adding the recommended 50-50 mix of "charged," or aged, compost and biochar to Bell's Woodland, a section of the 35-acre garden where compacted clay soil prevented anything from growing, he has a light, healthy soil and a frothy carpet of wildflowers in spring. ), preventing them from leaching out of the soil, and making them readily available to the plant roots. If added directly to the soil biochar can temporarily hold back plant growth as nutrients are absorbed and populations of microorganisms stabilize. [29] who distinguish between pre-treatment price that would have to be charged per ton of biochar. Three carbonaceous porous materials (biochar and activated carbon) were developed from the Tectona grandis tree sawdust. If you’ve never heard of either of them, you’re not alone, but I hope we’ll be hearing a lot more about both in the years to come. it would be more cost-effective to eliminate the pre-oxidation of As(III) to As(V). ) production and soil biochemical characteristics Canadian Journal of Soil Science 2014 94:4 The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars Chemosphere 2013 91:11 Use naturally-charged biochar soil plugs to grow mixed-species seedlings. Their method worked by smoldering agricultural waste in pits or trenches. Thread starter pre charged and ph balanced at 2% of my mix. By making biochar from brush and other hard to compost organic material, you can improve soil — it enhances nutrient availability and also enables soil to retain nutrients longer. ABSTRACT. , when biochar is pre-charged with  12 Jun 2017 Intrigued by the preliminary research as well as the blackened both plain charcoal and “charged biochar,” which is mixed with fertilizer. 2. 18 Dec 2015 Even commercial biochar producers say their products benefit from being biocharged again once it's on your property, to tailor it to your site  Biochar is defined as a carbon-rich product obtained when biomass, such as . There is a lot of metal work involved The biochar oven not only consists of bricks and mortar, but also of metal work that has to be carefully measured and welded. The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society uses the company’s biochar mix in a joint project with the city Water Department, called Rain Check, which helps homeowners manage storm water. Her low water use plants, potted in wood blocks enhanced our exhibit space. Applying raw uninoculated biochar to a media will result in poor plant growth at first, thereby lengthening bench/production time, as the biochar will adsorb nutrients from the media, essentially “stealing” nutrients from the plant. 24 Jul 2014 Biochar (BC) is the carbon-rich product obtained when biomass, such as wood, In addition, BC has porous structure, charged surface, and surface . See more ideas about Soil improvement, Charcoal uses and Carbon sequestration. In hydro- and aquaponics, that doesn't necessarily have to happen, but the grower needs to know that the biochar will take its fill before the plants can get it, and that process can take some time, perhaps weeks or months. Those Use of biochars and biochar blends in agricultural systems such as no-till and pre-cultivation. Dr Ng’s successful experiences with using biochar in the rainforest and rooftop soil mixes have been summarized in his ‘Tropical Gardening’ blog. Animal Feed additive in the activated or standard form. ] I'd buy it. Waters, D, Condon, J, Van Zwieten, L & Moroni, J 2010, Biochar-Ion Interactions: An Investigation of Biochar charge and its effect on ion retention. Agricultural development goals include restoring carbon to carbon-depleted soils. The addition of biochar is a solution because biochar has been shown to improve soil fertility, to promote plant growth, to increase crop yield, and to reduce contaminations. Today I have another exciting episode for you. It has therefore been proposed as a sustainable means to remove positively charged ions (e. Mixing with compost is the most common method, but there are many other ways to add nutri­ents to biochar. Bokashi BioChar Blend : BioKash i: 5 Gallon Bucket These graphene sheet are charged in such a way that they hold onto water and nutrients, preventing them from The carrier gas (CO 2) was pre-charged for 10 min to evacuate the air from the furnace. The biochar in Biocharm™ enables your garden to sequester as much carbon per square foot as a mature tropical rain forest! Biocharm™ biochar is “pre-charged” to start helping your garden today and is formulated to increase surface area and ease distribution in soil. Biochar is a kind of charcoal that can be used instead of chemical fertilizers to enrich soils. She points out that when pre charged with these beneficial organisms biochar becomes an extremely effective soil amendment promoting good soil, and in turn plant, health. 26 eurocent/kWh for a rated power up to 500 kW and 13. European settlers noted the practice when they ultimately arrived. If you use Deep Roots Super Growth Garden Soil blend, 10-15% biochar is already mixed into the soil. This phenomenon would eventually result in the formation of Al-organo complex as explained in detail by Hue and Amien . com. Pre-Columbian groups from the Amazon are believed to have incorporated the matter to improve their yields. The biochar is essentially ‘double-charged’ in this way. Biochar made from manure and bones is the exception; it retains a significant amount of nutrients from its source. Heat production from pyrolysis produce lower emissions including CO, NOx and smog particles than pellets and wood chip combustion and biochar used for carbon storage has the possibility of significant global climate impact. Chemosphere, 2015. Biochar producers suggest pre-charging biochar with nutrients; when combined with mineral fertilizer, small amounts of biochar allow plants to gain greater nutrition (Glaser et al. Through treating biogas slurry with lacto-ferments and biochar, nutrients are better stored and emissions prevented (see (in German): The sustainable production of biogas through climate farming, Schmidt 2012) The treatment of waste water 23. Discussion in 'Growing Organic Marijuana' started by MI Wolverine, (at 1cup/CF) and pre charged biochar( 5%-10% of total soil volume). Novel Uses of Biochar – a key technology for the future of the planet 24. Therefore, it can bind up soil nutrients when first added to the soil. In the last step, chemical compounds in 1 CuFt Biochar – Charged – Modern Beginning. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Of particular relevance is the recent discovery of biochar particles in soils formed by pre-Colombian indigenous agriculturalists in Amazonia, i. positively charged Cu and negatively charged biochar is the pre -. The second biochar course was held in Zhejiang A&F University from 25 October-1 November, 2013. Biochar can be used as a soil amendment to increase water retention capacity and improve overall fertility. In the beginning years of Hawaii Biochar Products (pre-cursor to Pacific Biochar) there were no fancy machines, only wood and sweat, lots of sweat. It is one However, the process is nonreversible. The invention is directed to a method for producing an oxygenated biochar material possessing a cation-exchanging property, wherein a biochar source is reacted with one or more oxygenating compounds in such a manner that the biochar source homogeneously acquires oxygen-containing cation-exchanging groups in an incomplete combustion process. ) is what is of highest concern. 00. Activated carbon is also used for the measurement of radon concentration in air. Harrisb, Kati W. Cations are positively charged ions, with calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+) and The surface of the EFB biochar was negatively charged (Singh et al. to play a role, and the biochar surface is now more negatively charged. A fully probiotic approach must adapt to unique conditions and needs, though. In this study, a biochar derived from industrial tea waste was modified with Mg, Fe, Mn and Al salts to create different composites, which were tested for PO 4 3 In addition, Biochar commonly has a remarkably high surface area, and physically sorbs a great variety of substances, including negatively charged plant nutrient forms such as phosphate and nitrate. Some of his practices differ from the current practices on biochar application, such as the application of biochar in its ‘raw’ state, rather than pre-charged or weathered. To place order give missed call on 022 – 39560561. That Mantria had large amounts of “pre-orders” or imminent sales of biochar, although they knew that Mantria had no such imminent sales. 11 May 2017 Based on biochar properties, research needs are identified and directions for as pyrolysis temperature is increased, before the formation of biochar with . “Biochar was almost like a magical product,” says Walczak, who buys from Organic Mechanics, an organic-soil wholesaler in Modena, Chester County. 3. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English, Dutch and Portuguese, 160 pp. Research confirms biochar-enriched soils grow larger, healthier plants with greater yields, particularly in degraded or highly-weathered soils. Organics Lounge. Sorption of Atrazine in Tropical Soil by Biochar Prepared from Cassava Waste. Pre-rinsing additive 25. Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho (2015). Biochar’s capacity to sorb NH 4 + and NO 3 − is often attributed to its physical (high surface area and porosity) and chemical (negatively and positively charged functional groups) properties P&N stripping at sewage treatment plants using biochar for water polishing (‘subsidized’ and pre-charged with P&N for return to the land), On the first item only: Lets assume supplementary feeding of biochar to dairy cows proves to be good pathway. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration, as it has the potential to help mitigate climate change. 2 shows that a linear model (for equation, see SI) was able to explain 84% of the linear variation (p < 0. Having significant char loads in test beds at this moment I can conclusively declare that the biochar works" from a forum post on 2009-03-22: "Biochar is worth money. Some of the citations seem to indicate immediate use is Ok, but we’ll see. Active carbon filter 24. In a system like a food forest, where you have a variety of Biochar is a nearly pure carbon, all-natural, and naturally-occurring material that is produced by heating (wood) biomass just above its kindling temperature in an oxygen reduced environment, removing all the volatile organic compounds, producing a stable, low ash content, and extremely porous compound with numerous high-value applications Biochar is sterile when it is made and it tends to take up nutrients into its microscopic pores. If you don't buy the pre charged char, you will have to 100% Biochar Biochar Products Biochar Bi-o-char is a highly porous carbon that improves nutrient adsorption and provides a practically permanent home for beneficial soil biology. Determine Surface Zeta potential. Similar to nutrient and C changes, the pre-existing soil pH, the direction,  19 Nov 2015 Biochar particles are negatively charged and can improve nutrient . The biochar 10 may be added to the wastewater in the wastewater flow pathway 2 as a dry material or as a fluid slurry or suspension, or both. This project was set to determine the effects of pre-charged biochar and zeolite as soilless substrate amendments and slow release fertilizers on basil and spinach quality. Include sun-loving, fast-growing, and water-pump taproot pioneer species saplings, spaced to shade and protect other saplings. Biochar is charcoal that has been produced using pyrolysis or a low oxygen burn, then is crushed and charged with compost or other organic fertilizers. Biochar changes the plant's nutrient environment, increasing P availability for example, and this may reduce plant dependence on mycorrhizae (Raznikiewicz et al. Pre-Colombian Amazonian farmers used biochar to fortify notoriously poor rain forest soils. Simply adding biochar to your compost bin will both prepare the “char” and improve your compost. Start by typing here. Our large kiln, while not particularly grand by commercial standards, is plenty big enough. Fully charged and ready to use on all types of plants; Alfalfa Meal and Kelp Meal add Pre-charging biochar with nutrients is important, to avoid absorbing them from the soil after application. “This report studies the Biochar market, Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. Used alone, or in combinations, compost, manure and/or agrochemicals are added at certain rates every year to soils, in order to realize benefits. For reasons currently unknown, its utilization was largely abandoned after colonialization. This work displays the potential of biochars to be ‘pre-loaded’with nutrients before application to soil, enhancing the biochar’s value and simplifying a farmer’s application procedure for crop enhancement products. Biochar is a solid material obtained from the carbonization thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environments. In this study, we reported N-doped graphitic biochars (N-BCs) as low-cost and efficient catalysts for peroxydisulfate (PDS) activation and the degradation of diverse organic pollutants in water treatment, including Orange G, phenol 1 Biochar modification to enhance sorption of inorganics from water Tom 2Sizmur1, Teresa Fresno , Gökçen Akgül3, Harrison Frost1, Eduardo Moreno Jiménez2* 1Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6DW, UK Evaluating Soaking Times on the Hydrophobicity of Biochar Using the Water Droplet Penetration Time Method. Biochar is also a simple way to sequester carbon, since the char molecules will persist in the soil for hundreds or thousands of years without releasing carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Our position is that this is an unfortunate occurrence because there is little known about how any particular combination of charcoal and other ingredients are going to work on a specific soil and site until several or more years have passed. Baby ‘pre-nups’ are now a thing? Kansas firm eyes North Country for biochar plant. We hypothesized that NPK pre-charged biochar and zeolite could release plant nutrients in biologically available forms, and effectively act as a slow release fertilizer (SRF). After pyrolysis, the carbon is in a very stable form with a large surface area comparable to clay minerals and an abundance of charged functional groups. , 2013). Soil application of biochar could reduce Al concentration due to either (1) a decrease in exchangeable Al through adsorption on the surfaces of the negatively charged biochar or (2) a reduction of Al activity in soil solution through chelation with soluble organic compounds from the biochar (Hue et al. I also recognized the potential that a practical, high-performance, "personal" biochar kiln could have in leveraging distributed production among home gardeners and other small stakeholders, and perhaps ultimately, subsistence farmers worldwide. Biochar technology seems to have a very promising future. They would cover burning plant matter with soil. ) Dramatically improved surface function, measurable as an increase in CEC. Biochar production and incorporation into soil has been practiced since ancient times. Sizes vary from fine, small chunks, to what you see in the picture below. If you don’t pre-charge the biochar, it’ll grab the nutrients and microorganisms from the soil and lock them up. Soil mineral depletion is a major issue due mainly to soil erosion and nutrient leaching. In summary neither rock dust nor charged biochar live up to their product claims when applied to a home garden that is biologically active and has been amended with compost and worm castings. STANLEY HARPOLE Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, 251 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA, 50011, USA Bamboo Biochar Organic Soil Fertilisers and Conditioners. Biochar will bind onto nutrients both because of its porous nature and because it carries a slight negative charge. by William Stevenson (University of Amsterdam) supervision by David Friese-Greene (The Soil Fertility Project) Abstract. 11%) which could be desorbed by KCl solution. As long as you do not use low quality pre-biochar, all is good. We are confident that our ability to convert our various waste streams into fully charged biochar will help speed up the return to the carbon age at ZEGG. Our Pre-Charged Char is soaked in a mixture of Ferti Nitro soy aminos at a rate of 1/2lb per yard and rootwise microbe complete at 1oz per yard. Soil substrate for organic plant beds 26. The extruded/pelletized biomaterial pellets or pre-shaped biomaterial drop out of the bottom of the mill die area and into a collecting vessel or conveyor and are cooled with forced air to 80° F. ), 19th proceedings: Soil Solutions for a Changing World. Unless properly wetted, biochar may irritate worms and other large invertebrates, and drive them away from the area of application. In fact, Biochar   5 Nov 2018 The addition of biochar to the soil can easily potentiate the herbicide retention from the heating rate, chemical or thermal pretreatments in the biomass. char without. Bio