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world biochar headlines 11 2015

November 2015

1 November, 2015

 


Bio-char, compost tea are the new recipe

1 November, 2015


Bio-char, compost tea are the new recipe

1 November, 2015

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The use of bio-char in the growing medium and the aerated activated compost tea as nutritional supplement has been a huge success….

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Published By: hindu-business – Yesterday


Bio-char, compost tea are the new recipe

2 November, 2015

The HinduBio-char, compost tea are the new recipeThe HinduSakthikulangara, the seaside locale of Kollam Municipal Corporation, Kerala, is famous for fishing and fishery-related activities; as an agricultural sector, it does not evoke any enthusiasm, or ne…..»»

The use of bio-char in the growing medium and the aerated activated compost tea as nutritional supplement has been a huge success……»»

The HinduWedding Pullav: No, not again!The HinduA recipe straight out of the cold storage, this is yet another ‘safe’ launch vehicle for the producers’ daughter. Anushka Ranjan is not bad. Launched in a ‘in and as’ sort of way, she has…..»»

Hindu Business LineTeesta Setalvad refutes Gujarat police’s charge of funds misappropriationEconomic TimesAHMEDABAD: Social activist Teesta Setalvad, accused of embezzling funds meant for victims of the Gulberg Housing Society, today rebutted the char…..»»

Hindu Business LineChhota Rajan May be Brought to India on Wednesday: SourcesNDTVBali: Most-wanted Gangster Chhota Rajan, arrested last week in Bali, is likely to be brought back to India on Wednesday. An Indian team that reached Bali yesterday is working…..»»

Hindu Business LineIndia could cut corporate tax to 25% earlier than expected: Revenue secretary …Economic TimesNEW DELHI: Government will come out with a road map by next month for phasing out corporate tax exemptions and a gradual reduction of the tax…..»»

The HinduIndia inks energy pact with IndonesiaThe HinduWhile two key MoUs were inked, no extradition treaty was signed on Sunday after Vice-President Hamid Ansari held a tête-à-tête and delegation-level talks with his counterpart Jusuf Kalla at t…..»»

The HinduFormer Bengal Speaker HA Halim passes awayThe HinduHashim Abdul Halim, the longest-serving Speaker of any Legislative Assembly in the country, passed away on Monday morning. He was 80. Halim served the West Bengal Assembly as the Speaker for 29 c…..»»

The Narendra Modi government had dismissed the returning of awards by about 40 writers as of little consequence A text message which was obviously sent out by a government sympathizer pointed out that while millions have given up their subsid…..»»

The HinduKerala local elections: Brisk polling despite drizzleThe HinduThe politically significant 2015 local government elections in Kerala got underway on a brisk note this morning under gathering monsoon clouds and persistent drizzle with people turnin…..»»

Hindu Business LineWith 58% turnout, BJP feels it has moved ahead in raceEconomic TimesNEW DELHI: With the Bihar election hurtling to a finish, the assessment in the BJP camp points to the saffron quarter being ahead at the end of four phases of polling t…..»»

Hindu Business LineRupee weakens to 65.43 on increased dollar demandHindu Business LineThe rupee fell 16 paise to 65.43 against the dollar in early trade today on sustained foreign fund outflows amid increased demand for the US currency from importers. Be…..»»

The Election Commission on Sunday night issued a showcause notice to BJP President Amit Shah for his remarks that if his party loses Bihar elections crackers will go off in Pakistan and said prima facie he has violated the model code in force in the…..»»

A Supreme Court bench, hearing a case on a Hindu woman’s petition on inheritance, was recently stirred into ordering an examination of practices like polygamy and triple talaq in Muslim personal law, which it declared “injurious to public morals”……»»

The HinduGold imports dip 45.6 per centThe HinduAfter recording a sharp rise in August, gold imports dipped 45.62 per cent to $2.05 billion in September, a development that will help check the country’s Current Account Deficit (CAD). The sliding price…..»»

Zee NewsDivis Laboratories Q2 profit rises 29 %The HinduDivis Laboratories has reported a 28.77 per cent rise in standalone net profit at Rs.295.73 crores for the second quarter ended September 30, 2015. The company had posted a net profit of Rs.229.64 cr…..»»

The HinduRs. 5 lakh for kin of each 1984 riot victimThe HinduHad the guilty been punished after the 1984 anti-Sikh riots, incidents like in Gujarat and Dadri would not have happened and “such intolerance” would not have spread, Delhi Chief Minis…..»»

A Supreme Court bench, hearing a case on a Hindu woman’s petition on inheritance, was recently stirred into ordering an examination of practices like polygamy and triple talaq in Muslim personal law, which it declared “injurious to public morals”……»»

The HinduEminent citizens urge Pranab to ask govt. to ensure rightsThe HinduIntellectuals, scholars, academics, authors, scientists and artists gathered here on Sunday and called upon President Pranab Mukherjee to advise the government to ensure the freed…..»»

Hindu Business LineFourth phase polling: Grand Alliance MY equation remains intactEconomic TimesPATNA: The fourth phase of polling, which covered 55 assembly seats spread in Bihar’s 7 district, recorded 57.59% polling and it’s about 3% higher agai…..»»

Daily News & AnalysisUma Bharati lauds irrigation department work in BengalThe HinduUnion Water Resource Minister Uma Bharati on Sunday termed as “masterpiece” the efforts taken by the West Bengal Irrigation department under the Command Area Dev…..»»


world biochar headlines 11 2015

You Can Help Stop Global Warming Use Biochar

2 November, 2015

 

Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


National Wild Turkey Federation awarded biomass enterprise grant by Arizona State Forestry

2 November, 2015

world biochar headlines 11 2015In conjunction with National Bioenergy Day, Arizona State Forestry is happy to announce that the National Wild Turkey Federation has been awarded a Biomass Enterprise Grant. The grant will be used to produce an engineering feasibility analysis to add heat recovery capability to a wood biochar pryrolosis production unit in Safford, Arizona. The woody biomass will be originating from the Pinaleño Ecosystem Restoration Project in the Coronado National Forest on Mt. Graham.

The Pinaleño Ecosystem Restoration Project is a 5,754 acre project that will implement treatments to improve forest health, reduce wildfire risk, and protect habitat of the endangered Mount Graham red squirrel. On-the-ground operations, which include mechanical harvesting and biological monitoring, are being managed by the National Wild Turkey Federation. The by-products of the restoration work include small diameter trees and woody biomass from chipping operations. Production of value added products, such as biochar, from the by-products helps to offset the costs of implementing the treatments.

Cliff Dils, USDA-Forest Service Southwestern Regional Director of Forest Management, states that “I am pleased the Coronado National Forest is part of this innovative biomass project. Renewable energy promotes the use of wood residues (biomass) generated in forest restoration projects. Wood energy enterprises support sustainable forest management, which helps reduce damage caused by uncharacteristic wildfires, insects, disease, and invasive species.”

“These types of public-private partnerships are essential for the protection of our forests and watersheds,” said Arizona State Forester, Jeff Whitney, “We need to operate at a scale sufficient to address our forestry challenges-our efforts must include all hands and all lands. A vibrant forestry industry in Arizona is necessary for the long term success of our restoration efforts.”

Coronado National Forest Supervisor, Kerwin Dewberry said, “I am very pleased that federal and state agencies are able to partner with the National Wild Turkey Federation for this project. The only way that we can address our forestry issues is through working in collaboration with each other.”

Wednesday, October 21, marks the Third Annual National Bioenergy Day, with nearly 60 organizations participating in the United States and Canada. Please visit www.bioenergyday.org  to learn more about National Bioenergy Day and bioenergy in general.

The Biomass Enterprise Grant program is funded through USDA Forest Service’s Wood Innovation Grant — Expanding Wood Energy Markets Program. Administration of the grants is done by Arizona State Forestry’s Forest Utilization & Marketing Program. Arizona State Forestry is currently accepting project proposals for the Biomass Enterprise Grant Program. Details and instructions can be found at https://azsf.az.gov/grants/utilization


world biochar headlines 11 2015


Bio-char, compost tea are the new recipe

2 November, 2015

world biochar headlines 11 2015world biochar headlines 11 2015world biochar headlines 11 2015world biochar headlines 11 2015


world biochar headlines 11 2015

Peter Cundall: organic charcoal good for your greens

2 November, 2015


Shellfish Group Receives Funding for Experimental Phragmites Project

2 November, 2015

world biochar headlines 11 2015


Locally sourced charcoal- lump and biochar

3 November, 2015

 

Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


PSS Biochar

3 November, 2015

11/03/2015 world biochar headlines 11 2015

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:
Ancient soil for a sustainable
future
Jacob Kelsey
Master’s candidate
Gund Institute for Ecological Economics
Rubenstein School for Environment & Natural Resources,
University of Vermont


Terra Preta (“dark earth” in Portuguese) refers
to the very dark, fertile soils found throughout
the Amaon !iver basin”

Also kno#n as Amaonian $ark %arth

&ade by humans as far back as ‘,((( years
ago
• )haracteried by the amendment of charcoal,
or “biochar” to natural soil
• %*tremely high in nutrients+,* – and P
content of surrounding soils
• Plot sies range from . acre to /(( acre, for a
total sie estimated e0uel area to 1rance22

• Biochar is charcoal produced from
biomass through the process of pyrolysis
• Pyrolysis uses relatively low temps (~!!
degrees “# in $%ygen deprived
environment
• Maintains high levels of ” from biomass
(&!’ released to atmosphere instead of
()’ when burned#
• *anging levels of techological production
methods

+ (,# main benefits of biochar-

“arbon se.uestration

/ncreased yields
•world biochar headlines 11 2015
*e0newable energy production

water filtration

“carbon 3in4
• / ha5 6m deep biochar enriched soil se.uesters
7&! tons “8year
• 9ormal soils5 on average5 se.uester 6!! tons
“8ha8year
• :his difference of 6&! tons “8ha8year is more
than carbon stored in mature tropcial hardwood
forest;
• Meaning that biochar engineered soils5 alone5
can store more carbon than growing forest on the
same land
• “ombining the two is <=*> promising

/ncreased >ields
• 7!!’ increases in yield5 compared to soil w8o
biochar
• >ields as high as ?!!’ have been recorded
• Better retention of nutrients means less need for
chemical or organic fertili@ation

Pea4 PAA
• Pea4 P
• 1orld’s phosphorus
production estimated to pea4
around 7!+&
• 2inite resource
• Price of P has risen )!!’ in
last 7 years
• 65!!! year old biochar found
with +% phosphorus content
of surrounding soils

3lash and char vs; 3lash and
burn
• 3lash and burn releases ?’ ” to atmosphere00remaining 6′
released from soil within &06! years
• 3lash and char releases &!’ ” to atmosphere5 other half
remains in soil forB;6!!!s of yearsA
• 3lash and char soil maintains fertility and productivity for MC”D
longer
• 9ative Emericans of central Ema@on are still farming :era pretta
sites created by the slash and char methodA

$ne more possibilityB
• 3teel slag for phosphorus removal
• “an biochar replace slag as a way to
upta4e phosphorus which could easily
be recycled to the soil,,

:han4 >ouA

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world biochar headlines 11 2015


Effects of Biochar Blends on Microbial Community Composition in Two Coastal Plain Soils

3 November, 2015

Ducey, T.F.; Novak, J.M.; Johnson, M.G. Effects of Biochar Blends on Microbial Community Composition in Two Coastal Plain Soils. Agriculture 2015, 5, 1060-1075.

Ducey TF, Novak JM, Johnson MG. Effects of Biochar Blends on Microbial Community Composition in Two Coastal Plain Soils. Agriculture. 2015; 5(4):1060-1075.

Ducey, Thomas F.; Novak, Jeffrey M.; Johnson, Mark G. 2015. “Effects of Biochar Blends on Microbial Community Composition in Two Coastal Plain Soils.” Agriculture 5, no. 4: 1060-1075.


world biochar headlines 11 2015

The effect of addition of a wettable biochar on soil water repellency

3 November, 2015

Article first published online: 2 NOV 2015

DOI: 10.1111/ejss.12300

Hallin, I. L., Douglas, P., Doerr, S. H. and Bryant, R. (2015), The effect of addition of a wettable biochar on soil water repellency. European Journal of Soil Science, 66: 1063–1073. doi: 10.1111/ejss.12300

Chemistry Group, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK

School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu‐Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa

Department of Geography, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK

College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK

Present address: School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, UK.

*Correspondence: I. L. Hallin. E‐mail: ihallin@hotmail.com

The potential of biochar to ameliorate soil water repellency has not been widely studied. Previous studies have focused on the potential for biochar to induce or exacerbate existing water repellency rather than alleviate it. This study investigates the effect of adding wettable biochar to water‐repellent soil by comparing the water drop penetration times (WDPTs) of a control and biochar‐amended soil. The potential of wettable biochar to act as a physical amendment to water‐repellent soil was evaluated by mixing coarsely‐ground biochar (CGB, particle size range 250–2000 µm) or finely‐ground biochar (FGB, particle size range < 250 µm) with one strongly and one severely naturally water‐repellent soil in various quantities, and then measuring the WDPT for each mixture. When biochar particles did not fall within the size range of existing soil particles, an initial increase in both mean WDPT (WDPTM) and variation in WDPT was observed with small additions of biochar. These effects possibly result from increased surface roughness and inhibition of infiltration by the suspension of drops above the average soil–air interface at a few hydrophobic points. Both CGB and FGB reduced soil water repellency, FGB more effectively than CGB. The addition of 10% w/w FGB reduced soil WDPT by 50%, and 25% FGB eliminated repellency. Direct absorption of water by biochar and an increase in soil surface area in contact with water are the predominant physical mechanisms involved. This exploratory study suggests biochar has the potential to amend water‐repellent soil.

world biochar headlines 11 2015


US Biochar Market

3 November, 2015

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The United States has been an early adopter of carbon sequestration techniques, thanks mainly to the country’s policies stressing on climate change mitigation. With an encouraging body of evidence coming to the fore about the carbon sequestration attributes of biochar, agriculture research institutes in the country have been immensely interested in harnessing the power of biochar. While initially the perception about biochar was that of a miracle cure to carbon emissions, this view has gradually changed with the emergence of a more realistic picture of biochar and its abilities.

Browse the full U.S. Biochar Market Report: http://www.mrrse.com/us-biochar-market

All the same, the outlook for the biochar market in the United States remains positive. According to market intelligence firm Transparency Market Research, the U.S. biochar market approximated US$1.45 mn in 2013, and will likely rise to US$4.94 mn by 2020, exhibiting a CAGR of 19.0% from 2014 through 2020. The market intelligence firm also studies the U.S. biochar market in terms of volume, forecasting that the market will stand at 10,000 tons by 2020, and will have a CAGR (in volume terms) of 24.3% between 2014 and 2020.

The market’s growth will be duly supported by numerous legislations endeavoring to bring biochar into the mainstream, not just in the agriculture sector, but beyond. Here are five major legislative events across the country that have boosted the biochar market in the U.S.:

In January 2015, Massachusetts Appended a Thermal Provision to its Alternative Portfolio Standard (APS): This provision expanded the definition of what constitutes an “alternative energy generating source”. The new definition now takes into account a variety of sources, including biomass, biogas, sunlight, renewable natural gas, thermal energy, or liquid biofuel. This legislation will provide a boost to biochar production in Massachusetts’ alternative portfolio standard. The Massachusetts Department of Environmental protection has said in the past that biochar that has been produced from clean materials can be applied to the land. However, waste materials converted into biochar would need to be assessed for Beneficial Use Determination.

Support for Biochar Included in American Power Act (APA) in 2010: The APA was passed in a bid to secure energy supply in the United States’ for the future. The new provisions under the APA mention biochar as an agent for climate mitigation and adaptation. Section 2214 of the act lays down provisions for funding research facilities as well as states that wish to undertake research in biochar production technology.

In November 2009, Carbon offset Bill with Two Biochar Provisions Introduced by Senate: With government support toward biochar projects being qualified for carbon offsets, the adoption of biochar received an early impetus in 2009. This was a crucial development in that it paved the way for the United States Department of Agriculture to secure funding for biochar research and development activities. The bill also provided a congressional nod for biochar projects to qualify for availing carbon offsets.

Browse the full Press Release of U.S. Biochar Markethttp://www.mrrse.com/us-biochar-industry

Besides these three recent legislations, the WECHAR bill, introduced by Senator Harry Reid (along with four cosponsors) in September 2009, provided a veritable boost to biochar development and financing options for the same. Even as the legislative scenario in the U.S. biochar market remains favorable, there is still some ambiguity on the most efficacious and affordable technology to develop biochar – a shortcoming that companies in the U.S. biochar market need to address expeditiously.


Biochar for your Garden and the Planet

4 November, 2015

world biochar headlines 11 2015 Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


Mayors Challenge – “How Stockholmers learned to stop worrying and love biochar

4 November, 2015

To find out more about biochar and how the team plan to use it in the city, follow this link: stockholm.se/PageFiles/980309/Biokolsfolder_EN_webb.pdf

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Biochar Grinder Operation

4 November, 2015

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Three views of the Grinder. The rectangular frame on top supports a wooden hopper, not shown. The platform below supports a container to catch the ground biochar.

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Biochar-amended potting medium reduces the susceptibility of rice to root-knot nematode infections

4 November, 2015

world biochar headlines 11 2015

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Plant Biology and BioMed Central.

1 Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, B-9000, Belgium

2 State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, P. R. China

3 Institute of Plant Protection, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jingjusi Road 20, Chengdu, 610066, P. R. China

4 Plant Sciences Unit – Plant Protection, Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg. van Gansberghelaan 96, Merelbeke, 9820, Belgium

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Plant Biology 2015, 15:267  doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0654-7

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2229/15/267

© 2015 Huang et al.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Biochar is a solid coproduct of biomass pyrolysis, and soil amended with biochar has been shown to enhance the productivity of various crops and induce systemic plant resistance to fungal pathogens. The aim of this study was to explore the ability of wood biochar to induce resistance to the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne graminicola in rice (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare) and examine its histochemical and molecular impact on plant defense mechanisms.

A 1.2 % concentration of biochar added to the potting medium of rice was found to be the most effective at reducing nematode development in rice roots, whereas direct toxic effects of biochar exudates on nematode viability, infectivity or development were not observed. The increased plant resistance was associated with biochar-primed H 2 O 2 accumulation as well as with the transcriptional enhancement of genes involved in the ethylene (ET) signaling pathway. The increased susceptibility of the Ein2b-RNAi line, which is deficient in ET signaling, further confirmed that biochar-induced priming acts at least partly through ET signaling.

These results suggest that biochar amendments protect rice plants challenged by nematodes. This priming effect partially depends on the ET signaling pathway and enhanced H 2 O 2 accumulation.

Rice is one of the most frequently consumed cereal foods in the world. Based on current forecasts by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), world rice production in 2015 will reach ca. 500 million tons [1]. However, the number of soilborne pathogens (including nematodes) is increasing worldwide because cultivation practices have been altered to use less water, and these pathogens present a potential threat to rice production [2]. Estimates of the annual yield losses of rice as a result of damage by plant-parasitic nematodes range from 10 to 25 % worldwide [3]. One of the most damaging nematodes to rice is the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne graminicola (Mg), which causes the formation of galls on the rice roots. After penetrating the root elongation zone and migrating intercellularly towards the root tip, RKNs enter the vascular cylinder, where they puncture the cell wall with their stylet and inject secretions from their pharyngeal glands into the plant cell to induce a permanent feeding site known as giant cells [4], [5]. In intensive cropping systems, RKNs have been managed for decades with chemical nematicides (e.g., temic, furadan and fenamiphos). However, the potential negative impacts of these chemicals to the environment and humans have led to a ban or restricted use of most chemical nematicides. With increased pressure on growers to reduce nematicide usage and without effective alternatives, there is increasing interest in induced resistance (IR) or priming as new management tool for this destructive pathogen.

Priming is a physiological state of enhanced defensive capacity elicited by special stimuli, in which the innate defenses of the plants are potentiated for rapid activation upon subsequent challenge from fungi, bacteria, viruses, or nematodes [6]. In general, two major pathways that lead to enhanced defense in plants have been described, and they are differentiated by the nature of the elicitors and regulatory pathways [7]. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is associated with the production of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and mediated by a salicylic acid (SA)-dependent process and it usually starts with a hypersensitive reaction that leads to local necrosis. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is triggered by several mechanisms, such as by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and fungi (PGPF), and mediated by a signaling pathway in which the phytohormones ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) play key roles [6], [8]. Nahar et al. [9] studied the JA/ET pathways and found that supplying ethephon (a source of ET) or methyl jasmonate to rice shoots induced a strong systemic defense response in the roots against M. graminicola. Confirming the importance of JA in plant defense against nematodes, the foliar application of JA was also found to induce systemic defense against RKNs in tomatoes [10]. However, Bhattarai et al. [11] found that JA signaling through coronatine-insensitive 1 (COI1) is required for the susceptibility of tomatoes to RKNs.

The role of ET in root defense against nematodes is also controversial. Nahar et al. [9] reported that ET activation of root defense against RKNs in rice is based on intact JA biosynthesis. Confirming the role of ET in root defense, Fudali et al. [12] showed that ET-overproducing Arabidopsis plants are less attractive to RKNs. However, ET might have a positive effect on root gall development, which was observed by Glazer et al. [13] in tomatoes. Overall, the roles of plant hormone pathways in plant defenses against nematodes might vary depending on the host species and may change over the course of the infection process. These hormone pathways are also not a prerequisite for induced defenses against nematodes, which was shown by Ji et al. [14], who found that the non-protein amino acid beta aminobutyric acid (BABA) can induce defense against RKNs in rice independent of the JA and ET pathways, but rather acts through activation of lignin and callose production.

world biochar headlines 11 2015

One of the potential priming agents for induced plant defenses that is currently receiving significant attention is biochar, which is a high-carbon material produced from the slow pyrolysis of biomass in the absence of air and thus a by-product from the biofuel industry [15]. Certain biochar additions to soil have been shown to significantly improve the soil tilth, nutrient retention and availability to plants, and crop productivity [7], [16], [17]. The observed effects on crops resulting from biochar soil amendments have primarily been explained by improved nutrient retention [18], increased pH and altered soil physical properties [19], improved mycorrhizal fungi colonization [20] and altered soil biological community composition and abundance [18], [21]. Several studies have demonstrated that soil-applied biochar can induce systemic defenses in many plants against different foliar fungal pathogens. The fungal foliar diseases Botrytis cinerea and Oidiopsis sicula in tomato and pepper were significantly reduced in biochar-amended potting medium [7]. Two different biochars were found to induce strawberry plant systemic resistance to three foliar fungal pathogens with different infection strategies: necrotrophic (B. cinerea), hemi-biotrophic (Colletotrichum acutatum), and biotrophic (Podospharea aphanis) [22]. Graber et al. [23] presumed that this resistance might result from either low-level stress exerted by phytotoxic compounds contained in the biochar (e.g., ET and propylene glycol) or through larger populations of beneficial microorganisms isolated from the biochar-treated soils, such as the well-known ISR-inducing Trichoderma spp. [24]. Recently, Mehari et al. [25] observed that biochar amendment resulted in an approximately 50 % reduction in B. cinerea disease severity in most of the tested genotypes of Solanum lycopersicum. The systemic resistance of S. lycopersicum induced by biochar amendment was shown to be related to stronger and earlier hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) accumulation and involved JA signaling.

Currently, data are limited on the effect of biochar on plant parasitism by nematodes. The amendment of poultry-litter biochar to the soil generally decreased the number of plant-parasitic nematodes while increasing the amount of free-living nematodes in the soil [26]. Matlack [27] conducted an observational study at the landscape scale and could not detect a significant relationship between nematode populations and charred materials in the soil. In addition, significant effects were not observed on the total nematode abundance when short-term biochar additions were practiced in wheat fields [28]. However, biochar was found to have a high sorption capacity for dichloropropene, a strong anti-nematode fumigant. As a result, biochar-amendment to the soil can increase the required dose of dichloropropene to efficiently control nematodes [29]. These reports have investigated the effects of biochar in the soil on nematode populations and on chemical nematode control measures, whereas the indirect effects through the activation of plant defenses against parasitic nematode infections have not been investigated.

The present study was designed to test whether soil amended with biochar was capable of inducing resistance in rice plants against the RKN M. graminicola. After establishing a beneficial effect, the role of defense-related pathways, the generation of H 2 O 2 , and the deposition of callose and lignin were investigated in the treated and infected rice plants. The role of the ET pathway was further investigated using an ET-insensitive line. We found that biochar-induced defenses in rice against M. graminicola involves H 2 O 2 accumulation in the rice roots and is partially dependent on ET signaling.

To evaluate the nematicidal effect of biochar on M. graminicola, the nematodes were incubated in different concentrations of biochar exudates. Significant differences in nematode mortality were not observed between biochar exudates (6.6 ± 0.7 %) and water (7.2 ± 0.6 %) 24 h after initiation of the bioassay at doses ranging from 0.3 to 5 % biochar (Fig. 1a). Similar results were also observed when the nematodes were incubated in biochar exudates for 72 h (Fig. 1a). These data suggest that biochar exudates do not have a direct nematicidal effect on M. graminicola at the doses tested.

world biochar headlines 11 2015

To verify whether biochar can hamper the infectivity of RKNs, the nematodes treated with biochar exudates or water (as control) were inoculated in rice roots. The nematode penetration and development were recorded at 7 and 14 dpi (Fig. 1b). At 7 dpi, most of the nematodes developed to third-stage juveniles (J3). The mean number of nematodes inside the roots and their development was not different between the biochar-exudate treated and control nematodes (Fig. 1b and c). At 14 dpi, most of the nematodes had developed into adult females. Again, significant differences were not observed in the number of adult females or the total number of nematodes in the biochar exudate-treated and water-treated nematodes (Fig. 1b and d). The ratio of adult females among the biochar exudate-treated nematodes (91.6 ± 7.4 %) was similar to that in the water-treated nematodes (93.2 ± 7.1 %). Overall, our data show that incubation of M. graminicola in biochar exudates did not inhibit their penetration or delay their development inside the rice roots.

Recently, relatively low concentrations (1 %) of four biochars prepared from two feedstocks at different pyrolysis temperatures were found to suppress the damping-off of Rhizoctonia solani in beans, whereas a higher concentration (3 %) provided ineffective disease protection [30]. Thus, the effect of different biochar doses deserves more attention. To evaluate the potential of biochar as a priming agent, different concentrations of biochar were added to the SAP-substrate, and plant susceptibility was evaluated at 14 dpi. The results revealed that the biochar amendment reduced the number of galls per g of root and the number of nematodes per g of root at all of the tested concentrations (Fig. 2a). However, the best effect was observed at a concentration of 1.2 % biochar in SAP. Therefore, all further experiments were executed with this optimal biochar concentration of 1.2 %.

In subsequent experiments, the growth parameters were assessed by analyzing the length and fresh weight of the roots and shoots of 4-week-old plants (Fig. 2b). When comparing the RKN-infected plants with non-infected plants, slight but significant reductions in the root length and total plant height were observed in the RKN-infected plants. Although 1.2 % biochar alone did not have a significant effect on the analyzed growth parameters, the biochar amendment partially alleviated the negative effects caused by the RKN-infection.

At the optimal concentration of 1.2 %, amendments of biochar significantly reduced the total number of root galls at 14 dpi (Fig. 2c). In addition, the development of nematodes in biochar-amended roots was slightly delayed. The number of adult females in biochar-amended roots was slightly lower than that of non-amended plants, whereas a higher number of fourth-stage juveniles (J4s) were observed in biochar-amended roots compared with that of non-amended plants (Fig. 2d).

Root exudates often attract nematodes and trigger egg hatching in certain plant-parasitic nematode species [31]. To verify whether biochar impedes the ability of the plant to attract M. graminicola, rice roots were drenched with biochar exudates or water 1 d before inoculation. At 9 hpi, approximately 20.2 ± 3.1 % of the nematodes were attracted to the biochar-treated root tips, which was not significantly different from those attracted to the non-amended root tips (23.3 ± 3.2 %) (p>0.05) (Fig. 3a, b). This result indicates that the tested biochar exudates do not prevent the attraction of M. graminicola to rice.

world biochar headlines 11 2015.

A microscopic analysis of the nematode feeding sites inside the galls revealed that significant morphological differences did not occur in the giant cells formed in the biochar-amended roots versus the non-amended roots. Most of the giant cells were still enlarged cells with multiple nuclei, dense cytoplasm, and thickened cell walls (Fig. 3c).

These data demonstrate that biochar amendments at a concentration of 1.2 % delay the development of the RKNs but do not change the root attractiveness or the giant cell morphology. However, at this concentration, biochar amendments to the soil can reduce the negative effect of RKNs on plant growth.

The addition of BABA to protect rice plants from RKNs was previously shown to be correlated with enhanced glucan synthase-like gene (OsGSL1) mRNA levels and callose deposition in the gall tissue [14]. To investigate whether biochar has a similar mode of action, the expression of this callose synthase-encoding gene, OsGSL1, was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in biochar-amended and non-amended plants. At 24 hpi, the transcription level of OsGSL1 was significantly down-regulated in the biochar-amended plants compared with the control plants (Fig. 4a). Significant differences were not observed in inoculated plants, whether biochar-amended or non-amended, although in both cases, a trend towards lower expression of this gene was observed. Confirming these results, the prominence and density of callose spots in biochar-amended galls were similar to those in the non-amended galls at 7 dpi (Fig. 4b and c). These data suggest that biochar amendments do not induce callose deposition after nematode invasion.

H 2 O 2 is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) and essential to the induction of defense responses in plants. This experiment was conducted to investigate whether biochar is capable of generating ROS for the induction of defense against M. graminicola. First, the H 2 O 2 levels were measured in the plant roots at three different time points, and the results showed that biochar amendments alone led to higher H 2 O 2 levels in the rice roots (Fig. 5a). Upon Mg-inoculation (in non-amended SAP), an increase in the H 2 O 2 levels was also observed. However, in biochar-amended inoculated plants, the H 2 O 2 levels increased to significantly higher levels at all of the investigated time points, indicating a priming effect. A quantitative analysis of OsRbohB, an NADPH oxidase gene involved in the plant immune response [32], showed that the transcription level of OsRbohB was significantly up-regulated in plants that received biochar amendment alone compared with non-amended non-inoculated control plants at 24 hpi (Fig. 5b). However, significant differences were not observed in biochar-amended inoculated plants and non-amended inoculated plants. Most likely, the root knot nematode interferes with the induction of this gene or its induction happens at other time points than those studied here.

world biochar headlines 11 2015

The increased production of H 2 O 2 is known to cause the polymerization of monolignols by peroxidase and subsequent formation of lignin [33]. Lignin confers mechanical strength to plant secondary cell walls, which contributes to basal defenses against plant-parasitic nematodes [34]. Prior to nematode inoculation (0 h), the lignin level in the roots receiving the biochar amendment alone was similar to that in the non-amended roots (Fig. 5c). At 24 hpi, slightly stronger lignification was observed in the biochar-amended inoculated roots, although the difference was not statistically significant. These data indicate that biochar amendments do not strongly promote lignin synthesis.

ET can be produced from the pyrolysis of biomass, although the production of ET varied drastically across different evaluated biochars [35]. To investigate the importance of the ET pathway in biochar-induced resistance against RKNs, the expression levels of genes involved in ET responses (OsERF70, OsERF1, OsEBP89), ET biosynthesis (OsACS1, OsACO7) and ET signaling (OsEIN2) were analyzed.

The transcription of the ET response genes OsERF1 and OsEBP89 was significantly up-regulated in the biochar-amended plants (Fig. 6a), whereas OsERF70 was not significantly affected by these treatments. The two ET-biosynthesis genes showed inconsistent results, with OsACO7 slightly induced by all treatments and OsACS1 repressed by the treatments, although none of these values were significantly different from the control plants (Fig. 6b). Transcription of the ET signaling gene OsEIN2 showed a minor but non-significant induction following all treatments (Fig. 6c).

To obtain a more detailed understanding of the role of the ET response in biochar-induced defenses against RKNs, an Ein2b-RNAi line deficient in ET signaling was investigated (Fig. 6d). Confirming our earlier observations (Fig. 2a), the number of nematodes at 14 dpi was reduced in the biochar-amended Nipponbare plants. However, significant differences were not observed between the biochar-amended and non-amended plants in the Ein2b-RNAi line. These results imply that the ET signaling pathway is required for biochar-induced defense against M. graminicola in rice.

In this study, we investigated the effect of biochar on different stages of the infection process of the RKN M. graminicola in rice. All of the experiments were performed using biochar pyrolyzed from holm oak wood. The executed in vitro bioassays showed that the biochar exudates did not have a direct negative effect on the survival or infectivity of the RKNs.

After optimization of the concentration, our data showed that amending the SAP-medium with biochar at a concentration of 1.2 % not only reduced the number of galls formed on rice roots but also delayed the development of the nematodes in the roots. Biochar-induced resistance has been previously reported in other plants against different pathogens. Tomato plants treated with biochar pyrolyzed from citrus wood suppressed grey mold and powdery mildew caused by Botrytis cinerea and Leveillula taurica[7]. Biochar prepared from pepper plant waste suppressed three foliar diseases (B. cinerea, C. acutatum, P. aphanis) with different infection strategies in strawberry plants [22]. Recently, biochars pyrolyzed from eucalyptus wood chips and pepper plant wastes were found to be effective at decreasing the severity of R. solani infection in beans [30]. There is no standard recommended application dosage for biochar; however, the level used in this research was similar to the levels commonly reported in the literature [7], [22].

Biochar does not contain an indigenous consortium of microorganisms that can potentiate disease suppression, and the potential methods by which biochar induces systemic plant defenses against microbes has been documented in a review by Lehmann et al. [21]. The suppression of soil pathogens by biochar may stem from several mechanisms, including improved nutrient solubilization and uptake, which helps enhance plant growth and resistance to the stresses of pathogens; microbe stimulation, which promotes direct competition or parasitism against pathogens; or induced plant defense mechanisms [36]. The research presented here focused on the latter option, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the biochemical and molecular priming mechanisms in response to biochar amendments to plants against RKN infection.

Among the biochemical responses involved in plant defense, callose deposition within the cells has been correlated to resistance in plant-pathogen interactions [37]. Callose (in the form of papillae) deposited on infections may help to reinforce the cell wall and act as a physical barrier to slow pathogen invasion [38]. In Arabidopsis, the overexpression of RAP2.6 enhanced callose deposition in the syncytia and increased the resistance of Arabidopsis against Heterodera schachtii[37]. In addition, BABA application to rice was shown to induce a strong defense response that was correlated with increased callose deposition in the infected tissue [14]. However, our results showed that biochar amendments do not induce callose deposition in the root galls upon nematode inoculation. There was also no significant increase of OsGSL1 mRNA in biochar-amended inoculated plants.

Previous research showed that the production of ET after biochar amendment had a significant impact on a range of soil and plant metabolic activities [21], [36]. Spokas et al. [35] evaluated the ET production potential from 12 different sources of biochar and observed that ET production increased (21.5 %) in non-sterile soil compared with sterile soil. This exogenous ET production from biochar-amended soil might induce resistance in plants to pathogens [21], [35]. In addition, biochar amendments have been shown to activate the SAR or ISR pathways in plants. For instance, after the application of 1–3 % biochar in the potting medium of strawberries, the relative expression of five defense-related genes (FaPR1, Faolp2, Fraa3, Falox, and FaWRKY1) in leaves was significantly increased. FaPR1 and Fraa3 are indicators of the SAR pathway, whereas Falox is correlated with the ISR pathway of induced resistance, indicating that biochar amendment triggered SA- and JA/ET-related gene expression in the leaves [22]. Recently, Mehari et al. [25] found that high ET sensitivity as well as SA accumulation was not required for biochar-mediated IR in tomatoes. However, JA deficiency prevented biochar-elicited IR and blocked the priming of H 2 O 2 synthesis upon infection in tomato. The qRT-PCR analysis in the present research showed that the exogenous biochar application potentiated the increased expression of ET response genes OsERF1 and OsEBP89 in rice and indicated that the effect of biochar on the rice plants was dependent on ET signaling through OsEin2B.

Previous research from our group showed an important role of ET in the activation of JA-dependent defense against RKNs [9]. Confirming the role of ET in defense against RKNs, Fudali et al. [12] showed that ET-overproducing Arabidopsis plants are less attractive to RKNs. However, because ET is known to induce cell expansion and inhibit lignification, it was suggested that this plant growth regulator plays a major role in the development of nematode feeding sites at later time points of the infection process. As argued in the review by Kyndt et al. [39], ET most likely plays different roles at different stages of the nematode infection process, including (1) a restraining role, which occurs through the activation of nematode repellents and JA biosynthesis, and (2) an activating role, potentially through its positive effect on auxin biosynthesis, thus facilitating the radial expansion of the giant cells. The data provided by this study show that biochar-induced defenses in rice against the RKN M. graminicola acts at least partly through ET signaling. However, because we did not observe differences in attractiveness or giant cell development in the biochar-treated plants, further studies are required to investigate the genes and pathways that are specifically activated in the treated plants.

Our data provide evidence for biochar amendments to counteract the growth inhibition caused by nematode infection of rice plants. However, a microarray of biochar-treated Arabidopsis and lettuce indicated that the biochar-induced positive growth effects were accompanied by a down-regulation of a large suite of plant defense genes, including the JA biosynthetic pathway, defensins and most categories of secondary metabolites [40]. In contrast, our results suggest a positive effect of biochar on plant defense at the concentration of 1.2 %. Importantly, the experiments of Viger et al. [40] used higher concentrations (5 %), and it is known that an excessive activation of plant growth causes a negative effect on plant defense because of resource-limited trade-off effects.

H 2 O 2 is an essential factor during the induction of plant defense [41]. Based on previous research, H 2 O 2 could be effectively activated by biochar, which produces a hydroxyl radical (OH) to degrade 2-chlorobiphenyl [42]. The increased production of H 2 O 2 in plants can lead to the polymerization of monolignols by peroxidase and the formation of lignin [33]. The results emerging from the current study demonstrate that biochar amendments induce a slight accumulation of H 2 O 2 at the early time point, whereas subsequent nematode inoculation combined with biochar amendment results in an even stronger accumulation of H 2 O 2 in the roots, suggesting a priming effect on the oxidative burst by biochar amendment. Similar results were reported by Taheri and Tarighi [43] in riboflavin-induced resistance in rice against R. solani, and enhanced H 2 O 2 accumulation was there correlated with a higher level of lignification in riboflavin-treated inoculated plants. However, the results presented here revealed that biochar amendments did not induce enhanced lignin formation after the invasion of nematodes. These contradictory results may have been caused by the observation times used in the present research, which may have been too early to detect the accumulation of lignin.

The results presented here lead us to conclude that biochar amendments in rice potting medium potentiate a primed defense reaction against the RKN M. graminicola and protects the plants from the negative effects of nematode infection on plant growth. The observed activation of ET responses and H 2 O 2 accumulation may contribute to the capacity of biochar to suppress nematode infection inside roots. Clearly, additional research must be performed to quantify the extent to which biochar triggers plant defense and determine the most effective conditions to suppress nematode infection because biochar exhibits large variability in its physical and chemical properties [21]. Future research is also required to characterize the effective compounds in biochar and further identify the metabolic changes that occur in the biochar-plant-nematode interaction system.

Biochar prepared from holm oak wood through pyrolysis at 650 °C for 12 to 18 h was kindly provided by PROININSO S.A. (Malaga, Spain). This biochar consists of 72.4 % dry matter (DM) (%/fresh), 77.8 % organic matter (%/DM) and 74.2 % C (%/DM) and was recently characterized and used by Vandecasteele et al. [44], [45]. The biochar was ground to a powder of <1 mm particles and stored in sealed containers until use. The biochar was added in different concentrations (0.6, 1.2, 2.5, and 5.0 %) to synthetic absorbent polymer (SAP)-substrate, which is a 1:400 (w: v) mixture of sand and a synthetic absorbent polymer [46].

Rice seeds (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare) were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture (GSOR-100). A transgenic OsEin2b RNAi line was kindly provided by Yinong Yang (Penn State University, State College, PA, USA). After germination at 30 °C for 4 d, the seeds were sown in polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) tubes containing SAP with or without biochar and maintained in a greenhouse at 26 °C with a 16 h/8 h light/dark regime and 70–75 % relative humidity. Each plant was fertilized twice a week with 20 ml of Hoagland solution. Two-week-old plants were used for nematode inoculation.

M. graminicola were maintained on O. sativa cv. Nipponbare in a greenhouse under the same conditions as described above. Infected roots and root galls were cut into pieces, and the nematodes were extracted using a modified flotation-sieving method [47]. The second-stage juveniles (J2s) were collected with a 25-μm sieve.

Biochar was immersed in distilled water at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.5 and 5 % (v: v) for 1 week. The suspension was centrifuged at 12,000 g for 5 min, and the supernatant was used to test the direct toxic effect of biochar exudates on the RKNs. Approximately 200 J2s were placed into a 3.5-cm diameter well on a 6-well culture plate containing 1 ml of biochar exudates or 1 ml of distilled water for the mock treatment. After incubation for 24 h and 72 h, 1 N NaOH was dropped into the solution, and the nematodes that responded to the NaOH by changing their body shape within 3 min were considered to be alive, whereas straight nematodes that failed to respond to the NaOH were presumed to be dead [48]. The living and dead nematodes were counted under a stereomicroscope (Leica S8 APO, Leica Microsystems, Diegem, Belgium). The experiment was performed three times with 6 replicates each.

To determine the direct effect of biochar on the infectivity of nematodes, the nematodes were incubated in a biochar exudate solution for 72 h before inoculation. As a control treatment, the nematodes were incubated in water for 72 h before inoculation. Two hundred J2s were inoculated on each 2-week-old rice root. At 7 and 14 dpi, the root samples were collected and stained with acid fuchsin as described in Nahar et al. [9]. The nematodes inside the roots were counted using a stereomicroscope, and the total number of nematodes as well as the different developmental stages was counted.

A nematode attraction test was performed as described by Wang et al. [49]. First, 23 g of pluronic F-127 powder (Sigma Aldrich, Brussels, Belgium) was added to 100 ml of sterile water and allowed to dissolve with stirring at 4 °C for 24 h. The rice roots from 2-week-old plants were drenched with 20 ml of 1.2 % biochar exudates or water. One day later, a 1-cm-long root tip was cut and placed into a 3.5-cm well in a 6-well culture plate containing 1 ml of pluronic gel and approximately 200 J2s. The nematodes in the vicinity of the root elongation zone were counted at 9 h post-inoculation (hpi), and photographs were taken under a Leica stereomicroscope with a DFC400 camera. The experiment was performed three times with 6 replicates each.

These experiments were designed to determine whether biochar amendments were effective at inducing rice defense against RKNs. Each 2-week-old rice plant maintained in SAP medium containing the appropriate concentration of biochar or control (only SAP) was inoculated with approximately 200 J2s. At 14 dpi, the root length, shoot length and fresh weight of the rice plants were measured, and the root samples were stained using the acid fuchsin method [9]. The nematodes in different developmental stages were counted under the microscope. The experiment was performed three times with 6 replicates each.

Microscopic examination of the giant cells was performed as described by Ji et al. [50]. Root galls were collected at 7 dpi, fixed in 1x PIPES buffer with 2 % glutaraldehyde overnight, and then dehydrated in a series of ethanol dilutions and infiltrated in Technovit 7100. The infiltrated roots were embedded in plastic cubes filled with Technovit 7100 plus Hardener II as described by the manufacturer. The embedded gall tissues were sectioned into 10-μm slices with a Leica RM2265 motorized rotary microtome (Leica Microsystems, Nussloch, Germany). Sections of the galls were maintained on cover glass and stained in 0.05 % toluidine blue for 5 min. Microscopic observations were performed using a BX 51 system microscope (Olympus Optical Company, Tokyo, Japan) at a 40x magnification, and images were obtained with an Olympus ColorView III camera. The experiment was repeated twice, and 10 galls from each treatment were observed.

Callose deposition was detected according to Millet et al. [51] with minor modifications. Briefly, rice roots amended with 1.2 % biochar or untreated control plants were collected at 7 dpi. Ten root galls from each treatment were collected and fixed in a 3:1 ethanol: acetic acid solution overnight and then dehydrated in ethanol dilutions of 70, 50, and 30 % in sequence. Finally, the root galls were stained with 0.01 % aniline blue solution using vacuum infiltration. Callose deposition of the root galls was examined under UV light using a Nikon Eclipse Ti-E epifluorescence microscope (excitation, 390 nm; emission 460 nm). Quantification of the callose depositions was performed using ImageJ software.

The in planta accumulation of H 2 O 2 in the rice roots was determined using the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method [52]. The roots of rice plants grown in SAP amended with 1.2 % biochar or the roots of untreated control plant roots were collected at 6, 24, and 72 hpi with RKNs. One hundred milligrams of fresh root tissue was ground in liquid nitrogen and homogenized with 0.8 ml of 0.1 % TCA. The homogenate was centrifuged, and the same volume of 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (PPB, pH 7.0) and 1 M KI was added as the supernatant. The absorbance of the supernatant was read at 390 nm using a CLARIOstar microplate reader (BMG Labtech, Temse, Belgium). The concentration of H 2 O 2 was estimated using a standard curve, where 0.1 μm to 1 mM H 2 O 2 was diluted with the same ratio of TCA, PPB and KI. Each experiment was performed twice with 4 replicate samples each, and each replicate was a pool of 6 individual plants.

The accumulation of lignin was quantified according to the acetyl bromide (AcBr) method as described by Vanholme et al. [53]. The roots of rice plant grown in SAP amended with 1.2 % biochar or the roots of untreated control plant roots were collected just before inoculation (0 h) and 24 h after inoculation with the RKNs. The fresh roots were dried in a speedvac (−20 °C, 3 days) and ground in a mortar with liquid nitrogen. The ground subsamples (at least 5 mg) were subjected to sequential extractions in 2-ml plastic tubes for 30 min (each) using water (98 °C), ethanol (76 °C), chloroform (59 °C), and acetone (54 °C). The remaining cell wall residue was dried and weighed again. The absorbance of lignin was measured at 280 nm using a Nano-Drop® ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE, USA). The lignin concentration was calculated using the law of Bouguer-Lambert-Beer, where A = є × l × c, є = 17.75 l g −1 cm −1 and l = 0.1 cm [54]. Each experiment was performed twice with 4 replicate samples each. Each replicate was pooled from 6 individual plants.

To detect the expression level of different plant defense-related genes, the roots of rice plants grown in SAP amended with 1.2 % biochar or the roots of untreated control plants were collected at 24 hpi. In each treatment, the roots of six plants were pooled and ground in liquid nitrogen. RNA extraction was performed using the NucleoSpin kit (Macherey-Nagel, Düren, Germany), which includes a DNase treatment. In total, 2 μg of RNA was used to synthesize cDNA with the SuperScript® II Reverse Transcriptase Kit (Invitrogen, Karlsrube, Germany). The primer sequences of defense-related genes and internal reference genes are listed in Table 1. All of the qRT-PCR reactions were performed in triplicate with two independent biological replicates. The qRT-PCR reactions were run on a Rotor-Gene RG-3000 machine (Corbett Life Science, Belgium) under the following conditions: 95 °C for 5 min at 1 cycle; and 95 °C for 25 s, 58 °C for 40 s, and 72 °C for 25 s for 40 cycles. The relative transcription levels were normalized using data from 3 internal reference genes, and statistical analyses were performed using the software Rest 2009 [55]. The relative expression level of each gene is shown as the fold change compared with the transcript level in the non-amended and non-inoculated control plants (set at an expression level of 1).

Table 1. Primers of the reference and target genes used in qRT-PCR analysis, with GenBank accession/locus numbers

Except for the qRT-PCR data, which were analyzed as described above, all of the other statistical analyses were performed using SAS software version 8.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). After checking for normality and homoscedasticity, significant differences among the treatments were determined according to the Duncan’s multiple range test.

RKN: Root-knot nematode

IR: Induced resistance

SAR: Systemic acquired resistance

PR: Pathogenesis-related

SA: Salicylic acid

ISR: Induced systemic resistance

PGPR: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

PGPF: Plant growth-promoting fungi

ET: Ethylene

JA: Jasmonic acid

H 2 O 2 : Hydrogen peroxide

SAP: Synthetic absorbent polymer

PVC: polyvinyl chloride

DPI: Days post inoculation

TCA: Trichloroacetic acid

PPB: Potassium phosphate buffer

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

TK and GG conceived the study and supervised all of the experiments. WKH performed most of the experiments. HLJ participated in the nematode inoculation experiment and qRT-PCR analysis. JD provided the biochar and helped to draft the manuscript. WKH, TK and HLJ discussed the results and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

We acknowledge the financial support of GOA 01GB3013, the National Basic Research Program of China (2013CB127502) and the National Science Foundation Project (31272022). TK is supported by an FWO postdoctoral fellowship. WKH was funded by the China Scholarship Council. We are grateful to Dr. Kristof De Schutter for his assistance in the microscopic observations and H 2 O 2 measurements.

The biochar was produced within the FERTIPLUS project (Grant Agreement N° 289853), which is co-funded by the European Commission, Directorate General for Research & Innovation, within the 7th Framework Programme of RTD, Theme 2-Biotechnologies, Agriculture & Food. The views and opinions expressed in this paper are purely those of the writers and may not under any circumstance be regarded as stating an official position of the European Commission. We are grateful to PROININSO S.A. for providing the biochar.

Mehari ZH, Elad Y, Rav-David D, Graber ER, Meller Harel Y. Induced systemic resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) against Botrytis cinerea by biochar amendment involves jasmonic acid signaling. Plant Soil. 2015;1-14. doi:10.1007/s1114-015-2445-1.

Jaiswal AK, Frenkel O, Elad Y, Lew B, Graber ER. Non-monotonic influence of biochar dose on bean seedling growth and susceptibility to rhizoctonia solani: the “shifted Rmax-effect”. Plant Soil. 2014;1-16. doi:10.1007/s11104-014-2331-2.

Kyndt T, Vieira P, Gheysen G, Almeida‑Engler J. Nematode feeding sites: Unique organs in plant roots. Planta. 2013; 238(5). doi:10.1007/s00425-013-1923-z

Vandecasteele B, Sinicco T, D’Hose T, Vanden Nest T, Mondini C. Biochar amendment during composting or compost storage affects compost quality and N losses but not P plant uptake. Submitted.


Biochar for Soil Improvement: Evaluation of Biochar from Gasification and Slow Pyrolysis

5 November, 2015

Fryda, L.; Visser, R. Biochar for Soil Improvement: Evaluation of Biochar from Gasification and Slow Pyrolysis. Agriculture 2015, 5, 1076-1115.

Fryda L, Visser R. Biochar for Soil Improvement: Evaluation of Biochar from Gasification and Slow Pyrolysis. Agriculture. 2015; 5(4):1076-1115.

Fryda, Lydia; Visser, Rianne. 2015. “Biochar for Soil Improvement: Evaluation of Biochar from Gasification and Slow Pyrolysis.” Agriculture 5, no. 4: 1076-1115.


Punjab Agricultural University signs MoU with UK University

5 November, 2015

 

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world biochar headlines 11 2015


PAU signs MoU with UK University

5 November, 2015

US Biochar Market Buoyed by Promise of Carbon Sequestration and Improved Soil Fertility

6 November, 2015

Albany, NY — (SBWIRE) — 11/06/2015 — Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) now features a new report on the state of the biochar market in the United States. The report, titled ‘Biochar Market – U.S. Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014–2020,’ serves as a comprehensive analytical resource for biochar companies wanting to strengthen their presence and venture into new markets. According to the report, the distinctive environmental benefits offered by biochar will provide an impetus to the market’s growth. Biochar is being touted as a solution that could improve soil fertility several times over and potentially put food security concerns behind us. Furthermore, the usefulness of biochar in waste management systems will boost the consumption of biochar.

Browse Full Global Biochar Market Report with TOC: http://www.mrrse.com/us-biochar-market

The report also studies the U.S. biochar market in terms of volume, and finds that the market stood at 2,187.58 tons as of 2013. By 2020, market, in volume terms, will stand at 10,000 tons. This translates to a CAGR of 24.3% through the report’s forecast period. Overall, the biochar industry in the U.S. is in the development phase with companies and research institutions still trying to produce low-cost biochar for novel applications.

Biochar as a tool for carbon sequestration and the possibility of obtaining carbon credits for its use could provide enormous opportunity for companies to make a profit from its use. However, public confidence in carbon offset schemes still isn’t strong enough, making it imperative for policymakers to find ways to do so. Another restraint that the report identifies is that there is some degree of technological uncertainty associated with the large scale production of biochar.

For the purpose of this study, the U.S. biochar market is segmented on the basis of application type into: agriculture (large farms), gardening, and household. There are few other yet-unexplored applications of biochar, such as energy production and water treatment. The full potential of these applications can only be realized with more R&D initiatives, which in turn call for seed funding. Currently, the use of biochar remains particularly high in agriculture and gardening. Market analysts, however, expect biochar to constitute a key part of waste management techniques in the future.

Companies that have a foothold in the U.S. biochar market are: CharGrow, LLC, BioChar Products, Cool Planet Energy Systems, Inc., Genesis Industries, LLC, Full Circle Biochar, Three Dimensional Timberlands, LLC, and Vega Biofuels, Inc.

Request a Sample Copy of the Report @ http://www.mrrse.com/sample/624

About Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE)
Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) is an industry-leading database of market intelligence reports. MRRSE is driven by a stellar team of research experts and advisors trained to offer objective advice. Our sophisticated search algorithm returns results based on the report title, geographical region, publisher, or other keywords.

MRRSE partners exclusively with leading global publishers to provide clients single-point access to top-of-the-line market research. MRRSE’s repository is updated every day to keep its clients ahead of the next new trend in market research, be it competitive intelligence, product or service trends or strategic consulting.

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The Biochar Debate: Charcoal’s Potential to Reverse Climate Change and Build Soil Fertility

6 November, 2015

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Biochar for Molokai

6 November, 2015

Community Contributed

By Glenn I. Teves, UH CTAHR County Extension Agent

Josiah Hunt of Pacific Biochar is the mover and shaker in the use of biochar in Hawaii and other areas of the world, and will be presenting a workshop on Thursday, Nov. 12 at 5 p.m. at UH Maui College-Molokai Farm located in the Molokai Agricultural Park.

Although the word “biochar” may be new, the idea of using charcoal for food production is not new. In the Amazon Basin, unearthed areas have been found to contain layers of biochar that enriched the poor soils of these high rainfall regions. High rainfall in the tropics can leach or wash away key nutrients, especially bases such as Calcium, Magnesium, and Potassium, key elements for optimal plant growth, and these conditions are found in high rainfall areas of Molokai.

A key in making biochar is a quicken burn with a roaring fire while limiting oxygen to burn off volatile oils, resins, and tars. The type of tree used, and the method in which biochar is produced greatly affects its quality and effectiveness as a soil additive, but all invasive species are good candidates for producing biochar, including Christmas Berry, Koa Haole, and Formosa koa which we have an abundant supply. A sustainable model for biochar production is the use of tree material from landfill tree waste and invasive species so it doesn’t compete with wood with other important uses.

Ho`olehua farmer John Freeman has been experimenting with biochar in organic papaya production, and results indicate better yields, larger fruit, and higher quality when using biochar as soil amendment. Although biochar is just one additional tool in a farmer’s tool box, many other tools need to be in place to assure a high quality crop, including balanced nutrition, high soil organic matter, proper acidity or pH, proper water management, and wind protection for tall crops such as papaya. Using biochar of various pore sizes creates niches of a greater diversity for beneficial microorganisms and this improvement in soil has a long-term effect.

The use of biochar has a long history in Korea and Japan, and is being revived through heightened interest in sustainable and natural farming systems in Hawaii. With the El Nino conditions we’ve experienced this summer, farmers need to tighten up their management system in order to quickly adjust to changing climatic conditions.

The public is invited. For more information, contact the UH CTAHR Extension Office at 567-6929. This workshop is sponsored by the County of Maui Office of Economic Development – Kuha`o Center, Makakuoha Cooperative, and the UH College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.

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The Biochar Debate: Charcoal’s Potential to Reverse Climate Change and Build Soil Fertility

6 November, 2015

edition:

ISBN: 9781900322676 / Paperback / Nov 01, 2009


Biochar-international

7 November, 2015


Pit Method, Amazing!

7 November, 2015

type Exception report

message Argument ‘userAgentString’ must not be null.

description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.

exception

net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:70) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:52) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:111) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:196) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:57) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:32) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:70) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:56) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:67) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:33)

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


How is biochar different from activated charcoal

7 November, 2015

How is biochar different from activated charcoal

This question hasn’t been answered yet.

Perminder Dua  


Wood Biochar

9 November, 2015


A goldmine in trash

9 November, 2015

 

By ROBERT JUMPER
ONE FEATHER EDITOR

 

On Oct. 12, Cameron Cooper, retail development specialist for the EBCI Commerce Department, gave Tribal Council an update on an economic development opportunity that could be a boon for the Cherokee economy and ecology through tapping in to a renewable resource. Cooper’s previous position was energy program coordinator for the tribe.

The US Department of Agriculture describes the process called pyrolysis, “Pyrolysis is the heating of an organic material, such as biomass, in the absence of oxygen. Because no oxygen is present the material does not combust but the chemical compounds (i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) that make up that material thermally decompose into a combustible liquid, called pyrolysis oil (bio-oil), though there are some permanent gases (CO2, CO, H2, light hydrocarbons). Thus pyrolysis of biomass produces three products: one liquid, bio-oil, one solid, bio-char and one gaseous (syngas). (www.ars.usda.gov.)”

According to Cooper, who addressed Council to report on a second phase of a project involving the feasibility of a pyrolysis production facility on the Qualla Boundary, this initiative is part of a “waste to energy” concept. In the beginning, the idea was to take waste and process it into a gas to run generators which, in turn, would produce electricity. Cooper explained that waste plastics was the best opportunity for good output, higher quality gas, from a facility like this. Plastics produce a higher quality of bio-oil for energy production and also, as a by-product, bio-char, which may be used for compost, road materials or similar uses.

Cooper requested funding to do a waste characterization study in preparation for a trial in a pyrolysis project from the Department of Energy and Mineral Development, a subdivision of the Economic Development sector of the Department of the Interior. They were awarded $40,000. Using that and some existing funds, the study was completed and it was determined that Cherokee has access to enough biomass to sustain a one-ton unit (one ton per hour). As an example of the potential of this size unit, Cooper explained that within a single month, a one-ton pyrolysis machine could produce enough diesel fuel in two weeks to run the entire Cherokee Boys Club fleet of vehicles for a month.

Cooper then met with the leadership at Cherokee Boys Club to check the interest in pursuing the opportunity. The Boys Club currently has a contract to haul waste and could be impacted by a facility that uses waste being on the Boundary. They collaborated to look at ways that any negative economic impact could be mitigated through soliciting other municipalities to have their waste materials hauled to Cherokee for use in the pyrolysis project. Instead of making less work, the project would create more jobs on the Boundary and at the Boys Club through recycling efforts and transport.

The next step is to do a short-term actual test using the process in a smaller (100 pounds per hour) pyrolysis unit. The grant received for this phase was $410,000. Equipment will be brought in and processing will take place. Tribal Waste Management has already set aside biomass or “feed stock” materials for the project and the equipment is scheduled to arrive any day.

Cooper also set in motion, with the filing of a third grant request ($318,000), a prolonged test of pyrolysis equipment for a three month run in the near future. The goal will be to try out different feed stocks to see what will work best in Cherokee. In that way, according to Cooper, a solid business plan may be developed to present to Tribal Council, so that the Tribe may determine if it wishes to pursue this as a government initiative or work with an entrepreneur who could develop the concept into a business. Cooper emphasized that all money expended on developing this project were grant funds with no monetary cost directly to the tribe.

Since the material is not incinerated, there is little to no negative environmental impact. The biomass is “melted”, not burned, to separate the biomass into its core components. The process does not create any odor. The project has the potential to create a new revenue stream, increase available energy resources and create jobs. Cooper commented that there may need to be a “ramping up” of the tribe’s recycling efforts in order to facilitate a project of this nature.

 

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Does addition of biochar in soil have any effect on alkaline soil?

9 November, 2015

Its generally seen that addition of biochar generally increases the pH of the acidic soil. So does it also increases the pH of the alkaline soil?

This question hasn’t been answered yet.

Chetan Gyawali  


My Biochar Journey

9 November, 2015

Hello All my name is Richard Copley.

My Biochar Journey us all about my interaction with the growing interest of the carbon sequestering of tree matter, used in a sustainable management program as a soil amender.

 

Manor Farm. Allington Road, Grantham, Lincs, NG32 2EJ

Copyright © 2015 manorfarmts.co.uk


wildfires, erosion, and biochar – The Biochar Blog

10 November, 2015

The Governor has been expressing concerns about dying trees and wildfires. Mike Ballantine passed on this link explaining why this could be a future environmental disaster, and how biochar might fit in:

http://www.wateronline.com/doc/wildfires-double-erosion-western-u-s-watersheds-by-0001?sectionCode=NewsFeaturedItem&templateCode=Single&user=2445755&source=nl:44256&utm_source=et_10759433&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=WOL_2015-11-10&utm_term=06986E2C-FAB8-437F-82D8-72E46EFBF456&utm_content=Wildfires%2bMay%2bDouble%2bErosion%2bAcross%2bA%2bQuarter%2bOf%2bWestern%2bU.S.%2bWatersheds%2bBy%2b2050

 

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Biochar from manure waste enhances soils

10 November, 2015

 

 

Copyright Organic Food To Go. All Rights Reserved


Need to Address Environmental and Agricultural Productivity Concerns Propels Demand from

10 November, 2015

Transparency Market Research (TMR) has released a new market study that analyzes the developments of the global biochar market for the period from 2014 to 2020. According to TMR’s projections, the biochar market will rise at a phenomenal 14.80% CAGR in the given period. If the projection holds true, the market will reach a valuation of US$572.3 mn by 2020, increasing from US$229.3 mn in 2013. By volume, the production of biochar is slated to increase from 100 kilo tons to 300 kilo tons during the same period, expanding at a CAGR of 20.10% between 2013 and 2014. The report, titled “Global Biochar Market – Industry Analysis, Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 – 2020”, is available for sale on the company website.

Get Request Sample of the Report : http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=2863

Presently, the biochar sector is in its developmental stage and is yet to be utilized fully for worthwhile gains. However, the biochar market will expand rapidly in the coming years due to the environmental and agricultural productivity benefits associated with biochar, says the TMR report.According to several studies that have been carried out, biochar has high usability for agriculture due to its ability to enhance soil properties such as soil fertility, nutrient retention and stability, and increased soil biodiversity. In addition, the other benefits of biochar-based products for soil are production of healthy humus and maintenance of the soil pH level. Enhanced water retention, improved seed germination, and resistance to insects and fungi are the other benefits imparted by usage of biochar. These are directly related with boosted food security and reduced deforestation.

Other than this, biochar is useful in carbon sequestration, because of which soil can hold carbon for thousands of years. Thus, the amount of carbon discharged in the environment is held back, which in turn benefits the planet due to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, in order to increase public awareness about the benefits of biochar, conferences and promotional campaigns are being organized, with the participation of farmers, scientists, industry stakeholders, manufacturers, and suppliers, which is expected to increase the commercial potential of biochar for the stakeholders.

For biochar to receive acceptance to be used for commercial purposes, standards and certifications have been framed, such as IBI Biochar Standards, European Biochar Certificate, IBI Biochar certification, and Biochar Risk Assessment Framework (BARF). Companies and individual farmers that use biochar need to adhere to standards pertaining to the use of biochar in the region of use.However, the biochar market is facing limited growth due to a few reasons. In some parts of the world, technological insufficiencies, lack of consumer awareness, and financial constraints are restraining the biochar market’s growth. Stringent regulations pertaining to the use of carbon compounds, especially in Europe, are further slowing the growth of this market. Nevertheless, biochar companies have understood the scalability and best available technology for maximum biochar production at the least cost. Hence, the global market for biochar will rise expeditiously in the future. The biochar market is segmented on the basis of technology, feedstock, application, and geography. By technology, equipment and processes are the segments of the market.

Browse the full Biochar Market – Global Industry Analysis, Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 – 2020 report at : http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/biochar-market.html

The global biochar market has been segmented as below:

Global Biochar market: By Geography

Global Biochar market: By Technology

By Process

Equipment/ Technology

Global Biochar market: By Feedstock

Global Biochar market: By Application

Energy Based

Non-Energy Based

 

About Us

Transparency Market Research (TMR) is a global market intelligence company providing business information reports and services. The company’s exclusive blend of quantitative forecasting and trend analysis provides forward-looking insight for thousands of decision makers. TMR’s experienced team of analysts, researchers, and consultants use proprietary data sources and various tools and techniques to gather and analyze information.
TMR’s data repository is continuously updated and revised by a team of research experts so that it always reflects the latest trends and information. With extensive research and analysis capabilities, Transparency Market Research employs rigorous primary and secondary research techniques to develop distinctive data sets and research material for business reports.

 

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Transparency Market Research
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Ecological Effects of Biochar on the Structure and Function of Stream Benthic Communities

11 November, 2015

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How Do Top-Lit Updraft (TLUD) Gasifiers Work?

12 November, 2015

[Cookstove Ecology]

 

For a comprehensive collection of articles on TLUD gasifiers, see Dr. Paul Anderson’s website, www.drtlud.com.

For a forum for discussing TLUD gasifiers and other biomass stoves, see “Stoves” at bioenergylists.org.

 


Enova to invest in biochar production

12 November, 2015

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School farm: Growing success

13 November, 2015


Cookstove Ecology

13 November, 2015

In the past, much of the work on improved, biomass cookstoves has focused on clean cooking, increased fuel efficiency, and their acceptance as a replacement for traditional stoves. However, top-lit updraft gasifier (TLUD) stoves automatically make char as a by-product of cooking.   Char has numerous applications which push us toward a much broader view of the stove than just cooking.  It could be a game-changer for stove acceptance and household wellbeing. [What is a TLUD?]

Char-making is a keystone function because of its dependent spin-off uses: (1) biochar is used for organic waste management and soil fertility to increases crop yields; (2) burning charcoal raises the overal efficiency of fuel energy use to >50%; and (3) char can be sold into the market to increase household cash income.  In the community the char can support several small businesses, such as forges, restaurants, water filtration, etc. (In ecology, “keystone” species [Wikipedia], such as elephants and beavers, modify their ecosystems to create new habitats and opportunities for other species. The metaphor comes from the keystone in arches made of stone blocks.)

We need a new discipline, “Cookstove Ecology,” to understand the keystone role of TLUD stoves in homes and communities. This is more than just a passive assessment of environment impact (e.g., life cycle analysis). People need to be actively engaged in developing keystone roles, and in finding new ones. We can leverage the keystone roles (1) to get wide acceptance of TLUD stoves into the 25 million households of Bangladesh that cook with biomass, (2) to increase the income security of families, (3) to maintain and improve national self-sufficiency in food, and (4) to develop other applications such as water filtration. Cookstove ecology is multidisciplinary involving combustion science, chemistry, soil ecology, plant science, microbiology, human ecology (health, economics, sociology, education), etc.

The main challenge we face, however, is not what to do with the char; the biggest problem is how to get char.   In 2015, TLUDs are an alien species in Bangladesh.  Made of stainless steel, some with electric fans, and needing pelleted fuel, they are unaffordable for most families. These stoves may find an niche in more affluent urban households, but we need to naturalized the TLUD technology for the majority of people. Naturalizing means adapting the technology so the stoves are made from local materials by local artisans, and are adapted to local customs and fuels. This will provide economic activity in communities, and will increase the likelihood of adoption.  People will understand how the stove works, what is is made from, and how they can fix it. Naturalization will help to maintain national self-sufficiency in cooking.

World over, the people who will benefit the most from char-making (because of high population density, poor soil or climate change), will also be those who benefit most from locally-made stoves. Naturalization can be summed up by a slogan: “Cookstoves for the people, by the people.”

Both naturalized and foreign TLUD cookstoves will find niches in Bangladesh, but the naturalized ones are likely to be the most successful.


world biochar headlines 11 2015

Biochar – Amazon Secret Rediscovered

14 November, 2015

Source:: Common Sense Homesteading


Biochar boot rocket stove.

14 November, 2015

Download Songs biochar boot rocket stove free only for review course, Buy Cassette or CD / VCD original from the album biochar boot rocket stove or use Personal Tone / I-RING / Ring Back Tone in recognition that they can still work to create other new songs. DMCA Removal Requests Here

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Mother Earth Premium BioChar 1 cu ft (713320)

16 November, 2015

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KTK-Tea-Banner-Final3.0.jpg Biochar My last week’s KTK was to be about biochar but due to it

16 November, 2015

Biochar

My last week’s KTK was to be about biochar but due to it being the first day of DK5, things didn’t go perfectly so here it is again. We had heard about Biochar as a method of sequestering carbon while simultaneously improving soil so when we heard about a seminar on the subject at the Sonoma Ecology Center we decided to attend.  We met in a hay-bale barn next to a clever   system for capturing rainwater and storing it in a huge tank.

About half of the participants either worked at the center or had worked extensively in the biochar field.

The idea here is to burn material in a low oxygen environment and before it turns to 100% ash add moisture to stop the process, creating a material which has benefits for the soil, which also sequesters carbon and keeps it in the soil for a protracted time. There are those who call this the next big thing  and of course there are detractors.

The process can be carried out in large retorts for commercial use which, as Besame intuited last week also creates sufficient excess heat which can be used for co-generation. The Center uses a much smaller-scale system, which burns the wood in a metal container with a shield around it to limit the oxygen. A chimney aids the combustion.

 

The wood is lit from the top down, and this is key. Just as a modern wood stove introduces air above the combustion which “afterburns” the incompletely burned gasses, the fire burns downward and burns the smoke rising into the flame. There is virtually no smoke from these fires.

In the commercial retorts the liquid drained from the bottom can be distilled into an interesting product. Our group smelled a sample and realized…this was the prime ingredient in what you add to your BBQ to intensify the flavor……Liquid Smoke.

To improve the soil it was found that the biochar had to be mixed with compost to be effective, Farmers using biochar have reported greater crop yields and, more important, lower water requirements. Almond farmers, who use an immense amount of water, are investigating the use of biochar, the Center reported. In order to quantify this data, the Center set up test plots with different ratios of compost to biochar. They test each plot thoroughly with instruments at different depths every week.

My special interest has been the method of agricultural burns which creates biochar in the fields. This method requires a loose pile, tall, which is lit from the top and burns downward. These are called “Conservation Burns”. I experimented with this on one of my seven ag burns and it was a success; no smoke and when I sprayed water on it near the end of burning I was left with an excellent pile of biochar which I will gradually add to my compost pile.

A guest at the presentation was a young Native American guy (Pomo, I believe) named Cuauhtemoc Villa who creates and sells probiotic products. He was extremely knowledgeable and enthusiastic about biochar which he uses in his business, A bonus was his detailed story about how his culture uses the probiotic concept and has done so for many generations.

There’s a lot to be learned about biochar and its uses directly for agriculture and for improving our fragile environment as well. I’m looking forward to applying my new knowledge and my super-biochared compost in next year’s garden. world biochar headlines 11 2015


Gasification Projects Could Benefit the Environment, Economy

16 November, 2015

Professor Gerardo Diaz, with the School of Engineering, received nearly $900,000 through two grants: one from the California Energy Commission for the analysis and optimization of a 1-megawatt biomass gasification plant in North Fork, and the other from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to study a gasification byproduct for use in agriculture and air and water filtration.

Diaz and a group of industry experts are working on a new gasification plant in North Fork, a little town in the foothills between Merced and Fresno. It’s a $5 million project that aims to take biomass from nearby Sierra forests and, using a gasifier, turn the dead material into energy.

Diaz, who has years of experience with gasification, is helping make sure the plant runs as efficiently as possible and, using an array of diagnostic equipment and tools, will evaluate the plant’s performance and the gas that’s produced.

Gasification is a thermo-chemical conversion process that essentially “cooks” biomass in an oxygen-starved environment. Without sufficient oxygen, the material does not burn, but gives off a hydrogen-rich gas, while the biomass converted into solid carbon. The “syngas” given off in the process is cooled and cleaned, and can be used as a substitute natural gas to create electricity or liquid fuels.

There’s a lot of biomass out there now, especially because of the drought and climate change,” Diaz said. “This gasification plant will cut down on the financial and environmental costs of transporting material that is removed, help with forest management and restoration plans, reduce the amount of fuel for wildfires, and create jobs and ancillary services in the region.

Part of what is so exciting about the project is the collaborative effort,” he said. “No single entity could do this alone, but we have a group with people from the industry, from academia, biomass managers — all experts in different areas.”

Gasifying biomass achieves several goals:

The biochar is where the two UC Merced projects overlap. Diaz and his co-principal investigator, Professor YangQuan Chen, are working with partner Phoenix Energy on yet another use for the byproduct — as activated carbon for water and air filtration systems.

Our biochar co-product is almost as valuable as the energy we produce,” said Greg Stangl, CEO of Phoenix, a Merced-based renewable-energy company and longtime UC Merced partner.

Most of his company’s demands for biochar as an agricultural product come from outside the state, but Stangl, Diaz and Chen aim to change that. Diaz and Chen said the demand will grow when incentives for water-efficient agriculture are implemented in California.

Right now, though, they want to take the gasification leftovers and make activated carbon. Nationally, public utilities and industry spend about $2 billion a year on activated carbon, mostly from Asian coconut shells or coal-based carbon.

Diaz, Chen and Phoenix received more than $300,000 from the USDA to find the right way to activate the carbon.

Carbon activation is almost as much an art as a science,” Stangl said. “You have to engineer the microscopic pores in the carbon so they trap the particular molecules you want them to filter out.”

In homes, activated carbon is used in water filters such as pitchers or sink-enhancements, and also in fish tank filters, air purifiers, home air filters and many other applications. Industrially, it’s used by local water treatment districts for water cleanup and for removing foul odors from the air.

Phoenix has the gasification plants, and Diaz has the expertise. Chen is an expert in precision controls, and will help optimize the reactor that performs the biochar activation process using steam and heat.

We have a research enterprise based around biochar, but it’s not just the research,” Chen said. “This has a potentially huge benefit for California. This could be critical to the sustainability of the Central Valley.”

Stangl said this project has many layers, including reducing dependence on imported activated carbon, creating jobs to boost the area’s economy and helping the environment, including the creation of renewable energy.

That’s why this partnership with UC Merced makes so much sense,” he said.

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Commercial quantities of Biochar in bulk bags

world biochar headlines 11 2015

17 November, 2015

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UC Merced Professors Gasification Projects in North Fork and Biochar Products Could Benefit the

17 November, 2015


Biochar Market Report By Applications Gardening, Agriculture, Value Change Analysis, Company

17 November, 2015

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The growing demand for the organic products is creating a good market for bio or organic products, which are used in different fields. One such organic product is Biochar which has gained traction in recent times. Biochar mainly finds its use as a soil amendment material. Our report on Global Biochar Market covers applications, segmentation and opportunities in this booming market. The report also covers extensive market analysis in the key markets such as US, Europe and APAC (Asia Pacific). This reports also includes company profiles of leading players in the space.

Browse Full Report Visit – http://www.acutemarketreports.com/report/biochar-market-report

There are many other factors driving the Biochar market such as cohesive government policies, environmental awareness and availability of raw material, compatibility, raw material cost and increasing number of manufacturers. According to the report, Asia-Pacific is an emerging market which is showing highest growth among all geographies. China, Japan and India are the key targeted markets of Biochar. At present there are about 150 companies dealing in Biochar.

Considering the bullish prospects of this market several companies are taking strategic moves to enter this market.

Biochar is gaining traction in the market on the back of its properties. Besides being a soil amendment material, Biochar is also an easy and sustainable way to handle agricultural waste. Recent studies carried out on it reveals that Biochar is the most efficient solution for the management of the manure from birds and farm animals. In addition, Biochar is being effectively used as an important material for climate conservation as Biochar has properties to reduce GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emission. Not just Biochar but its by-products are also useful. During the process of its formation it produces a soil enhancer which makes the soil more fertile. As Biochar is a useful material, governments in various countries are also encouraging Biochar usage by friendly government policies.

 

Browse All Reports of This Category – http://www.acutemarketreports.com/category/agriculture-market

 

Companies profiled include:

 

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Market Trends Of Biochar

2.2.1. Biochar Market History And Performance

2.2.2. Recent Developments

2.2.3. Future Of Biochar Industry (Predictive Analysis)

2.3. Value Chain Analysis

2.3.1. Raw Material

2.3.2. Suppliers

2.3.3. Manufactures

2.3.4. Distributors

2.3.5. Retailers

Send An Enquiry – http://www.acutemarketreports.com/request-free-sample/48560

3.1. Market Motivators

3.1.1. Availability Of Raw Material

3.1.2. Waste Management Potential

3.2.2.1. Crop Processing Facilities:

3.2.2.2. Muncipal Green Waste (Mgw) Management:

3.2.2.3. Composting And Manure Management:

3.1.3. Reduces Ghg Emission

3.1.4. Produce Clean, Renewable Energy

3.1.5. Produce A Soil Enhancer That Makes Soil More Fertile.

3.1.6. High Water Level And Improved Water

3.1.7. Government Policies For Backing Biochar

3.1.7.1. Us Policy For Biochar:

3.1.7.2. India Policy For Biochar

 

About –  Acute Market Reports :

 

Acute Market Reports is the most sufficient collection of market intelligence services online. It is your only source that can fulfill all your market research requirements.We provide online reports from over 100 best publishers and upgrade our collection regularly to offer you direct online access to the world’s most comprehensive and recent database with expert perceptions on worldwide industries, products, establishments and trends.

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UC Merced Professors Gasification Projects in North Fork and Biochar Products Could Benefit the

17 November, 2015


Ecological Effects of Biochar on the Structure and Function of Stream Benthic Communities

18 November, 2015

Mitch Andre Garcia’s Chem Feeds 2008-present

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18 November, 2015

world biochar headlines 11 2015

Dave Dzwilewski from Gail Materials in Los Angeles sent me some interesting articles on biochar and water. Like a lot of people, his concern is whether adding biochar to the soil will or will not decrease the need for irrigation. There are a lot that show it will, but one of the better ones showing it won’t comes from a group from several northern European countries. You can find the study by searching for the title of the report:

 

 

Effects of biochar on water retention in the Interreg Biochar: climate saving soils field trials

 

As with all these studies, it really depends on which biochar you use and the soil type. But this study was thorough and collected the right data.

 

 

PS: Thanks to everyone that came to our reception for Frank Shields and Jeff Licht. We had a lot of people excited about biochar and a good time.

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New element tracking method a boon for geoscientists

19 November, 2015

November 20, 2015 world biochar headlines 11 2015

Geoscientists track how elements cycle across land, air and water to better understand climate change, ecological food webs and resources, plant nutrient cycling, water use and for forensics purposes.

But until now, they have only been able to parse inputs of such elements as carbon or nitrogen in a system when there are two sources. Yet many natural systems may have three or more interdependent sources, leaving researchers unable to separate inputs from one source to another, and hindering them from understanding how sources may interact with each other to affect overall carbon or nitrogen cycling in that system.

A Cornell study in the Nov. 4 issue of Nature Communications describes a new method that allows geoscientists to tease out the exact inputs from three different sources.

“It is important for understanding greenhouse gas emissions, microbial interactions, sources of leaching of nutrients into a river, when we have three sources where an element can come from,” said Johannes Lehmann, professor of soil and crop sciences, and a co-author of the paper. Thea Whitman, Ph.D. ’14, a former graduate student in Lehmann’s lab, is the paper’s first author.

Whitman and Lehmann developed their method to quantify inputs from three sources by doing experiments on soil carbon dioxide emissions from the interaction of microbial mineralization of soil organic carbon, root respiration and biochar, which they added to the system.

world biochar headlines 11 2015

To measure carbon from two sources, for example, researchers look within sources for signatures of two isotopes of carbon, which are species of carbon with different atomic weights. In this way, researchers may run simple equations to derive the carbon inputs from each source. But such equations using two isotopes don’t work with three sources.

With three sources, the researchers created a second plot experiment identical to the original plot, except they altered one of the sources such that compared to the first experiment, it had a different isotope ratio (the ratio between carbon 12 and carbon 13 within the source sample, for example). For instance, in a scenario where the researchers test carbon emissions from soil, compost and a plant, the researchers might add compost in the second plot that has 10 percent of the heavier isotope, compared to 5 percent in the original sample.

With distinct measurements from all three sources, the rest is algebra.

In the study, the researchers used this new method to determine that the presence of plant roots decreased carbon dioxide losses from soil organic carbon when biochar was added to soil. This effect would have remained undetected without the new method. Such interactions between roots, soil organic carbon and organic amendments are important for current efforts to sequester carbon in soils as a way to mitigate climate change, Lehmann said.

Whitman will start as an assistant professor of soil ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in early 2016.

The study is funded by the Towards Sustainability Foundation, Cornell Sigma Xi, National Science Foundation, Cornell Biogeochemistry Program, Cornell Crop and Soil Science Department, United States Department of Agriculture, and the Cornell Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future.

Krishna Ramanujan

607-255-3290

ksr32@cornell.edu

Melissa Osgood

607-255-2059

mmo59@cornell.edu


Biochar Market (By Application Segment – Gardening, Agriculture (Lar…

19 November, 2015

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Dr Paul Olivier’s work in Vietnam

20 November, 2015

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Biochar in your Business

21 November, 2015

world biochar headlines 11 2015Working with local communities to manage our natural resources sustainably since 1998.

The mission of the GWLAP is “working with communities to sustainably manage our natural resources”. GWLAP works with and supports up to 20 Landcare and agricultural groups and engages up to 3000 volunteers a year in on-ground activities.

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22 November, 2015

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23 November, 2015

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Biochar Market Research Report (2015-2020)

26 November, 2015

Global Biochar Industry 2015 Market Survey

The Biochar report is offers a clear picture of the current and future trends, developments and opportunities. The report, prepared by a highly seasoned team of analysts and data experts, carries an array of tables and graphs besides qualitative analyses. Starting with a discussion on the current state of the Biochar market, the report goes on to discuss the dynamics affecting each segment within it. The report segments the market to up to three levels and studies each of these in great detail. The result is a set of sharp insights and recommendations that will help companies stay ahead of the next new trend in the Biochar industry.

Browse Complete Report with TOC @ http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/global-biochar-industry-2015-market-trends-analysis-32116

A basic overview of the Biochar market is offered to readers through the use of market definition, segmentation, applications, and value chain analysis. The analysis for the Biochar market is not limited only to traditional or emerging markets. It also covers regions that have been hitherto unexplored but have white space that could be lucratively tapped. In order to do this, however, a clear understanding of one’s competitors is imperative. The report provides just that through a section dedicated to key company profiles and news. Equipped with this vital information, players in the Biochar market will be in a better position to foresee opportunities and threats alike and make informed decisions.

The regulatory environment, being such an intrinsic part of the Biochar market, does need special focus. The report collates information relating to current and future policies and regulations that could directly or indirectly affect business operations. The report is an invaluable business intelligence repository for new and existing players in the Biochar market.

To Get Sample Copy of Report visit @ http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/global-biochar-industry-2015-market-trends-analysis-32116#RequestSample

For technical data and manufacturing plants analysis, the report analyzes Biochar leading suppliers on capacity, commercial production date, manufacturing plants distribution, R&D Status, technology sources, and raw materials sources.

This report also presents product specification, manufacturing process, and product cost structure etc.Production is separated by regions, technology and applications. Analysis also covers upstream raw materials, equipment, downstream client survey, marketing channels, industry development trend and proposals. In the end, the report includes Biochar new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, investment return analysis, and development trend analysis. In conclusion, it is a deep research report on Global Biochar industry.

world biochar headlines 11 2015

Table of Contents

Chapter One Biochar Industry Overview
1.1 Biochar Definition
1.2 Biochar Classification and Application
1.3 Biochar Industry Chain Structure
1.4 Biochar Industry Overview

Chapter Two Biochar International and China Market Analysis
2.1 Biochar Industry International Market Analysis
2.1.1 Biochar International Market Development History
2.1.2 Biochar Product and Technology Developments
2.1.3 Biochar Competitive Landscape Analysis
2.1.4 Biochar International Key Countries Development Status
2.1.5 Biochar International Market Development Trend
2.1.6 Global Biochar New Project and Project Plan
2.2 Biochar Industry China Market Analysis
2.2.1 Biochar China Market Development History
2.2.2 Biochar Product and Technology Developments
2.2.3 Biochar Competitive Landscape Analysis
2.2.4 Biochar China Key Regions Development Status
2.2.5 Biochar China Market Development Trend
2.2.6 China Biochar New Project and Project Plan
2.3 Biochar International and China Market Comparison Analysis

Chapter Three Biochar Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis
3.1 2015 Global Key Manufacturers Biochar Capacity and Manufacturing Plants Distribution
3.2 2015 Global Key Manufacturers Biochar R&D Status and Technology Source
3.3 2015 Global Key Manufacturers Biochar Raw Materials Sources Analysis

Chapter Four Biochar Production by Regions by Technology by Applications
4.1 2009-2015 Biochar Production by Regions (such as Russia Ukraine and China)
4.2 2009-2015 Biochar Production by Applications
4.3 2009-2015 Biochar Price by key Manufacturers
4.4 2009-2015 Russia Biochar Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value Analysis
4.5 2009-2015 Ukraine Biochar Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value Analysis
4.6 2009-2015 China Biochar Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value Analysis

Chapter Five Biochar Manufacturing Process and Cost Structure
5.1 Biochar Product Specifications
5.2 Biochar Manufacturing Process Analysis
5.3 Biochar Cost Structure Analysis
5.4 Biochar Price Cost Gross Analysis

Chapter Six 2009-2015 Biochar Productions Supply Sales Demand Market Status and Forecast
6.1 2009-2015 Biochar Capacity Production Overview
6.2 2009-2015 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis
6.3 2009-2015 Biochar Demand Overview
6.4 2009-2015 Biochar Supply Demand and Shortage
6.5 2009-2015 Biochar Import Export Consumption
6.6 2009-2015 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin

Read More @ http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/global-biochar-industry-2015-market-trends-analysis-32116

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world biochar headlines 11 2015


Garden Variety: Is biochar too good to be true?

world biochar headlines 11 2015

28 November, 2015

Biochar soil conditioners are hitting the retail market in a big way, and you will soon (maybe already) find these products on shelves of garden centers near you.

Product labels on biochar products tout higher yields and drought resistance for crops planted in biochar-amended soils, and many also claim that using biochar reduces global warming. Is it too good to be true? Research is still in progress, but history suggests biochar amendments may improve soil over the long-term.

Long-term improvement is a little different than the silver bullet for which many gardeners are looking, but it is long-term improvement that may be a little more permanent than the regular recommendation to add compost. If you decide to use it, remember:

• Scientists are still researching just how much to use on different kinds of soils for best benefits.

• Do it more than one time.

• Use a commercial product unless you spend a lot of time honing the process.

• Fireplace and wood stove ashes are very different from biochar and can have a negative effect on garden soils.

What is biochar? It is charcoal meant for use as a soil amendment. The new name distinguishes it from charcoal meant for use as fuel, but it is produced in the same way and looks and feels the same.

Charcoal production is an ancient practice, and roughly 2,500 years ago the native people of a certain region of the Amazon basin made charcoal and incorporated it into the soil. The land is still highly fertile, despite being surrounded by poor, nutrient-depleted soils. While correlation and causation are separate and remain unproven in this case, charcoal addition to soil is certainly showing promise.

Over the last several years, researchers have trialed biochar amendments with mostly positive results. Since biochar is organic matter, it should seemingly have the same effect as additions of compost, chopped leaves, and/or other organic materials.

In addition to providing some nutrients and improving the water-holding capacity of soil, biochar (and other organic matter) increases microbial activity and can make nutrients, water and air more available to plant roots.

Global warming improvement claims are a little more complic…

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Meet the Berkeley burners trying to hack climate change

28 November, 2015

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The birthplace of a machine that could bring clean power to the developing world and knock a tiny dent in global warming looks like a junkyard on the edge of a port.


Idaho Hillbilly Homestead # 67 Checking on our Bio-Char Coal Oven

29 November, 2015

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