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Biochar industry fuelled by agricultural waste expected to grow – journalbreak.Com

1 October, 2022
 

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Biochar industry fuelled by agricultural waste expected to grow – ABC News

1 October, 2022
 

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Biochar industry fuelled by agricultural waste expected to grow – www.agtechdaily.com

1 October, 2022
 

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Green carbon dots synthesized from Chlorella Sorokiniana microalgae biochar for chrome …

1 October, 2022
 

In the quest to find an economical and accurate method of detecting toxic metals as well as finding an application for biochar as a fuel, this work used microalgae biochar to sinter Carbon Dots (CDs) that can be used as pathways for metallic ions detection. Carbon Dots from microalgae biochar (generated in pyrolysis) were synthesized through thermochemical depolymerization with KMnO4 at different concentrations. After this step, the purification of the nanoparticles was performed. The characterization of CDs was performed through fluorescence intensity, Zeta Potential, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that all samples exhibited fluorescence, samples synthesized with KMnO4 at concentrations of 8.54 % and 10.0 % (CD-MBK06 and CD-MBK07, respectively) showed the highest fluorescence intensity and good stability. When adding Cr (VI) and Cr (III) to the CD-MBK06 and CD-MBK07 samples, it is possible to notice that there was fluorescence quenching as the metal ion concentration increased, except for the CD-MBK07 sample for Cr (III), at a length of 350 nm, indicating that this sample shows selectivity for extinction only for Cr (VI).


Synergistic effect of adsorption and photocatalysis of BiOBr/Lignin-Biochar composites with …

1 October, 2022
 

Effective utilization solar energy through photocatalysis is an ideal way to solve environmental problems and achieve sustainable development. Herein, a novel BiOBr/Lignin-Biochar photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The number of oxygen vacancies of BiOBr increased after C doping, which improves visible-light absorbance, reduces the recombination of photo-generated carriers and promotes O2 activation to produce •O2. UV-vis DRS result demonstrated that the visible-light absorption capacity of BiOBr improved significantly with the addition of lignin. Compared with BiOBr, the adsorption and photocatalytic ability of BiOBr/Lignin-Biochar composites were greatly enhanced due to enriched oxygen vacancies and the congenerous effect between BiOBr and lignin-biochar. The RhB removal with pure BiOBr and BiOBr/Lignin-Biochar under visible-light irradiation at 60 min was 54.5% and 99.2%, respectively, owing to the interface interaction between BiOBr and lignin-biochar promoted the separation between electron and holes and the enrichment of RhB around the photocatalysts. Notably, the bandgap of BiOBr/Lignin-Biochar composites decreased from 2.65 eV to 2.56 eV after C doping, useful for visible-light-driven photocatalysis. The superoxide radical anions (•O2) were the main active species, as demonstrated by free radical capture experiments and ESR characterization results. Hence, the present work provides new insights into constructing cost-effective, high-efficiency composite materials for environmental remediation.


Substrate modified with biochar improves the hydrothermal properties of green roofs

1 October, 2022
 

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HR Compliance Software Market to See Incredible Growth by 2025 – Redskins 101

1 October, 2022
 

HR Compliance Software Market is projected to grow to Multimillion by 2026 from USD million in 2021, at a Impressive CAGR during the forecast period. The demand for HR Compliance Software is driven by the growing demand and increasing adoption rate of systems such as SMEs, Large Enterprises

Companies covered in the HR Compliance Software Market :

CertiPay, ComplianceHR, HR360, Ascentis, Zenefits, Flock, Hrnext, Access, Equifax, Complygate, PSIber, Smartlog

The global HR Compliance Software market is valued at xx million USD in 2018 and is expected to reach xx million USD by the end of 2024, growing at a CAGR of xx% between 2019 and 2024.

The Asia-Pacific will occupy for more market share in following years, especially in China, also fast growing India and Southeast Asia regions.

North America, especially The United States, will still play an important role which cannot be ignored. Any changes from United States might affect the development trend of HR Compliance Software.

Europe also play important roles in global market, with market size of xx million USD in 2019 and will be xx million USD in 2024, with a CAGR of xx%.

This report studies the HR Compliance Software market status and outlook of Global and major regions, from angles of players, countries, product types and end industries; this report analyzes the top players in global market, and splits the HR Compliance Software market by product type and applications/end industries.

Global HR Compliance Software Market 2019 by Company, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2024

Segmentation by Type : On-Premise, Cloud-Based

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Global Fiberglass tape Market Growth In 2022-2028

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Phosphorus adsorption by functionalized biochar: a review,Environmental Chemistry Letters – X-MOL

1 October, 2022
 

Phosphorus is essential element for agricultural production, yet phosphorus ore resources are non-renewable and become depleted. Moreover, phosphate release from wastewater treatment plants and from inefficient crop fertilization induces pollution such as water eutrophication. Therefore, phosphorus recovery from wastewater is promising alternative source of agricultural phosphorus. Biochar can be used to adsorb phosphorus due to their porous structure, large surface area, abundant surface groups, and high mineral content of biochars. Biochar can be functionalized to improve their adsorption performance. Here, we review phosphorus recovery by functionalized biochar, with focus on biochar preparation and modification, factors influencing the efficiency of adsorption, adsorption mechanisms, and biochars as slow-release fertilizers. We discuss mechanisms for Mg-, Ca- and Fe-rich biochars.


Phosphorus adsorption by functionalized biochar: a review – Springer

1 October, 2022
 

Phosphorus is essential element for agricultural production, yet phosphorus ore resources are non-renewable and become depleted. Moreover, phosphate release from wastewater treatment plants and from inefficient crop fertilization induces pollution such as water eutrophication. Therefore, phosphorus recovery from wastewater is promising alternative source of agricultural phosphorus. Biochar can be used to adsorb phosphorus due to their porous structure, large surface area, abundant surface groups, and high mineral content of biochars. Biochar can be functionalized to improve their adsorption performance. Here, we review phosphorus recovery by functionalized biochar, with focus on biochar preparation and modification, factors influencing the efficiency of adsorption, adsorption mechanisms, and biochars as slow-release  fertilizers. We discuss mechanisms for Mg-, Ca- and Fe-rich biochars.

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This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Project (2020YFC1908802).

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by DL, LW, and CW. The first draft of the manuscript was written by DL and CW and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript.

Correspondence to Chongqing Wang.

The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.

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Received: 28 June 2022

Accepted: 12 September 2022

Published: 01 October 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-022-01519-5

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Arsenic adsorption by different Fe-enriched biochars conditioned with sulfuric acid

1 October, 2022
 

In this study, ferric chloride and sulfuric acid were used to increase the Fe-containing minerals on the biochar surface before a pyrolysis at 600 °C. The pristine and Fe-modified biochars prepared at different concentrations of sulfuric acid (50FBC and 72FBC) were characterized and analyzed, and their capacity of As(V) adsorption under various pH and ionic strength were evaluated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of As(V) calculated by the Langmuir model for 50FBC and 72FBC are 10.33 and 15.61 mg g−1, respectively, which are enhanced by 5.0 and 7.8 times compared with the pristine biochar. The higher dosage of H2SO4 (72%) used in the modification leads to a better adsorption capacity of As, especially under neutral to alkaline conditions (7.0 < pH < 10.0). It might result from the increased amounts of Fe-containing minerals formed on the biochar surface, and the enriched functional groups such as phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl, resulting in the resistance to alkaline conditions. Overall, the Fe-modified biochar, especially 72FBC, had good potential as an environmentally friendly adsorbent for removing As from contaminated water under a wider pH range.

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The authors declare that all data and materials supporting the results of this study are available within the article.

The authors appreciate the financial support by the Joint Fund of Basic and Applied Basic Research Fund of Guangdong Province, China (2019A1515110927), the National Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (42007142), and the Key Scientific and Technological Project of Foshan City (2120001008392). Wenbing Yuan acknowledges the Characteristic Innovation Research Project of University Teachers (2020XCC08) for financial support.

Man Xu and Yiyin Qin contributed in this work equally.

Jingzi Beiyuan, Fuguo Yang, Wenbing Yuan, and Hailong Wang contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by Man Xu, Yiyin Qin, Qiqi Huang, Haiping Li, Wusen Chen, Xiaoying Wang, and Shifei Wang. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Man Xu and Yiyin Qin; all authors commented on the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Jingzi Beiyuan.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

Responsible Editor: Zhihong Xu

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Received: 12 July 2022

Accepted: 15 September 2022

Published: 01 October 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-23123-4

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Biochar a Promising Strategy for Pesticide-Contaminated Soils – IDEAS/RePEc

1 October, 2022
 

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Legume Species Alter the Effect of Biochar Application on Microbial Diversity and Functions …

1 October, 2022
 

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Why turning agricultural waste into biochar is 'a no-brainer in a country like Australia'

1 October, 2022
 

Sunday, 2 October 2022


Why turning agricultural waste into biochar is 'a no-brainer in a country like Australia'

1 October, 2022
 

This article was originally published on this site

Research shows biochar improves soil productivity and yields, and when fed to animals improves feed conversions and milk production.

As a producer and a person who’s committed to learning, growing and contributing within the Australian agricultural sector, there’s a heap of valuable resources available to me online but they’re all over the place.

In essence, Farm Table will package all of those ‘tools’ into one ‘toolbox’ for me, saving me a huge amount of time and frustration.

I’ll be able to tailor my Farm Table profile to my specific needs and interests, giving me access to really pertinent information.

It can be a bit overwhelming when looking for a particular information source on the internet, and I personally view The Farm Table as a great resource that does the hard work for me!

The ability to have a one stop central site that previews and accumulates similar groups of data and information is hugely beneficial and makes my life easier.

The Farm Table will save so much time; to have all the information in one reputable place and to know where to start looking rather than endless searching is an asset to the whole sector.

I am so excited for the new look Farm Table. I can already see huge advantages and know it will have a positive impact on our business.

You can now view everything in the ecosystem and save all your favourites in your personalised dashboard.Please now click here to complete your profile on the Farmer Exchange and join the community.


Hydrothermal Synthesis of Sewage Sludge Biochar for Activation of Persulfate for Antibiotic Removal

1 October, 2022
 

Xuzhou University of Technology

Xuzhou University of Technology

Xuzhou University of Technology

Xuzhou University of Technology

Xuzhou University of Technology

Xuzhou University of Technology

Hohai University

The use of biochar materials as catalysts to activate persulfate (PS) for the degradation of antibiotics has attracted much attention. In this study, a carbonaceous material (Cu/Zn-SBC) was prepared from sewage sludge by hydrothermal modification. The efficiency of PS activation by Cu/Zn-SBC was investigated using tetracycline (TC) as the model antibiotic. In the Cu/Zn-SBC+PS system, the TC removal rate reached 90.13% at 10 min and exceeded 99% within 4 h. This not only met the requirement of removing large amounts of pollutants in a short time but also achieved the complete removal of pollutants in the subsequent time. PS was activated by Cu/Zn-SBC, and the active radicals were dominated by SO4·- and ·OH. Meanwhile, Cu, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups on the surface of Cu/Zn-SBC promoted the production of SO4·- and ·OH. Under several changes in reaction conditions and water environment factors, the TC removal rate remained above 85% within 10 min. Furthermore, the removal rate of TC was still 85.79% when Cu/Zn-SBC combined with PS was reused twice and 77.14% when reused four times. This study provides an ideal solution for the treatment of sewage sludge, and offers a stable and efficient material for removing antibiotics from wastewater.

Keywords: Sewage sludge, Biochar, Persulfate, Mechanism, Antibiotics degradation

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China

China

China

China

China

China

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China

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Ti-Induced Charge Distribution Modulation for 1o2 Dominated Nonradical Process – SSRN Papers

1 October, 2022
 

Sichuan University

Sichuan University

Sichuan University

Sichuan University

Sichuan University

Efficient degradation of organic contaminants by oxidative radicals remains a challenge due to invalid consumption of radicals and easy generation of secondary halogenated pollutants. In this work, a novel bimetallic biochar (Cr-Ti/BC) was developed through peroxydisulfate (PDS) activation via nonradical pathway for sulfamethoxazole (SMX) degradation. The activation mechanisms were (i) metastable reactive complex (Cr-Ti/BC-PDS) formation via an interaction between Cr-Ti/BC and PDS, and (ii) 1O2 generation through electron transfer between Cr-Ti/BC-PDS and active defective sites such as -OH/C-O-C, COOH, C=O, nitric oxides, graphitic N, and pyridinic N. The high mineralization efficiency of SMX and effective anti-interferences in practical environment background verified the outstanding advantage of the nonradical system. This study provides a promising strategy to induce a nonradical pathway for PDS activation, thus paving the path for exploiting advanced oxidation systems in practical application for organic contaminant removal toward polluted site remediation.

Keywords: Nonradical pathway, bimetallic biochar, peroxydisulfate activation, sulfamethoxazole

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No. 24 South Section1, Yihuan Road,
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No. 24 South Section1, Yihuan Road,
Chengdu, 610064
China

No. 24 South Section1, Yihuan Road,
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China

No. 24 South Section1, Yihuan Road,
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China

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Chengdu, 610064
China

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275 Tote – Stormwater BIOCHAR

1 October, 2022
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Cockroach Killing Spray Market Research Report Spread Across 103 Pages with In-Depth Analysis

1 October, 2022
 

GlobalCockroach Killing Spray Market Growth 2022-2028 with Top Countries Data

Report Scope and Segmentation:

Report Coverage

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Bayer, Superb, ARS, Lanju, Henkel, BASF, Green Leaf, RAID, Syngenta, Rockwell Labs

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Multiple Pest Sprays, Professional Cockroach Spray

By Applications

Home, Commercial

Value Projection

USD Multimillion by 2028

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Impressive CAGR from 2022 to 2028

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2022 to 2028

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Base Year

2021

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2022 to 2028

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By Type, By Application, By Geography

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Should I Add Biochar to My Soil? How Much? – House Grail

1 October, 2022
 

House Grail is reader-supported. When you buy via links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission at no cost to you. Learn more.

One of the biggest struggles of any new gardener is wondering how to improve and maintain good soil quality. You can have the perfect amount of sun and get the plant food and watering just right, but if your soil isn’t up to the job, you won’t find a lot of success.

Composting and mulch are two common things used to improve soil quality. Another great option is biochar. But adding biochar needs a little bit more forethought than the other two. Let’s look at what biochar is and how much you should add to your soil.

Organic material collected from forestry and agricultural waste, also known as biomass, is burned in a process called pyrolysis. The result is a charcoal-like material that effectively improves soil quality.

Essentially the process of pyrolysis is highly controlled burning in a container that contains next to no oxygen. The result is a much cleaner burn that retains the carbon and prevents it from burning into the atmosphere. After the biomass is burnt, the final product is approximately 70% carbon. However, this may vary slightly depending on the material being burnt and the precise pyrolysis method.

Grabbing a handful of biochar, you’ll notice that it has the appearance of charcoal: black, lightweight, and highly porous.

A post shared by GoBiochar (@gobiochar)

In addition to helping improve soil, biochar is also a great addition to compost. It helps reduce nutrient loss as the compost ages, and it also helps to speed up the whole process because of the increase in microbial activity.

The size of your garden will be the ultimate factor that determines how much biochar you should use. Generally, you’ll want the top 6 inches of your soil to be approximately 5%–10% biochar.

There isn’t an exact science as to how much you should use, as it depends on what you’re growing. For example, some plants actually prefer more acidity in the soil. And if you add too much biochar, it raises the pH level, which means a lower acidity level.

A post shared by 'Ūkiu Farms Biochar & Tea (@ukiufarms)

The most common way to apply biochar is to mix it 50/50 with a fertilizer such as compost. This charges the biochar with nutrients because it absorbs them from the compost. “Charging” the biochar before mixing it into the soil is essential because it can absorb nutrients from the soil and reduce its quality if you don’t.

There are a few things to consider when adding biochar:

Over time biochar can be washed out of the soil by watering. This is another reason that it’s a good idea to mix it with mulch or compost. By mixing it, you prevent it from being washed away easily.

If you’re applying it on a windy day, you may waste a lot of this valuable soil additive. The best way to do this is to ensure it’s moistened. Quite often, compost is fairly moist, so as long as you’re using compost to charge the biochar, you shouldn’t have to worry too much about wind.

Pay attention to soil quality as you’re adding biochar. First, ensure that you’re charging it so it’s not leaching nutrients from the soil. Second, pay attention to the pH level of your soil to ensure that it’s still suitable for what you’re growing.

Gardening can be a pretty big learning curve. Whether you’re growing vegetables, flowers, or other plants, there are a million things to keep in mind. Biochar has been used for thousands of years, and applying it properly is a great way to improve soil quality. Suppose you’re ever in doubt as to how much you should be adding. In that case, your local plant nursery will likely have knowledgeable staff that can help you calculate the amount for your particular needs.

Featured Image Credit: Biochar pile, Oregon Department of Forestry, Wikimedia Commons CC 2.0 Generic

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Cold plasma-assisted regeneration of biochar for dye adsorption – ScienceDirect.com

1 October, 2022
 

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Why turning agricultural waste into biochar is 'a no-brainer in a country like Australia'

1 October, 2022
 

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Agriculture Forum: Soil at center of expo – Yahoo News

2 October, 2022
 

Oct. 1—By Samantha Wolfe

If you have ever wondered what is going on in the soil beneath your feet, what the connection is between soil and nutrition or why a certain patch of your yard or garden never does quite as well, then you should attend the Grand Traverse Conservation District's Soil Exposition on Saturday, Oct. 15.

District staff and the Invasive Species Network team will be joined by soil scientists, compost professionals, Michigan State University Extension (MSUE) educators, Interlochen Center for the Arts' sustainability farm manager, Huron Pines AmeriCorps members and other partners to explore the complex world of soil.

The event is family friendly and there will be discussions, demonstrations and activities for all levels of knowledge and interest.

See a soil profile from the farm fields and the forest and learn how different soil horizons were formed and weathered. Discuss native plants and what to plant in your home garden to attract birds or pollinators. See MSUE's irrigation simulator in action. Learn how to take soil samples at home so you can get a good baseline for your yard or garden and why it is so important to maintain soil records. Get your hands dirty in some compost and learn how it is beneficial for microbial life. Watch a biochar demonstration and see why this simple amendment has been used for millennia.

There will be something for everyone at the Soil Expo.

Grand Traverse Conservation District staff are excited to host this event at the Historic Meyer Farm, the new home for the Great Lakes Incubator Farm located at 1091 N. Keystone Road. District staff will be leading tours of the farm site and will touch on the history of the property, the extensive work that has been done along the Boardman-Ottaway River, and GTCD's vision for the future of the Incubator Farm program.

Vendor tables will open at 1 p.m. and concurrent demonstrations will take place throughout the afternoon, with activities wrapping up at 6 p.m.

Admission is $5 per adult and $3 per child, or $10 per family (up to six people). Reserve your tickets at www.natureiscalling.org/events and contact ahettmer@gtcd.org with questions.

About the author: Samantha Wolfe is the Michigan Agriculture Environmental Assurance Program technician for the Grand Traverse Conservation District. She lives in Beulah, where she is a member of 100+ Women Who Care, vice president of the Mills Community House Association and volunteers with North Sky Raptor Center. She currently is pursuing her master's degree through Miami University's Global Field Program.


'Returns could be in the trillions': Report touts huge investment opportunity of carbon …

2 October, 2022
 

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Climeworks launched its direct air capture and storage plant in Iceland in September 2021 | Credit: Climeworks

Growing numbers of businesses are now investing in carbon removals such as direct air capture (DAC), enhanced weathering and biochar technologies in a bid to secure future financial savings and position themselves as climate leaders, according to voluntary carbon market ratings agency BeZero Carbon.

Research findings published by the firm last week – which have been backed by Shopify, Carbon Engineering and Patch – points to increasing corporate interest in the carbon removals sector, as firms seek to capitalise on new business opportunities while also aligning themselves with tightening climate regulations and voluntary carbon market standards.

The carbon removals sector enjoyed a record year over the past 12 months, boosted by $1bn investment from Stripe, Shopify, McKinsey and Facebook owner Meta through the Frontier initiative, in addition to more than $10bn from the US government through the landmark Inflation Reduction Act which was passed by Congress last month.

Such bumper investment shows investors and buyers are increasingly viewing carbon removals as offering “high value returns”, according to BeZero Carbon’s head of carbon removal Ted Christie-Miller, who co-authored last week’s report.

“Over the last year, we have seen the market for carbon dioxide removal jump-started from relative obscurity to one of the highest potential growth industries in the world,” he said. “This year alone we have seen billions injected from the US Treasury and Silicon Valley. By 2050, the returns could be in the trillions. Now, investors from across the world are turning their turrets towards this exciting new climate technology.”

Christie-Miller said investing in carbon removals was “not just good for the climate, but good for business too”, although he stressed that public and private sector support was still needed to scale the industry.

The report argues investing in early-stage carbon removals can help firms to secure financial savings over the long-term as carbon prices rise, while also helping to bring down future costs of such technologies as the industry scales. It cites Airbus, for example, which has bought 400,000 future direct air capture credits from supplier 1PointFive, which uses Carbon Engineering’s DAC technology, and investor LowerCarbon Capital $350m fundraise this year targeted solely at backing carbon removal companies.

At present, however, there exists an undersupply of carbon removal capacity required to help meet global climate goals, but this also opens up new business opportunities to fulfil that pent-up demand, according to the report.

The report also argues that investing in carbon removal can help companies to comply with regulatory requirements, citing the fact that both the UK and EU are actively exploring bringing carbon removal credits into their emissions trading schemes, further underscoring the need for firms to plan ahead in order to secure future compliance.

Moreover, carbon removal investments can also help companies to comply with voluntary standards, such as those of the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) and the Net Zero Banking Alliance, according to the report.

The report also cites a poll carried out last year by BeZero Carbon and Stack Data Strategy, which found 87 per cent of business respondents supported investing in carbon removal. Of those, 44 per cent said they would back such investments, even if they impacted on corporate revenue.

Welcoming the report’s findings, Brennan Spellacy, chief executive and co-founder of negative emissions platform Patch, hailed the carbon removal market as “an extraordinary opportunity for investment”.

“This report spells out the challenges and helps build a roadmap for achieving CDR at the speed and scale required to reach global climate goals,” he said.

'Faulty thermometer': World Bank accused of overstating annual climate finance budget by $7bn

New climate risk methodology launched for asset owners and investors

Government to explore how to clamp down on built environment emissions

Peter Rabbit, precipitous polling, and the 'attack on nature'

Oxfam warns there is a 'deficit of confidence' in critical climate finance negociations at the upcoming COP27 Climate Summit

Around 130,000 low-income households could see bills slashed as homes receive energy efficiency upgrades through the government's Help to Heat funding

Research from Make My Money Matter and Scottish Widows finds staff increasingly want their employers to offer sustainable pensions


Biochar washing to improve the fuel quality of agro-industrial waste biomass – ScienceDirect

2 October, 2022
 

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Biochar Application – Prisciell Kentrel

2 October, 2022
 

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Wild blueberry harvest suffered in this year's drought – The Maine Monitor

2 October, 2022
 

Researchers recommend a three-pronged approach: harvesting earlier for maximum yield, mulching and using irrigation systems. Photo by Corwinhee/Wikimedia Commons.

ROQUE BLUFFS — Cool sea breezes off Englishman Bay graced the fields of Welch Farm on a piercing blue, mid-September day, revealing nothing of the heaving, dry summer months before. It was the third straight season of drought for the state’s midcoast and Down East coastal region — wild blueberry country. With the mighty harvester resting in the field, 52-year-old farm owner Lisa Hanscom drops into a chair in the boxing room, allowing herself a pause to consider the bleak tally of this year’s harvest. 

“The yield last year was low, the year before even worse,” Hanscom said, shrugging a shoulder. “I just hope to break even, to stay in the game.”

For Hanscom’s family and other lowbush wild blueberry growers in Maine’s coastal counties — the counties hardest hit by the nearly statewide summer drought, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration — staying in the game is a constant gamble.  

Although official data won’t be reported until December, many of the state’s estimated 485 wild blueberry growers (Hanscom puts the number south of 200), say they lost 50 percent or more of their crop this year, especially in the midcoast where the drought was severe. Last year’s total yield for Maine’s lowbush wild blueberries — the smaller, tastier cousin of highbush cultivated blueberries grown all over the world — was a robust 103 million pounds. Most industry leaders predict this year’s yield will fall well short of that.  

Hanscom hasn’t tallied her yield yet, but knows it’s low enough that she won’t be giving up her full-time job as director of Washington County Emergency Management, or part-time job driving a school bus.

Abnormally dry growing seasons are only one of the uncertainties growers must hedge against to protect these otherwise hardy, native plants – and their livelihoods. Crops are grown in two-year cycles, with growers harvesting only half of their land each year, allowing the other fields to develop for the following year. Climate change, with extreme fluctuations in temperatures and precipitation, including snowfall, can affect yields over as many as four growing seasons, meaning that even in years without a drought, the plants being harvested might fail to thrive, according to Dr. Lily Calderwood, the University of Maine Cooperative Extension wild blueberry specialist and assistant professor of horticulture.

“If they don’t have any nutrients to store over winter, or enough water, or have other stresses, such as diseases or dehydration from lack of snow cover for insulation, they may not produce very healthy stems and flower buds for the next year, when they actually flower and produce the fruit,” Calderwood said.

Calderwood and Dr. Yongjiang Zhang, a UMaine assistant professor of applied plant physiology, along with other researchers have several studies under way, looking at ways to mitigate the effects of drought and climate change by increasing soil moisture and plant resiliency.  

UMaine wild blueberry researchers were recently awarded four U.S. Department of Agriculture Specialty Crop Block Grants (USDA) totaling more than $200,000. The funding will help continue and begin studies exploring the effectiveness and best use of irrigation systems, wood chip mulching, and new fertilizing and disease management strategies; using cutting-edge technologies and products, such as drone cameras to monitor soil and plant health, and biochar, a forestry byproduct that could dramatically improve soil moisture retention.

Although more testing is needed before scientists could recommend growers start using the biochar — what Zhang calls fancy charcoal with microspores to lock in soil moisture — he said biochar is affordable and has tremendous potential.

“It’s a really hot topic right now and could be a game changer for growers,” Zhang said. “The cool thing about biochar is that during the production process, there’s no carbon dioxide emission. So we can use biochar to mitigate drought for growers and slow down climate change because the carbon is locked in the biochar rather than releasing the carbon into the atmosphere.”

Researchers recommend a three-pronged approach: harvesting earlier for maximum yield, mulching and using irrigation systems. There appears agreement that climate change has shifted the harvest calendar substantially earlier, in some years as much as one month earlier than the historical harvest of mid-August. But when asked about the need or feasibility of installing irrigation systems starting at roughly $3,000 just for tubing, and potentially tens of thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of dollars, extra for pumps and wells, there are disagreements among researchers and growers — and at least one of Maine’s four Individual Quick Freezing (IQF) food processors.  

Wyman’s of Maine, headquartered in Millbridge — the state’s largest IQF processor — is one of the processors that grows its own wild blueberries and buys wild blueberries from independent growers, at the industry-wide price set in December or January, to flash freeze and sell under its brand. Although Wyman’s irrigates about 40 percent of its own fields, its lead agronomist, Bruce Hall, said he doesn’t attribute the company’s estimated 4,000-pounds-per-acre bumper crop this year to irrigation.

“Irrigation is not a fixer for a bad crop or for bad farming,” Hall said. “It’s imperative for growers of any size and scale to look themselves in the mirror and first ask what they can do differently before asking for large capital dollars to do irrigation projects. There are serious improvements that can be made simply by adopting modern techniques.”

But some UMaine researchers disagree. They say irrigation probably won’t be optional as climate change ramps up as expected. The challenge they say is making it affordable, providing funding assistance to growers that need it, and best case, finding alternative means through research to help soils retain moisture with less rainfall or more targeted irrigation.

“It’s a complex ecosystem, when one thing shifts it impacts the rest of the season or other things in the plants’ ability to grow,” said Calderwood, who conducts experiments at UMaine’s Blueberry Hill high-tech wild blueberry research farm in Jonesboro. “We can’t predict what’s going to happen. Growers just need to be prepared for everything.”

The Specialty Crop Block grants awarded in August augment millions of dollars in funding from other already awarded or pending grants from federal, state and non-governmental agencies, including the Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry; UMaine research funding; the Wild Blueberry Commission (an advocacy and lobbying arm of the wild blueberry industry funded with taxes from growers and processors); and the four major USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) financial assistance programs: Agricultural Management Assistance program (AMA), Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP), Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), and Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP). 

The Maine arm of the resource conservation service is also looking to the 2023 Farm Bill in Congress to possibly provide additional program funding opportunities, according to Thomas Kielbasa, the agency’s public affairs specialist in Maine. Kielbasa said that over the last three years, including 2022, the agency has provided nearly $40 million of financial assistance to Maine’s agriculture and forestry producers, including assistance for wild blueberry growers and processors. In addition to programs that offer potential cost-sharing assistance with irrigation, the agency offers wild blueberry producers assistance with conservation practices for plant productivity and pollinator concerns.

“Not all options may be practical or fiscally viable for all situations or clients,” Kielbasa said. “But even small steps taken toward addressing the challenges and vulnerabilities of climate change can make a difference.”

Long-time Blueberry Hill farm supervisor Dell Emerson of Wescogus Wild Blueberries in Addison is an 11th-generation farmer who runs the farm with his wife, Marie. She also runs Wild Blueberry Land, a Route 1 icon, museum, and wild blueberry emporium, and is a member of the Wild Blueberry Commission. With anxieties growing over competition, pricing — and now drought — the commission began holding listening sessions with wild blueberry growers this year. Drought tops their list of concerns. Dell Emerson sees climate change as a unique threat.

“The climate extremes are raising hell, especially for smaller growers, but they aren’t sure where to go for help,” he said.

Hanscom, who with Marie Emerson are the only women on the commission, said state and federal grant programs are confusing and not transparent. Hanscom moderated the Sept. 14 listening session, where other growers also expressed frustration.

“I’m someone who pays attention to things,” said Hanscom. “I tell them, don’t feel bad. If I don’t know how to do it, then there’s a problem.” 

The NRCS, one of the major grant administrators, could not immediately provide a breakdown of how much of its program funding went specifically to wild blueberry growers, or specifics of the cost-sharing program for projects such as irrigation, or how many growers have been helped. Kielbasa said they hope the NRCS’s awareness efforts will at least help get growers and processors to contact NRCS conservationists and see what might be available.  

Eric Venturini, the executive director of the Wild Blueberry Commission, said market conditions continue to strengthen, with demand for Maine wild blueberries up 78 percent over the last five years. He said the only challenge is keeping yields up to meet demand. Still, he said there’s more work needed on behalf of growers, including advocating for them with major funders such as the NRCS.

“I’m really hopeful that we can make those NRCS programs work even better, and make them more accessible, easier for folks to use and really less risky for folks, for irrigation in particular.”

Over the previous two years, the commission spent over $2.5 million for promotion, research and lobbying to secure more funding for growers at the state and federal level, including working to get state legislation passed this year to establish a $10 million per year fund for 10 years to assist growers with projects such as infrastructure and irrigation. But money to fund the legislation has not been approved.  

With climate change breathing at their backs, Hanscom and others fear many small wild blueberry growers, literally, can’t afford to wait. As for Welch Farm, Hanscom said she’ll carry on, no matter how hot it gets. But she worries about the legacy of Maine’s wild blueberries.

Adjusting the brim of her cap to block the sun, Hanscom grows somber, “Once it’s gone, then it’s gone completely and we’re going to lose part of our heritage, our culture.”

Joyce Kryszak is a veteran journalist living in Down East Maine. Before moving to Maine, her work as a public radio reporter and producer for NPR affiliate, WBFO, in Buffalo earned her an Edward R. Murrow Regional Award and many Associated Press awards for in-depth reporting on government, social justice, cultural affairs, and the environment. She also reported for the national desk of NPR, Voice of America, New England News Collaborative, The Environment Report, Buffalo News, and others.

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Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Produced from Lignin–Rich Biorefinery Residue

2 October, 2022
 

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Grottola, C.M.; Giudicianni, P.; Stanzione, F.; Ragucci, R. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Produced from Lignin–Rich Biorefinery Residue. ChemEngineering 2022, 6, 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6050076

Grottola CM, Giudicianni P, Stanzione F, Ragucci R. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Produced from Lignin–Rich Biorefinery Residue. ChemEngineering. 2022; 6(5):76. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6050076

Grottola, Corinna Maria, Paola Giudicianni, Fernando Stanzione, and Raffaele Ragucci. 2022. “Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Produced from Lignin–Rich Biorefinery Residue” ChemEngineering 6, no. 5: 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering6050076

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Who are the key players in the Shower Screens market? – Spooool.ie

2 October, 2022
 

Shower Screens Market is projected to grow to Multimillion by 2026 from USD million in 2021, at a Impressive CAGR during the forecast period. The demand for Shower Screens is driven by the growing demand and increasing adoption rate of systems such as Household, Commercial

Companies covered in the Shower Screens Market :

Majesctic Showers, KERMI, DreamLine, Matki showering, DUKA, Roman, San Swiss, Megius SpA, COLACRIL, NOVELLINI, ROCA, Calibe, Twyford Bathrooms

The worldwide market for Shower Screens is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly xx% over the next five years, will reach xx million US$ in 2024, from xx million US$ in 2019

This report focuses on the Shower Screens in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Global Shower Screens Market 2019 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2024

Segmentation by Type : Swing, Sliding , Other

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Global Pisco Market Growth In 2022-2028

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https://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/karl-fischer-titrators-market-size-in-2022-by-fastest-growing-companies-metrohm-mettler-toledo-hach-lange-with-top-countries-data-new-report-spreads-in-119-pages-2

Global PSP System Market Growth In 2022-2028

Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Growth In 2022-2028

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Application of biochar for emerging contaminant mitigation – Science hub Mutual Aid community

2 October, 2022
 

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2 October, 2022
 

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Designer Biochar Assisted Bioremediation of Industrial Effluents A Low-Cost Sustainable …

2 October, 2022
 

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Retort carbonization of bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) waste for thermal energy recovery

3 October, 2022
 

Production of biochar from bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) is a potential route to recover thermal energy from biomass. This study presents a preliminary investigation into the thermochemical conversion of bamboo stalks to biochar as a means of recovering energy and material from the waste biomass. At a high temperature of 340 °C, a biochar yield of 38 wt% was obtained using a top-lit updraft reactor that uses a retort heating system. Typical characterization of the biochar showed the development of a highly porous structure with a surface area of 327 m2/g, indicating the biochars’ potential for nutrient recovery and pollutant removal. Thermo-gravimetric analysis reveals a gradual decomposition of the lignocellulosic content as the temperature increases. The significance of the study is in the production of high-quality biochar with desirable qualities using a low-cost self-regulating piece of equipment that is suitable for both remote and on-field application. We recommend the co-carbonization of the bamboo stalks with other sources for complete utilization of their potential.

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Scanning electron microscopy

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

Thermo-gravimetric analysis

Differential thermal analysis

Brunauer–Emmett–Teller

Barrett, Joyner, and Halenda

There was no external funding for the study.

Correspondence to Adewale George Adeniyi.

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

This article does not contain any studies involving human or animal subjects.

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Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Received: 06 May 2022

Accepted: 22 September 2022

Published: 03 October 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-022-02415-w

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Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation Par …

3 October, 2022
 


Massive Growth of Fine Biochar Powder Market by 2029 – The Nelson Post

3 October, 2022
 

New Jersey (United States) – A2Z Market Research published new research on Global Fine Biochar Powder covering the micro-level of analysis by competitors and key business segments (2022-2029). The Global Fine Biochar Powder explores a comprehensive study on various components like opportunities, size, development, innovation, sales, and overall growth of major players. The research is carried out on primary and secondary statistics sources and consists of qualitative and quantitative detailing.

Some of the Major Key players profiled in the study are BioChar Products, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Carbon Terra, The Biochar Company, Diacarbon Energy, Kina, Carbon Gold, BlackCarbon, ElementC6, Biochar Now, Cool Planet, Agri-Tech Producers

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Various factors are responsible for the market’s growth trajectory, which are studied at length in the report. In addition, the report lists down the restraints that are posing a threat to the global Fine Biochar Powder market. This report consolidates primary and secondary research, which provides market size, share, dynamics, and forecast for various segments and sub-segments considering the macro and micro environmental factors. It also gauges the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers, the threat from new entrants and product substitutes, and the degree of competition prevailing in the market.

The global Fine Biochar Powder Market research report delivers a comprehensive analysis of market size, market trends, and market growth prospects. This report also provides extensive information on the technology expenditure for the forecast period, which gives a unique view of the global Fine Biochar Powder Market across numerous segments. The global Fine Biochar Powder market report also allows consumers recognize market prospects and challenges.

Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Segmentation:

Market Segmentation: By Type

Wood Source Biochar, Corn  Source Biochar, Wheat  Source Biochar, Others

Market Segmentation: By Application

Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

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Executive Summary: It covers a summary of the most vital studies, the Global Fine Biochar Powder market increasing rate, modest circumstances, market trends, drivers and problems as well as macroscopic pointers.

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Company Profile: Each Firm well-defined in this segment is screened based on a products, value, SWOT analysis, their ability and other significant features.

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The cost analysis of the Global Fine Biochar Powder Market has been performed while considering manufacturing expenses, labor cost, and raw materials and their market concentration rate, suppliers, and price trend. Other factors such as Supply chain, downstream buyers, and sourcing strategy have been assessed to provide a complete and in-depth view of the market. Buyers of the report will also be exposed to a study on market positioning with factors such as target client, brand strategy, and price strategy considered.

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Table of Contents

Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Research Report 2022 – 2029

Chapter 1 Fine Biochar Powder Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry

Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers

Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region

Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions

Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy, and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Forecast

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Business of Biochar: Turning agricultural waste into soil improver – WorldNews – WN.com

3 October, 2022
 

Monday, 3 October 2022


VERDE RESOURCES, INC. Completion of Acquisition or Disposition of Assets (form 8-K/A)

3 October, 2022
 

Item 2.01 Completion of Acquisition or Disposition of Assets.

On February 10, 2022, Verde Resources, Inc. (the “Company”), through Verde Estates LLC, a Missouri limited liability company (“VEL”), which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Verde Renewables, Inc., entered into a Commercial Lease Agreement and Option to Purchase (the “Lease Agreement”) to rent a 24-acre property in La Belle Missouri (the “Property”) from Jon Neal Simmons and Betty Jo Simmon (the “Landlord”) in order to kickstart carbon farming with biochar in Missouri. The entry, by the Company through VEL, into the Lease Agreement was first reported by the Company, via Form 8-K, on February 15, 2022.

On September 27, 2022, the Company, through VEL exercised its exclusive right and option to purchase Property for a total consideration of five hundred thousand dollar ($500,000). The Company paid to the Landlord a security deposit in the sum of two hundred forty thousand dollars ($240,000) prior to the execution of the Lease Agreement. The Company paid the balance of the sum of two hundred sixty thousand dollars ($260,000) at the closing of the purchase of the Property.

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US cities are recycling trees and poop to make compostFGN News

3 October, 2022
 

FreshGoogleNews News,

American trees are in trouble. Recent estimates suggest that as many as one in six species native to the continental United States are at risk of extinction due to growing threats such as invasive species, disease, climate change, logging, and wildfires. forest. Metropolitan areas, meanwhile, lose 36 million trees every year, according to a 2018 study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

This loss of urban trees is a particular problem. They are an essential part of the green infrastructure of American cities. Without the cooling effect of foliage, a city’s sprawling concrete and asphalt can turn into an urban island of deadly heat, made worse by global warming, which then forces buildings to use more energy to stay cool. costs. Trees also reduce air pollution and sequester carbon. The Forest Service estimates the annual cost of urban tree loss at $96 million.

But there is a way to attack this problem on multiple fronts, using dumped waste – trees and people – that would otherwise be sent to landfill.

New analysis from Yale University suggests that dry urban tree waste in the United States (leaves, cuttings, etc.) could be diverted from landfills or incinerators, where much of it still ends up, and reused to make grow new trees. , reduce logging and reduce carbon emissions. It’s a potentially huge resource: American cities generate more than 45 million tons of tree waste every year.

“It’s not a new idea, it just takes money and the will of city officials to be more sustainable,” says Pete Smith, urban forestry program manager at the nonprofit Arbor Day Foundation. tree planting nonprofit. Reusing and recycling urban wood is already becoming a growing focus for cities, he says.

The Yale researchers, led by Yuan Yao of the university’s Center for Industrial Ecology, calculated that converting leaves into compost, wood into chips and lumber, and leftover tree residue into a A charcoal-like substance called biochar, can benefit the environment on many levels. . “These products can substitute for virgin materials such as fertilizers, and thus reduce the associated environmental impacts,” write the authors. Recycling felled tree wood for lumber can also store carbon in the long term and reduce logging. Biochar, on the other hand, can be used to improve aeration, water storage and nutrient retention in soils.

According to the authors, recycling the country’s urban tree waste would also significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases escaping from landfills. They calculated that the savings could be equivalent to 28% of total US agricultural emissions.

One of the products created by recycling, compost, can then be repurposed specifically to address the problem of urban tree loss. For trees, mulch and compost mimic forest soil and help the soil around their roots retain water and nutrients, which is essential in urban settings where trees may be exposed to harsh conditions. hotter, drier and more stressful growth. For example, while trees planted along city highways can help increase urban canopy cover, road construction can cause soil compaction and loss of topsoil, causing deadly stress for young people. trees planted along the road. A 2020 study showed that roadside trees had a significant survival advantage when the soil around them included 25% organic compost made from food and yard waste.

And tree waste isn’t the only unwanted product that can be used to make this compost. Cities could also feed their trees with a little help from their human inhabitants: by recycling their poo.

.


Can growing edible crops in reused substrate help to lessen the impact of escalating costs?

3 October, 2022
 

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California Water Woes Continue and USDA Fertilizer Funding – 1280 NewsTalk KIT

3 October, 2022
 

**California’s bleak 2021-22 water year officially ended September 30, without much hope for a better year ahead.

The California Department of Water Resources says another parched year may be in the works thanks to a continuing La Niña atmospheric phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean, which generally means warmer, drier conditions.

Last week, Lake Shasta, the largest Central Valley reservoir, stood at 59% of its historic average, less-than-promising news for farmers.

**A new federal grant program seeks to increase American-made fertilizer production. Ag Secretary Tom Vilsack announced the $500 million in grants, intended to spur competition in the fertilizer sector and combat price hikes on U.S. farmers.

The Fertilizer Production Expansion Program is part of a government-wide effort to promote competition in agricultural markets.

The Commodity Credit Corporation grants will support independent, innovative and sustainable American fertilizer production to supply American farmers.

**Ending the 14-week stretch of declining gas prices, the nation's average gas price posted a rise of 3.2 cents from a week ago to $3.67 per gallon.

The national average is down 17.5 cents from a month ago but 49.3 cents higher than a year ago.

But the national average diesel price went down 5.1 cents over the last week and now stands at $4.88 per gallon.


Can Used Coffee Grounds be Used for Fuel? – AZoM

3 October, 2022
 

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In an article recently published in the open-access journal Materials, researchers discussed the utility of used coffee grounds as an alternative fuel and potential soil amendment.

Study: Use of Spent Coffee Ground as an Alternative Fuel and Possible Soil Amendment. Image Credit: Nor Gal/Shutterstock.com

Today, coffee is the most popular beverage and the second most traded commodity behind gasoline. Six and a half megatons of spent coffee grounds (SCG) are produced globally each year from 1 ton of green coffee. SCG is also a possible source for the production of biodiesel, fuel pellets, and as a fuel for commercial boilers.

Torrefaction makes it simple to transform SCG into a high-value fuel product. A sensible strategy for waste management and greenhouse gas mitigation in the fight against climate change is the creation of biochar from biomass feedstocks. For SCG, whose global production is continuously rising, the potential use of the generated leftovers for the production of high-value-added chemicals or fuels using pyrolysis results in an appealing and difficult solution.

Coffee proximate and ultimate analysis. Image Credit: Jeníček, L et al., Materials

Biomass torrefaction may make it possible to use sustainable fuels in coal power without the need for new equipment. Although SCGs have a lesser energy potential than fossil fuels, they have a higher energy content than other biomasses. The majority of research has discovered that adding biochar enhances soil fertility, boosts agricultural yields, lowers greenhouse gas emissions, and builds soil carbon stocks.

However, pyrolysis parameters like feedstock type and temperature affect the chemical and physical properties of biochar. To be safe, biochar used in soil applications needs to meet specific requirements. Research on SCG and torrefaction has been extensively studied, but to date, no study has combined an in-depth examination of SCG torrefied on various heat levels for use as a fuel and soil amendment.

In this study, the authors subjected the torrefied spent coffee grounds to ultimate, proximate, and stochiometric examination. A substance with a high carbon content of over 50% and a high calorific value of more than 20 MJ kg-1 was used to make used coffee grounds. The material's characteristics were enhanced via torrefaction, which increased its calorific value to 32 MJ kg-1. The cress test was used to determine the aqueous extract's phytotoxicity.

The team demonstrated that the samples that were not tormented and those that were heated to 250 °C were the most hazardous. Due to the remaining tannins, caffeine, and sulfur released from the sample heated to 250 °C, the germination of the cress seeds was negatively impacted. Of all the examined samples, the sample heated to 350 °C performed the best. As the germination index was greater than 50%, the sample heated to 350 °C could be applied to soil and utilized as an alternative fuel with a net calorific value comparable to fossil fuels.

Mass flow of fuel fed into the combustion chamber to reach the combustion heat output (kW). Image Credit: Jeníček, L et al., Materials

The researchers assessed the usability of SCG and its biochar as an alternative to direct combustion or as a soil amendment to mimic the combustibility and germination characteristics of other materials. Each sample had a preliminary and final analysis through the measurement of its water and ash content, combustion heat, and elemental composition. The thermogravimetric analyzer was used to calculate the moisture and ash content. With the use of an isoperibolic calorimeter, combustion heat was detected. The substance was placed in stainless steel cups, and cotton thread was utilized for ignition. 0.1 g sample of each sample was burned in oxygen at 950 °C to obtain the C, H, and N values.

When compared to the control, the SCG350 sample's germination index content increased by 11%. Compared to biochar produced at a temperature of 250 °C, biochar that was produced at a higher temperature in the range of 350–550 °C had fewer phytotoxic effects. Out of all the materials examined, SCG350 displayed the highest net calorific value, up to 32 MJ kg-1, with no moisture present. The SCG0 sample had the lowest net calorific value, 21 MJ kg-1, and no moisture. The calorific value incremented from 19.74 MJ kg-1 for SCG0 to 31.26 MJ kg-1 for SCG350. The ash proposition incremented from 1.59% wt for SCG0 to 6.95% wt for SCG550. The nitrogen share increased from 2.21% wt. for SCG0 to 4.41% wt. for SCG450.

The characteristics of used coffee grounds demonstrated the material's potential for use as a biofuel, with an average net calorific value of 20 MJ kg-1, which was comparable to the calorific value of other biofuels. The net calorific value of biochar made from used coffee grounds and torrefied for 60 minutes at 350 °C increased to 32 MJ kg-1. At this level, coal acquired about 23–28 MJ kg-1 in net calorific value, which made it even equivalent to fossil fuels.

According to the results of the phytotoxicity test, both the non-torrefied and the 250 °C-torrefied SCG samples were poisonous and should not be used as soil amendments. Higher heat treatment temperatures degraded several naturally occurring compounds that could prevent seed germination. The sample that was heated to 350 °C could be used to improve the soil. The phytotoxicity test exhibited the best germination values.

Phytotoxicity effect of SCG aqueous extracts on the germination of Lepidium sativum L. seeds after 48 h. Data are expressed as means of five independent bioassays (five replicates for each concentration (aqueous extracts) per bioassay) ± SE. Different letters (a–d) indicate significant differences between treatment effects when compared to the control (ANOVA, Tukey test, p < 0.05). Image Credit: Jeníček, L et al., Materials

In conclusion, this study discussed the features of used coffee grounds by the results of proximate, ultimate, and stochiometric analysis. The only variation that could be quantified was the ash content, which was around 20% more than the earlier reported values.

The authors mentioned that additional research is required to determine whether used coffee grounds could be used as a coal additive or as a coal substitute in coal-fired power plants without requiring any modifications to the plant.

Jeníček, L., Tunklová, B., Malaťák, J., et al. Use of Spent Coffee Ground as an Alternative Fuel and Possible Soil Amendment. Materials, 15(19), 6722 (2022). https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/15/19/6722

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Surbhi Jain is a freelance Technical writer based in Delhi, India. She holds a Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Delhi and has participated in several scientific, cultural, and sports events. Her academic background is in Material Science research with a specialization in the development of optical devices and sensors. She has extensive experience in content writing, editing, experimental data analysis, and project management and has published 7 research papers in Scopus-indexed journals and filed 2 Indian patents based on her research work. She is passionate about reading, writing, research, and technology, and enjoys cooking, acting, gardening, and sports.

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Insights into the removal of Cr(VI) by a biochar–iron composite from aqueous solution

3 October, 2022
 

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Ultrasonic Parts Cleaners Market 2022 In-Depth Analysis, Latest Trends, Opportunities and …

3 October, 2022
 

The newly added research report entitled Global Ultrasonic Parts Cleaners Market from 2022 to 2028 carries-out an assessment gauging into factors such as vendor landscape with references of competitors, their market positions as well as revenue generation status. The report analyzes the general market conditions and demand, costing, market insights. The report delivers a complete overview of segments and the regional outlook of the market. It shows comprehensive insights on the latest industry trends, forecast, and growth drivers in the market.

The report also focuses on comprehensive market revenue streams along with growth patterns, analytics focused on market trends, and the overall volume of the market. It mainly explores the recent trends, and development status of the global Ultrasonic Parts Cleaners market as well as market dynamics including drivers, restraints, opportunities, supply chain.The report covers all the trends and technologies that has a key role in the expansion of the market throughout the forecast period.

DOWNLOAD FREE SAMPLE REPORT: https://www.marketsandresearch.biz/sample-request/314727

Market segment by type, the product can be split into:

Market segment by application, split into:

The market coverage report also incorporates the top-down data regarding the major manufacturers of the market competing with each other as well as project production in terms of value, the volume of offers, demand, and quality of services and products. The global Ultrasonic Parts Cleaners research report widely provides the market share, development rate, trends, and estimates for the period 2022-2028.

The market research report then predicts the size of the global Ultrasonic Parts Cleaners market with respect to the information on key merchant revenues, development of the industry by upstream and downstream, industry progress, key companies, along with market segments and application.

The market report covers major market players like:

The report covers an extensive regional analysis and market estimation in each region and covers key geographical regions such as:

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Additionally, important contents analyzed and discussed in the report include current & future development trends of the market, business development, and consumption tendencies. The main countries in each region are analyzed in detailed in this report.


Biochar Ideas | The Survival Gardener

3 October, 2022
 

Joe D shares some biochar ideas:

Several times when I heard the college kids talk about biochar they mentioned charcoal made under no oxygen. It made me think if you burned then covered it with off the place manure. It would burn off the weed seeds and possibly even chemicals.

I think I’d personally even throw a good layer of remnants, from the local butcher, on top of the burn pile before lighting it. I’d even put another thin layer of remnants on top of the charcoal manure.

Put a thin layer of clay over those animal parts then soak the ground with a strong local fungus tea.

Or possibly even a layer of wood chips instead of the clay

After which a guy would line large round bales, that were sitting on the bales flat end. I would probably line different bales next to each other, such as a corn stalk bale, alfalfa and a switch grass bale.

After you had the bales lined up you would take from the on ranch or farm waste manure pile and cover the bales up.

I’d spray more of that tea on it to stimulate the microbes as well as putting a cover crop seed alfalfa or sainfoin.

Probably all summer, if you got rain (hopefully you get rain), continue topping off the tops of the bales as the manure soaks in. As well as continuing to spray with tea before the rains and after you put new manure on. Keep adding to that positive seed bank cover crop because weeds will be going crazy on top of it.

By the end of the summer I would imagine that the bales internal temp would have cooled down. Whenever them temperatures get cooled off add worms. I’d put all varieties of worms in as long as they wouldn’t have the potential to become invasive.

You’d have to keep adding hay and stuff to it as it consumed it. Keep doing it till you had a great alfalfa patch.

With that base you could start other spots.

I just plan on filling holes on meadows with this method. After the alfalfa has been going for a few years you could mine it, I suppose.

Realistically you could probably (once the worms were going) bury anything in that and it would consume it. As long as whatever went in was inoculated with tea. If you were burying a cow you’d want her 12 feet deep or better I would imagine, the key would be to put a layer of charcoal underneath whatever you buried.

You need the charcoal to absorb any possible run off. This idea goes for producers and feedlots. There should be a layer of charcoal between ground and any manure piles. It would be absorbing and charging that carbon or charcoal.

Possibly those old terra preta soils could of been giant compost or even dumps of organic consumable materials.

It’s possible.

Though there are some strange elements to terra preta, such as its apparent ability to regenerate itself from the native soil, but that could be the result of having been cultured with some strains of fungi or bacteria, rather like kefir.

I went back to my terra preta bed a month ago and dug into it to see how the soil looked. We filmed it, but the audio was not working so the video never got posted.

What I found was not encouraging. The soil had not darkened as I had hoped. I may have to grind the next batch of char rather than just smashing it up a bit. It did grow the first round of tomatoes very nicely, but that could have just been due to all the minerals in the ground. The second planting did poorly. I believe the minerals may have partially leached out or been consumed by the tomatoes, plus the bed had been completely invaded by tree roots. Without the trees next to the bed, we may have seen different results. The oak obviously loved the fertility and probably choked out the next plantings.

Joe’s ideas would certainly make the ground rich for a time, but the long-term effects are still unknown. More experimentation is needed!

Also, watch out for hay bales and manure.

Next time I build a terra preta test bed – probably during this fall or winter – I will put it far away from trees!

It’s possible that the original terra preta piles were simply dumping grounds for waste originally, but there was a LOT of material in there, and they kept their fertility far longer than seems reasonable, hence my microbial culture hypothesis. It could be that the cultures there are not in our soils. One thing that could be done would be to use some actual terra preta from one of these sites as a starter for a new batch, via seeding it into a newly created clay/fired pottery/meat and bone scraps/manure burn pit, then to see if it starts to spread and transform the surrounding soil.

I have often thought about inoculating with the real terra preta. It is not currently available for import (and probably not sustainably if it was available). But the farmers in South America do dig it up to use on their farms.

I have also thought that the same could be done for any composts and it would be really cool to have a “compost exchange” where everyone trades a little bit of their compost.
Then you would be inoculating compost piles and possibly gaining new and different fungi, bacteria, and microorganisms that were previously not found in your pile.

Yes, I think so too. I actually plan to get dirt from different locations to add to my own soil in the long-term gardens.

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Biochar Market to Witness Astonishing Growth by 2029 | Phoenix Energy, Carbon Gold Ltd …

3 October, 2022
 

New Jersey (United States) – A2Z Market Research published new research on Global Biochar covering the micro-level of analysis by competitors and key business segments (2022-2029). The Global Biochar explores a comprehensive study on various components like opportunities, size, development, innovation, sales, and overall growth of major players. The research is carried out on primary and secondary statistics sources and consists of qualitative and quantitative detailing.

Some of the Major Key players profiled in the study are Phoenix Energy, Carbon Gold Ltd, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc., Biochar Supreme, LLC, Vega Biofuels, Inc., Carbon Terra GmbH, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, ArSta Eco, PYREG GmbH, Sonnenerde, BlackCarbon A/S, Pacific Pyrolysis, Biochar Products, Inc.

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Various factors are responsible for the market’s growth trajectory, which are studied at length in the report. In addition, the report lists down the restraints that are posing a threat to the global Biochar market. This report consolidates primary and secondary research, which provides market size, share, dynamics, and forecast for various segments and sub-segments considering the macro and micro environmental factors. It also gauges the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers, the threat from new entrants and product substitutes, and the degree of competition prevailing in the market.

The global Biochar Market research report delivers a comprehensive analysis of market size, market trends, and market growth prospects. This report also provides extensive information on the technology expenditure for the forecast period, which gives a unique view of the global Biochar Market across numerous segments. The global Biochar market report also allows consumers recognize market prospects and challenges.

Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

Market Segmentation: By Type

Agriculture Waste, Forestry Waste, Animal Manure, Biomass Plantation

Market Segmentation: By Application

Gardening, Agriculture, Household

Key market aspects are illuminated in the report:

Executive Summary: It covers a summary of the most vital studies, the Global Biochar market increasing rate, modest circumstances, market trends, drivers and problems as well as macroscopic pointers.

Study Analysis: Covers major companies, vital market segments, the scope of the products offered in the Global Biochar market, the years measured, and the study points.

Company Profile: Each Firm well-defined in this segment is screened based on a products, value, SWOT analysis, their ability and other significant features.

Manufacture by region: This Global Biochar report offers data on imports and exports, sales, production and key companies in all studied regional markets

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The cost analysis of the Global Biochar Market has been performed while considering manufacturing expenses, labor cost, and raw materials and their market concentration rate, suppliers, and price trend. Other factors such as Supply chain, downstream buyers, and sourcing strategy have been assessed to provide a complete and in-depth view of the market. Buyers of the report will also be exposed to a study on market positioning with factors such as target client, brand strategy, and price strategy considered.

Highlighting points of Global Biochar Market Report:

Table of Contents

Global Biochar Market Research Report 2022 – 2029

Chapter 1 Biochar Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry

Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers

Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region

Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions

Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy, and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Global Biochar Market Forecast

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Pyrolysis Oil Market Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 2021-2031

3 October, 2022
 

By

Published

Pyrolysis Oil Market: Introduction

Transparency Market Research delivers key insights on the global pyrolysis oil market. In terms of revenue, the global pyrolysis oil market  is estimated to expand at a CAGR of 4% during the forecast period, owing to numerous factors, regarding which TMR offers thorough insights and forecast in its report on the global pyrolysis oil market.

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The global pyrolysis oil market has been positively impacted by rise in the production of plastics, coatings, lubricants & solvents, and pharmaceuticals across the globe.

Pyrolysis Oil Market: Dynamics

The global consumption of crude oil has increased significantly in the past few years. As per the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2021, global crude oil consumption stood at 91.3 million barrels, daily, in 2020. Of this, Asia Pacific accounted for 37.5% of the total global crude oil consumption. Strong growth of economies and rise in population have led to an increase in the consumption of crude oil. Rise in infrastructure development activities significantly propels the demand for crude oil all across the world.

The increase in crude oil consumption has raised the need for fossil fuel import due to mismatch between demand and supply. For instance, in 2020, oil production in Asia Pacific stood at 7.4 million barrels per day, while oil consumption stood at 34.22 million barrels per day. This has created demand for import of fossil fuel.

Several efforts have been made by researchers in terms of development of sustainable technology for production of crude oil in order to reduce the mismatch between demand and supply.

The ability of the pyrolysis technology to transform non-recycled plastic, tires, and biomass into oil and fuel, which can be used as feedstock in olefin crackers or as transportation fuel, is making its adoption viable across regions. This, in turn, is boosting the market.

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Pyrolysis Oil Market: Prominent Regions

In terms of value, Asia Pacific dominated the global pyrolysis oil market in 2020. It has emerged as a highly lucrative region of the global pyrolysis oil market in the past few decades. China held a major share of the pyrolysis oil market in Asia Pacific in 2020. The expansion of the market in the country can be ascribed to continuous urbanization and industrialization. According to a report by the National Academy of Economic Strategy under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China is expected to witness an urbanization ratio of 70% by 2035. Thus, demand for energy is expected to rise in the near future, which in turn would lead to higher demand for pyrolysis oil in China during the forecast period.

Europe was another lucrative region of the global pyrolysis oil market in 2020. Supportive government policies toward business sustainability programs, intense volatility in crude oil prices, and usage of eco-friendly products are major factors boosting the demand for pyrolysis oil in the region. Furthermore, increase in focus on enhancing the utilization of renewable energy sources is anticipated to propel the pyrolysis oil market in Europe during the forecast period.

North America also accounts for key share of the global pyrolysis oil market. This trend is expected to continue during the forecast period, due to increase in demand for pyrolysis oil in several applications such as building & construction, automobile, and other industries for heat and power generation. The U.S. is expected to dominate the North America pyrolysis oil market during the forecast period due to increase in investment in the pyrolysis oil industry.

Pyrolysis Oil Market: Key Players

Key players operating in the global pyrolysis oil market are Agilyx, Inc., Alterra Energy, Plastic2Oil Inc. , Nexus Fuels, Plastic Advanced Recycling Corporation, Brightmark LLC., OMV Aktiengesellschaft , Niutech, Agile Process Chemicals LLP, Klean Industries Inc., BTG Biomass Technology Group, Trident Fuels (Pty) Ltd, Pyro-Oil Nig. Ltd., and Setra.

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Global Pyrolysis Oil Market: Segmentation

Pyrolysis Oil Market, by Feedstock

Pyrolysis Oil Market, by Process

Pyrolysis Oil Market, by Fuel

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Carbon insurer Kita announce partnership with Puro.earth marketplace

3 October, 2022
 

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Puro.earth and Kita announce partnership to make carbon insurance available for biochar projects via the Puro.earth marketplace in 2023, reducing transaction risk and accelerating upfront financing. 

Nasdaq majority-owned Puro.earth, the world’s first standard, registry and B2B marketplace focused solely on carbon removals, and Kita Earth Limited, the carbon insurer for the climate crisis, are partnering to make Kita’s Carbon Purchase protection insurance available for biochar carbon credit purchases via the Puro.earth marketplace from next year.

This partnership is the result of a 4-month working group between Puro.earth and Kita. They were assisted by GECA Environment, the internationally recognized consulting firm in biochar and pyrolysis. As technical expert, GECA contributed in assessing and pricing the risks of biochar carbon credit pre-purchases and potential for under-delivery. 

“Engineered carbon removal is an innovative space which needs to reach its full potential fast. While we help lift impediments for suppliers, we also work hard to mitigate non-delivery risks for our buyers. The creation of an insurance product against this represents a tremendous opportunity to accelerate the growth of a supply constrained market. More buyers will now be able to offer prepayments to suppliers, filling some real funding gaps. De-risking transactions will scale the supply of quality carbon removal to meet the fast-growing demand. The inclusion in the value chain of this insurance has the potential to unleash a remarkable climate impact.” said Arnaud Defrance, VP Funding Solutions at Puro.earth.

“Puro.earth, GECA and Kita all share the same goal – scaling the Carbon Dioxide Removal industry to right the climate crisis. Our working group with Puro.earth and GECA was instrumental in helping assess the key risks our insurance needed to cover for biochar carbon delivery risk.  We are excited by this next stage of partnership – the scale of Puro.earth’s marketplace means we can create positive climate impact faster, de-risking forward purchases to support suppliers and buyers alike in meeting their climate targets,” said Natalia Dorfman, CEO of Kita. 

“As expert in biochar, biochar carbon removal and pyrolysis, we are delighted that Kita is focused on developing insurance for the growing biochar carbon credit space. We see Kita’s product as instrumental to solidify stakeholder trust in the market and increase the level of investment in engineered carbon removal solutions. With this insurance product, buyers should feel more confident executing prepayments and long-term offtakes, key components to catalyze an industry-wide scale-up.  We look forward to further collaboration with Kita and Puro.earth to expand the range of insurance products available for biochar projects,” said Melissa Leung, Director of Business Development and Carbon, GECA Environment. 

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Global Biochar Market to Reach $2.16 Billion by 2027 from $521.3 Million in 2021

3 October, 2022
 

Dublin, IRELAND

Dublin, Oct. 03, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — The “Global Biochar Market Report and Forecast 2022-2027” report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com’s offering.

According to the report provided, the global biochar market attained a value USD 521.3 million in 2021.The market growth is driven by the rising environmental concerns, and the market is projected to further grow during the forecast period of 2022 and 2027 to reach a value of USD 2,167.8 million by 2027.

Biochar is a charcoal-like substance that is made of carbon and ashes, which are obtained through the combustion of organic waste materials from agriculture and forest such as wood chips or manure. They are usually utilised to improve water quality, reduce soil acidity, reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from the soil, among other applications.

The global biochar market is widely recognised by regulatory organisations, scientists, and policymakers as a sustainable method for improving soil health. It can help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing carbon sequestration, and waste mitigation, among many other benefits. Applying biochar on a frequent basis can help the soil improve its nutrient dynamics, soil contaminants, and the functions of microorganisms in the soil.

Governments of many countries are increasing their effort to implement the use of eco-friendly materials in the agricultural industry as environmental awareness rises around the world. Farmers have also been utilizing biochar for livestock feed as a treatment to improve their health . It also helps the animal to absorb proper nutrients while the biochar absorbs the toxins and increases productivity.

However, the COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the global biochar marke t. The biochar market is heavily reliant on the agriculture and construction industry, and the restrictions imposed by the government to contain the pandemic halted the industries. The equipment required for the process of making biochar is also very costly, which hinders the manufacturers from making more investments.

Market Segmentation

The market can be divided on the basis of application, technology, and major regions.

Based on application, the global biochar market can be segmented into the following:

Based on its technology, the global biochar market can be divided into:

Market Breakup by Region

Key Topics Covered:

1 Preface

2 Report Coverage – Key Segmentation and Scope

3 Report Description

4 Key Assumptions

5 Executive Summary

6 Market Snapshot

7 Industry Opportunities and Challenges

8 Global Biochar Market Analysis

9 Market Dynamics

10 Value Chain Analysis

11 Price Analysis

12 Competitive Landscape

13 Industry Events and Developments

Companies Mentioned

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/ci9hy4


Increasing Demand of Granular Biochar Market by 2029 | Kina, Carbon Gold, Diacarbon Energy

3 October, 2022
 

California (United States) – Granular Biochar Market research is an intelligence report with meticulous efforts to study the right and valuable information. The data that has been looked upon is done considering the existing top players and the upcoming competitors. Business strategies of the key players and the new entering market industries are studied in detail. Well-explained SWOT analysis, revenue share, and contact information are shared in this report analysis.

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Some of the Top companies Influencing this Market include:

Kina, Carbon Gold, Diacarbon Energy, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra, Swiss Biochar GmbH, BlackCarbon, Biochar Now, BioChar Products, Agri-Tech Producers, ElementC6, The Biochar Company.

Various factors are responsible for the market’s growth trajectory, which are studied at length in the report. In addition, the report lists the restraints that are posing a threat to the global Granular Biochar market. This report consolidates primary and secondary research, which provides market size, share, dynamics, and forecast for various segments and sub-segments considering the macro and micro environmental factors. It also gauges the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers, the threat from new entrants and product substitutes, and the degree of competition prevailing in the market.

Global Granular Biochar Market Segmentation:

Market Segmentation: By Type

Wood Source Biochar, Corn  Source Biochar, Wheat  Source Biochar, Others

Market Segmentation: By Application

Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

The report provides insights on the following pointers:

Market Penetration: Comprehensive data on the product portfolios of the top players in the Granular Biochar market.

Product Development/Innovation: Detailed information about upcoming technologies, R&D activities, and market product debuts.

Competitive Assessment: An in-depth analysis of the market’s top companies’ market strategies, as well as their geographic and business segments.

Market Development: Information on developing markets in their entirety. This study examines the market in several geographies for various segments.

Market Diversification: Extensive data on new goods, untapped geographies, recent advancements, and investment opportunities in the Granular Biochar market.

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Global Granular Biochar market Report Scope:

The cost analysis of the Global Granular Biochar Market has been performed while considering manufacturing expenses, labor cost, and raw materials and their market concentration rate, suppliers, and price trend. Other factors such as Supply chain, downstream buyers, and sourcing strategy have been assessed to provide a complete and in-depth view of the market. Buyers of the report will also be exposed to a study on market positioning with factors such as target client, brand strategy, and price strategy considered.

Key questions answered in this report:

Table of Contents

Global Granular Biochar Market Research Report 2022 – 2029

Chapter 1 Granular Biochar Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry

Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers

Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region

Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions

Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy, and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Global Granular Biochar Market Forecast

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Remediation via biochar and potential health risk of heavy metal contaminated soils

4 October, 2022
 

The serious damage to human health caused by soil heavy metals (HMs) pollution has always been a major problem in the field of public health. Although HMs pollution of soils has been efficiently remediated using biochar, the potential specific human health risks and their pathogeny during production and application are not known. The review provides a comprehensive summary of the current status, sources, and human health hazards of HMs contaminated soils; the physicochemical properties of biochar and its effects on the bioavailability of soil HMs; and the mechanisms and potential human health risks in using biochar for soil remediation. The results show that the interaction mechanisms between the biochar and soil HMs depend on the feedstock of biochar and pyrolysis temperature; biochar applications can directly or indirectly affect the bioavailability of HMs; several potential specific health risks such as dust pneumoconiosis, cytotoxicity, and respiratory diseases may be caused in the processes of biochar preparation and soil HMs remediation; additional recommendations are proposed for future research in areas, where significant knowledge gaps exist. This information can provide a meaningful reference for health management departments to formulate soil health prevention strategies.

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The data sets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

This study was supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB40020201), the Science and Technology Program of Guizhou Province [(2021)187, ZK(2022)047], the Science and Technology Project of the Guizhou Company of the China Tobacco Corporation (2020XM08), the Key Research and Development Program of the China Tobacco Corporation (110202102038), the Chinese Academy of Sciences “Light of West China” Program, the High-level Innovative Talents Training Program of Guizhou Province (100 levels) (2020[6020]), and the Opening Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry (SKLEG2022204). We thank LetPub (http://www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.

Study conception and design: WH, YT, and JC. Acquisition of data: WH, YT, and JC. Analysis and interpretation of data: WH and WG. Drafting of manuscript: WH. Critical revision: WH, WG, YT, QZ, CT, and JC.

Correspondence to Jianzhong Cheng.

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Participation of animal subjects did not occur in this study.

All the authors participated in writing the manuscript.

This manuscript was approved for publication by all the authors.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of a Topical Collection in Environmental Earth Sciences on “Recent Advances in Environmental Sustainability”, guest edited by Peiyue Li.

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Received: 14 May 2022

Accepted: 18 September 2022

Published: 03 October 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-022-10595-3

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US cities are recycling trees and feces to make compost IV News | irshi Videos

4 October, 2022
 

American trees are in crisis. Based on recent estimates, one in every six native species in the continental US is at risk of extinction due to increased threats such as invasive species, diseases, climate change, logging and wildfires. Meanwhile, metropolitan areas are losing an astonishing 36 million trees each year, according to a 2018 study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Department of Forest Service.

This loss of urban trees is a particular problem. They are an important part of the green infrastructure of American cities. Without the cooling effect of foliage, a city’s vast concrete and asphalt can turn into an urban island of deadly high heat—made worse by global warming—which then forces buildings to use more energy to stay cool. forces. Trees also reduce air pollution and sequester carbon. The Forest Service estimates the annual cost of urban tree loss at $96 million.

But there is a way to attack the problem on several fronts, by using waste from trees and people with little value—which would otherwise be sent to landfills.

A new analysis from Yale University suggests that dry waste from urban trees in the US—leaves, felling, and the like—could be diverted to landfills or incinerators, where much of it still ends up, and its Instead can be reused to grow new trees. , reduce logging, and reduce carbon emissions. It’s a potentially huge resource: American cities generate more than 45 million tons of tree waste each year.

“It’s not a new idea, it just takes money and willpower from city officials to be more sustainable,” says Pete Smith, program manager for urban forestry at the tree-planting nonprofit Arbor Day Foundation. Urban timber reuse and recycling is already becoming a growing focal point for cities, he says.

The Yale researchers, led by Yuan Yao in the university’s Center for Industrial Ecology, calculated that converting leaves into compost, wood into chips and wood, and remaining tree residues into a charcoal-like substance called biochar, could be environmental on multiple levels. may be beneficial. , “These products could be substitutes for virgin materials such as fertilizers, and thus reduce the associated environmental impacts,” the authors write. Recycling cut-down tree wood for lumber can also store carbon longer and reduce logging. Meanwhile, biochar can be used to improve aeration, water storage and nutrient retention in the soil.

The authors found that recycling the nation’s urban tree waste would also significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases leaking from landfills. He calculated that the savings could be as high as 28 percent of America’s total agricultural emissions.

One of the products created through recycling—compost—can be redirected specifically back to the problem of urban tree loss. For trees, mulch and compost mimic the forest floor and help the soil around their roots retain water and nutrients, which is important in urban settings where trees tend to be warmer, drier and more Can be exposed to stressful growing conditions. For example, although trees planted along city highways can help increase urban canopy cover, road construction can lead to soil compaction and loss of top soil, causing fatal stress to roadside plants. could. A 2020 study showed that roadside trees had a significant survival advantage when the soil around them consisted of 25 percent organic manure made from food and yard waste.

And tree waste isn’t the only unwanted product that can be used to make this compost. Cities can also nurture their trees with a little help from their human inhabitants: by recycling their sewage.

,


How much is the global Biochar market currently worth? – Spooool.ie

4 October, 2022
 

Biochar Market is projected to grow to Multimillion by 2026 from USD million in 2021, at a Impressive CAGR during the forecast period. The demand for Biochar is driven by the growing demand and increasing adoption rate of systems such as Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer

Companies covered in the Biochar Market :

Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels, Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels

Biochar is a fragmented industry with a variety of manufacturers, among which most are small privately-owned companies. The top 5 producers account for just 38.34% of the market. Also, many companies are emerging companies that specialized in the production of biochar, and a large share of their products is sold by traders and online.

A key variable in the performance of biochar producers is raw material costs, specifically the speed at which any increase can be passed through to customers. The materials of biochar include wood, rice stove, corn stove and other biomass materials. Wood now is the major raw material of biochar, but its price would be higher than other derived product. The price of crop raw material fluctuates with agricultural market in local market.

The Global Biochar market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2020 and 2024. In 2020, the market was growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

This report focuses on the Biochar in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

This report studies the Biochar market, Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.

Segmentation by Type : Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar

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Iowa is the future of clean energy – Newton Daily News

4 October, 2022
 


Bioenergy industry 'still waiting for its full potential to be realised' in Ireland – Irish Examiner

4 October, 2022
 

Bioenergy can be defined as any form of energy that is derived from living organisms, either plant or animal.

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Tried a new method of making charcoal for biochar – Permies.com

4 October, 2022
 

A build too cool to miss:Mike’s GreenhouseA great example:Joseph’s Garden
All the soil info you’ll ever need:
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How circular use of yard waste can save trees and bring down emissions – ZME Science

4 October, 2022
 

Dry waste from urban trees in the US, such as leaves and cuttings, could be diverted from landfills and incinerators, where much of it currently ends up, and instead be reused to grow trees, lower emissions and reduce logging, a new study found. It’s a massive resource that the US currently of over 45 million tons of tree waste every year that the country currently just throws away.

Researchers from Yale University looked at the environmental footprint of urban tree waste in the US and evaluated the effects of different disposal methods. They found that recycling dry waste would significantly reduce emissions leaking from landfills, estimating could be equivalent to 28% of the total agricultural emissions of the US.

“Cities have lots of trees and they will not live forever,” study co-author Yuan Yao, professor of industrial ecology and sustainable systems, said in a statement. “You also have leaves and other tree waste. We wanted to investigate different ways we could use this waste, the potential pathways and benefits, to create something of value.”

For the study, the researchers carried out a life cycle assessment that quantified the environmental benefits of reusing, repurposing, or recycling organic material. They tested a combination of different pathways to treating waste, from low use like landfills to optimal use like biochar, to see their impacts on greenhouse gas emissions.

Converting leaves into compost, wood into chips, and lumber or tree residues into biochar can be environmentally beneficial on several levels, they argued. “These products could be substitutes for materials such as fertilizers,” they wrote. Recycling wood for lumber can also store carbon for the long term and reduce logging.

The amount of yard waste in landfills has declined since 1990 but the US still throws away 10.5 million tons each year. Despite urban areas aren’t seen as big contributors to tree waste, they still have a big footprint. The US urban forest generates 25 million tons of leaf waste and 20 million tons of tree waste per year, previous studies have shown.

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The researchers said some of the cities that would see the largest potential emissions reduction from diverting urban tree waste include Boston, Chicago, Atlanta, and New York. The most effective waste treatment method could vary by state based on their individually different situations. Northern states with dense forests could reduce their emissions by using leaves as compost, for example.

However, putting these ideas into practice is expected to be a long-term project. The paper acknowledges that a lack of municipal facilities and infrastructure and illegal dumping stands in the way of maximizing urban yard waste’s potential. Applying this circular economy concept to urban forests would also need to raise awareness about tree waste disposal methods.

“Our study demonstrates the potential benefits of applying circular economy principles to biomass waste in the urban environment to potentially combat with climate change,” study co-author of the study Kai Lan said in a statement. “This all aligns with the circular economy concept — turning waste into something of value.”

The study was published in the journal One Earth.

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Biochar Market growth, business opportunities, share value, key insights and size estimation by 2031

4 October, 2022
 

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Application of biochar in modification of fillers in bioretention cells: A review – ScienceDirect

4 October, 2022
 

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In Stock Charcoal for plants and terrarium. Biochar. Soil mix. Terrarium soil | Shopee Singapore

4 October, 2022
 

 


Quantifying biochar-induced greenhouse gases emission reduction effects in constructed …

4 October, 2022
 

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Fenton oxidation of biochar improves retention of cattle slurry nitrogen – ACSESS – Wiley

4 October, 2022
 


Terra Preta and Biochar – Mark Ervin | The Permaculture Podcast on Acast

4 October, 2022
 

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The guest for this episode is Mark Ervin of GreenGro Biologicals. He joins me to share his passion for terra preta soil and biochar and how he turned that love into an entrepreneurial business bringing a regenerative product to market. Along the way, he shares the difference between simply burning something and calling biochar versus creating a carbon-rich, mineralized biochar, the importance of nutrient ratios for sustainable growing, and much more.

 

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Wood Vinegar Market Outlook 2022-2029 Analysis By Top Keyplayers | Doi&Co. Ltd …

4 October, 2022
 

Verified Market Research has published a research report on the Global Wood Vinegar Market. The report provides an insightful overview of the sector through primary and secondary research.

Global Wood Vinegar Market research covers a wide range of topics, such as market size, market growth, CAGR, opportunities, Innovation and sales trends. In addition, the study provides a comprehensive overview of the market volume, market share and industry trends.

The study also highlights several key issues such as research and development, joint ventures, contracts, product launches, partnerships, collaborations and the growth of the main players in the industry at national and international levels.

This research provides an in-depth analysis of the key drivers, market trends and relevant market segments and sub-segments.

Wood Vinegar Market size was valued at USD 5.38 Billion in 2020 and is projected to reach USD 8.59 Billion by 2028, growing at a CAGR of 6.03% from 2021 to 2028.

Get a Sample Copy (Including FULL TOC, Graphs And Tables) Of This Report @ https://www.verifiedmarketresearch.com/download-sample?rid=33061

Global Wood Vinegar Market : Drivers and Restraints

In this chapter, the report provides a full explanation of the driving forces of the market. It highlights the main driving forces of the market, which are expected to make a significant contribution to the growth of the market. It covers various industries that are developing in the same field, identifies the main areas of application and determines which of them will play an important role. The report also examines some of the new technologies and developments presented by manufacturers that are expected to become notable engines for the global Wood Vinegar market.

This chapter also gives the reader important information regarding restrictions that may hinder the growth of the Wood Vinegar market in the future. This research report discussed factors such as changes in land prices, labor and production costs, environmental issues, new government policies and business standards. In addition, the analysts also gave an idea of the potential opportunities existing in the global market of Wood Vinegar. It offers a new perspective of turning threats into viable options to give the company a chance to win.

Global Wood Vinegar Market : Competitive rivalry

The research report includes an analysis of the competitive environment present in the Global Wood Vinegar Market. It includes an assessment of current and future trends in which players can invest. In addition, it also includes an assessment of the financial prospects of the players and explains the nature of the competition.

Key Players mentioned in the Global Market Research Report Wood Vinegar Market:

Market segmentation of Wood Vinegar market:

Wood Vinegar market is divided by type and application. For the period 2021-2028, cross-segment growth provides accurate calculations and forecasts of sales by Type and Application in terms of volume and value. This analysis can help you grow your business by targeting qualified niche markets.

Wood Vinegar Market, By Method

• Slow Pyrolysis
• Fast Pyrolysis
• Intermediate Pyrolysis

Wood Vinegar Market, By Application

• Animal-Feed
• Agriculture
• Food, Medicinal & Consumer Products
• Other

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Wood Vinegar Market Report Scope 

 
Global Wood Vinegar Market: Regional segmentation

For further understanding, the research report includes a geographical segmentation of the Global Wood Vinegar Market. It provides an assessment of the volatility of political scenarios and changes that may be made to regulatory structures. This estimate provides an accurate analysis of the regional growth of the Global Wood Vinegar Market.

Middle East and Africa (GCC countries and Egypt)
North America (USA, Mexico and Canada)
South America (Brazil, etc.)
Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia, Great Britain, Italy, France, etc.)
Asia-Pacific region (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia and Australia)

Global Wood Vinegar Market: Research methodology

The research methodologies used by analysts play a crucial role in how the publication was compiled. Analysts used primary and secondary research methodologies to create a comprehensive analysis. For an accurate and accurate analysis of the Global Wood Vinegar Market, analysts use ascending and descending approaches.

Table of Contents

Report Overview: It includes major players of the global Wood Vinegar Market covered in the research study, research scope, and Market segments by type, market segments by application, years considered for the research study, and objectives of the report.

Global Growth Trends: This section focuses on industry trends where market drivers and top market trends are shed light upon. It also provides growth rates of key producers operating in the global Wood Vinegar Market. Furthermore, it offers production and capacity analysis where marketing pricing trends, capacity, production, and production value of the global Wood Vinegar Market are discussed.

Market Share by Manufacturers: Here, the report provides details about revenue by manufacturers, production and capacity by manufacturers, price by manufacturers, expansion plans, mergers and acquisitions, and products, market entry dates, distribution, and market areas of key manufacturers.

Market Size by Type: This section concentrates on product type segments where production value market share, price, and production market share by product type are discussed.

Market Size by Application: Besides an overview of the global Wood Vinegar Market by application, it gives a study on the consumption in the global Wood Vinegar Market by application.

Production by Region: Here, the production value growth rate, production growth rate, import and export, and key players of each regional market are provided.

Consumption by Region: This section provides information on the consumption in each regional market studied in the report. The consumption is discussed on the basis of country, application, and product type.

Company Profiles: Almost all leading players of the global Wood Vinegar Market are profiled in this section. The analysts have provided information about their recent developments in the global Wood Vinegar Market, products, revenue, production, business, and company.

Market Forecast by Production: The production and production value forecasts included in this section are for the global Wood Vinegar Market as well as for key regional markets.

Market Forecast by Consumption: The consumption and consumption value forecasts included in this section are for the global Wood Vinegar Market as well as for key regional markets.

Value Chain and Sales Analysis: It deeply analyzes customers, distributors, sales channels, and value chain of the global Wood Vinegar Market.

To Gain More Insights into the Market Analysis, Browse Summary of the Research Reporthttps://www.verifiedmarketresearch.com/product/wood-vinegar-market/ 

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Biochar Market Report 2022-27, Industry Size, Share, Demand, Growth And Analysis

4 October, 2022
 

There were 1,768 press releases posted in the last 24 hours and 260,414 in the last 365 days.

The global biochar market reached a value of US$ 1.5 Billion in 2021. Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the market to reach US$ 3.1 Billion by 2027

SHERIDAN, WYOMING, UNITED STATES, October 4, 2022 /EINPresswire.com/ — According to the latest report by IMARC Group titled, “Biochar Market: Global Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2022-2027”, The global biochar market reached a value of US$ 1.5 Billion in 2021. Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the market to reach US$ 3.1 Billion by 2027, exhibiting a CAGR of 12.37% during 2022-2027.

Biochar refers to a type of carbon-rich charcoal that is produced by the heating of agricultural waste, animal manure, and woody biomass. It helps in improving soil fertilization, maintaining adequate moisture levels, reducing pollutants, providing crop nutrition, and preventing soil leaching. Owing to various technological innovations, such as gasification and pyrolysis, biochar finds extensive applications across various industries, including pharmaceuticals and agriculture.

Request for a sample copy of this report: https://www.imarcgroup.com/biochar-market/requestsample

The prevalent trend of organic farming has stimulated the utilization of biochar in mixed farming, biodynamic agriculture, and zero tillage farming methods. In line with this, the rising health consciousness and escalating consumer expenditures on high-quality, organic food items have bolstered the market growth. Moreover, the thriving electronics industry is positively influencing the demand for biochar in the manufacturing of building materials. Apart from this, the increasing awareness about waste management, coupled with various stringent environmental regulations for minimizing carbon footprints, is expected to fuel the growth of the global biochar market in the coming years.

Breakup by Feedstock Type:

Woody Biomass
Agricultural Waste
Animal Manure
Others

Breakup by Technology Type:

Slow Pyrolysis
Fast Pyrolysis
Gasification
Hydrothermal Carbonization
Others

Breakup by Product Form:

Coarse and Fine Chips
Fine Powder
Pellets, Granules and Prills
Liquid Suspension

Breakup by Application:

Farming
Gardening
Livestock Feed
Soil, Water and Air Treatment
Others

Breakup by Region:

North America
Europe
Asia Pacific
Middle East and Africa
Latin America

Competitive Landscape

Agri-tech Producers
Diacarbon Energy Inc.
Cool Planet
Pacific Biochar
Phoenix Energy
Biomacon GmbH
Vega Biofuels
Terra Char
Avello Bioenergy
Genesis Industries
Interra Energy Services
Element C6
Carbon Gold Ltd.
Biochar Solution Ltd.

Key Highlights of the Report:

Market Performance (2016-2021)
Market Outlook (2022-2027)
Market Trends
Market Drivers and Success Factors
Impact of COVID-19
Value Chain Analysis
Comprehensive mapping of the competitive landscape

Ask Analyst for Customization and Explore Full Report with TOC & List of Figure: https://www.imarcgroup.com/biochar-market

As the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis takes over the world, we are continuously tracking the changes in the markets, as well as the industry behaviours of the consumers globally and our estimates about the latest market trends and forecasts are being done after considering the impact of this pandemic.

If you want latest primary and secondary data (2022-2027) with Cost Module, Business Strategy, Distribution Channel, etc. Click request free sample report, published report will be delivered to you in PDF format via email within 24 to 48 hours of receiving full payment.

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About Us

IMARC Group is a leading market research company that offers management strategy and market research worldwide. We partner with clients in all sectors and regions to identify their highest-value opportunities, address their most critical challenges, and transform their businesses.

IMARC’s information products include major market, scientific, economic and technological developments for business leaders in pharmaceutical, industrial, and high technology organizations. Market forecasts and industry analysis for biotechnology, advanced materials, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, travel and tourism, nanotechnology and novel processing methods are at the top of the company’s expertise.

EIN Presswire’s priority is source transparency. We do not allow opaque clients, and our editors try to be careful about weeding out false and misleading content. As a user, if you see something we have missed, please do bring it to our attention. Your help is welcome. EIN Presswire, Everyone’s Internet News Presswire™, tries to define some of the boundaries that are reasonable in today’s world. Please see our Editorial Guidelines for more information.

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Biochar Market Report 2022-27, Industry Size, Share, Demand, Growth And Analysis

4 October, 2022
 

There were 1,768 press releases posted in the last 24 hours and 257,049 in the last 365 days.

The global biochar market reached a value of US$ 1.5 Billion in 2021. Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the market to reach US$ 3.1 Billion by 2027

SHERIDAN, WYOMING, UNITED STATES, October 4, 2022 /EINPresswire.com/ — According to the latest report by IMARC Group titled, “Biochar Market: Global Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2022-2027”, The global biochar market reached a value of US$ 1.5 Billion in 2021. Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the market to reach US$ 3.1 Billion by 2027, exhibiting a CAGR of 12.37% during 2022-2027.

Biochar refers to a type of carbon-rich charcoal that is produced by the heating of agricultural waste, animal manure, and woody biomass. It helps in improving soil fertilization, maintaining adequate moisture levels, reducing pollutants, providing crop nutrition, and preventing soil leaching. Owing to various technological innovations, such as gasification and pyrolysis, biochar finds extensive applications across various industries, including pharmaceuticals and agriculture.

Request for a sample copy of this report: https://www.imarcgroup.com/biochar-market/requestsample

The prevalent trend of organic farming has stimulated the utilization of biochar in mixed farming, biodynamic agriculture, and zero tillage farming methods. In line with this, the rising health consciousness and escalating consumer expenditures on high-quality, organic food items have bolstered the market growth. Moreover, the thriving electronics industry is positively influencing the demand for biochar in the manufacturing of building materials. Apart from this, the increasing awareness about waste management, coupled with various stringent environmental regulations for minimizing carbon footprints, is expected to fuel the growth of the global biochar market in the coming years.

Breakup by Feedstock Type:

Woody Biomass
Agricultural Waste
Animal Manure
Others

Breakup by Technology Type:

Slow Pyrolysis
Fast Pyrolysis
Gasification
Hydrothermal Carbonization
Others

Breakup by Product Form:

Coarse and Fine Chips
Fine Powder
Pellets, Granules and Prills
Liquid Suspension

Breakup by Application:

Farming
Gardening
Livestock Feed
Soil, Water and Air Treatment
Others

Breakup by Region:

North America
Europe
Asia Pacific
Middle East and Africa
Latin America

Competitive Landscape

Agri-tech Producers
Diacarbon Energy Inc.
Cool Planet
Pacific Biochar
Phoenix Energy
Biomacon GmbH
Vega Biofuels
Terra Char
Avello Bioenergy
Genesis Industries
Interra Energy Services
Element C6
Carbon Gold Ltd.
Biochar Solution Ltd.

Key Highlights of the Report:

Market Performance (2016-2021)
Market Outlook (2022-2027)
Market Trends
Market Drivers and Success Factors
Impact of COVID-19
Value Chain Analysis
Comprehensive mapping of the competitive landscape

Ask Analyst for Customization and Explore Full Report with TOC & List of Figure: https://www.imarcgroup.com/biochar-market

As the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis takes over the world, we are continuously tracking the changes in the markets, as well as the industry behaviours of the consumers globally and our estimates about the latest market trends and forecasts are being done after considering the impact of this pandemic.

If you want latest primary and secondary data (2022-2027) with Cost Module, Business Strategy, Distribution Channel, etc. Click request free sample report, published report will be delivered to you in PDF format via email within 24 to 48 hours of receiving full payment.

Related Reports By IMARC Group

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E-liquid Market Report: https://www.imarcgroup.com/e-liquid-market

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Silicone Coating Market Share

About Us

IMARC Group is a leading market research company that offers management strategy and market research worldwide. We partner with clients in all sectors and regions to identify their highest-value opportunities, address their most critical challenges, and transform their businesses.

IMARC’s information products include major market, scientific, economic and technological developments for business leaders in pharmaceutical, industrial, and high technology organizations. Market forecasts and industry analysis for biotechnology, advanced materials, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, travel and tourism, nanotechnology and novel processing methods are at the top of the company’s expertise.

EIN Presswire’s priority is source transparency. We do not allow opaque clients, and our editors try to be careful about weeding out false and misleading content. As a user, if you see something we have missed, please do bring it to our attention. Your help is welcome. EIN Presswire, Everyone’s Internet News Presswire™, tries to define some of the boundaries that are reasonable in today’s world. Please see our Editorial Guidelines for more information.

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4 October, 2022
 

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4 October, 2022
 


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Biochar Concepts | The Survival Gardener – Shein Magazine –

5 October, 2022
 

Joe D shares some biochar concepts:

A number of occasions after I heard the faculty youngsters speak about biochar they talked about charcoal made below no oxygen. It made me suppose should you burned then coated it with off the place manure. It might burn off the weed seeds and presumably even chemical compounds.

I believe I’d personally even throw an excellent layer of remnants, from the native butcher, on high of the burn pile earlier than lighting it. I’d even put one other skinny layer of remnants on high of the charcoal manure.

Put a skinny layer of clay over these animal elements then soak the bottom with a powerful native fungus tea.

Or presumably even a layer of wooden chips as an alternative of the clay

After which a man would line massive spherical bales, that have been sitting on the bales flat finish. I might in all probability line totally different bales subsequent to one another, akin to a corn stalk bale, alfalfa and a change grass bale.

After you had the bales lined up you’ll take from the on ranch or farm waste manure pile and canopy the bales up.

I’d spray extra of that tea on it to stimulate the microbes in addition to placing a canopy crop seed alfalfa or sainfoin.

Most likely all summer time, should you bought rain (hopefully you get rain), proceed topping off the tops of the bales because the manure soaks in. In addition to persevering with to spray with tea earlier than the rains and after you place new manure on. Maintain including to that constructive seed financial institution cowl crop as a result of weeds will likely be going loopy on high of it.

By the tip of the summer time I might think about that the bales inside temp would have cooled down. Every time them temperatures get cooled off add worms. I’d put all forms of worms in so long as they wouldn’t have the potential to grow to be invasive.

You’d need to hold including hay and stuff to it because it consumed it. Maintain doing it until you had an amazing alfalfa patch.

With that base you can begin different spots.

I simply plan on filling holes on meadows with this technique. After the alfalfa has been going for a number of years you can mine it, I suppose.

Realistically you can in all probability (as soon as the worms have been going) bury something in that and it might eat it. So long as no matter went in was inoculated with tea. For those who have been burying a cow you’d need her 12 toes deep or higher I might think about, the important thing could be to place a layer of charcoal beneath no matter you buried.

You want the charcoal to soak up any doable run off. This concept goes for producers and feedlots. There must be a layer of charcoal between floor and any manure piles. It might be absorbing and charging that carbon or charcoal.

Presumably these previous terra preta soils might of been big compost and even dumps of natural consumable supplies.

It’s doable.

Although there are some unusual parts to terra preta, akin to its obvious skill to regenerate itself from the native soil, however that may very well be the results of having been cultured with some strains of fungi or micro organism, relatively like kefir.

I went again to my terra preta mattress a month in the past and dug into it to see how the soil regarded. We filmed it, however the audio was not working so the video by no means bought posted.

What I discovered was not encouraging. The soil had not darkened as I had hoped. I’ll need to grind the following batch of char relatively than simply smashing it up a bit. It did develop the primary spherical of tomatoes very properly, however that might have simply been because of all of the minerals within the floor. The second planting did poorly. I consider the minerals could have partially leached out or been consumed by the tomatoes, plus the mattress had been utterly invaded by tree roots. With out the timber subsequent to the mattress, we could have seen totally different outcomes. The oak clearly beloved the fertility and doubtless choked out the following plantings.

Joe’s concepts will surely make the bottom wealthy for a time, however the long-term results are nonetheless unknown. Extra experimentation is required!

Additionally, be careful for hay bales and manure.

Subsequent time I construct a terra preta take a look at mattress – in all probability throughout this fall or winter – I’ll put it far-off from timber!

It’s doable that the unique terra preta piles have been merely dumping grounds for waste initially, however there was a LOT of fabric in there, they usually stored their fertility far longer than appears cheap, therefore my microbial tradition speculation. It may very well be that the cultures there are usually not in our soils. One factor that may very well be finished could be to make use of some precise terra preta from certainly one of these websites as a starter for a brand new batch, through seeding it right into a newly created clay/fired pottery/meat and bone scraps/manure burn pit, then to see if it begins to unfold and remodel the encircling soil.

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CARBONLOOP and HAFFNER ENERGY Announce Their First Order for the Production of …

5 October, 2022
 

PARIS, October 05, 2022–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Regulatory News:

CARBONLOOP and HAFFNER ENERGY (Paris:ALHAF) today announce the signing of a purchase order for the supply, installation and commissioning by HAFFNER ENERGY of a SYNOCA® unit. This equipment is designed to produce renewable gas by thermolysis of biomass, for a CARBONLOOP customer site located in the Yvelines (France). This project, developed, financed and operated by CARBONLOOP, will enable the local production of "carbon negative" energy. This first project is in line with the strategy of both partners to decarbonize industry and heavy mobility.

This is the first order signed within the framework of the Commercial Agreement signed in October 2021 between the two companies. The equipment ordered includes a "Thermolyzer" Skid and a "Reformer" Skid, the two skids together constituting a SYNOCA® module. This module will produce Hypergaz® (renewable gas) up to 500 kW PCI, from biomass coming from woody co-products from agricultural and forestry operations collected locally. This process will also allow the production of approximately 400 tons of biochar per year, which will be marketed for soil improvement and compost enrichment. The entire system will contribute to sequestering approximately 1,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per year, certified by carbon credits. The renewable gas will be converted into renewable electricity and heat, which will ensure the self-consumption of the site, an innovative regenerative agriculture pole being built in the Yvelines (France). This first project for CARBONLOOP, which is expected to be commissioned in mid-2023, will also be a laboratory for testing inputs and biochar in order to be able to use agricultural and forestry residues that are not used locally in a circular economy and short supply chain.

In the current context of soaring energy prices, this project allows the production of renewable gas at a competitive cost as a substitute for natural gas, and fully meets the market's expectations regarding the European Union's energy independence (REPowerEU) and reduction of its carbon footprint. This evolution accelerates the decarbonization offer of both companies around renewable gas and expands with SYNOCA® the development potential of HAFFNER ENERGY beyond the hydrogen production driven by the HYNOCA® technology.

"CARBONLOOP is thrilled to be among HAFFNER ENERGY's first customers. With the biomass thermolysis technology developed by HAFFNER ENERGY, CARBOONLOOP is proud to offer the first energy service that traps more carbon than it emits. Not only does it allow the substitution of natural gas at a competitive price, but it also contributes to accelerate the industries’ decarbonization trajectory", says Claire Chastrusse, CEO of CARBONLOOP.

"We are delighted to implement our first renewable gas production contract for our customer and long-term partner CARBONLOOP. The rising cost of energy and the necessity for Europe to reduce its energy dependence reinforce our business model based on a complete and competitive solution, with on-demand production of hydrogen, gas or electricity, without intermittency", concludes Philippe Haffner, Chairman and CEO of HAFFNER ENERGY.

About Carbonloop
A start-up launched in 2021, Carbonloop offers an accelerated decarbonization service for industries and heavy mobility, based on a process combining the production of carbon-neutral energy from biomass residues and a local and sustainable carbon sink, biochar. This innovative and fully integrated energy solution (including project financing, biomass supply, operation and management of services associated with biochar and carbon certification) allows industrial companies consuming natural gas or hydrogen to benefit from "carbon-negative" energy and to meet their commitments to reduce ­greenhouse gases in a practical and concrete way. With the aim to develop more than 200 projects in Europe by 2030, Carbonloop's ambition is to be able to sequester more than 1 million tons of CO₂ equivalent per year by then.

About Haffner Energy
A listed and family company co-founded and co-managed by Marc and Philippe Haffner and a player in the energy transition for 30 years, Haffner Energy designs and provides technologies and services enabling its customers to produce green hydrogen, renewable gas replacing natural gas combined with carbon capture through the co-production of biochar through its Synoca® and Hynoca® processes, by thermolysis of biomass. Those processes allow the production of hydrogen or renewable gas at highly competitive cost, is carbon negative of 12 kg (net) of CO2 per kg of hydrogen produced, while depending very little on the electricity grid and the cost of electricity. This enables Haffner Energy to make a very rapid and agile contribution to the strategic challenges of Europe's energy independence combined with the acceleration of its decarbonization.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20221005005621/en/

Contacts

contact@carbonloop.energy
+33 980 803 435
www.carbonloop.energy

Press
jennifer.jean@econovia.fr
06 45 48 38 40

Investor Relations, Haffner Energy
Adeline Mickeler
adeline.mickeler@haffner-energy.com

Media Relations, NewCap
Nicolas Merigeau
haffner@newcap.eu
Tel : 01 44 71 94 98


Biochar

5 October, 2022
 


Biochar Fertilizer Market Latest Trends, Demand and Industry Outlook 2022-2028

5 October, 2022
 

The global Biochar Fertilizer Market research provides a thorough competitive landscape that takes into account both domestic and global rivalry. The study includes an assessment of the definition, categorization, competitiveness, factors, and current strategic movements. The global Biochar Fertilizer industry research categorizes the market by type, manufacturer, and application. This research provides a more complete picture of the current market size, Biochar Fertilizer industry landscape, expansion, and growth status. It includes a market assessment of historical data and predictions, as well as an acceptable set of assumptions and methods.

Free Sample Report + All Related Graphs & Charts @ 

https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/10049935265/global-biochar-fertilizer-market-research-report-2022/inquiry?https://todayisrael.com?Mode=11

Leading players of Biochar Fertilizer Market including:

Biogrow Limited
Biochar Farms
Anulekh
GreenBack
Airex Energy
Biochar Supreme
NextChar
Terra Char
Genesis Industries
Interra Energy
CharGrow
Pacific Biochar
Biochar Now
The Biochar Company (TBC)
ElementC6
Carbon Gold
Kina
Swiss Biochar GmbH
BlackCarbon
Carbon Terra
Sonnenerde
Biokol
Verora GmbH
Biochar Products
Diacarbon Energy
Agri-Tech Producers
Green Charcoal International
Vega Biofuels
Full Circle Biochar
Pacific Pyrolysis

Biochar Fertilizer market Segmentation by Type:

Cereals
Oil Crops
Fruits and Vegetables
Others

Biochar Fertilizer market Segmentation by Application:

Organic Fertilizer
Inorganic Fertilizer
Compound Fertilizer

Reasons to Purchase this international Biochar Fertilizer business report:

— An updated information on the global Biochar Fertilizer marketplace report
— The Biochar Fertilizer report allows you analyze each segments opportunities and growth structure
— Let you Select a Determination According to Biochar Fertilizer past, present and forthcoming data jointly with driving variables impressing the Biochar Fertilizer market increase and significant constraints
— New strategies and ways related to the advancement structure of the Biochar Fertilizer marketplace
— To Maintain the marketing plans towards the Development of Global Biochar Fertilizer market

Browse Full Report at:

https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/10049935265/global-biochar-fertilizer-market-research-report-2022?https://todayisrael.com?Mode=11

Table of Content:

1 Scope of the Report
2 Executive Summary
3 Global Biochar Fertilizer by Players
4 Biochar Fertilizer by Regions
4.1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Size by Regions
4.2 Americas Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Growth
4.3 APAC Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Growth
4.4 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Growth
4.5 Middle East & Africa Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Growth
5 Americas
6 APAC
7 Europe
8 Middle East & Africa
9 Market Drivers, Challenges and Trends
10 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Forecast
11 Key Players Analysis
12 Research Findings and Conclusion

About Us:

MarketInsightsReports provides syndicated market research on industry verticals including Healthcare, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Technology and Media, Chemicals, Materials, Energy, Heavy Industry, etc. MarketInsightsReports provides global and regional market intelligence coverage, a 360-degree market view which includes statistical forecasts, competitive landscape, detailed segmentation, key trends, and strategic recommendations.

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Global Biochar Market Report 2022-2027: Rising Environmental Concerns to Drive Sector Growth

5 October, 2022
 

DUBLIN–(BUSINESS WIRE)–The “Global Biochar Market Report and Forecast 2022-2027” report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

According to the report provided, the global biochar market attained a value USD 521.3 million in 2021. The market growth is driven by the rising environmental concerns, and the market is projected to further grow during the forecast period of 2022 and 2027 to reach a value of USD 2,167.8 million by 2027.

Biochar is a charcoal-like substance that is made of carbon and ashes, which are obtained through the combustion of organic waste materials from agriculture and forest such as wood chips or manure. They are usually utilised to improve water quality, reduce soil acidity, reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from the soil, among other applications.

The global biochar market is widely recognised by regulatory organisations, scientists, and policymakers as a sustainable method for improving soil health. It can help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing carbon sequestration, and waste mitigation, among many other benefits. Applying biochar on a frequent basis can help the soil improve its nutrient dynamics, soil contaminants, and the functions of microorganisms in the soil.

Governments of many countries are increasing their effort to implement the use of eco-friendly materials in the agricultural industry as environmental awareness rises around the world. Farmers have also been utilizing biochar for livestock feed as a treatment to improve their health . It also helps the animal to absorb proper nutrients while the biochar absorbs the toxins and increases productivity.

However, the COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the global biochar market. The biochar market is heavily reliant on the agriculture and construction industry, and the restrictions imposed by the government to contain the pandemic halted the industries. The equipment required for the process of making biochar is also very costly, which hinders the manufacturers from making more investments.

Market Segmentation

The market can be divided on the basis of application, technology, and major regions.

Based on application, the global biochar market can be segmented into the following:

Based on its technology, the global biochar market can be divided into:

Market Breakup by Region

Key Topics Covered:

1 Preface

2 Report Coverage – Key Segmentation and Scope

3 Report Description

4 Key Assumptions

5 Executive Summary

6 Market Snapshot

7 Industry Opportunities and Challenges

8 Global Biochar Market Analysis

9 Market Dynamics

10 Value Chain Analysis

11 Price Analysis

12 Competitive Landscape

13 Industry Events and Developments

Companies Mentioned

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/awx41x

ResearchAndMarkets.com
Laura Wood, Senior Press Manager
press@researchandmarkets.com

For E.S.T Office Hours Call 1-917-300-0470
For U.S./ CAN Toll Free Call 1-800-526-8630
For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900


Nano zero-valent iron loaded corn-straw biochar for efficient removal of hexavalent chromium

5 October, 2022
 

To improve the poor stability of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI), corn-straw biochar (BC) was used as a support for the synthesis of composites of nZVI-biochar (nZVI/BC) in different mass ratios. After a thorough characterization, the obtained nZVI/BC composite was used to remove hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in an aquatic system under varying conditions including composite amount, Cr(VI) concentration, and pH. The obtained results show that the treatment efficiency varied in the following order: nZVI–BC (1 : 3) > nZVI–BC (1 : 5) > nZVI alone > BC alone. This order indicates the higher efficiency of composite material and the positive effect of nZVI content in the composite. Similarly, the composite dosage and Cr(VI) concentration had significant effects on the removal performance and 2 g L−1 and 6 g L−1 were considered to be the optimum dose at a Cr(VI) concentration of 20 mg L−1 and 100 mg L−1, respectively. The removal efficiency was maximum (100%) at pH 2 whereas solution pH increased significantly after the reaction (from 2 to 4.13). The removal kinetics of Cr(VI) was described by a pseudo-second-order model which indicated that the removal process was mainly controlled by the rate of chemical adsorption. The thermodynamics was more in line with the Freundlich model which indicated that the removal was multi-molecular layer adsorption. TEM-EDS, XRD, and XPS were applied to characterize the crystal lattice and structural changes of the material to specify the interfacial chemical behaviour on the agent surface. These techniques demonstrate that the underlying mechanisms of Cr(VI) removal include adsorption, chemical reduction–oxidation reaction, and co-precipitation on the surface of the nZVI–BC composite. The results indicated that the corn-straw BC as a carrier material highly improved Cr(VI) removal performance of nZVI and offered better utilization of the corn straw.

Y. Wei, R. Chu, Q. Zhang, M. Usman, F. U. Haider and L. Cai, RSC Adv., 2022, 12, 26953 DOI: 10.1039/D2RA04650D

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. You can use material from this article in other publications without requesting further permissions from the RSC, provided that the correct acknowledgement is given.

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content.


E: 10/11 (noon) Win a £797 Earthly Biochar Kiln – the MoneySavingExpert Forum

5 October, 2022
 

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Carbon Research | Call for papers: advancement of biochar utilization: emerging nano …

5 October, 2022
 

The following special issue in Carbon Research is open for submissions. The submission deadline is Sep 26, 2023.

Call for papers: Advancement of biochar utilization: Emerging nano-biochar applications

Lead Guest Editor: Dr. Xiangzhou Yuan

Guest Editors: Dr. Patryk Oleszczuk; Dr. Alex Yip; Dr. Eakalak Khan; Dr. Hailong Wang

Aims and Scope:

Given its advantages of low production cost, wide availability, tunable properties, and sustainability, biochar is considered an attractive source to produce carbon-based nanomaterials such as porous carbon, graphene, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Reducing the biochar particle size to its nanoscale, yielding nano-biochar, is an effective approach that can upcycle sub-optimal biochar into desired high-quality nanomaterials. Compared to other carbon-based nanomaterials, the production of nano-biochar from biomass waste could be a sustainable, environmentally-friendly, cost-effective, and promising alternative route. Owing to its enhanced textural and physicochemical properties, new nano-biochar materials may have promising performance in carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and catalytic degradation. Therefore, in the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Carbon Neutrality strategy, novel and sustainable shifts in nano-biochar deployment practices are urgently needed to achieve a circular economy inspired by sustainable development.

This special issue aims to highlight the recent advances in nano-biochar production, characterizations, and applications for environmental remediation. Moreover, this special issue is strongly supported by 6th Asia Pacific Biochar Conference (APBC 2022, http://www.esgapbc.com/). We are especially interested in high-quality research papers as well as state-of-the-art critical reviews on the following, and related topics:


Factbox-North Korea's expanding missile capabilities – Newstrail.com

5 October, 2022
 

By Josh Smith SEOUL (Reuters) – This week’s rare North Korean test flight, which sent a missile soaring over Japan, underscored the nuclear-armed state’s rapidly advancing arsenal amid stalled denuclearisation talks. Tuesday’s ballistic missile was the 39th launched by North Korea this year. Its record schedule began in January with the launch of a new “hypersonic missile,” and went on to include long-range cruise missiles; short-range ballistic missiles fired from rail cars, airports, and a submarine; and its first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) launches since 2017. Here are some o…

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5 October, 2022
 

Superior Anti-Tumor Activity throughout Mice using Temozolomide-Resistant Human being Glioblastoma Cell Line-Derived Xenograft Utilizing Selinexor-Incorporated Polymeric MicroparticleH2S detecting with regard to inhale evaluation using Dans functionalized ZnO nanowires.β-Osimertinibdextrin Inhibits Monocytic Bond to be able to Endothelial Tissue by way of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Lacking of Cellular Adhesion Molecules

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Immobilization of microbes on biochar for water and soil remediation: A review

5 October, 2022
 

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Biochar: the 'black gold' for soils that is getting big bets on offset markets | Flipboard

5 October, 2022
 


Reuters Business on Twitter: "Biochar: the 'black gold' for soils that is getting big bets on offset …

5 October, 2022
 

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Researchers turn up the heat on environmentally friendly animal disposal method

5 October, 2022
 

NSW DPI Veterinary Policy and Projects Officer Liz Bolin said testing has already shown positive results that will benefit the agriculture industry.

“Pyrolysis has the potential to be used as an alternative method of carcass disposal during emergency animal disease responses by safely removing the pathogen but, more importantly, allowing the remains to be reused for another purpose,” she said.

“While we’re examining pig carcasses for this project, it could be used in any agricultural setting, such as diseased oyster shells. However, its suitability will vary depending on the nature of the outbreak, disease type and scale.”

Researchers sourced a pre-existing batch kiln that could withstand the extreme temperatures used in the pyrolysis method and added a thermal oxidiser which significantly reduces any air pollution emitting from the burning carcasses.

During the trial, temperatures reached over 450 degrees, the point at which most pathogens are killed, and the remains of each animal were reduced to a charcoal-like matter called biochar, a beneficial substance for soil improvement.

Samples of the charred products were then sent to the New South Wales Animal and Plant Health Laboratory (APHL) for analysis.

“So far, this trial revealed many positive attributes of the biochar, including an acid neutralising capacity, making it agronomically viable in acidic soil, it showed very low levels of contaminants, and contained an important quantity of macro and micronutrients, meaning it could potentially offset the use of chemical fertilizer,” Ms Bolin said.

“We wanted to demonstrate that pyrolysis can effectively treat pig carcasses by eliminating significant pig pathogens, but we also want to provide evidence that the end-product is environmentally sustainable and suitable for either safe disposal or re-use on agricultural land. So far, it’s looking positive.”

What is pyrolysis?
Pyrolysis is the heating of an organic material, such as biomass, in the absence of oxygen. Biomass pyrolysis is usually conducted at or above 500 °C, providing enough heat to deconstruct the strong biopolymers mentioned above. In this project, at 450 degrees, dangerous pathogens are killed.

What is a thermal oxidiser?
A thermal oxidiser (also known as a thermal incinerator) is a process unit for air pollution control in many chemical plants that decomposes hazardous gases at a high temperature and releases them into the atmosphere.

What is Biochar?
Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal made between 600–1000 celsius through the method of pyrolysis. This product has been found to significantly improve soil.

How will this benefit the NSW agriculture industry?
This method will not only provide an environmentally safe way of disposing of animal carcasses, especially during a disease outbreak, but will also provide growers and producers with an end-product called biochar that can improve their soil. Adding biochar to garden soil replenishes nutrients, retains moisture and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.Studies have shown that biochar would potentially offset the use of chemical fertilizer, thereby financially benefiting the grower or producer.

How biochar works, and when it doesn’t: A review of mechanisms controlling soil and plant responses to biochar

Microspectroscopic visualization of how biochar lifts the soil organic carbon ceiling


조민 나무위키 삭제 – jomin namuwiki sagje

6 October, 2022
 

How to make and use biochar improve your soil garden for : five reasons in the / a creative diy fairy •

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RenewableNaturalGas on Twitter: "Curious about the potential role of biochar in …

6 October, 2022
 

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Biochar Market Demand and Future Scope 2022 to 2030 – PressReleasesOnline.Net

6 October, 2022
 

The recent report on “Biochar Market Report 2022 by Key Players, Types, Applications, Countries, Market Size, forecast to 2030” offered by Global Market Vision, comprises of a comprehensive investigation into the geographical landscape, industry size along with the revenue estimation of the business. Additionally, the report also highlights the challenges impeding market growth and expansion strategies employed by leading companies in the “Biochar Market”.

Get Full PDF Sample Copy of Report: (Including Full TOC, List of Tables & Figures, Chart) @: https://globalmarketvision.com/sample_request/4584

The study includes key events to help market players build their strategies as per data. Apart from that, this documented report analyzes the chances of market expansion by calculating the accurate CAGR. All the data and analysis, including forecast, evaluations, and estimations, are carried out using prominent tools and techniques such as SWOT analysis and Porter’s Five Forces analysis. These tools ensure accuracy so that businesses can be confident with the statistics.

Key Players Mentioned in the Global Biochar Market Research Report:

Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels, Carbon Gold, Kina, Swiss Biochar GmbH, BlackCarbon, Carbon Terra, Sonnenerde, Biokol, ECOSUS, Verora GmbH.

Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

Market Segmentation: By Type

Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar

Market Segmentation: By Application

Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others,

The cost analysis of the Global Biochar Market has been performed while keeping in view manufacturing expenses, labor cost, and raw materials and their market concentration rate, suppliers, and price trend. Other factors such as Supply chain, downstream buyers, and sourcing strategy have been assessed to provide a complete and in-depth view of the market. Buyers of the report will also be exposed to a study on market positioning with factors such as target client, brand strategy, and price strategy taken into consideration.

Market Segmentation: By Geographical Analysis

This research study also studies the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the Biochar industry, as well as the appropriate estimate of supply chain analysis, expansion rate, market size in different scenarios, and key organizations’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. The business scenario is divided into four parts in the research study: application breadth, geographic terrain, product form, and competitive hierarchy. This study examines COVID-19’s effect on revenue share, market volume, and projected growth rates for each segment. Industry structure on the basis of a methodical study of recent trends and the leading vendors is comprised in the Biochar market report. Overall, the study will offer crucial business data to forward-thinking customers looking to succeed in the Biochar industry.

Table of Content (TOC):

Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview

Chapter 2 Industry Cost Structure and Economic Impact

Chapter 3 Rising Trends and New Technologies with Major key players

Chapter 4 Global Biochar Market Analysis, Trends, Growth Factor

Chapter 5 Biochar Market Application and Business with Potential Analysis

Chapter 6 Global Biochar Market Segment, Type, Application

Chapter 7 Global Biochar Market Analysis (by Application, Type, End User)

Chapter 8 Major Key Vendors Analysis of Biochar Market

Chapter 9 Development Trend of Analysis

Chapter 10 Conclusion

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Solved How does biochar mitigate N2O and decrease N | Chegg.com

6 October, 2022
 

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7 Ways Of Getting CO2 Out Of The Atmosphere – CleanTechnica

6 October, 2022
 

Michigan Has Potential To Reduce Emissions By Over 94%

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By

Published

There are currently seven recognized negative emissions technologies (NETs). What are their global CO₂ removal potential, costs, and relevant side effects? An overview of the pros and cons of carbon capture and storage.

Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no previous tree cover. Meanwhile, reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually by deforestation. Both are available at large scale – theoretically – but they currently lack incentives for widespread adoption. They are likely to increase in costs as land gets more scarce. They could have positive side effects on biodiversity and soil and water quality if they are not applied as mono-cultures.

Example: 11 countries have set out to build the Great Green Wall, a 7,000-kilometre belt of trees stretching from Senegal in West Africa to the coastal areas of Djibouti in East Africa.

This, the project’s organisers hope, will trap the sands of the Sahara desert, halt the desert’s further expansion, restore 50 million hectares of land and absorb some 250 million tonnes of carbon. Around 15 percent of the wall of trees has already been planted, according to the Sahara and Sahel Great Green Wall Initiative.

The “Wall” promises a compelling solution to the many urgent threats facing not only the African continent but the entire global community – in particular climate change, drought, hunger, conflict, and migration. When completed, the Great Green Wall will be the largest living structure on the planet: three times the size of the Great Barrier Reef.

Biochar has a high carbon content of up to 90 percent and binds carbon material reliably, for long-term and without negative side effects. Obtained by pyrolysis from biomass, it will capture CO2 from the atmosphere during its growth. Carbon is stored in plant material while oxygen is released into the atmosphere. A large part of the carbon can be captured in a gas, a liquid and a solid phase. While providing climate-neutral energy using the gas phase (Syngas) and the liquid phase (Bio-Oil), the material use of the solid phase (Biochar) allows for carbon capture and storage, thus leading to a net positive climate process.

The costs of this technology are rather moderate. The broad application of biochar makes negative emissions possible at a large scale. Increased crop yields and improved soil carbon and nutrients, alongside reduced N2O emissions, are expected outcomes.

Example: As Europe’s first manufacturer of biochar, Swiss Biochar has been offering biochar of high-EBC quality since 2010. Together with the Ithaka Institute, they have developed humus-rich soil substrates with activated plant carbon. EBC-certified biochar meets the highest quality standards with a carbon content of over 80 percent. Since 2021, they have been part of the NovoCarbo Group to optimise their product range for a wide variety of applications – from viticulture to greenery and balcony plants.

Soil carbon sequestration comprises a series of practices that deliver negative emissions by organically storing CO2 in soils. Scientists have estimated that soils – mostly for agricultural uses – could sequester over one billion additional tonnes of carbon each year. This technology is also available on a large scale, but there are concerns about its permanence. There are hundreds of millions of farmers around the world, mostly farming small plots of land. To take full advantage of soil-based sequestration as a climate solution, would require many of them to change the way they farm, now and for hundreds of years in the future. This is a big social and economic challenge, and experts debate how much soil-based sequestration is really possible in the long term.

Example: Soil carbon sequestration has gained traction within the Biden administration as a way for farmers to reduce, or even reverse American agriculture’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To advance this technology, Congress proposed the bipartisan Growing Climate Solutions Act, which is intended to help farmers participate in voluntary markets that pay them to store carbon in the soil.

Enhanced weathering delivers negative emissions by accelerating the mineral weathering process of rocks and distributing the ground-up rock over land. Enhanced weathering results in carbonation (i.e. carbonate rock formation), which may be considered a form of geological storage.

Example: Mission-driven companies, like The Project Vesta, are executing direct action measures by investing in research, and conducting field tests to develop practical solutions at scale to remove large amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere and to galvanise global deployment. The NGO captures CO2 by using an abundant, naturally occurring mineral called olivine. Ocean waves grind down the olivine, increasing its surface area. As the olivine breaks down, it captures atmospheric CO2 from within the ocean and stabilises it as limestone on the seafloor. This approach provides permanent sequestration with the potential for very high volume at a low cost. Questions remain about its safety and viability: to validate coastal enhanced weathering, more lab experiments and pilot beach projects must be performed.

Ocean fertilization delivers negative emissions by enhancing the carbon uptake of oceans.

This is achieved by increasing the nutrient supply in the near-surface, by adding micro or macronutrients. This technology has only been tested in small-scale demonstration plants so far, but there is likely to be a large potential to increase scale. Its impact on marine biology and food web structures is unknown.

In addition to reducing emissions, seaweed cultivation may also reduce ocean acidification. In some places, this application is already in use for shellfish aquaculture to reduce acidification and improve shellfish growth.

BECCS delivers negative emissions by capturing and storing the CO2 released from biomass during combustion. This technology has good market opportunities, but its impact on biodiversity and land degradation is likely negative.

Example: The British company Drax began to pilot the first bioenergy carbon capture and storage (BECCS) project of its kind in Europe at Drax Power Station in October 2018.

The pilot project with C-Capture technology captured its first carbon molecules at the UK’s largest renewable power station in early 2019.

A second BECCS pilot facility has been installed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) within the North Yorkshire power plant’s carbon capture usage and storage (CCUS) incubation area in autumn 2020.

This is one of the few technologies that extracts carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and is viewed by scientists as vital to limit global warming. DACS technology extracts CO2 directly from the atmosphere through chemical processes. This is then permanently stored to achieve negative emissions. If CO2 captured with DAC is used in short-lived products, such as fuels, it is an example of CCU, and therefore is not considered a negative emission. The energy intensity of the direct air capture process may involve trade-offs with a scarce supply of climate-neutral electricity and heat.

Example: In September 2020, Swiss and Icelandic companies announced the start of operations for the world’s largest direct air carbon capture plant. The Orca plant – a reference to the Icelandic word for energy – consists of eight large containers similar in appearance to those used in the shipping industry, which employs high-tech filters and fans to extract carbon dioxide. The facility will capture and store up to 40,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.

Direct air capture is still a fledgling and costly technology, but developers hope to drive down prices by scaling up production as more companies and consumers look to reduce their carbon footprint.

This story by Ama Lorenz and Frank Odenthal was originally published in THE BEAM #13

The Beam Magazine is an independent climate solutions and climate action magazine. It tells about the most exciting solutions, makes a concrete contribution to eliminating climate injustices and preserving this planet for all of us in its diversity and beauty. Our cross-country team of editors works with a network of 150 local journalists in 50 countries talking to change makers and communities. THE BEAM is published in Berlin and distributed in nearly 1,000 publicly accessible locations, to companies, organizations and individuals in 40 countries across the world powered by FairPlanet.

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Effects of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type on biochar characteristics pertinent to …

6 October, 2022
 


Biochar Market Size Worth USD 365 Million, Globally, by 2028 at 12.1% CAGR

6 October, 2022
 

Pune INDIA

Pune, India, Oct. 06, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — The global Biochar Market was USD 149.2 Million in 2020. The global market size is expected to be grow from USD 164.5 million in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 365.0 million by 2028, exhibiting a CAGR of 12.1% during the forecast period from 2021-2028. This information is provided by Fortune Business Insights, in its report, titled, “Biochar Market, 2021-2028.”

According to our analysts, the factors such as growing government policies for environmental protection and growing utilization of biochar for livestock feed to propel market growth amplified market growth.


Request a Sample Copy of the Research Report: https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/enquiry/sample/biochar-market-100750


Report Highlights:


COVID-19 Impact Analysis-

COVID-19 Pandemic to Majorly Impact Power Projects due to Stringent Government Norms

The government across several nations had to enforce nationwide lockdowns & numerous limitations in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The supply chain got interrupted and the government has also executed travel and transportation prohibitions. Numerous biochar projects were delayed and prime industries were also shut around the world that has dropped demand for power across the globe. The agriculture segment has unfavorable impacts owing to the pandemic, which further deteriorated this market.


To get to know more about the short-term and long-term impact of COVID-19 on this market, please visit: https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/industry-reports/biochar-market-100750


Drivers and Restraints:

The consciousness about environmental protection is expansively surging across the globe. People are requesting stringent norms to safeguard the environment from wastes and carbon pollutions. The government has implemented numerous severe stratagems to fortify the environment and is motivating the usage of this product for various applications involving energy production, livestock feeding, and others. This aids in decreasing waste and the energy generated through this have no harmful impacts on the environment.

Industry Developments:

June 2021 – Airex Energy and SUEZ Group have teamed together to improve the capacity of producing biochar from biomass leftovers expecting to increase the capacity of 10,000 to 30,000 tonnes per year.

List of Key Players Mentioned in the Report:


Quick Buy –  Biochar Market Size Research Report: https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/checkout-page/100750


Key Benefits for Biochar Market:

Regional Insights:

Asia Pacific has led the global market in 2020. The latent importance of the region in soil improvement and carbon sequestration is the prime navigating force behind this sector.

North America held the second-largest biochar market share across the world and is likely to see significant expansion due to the rising demand for organic food and high meat consumption.

Europe is another primary region for this market. The market is extending owing to the plenty of forestry excess in Europe.

Competitive Landscape:

Crucial Companies Engage in Pivotal Contracts to Promote Market Growth

The fundamental players in the market incessantly root for effective tactics to bolster their brand value as well as endorse the global biochar market growth of the product with facing least imaginable hurdles. One such operative policy is getting involved in fundamental agreements and further fortifying a profit for both the companies.


Have Any Query? Ask Our Experts: https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/enquiry/speak-to-analyst/biochar-market-100750

 

Biochar Market Segmentation:

By Technology:

By Application:

Table of Contents

Continued…


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Co-pyrolysis of biomass and phosphate tailing to produce potential phosphorus-rich biochar

6 October, 2022
 

Application of biochar to treat heavy metal polluted wastewater has received increasing attention; however, the immobilization ability of pristine biochar for metal ions is still limited. In this study, phosphate tailing was co-pyrolyzed with sawdust and peanut shell to acquire phosphorus-rich biochars with high removal rates for Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cu. Meanwhile, the improvement mechanisms by phosphate tailing were clarified by XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS, BET-N2, and model fitting. Results showed that after phosphate tailing impregnation, surface area of sawdust, and peanut shell biochars increased from to 11.6 m2 g−1, and from 43.5 to 53.4 m2 g−1, respectively. Functional groups of -COOH and CO32− on biochar increased and the P2O74− newly generated. Besides, large amounts of Ca(PO3)2 and Ca2P2O7 crystals were detected in biochar ash. As for sawdust biochar, loading of phosphate tailing raised the sorption rates of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cu by 0.35, 0.61, 1.10, and 2.64 times, respectively, as for peanut shell biochar, it was raised by 0.12, 0.47, 0.11, and 1.98 times, respectively. The sorption isotherms by phosphate tailing-loaded biochars were better fitted to Langmuir (R2 = 0.85–1.00) than Freundlich model (R2 = 0.58–0.91). Heavy metals could bind with -OH and -COOH on phosphate tailing-loaded biochars, meanwhile generated phosphorus-rich precipitation with PO3 and P2O74+, including Cd2P2O7, Cd(PO3)2, Zn (PO3)2, Pb (PO3)2, Pb2P2O7, Cu(PO3)2, and Cu2P2O7. This study proposed an innovative method to produce phosphorus-rich biochars by loading phosphate tailing for highly efficient removal of heavy metals from water bodies, and also realized the resource utilization of phosphate tailing, which was of great significance to reduce environmental pollution.

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All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.

This work was supported by the Open Funding of State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Urban Soil Contamination Control and Remediation, and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41907016, No. 42107448).

FY and JFL performed the experiment; FY and YYZ contributed significantly to analysis and manuscript preparation; FY and SW performed the data analyses and wrote the manuscript; JKSM helped perform the analysis with constructive discussions. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Jingke Sima.

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The authors declare no competing interests

Responsible editor: Zhihong Xu

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Received: 03 July 2022

Accepted: 15 September 2022

Published: 06 October 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-23128-z

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Linkedin Marketing Strategy and LinkedIn Content Writing for Sustainable CO2-Removing …

6 October, 2022
 


Efficient phosphate recycling by adsorption on alkaline sludge biochar – Springer

6 October, 2022
 

Large amounts of septic tank sludges from sanitation facilities are either landfilled or illegally dumped into the natural environment, leading to environmental pollution and waste of resources. This issue calls for advanced methods to recycle septic tank sludges such as sustainable adsorbents to recycle phosphorus, e.g., in agriculture, in the context of the circular economy. Here, we hypothesized that alkaline septic tank sludge biochar could be an efficient adsorbent to recycle phosphate from wastewater. We first prepared raw biochar by pyrolysis of septic tank sludge at 500 °C. Then, we prepared alkaline biochar by pyrolysis at 800 °C of mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and raw biochar at 3/1, 4/1 and 5/1 mass ratios. We studied biochar properties by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and we quantified adsorption of phosphates by biochars. Results show that phosphate adsorption highly increases with KOH content, from 27.83 mg/g for the raw biochar to 42.51 mg/g for the 5/1 KOH-biochar. This trend is explained by the increase in biochar surface area from 64.214 m2/g for the raw biochar to 82.901 m2/g for the 5/1 KOH-biochar, and by the improvement of the structural properties and surface morphology of KOH-biochars. Overall, alkaline biochar appears as a promising adsorbent to recycle phosphates from wastewaters.

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Biochar obtained by pyrolysis of septic tank sludge at 500 °C

Biochars prepared by pyrolysis of mixtures of potassium hydroxide and raw biochar at 3/1, 4/1, or 5/1 mass ratios

Scanning electron microscope

X-ray diffractometry

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

Barrett–Joyner–Halenda

Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method

The authors would like to acknowledge the co-funding of this work by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.52070130) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (No.22ZR1443200).

Zehui Liu and Hongbo Liu contribute equally to this work.

Correspondence to Hongbo Liu.

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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Received: 09 July 2022

Accepted: 21 September 2022

Published: 06 October 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-022-01527-5

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6 October, 2022
 


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6 October, 2022
 

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Biochar Application in Soil Management Systems | IntechOpen

6 October, 2022
 

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Home > Books > Biochar – Productive Technologies, Properties and Application [Working Title]

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Due to its potential for improving soil fertility and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, biochar is frequently used as a soil amendment. This chapter presents an overview of its application and soil conditioning mechanisms as a technique for long-term carbon sequestration and lower greenhouse gas emissions, as well as an option for improving soil fertility. It focuses on biochar amendment for improved soil properties that support plant nutrient uptake and crop yield improvement, soil properties and biochar carbon sequestration dynamics, biochar degradation processes, and soil interactions and conditioning mechanisms that influence biochar carbon stability in soils. Current biochar stability assessment techniques used in academic studies are also addressed, along with their suitability for use with various goals and situations.

Sustainable soil management in agriculture aims at developing economically sound and environmentally safe crop management systems that build the quality of soils while being utilized for food production. Such systems are associated with efficient management of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil fertility, the credible measurement of which Lal [1] regarded as an indicator of soil quality and health. Biochar, which the International Biochar Initiative defined as a solid material derived from the thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment, has received wide attention in the past two decades for its documented potential to improve soil fertility and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

Studies report that biochar application can enhance soil fertility, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [2], increase stable carbon forms in soil [3], improve nutrient and water retention, reduce heavy metal toxicity [4], and increase soil ability to suppress soil-borne pathogens. Woolf et al. [5] stated that the use of biochar in soil could mitigate as much as 1.8–9.5 Pg (1015 g) carbon dioxide carbon emissions annually, globally.

Biochar’s soil fertility improvement mechanism is through the manipulation of soil properties such as increased soil microbial activity, soil water holding capacity, soil porosity, soil reaction (pH), soil aggregation, soil organic carbon, among others. When these soil physical and chemical properties are improved, soil nutrient retention and uptake to support plant growth improve. Many studies have reported increased agronomical crop performances following biochar amendment such as in Asai et al. [6]; likewise, others, including Butnan et al. [7], have reported none or unfavorable crop yield responses.

A suppression of greenhouse gases emission is another benefit of biochar addition to soil that has been widely proven in earlier research [8, 9]. Biochar’s production in an oxygen-limited environment gives it a chemically recalcitrant carbon-rich solid property, being produced from biomass by heating in an oxygen-limited environment. Although biochar is expected to be largely resistant to biological degradation, research shows that some of its components are relatively easily biodegradable. Thus, several studies have examined its soil and crop yield improvement, and carbon sequestration potential, and widely varying responses have been reported [10, 11]. This has resulted in varying mean resident time (MRT) estimates of biochar-C, ranging from decadal to centennial scales.

The stability of biochar in soil is of high importance to its use as an organic amendment. Lehmann and Rondon [12] defined stability as the determining factor on how long C in biochar will be sequestered (remain in soil) to mitigate climate change and how long a biochar material will continue to benefit soil and plants. The wide variation in research observations has made it very hard to generalize findings on biochar-C stability in soils and thus makes it very important to study its stability in individual soils and under peculiar prevalent environmental conditions. Currently, variations in biochar effects in soils have been attributed mainly but not solely to soil properties such as soil texture and mineralogy, feedstock material, production conditions, environmental characteristics, and the interaction of these elements. Of these factors, biochar feedstock and production conditions are two factors more easily controllable in biochar use in soil.

Biomass pyrolysis is generally classified according to the rate of reaction into slow, fast, and flash pyrolysis. Through the pyrolysis process, biomass can be transformed into bio-oil, syngas, and biochar (the percentage of each component depends on the pyrolysis condition). The two major thermal conversion processes widely used in biochar production, however, are slow and fast pyrolysis [13]. Slow pyrolysis is most widely used and carried out at lower temperatures (~350°C) and heating rates and longer residence times compared with fast pyrolysis (~1000°C), which optimizes biochar yields over energy production.

Lehmann [8] among other researchers found that the chemical and physical properties of biochar depend majorly on the properties of the original feedstock material and the production conditions (essentially temperature and charing time). Ogawa et al. [14] described biochar chemical structure as one containing different aromatic C structures and considered it a transitional form with intermediate properties between carbohydrate-based biomass and graphite carbon that can appear as a microcrystalline structure. The chemical structure also contains macro-, meso-, and micro-pores, which are derived from cellular fractures of plant cells. Downie et al. [15] similarly characterized biochar as having large surface area, which in addition to its chemical properties and structure gives it high sorption capacity as is the case with other organic compounds. Its composition is widely differentiated into a relatively recalcitrant C, labile (leachable C) and ash (Figure 1).

Biochar properties analyzed using proximate and ultimate analytic procedures [9].

Schmidt and Noack [16] reported that the chemical difference between common OM sources and biochar is that it contains a higher proportion of aromatic carbon that has a fused structure, which differs from the aromatic structure seen in other OM sources such as lignin. The fused aromatic structure can also vary, depending on the production temperature. Nguyen et al. [17] stated that these forms can include amorphous and turbostratic C, which occur at low and higher pyrolysis temperatures, respectively. It is this C structure that gives biochar the chemical stability that makes it hard for microorganisms to readily utilize its C, N, and possibly other nutrients it contains as energy source (Figure 2).

a. Microscopic imagery of fresh wood biochar; b. imagery of the surface of aged wood biochar (image source: Joseph et al. [18]).

Lehmann and Joseph [19] reported that a fraction of biochar may be readily utilized or leached, and this fraction depends on the biochar type. Steiner [20] also noted that biochar may stimulate microbial activity and increase their abundance in soil due to its composition of essential macro- and micro-nutrients, which may serve as biological energy substrate. Some of the most important research applications of biochar-aiding soil functioning are as follows: (1) the improvement of soil fertility and adequate biomass production, (2) storage and cycling of carbon, and (3) alleviation of chemical toxicity and sustenance of soil biodiversity. Ever-increasing human populations and the attendant pressures on soil resources have resulted in extensive use of pesticides and other intensive management techniques, which has negative climate change impact, and threatens soil quality and human survival. These factors make the aforementioned potentials of biochar highly attractive in agricultural production today.

This section discusses the applications of biochar along soil fertility and crop yield improvement, carbon storage and cycling, and soil remediation potentials of biochar. Figure 3 shows biochar processes in the environment.

Applications of biochar in soil (image source: [21]).

Improvement in crop yield following biochar amendment has been reported in many previous research studies such as that of Rondon et al. [22] in acidic and weathered tropical soils. Few numbers of research studies such as Husk and Major [23] have also reported positive effects in highly fertile temperate soils. In a meta-analysis, Biederman and Harpole [24] analyzed results of 371 individual studies and found that biochar amendment resulted in higher above-ground crop productivity, soil microbial biomass, K+ concentration in plant tissue, rhizobial nodulation, soil N, P, K+, and C in comparison with control conditions. There was, however, no obvious trend in soil productivity with biochar addition, and crop productivity varied with increase in application rates. Figure 4 shows the properties of biochar from different feedstock materials.

Approximate properties of biochar derived from different feedstock materials (image source: Joseph et al. [18]).

In addition to the neutral or negative effect of biochar recorded in some previous studies, there also appear to be an upper limit beyond which biochar addition does not result in improved crop productivity. Lehmann et al. [25] reported that crop responses to biochar addition were positive at rates up to 55 t/ha, while a reduction in growth was recorded at higher application rates. Rondon et al. [22] on the other hand reported a much higher threshold of 165 t/ha. According to them, biochar application of >165 t/ha to a poor soil in a pot experiment resulted in yield decrease that equaled to that of unamended control.

Some other authors have reported yield decreases at lower levels of application. Asai et al. [6], for example, reported the highest rice yield at 4 t/ha biochar application rate in comparison with 8 and 16 t/ha. They reported that yields dropped to the level of the control treatment at 16 t/ha application rate. Jeffery et al. [26] reported that more positive responses from biochar addition to soil have been reported in pot than in field experiments, in acidic than in neutral soils, and in sandy than in loam and silt soils. Increases in yield in comparison with controls range from <10 to >200%.

Woolf et al. [5] and other authors have proposed biochar use in soil as a means of long-term C sequestration and reduced GHG emission. The main mechanism of biochar-C sequestration is through its incorporation into soil as a highly stabilized C produced through pyrolysis of biomass. Because pyrolysis progresses in the absence of oxygen, the C content of feedstock material is locked in the biochar, which is then applied to soil. Although Lehmann and Rondon [12] reported up to 50% loss of biomass C in biochar production, they reported that a considerably greater fraction of the locked stable C in biochar remained in soil for longer time periods in comparison with direct biomass input in agricultural fields.

Woolf et al. [5] also suggested another potential C negative benefit of biochar as the reduction in emission of CO2 through reduced fertilizer demands to achieve crop yields. This idea is premised on the potential of biochar to improve soil water and nutrient retention capacity of soils. In addition to CO2 emission reduction, Spokas et al. [27] reported reduced N2O emission following biochar addition, and Leng et al. [28] reported that biochar addition resulted in reduced methane (CH4) emission from agricultural soils through the improvement of soil aeration and reduction.

In a meta-analysis, Wang et al. [29] showed that biochar application could stimulate soil CO2 emissions by as much as 28–32% and revealed that average biochar decomposition rate in studies lasting for <6 months was 0.023%/day. This suggests possible priming effects of biochar on SOC or other indirect interactions resulting in CO2 emission from soil following biochar addition. CO2 losses observed in previous research studies following biochar amendment vary widely, and attributed causes include variations in biochar feedstock, production conditions, duration of experiment, and environmental variables.

While Bruun et al. [30] reported cumulative C loss of 2.9 and 5.5% in a sandy loam amended with wheat straw biochar produced from slow and fast pyrolysis, respectively, some other studies such as Fang et al. [31] have reported lower biochar C mineralization rates of 0.1–3% of applied biochar-C mineralized per year. In summary, the carbon sequestration value of biochar is hung on its degradation in soil and the environmental factors that influence it.

Despite the fact that biochar was initially developed as a soil amendment because of its beneficial effects on carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and soil fertility improvement (Spokas et al., 2009) [32], it has recently drawn more attention for its potent ability to lower the bioavailability of pesticides [33, 34]. It has also been acknowledged that the presence of biochar in soil influences the nature of sorption mechanisms and the bioavailability of pesticide residues for living organisms in addition to improving the sorption of various pesticides [35].

By reducing the leaching of sprayed pesticides, the use of biochar in agricultural soils near bodies of water may also successfully lower the risk of pollution of subterranean water [33, 36]. Pesticide sorption ability of biochar have also been reported in previous research [37]. This is accomplished by using biochar’s impacts on pesticide adsorption mechanisms and desorption behavior as a powerful tool to alter pesticide bio-accessibility and toxicological effects.

The repair of contaminated soils has been proposed using procedures such as soil washing, soil flushing, bioremediation, and soil vapor extraction. However, due to limited effectiveness, high maintenance costs, fertility loss, nutrient leaching, and soil erosion, among other factors, these approaches are typically inapplicable in field settings [38]. Application of biochar as an in situ form of amendment for contaminated soil has thus shown promise as a method that represents a financially prudent alternative to address remedial demands [19].

By (1) binding pesticides to minimize their potential motility into water supplies and living beings, and (2) supplying nutrients to encourage plant growth and drive ecological restoration, biochar is a less disruptive approach of remediating pesticide-contaminated soil [39]. Additionally, applying biochar to soil requires only a small amount of pretreatment because it is an organic substance made from biological matter [34].

Khoram et al. [40] studied the functions of biochar in fundamental processes of pesticides in the environment and summarized those roles in remediating pesticide-contaminated soils as follows: (1) enhancing pesticide adsorption capacity; (2) reducing desorption and mobility of pesticides in soil layers; (3) reducing the amount of pesticides that are bioavailable in soil pore water, which is thought to be the portion that is bioavailable to soil organisms; (4) enhancing soil microbial activity by supplying necessary nutrients; and (5) enhancing soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH, CEC, and water holding capacity. Biochar amendment has also been shown to help in the remediation of heavy metal pollution in the environment (Figure 5).

The removal mechanism of heavy metals by biochar [41].

The mode and other application variables of biochar to soil are a group of significant parameters that affect biochar reaction and stability in soil. It is thus important to be mindful that the complete lifecycle costs of handling and using biochar at scale must be kept as low as possible in order to maintain biochar management as a carbon-negative practice.

Wide-varying application rates have been used in previous research, ranging from <5 t/ha to >100 t/ha. IBI (2010) in its biochar fact sheet recommended rates of 2–22 t/ha in field trials and lower levels of 2–5 t/ha for large-scale agricultural use. Handling and application should generally determine particle size. The adsorption of ammonium and hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution was found in tests to be more effective with fine biochar particles [42, 43]. Figure 6 shows biochar particles derived from different feedstock materials.

Particles of biochar derived from different feedstocks.

Comparative studies on soil fertility revealed that cowpea biomass production and nutrient uptake were unaffected by biochar particles with diameters of 1 or 20 mm [44] and 10 mm or less [45]. The specific surface area and the resulting accessibility of binding sites in biochar are, however, characteristics that are expected to vary depending on particle sizes and should be considered in biochar application to soil. A thorough understanding of the relationship between the properties of biochar and its applicability will allow for the establishment of appropriate process conditions to produce a biochar with the desired characteristics.

Currently, there are no standard application rates of biochar to soil for different agricultural aims due to varying responses from numerous tests. Variabilities result from biochar feedstock material and production conditions, among others factors as discussed earlier. These factors influence biochar characteristics including nutrient levels, ash content, carbon recalcitrance, etc., which all influence application rate. Due to the expected recalcitrance of biochar in soil, researchers such as Major et al. [46] suggest that a one-time application could provide positive benefits for more than one growing season.

Studies have, however, shown that unless a biochar material is derived from manure or is blended with nutrient-rich materials, it may not substitute for chemical fertilizers. Research has also shown that the level of biochar application to soil affects soil processes such as carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates [9], which is an important aspect of biochar use for carbon sequestration in soil.

Soil response to biochar has been shown to be a complex physical, chemical, and biological interaction. Kuzyakov et al. [47] among other authors report that the type and rate of interaction between biochar and soil depend on factors such as feedstock composition, conditions of the pyrolysis process, biochar particle size, soil properties, and local environmental conditions. Also, Mukherjee et al. [48] stated that biochar surface area has aromatic and aliphatic functional groups, which facilitate direct and indirect bonds with soil organic and mineral phases to form complexes in the inner core of biochar material. This complex formation may occur through specific bonding between biochar surface functional groups and soil mineral phase, sorption of soil OM on biochar-mineral phase, or through metal-organic cation bridging. Six et al. [49] in an earlier study showed that specific bonding of soil OM and minerals can inhibit the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and enhance aggregate formation.

To measure the influence of production conditions on biochar-C stability, Bamminger et al. [50] applied maize silage biochars produced through pyrolysis at 600°C and hydrothermal carbonization at 220°C to a forest and an arable soil. They reported that 13–16% of the hydrothermal-produced biochar was mineralized in 8 weeks, and the char exerted a positive priming effect on native SOM. On the other hand, 1.4–3% of the pyrolysis biochar was mineralized and a negative (−24 to −38%) priming effect on native SOM was recorded.

Due to the wide variations in mineralization rates of biochar in different research, biochar-C MRT varies widely in the literature. While Keith and Singh [3] in a 3-month soil-biochar incubation experiment reported MRT of 62–248 years, Murray et al. [51] reported half-life time of between 22 and 1506 years, and Wu et al. [52] reported MRT of 617–2829 years. The majority of differences in observations were attributed to influences of biochar, soil, and environmental properties.

Kleber et al. [53] stated that clay type, functional groups and their distribution, the concentration and composition of cations and anions, and the polarity of soil compounds are some of the important factors that determine the interactions between OC and clay mineral surfaces in soil. They further highlighted the possible mechanisms of biochar/minerals interactions in soil such as cation bridging, ligand exchange, H bonding, and direct electrostatic interactions through hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Lehmann and Sohi [54] also suggested that biochar-C may be concentrated within soil microaggregates, which supports the proposal of organo-mineral associations to enhance biochar-C stability in soil.

Brodowski et al. [55] reported higher stabilization of biochar-C in soils of higher clay content. Fang et al. [31] also observed the lowest biochar-C mineralization in a clayey Vertisol and higher mineralization in sandy clayey loam Entisol and sandy Inceptisol. They stated that oxides and oxyhydroxide minerals in an Oxisol contributed more to biochar-C stabilization than smectic minerals in the Vertisol. Research results in contrast to these findings have also been reported. Wattel-Koekkoek et al. [56], for example, in their study reported that there was no relationship between OM content in the clay-sized soil fractions and soil clay mineralogy in six kaolinite- and smectite-dominated soils obtained from different countries.

Many research studies have shown that the mechanisms of biochar degradation in soil are similar to those of other OC sources in soil. They categorized biochar degradation mechanisms into biotic and abiotic oxidative and nonoxidative degradation, and loss due to other phenomena. The biotic degradation path involves the breakdown of biochar materials by soil microorganisms, while the abiotic path involves the surface oxidation and bulk oxidation of biochar confirmed by the fact that CO2 consumption correlates strongly with oxygen consumption during incubation experiments [57].

Another evidence of abiotic oxidative biochar degradation is the report of Bruun et al. [13], which showed that during incubation experiments, there is a lack of lag phase in the release of CO2, which would be expected if soil microorganisms are inoculated in incubation samples. Investigations on the oxidative degradation of biochar by Nguyen et al. [17] also reported a permanent increase in C loss following temperature increase from 30 to 60°C. The increased biochar mineralization despite temperatures that are unfavorable for soils microorganisms suggests the presence of an abiotic degradation pathway.

Many research studies have shown that biochar addition to soil results in an immediate increased CO2 emission that lasts for about 14 days after which it decreases exponentially. As is the case with mineral weathering, water availability, which plays a major role in soil processes such as hydration, hydrolysis, dissolution, carbonation, and decarbonation, is also expected to affect biochar weathering in soil and soil biota activities. Rates of these reactions are expected to depend on the nature of the reaction, biochar type and properties, and pedo-climatic conditions. This is demonstrated in the study by Isimikalu et al. [58], which evaluated the effect of soil moisture and temperature on biochar C degradation. In their study, they found that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and concluded that C losses relating to soil water may be more connected to the leaching of dissolved organic carbon.

In a meta-analysis, Wang et al. [59] discovered that the amount of soil clay, the length of the experiment, the feedstock, and the temperature of the pyrolysis all significantly affect the pace of biochar breakdown. The MRTs of the labile and recalcitrant biochar C pools were calculated to be around 108 days and 556 years, respectively, with pool sizes of 3 and 97%. The findings demonstrated that only a tiny portion of biochar is accessible for degradation and that a significant portion (~97%) directly contributes to long-term carbon sequestration in soil. Additionally, they discovered that the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM; overall mean: 3.8%, 95% CI = 8.1–0.8%) was modestly delayed by the addition of biochar in comparison with soil without the amendment.

The C storage value of biochar materials is commonly assessed by the fraction of biochar-C that remains in soil for >100 years [60]. This proposition is based on the 100-year time horizon used in assessing the global warming potential of GHGs following IPCC [61], which is used in defining permanence in carbon offset. To determine longer-term stability from short-term measurements (research), data are extrapolated to 100 years’ duration. Figure 7 shows biochar decomposition trends in from several studies and feedstock types.

Relationships between the decomposed amount (A) and rates of decomposition (B) using 128 observations of different feedstock biochar-derived CO2 from 24 studies with stable (13C) and radioactive (14C) carbon isotopes. The dotted line indicates the 95% confidence band (source: Wang et al., [59]).

IBI [60] categorized biochar stability testing methods into three: alpha, beta, and gamma methods based on the measuring techniques and working principles of the systems. Also, Leng et al. [62] categorized and ranked C stability testing methods into three as follows: analysis of biochar-C structure and composition, determination of biochar oxidation resistance, and evaluation of biochar persistence through incubation and modeling. This classification corresponds to alpha, gamma and beta methods, respectively, under IBI [60] categorization.

According to Leng et al. [62], only biochar persistence measurement through incubation and modeling gives the specific duration of biochar-C in soil and thus regarded it as the core method of biochar stability assessment, which serves as the basis of the other two methods. This is because analyzing biochar-C structure, composition, and oxidation resistance only shows a relative stability and not the actual persistence unless they are correlated with incubation and modeling data.

Alpha methods are the cheapest and are used to execute routine estimations of biochar stability. The methods are time conserving—in the range of hours, and two of these alpha methods are mainly used in scientific research. These are the determination of volatile matter (VM) content and determination of hydrogen to OC (H/Corg) and oxygen to C (O/C ratio) molar ratio [60]. They are regarded as indirect methods of stability measurement and require calibration using a beta or gamma method.

Beta methods of biochar stabilization measurement currently most used in research studies are the laboratory and field-based incubations and to a lesser extent, the field-based chronosequence measurements [60]. Beta methods are applied in combination with modeling in order to estimate biochar loss and stability over a period much longer than the incubation duration. An attribute of these methods is that they directly quantify biochar loss over a certain time period. Using the knowledge gained by the beta techniques, an alpha method can be calibrated to provide a quick tool to estimate biochar stability. The time required to conduct a beta stability test is, however, much longer in comparison with an alpha test, and they consequently cost more.

Incubation experiments could be executed in a laboratory environment or in natural field conditions. In laboratory incubation, soil samples are incubated in the absence of plant roots. In the field, however, CO2 emissions may represent C decomposition and root respiration. In order to separate CO2 sources in this type of studies, isotopic labeling of C is required, which both requires intensive instrumentation and costs that may not be readily available to researchers.

Zimmerman [57] showed that many studies use a simple evaluation that measures the total CO2 efflux that does not require CO2 source measurement. In such an assay, biochar-C mineralization is not separated from SOC mineralization, and the priming effect of each component on the other cannot be assessed. A common way of determining C loss from different sources in this type of trial is to deduct C loss under control treatment from losses under amended treatments.

The trend of C mineralization from previous studies shows that C decomposition decreases until it reaches a constant rate 600–700 days after incubation. This, according to Chao et al. [63], possibly indicates that the biochar-C left may have a higher level of stability. Due to this phenomenon, incubation duration is seen as an important factor in biochar stability determination. The effect of this is that longer incubation time results in higher MRT owing to the lower rates of mineralization used for modeling. Generally, C mineralization experiments have lasted from 14 days to 8.5 years in the study by Kuzyakov et al. [64].

Kuzyakov et al. [64] in their 8.5 years’ research reported that labile form of biochar-C was mineralized almost completely after about 3.5 years of incubation, and only about 6% of added biochar-C was mineralized in 8.5 years. Leng et al. [62] among other researchers therefore suggest that studies spanning less than 2 years may only reflect the mineralization of the labile component of biochar-C and recommend care in extrapolating C MRT with such data to avoid underestimation. Long duration of experimentation allows a long enough time to discriminate labile and recalcitrant C pools, which facilitates the use of a two-pool model for extrapolation, thereby taking care of the differences in mineralization rates of different OC pools.

Chronosequence measurements are taken from a sequence of soil samples at varying time intervals starting from the time biochar is applied [60]. Based on the obtained data, the long-term stability of biochar is estimated using a model. A disadvantage of this technique, however, is that results are affected by transport processes such as erosion and leaching. As such, the technique is less commonly used.

As defined by IBI [60], gamma methods use measurements of molecular properties and chemical composition related to the long-term stability of an OC material. The equipment needed to perform these tests are very expensive, but require a short time to complete. Gamma methods are very reliable and are often used to calibrate alpha and to lesser extent beta methods, which can be used for routine analysis. Examples of gamma stability tests commonly used are different kinds of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, analytical pyrolysis, and a method based on the amount of polycarboxylic acids.


Economic efficiency of biochar as an amendment for Acacia mangium Willd. plantations

6 October, 2022
 

Biochar is a product of pyrolysis obtained from any type of biomass and can be used as a soil amendment or conditioner, improving the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil. Additionally, it can serve as an alternative to the application of synthetic fertilization in forest species such as Acacia mangium Willd. This research was oriented towards the determination of the economic efficiency of the use of biochar in A. mangium compared to the use of synthetic fertilizers. Production costs of wood and by-products, income and profits from forestry, economic efficiency of capital (cost-benefit ratio), labor (wood production per worker), and land (wood production ha-1) were considered. We found that the production of wood using biochar increased by 47% per unit area (ha), by 23% per unit of work (worker), and increased earnings by approximately one million Colombian pesos ha-1 compared to the use of only synthetic fertilizers.

Key words: costs; income; labor efficiency; land efficiency; profitability

El biocarbón es el producto de la pirólisis que se obtiene de cualquier tipo de biomasa y puede ser usado como enmienda o acondicionador para mejorar las propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo. Además, se puede utilizar como una alternativa para reemplazar la aplicación de fertilizantes sintéticos en especies forestales como Acacia mangium Willd. Esta investigación se orientó hacia la determinación de la eficiencia económica del uso del biocarbón en A. mangium frente al uso de fertilizantes sintéticos. Se consideraron costos de producción de madera y subproductos, los ingresos y ganancias de la actividad forestal, la eficiencia económica del capital (relación costo-beneficio), del trabajo (producción de madera por trabajador) y de la tierra (producción de madera ha-1). Se encontró que la producción de madera con biocarbón se incrementó en un 47% por unidad de superficie (ha), en un 23% por unidad de trabajo (trabajador) y las ganancias aumentaron en aproximadamente un millón de pesos colombianos ha-1 respecto al uso de sólo fertilizantes sintéticos.

Palabras clave: costos; ingresos; eficiencia del trabajo; eficiencia de la tierra; rentabilidad

Economic efficiency in agriculture, which includes forestry, is reflected in a better production with the same number of resources or the same production with a lower number of resources. Better production refers to a greater quantity, better quality, higher diversity, or a mixture of the above. For economic efficiency, the prices of resources and products at the time of their measurement are important. It is also important to consider the physical, social, environmental, and political context of the agricultural production being analyzed. Globally, from 1990 to 2020, the increase in planted forest area was 123 million ha, reaching 294 million ha (FAO & UNEP, 2020). In Colombia, the registered area of commercial forest plantations for 2016 was approximately 470,000 ha (Martínez et al., 2016).

The cultivation and use of forest species in Colombia are mainly aimed at obtaining wood. However, other additional uses are gaining value, such as the use of forest residues. Proper management of forest residues brings some benefits, such as avoiding contamination in situ and the nearby ecosystems. Additionally, these residues constitute a good source of improvement that, in turn, can reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers (Arvanitoyannis et al., 2006).

If organic waste, including that of forest species, is subjected to a thermal conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment, a solid, fine-grained, and porous product with a high content of organic carbon called biochar is obtained from the pyrolyzed material (IBI, 2013; Ippolito, Donnelly, & Grob, 2015). Biochar stands out for absorbing nutrients and water and reducing the bulk density of the soil (Lehmann, 2007; Reddy et al., 2013). Given its stability in the environment (Ippolito, Spokas, et al., 2015), biochar generates environmental benefits associated with the reduction of CO2 in the atmosphere through carbon sequestration in the soil increasing the organic matter content of the soil, and economic benefits by generating emission quantifiers for GHG or CERTS and carbon credits (Antle & McCarl, 2002; Lehmann et al., 2003; Post et al., 2004). These benefits have allowed biochar to be currently considered as an environmental alternative to the use of synthetic fertilizers in forestry production.

Forest crops such as Acacia mangium generate organic residues that are not yet being used properly. In the department of Meta, nine years after cultivation was established, 1 t of biomass was produced for every four usable trees (CONIF, 2013). Thus, in a plantation with a density of 400 plants ha-1, an average of 100 t ha-1 of biomass is obtained, whereas in the studied plot this biomass is obtained after 12 years under the same conditions. Of the total biomass, 40% remains in the field as waste, 40% remains in the sawmill as waste, and only 20% is used as wood (SIOC, 2018). These 80 t ha-1 of unused residue could be converted into 24 t ha-1 of biochar at an efficiency of 30%. The use of this biochar in the same forest crop to replace synthetic fertilizers could have consequent favorable economic and environmental effects.

The economic efficiency of biochar as an amendment was analyzed in a commercial forest plantation of A. mangium located in Colombia. This research studied the costs, income, and efficiency of labor, land (yield) and capital (profitability) for the use of biochar vs. the use of synthetic fertilizers in A. mangium to determine whether the application of biochar in the soil of an A. mangium agroecosystem is viable in economic terms, compared to the conventional agronomic practices of the same plantation.

The study was carried out in the Planas village, located in the municipality of Puerto Gaitán, department of Meta (Colombia), (between 3°05′ and 4°08′ N, and between 71°05′ and 72°30′ W). The area has an average annual temperature of 30°C and a total annual rainfall of around 2,300 mm with a bimodal pattern. The soils that dominate the region are Oxisols and Ultisols. In the Planas village, the soils are Typic Troporthents, shallow and low in bases (IDEAM, 2013). In Planas, there is a commercial A. mangium crop belonging to an associative forestry company. At the time of the study, the A. mangium crop had an area of 2,100 ha in different stages of development. The first plantations were established in 2008. Between 2017 and 2018, a field trial was carried out on this company’s facilities, which served as the basis for the elaboration of a doctoral thesis from which the data for the present article were taken (Reyes Moreno, 2018). Under the same edaphoclimatic conditions of the forest farm, two comparative forms of timber production with different nutrition models were considered: a “standard” crop (ST), with the use of a synthetic fertilizer (“Triple 15” or 15-1515: nitrogen (N) 15%, phosphorus (P2O5) 15%, potassium (K2O) 15%, YARA, Colombia) and an “optimal” crop (OP) with biochar and synthetic fertilizer applications. The biochar was applied once at the beginning, while the synthetic fertilizer was applied every year in both scenarios. A “real” analysis was performed for ST, and a projection, with data that came from a statistical analysis of response surface (Reyes-Moreno et al., 2019), was performed for OP of management and harvesting activities (pruning, thinning, and cutting). The first pruning was carried out in the first year of establishment and then every 15 months. The first thinning was performed in the fifth year and the second in the ninth year. The thinnings provided saleable timber. After the two thinnings, the crop was left with a density of 400 trees ha-1 until the time of cutting, which was carried out in year 12. The projected cultural activities of the trial were those corresponding to commercial cultivation and consisted of pruning and thinning. The first pruning was carried out in the first year of establishment, then every 15 months. The thinning was carried out in the fifth and ninth years. Thinning also provided saleable timber material. After thinning, the crop was left with 400 trees ha-1 until the time of cutting.

The biochar was obtained from the same plantation according to the methodology of Jouiad et al. (2015). Thinning and pruning residues from the commercial A. mangium plantation were subjected to slow pyrolysis with a residence time of 14 h and temperatures between 350°C and 400°C in two pyrolytic furnaces (made with local technology) located in the same plantation.

The field information was obtained in two different phases: during the nursery phase, which lasted three months (April to June 2017), and during the initial growth phase in the field with a duration of one year (July 2017 to July 2018). The field trial consisted in a comparison of the effects of synthetic fertilization and the application of biochar on the growth and biomass gain of the A. mangium crop, allowing a projection of future production. The treatments with three replicates are shown in Table 1.

Estimates of the wood volume in OP were made using the volume equation of a truncated cone, using the height and radii of the lower and upper bases of the trunk (Eq. 1). Measurements were carried out with a caliper for the radii and tape measure for the height. This approach was confirmed with a destructive pilot sampling to discard the use of the form factor and use the convenience of the truncated cone instead of the oblique one, since it is the most similar three-dimensional geometric shape in practice for the age of the plantation. For the process of optimizing the volume of A. mangium wood, two applications of fertilizer were carried out to the soil, each at two concentrations, adjusting a second order model design. In the model, two treatment levels were used, namely 40 and 80 t ha-1 of biochar and 50 and 100 g of synthetic fertilizer per plant. Finally, in this analysis, data were obtained for the application of 63.1 t ha-1 of biochar at transplanting (seeding) and 84.4 g/plant per year of synthetic “Triple 15” fertilizer. This was done once at crop establishment (Reyes-Moreno et al., 2019).

where A = area, Π = 3,141592, and r = stem radius.

Projected timber production in the ST was calculated through a nonlinear regression developed from the information collected in the above-mentioned trial. To calculate the projection of wood volume (Tab. 2) in the ST, a nonlinear regression was used (Eq. 2):

where V was the estimated volume (cm3/plant), E(Vt) was the expected value of the volume given the explanatory variable associated with time (Ln is the natural logarithm), and t was time in years.

In the ST crop, 100 g/plant per year of synthetic fertilizer was applied as a crown at the base of each tree.

The plant density in the plantation in the first year was 1,000 plants ha-1.

Apart from logging, the plantation provides indirect services associated with carbon fixation. The carbon credits corresponded to one metric ton of CO2 verified by an entity governed by ICONTEC standards. Regarding the carbon reservoir, biomass above ground was considered (only living wood), where 240,000 t were quantified with a value per ton of 15,000 Colombian pesos (in 2018).

The variables used were production costs, income and, therefore, profits and profitability. Additionally, the efficiency of labor and land use for the crops under study were compared (Tab. 3).

Table 4 shows the differences between the standard and optimal systems in terms of production.

Production costs by stages

Production in the entire cycle in OP is approximately 2% less expensive than in ST (Tab. 5). On average, 1 ha of the A. mangium crop costs approximately 30 million pesos per 12-year cycle (2.5 million pesos per year).

ST: 100 g/plant per year of 15-15-15 used for fertilization. OP: 63.1 t ha-1 of biochar plus 84.4 g/plant per year of 15-15-15 used for fertilization.

Production costs by factors

Direct costs, made up of inputs and labor, are 20% and 23% of total costs for OP and ST, respectively; indirect costs, made up of fixed assets, services and land, are 80% and 77% for OP and ST, respectively. Thus, this activity is high in demand for investment (capital), with a return in the medium (5 years) and long term (9-12 years). Fixed assets are the costs with the highest proportion (64-65%), followed by inputs (13-15%), services (10%), labor (7-8%) and land (4%) (Tab. 6).

Fixed assets (ST): seeder machine (1), chainsaws (3), tractors (3), vehicles (1), sawmills (1), finger machine (1), power plant (2), biochar furnaces (2) and facilities (3 houses, 4 cabins and a dining room).

Fixed assets (OP): seeder machine (1), chainsaws (3), tractors (3), vehicles (1), sawmills (1), finger machine (1), power plant (2), biochar furnaces (4) and facilities (3 houses, 4 cabins and a dining room).

Inputs (ST): pesticides 25 L ha-1/12-year cycle, synthetic fertilizer 900 kg ha-1/12 years, gasoline (18,500 gallons/12-year cycle). Inputs (OP): pesticides 25 L ha-1/12-year cycle, synthetic fertilizer 747 kg ha-1/12 years, gasoline (2050 gallons/12-year cycle). Workforce (ST): workers: 84 salaries/12 years. Labor force (OP): workers: 102 salaries/12 years.

Services (ST): consulting (6), maintenance (5), secretary (1), manager (1) and accountant (1). Services (OP): consulting (6), maintenance (5), secretary (1), manager (1) and accountant (1). Land: purchase of land.

Regarding production factors, OP and ST differ fundamentally in labor and the use of fertilizer and biochar. The OP uses more labor than the ST in harvesting and pyrolysis due to higher production, and the ST uses more labor than the OP in the annual application of fertilizer.

Income from forestry is generated by producing charcoal, wood and by fixing CO2 (carbon credits). The main business is the production of wood.

According to the projected yields, the OP obtains 47% more wood production (78 m3 ha-1) than the ST (53 m3 ha-1). The first harvest at year 5 generates 18% of the total wood production, the second at year 9 generates 31%, and the third at year 12 generates 51% (Tab. 7). The production of charcoal from year 5 generates income to cover part of the labor costs (Tab. 8).

The OP has higher income due to higher production and lower production costs due to less use of synthetic fertilizers. Its profitability is approximately 1.60 compared to 1.05 for the ST (Tab. 9).

The OP is also superior to the ST in terms of labor efficiency. Thus, a worker in the OP produces approximately 23% more wood than in the ST in a 12-year cycle (Tab. 10).

A worker is active 44 h a week with a monthly salary of $900,000 Colombian pesos (in 2018). Year 1 is dedicated to the nursery and establishment. Years 2 to 8, 10 and 11 are dedicated to management. Year 5 is the first thinning and year 9 the second thinning (wood harvest). Year 12 is of wood harvest.

The expected average production of wood ha-1 is 53 m3 and 78 m3 in the ST and OP respectively; that is, the OP is 47% more efficient in land use than ST. Additionally, OP earnings are approximately 10 times more than ST earnings (Tab. 11).

The cost difference between the ST and OP systems is relatively small. The OP costs are 2% lower than ST for 185 USD ha-1. However, this small difference is part of the economic advantage of the OP system over the ST system. The application of biochar, like the application of fertilizers, has a cost. Although this study did not focus on this, Williams and Arnott (2010) give us an idea in this regard. Depending on the quantity (2.5 – 50 t ha-1) and the application method (broadcast-and-disk and trench-and-fill), the costs found were between 29 and 300 USD ha-1. The great advantage of using biochar is the increased yield; the OP system has 25 rrr3 more production (47%) than the ST system. Higher production and a lower cost lead to an even higher profit, with 60% in the OP system and only 5% in the ST system. The economic advantages of using biochar are also reflected in the efficiency of the use of land and labor resources. The OP system needs more work, but by producing more, it obtains 23% more wood per worker and 47% more per ha of land than the ST system. The economic efficiency of capital is measured through profitability. In our case, the difference between both systems is remarkable. In other studies, such as those of Maraseni (2010), positive results were also found with the addition of biochar. The researchers found that the income per kilogram of wheat went from USD$1098.84 to USD$1741 t ha-1 when biochar was applied to the soil. However, in other trials such as those of Ringius (2002), the financial returns of different agricultural practices with the application of various biofuels oscillated between 4.1 and -1.3, values below those found in this research.

The cost of producing A. mangium wood under an optimal system (with the use of biochar) is slightly lower than that of a conventional system (with the use of a synthetic-based fertilizer). The production cost in the optimal system includes the purchase of equipment and machinery for the pyrolysis of the organic remains of the plantation as well as the production and use of biochar as a basic addition. Fixed assets make up a large part of the costs.

The higher production of wood (about 50% more) in the optimal system (with the use of biochar) compared to the conventional system increases income and, therefore, profit. Thus, the economic profitability (cost-benefit ratio) of the A. mangium crop is 1.60 under an OP whereas under the ST it reaches only 1.05.

The efficiency of labor in the OP is 23% higher than in the ST. OP land efficiency is also higher since the OP produces 47% more wood per ha than the ST.

Thus, from the economic point of view, the OP production of A. mangium is more favorable than the ST production; thus, the system becomes an economic and environmentally friendly alternative to produce wood of this species.

The authors would like to thank Minciencias for the scholarship granted to Giovanni Reyes M. We would also like to thank professors Santiago Sáenz and Maria E. Fernández for their collaboration in the review of this document and the working group of the company Cooperación Verde for the layout of the plantation to carry out the field work.

Author’s contributions GRM participated in the conceptualization of the initial project from which this article originates, as well as in the data curation, supervision, formal analysis, and research. JCBF wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript, and supervised the research activity. EDC participated in the formal analysis and supervision of the research.

Received: June 01, 2021; Accepted: April 25, 2022


WasteX (@wastexio) / Twitter

6 October, 2022
 

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Influence of Aged Wood Biochar on Mycorrhizal Colonisation, Growth and Leaf Gas …

6 October, 2022
 

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Maseka, P.; Sarcheshmehpour, M.; Solaiman, Z.M. Influence of Aged Wood Biochar on Mycorrhizal Colonisation, Growth and Leaf Gas Exchange of Wheat and Clover with Different Water Regimes. Agronomy 2022, 12, 2420. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102420

Maseka P, Sarcheshmehpour M, Solaiman ZM. Influence of Aged Wood Biochar on Mycorrhizal Colonisation, Growth and Leaf Gas Exchange of Wheat and Clover with Different Water Regimes. Agronomy. 2022; 12(10):2420. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102420

Maseka, Peter, Mehdi Sarcheshmehpour, and Zakaria M. Solaiman. 2022. “Influence of Aged Wood Biochar on Mycorrhizal Colonisation, Growth and Leaf Gas Exchange of Wheat and Clover with Different Water Regimes” Agronomy 12, no. 10: 2420. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12102420

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Biochar Market Size Worth USD 365 Million, Globally, by 2028 at 12.1% CAGR

6 October, 2022
 

According to Fortune Business Insights, the global Biochar market size is projected to grow from USD 149.2 Million in 2020 to USD 365 Million in 2028, at CAGR of 12.1% during forecast period;

Pune, India, Oct. 06, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — The global Biochar Market was USD 149.2 Million in 2020. The global market size is expected to be grow from USD 164.5 million in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 365.0 million by 2028, exhibiting a CAGR of 12.1% during the forecast period from 2021-2028. This information is provided by Fortune Business Insights, in its report, titled, Biochar Market, 2021-2028.

According to our analysts, the factors such as growing government policies for environmental protection and growing utilization of biochar for livestock feed to propel market growth amplified market growth.


Request a Sample Copy of the Research Report: https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/enquiry/sample/biochar-market-100750


Report Highlights:


COVID-19 Impact Analysis-

COVID-19 Pandemic to Majorly Impact Power Projects due to Stringent Government Norms

The government across several nations had to enforce nationwide lockdowns & numerous limitations in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The supply chain got interrupted and the government has also executed travel and transportation prohibitions. Numerous biochar projects were delayed and prime industries were also shut around the world that has dropped demand for power across the globe. The agriculture segment has unfavorable impacts owing to the pandemic, which further deteriorated this market.


To get to know more about the short-term and long-term impact of COVID-19 on this market, please visit: https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/industry-reports/biochar-market-100750


Drivers and Restraints:

The consciousness about environmental protection is expansively surging across the globe. People are requesting stringent norms to safeguard the environment from wastes and carbon pollutions. The government has implemented numerous severe stratagems to fortify the environment and is motivating the usage of this product for various applications involving energy production, livestock feeding, and others. This aids in decreasing waste and the energy generated through this have no harmful impacts on the environment.

Industry Developments:

June 2021 – Airex Energy and SUEZ Group have teamed together to improve the capacity of producing biochar from biomass leftovers expecting to increase the capacity of 10,000 to 30,000 tonnes per year.

List of Key Players Mentioned in the Report:


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Key Benefits for Biochar Market:

Regional Insights:

Asia Pacific has led the global market in 2020. The latent importance of the region in soil improvement and carbon sequestration is the prime navigating force behind this sector.

North America held the second-largest biochar market share across the world and is likely to see significant expansion due to the rising demand for organic food and high meat consumption.

Europe is another primary region for this market. The market is extending owing to the plenty of forestry excess in Europe.

Competitive Landscape:

Crucial Companies Engage in Pivotal Contracts to Promote Market Growth

The fundamental players in the market incessantly root for effective tactics to bolster their brand value as well as endorse the global biochar market growth of the product with facing least imaginable hurdles. One such operative policy is getting involved in fundamental agreements and further fortifying a profit for both the companies.


Have Any Query? Ask Our Experts: https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/enquiry/speak-to-analyst/biochar-market-100750

Biochar Market Segmentation:

By Technology:

By Application:

Table of Contents

Continued


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Biochar Pb Bioaccessibility – EPA Environmental Dataset Gateway

6 October, 2022
 


Global Granular Biochar Market Seeking Excellent Growth Key Players:Diacarbon Energy …

7 October, 2022
 

Los Angeles-United State October 2022:  QY Research has recently published a research report titled, “Global  Granular Biochar  MarketMarket Report, History and Forecast 2017-2028, Breakdown Data by Manufacturers, Key Regions, Types and Application” assessing various factors impacting its trajectory. The global  Granular Biochar market report offers a high-quality, accurate, and comprehensive research study to equip players with valuable insights for making strategic business choices. The research analysts have provided deep segmental analysis of the global  Granular Biochar market on the basis of type, application, and geography. The vendor landscape is also shed light upon to inform readers about future changes in the market competition. As part of the competitive analysis, the report includes detailed company profiling of top players of the global  Granular Biochar market. Players can also use the value chain analysis and Porter’s Five Forces analysis offered in the report for strengthening their position in the global  Granular Biochar market.

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 Leading players of the global  Granular Biochar market are analyzed by taking into account their market share, recent developments, new product launches, partnerships, mergers or acquisitions, and markets served. We also provide an exhaustive analysis of their product portfolios to explore the products and applications they concentrate on when operating in the global  Granular Biochar market. Furthermore, the report offers two separate market forecasts – one for the production side and another for the consumption side of the global  Granular Biochar market. It also provides useful recommendations for new as well as established players of the global  Granular Biochar market.

Key Players Mentioned in the Global  Granular Biochar  Market Research Report: Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra

 Global  Granular Biochar  Market by Type: Text Wood Source Biochar, Corn Source Biochar, Wheat Source Biochar, Others

Global  Granular Biochar  Market by Application: Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

All of the segments studied in the research study are analyzed on the basis of BPS, market share, revenue, and other important factors. Our research study shows how different segments are contributing to the growth of the global  Granular Biochar market. It also provides information on key trends related to the segments included in the report. This helps market players to concentrate on high-growth areas of the global  Granular Biochar market. The research study also offers separate analysis on the segments on the basis of absolute dollar opportunity.

The authors of the report have analyzed both developing and developed regions considered for the research and analysis of the global  Granular Biochar  market. The regional analysis section of the report provides an extensive research study on different regional and country-wise  Granular Biochar markets to help players plan effective expansion strategies. Moreover, it offers highly accurate estimations on the CAGR, market share, and market size of key regions and countries. Players can use this study to explore untapped  Granular Biochar markets to extend their reach and create sales opportunities.

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This  Granular Biochar  Market Research Report Contains Answers to your following Questions

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(B) Who Are the Global Key Players in This  Granular Biochar  Market? What’s Their Company Profile, Their Product Information, and Contact Information?

(C) What Was the Global Market Status of  Granular Biochar  Market? What Was Capacity, Production Value, Cost, and PROFIT of  Granular Biochar  Market?

(D) What Is the Current Market Status of the Granular Biochar  Industry? What’s Market Competition in This Industry, Both Company, and Country Wise? What’s Market Analysis of  Granular Biochar  Market by Taking Applications and Types in Consideration?

(E) What Are Projections of Global  Granular Biochar  Industry Considering Capacity, Production, and Production Value? What Will Be the Estimation of Cost and Profit? What Will Be Market Share, Supply, and Consumption? What about imports and Export?

(F) What Is  Granular Biochar  Market Chain Analysis by Upstream Raw Materials and Downstream Industry?

(G) What Is Economic Impact On  Granular Biochar  Industry? What are Global Macroeconomic Environment Analysis Results? What Are Global Macroeconomic Environment Development Trends?

(H) What Are Market Dynamics of  Granular Biochar  Market? What Are Challenges and Opportunities?

(I) What Should Be Entry Strategies, Countermeasures to Economic Impact, Marketing Channels for  Granular Biochar  Industry?

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Table of Content

1 Granular Biochar Market Overview
1.1 Granular Biochar Product Overview
1.2 Granular Biochar Market Segment by Type
1.2.1 Wood Source Biochar
1.2.2 Corn Source Biochar
1.2.3 Wheat Source Biochar
1.2.4 Others
1.3 Global Granular Biochar Market Size by Type
1.3.1 Global Granular Biochar Market Size Overview by Type (2017-2028)
1.3.2 Global Granular Biochar Historic Market Size Review by Type (2017-2022)
1.3.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2017-2022)
1.3.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2017-2022)
1.3.2.3 Global Granular Biochar Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2017-2022)
1.3.3 Global Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Type (2023-2028)
1.3.3.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2023-2028)
1.3.3.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2023-2028)
1.3.3.3 Global Granular Biochar Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2023-2028)
1.4 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Type
1.4.1 North America Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2017-2022)
1.4.2 Europe Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2017-2022)
1.4.3 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2017-2022)
1.4.4 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2017-2022)
1.4.5 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2017-2022)
2 Global Granular Biochar Market Competition by Company
2.1 Global Top Players by Granular Biochar Sales (2017-2022)
2.2 Global Top Players by Granular Biochar Revenue (2017-2022)
2.3 Global Top Players Granular Biochar Price (2017-2022)
2.4 Global Top Manufacturers Granular Biochar Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type
2.5 Granular Biochar Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 Granular Biochar Market Concentration Rate (2017-2022)
2.5.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Manufacturers by Granular Biochar Sales and Revenue in 2021
2.6 Global Top Manufacturers by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) & (based on the Revenue in Granular Biochar as of 2021)
2.7 Date of Key Manufacturers Enter into Granular Biochar Market
2.8 Key Manufacturers Granular Biochar Product Offered
2.9 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion
3 Granular Biochar Status and Outlook by Region
3.1 Global Granular Biochar Market Size and CAGR by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
3.2 Global Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Region
3.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Region (2017-2022)
3.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Region (2017-2022)
3.2.3 Global Granular Biochar Sales (Volume & Value) Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.3 Global Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Region
3.3.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Region (2023-2028)
3.3.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Region (2023-2028)
3.3.3 Global Granular Biochar Sales (Volume & Value), Price and Gross Margin (2023-2028)
4 Global Granular Biochar by Application
4.1 Granular Biochar Market Segment by Application
4.1.1 Soil Conditioner
4.1.2 Fertilizer
4.1.3 Others
4.2 Global Granular Biochar Market Size by Application
4.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Market Size Overview by Application (2017-2028)
4.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Historic Market Size Review by Application (2017-2022)
4.2.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2017-2022)
4.2.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2017-2022)
4.2.2.3 Global Granular Biochar Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2017-2022)
4.2.3 Global Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Application (2023-2028)
4.2.3.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2023-2028)
4.2.3.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2023-2028)
4.2.3.3 Global Granular Biochar Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2023-2028)
4.3 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Application
4.3.1 North America Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2017-2022)
4.3.2 Europe Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2017-2022)
4.3.3 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2017-2022)
4.3.4 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2017-2022)
4.3.5 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2017-2022)
5 North America Granular Biochar by Country
5.1 North America Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Country
5.1.1 North America Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2017-2022)
5.1.2 North America Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2017-2022)
5.2 North America Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Country
5.2.1 North America Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2023-2028)
5.2.2 North America Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2023-2028)
6 Europe Granular Biochar by Country
6.1 Europe Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Country
6.1.1 Europe Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2017-2022)
6.1.2 Europe Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2017-2022)
6.2 Europe Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Country
6.2.1 Europe Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2023-2028)
6.2.2 Europe Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2023-2028)
7 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar by Region
7.1 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Region
7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Region (2017-2022)
7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Region (2017-2022)
7.2 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Region
7.2.1 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Region (2023-2028)
7.2.2 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Region (2023-2028)
8 Latin America Granular Biochar by Country
8.1 Latin America Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Country
8.1.1 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2017-2022)
8.1.2 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2017-2022)
8.2 Latin America Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Country
8.2.1 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2023-2028)
8.2.2 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2023-2028)
9 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar by Country
9.1 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Country
9.1.1 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2017-2022)
9.1.2 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2017-2022)
9.2 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Country
9.2.1 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2023-2028)
9.2.2 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2023-2028)
10 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Granular Biochar Business
10.1 Diacarbon Energy
10.1.1 Diacarbon Energy Corporation Information
10.1.2 Diacarbon Energy Introduction and Business Overview
10.1.3 Diacarbon Energy Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.1.4 Diacarbon Energy Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.1.5 Diacarbon Energy Recent Development
10.2 Agri-Tech Producers
10.2.1 Agri-Tech Producers Corporation Information
10.2.2 Agri-Tech Producers Introduction and Business Overview
10.2.3 Agri-Tech Producers Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.2.4 Agri-Tech Producers Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.2.5 Agri-Tech Producers Recent Development
10.3 Biochar Now
10.3.1 Biochar Now Corporation Information
10.3.2 Biochar Now Introduction and Business Overview
10.3.3 Biochar Now Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.3.4 Biochar Now Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.3.5 Biochar Now Recent Development
10.4 Carbon Gold
10.4.1 Carbon Gold Corporation Information
10.4.2 Carbon Gold Introduction and Business Overview
10.4.3 Carbon Gold Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.4.4 Carbon Gold Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.4.5 Carbon Gold Recent Development
10.5 Kina
10.5.1 Kina Corporation Information
10.5.2 Kina Introduction and Business Overview
10.5.3 Kina Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.5.4 Kina Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.5.5 Kina Recent Development
10.6 The Biochar Company
10.6.1 The Biochar Company Corporation Information
10.6.2 The Biochar Company Introduction and Business Overview
10.6.3 The Biochar Company Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.6.4 The Biochar Company Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.6.5 The Biochar Company Recent Development
10.7 Swiss Biochar GmbH
10.7.1 Swiss Biochar GmbH Corporation Information
10.7.2 Swiss Biochar GmbH Introduction and Business Overview
10.7.3 Swiss Biochar GmbH Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.7.4 Swiss Biochar GmbH Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.7.5 Swiss Biochar GmbH Recent Development
10.8 ElementC6
10.8.1 ElementC6 Corporation Information
10.8.2 ElementC6 Introduction and Business Overview
10.8.3 ElementC6 Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.8.4 ElementC6 Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.8.5 ElementC6 Recent Development
10.9 BioChar Products
10.9.1 BioChar Products Corporation Information
10.9.2 BioChar Products Introduction and Business Overview
10.9.3 BioChar Products Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.9.4 BioChar Products Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.9.5 BioChar Products Recent Development
10.10 BlackCarbon
10.10.1 BlackCarbon Corporation Information
10.10.2 BlackCarbon Introduction and Business Overview
10.10.3 BlackCarbon Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.10.4 BlackCarbon Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.10.5 BlackCarbon Recent Development
10.11 Cool Planet
10.11.1 Cool Planet Corporation Information
10.11.2 Cool Planet Introduction and Business Overview
10.11.3 Cool Planet Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.11.4 Cool Planet Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.11.5 Cool Planet Recent Development
10.12 Carbon Terra
10.12.1 Carbon Terra Corporation Information
10.12.2 Carbon Terra Introduction and Business Overview
10.12.3 Carbon Terra Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
10.12.4 Carbon Terra Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.12.5 Carbon Terra Recent Development
11 Upstream, Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis
11.1 Granular Biochar Key Raw Materials
11.1.1 Key Raw Materials
11.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price
11.1.3 Raw Materials Key Suppliers
11.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure
11.2.1 Raw Materials
11.2.2 Labor Cost
11.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
11.3 Granular Biochar Industrial Chain Analysis
11.4 Granular Biochar Market Dynamics
11.4.1 Granular Biochar Industry Trends
11.4.2 Granular Biochar Market Drivers
11.4.3 Granular Biochar Market Challenges
11.4.4 Granular Biochar Market Restraints
12 Market Strategy Analysis, Distributors
12.1 Sales Channel
12.2 Granular Biochar Distributors
12.3 Granular Biochar Downstream Customers
13 Research Findings and Conclusion
14 Appendix
14.1 Research Methodology
14.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
14.1.1.1 Research Programs/Design
14.1.1.2 Market Size Estimation
14.1.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
14.1.2 Data Source
14.1.2.1 Secondary Sources
14.1.2.2 Primary Sources
14.2 Author Details
14.3 Disclaimer

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Remediation of neutral mine drainage using magnetic modified biochar/natural polymer …

7 October, 2022
 

Nowadays, due to wastewater released from underground workings, decontamination of neutral mine drainage from toxic metals and rare earth elements is a public concern. They can pollute surface waters by their high mobility and solubility in water. Among the most common technics for the removal of pollutants, the adsorption method because of effective removal of metals, easy operation, and low cost is the most successful method. Biochar, as a novel adsorbent, has been receiving much attention because of the reuse of biomass, porous structure, and abundant functional groups. Natural polymers among different polymers have a long history in adsorption because of their biodegradability, being made from renewable resources, and nontoxicity. On the other hand, the presence of free hydroxyl and amine groups in their structure improves adsorption capacity. According to what was said, the goal of the present research is to remove toxic metals from neutral mine effluents by combining the modified biochar with natural polymers such as cellulose, starch, and chitosan to prevent aggregation and precipitation during the adsorption process as well as increase in adsorption capacity.

S’abonner


Global Biochar Production Equipment Market Report Covering Production, Revenue … – Nuhey News

7 October, 2022
 

The research report has incorporated the analysis of different factors that augment the market’s growth. It constitutes trends, restraints, and drivers that transform the market in either a positive or negative manner. This section also provides the scope of different segments and applications that can potentially influence the market in the future. The detailed information is based on current trends and historic milestones. This section also provides an analysis of the volume of production about the global market and about each type from 2017 to 2028. This section mentions the volume of production by region from 2017 to 2028. Pricing analysis is included in the report according to each type from the year 2017 to 2028, manufacturer from 2017 to 2022, region from 2017 to 2022, and global price from 2017 to 2028.

A thorough evaluation of the restrains included in the report portrays the contrast to drivers and gives room for strategic planning. Factors that overshadow the market growth are pivotal as they can be understood to devise different bends for getting hold of the lucrative opportunities that are present in the ever-growing market. Additionally, insights into market expert’s opinions have been taken to understand the market better.

The research report includes specific segments by region (country), by manufacturers, by Type and by Application. Each type provides information about the production during the forecast period of 2017 to 2028. by Application segment also provides consumption during the forecast period of 2017 to 2028. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.

Request for a free sample or purchase this report at: https://www.themarketreports.com/report/global-biochar-production-equipment-market-research-report

 

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CHAR Technologies gets $1.5M boost for Ontario RNG & Biocarbon Project

7 October, 2022
 

CHAR Technologies Ltd. is receiving a $1.5-million boost from the Canadian government through the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario (FedDev Ontario). The funds will support the company’s Thorold Renewable Natural Gas & Biocarbon Project.

The investment, provided through FedDev Ontario’s Jobs and Growth Fund, is in the form of an interest-free repayable contribution toward certain eligible project costs. The Thorold Phase 1 Project will see CHAR relocate and recommission their existing London, Ont., facility to the Thorold Multimodal Hub where it will try and contribute to a lower carbon economy by providing direct drop-in solutions to replace the consumption of fossil fuels.

Once fully operational, the project is anticipated to simultaneously produce renewable natural gas and biocarbons, converted from clean woody feedstocks that would otherwise be destined for landfills.

“We are thrilled to be the recipient of FedDev JGF funding to support the development and adoption of our made in Canada clean technology,” said CHAR Technologies CEO, Andrew White. “On behalf of CHAR I would like to thank the Honourable Filomena Tassi, the minister responsible for FedDev, for believing in our project. Thanks to FedDev’s funding, CHAR will be positioned to increase biocarbon production capacity from 1,000 tonnes to 10,000 tonnes per year. This supports Canada’s Net Zero targets by increasing the supply of clean fuels generated from sustainable resources, which is part of our goal of decarbonizing for a circular economy.”

“The Government of Canada is committed to supporting companies that are leading the charge on the development of innovative, clean solutions to help Canadians build a greener future for them and their families,” said the Honourable Filomena Tassi, Minister responsible for the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario. “Through investments, like the one today for CHAR Technologies Thorold Inc., we are creating skilled jobs and helping to grow the economy towards a cleaner, greener Canadian economy.”

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Biochar – Où Publier

7 October, 2022
 

A selection of journals and book publishers related to applied sciences in agriculture

Ithaka Institute for Carbon Intelligence (Germany)

Springer (Germany)

Biochar is a professional academic journal covering multidisciplines such as agronomy, environmental science, and materials science. It publishes innovative scientific papers on biochar preparation, soil improvement, greenhouse

Biochar is a professional academic journal covering multidisciplines such as agronomy, environmental science, and materials science. It publishes innovative scientific papers on biochar preparation, soil improvement, greenhouse gas emissions, contaminated-environment remediation and water purification, etc. It aims to report important research achievements in this area, and promote scientific exchange and technology development. Biochar publishes articles that focus on, but are not limited to: processing and preparation of biochar, biochar-based materials, soil and farming, remediation and conservation, global climate change, bioenergy and rural development.
Related subjects » Agriculture – Environmental Engineering and Physics – Fossil Fuels – Renewable and Green Energy – Soil Science – Special types of Materials

Ask a question, make a suggestion,
suggest a correction :

The French agricultural research and international cooperation organization working for the sustainable development of tropical Mediterranean regions.

The Scientific Information Service is in charge of acquisition and dissemination of scientific production. It supports CIRAD’s teams in information analysis, publication, and research data management.

CIRAD recommends open access journals to publish in or to review articles

CIRAD promotes the publication of its research by reputable publishers

To publish and disseminate (CoopIST website in French)


Project Manager jobs in 2022 | Newjobs.one

7 October, 2022
 

KEY SKILLS/EXPERIENCE

The preferred candidate will possess a passion for delivering high quality work and climate change tackling solutions, with a result oriented and proactive mind-set. They will have the chance to work on several exciting projects throughout their career with BBB. Preferably, you will have:

Strong interpersonal skills.
A BA/BSc in engineering, sustainable development/environmental science, business studies/economics or a related field.
Good hands-on experience in project management where you plan and designate project resources, prepare budgets, monitor progress and keep stakeholders informed along the way.
Proven ability to solve problems creatively.
Experience seeing projects through the full life cycle.
Excellent analytical skills, especially when it comes to carbon and financial data of a project or business.
Experience using software tools that calculate waste or circular economy processes.
A working appreciation of the greenhouse gas removal market and more specifically, the associated pyrolysis engineering and biochar disciplines.

YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES

At its core, this role has an exciting mix of business operations and consultancy skills. Primarily, your role will be to manage the project with our main investor but you will also get stuck in with managing the operations of a clean-tech start-up and helping to make things tick. Therefore, we are looking for a specific type of entrepreneurial project manager who can do the following:

Manage a large project budget with detailed milestones and deliverables.
Predict resources needed to reach objectives and manage resources in an effective manner.
Provide project updates on a consistent basis to various stakeholders about strategy, adjustments, and progress.
Manage subcontracts with vendors and suppliers by assigning tasks and communicating expected deliverables.
Work closely with the UK Government to develop the emerging biochar policy landscape in the UK (this is likely to involve keeping abreast of policy activities in the EU and the US).
Measure project and business performance to identify areas for improvement.
Support the Founders as and when necessary, with areas such as business development, marketing and data analysis.

Naturally, as a small company your role could be more diverse from time to time. Depending on the individual and the needs of the business, your role could grow into a business operations, policy development and/or an engineering part of the business.

WHAT YOU WILL GET FROM US

A cross-cutting hands-on experience working in a purposeful, impact driven, fast paced start-up at the frontier of climate tech innovation.
Tailored start-up support and training through the Carbon Trust Net Zero Innovation Portfolio Accelerator.
A clear career progression plan, alongside training and mentoring from the founders.
London based office (Bermondsey Work.Life) with flexible, remote working options.
Salary of £40,000 – £50,000 per annum, pension and potential bonus (reviewed annually).
Health insurance including dental, optical and mental health cover.
A chance to travel and engage with different business partners across the UK, Europe and East Africa.
Free beer and pizza every Thursday!
A fun work environment with a like-minded group of motivated, engaging entrepreneurs committed to tackling climate change.

APPLICATION PROCESS

To apply, please send CV  with the Subject ‘BBB Project Manager Application – [first name] [last name]’.
Interviews will take place in early October 2022.
Our ideal start date is 1 November 2022.


Win an Earthly Smokeless Biochar Garden Kiln (Answer: flame vine )

7 October, 2022
 

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CONCEPTS AND QUESTIONS Bio-energy in the black – CiteSeerX

7 October, 2022
 

@MISC{Lehmann_conceptsand,
    author = {Johannes Lehmann},
    title = {CONCEPTS AND QUESTIONS Bio-energy in the black},
    year = {}
}

At best, common renewable energy strategies can only offset fossil fuel emissions of CO2 – they cannot reverse climate change. One promising approach to lowering CO2 in the atmosphere while producing energy is biochar bio-energy, based on low-temperature pyrolysis. This technology relies on capturing the off-gases from thermal decomposition of wood or grasses to produce heat, electricity, or biofuels. Biochar is a major by-product of this pyrolysis, and has remarkable environmental properties. In soil, biochar was shown to persist longer and to retain cations better than other forms of soil organic matter. The precise halflife of biochar is still disputed, however, and this will have important implications for the value of the technology, particularly in carbon trading. Furthermore, the cation retention of fresh biochar is relatively low compared to aged biochar in soil, and it is not clear under what conditions, and over what period of time, biochar develops its adsorbing properties. Research is still needed to maximize the favorable attributes of biochar and to fully evaluate environmental risks, but this technology has the potential to provide an important carbon sink and to reduce environmental pollution by fertilizers. Front Ecol Environ 2007; 5(7): 381–387 The energy demands of modern societies are steadily increasing. Today, much of this demand is satisfied

question bio-energy    favorable attribute    biochar bio-energy    fossil fuel emission    major by-product    low-temperature pyrolysis    cation retention    remarkable environmental property    reverse climate change    important carbon sink    modern society    soil organic matter    thermal decomposition    carbon trading    fresh biochar    energy demand    precise halflife    adsorbing property    environmental pollution    common renewable energy strategy    environmental risk    important implication    front ecol environ   

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Effect on biodrying and rapid drying of food wastesfor biochar manufacturing – UQ eSpace

7 October, 2022
 

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Trade Your Crop Byproducts for Electricity – AG INFORMATION NETWORK OF THE WEST

7 October, 2022
 

Farm of the Future

Washington State Farm Bureau Report

Fruit Bites

William Bourdeau On State Wasting Water

Farm Economy Worries

Hemp Processing

Bob Larson

Matt Rice

Russell Nemetz

V-Grid Energy CEO Greg Campbell says the renewable energy company can offer you financial relief on bills for electricity, in trade for your byproducts.

“By getting access to their crop waste, we save them money by having to dispose of it, or hire labor to spread it out. We can convert that electricity for them and put it back on the grid, and net meter their electricity bill down, and charge them a lower rate than they pay the utility. So in other words, we save them money on electricity.”

Campbell says they’re looking for farmers who have crop waste… and large electricity bills.

“If we can take those nutshells or dead trees and chip them up into wood chips, or like a grapevine, or any kind of plant matter, and instead of letting it decompose and put that CO2 all the way back up into the atmosphere, if we can convert that into electricity and carbon in the form of Biochar, then put that Biochar into the soil to help plants grow what we are affectively doing is we are short-circuiting or bypassing that CO2 that would have otherwise gone back into the atmosphere.”

For more information go to www.vgridenergy.com .

California Ag Today

California Ag Today

California Ag Today

California Ag Today

California Ag Today


Competitive effects of glucan's main hydrolysates on biochar formation – PubAg

7 October, 2022
 

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Home – Carbon Centric

7 October, 2022
 

LCarbon Centric’s biochar is a carbon-rich material for soil improvement and CO2 storage.

Carbon-centric biochar is a carbon-rich material that improves soil quality and construction material performance while allowing CO2 storage. Made from the pyrolysis technology of SOLER Group, biochar is made of local, sustainable resources.

In agriculture, biochar improves water and nutrient retention. When it is combined with an organic amendment or compost, it improves soil fertility and plant productivity. Biochar can also be used within various construction materials to modify thermodynamic properties, reduce its density, change the material colour, or act like a carbon sink.

Biochar is also an excellent carbon sink. Indeed, the equivalent of 2.9 tons of CO2 is captured for each ton of used biochar. It equals nearly 12 transatlantic flights. This carbon storage value can be converted into carbon retention certificates that can be sold afterwards. Within Carbon Centric, we return these certificates to biochar users.

We are experts in the industrial production of high-quality biochar. With our industrial partners, we can guarantee a stable and constant product that meets your needs. Our biochar is made from local organic timber to guarantee a sustainable and open supply chain. We obtained the certification “utilisation en agriculture Biologique” (UAB) and the certificate “European Biochar Certificate” (EBC). If you have any questions regarding biochar or if you are currently developing a product based on biochar, please contact us, and we will suit your needs.

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Fe-Biochar for Simultaneous Stabilization of Chromium and Arsenic in Soil – SSRN Papers

7 October, 2022
 

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Zhejiang University

affiliation not provided to SSRN

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University

Excess chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) coexist in soil such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated sites, leading to high risks of pollution. Fe-biochar with adjustable redox activity offers the possibility of simultaneous stabilization of Cr and As. Here, a series of Fe-biochar with distinct Fe/C structure were rationally produced for the remediation of Cr and As contaminated soil (BCX-Fe, X represented the biomass/Fe ratio). Adsorption tests showed that the BC5-Fe and BC2-Fe exhibited optimal Cr(VI) (91.5 mg/g) and As(III) (86.0 mg/g) adsorption capacities, respectively. The nano/micro-sized low-valent iron loaded on the surface of Fe-biochar reduced Cr(VI), while reactive oxygen species and oxygen-containing functional groups promoted the oxidation of As(III). A 90-day soil remediation experiment indicated that the introduction of 3% Fe-biochar reduced the leaching state of Cr(VI) by 93.8-99.7% and As by 75.2-95.6%. Under simulated groundwater erosion for 10 years and acid rain leaching for 7.5 years, the release levels of Cr(VI) and As in the BC5-Fe remediated soil could meet the groundwater class IV standard in China (Cr(VI)<0.1 mg/L, As<0.05 mg/L). The Fe-biochar had long-term Cr and As stabilization ability with the dry-wet and freeze-thaw aging process. Based on these insights, we believe that our study will provide meaningful information about the application potential of Fe-biochar for the heavy metal contaminated soil remediation.

Keywords: Fe-biochar, Cr/As, reduction-oxidation, soil stabilization, leaching risk, long-term stability

Suggested Citation

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38 Zheda Road
Hangzhou, 310058
China

No Address Available

No Address Available

38 Zheda Road
Hangzhou, 310058
China

38 Zheda Road
Hangzhou, 310058
China

38 Zheda Road
Hangzhou, 310058
China

38 Zheda Road
Hangzhou, 310058
China

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Biochar 2.5 QTS – Buy Online – 182914917 – Desertcart Guam

7 October, 2022
 


Pure Biochar – United Hydrogen

7 October, 2022
 

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Puro.earth på LinkedIn: Puro Standard Biochar methodology edition 2022 is out now!

7 October, 2022
 

Viser organisasjonsside for Puro.earthPuro Standard Biochar methodology edition 2022 is out now!Hadi FelthamWayne SharpeMario Verissimo Horta LopesICHAR 🇮🇹Vis profilen til Jörg DohnaVis profilen til Irena SpazzapanVis profilen til Mark Jonathan DavisA few perspectives on the Nordstream leakVis profilen til Jigar ShahProfile Analysis Print Territory Energy Profile (overview, data, & analysis)Vis profilen til Alfredo GomezClimate Change: Enhancing Federal ResilienceVis profilen til Alex KrowkaCarbon Capture Begins at India’s Largest Coal Power PlantVis profilen til LIAO HAIVis profilen til Assaad RazzoukRecyclable turbine blades now available for onshore wind energy projectsVis profilen til Roberta BoscoloIngen alternativ tekstbeskrivelse for dette bildetVis profilen til Antonis SchwarzIngen alternativ tekstbeskrivelse for dette bildetVis profilen til James VaccaroCorporate pushback against climate action is getting desperatePuro.earth


Biochar: the new black gold – Geeky News

8 October, 2022
 

This article is taken from the monthly journal Sciences et Avenir – La Recherche #908 of October 2022.

In a few weeks, two strange containers will be placed on the site of the Strasbourg gas supplier R-GDS. These modules will produce hydrogen to supply the buses of the city of Strasbourg. Almost a common thing in the era of the development of this new fuel. However, the process of obtaining this energy is one of the most promising innovations of recent years. It consists of pyrolysis biomass.

As a result of this reaction, a gas or hydrogen is formed, which can replace the natural gas or oil previously used. But that’s not all. It also produces a very valuable “waste” made up of 85% carbon: “biochar”. Possessing a porous consistency, it is an excellent fertilizer for the soils with which it is mixed. So much so that it could pretty much replace chemical fertilizers made from… natural gas. It is currently the subject of market research for agricultural use as close as possible to Strasbourg. Against the backdrop of the cessation of gas purchases from Russia due to the war in Ukraine and the doubling of the price of this energy carrier, biocoal looks like the new “black gold”.

In Strasbourg, most of the biomass comes from pines from the Vosges forests, which are dying in large numbers due to the destructive action of xylophagous beetles, bark beetles. The challenge for biochar development is really to find, wherever it is produced, nearby and inexpensive green waste. “Every region has its own biomass,” summarizes Philippe Haffner, Managing Director of Haffner Energy, a biomass combustion company based in Vitry-le-François (Marne), a biochar pioneer and currently the only French producer. In Normandy, it could be flax shavings (waste from flax production, ed. note), in forest areas, waste from the woodworking industry, in livestock areas, manure, in the Southern Mediterranean, olive pomace (leftovers from cold pressing, ed. note). “

In a few weeks, two strange containers will be placed on the site of the Strasbourg gas supplier R-GDS. These modules will produce hydrogen to supply the buses of the city of Strasbourg. Almost a common thing in the era of the development of this new fuel. However, the process of obtaining this energy is one of the most promising innovations of recent years. It consists of pyrolysis biomass.

As a result of this reaction, a gas or hydrogen is formed, which can replace the natural gas or oil previously used. But that’s not all. It also produces a very valuable “waste” made up of 85% carbon: “biochar”. Possessing a porous consistency, it is an excellent fertilizer for the soils with which it is mixed. So much so that it could pretty much replace chemical fertilizers made from… natural gas. It is currently the subject of market research for agricultural use as close as possible to Strasbourg. Against the backdrop of the cessation of gas purchases from Russia due to the war in Ukraine and the doubling of the price of this energy carrier, biocoal looks like the new “black gold”.

In Strasbourg, most of the biomass comes from pines from the Vosges forests, which are dying in large numbers due to the destructive action of xylophagous beetles, bark beetles. The challenge for biochar development is really to find, wherever it is produced, nearby and inexpensive green waste. “Every region has its own biomass,” summarizes Philippe Haffner, Managing Director of Haffner Energy, a biomass combustion company based in Vitry-le-François (Marne), a biochar pioneer and currently the only French producer. In Normandy, it could be flax shavings (waste from flax production, ed. note), in forest areas, waste from the woodworking industry, in livestock areas, manure, in the Southern Mediterranean, olive pomace (leftovers from cold pressing, ed. note). “

The rule is that the biomass must be of forest or agricultural origin (wood, crop residues, various green wastes) to prevent heavy metal contamination of the biochar. So, wood waste (furniture, frames, rags) is prohibited. The method then consists in heating this natural biomass to a temperature of 500°C in an oxygen-deprived atmosphere.

Biomass heated to 500°C forms biochar. The gas mixture obtained by pyrolysis is also processed to obtain pure hydrogen. Credit: BRUNO BOURGEOS

This pyrolysis process generates a bunch of gases, mainly methane bonded with carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This mixture can be burned directly to produce heat or electricity using a turbine. Part of the gas is used to power the pyrolysis process, so the system is non-volatile.

The system can also combine pyrolysis with a thermolysis process: “We can add an electrolyzer downstream, in which the gases are processed at 1000 degrees in the presence of water vapor to produce extremely pure hydrogen,” Philipp Haffner explains. This complex combination of two technologies, called Hydrogen No Carbon (Hynoca), has been the subject of 80 international patents. At the end of 2021, a Norwegian international organization certified it as a mature technological level, opening up its marketing to industrialists.

As for the resulting biochar, its benefits to the soil are now well documented. Johannes Lehmann, Research Lecturer at the College of Agriculture at Cornell University (USA), has been studying the agronomic potential of this product for over twenty years. In a collection of his work published in 2021 in the scientific journal GBC Bioenergy, the researcher claims that after a period of one to three weeks of dissolution, developing chemical reactions for the first six months, and aging and integrating on the ground thereafter, biochar reduces soil acidity ( like lime), increases its porosity, as well as the availability of water, all the necessary elements of fertility.

A study of numerous field and laboratory tests shows an increase of almost five times the presence of potassium and 4% organic carbon content. Upon arrival, the researchers calculated that depending on the harvest, the yield increases from 10 to 42%!

Let’s summarize. This process of processing biomass through pyrolysis allows the production of clean energy, which allows producers to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enrich the earth. “But the best thing about it is that the CO2 captured by the biomass that we have thermolyzed remains in the ground for hundreds of years,” says Philipp Haffner enthusiastically. When we recover biomass, for example, in the form of manure, we get a neutral balance, because the carbon will go back into the atmosphere. Here we subtract CO2 from the atmosphere. The balance is negative!

Thus, 30 tons of biomass – the equivalent of a log truck – is needed to produce one ton of hydrogen (the energy needed to drive a car 100,000 kilometers) and 5.5 tons of biochar, which will remove 15 tons of CO2 from the atmosphere for centuries (i.e. .average annual output of three Frenchmen). A climate benefit that also has an economic interest because this “service” is paid.

In Glasgow, during the COP26 climate talks in November 2021, negotiators agreed to create a global market that rewards a ton of carbon permanently removed from the atmosphere. So, in addition to producing clean energy and fertilizer, this technology generates income from the carbon market.

The development of this new sector now depends on raising awareness among companies that know their core business (eg cement production, chemicals) but know little about the energy world. A mission that design offices are beginning to take on and will offer a turnkey solution. Like Carbonloop, a startup that supports manufacturers to install Haffner Energy systems.

“We offer assessment studies of a company’s energy needs, how the process will fit into a production site, and an assessment of a biomass deposit located close to the production site,” explains Claire Shastrus, Managing Director. The issue of supply is really painful. “The biomass we use should not compete with food crops, it should respect biodiversity and be close to the site to avoid freight traffic that will destroy the carbon footprint,” she lists.

Biochar is not the only business of the French pioneers. In the world, actors are revealed. In Africa, French startup NetZero has just set up its first unit in Cameroon and announced an upcoming installation in Brazil. The company aims to recycle all of the billion tons of green waste produced on the African continent. In Europe, the European Biochar Industry (EBI) brings together companies investing in this sector. Philip Haffner will soon join her because he assures us that biochar is one of the most effective solutions to destroy the last fossil black gold emissions in 2050.

“In its sixth report, presented in 2021, the IPCC mentions biochar as one of the effective means of storing carbon in the earth for hundreds and thousands of years. This recognition is accompanied by a number of precautionary measures. makes sense if it recycles green waste. A company I support, NetZero, aims to convert agricultural waste from developing countries that is currently rotting in the fields and releasing large amounts of methane into the atmosphere. Their integration into the soil allows for both carbon storage and to enrich the soil.

Another caveat: biochar is not a one-size-fits-all solution. It is part of a whole that includes agroecology and reforestation. The goal is to make plant-based carbon sinks more efficient in order to achieve “net zero” carbon emissions by 2050. This goal will be achieved, first, through the almost complete cessation of the use of coal, oil and gas. In 2050, residual emissions will be absorbed by carbon sinks, of which biochar will be a part. The IPCC claims that achieving a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 is technically possible, but this will first be done by replacing fossil fuels with renewables.

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Uraidla, Australia Business Class Events – Eventbrite

8 October, 2022
 

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Biochar: the new black gold – Trend Detail News

8 October, 2022
 

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Seaweed for climate mitigation, wastewater treatment, bioenergy, bioplastic, biochar, food …

8 October, 2022
 

The development and recycling of biomass production can partly solve issues of energy, climate change, population growth, food and feed shortages, and environmental pollution. For instance, the use of seaweeds as feedstocks can reduce our reliance on fossil fuel resources, ensure the synthesis of cost-effective and eco-friendly products and biofuels, and develop sustainable biorefinery processes. Nonetheless, seaweeds use in several biorefineries is still in the infancy stage compared to terrestrial plants-based lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, here we review seaweed biorefineries with focus on seaweed production, economical benefits, and seaweed use as feedstock for anaerobic digestion, biochar, bioplastics, crop health, food, livestock feed, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Globally, seaweeds could sequester between 61 and 268 megatonnes of carbon per year, with an average of 173 megatonnes. Nearly 90% of carbon is sequestered by exporting biomass to deep water, while the remaining 10% is buried in coastal sediments. 500 gigatonnes of seaweeds could replace nearly 40% of the current soy protein production. Seaweeds contain valuable bioactive molecules that could be applied as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer, contraceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulants, and in other cosmetics and skincare products.

Our planet faces several challenges, including climate change, rapid population growth, food shortages, and rising demand for bioactive compounds derived from nature in various aspects of life (Chen et al. 2022). To sustain these issues while simultaneously reducing negative effects on the ecosystem and preserving natural bioresources, deploying renewable biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels requires immediate and widespread adoption policies (Osman et al. 2021a). This may also involve the use of alternative renewable green energy sources.

Biomass biorefining for the production of diverse products, such as human food, animal feed, biochemicals, and bioenergy, through eco-innovative and sustainable bioprocess systems, is associated with sustainable development goals (Heimann 2019). Due to the biogenic origin of biomass, carbon dioxide emissions from bioprocesses do not contribute to a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels (Tursi 2019; Osman et al. 2021b). Seaweeds are a rich source of unutilised biomass that can be used to address global challenges when cultivated using sustainable methods. As depicted in Fig. 1, seaweeds can address problems associated with climate change, bioenergy generation, agriculture, food consumption, animal and human health, useful chemicals, bioactive ingredients, and coastal management. In addition, if properly implemented, seaweeds could provide a sustainable circular bioeconomy strategy (Barbier et al. 2020).

Seaweed biorefineries. Seaweeds can be harvested either through cultivation or from a natural source. Cultivated seaweeds use carbon dioxides from other refinery sources and the sun to sequester carbon within their biomass and are therefore regarded as a carbon sequestration tool when converted into a stable form of carbon such as biochar. In addition, wild seaweeds can float and descend deeper into the ocean, where they can be buried and act as a carbon sink. On the other hand, seaweeds can be extracted to obtain bioactive molecules that can be used in various biorefineries, such as antimicrobials, antioxidants, food supplements, plant growth promoters, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, contraceptives, cosmetics, and skin care agents. As a climate change mitigation strategy, seaweed residues or biomass can be used as feedstocks for anaerobic digestion to produce biomethane, which can be used to replace fossil fuels as a bioenergy source. Bioplastic derived from seaweed is an innovative method to replace synthetic, non-biodegradable plastics and protect the environment. Conversion of seaweed biomass to biochar is another method for mitigating climate change

Compared to lignocellulosic biomass from terrestrial plants, seaweeds are more suitable for biorefinery applications due to their rapid growth rates, extremely large yields, and lack of planetary land required for cultivation (Rajak et al. 2020). In addition, the absence of recalcitrant lignocellulosic assembles suggests that less energy may be required to recover high-valued bio-products of commercial interest, which favours economic and life cycle analyses of any assumed biorefinery bioprocess that uses seaweed as feedstocks. In addition, the existence of unique inherited polysaccharides in various seaweed species presents unique characteristics for either direct application or as compounds for the bioeconomy. Thus, seaweeds are third- or even fourth-generation feedstocks (Gaurav et al. 2017; Del Rio et al. 2020). However, the potential applications of seaweeds in biorefineries are still in their infancy, with progress beyond the laboratory scale being slow. Figure 1 depicts the review’s interest in utilising seaweed biomass in various novel biorefineries. Specifically, the use of seaweeds in climate change mitigation and environmental sustainability, food consumption, animal feed additives, fish diets, bioplastic production, biofertilisers, biochar production, carbon sequestration tools, crop enhancers, antimicrobials, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, contraceptive, cosmetics, and skin care agents were reviewed.

The integration of seaweeds and bioprocesses can undoubtedly result in the commercialisation of seaweed biorefineries and call attention to the significant need for cooperative funding in this extremely promising research area, as well as the need for ongoing seaweed projects around the globe. In addition, the challenges currently faced by seaweed biorefineries and the future research required for seaweed’s industrial growth are addressed.

Seaweeds are marine photosynthetic organisms, also known as “macroalgae,” that provide the energy foundation for all aquatic organisms, thereby playing a crucial role in the aquatic ecosystem’s equilibrium. Multiple environmental benefits are provided by seaweed, such as carbon sequestration or capture, eutrophication mitigation, ocean acidification modification, shoreline protection, and habitat provision.

Seaweeds are an essential component of global aquaculture. In 2019, seaweed cultivation accounted for approximately 30% (wet weight) of the 120 gigatonnes of global aquaculture production, with brown (Phaeophyceae) and red (Rhodophyta) seaweeds, respectively, being the third- and second-largest contributors to global aquaculture after barbels, carps, and other cyprinids (FAO 2021a). Asia produces more than 97% of the world’s seaweed, with eight genera accounting for 96.80% of global seaweed production (Chopin and Tacon 2021).

In 1969, the 2.2 gigatonnes of global seaweed production were contributed equally by wild collection and cultivation, according to statistics. In 2019, cultivation seaweed production accounted for more than 97% of the world’s seaweed production, while wild seaweed production remained at 1.1 gigatonnes (Cai et al. 2021). In Asia, more than 99.1% of seaweed production originated from cultivation, accounting for 97.38% of global production, with seven leading seaweed-producing nations in South or Eastern Asia, as shown in Table 1. Europe and the Americas accounted for 0.80 and 1.36%, respectively, of the world’s seaweed production, with wild seaweed collection dominating, while cultivation accounted for only 3.87 and 4.70%, respectively, of total seaweed production. Contrarily, seaweed farming was the primary source of African seaweed production, accounting for 81.30 and 84.94% from Africa and Oceania, respectively; however, wild seaweeds only account for 0.41 and 0.05% of global seaweed production, respectively (Table 1).

Even though seaweeds are generally low-value supplies, seaweed trades accounted for 5.4% of the $275 billion USA worth of world aquaculture production in 2019. This percentage was slightly lower than the other four groups, including cyprinids (carps and barbels), salmons, smelts, and trouts, marine prawns and shrimps, and crayfishes (Cai et al. 2021). The global market for commercial seaweed is anticipated to increase from $15.01 billion in 2021 to $24.92 billion in 2028. The global growth of the seaweed market can be attributed to the use of seaweed as a protective material against coronavirus, as highlighted by the World Health Organization, as well as the use of seaweeds in a variety of applications, including the food industry, livestock feed, agar, alginate, pharmaceutical, and others (Insights 2021).

In Eastern Asia, seaweeds are commonly consumed as human foods; however, in other world regions, seaweeds are consumed only by coastal communities or by very small numbers of consumers for a variety of purposes, such as exotic dietary foods, nutritional supplements (micronutrients), food with a low environmental footprint, and animal feed. In contrast, seaweed is not well known in several world regions.

In biorefineries, seaweeds have many applications, including foods and food supplements, animal feed, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, biofertilisers/plant enhancers, biofuel, and bioplastic packaging, among others (FAO 2018). However, the contributions of seaweed to these products are typically dependent on the scientific community and seaweed-associated industries. Due to numerous environmental, social, and economic benefits and share, seaweed has the potential to contribute to various sustainable development goals (SDGs) such as sustainable development goals 1–3, 8, 10, and goals 12–14 (Duarte et al. 2021). Today, there is a growing interest in seaweed production, focussing on seaweed as a food resource to feed a growing human population and as a source of eco-friendly biomass (Cai et al. 2021).

In general, seaweeds are divided into three categories: brown seaweeds with over 2000 Phaeophyceae species, red seaweeds with over 7200 Rhodophyta species, and green seaweeds with over 1800 Chlorophyta species (Cai et al. 2021).

The global cultivation of brown seaweed increased from 13 megatonnes in 1950 to 16.4 gigatonnes in 2019 at an average annual growth rate of 10.9%, which was higher than the global aquaculture growth rate (7.9%) for all species (Cai et al. 2021). In terms of tonnage and value, brown seaweeds accounted for 47.30 and 52.0%, respectively, of global seaweed cultivation in 2019, with Asia being the largest producer (99.93%). Kelp (Laminaria/Saccharina) and wakame (Undaria) are the most prevalent two genera of brown, cold-water seaweed worldwide. As shown in Table 2, seven nations supplied nearly 12.27 million tonnes of Laminaria/Saccharina in 2019, with 99.74% coming from four Asian nations and 0.27% coming from three European nations.

The majority of the 2.56 gigatonnes of Undaria (primarily Undaria pinnatifida) farming (7.40% of total seaweeds) were supplied by three Eastern Asian countries and one European country (0.004%) (Table 2). Farmed brown seaweed is mostly used for human consumption (e.g., wakame salads and kombu soup) as well as abalone feeds. Additionally, cultivated brown seaweed is used as a feedstock to produce (i) animal feeds; (ii) hydrocolloid (e.g., alginate for several biorefineries); (iii) biofertiliser or bio-stimulants; (iv) cosmetic or pharmaceutical ingredients; and (v) biodegradable bioplastics (FAO 2018).

The cultivation of red seaweeds increased from 21 megatonnes in 1950 to 18.25 gigatonnes in 2019, a 10.3% average annual increase that is less than brown seaweed but greater than global aquaculture growth (7.9%). In 2019, red seaweeds accounted for 52.65% of global seaweed cultivation, of which 99.17% occurred in Asia. Red seaweed cultivation is primarily dependent on two warm-water genera (Gracilaria and Eucheuma/Kappaphycus) and one cold-water genus (Porphyra, commonly called nori) (Cai et al. 2021). The 11.62 gigatonnes of Eucheuma/Kappaphycus cultivation in 2019, accounting for 33.54% of total seaweeds, was supplied by 23 regions, including nine Asian countries (98.88%), four in East African countries, four Pacific Islands, and six Latin American territories and the Caribbean, as shown in Table 2.

In 2019, 99.40% of the 3.64 gigatonnes of cultivated Gracilaria (10.50% of total seaweed production) were produced by Eastern and South-eastern Asia (Table 2). The 2.98 gigatonnes cultivated Porphyra represented 8.61% of seaweed produced by five Eastern-Asian countries (Table 2). Gracilaria are typically used for agar generation and abalone feeds, whereas Eucheuma/Kappaphycus are mainly employed to isolate carrageenan (FAO 2018). In addition to alginate purified from brown seaweeds, carrageenan and agar are hydrocolloids derived from seaweed that are commonly used in food and/or non-food biorefineries. Eucheuma/Kappaphycus and Gracilaria are also used as human foods (such as pickles and salads), while Porphyra are primarily used in sushi wrap and as a soup ingredient.

Since 1990, green seaweed cultivation has been comparatively smaller and on a downward trend. The 16.70 megatonnes of global green seaweed farming in 2019 represented approximately 0.048% of total seaweed production, which was less than half of the maximum production in 1992 (38.6 megatonnes). This is in contrast to the rapid growth of brown seaweed cultivation (3-folds) and red seaweed cultivation (15-folds) over the same time period (Cai et al. 2021).

In 2019, six seaweed species cultivated an average of more than 500 kilograms of green seaweed. During 1950–2019, Caulerpa spp. was the most abundant green seaweed species, with an average annual production of 6.4 megatonnes; however, the Philippines’ contribution decreased from 28.7 megatonnes in 1998 to 1.09 megatonnes in 2019. In 2019, the total production of Monostroma nitidum was 6.3 megatonnes, which was lower than the maximum production of 17.7 megatonnes in 1992 (Cai et al. 2021).

In 2019, the Republic of Korea cultivated Capsosiphon fulvescens, Monostroma nitidum, and Codium fragile, which accounted for 12.97 megatonnes of the global green seaweed harvest and 78% of the global green seaweed total (see Table 2). Green seaweeds that have been cultivated can be used as vegetables in salads. Both Caulerpa lentillifera (green caviar or sea grape) and Monostroma nitidum (green laver) are considered delicacies in the marketplace. Other uses for green seaweeds include biofertiliser, animal feeds, bio-stimulants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and wastewater treatment (FAO 2018).

From approximately 1.06 gigatonnes in 2006 to a maximum of 1.29 gigatonnes in 2013 and settling at approximately 1.09 gigatonnes (wet weight) in 2015, wild harvests have remained constant (FAO 2018). In 2015, Chile produced the most wild seaweed (345.704 megatonnes), followed by China (261.77 megatonnes), Norway (147.39 megatonnes), and Japan (93.3 megatonnes).

The dominant species harvested from the wild seaweeds are Chilean kelp (Lessonia nigrescens) with 22% of the total harvested species, followed by huiro palo (Lessonia trabeculata) with 7%, Gracilaria spp. with 5% and the rest-tangle (Laminaria digitata), luga negra (Sarcothalia crispata), kelp (Macrocystis spp.), Japanese kelp (Saccharina japonica), North Atlantic rockweed (Ascophyllum nodosum), and Gigartina skottsbergii—accounting for less than 5%. Farmed and wild Gracilaria species are a major source of agar for human consumption (FAO 2018).

Contamination by heavy metals such as mercury and arsenic is a significant concern with wild seaweed. These factors inhibit market expansion, particularly in nations prioritising food safety and sustainability. Consumers will be willing to pay more for seaweed from nations with a strict coastal zone management policy (FAO 2018).

The classification of seaweeds into three major taxonomic groups was made possible by morphological and pigment characteristics (red, brown, and green seaweed). Seasonally and geographically variable carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals, and vitamins are present in seaweeds (Torres et al. 2019). Due to their complex composition, their hydrocolloids or polysaccharides, such as agars, alginates, and carrageenan, seaweeds can also be utilised in various biorefineries.

Seaweeds contain 70–90% water (fresh weight basis) and are primarily composed of 25–77% carbohydrates (dry matter basis), 5–43% proteins (dry matter basis), 9–50% ash content (dry matter basis), and 1–5% lipids (dry matter basis) (Del Rio et al. 2020; Praveen et al. 2019). The major carbohydrates presented in seaweed are cellulose, sucrose, starch, carrageenan, ulvan, laminarin, mannitol, agar, fucoidan, and alginate (Del Rio et al. 2020). The absence or low lignin content of seaweed, as low as 0.03 g/kg dry weight (Wang et al. 2020a; Ghadiryanfar et al. 2016), facilitates biofuel processing and degradation compared to the costly pretreatment required for traditional lignocelluloses biomass (Elsayed et al. 2019). In addition, the high carbohydrate and low lipid content of seaweeds make them ideal candidates for alcohol-based biofuels (Sirajunnisa and Surendhiran 2016). Table 3 shows the primary components of various seaweeds.

Brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) are olive-greenish to dark brownish due to the presence of fucoxanthin pigments, which mask the original chlorophyll colour. The brown seaweeds include kelp (Laminaria spp.), which can attain a maximum length of 100 m and a daily growth rate of 50 cm (Sudhakar et al. 2018; Wei et al. 2013). 55% (dry weight basis) of brown seaweeds are composed of laminin and mannitol as storing polysaccharides (Hreggviðsson et al. 2020). Laminarin is a polysaccharide that may be hydrolysed into glucose sugar monomer by laminarase (endo-1,3(4)-b-glucanase) (Del Rio et al. 2020). Mannitol can dehydrogenate into fructose, which can be further bio-converted into bioethanol (Wang et al. 2020a; Horn et al. 2000). In addition, brown seaweeds contain alginate and cellulose, which are fundamental polysaccharides that give the cell wall mechanical strength. Typically, high levels of total carbohydrates (up to 65%) make brown seaweeds attractive biomass for biofuel purposes (Del Rio et al. 2020).

Due to the presence of phycoerythrin and phycocyanin pigments, red seaweed (Rhodophyceae) has a characteristic red/pink colour. These seaweeds can grow in depths ranging from 40 to 250 m (Wang et al. 2020a). 40–70% (dry weight basis) of red seaweeds are composed of carbohydrates, such as glucan, cellulose, and galactan (Praveen et al. 2019). The structural cell wall of red seaweeds contains carrageenan and agar, which are valuable long-chain polysaccharides for gel formation and thickening foods such as ice cream, yoghurt, and pudding (Samaraweera et al. 2012; Zhang et al. 2019a).

Green seaweeds (Chlorophyceae) typically grow as paper-thin sheets or filamentous springy fingers in shallow, near-surface water. Green seaweeds contain photosynthetic pigments, such as carotenoids and chlorophyll A and B. Chlorophyceae mainly consist of 40 and 60% dry matter polysaccharides, including starch, pectin, and cellulose (Praveen et al. 2019; Michalak 2018). Because of variations in environmental conditions, the chemical composition of seaweeds varies considerably between species and seasons. For instance, Ulva sp. contained the maximum carbohydrates contents in June (61% dry weight basis), while the same species exhibited a steady decline from 49 to 41 dry weight% throughout July to September, respectively (Wang et al. 2020a). Similarly, Ulva intestinalis presented a peak protein content of 27.7% in the winter, which dropped to 6.7% in the spring (Osman et al. 2020).

Furthermore, the extensive seasonal variation in water properties results in substantial variations in seaweed biomass yields. For instance, Ulva intestinalis had the maximum biomass yield of 61.5 g/square metre/year, while Ectocarpus siliculosus showed 1.3 g/square metre/year (Osman et al. 2020). In order to determine the optimal yield period for seaweeds, the variety of seaweed must be determined based on the season, the growth cycle, and the desired end products.

The global cultivated seaweed production from the 34.7 gigatonnes for various biorefineries valued at 14.7 billion United States dollars, which mainly contributed to Laminaria/Saccharina (4.6 billion United States dollars), Porphyra (2.7 billion United States dollars), Kappaphycus/Eucheuma (2.4 billion United States dollars), Gracilaria (2 billion United States dollars) and Undaria (1.9 billion United States dollars). In 2019, average first-sale estimates were 0.47 United States dollars/kilogram (wet weight) for brown seaweeds, 0.39 United States dollars/kg for red seaweeds and 0.79 United States dollars/kg for green seaweeds (Cai et al. 2021).

Seaweed cultivation is usually a labour-intensive industry that employs a large number of people. Therefore, a substantial portion of a first-sale price’s $14.7 billion is converted into wages supporting various households’ incomes in coastal areas. Additional downstream activities, such as postharvest handling, processing, distribution, and marketing, generate more jobs and income. Additionally, carrageenan extraction from seaweed created numerous administrative and support positions in government offices and laboratories (Cai et al. 2021).

According to United Nations Comtrade statistics, 98 nations earned 2.65 billion United States dollars of foreign exchange in 2019 through exporting seaweeds (909 million United States dollars) and seaweed-based hydrocolloids (1.74 billion United States dollars). For instance, China, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Philippines, Chile, Spain, France, the USA, Germany, and the UK have gained approximately 578, 329, 320, 252, 209, 145, 124, 102, 82, and 78 million United States dollars from exporting of seaweeds and seaweed-based hydrocolloids in 2019, respectively (Cai et al. 2021).

The protein content of seaweeds ranges from 10 to 30% (based on dry matter content), with red and green seaweeds typically containing more protein than brown seaweeds. The lipid content of seaweed ranges between 1 and 5% of seaweed’s dry matter. The levels of protein and lipids in seaweeds varied by harvest season. 500 gigatonnes of dry seaweed would yield 100 and 15 gigatonnes of seaweed protein and oil, respectively, assuming a lipid content of 3% and a protein content of 20% (Table 4). Comparable to soy protein when considering the amino acid content and anti-nutritional properties of both soy protein and seaweed. Taking into account the profile of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids makes seaweeds more advantageous than other soy proteins and comparable to the nutritional value of fish oils. Currently, about 250 gigatonnes of soy protein and 1 gigatonne of fish oil are produced annually. Consequently, 500 gigatonnes of seaweeds could replace nearly 40% of current soy protein production and represent a 750% increase over fish oil. Utilising seaweeds and seaweeds containing oils would provide long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that are beneficial to human health and could eliminate the need for fish oil in animal feeds and aquaculture.

The prices of soy meal and fish oil are approximately $550 and $1500 per tonne, equating to approximately $28 and $15 billion for the protein and oil fractions of seaweed. Approximately one job per 10 tonnes of dry seaweed can be generated; therefore, the seaweed industry must generate approximately 50 million jobs in addition to the 100 million jobs generated by marine capture fisheries (World-Bank-Group 2016).

Nearly 34.65 gigatonnes, or approximately 30% of the 120 gigatonnes of global aquaculture production, come from seaweed cultivation. There are three types of seaweed: brown, red, and green. The first two types represent 16.40, and 18.25 gigatonnes, respectively. Asia produces approximately 97.4% of the world’s seaweed, of which 99.1% is cultivated. Europe and the Americas produced 0.80 and 1.36%, respectively, of the world’s seaweed, with wild seaweed dominating.

In biorefineries, seaweeds have many applications, including foods and food supplements, animal feed, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, biofertilisers/plant enhancers, biofuel, and bioplastic packaging, among others. Seaweed has the potential to contribute to several sustainable development goals, including goals 1–3, 8, 10, and 12–14. In general, seaweeds are comprised of 70–90% water, 25–77% carbohydrates (dry matter basis), 5–43% proteins (dry matter basis), 9–50% ash content (dry matter basis), and 1–5% lipids (dry matter basis). Seaweed contains cellulose, sucrose, starch, carrageenan, ulvan, laminarin, mannitol, agar, fucoidan, and alginate as seaweed’s primary carbohydrates. Compared to traditional lignocellulosic biomass, seaweed’s low lignin content makes biomass processing and degradation simpler from a biofuel standpoint.

As a result of increased carbon dioxide emissions, global temperatures are increasing. Currently, the situation is deteriorating, particularly due to the rapid economic growth of developing nations whose carbon dioxide emissions are anticipated to rise in the near future. Therefore, taking all feasible measures to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide load to prevent ecological damage is essential (Jhariya et al. 2021; Banerjee et al. 2021a, b). To replace fossil derivatives, climate change has prompted a blue carbon paradigm in which food and fuel can be obtained from aquatic environments through carbon harvesting, carbon sequestration, and carbon sinking (Yong et al. 2022). Seaweeds have the potential to serve as a renewable energy source and carbon sink; furthermore, seaweeds may play a significant role in climate change mitigation strategies, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.

Seaweed’s role in deep ocean carbon sequestration, which is an effective carbon sequestration strategy. Seaweeds have the capacity to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Then, there are two modes for transporting seaweeds to the sediment and depths of the ocean: the drift of seaweed particles through marine canyons and the sinking of negatively floating seaweed detritus. Overall, seaweeds can store 173 teragrams of carbon per year on average

Beneficial functions of seaweeds in environmental restoration and climate change mitigation. Therefore, seaweeds can be viewed as carbon sequestration tools due to their ability to reduce carbon footprint. Seaweeds have the capacity to restore water pH, oxygen levels, and shoreline protection against wave energy dissipation. In addition, using seaweed biomass as feedstocks for biogas production is a promising area of research that can be utilised to replace fossil fuels. Utilising seaweeds for biochar production is also a promising area of research for the environmental sequestration of carbon and the benefit of plants

Blue carbon emphasises the capture and storage of organic carbon by the oceans and coastal environments, with coastal vegetated ecosystems contributing significantly to global carbon sequestration (Macreadie et al. 2019). Particularly, seaweed may absorb a significant amount of carbon dioxide from the aquatic ecosystem and support a variety of ecological benefits, such as remediation of shore contaminants and habitat for other aquatic organisms (Macreadie et al. 2019; Duarte et al. 2017a). Yong et al. (2022) recently reported on the potential contribution of seaweed to the newly emerging blue carbon strategy and seaweed’s role in mitigating climate change over the long term. The authors reported that seaweed possessed all the necessary characteristics for classification as a blue carbon reservoir with a substantial carbon sink potential, in addition the role of seaweed in climate change mitigation, bio-economy enhancement via fossil fuel substitution, human food, biofuels, renewable biomass, and animal feed. About 50% of the world’s carbon could be sequestered by seaweed (Chung et al. 2011; Jagtap and Meena 2022). In addition, seaweed can offset half of the world’s bioenergy, making seaweed a potential means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Duarte et al. 2017b).

Numerous studies have highlighted seaweed’s capacity as a carbon sink (Yong et al. 2022; Macreadie et al. 2019; Moreira and Pires 2016; Krause-Jensen and Duarte 2016). Krause-Jensen and Duarte (2016) stated that seaweeds grown in coastal zones are effectively sequestered carbon dioxides from the atmosphere and act as a carbon sink organism in deep oceans and marine sediments. Globally, they estimated that seaweeds could sequester between 61 and 268 megatonnes of carbon per year, with an average of 173 megatonnes. Nearly 90% of carbon was sequestered by exporting biomass to deep water, while the remaining 10% was buried in coastal sediments. The 173 megatonnes of carbon per year sequestered by wild seaweeds are dispersed throughout the deep ocean, where the carbon supplying this flux is produced over 3.5 million square kilometres inhabited by seaweed (Krause-Jensen and Duarte 2016). Aquaculture of seaweed has the potential to sequester approximately 1500 tonnes of carbon dioxide per square kilometre, which is equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide emissions of approximately 300 Chinese individuals (Duarte et al. 2017a). Lehahn et al. (2016) demonstrated that the cultivation of seaweeds could completely replace the reliance on fossil fuels for transportation, meet 100% of the future demand for acetone, ethanol, and butanol, provide 5–24% of the demand for proteins and produce biogas that could mitigate 5.1 × 107–5.6 × 1010 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions from natural gas use.

Jagtap and Meena (2022) reported the carbon sequestration potential of certain seaweeds as follows: Eucheuma spp. can sequester 68.43 tonnes carbon/hectare/year, Kappaphycus striatum can sequester 125.51 tonnes carbon/hectare/year, Laminaria spp. can sequester 1156 tonnes carbon/hectare/year, Ecklonia spp. can sequester 562 tonnes carbon/hectare /year, Sargassum spp. can sequester 346 tonnes carbon/hectare/year, and Gelidium spp. can sequester 17 tonnes carbon/hectare/year. The authors reported that the overall carbon sequestration by seaweed cultivation in Indonesia was 621,377 tonnes of carbon/year and 2.66 million tonnes of carbon/year from the pond and marine culture, respectively. Thus, seaweed can sequester carbon and reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, thereby mitigating the effects of global warming. In addition to carbon sequestration, seaweed acquires nutrients from water bodies, where seaweed uses nitrogen and phosphorus and fixes carbon in the water through photosynthesis, which has multiple benefits, including reducing carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the water, mitigating ocean acidification, and increasing oxygen levels to revitalise and restore water habitats (Yong et al. 2022).

The major limitations of this claim stem from the notion that a carbon sink concept should be provided by carbon buildup in seaweed’s biomass; however, seaweed’s carbon consumed as human food or fed to livestock enters the carbon cycle and provides no carbon sink meaning (Troell et al. 2022). Therefore, when seaweeds are transferred to the deep ocean and sediments, they are considered a carbon sink or converted into biochar. Optimising the blue carbon role of seaweeds necessitates the management of the seaweed’s fate, whether seaweed originated from aquaculture or was harvested in the wild, in order to address this issue. One option is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels produced from seaweed biomass (Chen et al. 2015; Farghali et al. 2021; Ap et al. 2021) or substitute food/feed production practices of intensive carbon dioxide footprints with seaweed-established food/feed means, which has much lower life-cycle carbon dioxide emissions (Duarte et al. 2017a; Troell et al. 2022). Another decarbonisation pathway uses seaweed to reduce enteric methane emissions from ruminants (Troell et al. 2022).

In addition to acting as a carbon sink, seaweed is an excellent candidate for removing carbon dioxides from the atmosphere due to seaweed’s rapid growth rate and high photosynthetic efficiency (Sondak et al. 2017). The carbon dioxides emitted from the carbon-based power plant’s combustion may be injected into closed or open seaweed systems in order to increase seaweed growth rate and carbon sequestration (Cole et al. 2014). During cultivation, one tonne of dry seaweed biomass can absorb nearly 960 kilograms of carbon dioxide. Additionally, seaweed has additional eco-benefits, such as reducing global warming, eutrophication, and acidification. Seaweed can also be used to fixate phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen (Duarte et al. 2017b).

Industrial effluents and aquaculture farms typically cause severe environmental issues, such as intense pollution and ecological degradation. The presence of significant nutrients in water bodies, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, frequently results in water eutrophication, which results in hypoxia and the prevalence of harmful microalgal blooms (Arumugam et al. 2018).

The most effective way to reduce pollution is to treat wastewater at the pollution’s source; however, most industries and aquacultures lack on-site treatment technologies (Wang et al. 2020a). In most cases, chemical, physical, and biological methods are used to treat wastewater (Tawfik et al. 2022a). Biological processes are superior to other treatment methods due to their straightforward operation, low cost, and eco-friendliness. Seaweeds can be used for the biological removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from wastewater (Fig. 3). Seaweeds can utilise ammonia–nitrogen and nitrate, two common nitrogen compounds found in agricultural, industrial, and sewage water discharges (Wang et al. 2020a). Xiao et al. (2017) estimated the role of large-scale seaweed farms in removing nutrients and mitigating coastal water eutrophication in China. They found that seaweed farming removed approximately 75 and 9.5 megatonnes of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, in China. The authors projected that the seaweed industry would eliminate 100% of the total phosphorus feed into Chinese coastline waters by 2026. The World Bank estimates that a global seaweed harvest of 500 million tonnes by 2050 will be achieved, which will utilise approximately 10 million tonnes of water nitrogen, which represents 30% of the nitrogen that reaches the seas, and 15 million tonnes of phosphorus, which is about 33% of the phosphorus generated from dung and fertilisers (Jagtap and Meena 2022). Duan et al. (2019) showed that Gracilaria lemaneiformis cultivation could sequester 1192.03 tonnes of carbon, 15.89 tonnes of phosphorus, and 128.10 tonnes of nitrogen from the Yantian Bay seawater.

Utilising fungi and bacteria for bioremediation has been intensively studied and is currently attracting significant interest. However, growing microorganisms require external carbon sources for optimal growth (Wang et al. 2020a). Due to their autotrophic growth, seaweeds are promising bioremediation agents. The cell walls of seaweed are composed of multiple polymers, including cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and arabino-galactan proteins. The predominant functional groups consisting of carboxyl, amines, and phosphoryl provide negative charges to the cell walls of the seaweed, thereby attracting pollutants with cationic groups to the seaweed’s surface and initiating the sorption process (Wang et al. 2020a). Bioaccumulation was primarily responsible for the seaweed’s uptake of organic contaminants and other growth supplements. Table 5 details the ability of seaweed to absorb certain heavy metals from bodies of water.

In addition to heavy metals and nutrients, seaweeds can absorb other pollutants. For instance, Navarro et al. (2008) examined the sorption of phenol compounds by the Macrocystis integrifolia and Lessonia nigrescens seaweeds. Findings revealed the highest sorption efficacy of 35% at pH 10 by Macrocystis integrifolia due to a completely polar sorption pathway alongside an electrostatic sorption process. This study emphasised that phenol adsorption onto the seaweed’s surface has occurred through the interaction of hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups of the seaweed’s polysaccharides, such as alginates. Common aromatic hydrocarbons were studied by applying red, green, brown, and seaweed biomass to toluene and benzene biosorption (Flores-Chaparro et al. 2017). Results demonstrated that Phaeophytes could remove toluene and benzene by 28 and 112 mg/gram, respectively. The sorption process was ascribed to hydrophobic interaction mostly with lipids and, to some extent, with carbohydrates and proteins through nonspecific Van der Waals relations.

In addition, the bioaccumulation of micropollutants by freshwater seaweed has been demonstrated to be a crucial method for removing sulfamethoxazole, triclosan, and trimethoprim (Bai and Acharya 2017). The intracellular seaweed biodegradation is found to be the most useful biosorption approach by which seaweed cells may remove chemical contaminants from the environment (Xiong et al. 2018). In this context, nearly 30–80% of hazardous chemicals, including ibuprofen, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, carbamazepine, and caffeine in wastewater, were biodegraded within the seaweed’s cells (Matamoros et al. 2016; Hom-Diaz et al. 2017; Ding et al. 2017). Thus, the sorbent properties of seaweeds can be viewed as a viable option for reducing the toxic impact of multiple contaminants in aquatic environments, which is favourable for combined energy production.

Seaweed can act as a carbon sink by storing seaweed particles in the deep ocean or drifting them in sediments. In addition, other carbon sequestration pathways of seaweeds farming, such as biofuel production that mitigates carbon dioxide emissions and replaces fossil fuels, acting as biofertilisers that replace synthetic fertiliser, lowering methane emissions when used as cattle feed, inhibiting water wave energy, and protecting shorelines that mitigate climate change, increasing water pH and providing oxygen to the waters that decrease ocean deoxygenation and acidification. Consequently, seaweeds contribute to carbon sequestration, coastal safety, carbon sink, food security, and the control of ocean deoxygenation and acidification; therefore, seaweed is remarkably regarded as a promising blue carbon adaptation and climate change mitigation strategy.

Seaweeds can remove pollutants and nutrients from wastewater, transforming waste into valuable commodities. Currently, seaweed cultivation is used for plutonium/uranium removal and refining wastewater runoff. Pollutants can be mitigated by growing seaweed on industrial discharges.

Increasing global energy demands and the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels increase the need for sustainable and eco-friendly biofuels. Seaweeds can be converted into high-value products, such as biofuels; consequently, they are considered promising third-generation feedstocks in bioremediation (Wang et al. 2020a). By 2054, biofuels derived from seaweed can replace the demand for fossil fuels in the transportation sector, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Lehahn et al. 2016). As previously discussed in Sect. 2.2, the ability of seaweeds to produce biogas can be attributed to their overall structure.

Utilising thermochemical conversion, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation, seaweed feedstocks were converted into biofuels (Rajak et al. 2020; Wang et al. 2021a). Thermochemical conversion and fermentation are energy-intensive processes that necessitate dehydration and dewatering (Wang et al. 2020a). However, by utilising seaweed for biogas production, all seaweed components, including carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, can be utilised without dehydration, thereby avoiding energy need (Thakur et al. 2022). Due to seaweed’s inexpensive polysaccharides and low lignin content, seaweed is promising biomass for the anaerobic digestion (Farghali et al. 2021). In addition, growing concerns about the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase in greenhouse gas emissions have necessitated the investigation of alternative resources for bioenergy production (Rajak et al. 2020). In this context, seaweed is considered third-generation biomass for bioenergy generation via anaerobic digestion, and seaweed can overcome the inherent limitations of using first- and second-generation feedstock (Ap et al. 2021).

Hydrolysis of seaweed biomass generates volatile fatty acids and promotes the production of methane (Fig. 4). The generation of biogas from seaweed has not been thoroughly evaluated. The available reviews lack an understanding of the primary obstacles that limit methane production from seaweed feedstock, as well as the various methods that have been implemented to increase the biogas yield and suggest full utilisation of biomass.

Biogas production from seaweed resources: the mass of wild seaweed grown in aquatic water or farmed seaweed can be gathered manually or mechanically. After assembly, the seaweeds are managed, including rinsing with water, and then the dried or wet biomass is utilised for methane production. In the biogas digester, biomass undergoes four phases of anaerobic digestion, namely hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis, in order to produce methane and carbon dioxides as end products. Diverse inhibitors and process parameters, such as ammonia, sulphates, phenols, organic loading rates, hydraulic retention time, and other factors, may affect the biogas yields from seaweed feedstocks

Diverse biogas yields have resulted from the anaerobic digestion of seaweed due to species diversity and seasonal variation in the chemical characteristics of the biomass (Milledge et al. 2019), with brown seaweed digestion yielding comparatively larger methane than that from green seaweeds (Sutherland and Varela, 2014). Even though biochemical batch tests demonstrate inconsistency in reported biogas yields, seaweed as biomass for biogas production has the potential to be an economically viable marine biomass when considered in the context of the circular economy (Milledge et al. 2019). Baltrenas and Misevicius (2015) examined the biogas potential of three seaweeds, Cladophora glomerataChara globularis, and Spirogyra neglecta, under mesophilic conditions (35 ± 1 °C). The results illustrated that Spirogyra neglecta and Cladophora glomerata produced 0.23 and 0.20 cubic metres of biogas per cubic metre of biomass per day, respectively, with biomethane contents exceeding 60%.

Biomethane production from green seaweed Ulva lactuca was evaluated in batch experiments after ulvan, protein, and sap extraction with individual and sequential extraction methods. Both treatments enhanced methane yields with the highest biomethane yield of 408-ml methane/gram volatile solids added from sap and ulvan residues (Mhatre et al. 2019). Anaerobic co-digestion of Mediterranean Sea Ulva rigida generated 408 ml of biogas when mixed with anaerobic sludge (Karray et al. 2017a). Allen et al. (2015) reported that the biomethane potential of cast brown seaweed was 342 and 166 L methane per kilogram of volatile solid for Saccharina latissimi and Ascophyllum nodosum, respectively. Nearly 30 megatonnes of wet shore seaweed are collected annually in Ireland, referred to as the wild harvest. Compared to the average biomethane price of 0.2 € per cubic metre, the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed resources combined with cattle slurry, food waste, and grass resulted in a financial incentive of 0.85–1.17 € per cubic metre (Rajendran et al. 2019). Washed and macerated Gracilaria vermiculophylla was anaerobically co-digested with 2% glycerol and 85% sewage sludge and produced 599 and 605 L of methane per kilogram volatile solid, respectively (Oliveira et al. 2014). Under mesophilic batch anaerobic digestion (38 °C), Ap et al. (2021) found that the biomethane yield of Sargassum fulvellum seaweed was 142.91-ml methane per gram volatile solid for macerated biomass (75–850 µm) compared to 68.11-ml methane per gram volatile solid for the raw biomass (106 µm–4.75 mm). However, under thermophilic batch digestion mode (55 °C), Farghali et al. (2021) found that the same untreated raw seaweed produced 145.69 ml of methane per gram of volatile solid. Nevertheless, the operational conditions, such as temperature and pretreatment method before anaerobic digestion, have the potential to influence biogas production. Consequently, the subsequent section discusses the difficulties of biogas production from seaweed and the potential solutions.

The anaerobic digestion of seaweed is limited by the firmness of the cell wall and the complexity of the biomolecular organic structures in seaweeds, which inhibits the fragmentation of the recalcitrant cell wall during hydrolysis and prolongs the anaerobic fermentation time (McKennedy and Sherlock 2015). The primary structural cell wall component in brown seaweed is cellulose, while in red and green seaweed, the primary structural cell wall component is cellulose, xylan, mannan, and xylan. These polysaccharides form various configurational microfibril structures, including flat ribbons in the case of cellulose and mannans and a helix configuration in the case of xylans (Maneein et al. 2018). Depending on the species, microfibrils with variable orientations are typically linked to polysaccharides matrix to form various carboxylic or sulphated polysaccharides (Synytsya et al. 2015). For example, sulphated fucans extracted from brown seaweed Himanthalia elongate have been suggested to interlock the cellulosic structure, whereas alginate–phenol bonds are the primary linkage governing the rigidity of seaweed cell walls (Deniaud-Bouet et al. 2014; Tiwari and Troy 2015). The association between protein in brown seaweed and phenols and sulphated fucans was observed (Deniaud-Bouet et al. 2014).

Moreover, phenols may have inhibitory effects on the anaerobic microorganisms (Maneein et al. 2018). Ulvans present in green seaweeds, including xylose, galactose, uronic, and rhamnose acid, are comparatively resistant to biodegradation and might constrain access to the disintegration of other polysaccharides, particularly starch and cellulose (Maneein et al. 2018). Therefore, the structural rigidity of seaweed’s cell wall architecture, which is dominated by alginates and sulphated fucans in brown seaweeds, agar and carrageenans in red seaweed, and ulvans in green seaweed, prevents seaweed from being hydrolysed by microbes to monomers (glucose) (Maneein et al. 2018). Ometto et al. (2018) ascribed the low specific methane yield of Saccharina latissima seaweed to the high contents of alginate and lower level of readily biodegradable laminarin and mannitol. The rate-limiting phase of the anaerobic digestion of seaweed is considered to be the hydrolysis of complex polysaccharides. Therefore, partial removal of complex polysaccharides enhanced the biodegradability of seaweed in the actual fermentation reactor (Tedesco and Daniels 2018). Polyphenols and insoluble fibres have also been identified as hardly biodegradable and potential anaerobic digestion inhibitors (Jard et al. 2013). In addition, seaweed’s crystalline structure, surface properties, cellulosic polymers, lignin content, fibre strength, and the presence of hemicellulose materials are listed as other factors that influence the biodegradability of seaweed (Tedesco and Daniels 2018).

The biodegradability index quantifies the methane potential of biomass in relation to biomass’s theoretical biomethane yield. The obtained value indicates the degree of substrate biodegradation and biomethane yield relative to the theoretical yield of methane (Allen et al. 2015). Table 6 shows various biodegradability indexes for some seaweeds. Saccharina latissima showed the highest degradability index of 0.81. Anaerobically biodegradability index of Fucus serratus and Ascophyllum nodosum is 0.19–0.34 for 30 days; in addition, 66–81% of their volatile solid contents were not biodegraded due to high lignocellulose content (Lin et al. 2019). Overall, Sargassum brown seaweed is less biodegradable by anaerobic digestion than Ulva green seaweed and Gracilaria red seaweed (Maneein et al. 2018). Higher insoluble fibre values can support this in brown seaweed (10–75%) compared to green seaweed (29–67%) or red seaweed (10–59%) (Maneein et al. 2018; Cabrita et al. 2017). Accordingly, pre-treatment techniques have been suggested based on the type and structural composition of the seaweed, as described in the following section.

Seasonal and geographical variations in the carbohydrate composition of seaweeds reduce the methane recovery from seaweed (i Losada et al. 2020). For instance, harvesting Irish seaweed during different seasons altered the seaweed’s physicochemical properties, chemical composition, and subsequent methane yield. Tabassum et al. (2016a) found that Laminaria digitata seaweed biomass harvest was 4.5 folds higher in August compared to that in December, with biomethane production 1.4 times higher in August (327 L methane per kilogram of volatile solid). Additionally, Tabassum et al. (2016b) found that Ascophyllum nodosum Irish seaweed collected in the summer season had a higher polyphenolic value than that harvested in October. Therefore, specific methane yield was 2.9 times (47 cubic metres of methane per tonne wet weight) higher in October compared to the seaweed collected in December.

The Laminaria spp. seaweed harvested in November produced 342 L of methane per kilogram of volatile solid, whereas the same seaweed collected in March produced 163 L of methane per kilogram of volatile solid (Montingelli et al. 2016a). Maneein et al. (2021) examined the biogas production from Sargassum muticum. They found a high methane yield from Sargassum muticum collected in spring with a value of 19.7 L methane per kilogram wet weight over those harvested in summer, which showed 13.0 L methane per kilogram wet weight. The rapid methane production rate from spring-harvested seaweed was attributed to the increased availability of biodegradable carbohydrates, such as mannitol, which were readily bioconverted to methane. In addition, this variation was attributed to the fact that summer-harvested seaweed contained polyphenolics that were 3.8 times higher than spring-harvested seaweed.

The seasonal variation effects on the seaweed’s heavy metals content were analysed in Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Alaria esculenta, and Saccharina latissima, which were collected in four various seasons (summer, spring, winter, and autumn). Generally, the contents of phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, aluminium, magnesium, iron, and sulphur were higher during summer and spring. During the winter and autumn, however, only arsenic levels were higher (Ometto et al. 2018). Table 7 outlines the effects of different seaweed harvesting seasons on biomethane yield.

Anaerobic digestion relies on microbial activity to convert complex compounds to monomers, which the microorganisms then consume to produce biomethane (Tawfik et al. 2022b). Typically, seaweed contains polyphenols, sulphated polysaccharides, and halogenated compounds, which inhibit anaerobic microorganisms (Tabassum et al. 2017a). The presence of sulphur-rich biomass in anaerobic digestion led to hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing bacteria (Farghali et al. 2019). The formation of hydrogen sulphide alongside methane indicates a competition between sulphate-reducing bacteria and methanogens for acetate, resulting in a decrease in methane production (Jung et al. 2022). In addition, the high salt content of seaweed biomass, which included sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts, led to the accumulation of salts in the anaerobic digestion systems, thereby inhibiting all microbes in anaerobic bioreactors (Maneein et al. 2018). High salinity shifted methanogens from the acetoclastic (Methanosaeta) to the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanocorpusculum and Methanobrevibacter) (De Vrieze et al. 2017). Zhang et al. (2017) found that hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanobacterium) tolerated salinity up to 85 g/l, whereas acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta) were inhibited at salinity more than 65 g/l during the anaerobic digestion of Laminaria japonica seaweed.

In addition, the inhibition of methanogen lowers the pH, leading to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and the subsequent suppression of the anaerobic digestion process. As part of their chemical defence systems, seaweed also produces a variety of halogenated secondary metabolites, particularly chlorinated and brominated compounds (Nielsen et al. 2020). In 90% of red seaweed and 7% of green seaweed, chlorinated and brominated metabolites predominate, whereas iodine-containing metabolites predominate in brown seaweeds (Nielsen et al. 2020). Some brown seaweed types can build up to 1.2% of the iodine per seaweed dry weight. Halogens are well-known inhibitors of biomethane production from anaerobic digesters (Nielsen et al. 2020). Halogenated compounds inhibited the growth of anaerobic microorganisms. Specifically, halogenated aliphatics inhibited methanogenesis (Czatzkowska et al. 2020), which is frequently produced by seaweed (Leri et al. 2019). Saccharina latissima may generate up to 120–630 mg of organochlorine and aliphatic organobromine per kilogram dry weight of seaweed (Czatzkowska et al. 2020).

Algae and marine and terrestrial organisms collectively contain more than 8000 phenolic compounds (Perez et al. 2016). Particularly brown seaweeds contain substantial amounts of phenolics (about 14% dry weight). In many seaweeds, phlorotannins predominate among various polyphenols (Milledge et al. 2019; Montero et al. 2016). Seaweed polyphenol inhibits anaerobic digestion microbiota and reduces biogas production (Milledge et al. 2018; Tabassum et al. 2016c).

The widespread use of seaweed as biomass for biogas production is still in the infancy stage. At the industrial level, only a handful of nations, including South Korea, Taiwan, and Brazil, have begun to develop seaweed bioenergy projects (González-Gloria et al. 2021). Biogas production from seaweed is unstable, with several variations between species and seasons; in addition, the presence of inhibitory compounds and the recalcitrant characteristics of seaweed necessitate pretreatments for the large-scale application of biogas systems. Washing seaweed and other mechanical or physical pretreatments incur additional costs. Farghali et al. (2021) found that biological and chemical pretreatment of seaweeds resulted in not only higher biomethane yield but also positive energy balance from alkaline and enzymatic pretreatment of seaweeds. However, when the authors estimated the cost of seaweed pretreatment, they could not identify a net profit due to the higher price of enzymatic and chemical additives. Consequently, the macroalgae-based biofuels industry must optimise and develop more research and technologies to reduce costs and equipment (González-Gloria et al. 2021).

The presence of recalcitrant substances, sulphide, and high salinity reduces the biogas production from seaweed feedstocks, which can be enhanced by a variety of pretreatment methods, including physical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, biological, and integrated methods, as shown in Fig. 5.

Methods of pretreatment for seaweeds. Various pretreatment methods can be applied to seaweeds, including physical (mechanical), chemical, biological, thermal, and integrated methods. The applied pretreatment increases the exposed surface area, degrades the cell wall, releases sugar monomer, exposes the intracellular molecules to microbial and enzymatic action, and improves the decrystallisation rate, which would be better utilised for methane production, thereby enhancing anaerobic digestion. A method that is both environmentally friendly and cost-effective is still required. Biological pretreatment is an effective and environmentally friendly process

Ap et al. (2021) examined the influence of different pretreatments, including chemical, mechanical, and biological, on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion from Sargassum fulvellum seaweed. Among different treatments, mechanical pretreatment through maceration of seaweed to 75–850 µm enhanced the biomethane outcome by 52.34% compared to the control seaweed of 106 µm–4.75-mm particle size. Mechanical pretreatment improved cellulose biodegradation rate by approximately 3.4 folds, optimising microbial growth in a decreased-sized seaweed-containing bioreactor. In addition, the mechanical pretreatment of seaweed increases the exposure of intracellular molecules to microbial action, hence improving anaerobic digestion (Ap et al. 2021; Ganesh Saratale et al. 2018). Mechanical pretreatment of Fucus vesiculosus (5 mm chopped) followed by batch anaerobic digestion resulted in double methane yields than the untreated biomass (Pastare et al. 2016). However, some authors found that the pretreatment of seaweeds decreased the biogas yield. For instance, maceration of Laminaria spp. to 1–2 mm-size particles reduced methane yield by 26.52–20.73% more than raw seaweed (Zheng et al. 2011). Biomass with a small particle size has been more susceptible to agglomerates and under compaction, which results in reduced direct contact between seaweed particles and microorganisms during anaerobic digestion (Farghali et al. 2021). Additionally, excessive maceration could increase the hydrolysis of organic materials, hence generating volatile fatty acids, and inhibiting the methanogens (Zheng et al. 2011). Likewise, the size reduction of brown seaweed Saccharina latissimi decreased the biogas yields at thermophilic (53 °C) digester (Montingelli et al. 2016b) due to inadequate membrane disruption of the seaweed through the size reduction.

Apart from mechanical pretreatment, biological pretreatment of seaweed is also investigated using different enzymes and biological agents. Tapia-Tussell et al. (2018) investigated the fungal pretreatment of Trametes hirsute on the anaerobic digestion of Mexican Caribbean seaweed and found a 20% increase in methane yield over the control untreated seaweeds. Under thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55 °C), biological treatment of Sargassum fulvellum seaweed by adding cellulase enzyme enhanced the biomethane yield to 116.64% compared to the untreated seaweed (Farghali et al. 2021). In addition, chemical pretreatment of Sargassum fulvellum with 0.36 ml/g volatile solid and 0.18 ml/g volatile solid of 2 molars hydrochloric acid and with 0.09 ml/g volatile solid and 0.04 ml/g volatile solid of 6 molar sodium hydroxides for 24 h at room temperature boosted the methane yield by 15.11, 6.53, 45.65, and 37.01% compared with the unpretreated control (Farghali et al. 2021). However, the authors demonstrated that the biological pretreatment of seaweed was the most effective method. The enzymatic pretreatment of Ulva rigida generated 7.3 g per litre of reduced sugar monomer that resulted in a biogas yield of 626.5 ml/g of chemical oxygen demand compared to only 0.6 g per litre of reduced sugar for the untreated control (Karray et al. 2015). Biological pretreatments changed bacterial and archaeal diversity and boosted biogas production (Zou et al. 2018).

The higher biogas outcome obtained from the biological pretreatment of seaweed was attributed to the rapid cell wall degradation and solubilisation via enzymatic hydrolysis, which enabled the release of the recalcitrant components, including cellulose, and more valuable lipids and sugars monomers in higher quantities to microbial action, which could be more utilised for biomethane generation (Farghali et al. 2021). Biological pretreatment of seaweed is a low energy, promising alternative to other energy-intensive pretreatments, and it does not produce any inhibitory by-products during the anaerobic digestion process; therefore, we recommend additional research on the biological treatment of seaweed.

The solubilisation of hemicellulose, polymers, and lignin by chemical pretreatment facilitates the microbial solubilisation of seaweed. In addition, alkaline pretreatment can cleave and saponify lignin–carbohydrate bonds, increase the internal surface area and porosity and reduce the degree of crystallisation and polymerisation of seaweed, thereby optimising the monomers’ accessibility to subsequent microbial digestion (Farghali et al. 2021; Thompson et al. 2019). In contrast, chemical pretreatments of Sargassum fulvellum biomass reduced the gas yield by 5.80–19.54% more than the untreated control (Ap et al. 2021).

Hydrothermal pretreatment of Sargassum sp., at a severity factor of 3.83 reduced the hydrogen sulphide formation from 3 to 1%, maximised soluble chemical oxygen demand production to 27,250 mg/l more than the unpretreated seaweed (237%), with maximum biomethane yield obtained of 408-ml methane/gram volatile solids (Thompson et al. 2020). Table 8 summarises the overall effect of different pretreatment conditions on biogas yield from various seaweed biomass.

Co-digestion of seaweed with other biomass can eliminate the difficulties of seaweed mono-digestion, where co-digestion balanced the carbon/nitrogen ratio, removed salt accumulation, improved process stability, reduced volatile fatty acid accumulation, provided high nutrient value, increased synergistic influences, and improved digestibility in bioreactors (Karki et al. 2021). A high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio in seaweed biomass reduces the bioavailability of nutrients to anaerobic microorganisms. Co-digestion with high-nitrogen feedstock can overcome nutrient limitations and increase biogas production. Several studies indicated that biomass, such as rice straw, sewage sludge, wastewater, dairy manure, and food waste, could be co-digested with seaweeds (Table 8).

Anaerobic co-digestion of Laminaria digitata with dairy manure at 80:20 ratios on volatile solids produced 290-ml methane/gram volatile solid under organic loading rate of 2 g volatile solids/litre/day and 15 days hydraulic retention time and improved the process stability (Sun et al. 2019). Ulva seaweed co-digested with cow dung at a 3:1 ratio yielded gas of 574-ml methane/gram volatile solid (Akila et al. 2019). The digestate produced after the conversion of Ulva sp. was applied as an alternative to traditional synthetic fertiliser. Similarly, co-digestion of Cladophora and Ulva intestinalis with wheat straw resulted in high gas outcomes of 504.5 and 375.8-ml methane/gram volatile solid, respectively (Romagnoli et al. 2019). However, pretreatments of seaweeds present some issues, as shown in Table 9; for instance, the high cost and energy intensity are limiting factors in the use of pretreatments for methane enhancements from seaweeds; thus, other promising methods may be required.

Seaweeds can be converted into biofuels by providing a steady feedstock supply for anaerobic digestion. Biogas production from seaweed is still hindered by numerous obstacles, such as the recalcitrance of seaweeds, seasonal biomass variation, the presence of inhibitory compounds, and the expense of harvesting. Several pretreatment methods, including chemical, mechanical, biological, thermal, and co-digestion, have been utilised by researchers to combat and improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion and overcome seaweed limitations. Higher methane yield after pretreatment was attributed to a greater quantity of the released organics from the chemically pretreated seaweed, which were rapidly utilised during the early digestion stage and favoured the methanogenic consortium. However, the large-scale and cost-effective application is lacking. In addition, urgently required are cost analyses and life cycle assessments of seaweed’s anaerobic digestion. The study of microbial shifts following pretreatments is an intriguing area for future research. A comprehensive evaluation of microorganisms would provide a detailed understanding of inhibitory pathways and strategies that can be implemented to increase methane yields. The labour-intensive collection of seaweed necessitates the incorporation of more bioengineering-based tools.

In an oxygen-free environment, char is produced by converting biomass to a carbon-rich black material via thermal processes such as pyrolysis and/or gasification (biochar) or hydrothermal carbonisation (hydrochar) (Farghali et al. 2022a; Farghali et al. 2022b; Mona et al. 2021; Singh et al. 2021). The thermochemical processes permanently alter the physicochemical structure of biomass (Osman et al. 2022). Table 10 summarises the biochar produced by diverse seaweeds through various thermochemical processes.

Biochar produced has exceptional properties, including a large surface area, a high porosity, an aromatised carbon pattern, an abundance of functional groups, and a high mineral content. Biochar can be used in agronomy, animal farming, biogas production, water treatment, composting, construction, energy storage, soil remediation, and carbon sequestration due to biochar’s unique properties (Osman et al. 2022). Biochar derived from seaweed typically has a higher inorganic nutrient content, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium, than biochar derived from lignocellulosic biomass, which may be beneficial to soils and increase crop yield (Michalak et al. 2019; Sun et al. 2022).

In biochar applications, porosity and surface area are crucial parameters (Fawzy et al. 2021). Comparatively, seaweed biochar has lower surface areas than terrestrial-derived biochar, particularly woody feedstock. For instance, Michalak et al. (2019) and Roberts et al. (2015) stated that pyrolysis of Eucheuma and Cladophora glomerata produced biochars with specific surface areas of approximately 34.8 m2/g and 20 m2/g, respectively, while wheat straw-resulting biochar, rice husk-resulting biochar, and coconut shell-resulting biochar had comparatively high surface areas of about 256 m2/g (Medyńska-Juraszek et al. 2020), 280 m2/g (Tsai et al. 2021), and 152.8 m2/g (Zhao et al. 2019) respectively. However, the surface area of raw biochar derived from seaweed can be increased through additional pre-and/or post-treatment. For example, Zhou et al. (2018) found that potassium hydroxide pretreated kelp-derived biochar had a surface area of about 507.2 m2/g and porosity of 0.38 square centimetres/gram. These enhanced properties may provide additional advantages for enhancing the removal of contaminants, particularly in water treatment. Equally, water-washed Ulva prolifera biochar at 600 °C could improve seaweed biochar’s surface area from 13.46 m2/g for unwashed biochar to 257.41 m2/g (Yang et al. 2021b). Sun et al. (2022) described that lower ash content and higher pyrolysis temperature could increase the surface areas of seaweed’s biochar.

Most volatile compounds in the feedstock are removed during the pyrolysis process; as a result, the resulting biochar is resistant to decomposition and highly stable (Farghali et al. 2022a; Bach and Chen 2017). Accordingly, biochar can be stored in soils for long periods, steadily resulting in the removal and sequestration of atmospheric carbon (Farghali et al. 2022a; Osman et al. 2022). Moreover, the high inorganic content of biochar may provide plant nutrients (Osman et al. 2022; Roberts et al. 2015; Fawzy et al. 2022). Additionally, the increased porosity of biochar may increase the soil’s water-holding capacity, thereby enhancing the crop’s water-use efficiency (Farghali et al. 2022a).

Biochar derived from seaweed has the potential to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Some authors found that adding seaweed biochar to soils could boost the number of methane-oxidising microorganisms that reduce methane emissions from crop fields (Wu et al. 2019a; Wu et al. 2019b). Chubarenko et al. (2021) estimated that approximately 20–6000 tonnes of beach-cast seaweeds per kilometre of the shoreline might be collected annually in the southern Baltic Sea area. Consequently, the natural biodegradation of shoreline seaweed contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, properly treating shoreline seaweed can reduce climate change and other problems such as eutrophication and strong odour (Lymperatou et al. 2022).

Wen et al. (2022) assessed the life cycle of beach-cast seaweed through pyrolysis. The authors found that pyrolysis of washed seaweed at 600 °C could result in carbon emission of—790.89 kg of carbon dioxides equivalent and negative overall energy demand of—2.98 gigajoules. In addition, at 600 °C stability of biochar over 100-year was 82% at 14.9 °C. Similarly, Sörbom (2020) reported that beach-cast seaweed-derived biochar had a significant capacity as a biofuel and carbon sequestration process. The author found that beach-cast has the ability to alleviate climate change by compensating 0.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilogram of dry beach-cast, which was comparable to a carbon sequestration potential of 1600 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent per year. In addition, this study demonstrated that forming biochar at an optimal temperature of 500 °C with optimised energy savings from natural drying decreased carbon dioxide equivalent emissions. Seaweed has a bio-charring conversion ratio of 48–57%, equivalent to high-quality plant biochar; thus, bio-charring can be a promising environment-friendly substitute to beach seaweed discarding by avoiding greenhouse gas emissions from biomass decomposition (Macreadie et al. 2017). As indicative of seaweed’s biochar carbon stability, Yang et al. (2021b) found that Ulva prolifera biochar had hydrogen/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios of 1.025–0.173 and 0.480–0.193 compared to 1.956 and 0.897 for the raw seaweeds, respectively. Overall, the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio is the best indicator of biochar’s environmental stability. For stabilised biochar, the upper limits of 0.4 and less than 0.7 for oxygen to carbon and hydrogen to carbon, respectively, are permitted, where biochar with an oxygen-to-carbon ratio of less than 0.2 is the most stable, with a half-life of greater than 1000 years; those with a ratio of 0.2–0.6 have a half-life of 100–1000 years; and those with a ratio of higher than 0.6 have a half-life of less than 100 years (Farghali et al. 2022a).

Seaweed biochar can also be used as a soil amendment in agronomy and forestry because the nutrients contained in seaweed are preserved and concentrated in biochar. Seaweeds are useful biofertilisers because they are rich in micronutrients, nitrogen, potassium, polysaccharides such as alginates, laminarin, carrageenans, and humic acid, and phytohormones (Yong et al. 2022; Nabti et al. 2016).

Gracilariopsis funicularis and Laminaria pallida seaweeds were pyrolysed at 200–800 °C. Pyrolysis at 400 °C temperature reduced biochar yields up to 50%, with even lower solid biochar yields at higher temperatures. Gracilariopsis funicularis seaweed biochar produced the highest macro-elements with a total carbon of 38.3%; nitrogen of 4.3%, and phosphorus of 6.3 g/kg, while Laminaria pallida biochar had the peak cations contents of 16.2 g/kg calcium; 6.4 g/kg magnesium; 151 g/kg potassium, and 45 g/kg sodium. The higher cadmium content of 3.9 milligrams per kilogram was problematic and exceeded the permitted biochar limits. Overall, a 400 °C pyrolysis temperature was optimum for the best quality biochar in aspects of total carbon pH, and macro-elements. Gracilariopsi funicularis biochar displayed substantially higher nutrient contents and thus has excellent potential in improving soil quality (Katakula et al. 2020). Roberts et al. (2015) concluded that seaweed-derived biochar had high nitrogen (0.3–2.8%), phosphorus (0.5–6.60 g/kg), and potassium (5.1–119 g/kg) contents and exchangeable cations. Therefore, using biochar derived from seaweed may reduce the demand for synthetic fertilisers, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fertiliser production. Table 11 provides an overview of the elemental composition of biochar derived from seaweed.

Although seaweed biochar is regarded as a potential method for amending soil, seaweed-derived biochar’s practical application to soil is restricted by several factors. During pyrolysis, the low volatilisation temperature of sodium, sulphur, and chlorides, as well as the low melting temperature of sodium and potassium in seaweed, are obstacles that may lead to the formation of soil deposits and corrosion (Saber et al. 2016). In biochar, the non-volatile minerals remaining after pyrolysis would be preserved. The mineral content depends on the species and environment of the seaweed, where seaweeds from waters contaminated with heavy metals can have an adverse effect on crops and plants grown in different soil environments (Sun et al. 2022); for instance, higher content of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cadmium, and mercury can produce toxic impacts on crop growth (Lee et al. 2020).

Furthermore, Roberts et al. (2015) found that seaweed-derived biochar typically has high levels of exchangeable sodium due to the aquatic growth of seaweed, which might cause soil salinity. To overcome these limitations, pre- and post-treatment processes have been suggested. For instance, Boakye et al. (2016) mentioned that seaweed pre-treatment through washing could decrease the toxicity level. Roberts et al. (2015) revealed that mixing seaweed-derived biochar with lignocellulosic-derived biochar could lower the sodium content and improve the carbon value of biochars mixtures, which lead to unique soil property fits the demands of the plant. Furthermore, Cole et al. (2017) indicated that composting a mixture of seaweed-derived biochar and sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar increased corn yields by 15%. The authors suggested that seaweed’s biochar might absorb unstable phosphorus and nitrogen to avoid nutrient losses in the soil and diminish the sodium content. However, the current pre- and post-treatment techniques may increase the final outcome’s cost. Optimising the pyrolysis conditions for maximum mineral retention capacities and bioavailability of heavy metals in biochar is, therefore, urgent and requires additional research.

Several thermochemical methods, such as pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonisation, and torrefaction, can be used to produce seaweed biochar from seaweed biomass. Biochar is an efficient method for sequestering carbon and improving soil quality. Applying biochar to the soil can also improve soil quality by increasing the soil’s water-holding capacity, nutrient-holding capacity, and microbial population. Zhu et al. (2017) proposed direct and indirect reasons for the improvement of soils following the addition of algal biochar. The direct causes are associated with the physicochemical properties of biochar, such as biochar’s structure, surface area, and porosity, which provide shelter for soil microbiota, as well as the nutrients retained in biochar that are essential for the growth of soil microbes. The potential of biochar to reduce the toxicity of volatile organic compounds and stable free radicals is a further direct cause. The indirect effects of algal biochar on soils can be attributed to the biochar’s capacity to alter soil pH, provide aeration, stimulate enzymatic activity, influence soil elemental cycling, and reduce soil contaminants, thereby protecting soil microbiota from toxicants.

In addition to climate change, extensive use of chemical pesticides has accelerated the occurrence of resistant, infectious pathogens and pests affecting important crops, resulting in substantial losses in crop production (Yong et al. 2022). Seaweed extract can be used to enhance crop productivity. For instance, Ali et al. (2021) demonstrated that seaweed extract could increase plant productivity, overcome pest resistance, abiotic stresses, including salinity and drought, and substantially change plant and soil microbiome, hence supporting sustainable plant growth. In addition, seaweed-supplemented soil significantly improves crop health and productivity by enhancing root and shoot elongation, enhancing nutrient and water uptake rate, boosting seed germination, and conveying plant resistance to frost, salinity, and phytopathogenic agents, such as bacteria, parasites, insects, fungi, and other pests (Yong et al. 2022; Nabti et al. 2017; Williams et al. 2021).

Seaweeds are effective biofertilisers because they are rich in nitrogen, potassium, humic acid, micronutrients, polysaccharides such as alginates, laminarin, and carrageenans, and other growth-promoting phytohormones (Nabti et al. 2016; du Jardin 2015). Specifically, treatment of tomato plants and sweet pepper with Ascophyllum nodosum extracts combined with safe fungicides produced the highest total plant yield (57% increase) and the lowest disease levels (60% reduction) compared to their individual application, indicating the beneficial and synergistic effects of seaweed extracts on the plant (Ali et al. 2021). Seaweed induction of disease suppression was attributed to stimulation of peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, chitinase, total phenolic, β-1,3-glucanase, and higher PinII and ETR-1 genes expressions (Ali et al. 2021). Similarly, seaweed extracts used in foliage and soil significantly affected the phyllosphere and rhizosphere microbial components and improved cross-microbial-linkage that considerably impacts plant health and production (Ali et al. 2021). Experimentally, using seaweed fertilisers such as Ascophyllum nodosum extracts in the rhizosphere soil of pepper, maize, and tomato crops altered microbial communities and diversity structures on the plant roots and soil (Wang et al.