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Biochar application modifies soil properties of a former mine technosol | TU Delft Repositories

1 September, 2021

Biochar application modifies soil properties of a former mine technosol: SEM/EDS study to investigate Pb and As speciation

Lebrun, M.
Nandillon, R.
Miard, F.
Bourgerie, S.
Visser, R.
Morabito, D.


Field experiment
Scanning electron microscopy




Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery

TNO Publications


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A Predictive Physico-chemical Model of Biochar Oxidation | Energy & Fuels – ACS Publications

1 September, 2021

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GoBiochar: Climate Resilience and Restoration using Biochar – SLUG Magazine

1 September, 2021

Aug 20, 2021 • 17:36

We Are starting to use biochar at Highland Hill Farm – Rumble

1 September, 2021

How cities can transform urban green spaces into carbon sinks – Expert available to … – Newswise

1 September, 2021

Senior lecturer Mikko Jalas is available to comment on how cities can use biochar in urban green spaces to help reach carbon neutrality. Jalas has co-led efforts on Carbon Lane, a project to build and monitor an urban carbon sink in the Finnish capital of Helsinki. The pilot is among the first globally to test the use of biochar in a public park in use, as well as the chart the material’s development with the city and commercial partners.

 ‘Many cities are struggling to find ways to reach their carbon targets. With our pilot we now have a model for creating carbon sinks in urban environments with biochar – a product that you get by burning biowaste, like grass, demolished wood, and even sewage sludge, in a certain way. In the case of Helsinki, our estimates show that widely introducing biochar to the city’s parks would store about the same amount of carbon as a major shift from cement-based to wood-based construction across the city. This is a simple and practical way for cities to store carbon in the soil that is, in any case, in the parks and green spaces around us,’ says Jalas.

The City of Helsinki aims to be carbon neutral by 2035.


More resources:

Watch a five-minute interview with Mikko Jalas at the pilot project site.

Read the policy brief on the lessons learned from the pilot, published in Frontiers of Environmental Science by the research team at Aalto University and the University of Helsinki.


Mikko Jalas’ biography:

Mikko Jalas is a Senior Lecturer at the department of design in Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture. His research activities relate to sustainable consumption practices, time-use, domestic energy use, and policies and other tools steer consumption. In particular, his current interests focus on policies, pricing mechanisms and business models for guiding the timing demand of infrastructure services such as electricity. He has also studied and been practically involved in citizen and DIY activities in renewable energy, climate change mitigation and carbon sequestration. At Aalto University, he leads the interdisciplinary Creative Sustainability Masters programme.

Newswise gives journalists access to the latest news and provides a platform for universities, institutions, and journalists to spread breaking news to their audience.

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Biochar ambassadors hope to save the Methow | InvestigateWest

1 September, 2021

By the last week of July, there were fires burning on both sides of the Methow River. Air quality was bad enough to make the national news. In better times, Central Washington’s Methow Valley is a destination for world-class climbing, hiking and skiing. It’s remote. It’s beautiful. But like much of the West, it’s increasingly aflame.

On Aug. 20, for the first time, Gina and her husband, Tom McCoy, fired up a machine they believe offers the best chance to reduce catastrophic wildfires in their valley — while simultaneously combating climate change, improving air quality and providing local jobs that help keep the forests healthy.

Through C6 Forest to Farm, a nonprofit they founded last year, the McCoys plan to accelerate forest restoration by creating a local market for the small-diameter trees that are a symptom of unhealthy forests and fuel for giant fires. They’ll make biochar, a form of charcoal, from trees cut down during forest thinning. In doing so, the couple hopes to reduce emissions created by raging wildfires and the burning of slash piles.

The machine that was recently delivered to the McCoys from the University of California, Merced is a pyrolyzer, which creates biochar from organic matter. Technology for making charcoal is one of the oldest known to humans. Historically, it consisted of digging a hole and burning wood in it. In technical terms, the method by which the McCoys plan to create charcoal is called pyrolysis: heating wood chips or sawdust in a low-oxygen environment to 750–1,100 degrees Fahrenheit. Pyrolyzing wood releases about half the emissions of open burning; the other half of the carbon is stored in the resulting biochar.

Some large-scale pyrolysis methods require industrial-size facilities, but the research machine in the Methow is comparatively small: It fits on the back of a 5-by-5-foot trailer and now resides in a defunct 22-acre gravel pit owned by Okanogan County and is a short walk from the McCoys’ home. The McCoys plan on hosting regular public demonstrations soon. Their goals for this year are to make biochar from a slash pile left by a state restoration project, and from a 10-foot-high pile of woody debris that’s occupied the gravel pit since it was collected by the county during routine road-clearing operations.

Research suggests biochar can persist in soil for hundreds of years. This makes it a potential tool in the fight against climate change, especially when made from materials like thinned trees or agricultural debris that, if burned, release stored carbon into the atmosphere. Biochar gained recognition in the early 2000s when scientists published findings about charcoal that was purposefully created by Indigenous people of the Amazon region to incorporate into their soil. The soil, which researchers called terra preta,or “black gold,” held large amounts of carbon that contributed to the richness of nutrients and plant life.

In the decades since that study, many would-be biochar entrepreneurs have tried and failed to stay afloat in what remains an undeveloped market. But new uses for biochar and new ways of funding carbon storage are now emerging.

After years of wildfires at their doorstep, the McCoys decided to devote themselves to creating a product that could help finance forest restoration as well as carbon storage. Their ultimate dream is to build a multimillion-dollar processing plant that will turn thousands of tons of woody material into biochar each year. This spring, the Washington Legislature took a chance on their pilot project by granting them $160,000 in state funds, to be paid out over the next two years.

“These are the types of things that the state should give a nudge of support to,” says Sen. Brad Hawkins, who submitted the project for funding from the Legislature. This is especially true, he says, considering how many millions of dollars the state already has spent fighting wildfires.

In the couple’s backyard, in the shade of a hoop house, Gina crunches a stalk of homegrown dill. Tom points across the valley to a neighbor’s property where they watched a fire start in 2014, a fire that eventually consumed 11 homes. There are three routes in and out of the valley, and that year, fires temporarily closed all three. They say many neighbors have begun leaving the area during the summer fire season.

Climate change has contributed to the problem, drying out vegetation and making it more flammable. But a 100 years of fire suppression wildly overstocked the forest with unhealthy trees. After catastrophic fires in the inland West burned 3 million acres and killed 87 people in 1910, the U.S. Forest Service adopted a policy of putting out every spark. By 1935, the agency had implemented the “10 o’clock” rule, stipulating that any observed fire had to be extinguished by 10 the following morning.

Between natural lightning strikes and intentional burns ignited by Indigenous people, dry forests in an area like the Methow Valley historically endured low-intensity fires every 7–15 years. These fires cleared the underbrush and younger trees, making the Methow of olden days look like parkland, with stately ponderosa pines spaced far enough apart to let in sunlight.

The consensus among scientists is that trees in the Methow Valley need to be removed much faster than is now being done. State and federal governments are enthusiastic about doing this — at least on paper. They call this “forest health treatment,” which typically involves leaving bigger trees standing while cutting and piling up the smaller ones into slash piles that are burned in the winter. But the rate of this thinning depends on government funding, and although agencies no longer follow the 10 o’clock rule, a ballooning portion of agency budgets are still directed toward firefighting, leaving little left over for restoration.

“I’ve become really impatient about the pace and scale of those [forest health] treatments,” says Susan Prichard, a Methow Valley resident and fire ecologist at the University of Washington. “A good portion of that work is being done by wildfires themselves.”

Prichard is a lead author of a set of three articles released in August in the scientific journal Ecological Applications. In a review of literature on the subject of wildfire management, dozens of collaborating scientists affirmed that forests need to be thinned, and that low-intensity fires need to be reintroduced in prescribed burns.

Of the watershed surrounding the Methow Valley, 84% is federally owned; you can’t drive far without being welcomed into one national forest or another. Another 5% is state owned. For the people who live on private property, decades of forest management practices, largely beyond their control, now threaten their livelihoods and property.

A January 2019 article in the Methow Valley News about the valley’s risk for fire damage  spurred Gina to think about what they could do about it. The fact that she was sitting at home with two sprained ankles during ski season helped the thought process. She knew the density of the forests was the prevailing issue, so she ordered a textbook on biomass processing and started figuring out what could best help their area.

Instead of starting a business by looking at the landscape and asking what it could do for them, the McCoys began by asking what they could do for the land. It was natural for them to take this approach: Both had long careers in landscape ecology and were used to thinking about problems on a watershed scale. They met in the 1980s, when Gina went to work for the Yakama Nation a month after Tom did. He was a wildlife manager; she was a watershed manager. Her last job before retirement was as a fluvial engineer for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, and his was as the manager of the 34,600-acre Methow Wildlife Area. In that job, Tom saw firsthand what fire suppression had done to the landscape and how much thinning was required.

A major impediment to thinning is the low value of small-diameter trees in the commercial timber market. And the Methow Valley doesn’t have a mill. To be turned into a useful product, small trees need to be trucked to the nearest mill in Kettle Falls, about 150 miles away. Economically, the math doesn’t work. Loggers would spend about twice as much money harvesting and transporting timber as they would get from a mill.

This prevents forest restoration from occurring quickly, a point that the state Department of Natural Resources (DNR) explicitly tried to address in its 20-Year Forest Health Strategic Plan. The agency hopes to stimulate private investment in new products made from forest-thinning by-products, and biochar projects are just one of several possibilities. For example, Vaagen Timbers, a mill in northeast Washington, is using remnants from thinning the Colville National Forest to create cross-laminated timber, which can replace steel and concrete in offices and apartments.

“The more opportunity there is to create value-added products from what is right now essentially a waste material, the more it’s going to improve conditions on the ground, reduce the risk of these catastrophic wildfires, and better prepare the forest for drought,” says Andrew Spaeth, a DNR environmental planner who helped write the 20-year plan. 

Tom hopes to soon produce 6,000–7,500 tons of biochar per year, “a football field 20–30 feet deep.” The next step would be to determine how to utilize and sell the biochar.

After research on terra preta popularized it, many businesses leapt to market their own versions of biochar, with sales pitches that spoke glowingly of its ability to increase crop production. Biochar is still often sold as a soil amendment, and it can increase yields when added to some kinds of soil. But not all biochar is created equal. It can be made out of any organic compound, from rice to tires, and not all soils have equal use for it.

Margins for farmers are razor-thin, and many are hesitant to bet on an unproven product. Research is ongoing, but a 2019 report from Washington State University concluded that there’s economic justification for Pacific Northwest farmers to use biochar only with one type of crop —vegetables — unless they’re also paid to sequester carbon as biochar. At the national level, the Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is running a three-year pilot program doing just that, paying farmers to use biochar as a soil supplement. States can opt into this program, but Washington has yet to do so.

The first wave of enthusiasm for biochar didn’t consider how different source materials would affect the outcome. Conversely, the McCoys want to create what they call “designed biochar,” charcoal made from the specific materials, primarily ponderosa pine and Douglas fir, and intended for specific purposes. They’re still hopeful about its potential as a soil supplement, and Tom says that if Washington were to opt into the NRCS pilot program, that money alone could cover most of their expenses.

For now, C6 is operating on funding from the Legislature and private donations, although it’s also exploring the state’s carbon offset program, born this year as part of cap-and-trade legislation. Carbon offsets give monetary value to the carbon-storing abilities of something like a forest and allow people to buy credits that support it. Sometimes individuals or companies voluntarily buy offsets, but in states with carbon regulations, large polluters often purchase offset credits to compensate for their own emissions.

So far, offsets have had dubious success. A joint investigation by MIT Technology Review and ProPublica in April revealed that California’s offset program, on balance, may have added carbon to the atmosphere because of faulty methods used to account for the carbon stored in forests. Accurately calculating the carbon stored in soil is extremely complicated, and marketplaces that claim to measure it and sell credits are still fairly new. Still, some companies are trying to legitimize this process. Carbofex, a Finland-based company that creates biochar out of by-products from commercially managed European forests, uses it as a soil supplement or for water filtration, and sells offset credits on the Puro.earth marketplace. Washington legislators attempted to address concerns about offsets by making them a “bonus” when tallying lowered emissions. That is, companies can still purchase offsets, but unlike in California, offsets don’t eliminate requirements that polluters decarbonize their operations.

Regardless of whether they’re able to join an offset market, the McCoys are considering using the biochar for water filtration, as compost or potting mix, or in a new form of pavement that an Australian company is making from biomass. They’re exploring all avenues, agnostic about the exact use, hoping that within a year they’ll have products that at least pay for the cost of making them.

For the McCoys, biochar production is a way of dealing with the scale of the forest health problem in the short time they feel remains; that is, before another western megafire makes these questions moot. Research from the University of Washington suggests forests in the Sierra Nevada of California could, in an intense burst, burn for another decade or so, but then cease because there won’t be many trees left. The McCoys believe that this could happen in the Methow, too.

With the drought that’s settled over the inland West, it’s not likely that trees lost to wildfire will return anytime soon. Research from the University of Montana indicates many ponderosa pine and Douglas fir forests will no longer regenerate after fires as they once did, suggesting that mature trees in these forests are now essentially nonrenewable resources.

“If we can stop just one fire from becoming catastrophic, it will have been worth it,” Tom says.

He means it sentimentally, but also economically: The state spent $60 million fighting the

250,000-acre Carlton Complex fires of 2014 in the Methow Valley. Tom estimates that $60 million could run their biochar project for decades. As for effects on the climate, wildfires were the second-largest single source of carbon emissions in Washington in 2015, following only the transportation sector.

“The forest health treatments are expensive, but not compared to fire suppression, property damage and the cost to the climate,” Gina says.

The McCoys started their company as a nonprofit, an unorthodox decision for a venture dealing in industrial chemistry, and they clearly hope they can provide a model for others across the West to create local versions of the same thing.

“If the economy, the way we have it structured, does not value our forests or our climate, what good is that economy?” Gina asks. “Our profit is the valley we love.”

Feature image: Tom McCoy, cofounder of C6 Forest to Farm, with sawmill dust that the nonprofit is using as feedstock to start up its pyrolyzer. Ultimately the nonprofit intends to feed the machine with small-diameter trees and slash produced from forest thinning operations, creating revenue for local forest restoration projects. McCoy notes that the $160,000 in funding for their project provided Washington Legislature is a fraction of the $60 million that the state spent fighting a major Methow Valley fire in 2014. (Photo: Tim Matsui/InvestigateWest)


© Copyright 2021, InvestigateWest.

Youtube biochar inoculation – Pogoń Szczecin Football Schools

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Biouhel (z angl. biochar) je zuhelněná biomasa, která vznikla termickou přeměnou (nízkoteplotní pyrolýza, karbonizace). V podstatě jde o obdobu dřevného uhlí, ale vyrobeného ze zbytkové a odpadní biomasy. Základní složkou je chemicky stabilní uhlík, který nepodléhá dalšímu rozkladu ani oxidaci.

See full list on biochar-international.org In Task 4.1. DLO will set up microbiological strategy and selection of bacterial inoculants and development of inoculation technology and protocol for improving the soil-health and disease suppression potential of the compost. DLO will also select, product- and quality testing of bacterial inoculants.

Fine Biochar Powder Market to Flourish with an Impressive CAGR During 2021-2028 – The …

1 September, 2021

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BornOil posts solid Q4 earnings, contribution from quoted securities – New Straits Times

1 September, 2021

Synthesis of a novel biochar-supported polycarboxylic acid-functionalized nanoiron oxide …

1 September, 2021

In this study, a biochar-supported polycarboxylic acid-functionalized nanoiron oxide-encapsulated composite (BC@nFe-CA) was synthesized by the pyrolysis of rice husk biomass, nZVI reductive deposition and surface functionalization under mild conditions for Cd(II), EDTA and Cd-EDTA wastewater treatment. Physical and chemical properties of BC@nFe-CA were characterized by various spectral techniques; the effects of initial pH, contact time, initial concentration, etc., and the mechanism on Cd(II) and EDTA adsorption by BC@nFe-CA were explored by batch experiments and spectral techniques. The isotherm results indicated that Langmuir model can well describe the equilibrium data with the maximum BC@nFe-CA adsorption capacities of 63.84 mg g−1 toward Cd(II) and 50.27 mg g−1 for EDTA at pH 5.5 (± 0.5) and 40 °C, and the Cd(II) and EDTA adsorption process was quick, endothermic and spontaneous. Furthermore, Cd-EDTA decomplexation experiment was carried out in the presence of H2O2 and BC@nFe-CA to evaluate the dominant catalytic role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was found that ROS generated in the BC@nFe-CA/H2O2 system was responsible for Cd-EDTA decomplexation. The stabilization energies of BC@nFe-CA loaded with Cd(II) and EDTA were analyzed by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and the possible decomplexation pathway of Cd-EDTA was proposed. Finally, high-purity (approximately 99.8%) cadmium salt crystals were obtained through the pickling-oxidation-evaporation crystallization (POEC) process. This work develops a feasible route for the application of rice husk biomass, unravels the interaction of BC@nFe-CA with Cd(II), EDTA and Cd-EDTA under various conditions, and provides deep insight into Cd-EDTA decomplexation in the presence of BC@nFe-CA and ROS.

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This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number 51804353); Hunan Provincial Key Research Plan Program of China (Grant Numbers 2020SK2006, 2020SK2039, 2019SK2191 and 2018SK2041); the Education Department of Hunan Province of China (Grant Number 18B195 and 17B276); the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Number 2018YFC1800400) and the Changsha Science and Technology Plan (Grant Number kq1901142). The authors would like to extend special thanks to the editor and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions in improving the quality of the paper.

Correspondence to Runhua Chen.

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Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Received: 19 April 2021

Accepted: 18 August 2021

Published: 31 August 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-021-06464-2

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Utilization of the UAE date palm leaf biochar in carbon dioxide capture and sequestration processes

1 September, 2021

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Wood Vinegar Market Impact and Recovery Analysis Report – TAGROW CO. LTD., Ace …

1 September, 2021

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The global Wood Vinegar Market is expected to witness robust CAGR of 7.1% during the forecast period (2021-2027).

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Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.)
Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

The cost analysis of the Global Wood Vinegar Market has been performed while keeping in view manufacturing expenses, labor cost, and raw materials and their market concentration rate, suppliers, and price trend. Other factors such as Supply chain, downstream buyers, and sourcing strategy have been assessed to provide a complete and in-depth view of the market. Buyers of the report will also be exposed to a study on market positioning with factors such as target client, brand strategy, and price strategy taken into consideration.

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Table of Content (TOC)

Global Wood Vinegar Market Report 2021 – Growth, Trend and Forecast to 2027

Chapter 1 Wood Vinegar Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Wood Vinegar Industry

Chapter 3 Global Wood Vinegar Market Competition by Manufacturers

Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2014-2020)

Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2014-2020)

Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Global Wood Vinegar Market Forecast (2020-2026)

Chapter 13 Appendix

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Perancangan Mesin Pengering Biochar Berbasis Perhitungan Exergy dan Computational …

1 September, 2021

Mokhammad, Fahmi Izdiharrudin (2021) Perancangan Mesin Pengering Biochar Berbasis Perhitungan Exergy dan Computational Fluid Dynamics. Masters thesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember.

The need for coal in Indonesia based on ESDM data has increased from 24% in 2011 to 30% in 2025. The environmental impact caused by coal is not linear with the increasing demand. Therefore, it is necessary to replace coal or commonly known as co-firing which uses biochar which is more environmentally friendly. In this study, the thermofluid performance of the biochar dryer was carried out with the addition of a numerical design disturbance by solving the mass, momentum, energy and turbulence equations. The Eularian multiphase model was used to determine the volume fraction of the product. The effect of grid density is carried out to determine the validation of the outlet temperature value. The addition of baffles with angles of 30O, 45O, and 60O was carried out around the outlet area to determine the increase in performance. In addition, several variations of the input temperature and gas velocity were carried out to determine the exergy efficiency value for thermo-fluid performance expressed in nusselts number. The addition of baffles with the best exergy efficiency value is the angle of 30 with 90.45% found at a temperature variation of 364 K. For the speed with the best result of the nusselt number is at a speed of 1.2 m/s of 21.4.

Biochar Cathode Reinforcing Electro Fenton Pathway Again – 2021 – Science of TH | PDF … – Scribd

1 September, 2021

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Science of the Total Environment

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/scitotenv

Biochar cathode: Reinforcing electro-Fenton pathway against

four-electron reduction by controlled carbonization and
surface chemistry
Chen Sun a, Tong Chen a,⁎, Qunxing Huang a, Xiaoguang Duan b, Mingxiu Zhan c, Longjie Ji d,e, Xiaodong Li a,
Shaobin Wang b, Jianhua Yan a
State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
College of Metrology and Measurement Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China
National Engineering Laboratory for Site Remediation Technologies, Beijing Construction Engineering Group Environmental Remediation Co. Ltd., Beijing 100015, China
State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China


• Biochar derived from medium carboni-

zation temperature was favorable for
electro-Fenton reactions.
• Pollutant was effectively degraded in
biochar-based EF system in acidic solu-
• Hydroxyl radicals were the primary
oxygen reactive species for catalytic

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Porous biochars have attracted tremendous interests in electrochemical applications. In this study, a family of
Received 22 June 2020 biochars were prepared from cellulose subject to different carbonization temperatures ranging from 400 to
Received in revised form 31 August 2020 700 °C, and the biochars were in-situ activated by a molten salt (ZnCl2) to construct a hierarchically porous archi-
Accepted 31 August 2020
tecture. The activated porous biochars (ZnBC) were used as a carbocatalyst for electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation of
Available online 1 September 2020
organic contaminants. Results showed that high-temperature carbonization improved the activity of biochar
Editor: Daniel CW Tsang for four-electron oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to the rich carbon defects, while the mild-temperature
treatment regulated the species and distribution of oxygen functional groups to increase the production of hydro-
Keywords: gen peroxide (H2O2) via a selective two-electron ORR pathway. ZnBC-550 was the best cathode material with a
Porous biochar high ORR activity without compromise in H2O2 selectivity; a high production rate of H2O2 (796.1 mg/g/h) was
Electro-Fenton oxidation attained at −0.25 V vs RHE at pH of 1. Furthermore, Fe(II) addition induced an electro-Fenton system to attain
H2O2 fast decomposition of various organic pollutants at −0.25 V vs RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) and pH of
Hydroxyl radical, advanced oxidation processes 3 with a satisfactory mineralization efficiency toward phenolic pollutants. The EF system maintains its excellent
stability for 10 cycles. Hydroxyl radicals were identified as the dominant reactive oxygen species based on in situ
electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and radical quenching tests. This study gains new insights into
electrocatalytic H2O2 production over porous biochars and provides a low-cost, robust and high-performance
electro-Fenton cathode for wastewater purification.
© 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.

⁎ Corresponding author at: State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.
E-mail address: chentong@zju.edu.cn (T. Chen).

0048-9697/© 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.
2 C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136

1. Introduction 2018), graphene (Kim et al., 2018), and carbon black (Wang et al.,
2018; Zhang et al., 2019b).
The ever-growing organic pollution in water resources by refractory Biomass is a natural feedstock for carbonaceous materials with a rich
contaminants has become a severe issue for social well-being and sus- content of oxygen. Surface functionalization is effective in biochar mod-
tainability. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) produce powerful re- ification for various applications (Wan et al., 2020; Wan et al., 2019).
active oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical (E0(•OH/H2O) = Biomass-derived carbon materials have been used as cathode catalysts
2.7 V) (Brillas et al., 2009), which are used to degrade diverse persistent in electro-Fenton systems (Chen et al., 2019b; Gao et al., 2018; Huang
organic pollutants in wastewater (Liu et al., 2018). Fenton process is a et al., 2018b; Liang et al., 2018). Typically, a high carbonization temper-
cost-effective AOP technology compared with photocatalysis (Sun ature over 800 °C is applied to obtain graphitic carbons. An increased
et al., 2019) and microwave-assisted process (Sun et al., 2020). Conven- annealing temperature would lead to the decomposition of oxygen
tional Fenton reagents (Fe2+/H2O2) depend on the reversable Fe2+/Fe3 functional groups, which decreased the selectivity in H2O2 production.
cycle to decompose H2O2 and generate •OH (R1). Unfortunately, such A lower carbonization temperature would decrease the conductivity
a process was limited in practical application mainly due to: (1) the nar- of the derived carbon materials, which is not beneficial for electrochem-
row pH range (e.g., 2.5–3.5); (2) the production of a large volume of ical reactions. Thus, the pyrolysis temperature has a profound effect on
iron-containing sludge; (3) high risks related to H2O2 storage, transpor- the physiochemical properties of biochars (Xu et al., 2019; Xu et al.,
tation and usage; and (4) sluggish kinetics for Fe2+ regeneration (Zhang 2020a) and their redox performances (Deng et al., 2020b; Xu et al.,
et al., 2019c). 2020b; Yi et al., 2020). The correlation of carbonization temperature
on the surface chemistry of the derived biochars and their ORR perfor-
mances and selectivity need to be further investigated.
Fe2þ þ H2 O2 ! Fe3þ þ ˙OH þ OH− R1 In this study, cellulose was selected as the carbon precursor because
of the universality and abundance in biomass feedstocks; ZnCl2 was se-
Currently, alternative systems have been developed such as electro- lected as an activation agent to produce mesoporous and microporous
Fenton (EF) (Brillas et al., 2009), photo-Fenton (PF) (Brillas and Garcia- structures (Singh et al., 2017). Hierarchically porous carbons were syn-
Segura, 2020), and other Fenton-like processes to overcome these thesized at different carbonization temperatures ranging from 400 to
shortcomings. In an EF system, hydrogen peroxide is produced on the 700 °C. The effects of graphitization temperature on the porous struc-
cathode via a two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (2eORR) pathway ture, surface defects, and oxygen functionality were studied. The ORR
as following equations (R2–R3); meanwhile, Fe2+ can be continuously reactivity and selectivity toward H2O2 generation were evaluated by a
electrogenerated from Fe3+ by a one-electron reduction reaction at rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) method. The relationship between
the cathode with dramatically reduced iron sludge. surface chemistry and electrocatalytic activities was established to
unveil the role of surface functionality governed by carbonization
temperatures. Furthermore, the 2eORR system was coupled with fer-
Cathode : O2 þ 2e− þ 2Hþ ! H2 O2 ð2eORRÞ R2
rous ions to establish an electro-Fenton system for in situ degradation
of aqueous organic pollutants. The effects of applied potential, pH
O2 þ 4e− þ 4Hþ ! 2H2 O ð4eORRÞ R3 value, and Fe(II) dosage on H2O2 production and pollutant degradation
were systemically investigated. This work investigated the effect of py-
rolysis temperature on the performance of porous biochar-based EF sys-
The efficiency of an EF system depends on the cathode materials. The tem and provided new insights on the design of biochar-based EF
selectivity and capacity in H2O2 production and Fe2+ regeneration de- electrocatalysts for the degradation of aqueous organic pollutants.
termine the oxidation and mineralization efficiencies of an electro-
Fenton system. More recently, carbonaceous materials, such as acti-
2. Materials and method
vated carbon fiber (Wang et al., 2010), graphite (Wang et al., 2011), car-
bon sponge (Özcan et al., 2008), carbon or graphite felt (Yu et al., 2014)
2.1. Regents
and reticulated vitreous carbon (Xie and Li, 2006), have been reported
to be promising cathode materials for electrochemical generation of
Cellulose (α-cellulose, AR >97%), 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide
H2O2, in virtue of their abundance, excellent electrical conductivity,
(DMPO, >97%,), FeSO4·7H2O (AR >99.5%), and K2TiO(C2O4)2·2H2O (AR
low cost, chemical stability, and mechanical robustness. However, the
>99.5%) 1,10-phenanthroline (AR > 99%), 2-Chlorophenol (CP)
intrinsic catalytic activity and selectivity of these carbon materials for
(AR > 99%), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) (AR > 99%), were bought from
H2O2 production are still not satisfactory.
Aladdin Reagents. Na2SO4 (AR >99%), phenol (AR >99%), Orange G
Surface functionalization and pore creation are two tactics to im-
(OG) (AR > 99%), methanol (CP > 99%), and H2SO4 (AR > 98%) ZnCl2
prove the electrocatalytic activity of carbon materials. For instance, the
(AR > 98%) were bought from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd.
selectivity for 2eORR of mesoporous carbon was higher than that of mi-
croporous carbon (Chen et al., 2018; Park et al., 2014). Moreover, deco-
ration carbocatalyst with alien metal-free elements, such as nitrogen 2.2. Activated biochar preparation and cathode fabrication
(Fellinger et al., 2012), sulfur (Perazzolo et al., 2015), fluorine (Zhao
et al., 2018), or N, S co-doping (Chen et al., 2019a) and N, P, O co- To obtain a hierarchically porous structure, ZnCl2 activation was
doping (Zhang et al., 2019a) can further enhance the selectivity and ac- adopted to prepare porous biochar electrocatalysts according to the pre-
tivity in ORR. Heteroatom doping effectively breaks the electroneutral- vious studies (Singh et al., 2017; Sun et al., 2018). Cellulose powder was
ity of carbon matrix and regulate the electron/spin density of the first mixed with ZnCl2 at a weight ratio of 1:3 by a mortar. The powder
adjacent carbons because of the different electronegativity of the adven- was ground for 5 min to obtain a uniform mixture. The obtained mix-
titious atoms, herein tailoring the binding strength and electron transfer ture was carbonized in a tube furnace at a certain temperature
to dioxygen molecules and stabilizing the desirable intermediate to- (400–700 °C) for 2 h under N2 atmosphere with a heating rate of
ward a two-electron based ORR (H2O2 as the product) or four-electron 10 °C/min. Then, the biochar samples were washed with 2 M HCl for
based ORR (H2O as the product). Among the doping species, oxygen 8 h with a ratio of 100 mL/g to remove the metal impurities. After acid
functionalities are inherently produced in carbon materials during the washing, the porous biochars were washed with deionized water for
synthesis and play vital roles in determination of the selectivity and re- several times to remove the residual acid until the filtrate pH reached
activity of carbocatalysts such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) (Lu et al., 7. Finally, the porous biochars were dried in an oven at 60 °C. The
C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136 3

obtained biochar was labeled as ZnBC-X, where X represented the car- electrolyte of O2 saturated 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution at pH of 3). Cyclic volt-
bonization temperature (400– 700 °C). ammetry (CV) measurements were conducted to determine the
In preparation of cathode, activated biochar samples (9 mg) were electro-active surface in a mixed solution of 10 mM K3Fe(CN)6 and
first dispersed in an ultrasonic bath in a mixed solution with 100 μL of 1 M KCl within a potential range of 0.8 V to −0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl at a
nafion perfluorinated (5 wt%, Aldrich) and 900 μL of ethanol. The mix- scan rate of 10 mV/s.
ture (5 μL) was dropped on a commercial carbon paper and dried for
10 min at room temperature. This procedure was repeated for several 2.5. Evaluation of electro-Fenton performance of biochars
times until the catalyst loading reached 2 mg/cm2.
Electro-Fenton experiments were conducted in a 100 mL single-
2.3. Characterization of the biochar and activated biochar compartment cell for oxidation of organic pollutants. The ZnBC elec-
trode, Pt plate and Ag/AgCl/KCl (sat) electrode acted as the cathode,
Physical morphologies of the samples were examined by a scanning anode and reference electrodes, respectively. The effective area of the
electron microscopy (SEM) (SU-70 Japan). Surface chemical composi- carbon paper based working electrode is 2.25 cm2 (1.5 × 1.5 cm). The
tions were determined using an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer distance between the cathode and anode is 3 cm. All of the degradation
(XPS) from Kratos (AXIS SUPRA) with a monochromatic Al Kα line experiments were conducted on a CHI 760E electrochemical worksta-
(1486.6 eV). The calibration of the spectra binding energy was based tion (Chenhua Instrument Co., China) using a potential static method.
on the C1s peak of the aliphatic carbons at 284.8 eV. Raman testing Phenol was selected as a representative organic pollutant industrial
was performed on a spectrometer using a 514 nm argon ion laser wastewater (Huang et al., 2018a) and 0.1 M Na2SO4 served as the elec-
from Horiba Jobin Yvon (LabRAM HR Evolution, France). The trolyte. The pH value was adjusted to 3 using 0.5 M H2SO4. The whole
Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (SBET), total pore volume volume of the reaction solution is 50 mL. During the EF process,
(Vtot), and pore size distribution of the biochar samples were measured FeSO4·7H2O was added as the Fenton reagent and the solution was
by nitrogen adsorption at 196 °C on an Autosorb-1 gas analyzer kept stirring and bubbling with pure O2. At certain time intervals,
(Quantachrome, USA). 1 mL reaction solution was withdrawn and quenched by 0.5 mL metha-
nol immediately for further analysis. As references, phenol removals by
2.4. Electrochemical characterization adsorption without applied potential and anodic oxidation under N2
purging were first measured. The flow rate of O2 or N2 was kept at
All of the electrochemical experiments were conducted on a CHI 100 mL/min. The production of H2O2 on the ZnBC cathode was mea-
760E electrochemical workstation (Chenhua Instrument Co., China). sured in a single-compartment cell under the same condition while
The potentials in this study were referenced to the reversible hydrogen FeSO4·7H2O and pollutants were absent. Detailed information of the ex-
electrode (EVS RHE) according to the following equation: periments was provided below every figure. All the experiments were
carried out as duplicates, and the derived performances are reported
EVS RHE ¼ EVS Ag=AgCl þ EθAg=AgCl þ 0:059 pH ð1Þ as mean values with standard deviations.

where, EVS Ag/AgCl (V) is the applied potential referred to the saturated 2.6. Analytical method
Ag/AgCl electrode and EθAg/AgCl (0.197 V) is the potential of Ag/AgCl un-
der the standard conditions. The ORR activity and H2O2 selectivity were The concentration of H2O2 was determined using a colorimetric
measured with a RRDE (5.5 mm diameter; Pine Research Instrumenta- method (Sellers, 1980). Briefly, the titanium reagent was made up
tion, Inc., USA) using a three-electrode configuration. A graphite rod and with a K2TiO(C2O4)2·2H2O solution dissolving in 27.2% H2SO4 at a con-
Ag/AgCl/KCl (sat) electrode served as the counter electrode and refer- centration of 35.4 g/L. Then 5 mL of titanium reagent and 5 mL of sample
ence electrode, respectively. The working electrode was prepared as was put into a 25-mL calibrated flask and the deionized water was
above using the catalyst ink. Then, 10 μL of the ink was loaded onto added to make up to the mark. The absorbance of the solution was mea-
the RRDE and dried at room temperature. Linear sweep voltammo- sured at 400 nm by an Ultraviolet spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, 2650,
grams (LSV) were tested by sweeping the potential from 1.0 to Japan). The concentration of phenol was determined by high-
−0.5 V (vs RHE) at a rate of 5 mV/s with a rotating speed of performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, Shimadzu, Japan) with a
1600 rpm. To detect H2O2, the ring potential was kept constantly at C-18 column and a mobile phase of methanol and phosphoric acid
1.2 V, and the H2O2 selectivity (H2O2%) and electrons transfer numbers (0.1%) (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The generated active
n were calculated as follows: radicals were examined on an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
spectrometer EMX plus-9.5/12 spectrometer using DMPO as a spin-
H2 O2 % ¼ ð200 I r =N Þ=ðIr =N þ Id Þ ð2Þ
trapping agent after reaction for 5 min. The concentration of Fe(II)
was measured by 1,10-phenanthroline UV–visible spectrophotometry
n ¼ 4 Id =ðIr =N þ Id Þ ð3Þ
(Shimadzu, 2650, Japan) at 510.5 nm (Deng et al., 2019b).
where Ir is the ring current; Id is the disk current; and N is the collection
efficiency (0.37 after calibration, the method was shown in supporting 3. Results and discussion
The current efficiency was calculated by the following equation: 3.1. Activated biochar characterization

Current Efficiency% ¼ nFCV=Q% ð4Þ SEM image displays the morphology of the activated biochar. Fig. 1a
shows that ZnBC-550 possesses a 3D porous structure ascribed to the
where n denoted the electrons transfer number of 2; the variables C, V, F, chemical activation by ZnCl2 (Wu et al., 2020). The rich porosity of a car-
and Q denoted the H2O2 concentration (mol L−1); volume of the elec- bon electrode would facilitate the mass transfer of oxygen and ions at
trolyte (L), Faraday constant (96,485C mol−1), and amount of charge the interface during the heterogeneous reactions (Jiang et al., 2013).
passed (C). The TEM image in Fig. 1b exhibits that the carbon possesses an amor-
The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was adopted to phous micro-structure. The XRD results in Fig. 1c also confirms this re-
determine the catalyst conductivity, which was recorded on a glass car- sult that the spectrum exhibits two broad peaks centered at 2θ = 23°
bon electrode at the working conditions over a frequency range from and 43°, corresponding to (002) and (100) plane of graphite, which
105 to 0.01 Hz at an amplitude of 5 mV. (−0.25 V vs RHE with are typical characters of amorphous carbons with a low graphitization
C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136

Fig. 1. (a) SEM and (b) TEM images of ZnBC-550, (c) N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms (inset) and pore size distributions of the three porous biochars, (d) XRD patterns of ZnBC-550.
C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136 5

Table 1
Characterization results of ZnBCs.

C, at% O, at% C1s (%) O1s (%) SSA (m2/g) Pore volume (cm3/g) Average Pore size (nm)

C=C C-C C-O COOH π-π C-O C=O

ZnBC-400 96.8 3.2 72.1 10.5 12.7 3.8 0.94 74.4 25.6 2132 1.4 2.6
ZnBC-550 96.5 3.5 63.3 18.1 14.3 4.2 0.00 65.9 34.1 2072 1.2 2.4
ZnBC-700 96.9 3.1 52.0 26.0 11.6 7.6 2.9 55.0 45.0 1756 1.1 2.5

degree (Wu et al., 2019; Zhu et al., 2011; Zou et al., 2020). N2 adsorp- Surface functional groups and defective degree of carbocatalysts
tion/desorption isotherms were further tested to investigate the differ- have a great impact on the electrocatalytic activity. Raman spectroscopy
ences of biochars derived at different temperatures (Fig. 1d). The was used to characterize the carbon structure of the derived biochars.
profiles of all the three porous biochars presented type IV isotherms The Raman spectra were deconvoluted into eight characteristic peaks
with a broad capillary condensation step in a relative pressure (P/P0) according to the previous studies (Li et al., 2006; Wan et al., 2019),
range of 0.30–0.65, suggesting the presence of massive mesopores in and the results were shown in Fig. S1 and the Table S1. The sp2 CH
the samples (Singh et al., 2017). The pore size distribution indicated of aromatic rings (S1) emerged at 1060 cm−1; Caromatic-Calkyl (S) peaked
the co-existence of micropores (0–2 nm) and mesopores (2–50 nm) at 1185 cm−1; the peak of arylalkyl ether (S2) was at 1230 cm−1; defect
in ZnBCs, which were beneficial for ions and oxygen migration and reac- bands and small ordered fused benzene rings (D) located at 1310 cm−1;
tion. Specific surface area (SSA) and pore volume were calculated based methyl group and amorphous carbon (V1) structure peaked at
on the BET equation and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model, re- 1380 cm−1; semicircle ring breathing (V) located at 1465 cm−1; aro-
spectively, and the results were summarized in Table 1. SSAs of the de- matics structure with several rings (G1) peaked at 1540 cm−1; and
rived biochars were 1700–2100 m2/g, which are much larger than those the highly conjugated sp2 graphitic carbon (G) band located at
of the biochars in previous reports (Li et al., 2019a; Li et al., 2019b). A 1590 cm−1. Fig. 2a displays the values of defective indicators for AD/AG
large SSA is beneficial to the exposure of active sites (Tian et al., and AD/A(G1+V+V1) of the three porous biochars. As shown in Fig. 2a,
2020). With the elevated pyrolysis temperature from 400 to 700 °C, the AD/AG ratio increased from 0.52 to 0.80 which indicated the in-
SSA and pore volume decreased from 2132 m2/g and 1.4 cm3/g to creased number of defective sites. AD/A(G1+V+V1) represented the ratio
1756 m2/g and 1.1 cm3/g, respectively. A higher carbonization temper- between of the large aromatic ring systems (≥6 rings) and the aromatic
ature would also induce stronger dehydrating effect of ZnCl2, which ring systems in amorphous carbons (e.g. 2–8 or more rings) (Li et al.,
caused the shrinkage of carbon structure and surface heterogeneity, 2006). The ratio increased from 0.39 to 0.49 as the pyrolysis tempera-
thereby reducing the porosity and BET surface area (Sayğılı and Güzel, ture increased from 400 to 700 °C, suggesting that more graphitic car-
2016; Singh et al., 2017). (Fig. 1d). bons was formed during the high temperature annealing.

Fig. 2. (a) Calculated values derived from Raman spectra and (b) full-survey scan of XPS, high-resolution scan of (c) C1s and (d) O1s spectra of the three porous biochars.
6 C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136

Surface functional groups, especially oxygen groups, play crucial carbonization temperature manifested a higher activity for electro-
roles in catalytic reactions. Full XPS surveys (Fig. 2b) were performed chemical reduction of oxygen. The ring current of three ZnBCs for
to characterize the surface elemental compositions of the biochars de- H2O2 production tells a different story. The ring current of ZnBC-550 is
rived at different carbonization temperatures. The two peaks emerged the highest among the three porous biochars, which is consistent with
at 284 eV and 532 eV are ascribed to C1s and O1s, respectively. The sur- H2O2 production rate in Fig. 3a. Selectivity in H2O2 generation was cal-
face oxygen contents of all the biochars were below 5 at%. Previous culated and presented in Fig. 3d. Intriguingly, the selectivity of the bio-
studies suggested that a desirable carbocatalyst for ORR reaction was char catalysts showed an opposite order compared to the ORR
supposed to have a moderate oxygen content below 8 at% (Sa et al., performances. Specifically, the H2O2 selectivity of ZnBC-400 and ZnBC-
2019), and the excessive oxygen functional groups would deteriorate 550 reached 61.5% and 55.6% accordingly at −0.25 V, while ZnBC-700
the conductivity of carbon matrix in redox reactions (Duan et al., only attained 42.5% under the same conditions. Furthermore, the elec-
2016; Ren et al., 2020). Thus, the derived porous biochars activated by trons transfer number of ZnBC-400 and ZnBC-550 was 2.78 and 2.90, re-
ZnCl2 are promising candidates in electrocatalysis. spectively, which is smaller than that of ZnBC-700 (3.16). To
The C 1 s spectra were deconvoluted into the following contribu- compromise the ORR activity and H2O2 selectivity, ZnBC-550 is the
tions: sp2 hybridized carbon (C=C) at 284.5 eV, sp3 carbons or carbon most performance-balanced biochar catalyst with a great H2O2 produc-
defects (CC) at 285.4 eV, carbon solely bonded with oxygen (CO) tion efficiency of 796.1 mg/g/h at −0.25 V vs RHE and a satisfactory se-
at 286.1 eV, carbon bonded to two oxygens (that is, –COOH) at lectivity of 55.6%.
288.7 eV, and the characteristic shake-up satellite of aromatic carbons Furthermore, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)
at 290.5 eV (π–π* transition) (Datsyuk et al., 2008). The percentage of analysis was conducted between the surface chemistry of three porous
each component was presented in Table 1 and the contributions of the biochars and their electrocatalytic performances for generating hydro-
three main peaks were displayed in Fig. 2c. The atomic content of defec- gen peroxide. According to the previous studies (Lu et al., 2018; Wang
tive carbons increased from 10.5% to 26.0% as the carbonization temper- et al., 2018; Zhang et al., 2019c), surface oxidation was an effective strat-
ature increased from 400 to 700 °C. Meanwhile, the graphite carbon egy to fine-tune the 2eORR process of carbon materials. The more oxy-
(sp2 hybridization) decreased from 72.2 to 52.0%. As a result, the ratio gen functional groups were doped in the carbon materials, the higher
of C-C/C=C increased from 0.15 (ZnBC-400) to 0.50 (ZnBC-700), H2O2 selectivity was achieved. In this study, the oxygen doping levels
which showed a similar upward trend to AD/AG (Liu et al., 2015). of the three porous biochar derived at different pyrolysis temperatures
These results demonstrated that the defective degree of the porous bio- were almost the same (3.2% for ZnBC-400, 3.5% for ZnBC-550, and 3.1%
char was intensified as the carbonization temperature increased. Fur- for ZnBC-700). Moreover, the species of oxygen functional groups also
thermore, oxygen functional groups on the biochar surface were have a profound impact on the selectivity of carbon materials in H2O2
analyzed based on the O 1 s spectra in Fig. 2d. The spectrum of each bio- production. Etheric group and carboxyl sites were reported as the active
char is primarily deconvoluted into two peaks: the peak at 531.6 eV cor- sites for 2eORR(Kim et al., 2018; Lu et al., 2018). Moreover, the atomic
responds to the double bonded carbon to oxygen (C=O), and the peak ratio of the two dominant species of oxygen functional groups, CO
at 533.2 eV represents the CO configuration (Kundu et al., 2008). As a vs. C_O, was increased by a microwave treatment, resulting in the in-
result, the content of ketonic group (C=O) increased from 25.6 to 45.0% crease of H2O2 selectivity of mesoporous carbon (Perry et al., 2019). In
as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C, which is con- this study, a good linear relationship (R2 = 0.916) was established be-
sistent with a previous report that high-temperature annealing facili- tween the atomic ratio of C-O/C=O and the H2O2 selectivity of the bio-
tated the formation of ketone groups in carbocatalysts (Shao et al., chars (Fig. 3e). The results suggest that a rational carbonization
2018). The ratio of C-O/C=O was identified as an indicator of H2O2 se- temperature could modulate the fractions of different oxygen function-
lectivity during carbocatalytic ORR (Perry et al., 2019), which decreased alities during the thermal transformation, then regulating the reactivity
from 2.90 to 1.22 as the annealing temperature increased from 400 to and selectivity in H2O2 production. The process of 2eORR reactions
700 °C. Further discussions on the structure-catalysis relationship be- could be described as follows (R4–R5):
tween surface chemistry and generation of hydrogen peroxide will be
presented in the following sections.
O2 þ Hþ þ e− ! OOH∗ R4
3.2. Evaluation of H2O2 generation on ZnBC cathodes
OOH∗ þ Hþ þ e− ! H2 O2 R5
The production rate of H2O2 determines the overall electro-Fenton
performance. H2O2 was produced in a single cell on different ZnBCs-
fabricated cathodes at −0.25 V vs RHE and pH = 1, and the accumu- The 2eORR performance could be ascribed to the binding energies
lated yield was displayed in Fig. 3a. ZnBC-550 showed the best catalytic between the intermediates and active sites of carbocatalysts. ΔGOOH⁎
performance with 71.7 mg/L of H2O2 accumulated in 60 min. Consider- represents the activity of different oxygen-containing functional groups
ing solution volume and mass loading of the catalyst, the production ef- (C_O and CO) and the contents of these groups influence the perfor-
ficiency of ZnBC-550 reached 796.1 mg/g/h, which well outperformed mances of carbon materials (Kim et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2019). A
diverse biochars in Table 2. higher C-O/C=O ratio results in a more favorable value of ΔGOOH⁎, lead-
The current efficiency of H2O2 production shown in Fig. 3b calcu- ing to higher H2O2 selectivity.
lated from Eq. (4) is crucial for EF system, as the carbonization temper- Furthermore, the intrinsic carbon defects (such as pentagon rings
ature increased, the current efficiency of ZnBC cathode decreased from and zigzag edges) derived from thermal annealing could improve the
91% to 47%. To exclude the ORR reaction mechanism of three porous four-electron ORR process (Jiang et al., 2015). The onset potential was
biochars, the ORR performances and H2O2 selectivity of different a descriptor of ORR performance. In this study, a good positive linear re-
ZnBCs were investigated by RRDE measurements in O2-saturated solu- lation (R2 = 0.77) was established between the AD/AG ratio and ORR
tion (0.05 M H2SO4) at room temperature. Fig. 3c shows that the onset onset potential. On the other hand, a better positive linear relation
potential of ZnBCs increased with the raised pyrolysis temperature (R2 = 0.89) was established between AD/A(G1+V+V1) and the onset po-
from 0.30 V vs RHE (ZnBC-400) to 0.62 V vs RHE (ZnBC-700). The disk tential of ORR (Fig. 3f). These results indicated that the carbon defects
current followed the similar trend. For example, at an applied voltage and highly graphitic carbons derived from high temperature-etching
of −0.25 V vs RHE, the disk current increased from 0.45 mA to by ZnCl2 led to a better ORR activity. During the process, oxygen groups
0.73 mA as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C. were simultaneously tuned to reduce the ratio of C-O/C=O and subse-
These results indicated that porous carbon derived at a higher quently deteriorated the H2O2 selectivity. Overall, ZnBC-550 cathode
C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136

Fig. 3. (a) H2O2 production rates and (b) current efficiencies on different biochar cathodes (applied potential: −0.25 V vs RHE, pH = 1, solution volume: 50 mL, electrolyte: 0.05 M
Na2SO4 + 0.05 M H2SO4); (c) RRDE voltammograms of different biochars in O2 saturated 0.05 M H2SO4 (1600 rpm, sweep rate of 10 mV·s−1); (d) selectivity of H2O2 and electrons
transfer number n yield from the RRDE curves in O2 saturated solution with 0.05 M H2SO4; (e), (f) correlations between indicators of surface chemistry and electrocatalytic performances.
8 C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136

Table 2
Reported amorphous carbon materials for electrocatalytic H2O2 production.

Catalyst pH Potential/Current H2O2 production rate (mg/g/h) Reference

sludge biochar 1 0.25 V vs RHE 432 (Huang et al., 2018a)

N doped biochar 3 −0.7 V vs SCE ~1156 (Liang et al., 2018)
biochar 3 −10 mA/cm2 68.45 (Deng et al., 2019a)
ACSS 2 −100 mA 1.58 (Zhou et al., 2019)
ZnBC-550 1 −0.25 V vs RHE 796.1 This work

exhibited the best performance for electrocatalytic H2O2 production The production rate of H2O2 was linearly correlated with reaction time
with the highest ring current (H2O2 current) based on the batch exper- under different potentials, suggesting that ZnBC-550 electrode main-
iment and RRDE results, realizing the tradeoff between H2O2 selectivity tained stable at different applied potentials.
and ORR activity. In detail, adequate graphitic carbons with defective pH value also has a profound effect on H2O2 production perfor-
sites and a rational level/category of oxygen functionalities were desir- mance. Under the same applied potential (−0.25 V vs RHE) in Fig. 4c,
able for porous biochar to serve as a highly efficient electro-Fenton the accumulated amount of H2O2 decreased gradually with the in-
cathode. creased solution pH. At pH = 1, the produced H2O2 reached 71.7 mg/L
after one-hour electrolysis, which is much higher than the yields at
3.3. Effect of operation parameters on catalytic performance pH = 3 (44.4 mg/L), 5 (40.2 mg/L) and 7 (17.0 mg/L). These results in-
dicate that H2O2 production is favored at lower solution pH under the
ZnBC-550 cathode was selected to investigate the effects of applied same applied potential, because oxygen reduction via R2 requires the
voltage and pH value on its performance of H2O2 generation (Fig. 4). participation of protons (H+). Fig. 4d shows that increased pH value
In order to investigate the effects of applied potential on ZnBC-550, led to decreased current efficiency from 84.3% (pH = 1) to 42.3%
we performed the reaction within the potential window from 0.15 V (pH = 7). Since Fenton reaction is usually conducted in an acidic solu-
to −0.25 V at pH = 1. As shown in Fig. 4a, the H2O2 yield was remark- tion, the superior catalytic activity of ZnBC-550 at low pH affords it an
ably improved at the decreased applied potential. Specifically, the accu- ideal cathode in electro-Fenton systems.
mulated H2O2 concentration reached 26.8 mg/L at the potential of
0.15 V. If the applied potential decreased by every 0.2 V, the H2O2 con- 3.4. Assessment of Fe3+ reduction ability
centration reached 47.0 mg/L at −0.05 V and 71.7 mg/L at −0.25 V, re-
spectively. Meanwhile, the current efficiency shown in Fig. 4b increased Apart from H2O2 accumulation, the electro-Fenton performance also
a little from 70.6% to 84.3% as the potentials appeared more negative. relies on the regeneration of Fe(II). In this study, electroreduction of Fe3

Fig. 4. Effects of (a) applied potential and (c) pH value on the accumulated H2O2 concentration using ZnBC-550 as the cathode, current efficiency under (b) different applied potential and
(d) different pH values (pH = 1, applied potential: −0.25 V, electrolyte: 0.1 M Na2SO4 for pH 3, 5, or 7, 0.05 M Na2SO4 + 0.05 M H2SO4 for pH 1, solution volume: 50 mL).
C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136 9

on different ZnBCs cathodes was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (Ko 3.5. Phenol degradation by ZnBC-550 cathode-based EF system
et al., 2018). Fig. 5a shows the cyclic voltammograms of different bio-
char cathodes. The results indicated that ZnBC-550 cathode presented To assess the performance of ZnBC-550-based EF system, phenol
the strongest peak intensity at 0.354 V (vs Ag/AgCl), representing the was chosen as the model pollutant (Huang et al., 2018a). Moreover,
reduction from Fe(III) to Fe(II) with a peak current of 4 mA. Meanwhile, control experiments were carried out for adsorptive phenol removal,
the onset potential of Fe3+ reduction on ZnBC-550 is 0.215 V (vs Ag/ anodic oxidation under N2 purging, and Fe(II)-free EF system. Fig. 6a de-
AgCl). The peak potential difference (ΔEp) of ZnBC-550 is 0.139 V, picts that only 3%, 10%, 20% of phenol was accordingly removed by ad-
which is smaller than that of ZnBC-400 (0.197 V) and ZnBC-700 sorption, anodic oxidation, and Fe(II)-free EF system, respectively.
(0.161 V), indicating a better Fe(III) reduction potential of ZnBC-550 However, phenol was effectively degraded by the EF system with a re-
among the three biochars based on the Nicholson method (Ko et al., moval efficiency of 99% in 60 min on the ZnBC-550 cathode, indicating
2018). the significance of EF system on phenol oxidation. In comparison, the re-
Furthermore, the Fe(III) reduction abilities on different biochar cath- moval efficiencies with ZnBC-400 cathode and ZnBC-700 cathode were
ode were evaluated under N2 purging to avoid Fe(II) oxidation by H2O2 only 82.3% and 77.1% in 60 min, respectively, which supported the con-
(Deng et al., 2020a). The results were shown in Fig. 5b. The tendency clusion that ZnBC-550 was the optimal electro-Fenton cathode due to
was consistent with the CV results. ZnBC-550 cathode showed the the best performances in electrocatalytic production of H2O2 and Fe
best performance for Fe(III) reduction among three biochar cathodes. (III) reduction.
The produced Fe(II) concentration reached 0.46 mM in 90 min on As a homogeneous catalyst, the dosage of Fe(II) is vital in the EF pro-
ZnBC-550 cathode. While the accumulated Fe(II) only attained cess to decompose H2O2 and evolve reactive oxygen species. To attain
0.30 mM and 0.27 mM on ZnBC-700 and ZnBC-400, respectively. the optimal Fe(II) dosage, tests were conducted under three different
These results suggested that the reduction of Fe(III) was more feasible Fe(II) concentrations from 0.25 to 1 mM in Fig. 6b. The phenol removal
to occur on ZnBC-550. efficiency increased from 45% to 95% in 90 min when Fe(II) concentra-
The EIS spectra in Fig. 5c exhibited that all the three biochar samples tion increased from 0.25 to 0.5 mM. However, the removal efficiency
had similar high-frequency semicircles, suggesting that the similar slightly decreased to 80% with 1 mM Fe(II). The inhabitation could be at-
charge-transfer resistance of the three porous carbons. On the basis of tributed to the scavenging effect of •OH by the excessive Fe(II) ions
the experimental outcomes, ZnBC-550 demonstrated the best catalytic (Khataee et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2020). Thus, 0.5 mM Fe(II) was the
activity for H2O2 production and the best performance for Fe(III) reduc- optimal dosage in ZnBC-550-based EF system.
tion, affording it as the most promising cathode material in the electro- Initial pH also plays a crucial role in electro-Fenton processes. Fig. 6c
Fenton system among the biochars derived from different pyrolysis illustrates that the EF system was most efficient for phenol degradation
temperatures. at pH of 3. When the initial pH was too low (pH = 1) and less acidic

Fig. 5. (a) Cyclic voltammograms of ZnBCs in 10 mM K3Fe(CN)6 + 1 M KCl solution, (b) Fe(III) reduction performance using different biochar cathode ([Fe(III)]0 = 1 mM, N2 flow rate:
100 mL/min) (c) electrochemical impedance analysis of three different biochars under working conditions (Reaction conditions: applied potential: −0.25 V vs RHE, pH = 3, electrolyte:
0.1 M Na2SO4, O2 flow rate: 100 mL/min).
10 C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136

Fig. 6. (a) Phenol removal by EF system under different circumstances. (adsorption (AD) (without current), anodic oxidation (AO),); effects of (b) Fe (II) concentration, (c) pH value, and
(d) applied potential on phenol degradation. Except for the investigated factors, the reaction conditions: cathode: ZnBC-550, [phenol] = 40 mg/L, applied potential: −0.25 V vs RHE, pH =
3, [Fe (II)] = 0.5 mM, electrolyte: [Na2SO4] = 0.1 M.

(pH = 5), the removal efficiencies of the EF system only attained 74% selected as a radical scavenger due to the high reaction rate constant
and 60%, respectively. As we discussed above, when solution pH in- with •OH (9.7 × 108 min−1). Fig. 7a shows that the phenol removal
creased, H2O2 production on ZnBC-550 cathode dramatically decreased, efficiency decreased to 10% in 90 min after the addition of 20% (v/
giving rise to less production of •OH for phenol degradation. In contrast, v) methanol, which caused dramatic inhibition in oxidation. There-
more insoluble ferric hydroxide complexes were produced at higher pH fore, •OH played a major role in phenol degradation in the ZnBC-
(pH = 5), thus decreasing the homogeneous catalytic efficiency. How- 550-based EF system. Additionally, EPR results show that character-
ever, when solution pH decreased to 1, the degradation efficiency was istic spectra of quartet lines with the intensity ratio of 1:2:2:1 (aH =
lower than the performance at pH of 3, even though more H2O2 was 15.5 G) for hydroxyl radicals emerged in the EF system (Fig. 7b),
produced. This phenomenon could be ascribed to the reciprocal- which exhibited a much higher intensity than the control group
quenching reaction between •OH and H+ under strong acid condition (the black line without applied potentials). Furthermore, spin-
in R6, which substantially consumed the produced ROS instead of trapping experiments were performed in the solutions containing
reacting with phenol (Zhang et al., 2019c). 10% and 60% methanol to eliminate •OH and to exclusively explore
the existence of O2•−. The results in Fig. 7b show that no signal of
O2•− (aN = 14 G, aH = 8 G) (Qi et al., 2016) was found in the two sys-
Hþ þ ˙OH þ e ! H2 O R6 tems. Signals of hydroxyl radical could be observed in the solution
with 10% methanol, whereas the signals were silent in the system
The effect of the applied potential on phenol degradation was also with 60% methanol. Meanwhile, other impurity peaks could be ob-
investigated. A notable effect of applied potential on degradation effi- served in both spectra, which could be assigned to the signals of
ciency was observed in Fig. 6d. The removal efficiency of phenol the oxidation product of methanol (•CH2 OH, a H = 22.7 G aN =
attained only 75% and 40% when the applied potentials were − 0.05 V 15.7 G) by hydroxyl radicals (Buettner, 1987). All the results indi-
and 0.15 V, respectively. The negative applied potential was beneficial cated that O2 • − did not exist in such electro-Fenton system, and
to H2O2 production to enhance phenol oxidation. the hydroxyl radicals are the dominant ROS for phenol degradation.
Furthermore, to test the feasibility of ZnBC-550-based EF system, dif-
3.6. Degradation mechanism of phenol in EF system ferent kinds of pollutants including chlorophenol (CP), Sulfamethoxa-
zole (SMX) and Orange G (OG) were chosen as the halophenol,
In order to unveil the oxidation regime of the biochar-based EF antibiotics and dye model pollutants, respectively. The results were
system, radical quenching and radical capturing tests on EPR (using shown in Fig. 7c. The EF system demonstrated strong oxidation capaci-
DMPO as the spin trapping agent) were conducted to identify the ties toward all the three pollutants. The results showed that the novel EF
primary ROS responsible for phenol degradation. Methanol was system was effective to remove diverse organic micropollutants.
C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136 11

Fig. 7. (a) Phenol removal in ZnBC-550-based EF system using methanol as a radical scavenger; (b) EPR spectra using DMPO to trap hydroxyl radical after 5 min reaction; (c) Removal of
different organic pollutant in ZnBC-550 based EF system; (d) TOC removal of different pollutant by EF system in 90 min. (The reaction conditions: [OG] = [CP] = [phenol] = [SMX] =
40 mg/L, applied potential: −0.25 V vs RHE, pH = 3, [Fe (II)] = 0.5 mM, electrolyte: [Na2SO4] = 0.1 M).

Meanwhile, the total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of the EF on the current response curve, indicating the superior stability. We
system was tested and presented in Fig. 7d. After a 90-min reaction, the also evaluated the reusability of the ZnBC-550-cathode for EF-based
TOC removal of phenol and CP were 59.2% and 80.3%, which is higher phenol degradation in 10 successive runs. The removal efficiency
than that of SMX (37.3%) and OG (23.8%). The results indicated that slightly decreased to 81% after 10 runs (Fig. 8b), with a satisfactory
phenolic pollutant is more vulnerable to be mineralized in the EF sys- stability of ZnBC-550 cathode for working in the highly oxidative envi-
tem, while the mineralization of antibiotics and dye pollutant may re- ronment. Moreover, the electrode could be effectively regenerated by
quire a longer operation period. acid-washing to remove the Fe-containing sludge.
From the practical point of view, the stability of the carbocatalysts is Biochar-based EF process was a sustainable and cost-effective sys-
important to be taken into consideration. The ZnBC-550 cathode was tem for mineralizing the organic pollutants in wastewater. However,
tested by continuous operation for 8 h. No current decay was found the use of ferrous ions still requires a strict working pH window (2–4)

Fig. 8. (a) Chronoamperometric response of ZnBC-550 cathode in O2 saturated solution (−0.25 V vs RHE, pH = 3, electrolyte: 0.1 M Na2SO4); (b) Reusability of different organic pollutant
in ZnBC-550 based EF system; (The reaction conditions: [phenol] = 40 mg/L, applied potential: −0.25 V vs RHE, pH = 3, [Fe (II)] = 0.5 mM, electrolyte: [Na2SO4] = 0.1 M).
12 C. Sun et al. / Science of the Total Environment 754 (2021) 142136

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newable cathode material for H2O2 generation and its application in the electro-
Fenton process for azo dye removal. Electrochim. Acta 259, 637–646.
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chemically catalytic degradation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide in situ generated
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Supervision. Xiaoguang Duan: Supervision, Writing – review & editing. Jiang, H., Lee, P.S., Li, C., 2013. 3D carbon based nanostructures for advanced
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The authors declare that they have no known competing financial
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interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influ- lent iron regeneration: its application for removal of aqueous organic compounds.
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Biochar Market Size, share and Forecast To 2028 – Downey Magazine

2 September, 2021

Global Biochar Industry Analysis Report 2021 – Competition, Market Landscape, Drivers and Restraints, Segments, Geography, Demography, Growth Plans, Advancements and Forecast.

The Biochar industry study present critical information regarding:

Production, Distribution, Marketing, Sales and Revenue.

Market share and size, growth driving factors and restraints, competitive scenario, trends and opportunities, risks and challenges.

Segmentations based on type, application, region, countries and more and further analytical insights on the same

Analyses in detail to provide users with the knowledge to design business plans that will help them emerge as market leaders.

In depth detail on every single factor down to the smallest detail be it segment categories, countries, market holdings or reasons for any of those.The Global Biochar industry is expected to witness a CAGR of XX% rising from a market size of USD XX in 2020 to USD XX in 2021-2028

Free sample of the report available @


The Top Players including:

The major players profiled in this report include:

Pacific Biochar

Cool Planet Energy System

Airex Energy

Arsta Eco

Agri Tech Producers

Global Biochar Market Segmentation

By Industrial Biochar Market Product-Types:

The end users/applications and product categories analysis:

On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume, revenue (Million USD), product price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into-

General Type

By Industrial Biochar Market Applications:

On the basis on the end users/applications,

this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Biochar for each application, including-

Agriculture and livestock


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The reports are designed from information availed by our team of expert researchers. Our report also encompasses analysis of the market based on different formats and analytical methods such as SWOT, PESTLE, and Porter’s Five Force Analysis. Additionally, the report also comprises of the impact of covid-19 and a speculation on the recovery pattern that will be observed by the market.

There are 4 possible recovery scenarios

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Table of Contents for the Biochar industry report:

Report Overview

Global Growth Trends

Market Share by Key Players

Breakdown Data by Product

Breakdown Data by End User

Covid-19 IMPACT

Report covers Impact of Coronavirus COVID-19: Since the COVID-19 virus outbreak in December 2019, the disease has spread to almost every country around the globe with the World Health Organization declaring it a public health emergency. The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the Biochar market in 2020. The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought effects on many aspects, like flight cancellations; travel bans and quarantines; restaurants closed; all indoor/outdoor events restricted; over forty countries state of emergency declared; massive slowing of the supply chain; stock market volatility; falling business confidence, growing panic among the population, and uncertainty about future.

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Agronomy and Horticulture Seminar Series starts Sept. 10 | IANR News

2 September, 2021

Lincoln, Neb. —This fall’s Agronomy and Horticulture Online Seminar Series begins with “BIOCHAR – What Do We Really Know About Its Benefits?,” presented by Nebraska’s Humberto Blanco Sept. 10.

Blanco, professor of soil management and applied soil physics, will present on whether biochar can restore the declining soil ecosystem services including food security, water conservation, water quality, climate regulation and others.

This seminar will be streamed at 3:30 p.m. CDT and recorded.

Dates and topics for the rest of the series are as follows:

Sept. 17: “Precision Conservation: Optimizing Agricultural Production and Natural Resource Conservation,” Andrew Little, assistant professor of landscape and habitat management, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

Sept. 24: “Challenges of Developing a Resilient Cropping System in a Semi-arid Environment,” Cody Creech, associate professor and dryland cropping systems specialist, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

Oct. 2: “Increasing Pasture Productivity and Quality to Support Grazing Livestock,” John Guretzky, associate professor of grassland systems ecologist, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

Oct. 8: “Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Under Different Agricultural Practices — Is Climate-smart Agriculture Possible?” Eri Saikawa, associate professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta.

Oct. 15: “New Insight in the Mode of Action of Glufosinate,” Franck Dayan, professor of weed science, Department of Agricultural Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Oct. 22: “Using Cover Crops for Weed Suppression across Kansas,” Anita Dille, professor of weed ecology and assistant head for teaching, Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan.

Oct 29: “Soil mining in cropping systems in Argentina,” Juan Pablo Monzon, research assistant professor, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

Nov. 5: “How to Model GxE and Use It For Plant Breeding: Examples From Our Researches,” Hiroyoshi Iwata, associate professor, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo.
Note: This presentation video will not be posted to the website.

Nov. 12: Bob Stupar, professor of legume molecular genetics, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.

Nov. 19: “The Wheat We Grow Versus the Wheat We Could Grow: Quantifying and Assessing Causes of Wheat Yield Gaps in the U.S.,” Romulo Lollato, associate professor of wheat and forages production, Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan.

Dec 3: Sotirios Archontoulis, associate professor of integrated cropping systems, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames.

Dec. 10: Jay Parsons, professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nebraska–Lincoln

105 Ag Communications Building
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Industry Leads for the Week of September 6, 2021 | Engineering News-Record

2 September, 2021


Ashfield Ag Resources LLC and Clean Energy Technologies Inc. are planning to construct a biomass-fired power plant in the Ashfield area, and a similar plant at an undisclosed site near Ashfield. Each project scope includes erection of a prefabricated building, installation of wood waste receiving, handling and storage systems, a pyrolysis reactor, and a heat recovery steam generator. Each plant will have the capacity to process 10,000 tons per year of woody feedstock to generate 16,500 MWh of electric power per year, produce 1,400 metric tons of biochar as a byproduct and generate 26,000 MMBtu of heat per year. The first plant is expected to begin construction in the fourth quarter of 2021. Ashfield Ag, a start-up company, is an affiliate of Roberts Energy Renewables Inc. and Roberts Brothers Lumber Co. The estimated EPC cost of each plant is $15 million. Ashfield Ag Resources LLC, 1541 Spruce Corner Rd., Ashfield, 01330. IR#MA210806.


BlueHalo is planning to construct a space technology R&D and manufacturing complex at MaxQ, an industrial park in Albuquerque. The project scope includes construction of a 200,000-sq-ft building and purchase, relocation and installation of machining, welding, assembly, finishing and testing equipment. Dekker/Perich/Sabatini has been chosen as the architect and Enterprise Builders Corp. as the contractor. Construction is expected to begin in November 2021. BlueHalo will use the facility to research, develop and produce advanced radio frequency systems, laser communications, and space qualified electronics. The estimated EPC cost is $60 million. BlueHalo, 1300 Britt St. SE, Albuquerque, 87123. IR#NM210702.


Nature’s Value Inc. is planning to establish a nutraceuticals production plant at Whitaker Park in Winston-Salem. The project scope includes purchase, relocation and installation of stainless steel piping, conveyors, fume hoods, stability chambers and wet laboratory,  formulation, liquid and gas chromatography equipment. Equipment will be relocated from the company’s facilities in New York and North Carolina, and installed in an existing 425,000-sq-ft building. Project implementation will be phased through the fourth quarter of 2024. The estimated EPC cost is $21.7 million. Nature’s Value Inc., 468 Mill Rd., Coram, N.Y., 11727. IR#NC210815.  



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N-Doped Biochar as a New Metal-Free Activator of Peroxymonosulfate for Singlet Oxygen … – MDPI

2 September, 2021

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Han, R.; Fang, Y.; Sun, P.; Xie, K.; Zhai, Z.; Liu, H.; Liu, H. N-Doped Biochar as a New Metal-Free Activator of Peroxymonosulfate for Singlet Oxygen-Dominated Catalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2288. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092288

Han R, Fang Y, Sun P, Xie K, Zhai Z, Liu H, Liu H. N-Doped Biochar as a New Metal-Free Activator of Peroxymonosulfate for Singlet Oxygen-Dominated Catalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(9):2288. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092288

Han, Ruirui, Yingsen Fang, Ping Sun, Kai Xie, Zhicai Zhai, Hongxia Liu, and Hui Liu. 2021. “N-Doped Biochar as a New Metal-Free Activator of Peroxymonosulfate for Singlet Oxygen-Dominated Catalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7” Nanomaterials 11, no. 9: 2288. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092288

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High efficiency electro-catalytic performance of green dill biochar cathode and its application …

3 September, 2021

Biochar (BC) is a kind of carbon rich, renewable and low-cost material which can be prepared from various organic materials. In this work, the biochar was used as electrode material to prepare a novel rolled electrode as cathode of Electeo-Fenton (EF) system. The results showed that a quite high generation of H2O2 (609 mg L-1) could be obtained on the optimum mixed cathode of carbon black and biochar (BC-CB-(1:1)) at a low electric energy consumption (EEC) (32.8 kWh kg-1). Furthermore, the operating parameters such as air flow rate, pH and current density, affecting the H2O2 electro-generation, were investigated and optimized. The optimum condition of H2O2 generation were air flow rate 0.6 L min-1, current density 32 mA cm-2 and initial pH 7.0. The tetracycline was achieved 95.3% removal rate within 10 min, and the TOC mineralization could reach 91% on the optimum mixed cathode, which were much higher than that of raw biochar cathode. In terms of stability, the mixed cathode remained stable after 10 cycles. The optimized design considerable improved electrochemical performances of electrode, which offers a cost-effective strategy for organic pollutants removal by EF process.

L. tao, H. ren and F. Yu, New J. Chem., 2021, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/D1NJ03430H

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‪Mari Selvam S‬ – ‪Google Scholar‬

3 September, 2021

Preparation of ammonium-modified cassava waste-derived biochar and its evaluation for …

3 September, 2021

Mono- and co-sorption of the three antibiotics i.e., norfloxacin (NOR), sulfamerazine (SMR) and oxytetracycline (OTC), to raw and NH4+-modified cassava waste biochar added to aqueous solutions were investigated. The NH4+-modified biochar showed higher sorption affinity for both NOR and SMR than the raw biochar, while the raw biochar showed higher sorption affinity for OTC than the modified biochar. The highest sorption to both biochars in both the mono- and competitive sorption systems was found for OTC followed by NOR and SMR. Sorption equilibrium in all systems analyzed was reached within 15 h. Electrostatic interactions among the ionic antibiotics in the multicomponent solution increased NOR and SMR sorption to both biochars. Antibiotics’ mono- and co-sorption to biochars decreased with increasing solution pH. The co-sorption of NOR and SMR to the two biochars was regulated by π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions; besides, electrostatic interactions and Hydrogen (H-) bonding played an important part. Cation bridging might have been a potential mechanism to contribute to SMR sorption to the raw biochar, and OTC sorption to the NH4+-modified biochar. These observations will improve our understanding of the simultaneous removal of multiple antibiotics from water or wastewater.


Preparation of ammonium-modified cassava waste-derived biochar and its evaluation for synergistic adsorption of ternary antibiotics from aqueous solution. / Luo, Jiwei; Li, Xue; Ge, Chengjun; Müller, Karin; Yu, Huamei; Deng, Hui; Shaheen, Sabry M.; Tsang, Daniel C.W.; Bolan, Nanthi S.; Rinklebe, Jörg; Ok, Yong Sik; Gao, Bin; Wang, Hailong.


T1 – Preparation of ammonium-modified cassava waste-derived biochar and its evaluation for synergistic adsorption of ternary antibiotics from aqueous solution

AU – Luo, Jiwei

AU – Li, Xue

AU – Ge, Chengjun

AU – Müller, Karin

AU – Yu, Huamei

AU – Deng, Hui

AU – Shaheen, Sabry M.

AU – Tsang, Daniel C.W.

AU – Bolan, Nanthi S.

AU – Rinklebe, Jörg

AU – Ok, Yong Sik

AU – Gao, Bin

AU – Wang, Hailong

PY – 2021/11/15

Y1 – 2021/11/15

N2 – Mono- and co-sorption of the three antibiotics i.e., norfloxacin (NOR), sulfamerazine (SMR) and oxytetracycline (OTC), to raw and NH4+-modified cassava waste biochar added to aqueous solutions were investigated. The NH4+-modified biochar showed higher sorption affinity for both NOR and SMR than the raw biochar, while the raw biochar showed higher sorption affinity for OTC than the modified biochar. The highest sorption to both biochars in both the mono- and competitive sorption systems was found for OTC followed by NOR and SMR. Sorption equilibrium in all systems analyzed was reached within 15 h. Electrostatic interactions among the ionic antibiotics in the multicomponent solution increased NOR and SMR sorption to both biochars. Antibiotics’ mono- and co-sorption to biochars decreased with increasing solution pH. The co-sorption of NOR and SMR to the two biochars was regulated by π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions; besides, electrostatic interactions and Hydrogen (H-) bonding played an important part. Cation bridging might have been a potential mechanism to contribute to SMR sorption to the raw biochar, and OTC sorption to the NH4+-modified biochar. These observations will improve our understanding of the simultaneous removal of multiple antibiotics from water or wastewater.

AB – Mono- and co-sorption of the three antibiotics i.e., norfloxacin (NOR), sulfamerazine (SMR) and oxytetracycline (OTC), to raw and NH4+-modified cassava waste biochar added to aqueous solutions were investigated. The NH4+-modified biochar showed higher sorption affinity for both NOR and SMR than the raw biochar, while the raw biochar showed higher sorption affinity for OTC than the modified biochar. The highest sorption to both biochars in both the mono- and competitive sorption systems was found for OTC followed by NOR and SMR. Sorption equilibrium in all systems analyzed was reached within 15 h. Electrostatic interactions among the ionic antibiotics in the multicomponent solution increased NOR and SMR sorption to both biochars. Antibiotics’ mono- and co-sorption to biochars decreased with increasing solution pH. The co-sorption of NOR and SMR to the two biochars was regulated by π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions; besides, electrostatic interactions and Hydrogen (H-) bonding played an important part. Cation bridging might have been a potential mechanism to contribute to SMR sorption to the raw biochar, and OTC sorption to the NH4+-modified biochar. These observations will improve our understanding of the simultaneous removal of multiple antibiotics from water or wastewater.

KW – Antibiotics

KW – Chemical modification

KW – Engineered biochar

KW – Wastewater treatment

UR – http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85112532300&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 – 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113530

DO – 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113530

M3 – Article

C2 – 34411800

AN – SCOPUS:85112532300

VL – 298

JO – Journal of Environmental Management

JF – Journal of Environmental Management

SN – 0301-4797

M1 – 113530

ER –

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FERN's Friday Feed: For the love of mudbugs | Food and Environment Reporting Network

3 September, 2021

“The world record at crawfish eating—the record, at least, according to Breaux Bridge, which is, by resolution of the Louisiana Legislature, the Crawfish Capital of the World—was set by a local man named Andrew Thevenet, who at one Crawfish Festival ate the tails of thirty-three pounds of crawfish in two hours. My doubts about being able to peel that much crawfish in two hours—not to speak of eating it—were increased by some stories I heard about tricks contestants have used in the past. One man was said to have perfected a method of peeling a crawfish with one hand and popping it into his mouth—a process that was described as ‘inhaling crawfish’—while reaching for the next crawfish with his other hand.”

“The hemp field trial is just one of the projects being led by Ben Houlton, dean of Cornell’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. For the last two years, he and colleagues at the Working Lands Innovation Center, a research consortium based at the University of California, Davis, have been testing various soil amendments that grab carbon from the air and trap it below ground,” writes Susan Cosier, in FERN’s latest story. “They’ve tested biochar, manure, and rock dust used on the New York land and California farm plots, and so far, the most effective soil treatment is basalt pulverized into dust.”

We want to make it easier for you to keep up with all things FERN, including getting notified of FERN’s latest reporting. If that sounds appealing, text FERN to (866) 551-0955 to opt into our brand new (and low-key) SMS messaging service*.

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“It occurred to him that these same farmers had endured at least five droughts since the mid-1970s and that drought, like the sun, was an eternal condition of California,” writes Mark Arax. “But he also understood that their ability to shrug off nature—no one forgot the last drought faster than the farmer, Steinbeck wrote—was part of their genius. Their collective amnesia had allowed them to forge the most industrialized farm belt in the world … The well fixer understood their hidebound ways. He understood their stubbornness, and maybe even their delusion. Here at continent’s edge, nothing westward but the sea, we were all deluded.”

“To fully grasp why we’re living in an age of pandemics, one must first understand how industrial agriculture and deforestation work in tandem,” writes Eamon Whalen. “When thousands of the same breed of animal are raised in crowded conditions, the lack of biodiversity creates ‘an ecology nigh perfect for the evolution of multiple virulent strains of influenza, [epidemiologist Rob] Wallace wrote. Farms built near dwindling primary forests where zoonotic pathogens reside have inadvertently ‘empowered the pathogens to be their very best selves,’ he told me. ‘You strip out the complexity of forest that had been keeping these pathogens bottled up, and you let them have a nice straight shot to the major cities, which gives them opportunities to multiply themselves.’”

“Around 1,000 B.C., some foragers decided to try farming in one of the driest spots on Earth, the Atacama Desert, which lies between the Andes Mountains and Pacific Ocean, in what’s now northern Chile,” writes Bridget Alex. “When farming began, lethal violence surged and remained high for centuries. The desert inhabitants attacked and slayed one another with maces, knives and hunting weapons, probably fighting over scarce water and fertile land.”

“Michele Crippa’s palate was renowned in Italy’s gastronomic circles, capable of appreciating the most subtle of flavors,” writes Emma Bubola. Then, “[l]ike so many people who have contracted the coronavirus, Mr. Crippa lost the ability to smell — so intrinsic to tasting food — and when it returned, it came back warped.” After months of retraining, “with the help of sensorial analysis experts … he has emerged in Italy as a symbol of gastronomic resilience — and of hope that the lingering effects of Covid-19 can be surmounted.”

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4 September, 2021

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Biochar Market Size, Trends, and Key Players – Cool Planet, Pacific … – The Manomet Current –

4 September, 2021

New Jersey, United States,- The Biochar Market research report is a detailed study of the Biochar industry that specializes in identifying the growth potential of the Biochar market and potential opportunities in the market. Secondary research data comes from government publications, expert interviews, reviews, surveys, and trusted journals. The data recorded spans a decade, followed by a systematic review to conduct an in-depth study of influencers in the Biochar market.

Biochar Market was valued at USD 1.34 Billion in 2019 and is projected to reach USD 4.47 Billion by 2027, growing at a CAGR of 16.26 % from 2020 to 2027.

Biochar is charcoal that is created by pyrolysis of biomass, yet without oxygen, and is utilised as a dirt ameliorate for both carbon sequestration and soil medical advantages. Biochar is a steady strong that is wealthy in carbon and can suffer in soil for a great many years. Biochar is being examined as a method for carbon sequestration, and it might be a way to moderate a worldwide temperature alteration and environmental change. It results from measures identified with pyrogenic carbon catch and capacity (PyCCS). It is created utilizing a particular cycle to dispose of defilement and securely store carbon. As far as physical highlights, Biochar is dark, profoundly permeable, lightweight, fine-grained, and has an enormous surface territory. The 70% of Biochar arrangement is carbon and the rest of the rate comprises of nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen among different components. Biochar is a dirt transformation that changes over soil squander into a dirt enhancer that expands biodiversity, supports food security, and hold carbon. It upgrades the quality and amount of water by expanding soil maintenance of supplements and agro-synthetic compounds for crop usage.

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The report covers extensive analysis of the key market players in the market, along with their business overview, expansion plans, and strategies. The key players studied in the report include:

Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex �nergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group and others.

Biochar Market Segmentation

Biochar Market, By Feedstock Type

• Woody Biomass
• Agricultural Waste
• Animal Manure
• Others

Biochar Market, By Technology

• Pyrolysis
• Gasification
• Others

Biochar Market, By Application

• Electricity Generation
• Agriculture
• Forestry

The Biochar market report has been segmented on the basis of various categories such as product type, application, end-user, and region. Each segment is evaluated based on CAGR, share, and growth potential. In the regional analysis, the report highlights the potential region which is expected to create opportunities in the Biochar Market in the coming years. 

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Biochar Market Report Scope 

Geographic Segment Covered in the Report:

 • North America (USA and Canada)
 • Europe (UK, Germany, France and the rest of Europe)
 • Asia Pacific (China, Japan, India, and the rest of the Asia Pacific region)
 • Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, and the rest of Latin America)
 • Middle East and Africa (GCC and rest of the Middle East and Africa)

Key questions answered in the report:

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How to make biochar, 1000 year soil amendment for your permaculture garden, 34.03 MB …

5 September, 2021

Download lagu How to make biochar, 1000 year soil amendment for your permaculture garden You can download MP3 for free at Free MP3 & Lyrics Download. Song details How to make biochar, 1000 year soil amendment for your permaculture garden you can see in the table, for the download link How to make biochar, 1000 year soil amendment for your permaculture garden below.

Walkthrough video of how I make biochar. There are many ways to do this, and to me this method (inspired by Edible Acres channel) is the best balance between simplicity and efficiency. The video will include tips and tricks, a little bit of science, and a whole lot of fire.

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Europe Biochar Industry trends 2021: Upcoming Opportunities – Media Releases – CSO …

5 September, 2021

Global Biochar Industry: with growing significant CAGR during 2021-2028

New Research Report on Biochar Market which covers Market Overview, Future Economic Impact, Competition by Manufacturers, Supply (Production), and Consumption Analysis

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The market research report on the global Biochar industry provides a comprehensive study of the various techniques and materials used in the production of Biochar market products. Starting from industry chain analysis to cost structure analysis, the report analyzes multiple aspects, including the production and end-use segments of the Biochar market products. The latest trends in the pharmaceutical industry have been detailed in the report to measure their impact on the production of Biochar market products.

With the present market standards revealed, the Biochar market research report has also illustrated the latest strategic developments and patterns of the market players in an unbiased manner. The report serves as a presumptive business document that can help the purchasers in the global market plan their next courses towards the position of the market’s future.

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Leading key players in the Biochar market are –
Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels

Product Types:
Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar

By Application/ End-user:
Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

Regional Analysis For Biochar Market
North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico)
Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia, and Italy)
Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia)
South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, etc.)
The Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa)

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  • The varying scenarios of the overall market have been depicted in this report, providing a roadmap of how the Biochar products secured their place in this rapidly-changing marketplace. Industry participants can reform their strategies and approaches by examining the market size forecast mentioned in this report. Profitable marketplaces for the Biochar Market have been revealed, which can affect the global expansion strategies of the leading organizations. However, each manufacturer has been profiled in detail in this research report.
  • Biochar Market Effect Factors Analysis chapter precisely gives emphasis on Technology Progress/Risk, Substitutes Threat, Consumer Needs/Customer Preference Changes, Technology Progress in Related Industry, and Economic/Political Environmental Changes that draw the growth factors of the Market.
  • The fastest & slowest growing market segments are pointed out in the study to give out significant insights into each core element of the market. Newmarket players are commencing their trade and are accelerating their transition in Biochar Market. Merger and acquisition activity forecast to change the market landscape of this industry.

This report comes along with an added Excel data-sheet suite taking quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.

What’s in the offering: The report provides in-depth knowledge about the utilization and adoption of Biochar Industries in various applications, types, and regions/countries. Furthermore, the key stakeholders can ascertain the major trends, investments, drivers, vertical player’s initiatives, government pursuits towards the product acceptance in the upcoming years, and insights of commercial products present in the market.

Full Report Link @ https://www.marketresearchupdate.com/industry-growth/biochar-industry-analysis-and-forecast-2028-277885

Lastly, the Biochar Market study provides essential information about the major challenges that are going to influence market growth. The report additionally provides overall details about the business opportunities to key stakeholders to expand their business and capture revenues in the precise verticals. The report will help the existing or upcoming companies in this market to examine the various aspects of this domain before investing or expanding their business in the Biochar market.

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Circular economy program turns feral olives into vineyard biochar – Adelaide Online News

5 September, 2021

Circular economy program turns feral olives into vineyard biochar

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A group of wine industry environmentalists are turning feral olive trees removed from Fleurieu Peninsula national parks into a biochar product to boost…

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#VaxTheNation Is the New Aussie Campaign Encouraging the Jab to Help Restart Live Entertainment

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Magnetic Steel Slag Biochar for Ammonium Nitrogen Removal from Aqueous Solution

5 September, 2021

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Overview of the Benefits and Challenges Associated with Pelletizing Biochar – MDPI

5 September, 2021

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Mohammadi, A. Overview of the Benefits and Challenges Associated with Pelletizing Biochar. Processes 2021, 9, 1591. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091591

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Copper removal from aqueous solution using raw pine sawdust, olive pomace and their …

5 September, 2021

In the present study, the ability of four different adsorbents (raw sawdust, raw olive pomace and their derived biochars obtained after pyrolysis) to remove Cu(II) from water was investigated. The derived biochars were prepared using the traditional process of earth mound kilns at a temperature close to 300 °C. The influence of solid charge, contact time, pH, and concentration was studied. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in less than 15 min for sawdust, its biochar, and for olive pomace, and in about 1 h for olive pomace-derived biochar. In the studied conditions where only adsorption occurred in absence of Cu precipitation, the maximum adsorption capacities were determined equal to 4.9, 13.1, 14.9, and 50.8 mg.g−1 for olive pomace-biochar, olive pomace, sawdust, and sawdust-biochar, respectively. Thus, the pyrolysis enhanced the adsorption capacities of sawdust but decreased the ones of olive pomace. This study evidenced that raw olive pomace and sawdust as well as their biochar traditionally prepared, may be used as sustainable, low-cost and efficient adsorbents for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solution.

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All data will be available under request to the corresponding author.

A. Destrebecq is gratefully acknowledged for ICP-OES analyses.

The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of Tunisia (MERS) is acknowledged for a doctoral research grant awarded to I. Mannai.

Correspondence to S. Sayen.

Editorial responsibility: Anna Grobelak.

Received: 12 August 2020

Revised: 21 July 2021

Accepted: 19 August 2021

Published: 04 September 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-021-03629-z

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Farming for a better future | Midland Express

6 September, 2021

Farmers in Mount Alexander Shire are learning how to increase productivity and profitability through the practice of regenerative farming.

They’re benefiting from workshops run by the Mount Alexander Regenerative Agriculture Group, which provide practical demonstrations and on-ground implementation.

Regenerative agriculture has been identified as a critical means by which we can mitigate climate change and also develop greater resilience to the effects of global warming.

The practice draws atmospheric carbon down into the earth through photosynthesis, which can be measured through testing for organic carbon levels in the soil.

Healthier soils store more water and increase nutrients to grow more resilient pastures and help drought-proof landscapes.

MASG’s Deane Belfield, who facilitates the program, said United Nations estimates revealed declining top soil levels on our planet had only 60 growing seasons left.

“Regenerative farming practices and the use of products such as biochar and compost can enrich the soil and ensure it is suitable for growing healthy produce and grain into the future,” he said.

“Increased soil organic carbon can help the community achieve its goal of zero net emissions by 2030.”

In 2019 the group received funding through the North Central Catchment Management Authority to facilitate the three-year program, which involves up to 70 landholders.

Topics include soil and plant biology, soil testing, cover crops, managed grazing, identifying native and pasture grasses, revegetation, dung beetles and bio-amendments such as biochar and compost.

Five dung beetle nurseries have been established by group members, the aim being to multiply the number of beetles across the shire many thousands of times within a few years.

Farmers commit to adopting a range of regenerative agriculture methods during that time and have their soil tested before and after to assess any changes in its carbon levels.

The most recent workshop on multi-species cover cropping included a three-hour morning session in Castlemaine by one of Australia’s top educators where participants were exposed to the theory, science, practical implementation strategies and case studies.

This was followed by a hands-on afternoon session at a Muckleford sheep/beef farm that enabled workshop participants to see some of the equipment and methods in practice and discuss what would work best on their own properties.

Subsequent workshops have included a holistic grazing session at Walmer and a revegetation event at Guildford.

Harcourt garlic grower and workshop participant Zane Tronson said being part of the Mount Alexander Regenerative Agriculture Group had been the single most valuable source of knowledge and support for his property.

“The information and experience I have gathered in the last two years will benefit our land (and the land of some of those that I share my experiences with) for the rest of our time caring for it, and we trust this exceptional program can continue,” he said.

The workshop program for the coming 12 months is set to be released shortly. Keep an eye on the MASG website for details or email info@masg.org.au

charcoal retort kilns and bio char

6 September, 2021

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Biochar Fertilizer Market is Expected to Grow at a Healthy CAGR : Global Market Vision …

6 September, 2021

Biochar Fertilizer Market: Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2021-2028

A new and informative report of the Biochar Fertilizer market has been asserted by Global Market Vision to give a brief of the market in the forthcoming years. To offer a clear vision of the inexpensive crescendos of the market, the report summarizes about the substantial leading companies in the global market along with a granular illustration of the collapse of the overall market. The report has figured out that the Biochar Fertilizer market is marked by numerous segments and the market players are directed to cognize the miscellaneous and vibrant restrictions and plot their growth strategies accordingly.

Note: We are regularly tracking the direct effect of COVID-19 on the market, along with the indirect influence of associated industries. These observations will be integrated into the report.

Get FREE Sample copy of this Report with Graphs and Charts at: https://globalmarketvision.com/sample_request/97312

Top key players, who operate in the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market are summarized in the report to understand their role in the market and their upcoming strategies. Numerous marketing channels and strategies are likely to prosper in the forecast period and have also been designated in the report to help readers formulate winning approaches.

key market players for the global Biochar Fertilizer market are listed below:

Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics.

Biochar Fertilizer Market Segmentation

The Biochar Fertilizer market is divided into various essential sectors, including application, type, and region. Each market segment is intensively studied in the report, taking into account market acceptance, value, demand, and growth prospects. Segmentation analysis allows customers to customize their marketing approach to perform better orders for each segment and identify the most prospective customer base

Biochar Fertilizer Market, By Product

Organic Fertilizer, Inorganic Fertilizer, Compound Fertilizer

Biochar Fertilizer Market, By Applications

Cereals, Oil Crops, Fruits and Vegetables, Others

Key factors that are improving the development of the key segments have been provided in this researched report. An in-depth study of the competitive landscape of the global Biochar Fertilizer market have been presenting insights into the company profiles, recent developments, financial status, mergers and acquisitions and the SWOT analysis. One of the most notable features of the Biochar Fertilizer market report is the analysis of key users over the forecast period. This study will give a vibrant idea to its readers about the inclusive market development to further decide on this market project. Graphs, charts, statistics, and tables have been comprised at the required places to present the information in a clear manner and along with this, it is also scrutinized geographically. All the important features are delivered which is fascinating this market towards a tremendous growth.

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Regional Outlook:

Regionally, the global Biochar Fertilizer market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East & Africa. Also, the classification of market data and analysis of region into countries is covered in the market research report. Further, the regions are segregated into the country and regional groupings:

The key points of the report:

• The report provides a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology.
• The report explores the international and Chinese major industry players in detail. In this part, the report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, and 2021-2028 market shares for each company.
• Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Biochar Fertilizer industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export.
• The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis.
• The report then estimates 2021-2028 market development trends of Biochar Fertilizer industry. Analysis of upstream raw materials, downstream demand, and current market dynamics is also carried out.
• The report makes some important proposals for a new project of Biochar Fertilizer Industry before evaluating its feasibility.

Key questions answered in this research study

• What is the global production, production value, consumption, consumption value of Biochar Fertilizer?
• Who are the global key manufacturers of Biochar Fertilizer Market? How are their operating situation?
• What are the types and applications of Biochar Fertilizer? What is the market share value of each type and application?
• What are the upstream raw materials and manufacturing equipment of Biochar Fertilizer? What is the manufacturing process of Biochar Fertilizer?
• Economic impact on Biochar Fertilizer Market and development trend of market.
• What will be the market size and the growth rate be in 2028?
• What are the key factors driving the global Biochar Fertilizer Market?
• What are the key market trends impacting the growth of the Biochar Fertilizer Market?
• What are the challenges to market growth?
• What are the Biochar Fertilizer Market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the market?

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Wood-fed hydrogen plant to be built in NSW in $15 million Singapore deal – pv magazine Australia

7 September, 2021

Plans to create hydrogen by burning wood have swollen in New South Wales’ Hunter Valley, after sawmill offshoot, Sweetman Renewables, yesterday announced a $15 million deal with Singapore’s CAC-H₂ to construct the country’s largest wood-fed hydrogen production plant.

Sweetman Renewables

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Catalyst fund makes first investment to bring climate-friendly biochar technology to market …

7 September, 2021

As a subscriber, you are shown 80% less display advertising when reading our articles.

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SOCIAL enterprise Sustainable Thinking Scotland CIC (STS) has become the first in Scotland to secure investment from The Catalyst Fund, receiving £190,000 to bring its biochar technology to market.

The £30 million fund was launched in June to support small businesses within the third sector, helping them grow as Scotland recovers from the impacts of coronavirus. Its funding mechanism means the Falkirk-based social enterprise will repay the investment via a share of its revenue as the business grows.

STS was established in 2016 by Sean Kerr and Stephen McQueen to help tackle social and environmental issues in their local area of Bo’ness. It delivers projects that encourage local, sustainable food production, provides community-scale green waste recycling, and creates learning opportunities for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged in the area.

In recent years, the enterprise has been developing innovative applications for its biochar water remediation technology to tackle the problem of nutrient pollution in waterways. Biochar, similar to charcoal, is obtained from “baking” waste wood and other biomass at high temperatures and can draw down carbon from the atmosphere into the soil, storing it for years.

Mr Kerr, director at STS, said: “Our mission is to be Scotland’s leading organisation in the development and targeted application of biochar, driving innovation within water remediation technologies and land management, creating a circular economy model which benefits both our environment and the people within our communities.”

The funding, he noted, “will be the catalyst which allows us to drive innovation and regulation within these new carbon markets, helping to set the standards for environmental recovery while contributing towards Scotland’s net-zero ambitions”.

STS will use the investment to accelerate the growth of the biochar project, increase production capacity and research and development, employ staff and develop core business operations for its intended scale-up.

Delivered by Firstport, Scotland’s development agency for start-up social enterprises, and Social Enterprise Scotland, the fund offers loans starting at £50,000 using a revenue-based repayment model, providing social enterprises the flexible finance they need in the early stages of development, without compromising their social mission.

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Merced Sun-Star: «Biochar ambassadors hope to save fire-ravaged Methow – Newstral.com

8 September, 2021


Assessing the potential of biochar aged by humic substances to enhance plant growth and …

8 September, 2021

Soil carbon-rich organic amendments (biochar, humic substances) may improve the quality and fertility of arable soil. Their co-application can additively enhance the beneficial effect on soil. Hypothetically, the pre-treatment of biochar, by aging via soaking in a solution of commercially available humic substances, could result in synergism, which may exceed the benefit from simple co-application of both amendments to the soil. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of biochar, humic substances, the combination of both, and the impact of biochar aged by humic substances solution on soil microbial activities and plant growth in a short-term pot experiment with lettuce.

The aging of biochar decreased the C:N ratio as compared to non-activated biochar. The co-application of biochar and humic substances into the soil resulted in the highest microbial biomass carbon and respiration activity. The majority of enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, phosphatase) were the highest in humic substances-amended soil. The application of humic substances and biochar with humic substances seemed to stimulate microbial growth and activity followed by the competition of microflora for nutrients with plants, whereas the aged biochar behaved differently. The plants treated by aged biochar achieved the highest values of dry aboveground and root biomass of all variants. However, the assumed rapid uptake of nutrients by plants resulted in lower nutrient availability for microflora, and a decline in microbial viability.

Based on this study, the positive effect of co-applied humic substances and biochar on soil fertility, quality, and health can be concluded. The usability of biochar aging by humic solution requires further study.

Soil microorganisms represent an active part of soil. They are important for the transformation of soil organic matter (SOM), nutrient conversion, and circulation in the soil [1]. The quantity, vitality, and diversity of the soil microbial consortium can be assessed by soil microbial respiration (basal and induced by various substrates) [2]. Moreover, microbial metabolism is sensitively indicated by soil enzyme activities, which are closely related to soil fertility, quality, and health [1, 3]. The most studied soil enzymatic activities include β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, phosphatase, and urease, due to their important roles in the mineralisation of C, S, P and N, respectively [4]. When using soil amendments in sustainable agriculture, it is therefore necessary to assess their effect on soil microbial activity and abundance.

Humic substances-rich peat and lignite [5, 6] and C-rich biochar, belong to the routinely used natural soil amendments [7]. Humic substances, naturally occurring in soil, are produced by complex biogeochemical processes of decomposition and transformation by soil microorganisms [1]. Amendment of humic substances into the soil enhances biological, physical, and chemical properties of soil, and plant growth [1, 8]. Biochar, as a stable C product of biomass pyrolysis, can enhance abundance and activity of soil microbiota and increase crop yields [9, 10]. Therefore, biochar and humic substances represent sustainable soil amendments providing high economic viability, crop productivity, and ecological stability [11, 12].

The positive effect of biochar is usually associated with changes in physical and chemical soil conditions [13]. On the other hand, fresh biochar is not the preferred environment for colonisation by microorganisms [14, 15]. Some studies have even found negative priming effects of biochar [16, 17]. Therefore, the effect of biochar addition on soil microbiome strongly depends on the residence time of biochar in soil [18]. Aged biochar, modified by biotic and abiotic processes, is a more hospitable environment for colonisation by microorganisms than the non-activated biochar. Moreover, aged biochar shows increased nutrient retention capacity resulting from the increased density of surface functional groups and the adsorbed nutrient-rich organic molecules [19].

The individual or combined effect of the soil amendments on soil microbiota and plant growth need to be better understood, because the majority of studies have focused on the environmental protective applications (e.g. [20]). The utilisation of biochar aged by humic substances was investigated only after the introduction of both to the soil [21]. Few studies dealt with liquid aging of biochar before the application to the soil (e.g. [22]). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the biochar and humic substances on soil microbial properties and plant growth via a novel approach based on the biochar liquid aging. We chose this approach presuming that the biochar composition should be significantly changed after humic substances–biochar interaction in a soilless environment.

The hypotheses of the study were as follows:

Aging of biochar by humic substances changes the composition of biochar (determined as C, N, H, and O content) via enhanced soilless sorption of humic substances.

Application of the aged biochar enhances soil microbial activities and plant growth more efficiently than co-application of humic substances and biochar.

Co-application of humic substances and biochar improves soil microbial activities and plant growth more than their application solely.

Humic substances mitigate negative priming effect of biochar.

Commercially available biochar (Sonnenerde GmbH, Austria) and humic substances solution, Humac (Envi Produkt, Czech Republic), were used for the experiment.

The biochar was pyrolyzed at 600 °C from agriculture waste consisting of cellulosic fibres and cereal husks. Basic characteristics of the biochar are as follows: specific surface (BET method) 288 m2 g−1, dry matter (DM) 41%, ash content (550 °C) 12% in DM, pH (CaCl2) 8.5, and conductivity 327 µS cm−1.

The basic component of Humac is oxihumolite (leonardite) and its composition is as follows: DM at least 30%, humic substances at least 45% in DM, Ca 1200 mg L−1, Mg 55 mg L−1, Cu 1.70 mg L−1, and Mn 1.97 mg L−1 (as total elements).

The biochar was aged in a gas-washing bottle with a volume of 1 L, which was filled up with 128 g of biochar, 4 mL of Humac, and 640 mL of demineralised water. The doses were chosen considering the application doses in the following pot experiment, in which 32 g of biochar, 1 mL of Humac and 100 ml of watering solution were applied to each pot of specific variants (the content of bottle equaled 4 doses of aged biochar). The suspension in the bottle was intensively aerated at room temperature for 7 days. At the end of the aging process, the content of the bottle was homogenised and filtered through a 42-µm sieve.

Macro-elemental (C, N, H, O) composition of the biochar was determined using TruSpec analyser (LECO, USA). The biochar was dried to a constant weight at 105 °C and sieved through a 0.15-mm mesh prior to analyses.

The pot experiment with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.) cv. Smaragd was carried out in 1-L experimental plastic pots under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, Climacell (BMT Medical Technology, Czech Republic), with full-spectrum stable white LED lighting. Environmental conditions were maintained at a temperature of 18/22 °C (night/day) with a 12-h photoperiod, a light intensity of 370 µmol m−2 s−1, and relative air humidity of 70%.

The topsoil (0–15 cm) used in this pot experiment was collected from a field near the town Troubsko, Czech Republic (49°10′28″N 16°29′32″E). It was classified as silty clay loam (USDA Textural Triangle) Haplic Luvisol (WRB Soil Classification). Before the experiment, the soil was homogenised, sieved through a 2-mm mesh, and mixed with fine quartz sand (0.1–1.0 mm) (1:1, w/w). The basic soil properties were as follows: pH 7.3, total N 1.6 g kg−1, total C 14.0 g kg−1, C:N 8.75, available K 230 mg kg−1, available Ca 3.26 g kg−1, available Mg 240 mg kg−1, and available P 100 g kg−1.

The control pots and the pots with Humac variant (H) were filled up with 1 kg of soil–sand mixture. For variants containing biochar, 1 kg of soil–sand mixture was mixed with 32 g of non-activated biochar (NB) or a quarter of aged biochar (AB), which was equal to 32 g of NB. The obtained mixture was transferred into pots of specific variant. All the pots were watered with 100 mL of fluid: (I) demineralised water for the control, NB and AB variants; and (II) 1 mL of Humac diluted in 99 mL of demineralised water for H and non-activated biochar + Humac variant (NB + H) (Table 1). There were 15 pots in total with three pots per variant.

Lettuce seeds were sprouted on wet filter paper for 2 days. Three sprouted lettuce seeds were sown at about 2 mm deep into each pot. The pots were randomly placed in the growth chamber. All the pots were manually watered with 50 mL of demineralised water every other day and rotated variably during the experiment to ensure homogeneity of treatment. After 10 days, the most robust seedling was left in each pot.

The plants were harvested 6 weeks after sowing [23]. The leaves were cut at ground level and roots were removed from the soil gently and washed with tap water [24]. The weight of fresh aboveground (AGB) and root biomass was measured. The lettuce biomass was dried in a forced-air oven at 70 °C [24] to a constant weight to determine the dry weight of AGB and roots.

At the end of the experiment, the mixed soil sample was collected from each pot. The soil samples were stored at 4 °C for 14 days before analysis.

The microbial biomass carbon (MBC) content of the soil samples was determined using the fumigation extraction method [25]. Furthermore, the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride-dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured according to the methodology based on Casida et al. [26]. DHA was calculated according to the calibration curve. Enzyme activities, namely β-glucosidase (GLU), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), arylsulfatase (ARS), phosphatase (Phos), and urease (Urea), were measured on lyophilised samples by colorimetric methods [27].

Basal (BR) and substrate-induced (SIR) respiration were measured using a MicroResp device (The James Hutton Institute, UK) according to the method by Campbell et al. [28]. BR was measured without the addition of any energy source. SIR was measured after the addition of specific energy sources, namely d-glucose (Glc-SIR), d-trehalose (Tre-SIR), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine (NAG-SIR), l-alanine (Ala-SIR), l-lysine (Lys-SIR), and l-arginine (Arg-SIR).

All statistical analyses were carried out in the program R version 4.0.2. [29], together with the additional packages ‘ggplot2’ [30] for creating all the statistical graphs. Principal component analysis (PCA) with dependence of different treatments was used for modelling the relation between the soil properties and selected treatments. The results were graphically presented with Rohlf biplot for standardised PCA. Furthermore, the additional packages ‘factoextra’ [31] and ‘FactoMineR’ [32] were used. Pearson correlation analysis was applied for measuring the linear dependence among soil properties. The five-point scale [33] was used for interpreting the size of the correlation coefficient (r).

One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) type I (sequential) sum of squares was applied at the significance level of 0.05 separately for each soil property. To detect the difference among the treatments after ANOVA, Tukey’s honestly significant difference test from package ‘agricolae’ at 0.05 confidence level [34] was used. The assumption checking of all statistical models was also repeated with the help of the different diagnostic plots.

The aging process led to a significant increase in both C and N content of biochar (Table 2), which was probably the consequence of humic substances sorption on the biochar surface. On the other hand, the content of O decreased significantly during the aging process. These changes also caused a significant decrease in C:N and O:C ratios.

DHA results showed no significant influence of the amendments as compared to the control (Fig. 1A). However, the increased values of this parameter were obtained for humic substances-influenced variants H and AB, whose values were significantly higher than the values of the NB variant.

Soil biochemical properties and plant biomass. A Dehydrogenase activity, B basal respiration, C microbial biomass carbon, D glucosidase, E respiration induced by d-glucose, F respiration induced by d-trehalose, G N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, H urease, I respiration induced by N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine, J respiration induced by l-alanine, K respiration induced by l-lysine, L respiration induced by l-arginine, M arylsulfatase, N phosphatase, O fresh aboveground biomass, P dry aboveground biomass, Q fresh root biomass, R dry root biomass. Mean values ± SD. Statistical difference at the level: *p < 0.05

Soil BR was positively affected by the addition of NB + H (Fig. 1B). Nevertheless, the difference was not statistically significant compared to the control. However, this variant reached significantly higher values of BR compared to other amended variants. Similar results were reached for all SIRs (except Arg-SIR; Fig. 1E–F, I–L), which correlated highly positively with each other (Fig. 2).

Pearson’s correlation matrix of soil properties and plant biomass

The lowest MBC values were found in the NB variant (Fig. 1C); however, this decrease was not significant as compared to the control. On the other hand, the surplus of nutrients from Humac led to higher microbial biomass gain in the NB + H variant, which exerted significantly higher MBC as compared to the NB and H variants. The effect of the active part of MBC on the microbial activity could be expected due to the low positive correlation with all soil respirations (Fig. 2).

In comparison to the control, the GLU was significantly increased only in variant H (Fig. 1D). In other variants, no significant changes were recorded due to the rather negative priming effect of biochar.

The negative priming effect of biochar is observable, as the Glc-SIR value of the NB variant was significantly lower compared to the control (Fig. 1E). However, Humac application to biochar and their mutual interaction resulted in mitigation of the negative effect of biochar on Glc-SIR in the NB + H variant, in which the Glc-SIR value was significantly higher than that of the NB variant. Their interaction even significantly increased Tre-SIR values in the NB + H variant compared to the control (Fig. 1F).

No significant difference in NAG values were found in any of the tested variants compared to the control (Fig. 1G). However, the effect of the biochar on NAG was neutral to negative as compared to humic substances’ effect in the H variant. This difference was alleviated by the aging of biochar via humic substances in the AB variant.

NB + H addition significantly increased soil Urea activity (Fig. 1H); the remaining amendments had no effect. The NB and NB + H variants showed significantly higher Urea compared to the AB variant.

Statistically significant difference was also found between NB and NB + H for NAG-SIR, Ala-SIR, Lys-SIR (Fig. 1I, J, K), which correlated highly positively with each other (Fig. 2). There was no significant effect of the amendments on the soil Arg-SIR (Fig. 1L), in spite of displaying a similar trend to other amino acid-induced SIRs.

ARS and Phos activity moderately positively correlated with each other (Fig. 2). ARS activity was significantly decreased by NB treatment (Fig. 1M). The H variant exerted significantly higher ARS activity in comparison with NB and AB, indicating a positive effect of humic substances on general enzyme activity. Soil Phos activity significantly increased after H addition, whereas significantly decreased in biochar-amended soils (Fig. 1N). The humic substances did not mitigate the negative effects of biochar on Phos.

The addition of Humac had no significant effect on the fresh or dry lettuce biomass (Fig. 1O–R). However, all parameters of plant biomass were increased in the variants with addition of either AB or NB. The low negative correlation between lettuce biomass and all soil respirations (Figs. 2, 3) suggested that soil microorganisms and plants were competitors for nutrient sources. The values of dry AGB and root biomass in the AB were approximately twice as high as the control, H and NB + H, which evidenced a positive impact of biochar aging by Humac tea on plant growth.

Variable correlation PCA plot for describing the relationships between all variables

The decrease in the C:N and O:C ratio in the aged biochar (Table 2) may indicate changes in N availability and biochar stability, respectively. This behaviour is partially related to the increased pore- and surface-blocking effect of humic substances [35], which may have blocked the N leaching and decelerated further oxidation of biochar. We also consider a role of organic matter–microbe–biochar interaction during aging, leading to increased C and N content of the biochar [36]. Lower values of the C:N parameter indicated proportionally higher enrichment of aged biochar with N, implying better availability of N for soil microorganisms and plants [37, 38] in the AB-amended soil. Higher N availability of aged biochar is supported by slightly higher values of plant yield as compared to non-activated biochar. The low content of O-based functional groups indicated more stable biochar [39]. However, it must be noted that AB was presumably enriched with labile available C originating from Humac, which is also characterised by the low O:C ratio [40]. We did not imply that aging removed nitrogenous groups from biochar surface. On the contrary, we assumed N enrichment of the biochar was due to the intensive adsorption of humic acids onto the surface with partial oxidation-blocking effect. Concurrent consumption of O due to the putative respiratory activity (and C mineralisation) of superficial microflora in biochar might have resulted in a lowered O:C ratio. As a consequence, partially mineralised N might become more available. Biochar weathering, in general, leads to enhanced CO2 production and N oxidation [41]. These results suggest that although the difference between NB and AB in O:C is statistically significant, it might have not affected the stability of the aged biochar.

Unlike the findings of Lizarazo et al. [6], the significant increase in soil DHA values after humic substance treatment was not confirmed (Fig. 1A). Significantly decreased DHA of the NB + H variant in comparison to the sole Humac amendment corresponded to a reduced DHA related to the fresh biochar amendment to the soil [42]. This has been attributed to the adverse sorption of substrates or enzymes on the biochar surface [43]. Moreover, this phenomenon was observed in this experiment to a greater degree than the DHA-enhancing effect of Humac, which Bastista et al. [44] reported. Nevertheless, the interaction of biochar with humic substances during the aging process putatively changed the adsorption potential of biochar. This presumption is based on the modified hydrophobicity and polarity of biochar surface structures [45, 46], which might lead to higher DHA values in the AB variant as compared to NB.

The observed effect of biochar addition on BR is variable among literature. There are studies that reported positive [47], neutral [48] or negative effects [49, 50]. Spokas et al. [51] observed a negative effect of NB on the BR, similar to this study. The difference between NB and NB + H was presumably caused by the lower content of amendment-derived available C in the variant NB in comparison with the variant of combined biochar and humic substances (Fig. 1B). The humic substances could decrease sorption and the stabilising effect of biochar [52] and result in putative alleviation of SOM and soil C recalcitrance. The amendment of fresh concentrated Humac and biochar (NB + H) was evidenced to enhance this effect. This feature was also assumed by Al-Maliki et al. [8], who found that the addition of humic substances enhanced the soil respiration as an energy source for the microbial community as well. Based on this, it could be claimed that co-application of biochar and humic substances led to the reduction of the potentially negative effect of biochar on BR. The described feature was general for all determined types of respiration with the most various inducing substrates, as shown by the agonistic relationship between BR and SIRs in PCA (Fig. 3).

MBC formed by bacteria and fungi and residues of their dead bodies is one of the key soil properties that determine soil C transformation pathways [53]. There was found no significant decrease in MBC values after biochar addition (Fig. 1C), unlike the results of the study by Li et al. [17]. On the other hand, the surplus of nutrients from Humac to the biochar led to higher microbial biomass gain, as the results of MBC in the variants AB and NB + H showed. However, the limited binding capacity of the biochar towards the Humac-derived carbonaceous compounds during the aging phase putatively caused insignificantly but apparently lower final values of the MCB in comparison to the NB + H (Fig. 1C).

The GLU hydrolyses soil carbohydrates, specifically soluble di- and oligo-saccharides [19]. Products of this hydrolysis belong to important sources of energy for soil microbiota, and the enzyme indicates the SOM quality, quantity, and its changes [48]. The decrease of GLU in the NB variant, as compared to the control, might be expected [54,55,56]; however, it was insignificant in this case (Fig. 1D). The significantly higher GLU values in the variants H and NB + H, compared to the NB and AB variants, agreed with observations of other authors [57, 58]. However, they did not support our hypothesis that aged biochar soaked in Humac tea enhances soil biochemical activities most efficiently. Here, again, the authors presumed that the rapidly utilised limited labile C in the Humac tea led to overgrowth of microflora and accelerated exhaustion of easily available C sources in AB, which hindered the enhancement of GLU activity.

The Glc-SIR results showed significant difference among NB and other variants, except AB (Fig. 1E), which proved the previously implied negative priming effect of non-activated biochar on the microbial activity in soil. This effect was not completely mitigated even by aging in Humac tea, and is contradictory to the results of other authors [59]. However, the results again evidenced the importance of the humic substances amendment to the biochar. Similarly, Tre-SIR values (Fig. 1F) supported the assumption of humic substances-related alleviation of the possible adverse effect of biochar on the C stabilisation and enzyme inhibition.

NAG is one of three key enzymes participating in degradation of chitin; therefore, it could be considered an indicator of N mineralisation [60]. The NAG assessment showed no significant effect of amendments (Fig. 1G). The NAG is closely related to fungal biomass, hence NAG semi-quantitatively indicates soil fungal biomass [61]. Therefore, our observation was in accordance with Yao et al. [18], who observed no fungal biomass change when biochar was applied under the field conditions. NAG activity was significantly limited by non-activated biochar in the NB and NB + H variants as compared to the H variant, thus there was no significant alleviation of biochar adverse effect by Humac unlike the case of GLU, ARS.

Contrary to the NAG, Urea in soil is produced mainly by bacteria [62]. The significant increase of Urea in the NB + H variant (Fig. 1H) seemed novel due to the referred counteraction of both amendments. The previous study [1] referred to the significant increase in Urea activity after treatment with humic substances. On the other hand, Yao et al. [18] found a significant decrease in Urea activity when biochar was applied under field conditions. The NB and NB + H variants showed significantly higher Urea compared to the AB variant, indicating that ammonium formation rate was negatively affected by biochar aging in Humac tea.

N-Acetyl-β-d-glucosamine utilisation capacity was shown to increase via biochar-stimulated growth of actinomycetes and bacteria [63]. However, this study revealed neutral to opposite results (Fig. 1I). It was previously referred that amino-compounds in the soil, for example l-arginine [64] or l-alanine [65], are negatively affected in their fluxes and availability by sorption on the biochar. We assume also that N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine might be slightly less accessible for degradation in the NB variant. In addition, a significant increase in the Ala-SIR in the NB + H variant in comparison to the NB may indicate strong sorption of l-alanine to biochar [65]. Thus, it can be deduced that similarly severe unavailability of other amino substances (l-lysine, l-arginine) might occur in the NB variant, causing low respiration potential for the amino substances.

Humac in the NB + H variant not only contributed to the mitigation of this potentially negative effect on NAG-SIR (Fig. 1I), but also on Ala-SIR, Lys-SIR, and potentially Arg-SIR (Fig. 1J, K, L). Therefore, the addition of humic substances to biochar seemed to mitigate the mentioned adverse features; however, the aging process in Humac tea abolished this feature incompletely, or weakly in the case of Lys-SIR and Arg-SIR. This assumption is supported by the high correlation between Ala-SIR and Lys-SIR, and moderate correlation between Arg-SIR and Lys-SIR (Fig. 2), as well as by PCA results (Fig. 3). The authors deduced from this feature and from PCA, which showed a positive relationship between Urea and Arg-SIR, that aging by Humac tea was crucial for the changes in the surface properties of biochar towards the altered binding of organic matter and mainly N sources.

Extracellular phosphatases catalyse mineralisation of organic P to the inorganic form, which is available for uptake by plants and soil microorganisms [66]. Thus, Phos activity is closely related to the conversion of organophosphates in the labile mineral P level in soil [67]. Amendment of P-rich organic material, Humac, caused a significant increase of Phos (Fig. 1N). This finding is consistent with results reported by Li et al. [1]. Labile available P is known for its affinity to the biochar [68]. Therefore, all variants amended with biochar showed significantly lower Phos as compared to the control. Similar results under high biochar dosage were already reported [69]. This feature was even stronger than the P-enrichment by co-applied Humac in the variants NB + H and AB. Conversely, the positive effect of humic substances failed to mitigate the negative effects of biochar on Phos activity.

ARS is an enzyme that catalyses the desulfurisation of organic compounds in soil. ARS activity was inhibited by the solo biochar amendment (Fig. 1M) putatively by the same mechanism as Phos, i.e. by sorption and superficial immobilisation. On the other hand, the Humac-derived mitigation of the adverse effect of biochar on ARS was observed.

According to Al-Maliki et al. [8], humic substances amendment increases the fresh and dry weight of crops, and has a positive effect on the length of the roots. However, no significant change in any of the determined biomass properties was detected in this study (Fig. 1O–R), a result similar to other previous observations, for example Holatko et al. [54]. NB and AB caused significantly increased lettuce biomass, a result that Carter et al. [70] also observed after biochar addition in their pot experiment. Moreover, many studies (e.g. [71, 72]) detected significantly increased crop yield after biochar application.

In this experiment, we presumed that NB-derived inhibition of microbial respiration and enzyme activities (Phos, ARS) mitigated the reported [73] plant-microbes’ competition for nutrients, especially N. For example, NB + H stimulated microbial abundance, respirations, and Urea activity; however, the surplus of nutrients provided by both amendments was probably not available for the plants to support their growth. On the other hand, the highest biomass values were obtained for the AB variant, and the biochar aging by Humac tea seemed to result in readily utilised available nutrients in the amended soil, leading to an insignificant change in indicators of soil microflora quality. However, the nutrients preserved in the soil were not competed for by microbes, and thus remained available for plants, thereby enhancing the increase of lettuce biomass, as was anticipated and hypothesised.

The first hypothesis predicting that the aging of biochar by humic substances would change the composition of biochar was confirmed. The aging process in a soilless environment led to a significant increase in both C and N content in biochar, which is probably a consequence of humic substances’ sorption on biochar surface.

The second hypothesis predicting that the application of aged biochar would enhance soil biochemical activities and plant growth more than only co-application of humic substances and biochar was partly confirmed; however, only in case of plant biomass. The values of dry AGB and root biomass reached by the AB variant were approximately twice as high as the control, H and NB + H.

The last two hypotheses predicting that the co-application of humic substances and biochar would improve soil biochemical activities and plant growth more than the application of each amendment solely, and would mitigate the negative priming effect of biochar were also partly confirmed. The highest values of MBC, basal, and all substrate-induced respirations were observed for the NB + H variant. It clearly contrasts with the lowest values of DHA, MBC, basal, and all substrate-induced respirations and all enzymatic activities (except urease) obtained after NB addition. Therefore, it can be concluded that the co-application of humic substances and biochar could enhance amount of soil microorganism (MBC) and their viability, represented by DHA and respirations activities. However, the negative effect of biochar on enzymatic activities was stronger than the positive effect of humic substances. Thus, the co-application of humic substances and biochar did not show complete mitigation of adverse effect on these parameters (only in the case of arylsulfatase and β-glucosidase).

Based on this study, the positive effect of co-application of humic substances and biochar on soil fertility, quality, and health can be concluded. The possibility of biochar aging by humic solution requires further study.

The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Aged biochar

Aboveground biomass

Respiration induced by l-alanine

Respiration induced by l-arginine


Basal respiration

Dehydrogenase activity

Respiration induced by d-glucose



Respiration induced by l-lysine

Microbial biomass carbon


Respiration induced by N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine

Non-activated biochar

Principal component analysis


Standard deviation

Substrate-induced respiration

Soil organic matter

Respiration induced by d-trehalose


Not applicable.

This research has been financially supported by the project of Technology Agency of the Czech Republic TH03030319: “Promoting the functional diversity of soil organisms by applying classical and modified stable organic matter while preserving the soil’s production properties” and by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the project FCH-S-21-7398.

TH was involved in conceptualisation, formal analysis, investigation, writing—original draft; JH, VP, DH, MR and MK were involved in writing—review and editing, resources; OL, AK, MZG and SM were involved in writing—review and editing, MN and NA data curation, resources; TB was involved in data curation and visualisation; MB was involved in project administration, supervision, conceptualisation, writing—review and editing, investigation and validation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Martin Brtnicky.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Received: 14 March 2021

Accepted: 21 July 2021

Published: 08 September 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40538-021-00242-7

Preparation and Performance of Structure Controllable Biochar Obtained From Cattail …

8 September, 2021

Biochar obtained from cattail-sludge composites (BC/CS) was treated as a raw material, with monopotassium phosphate and ammonium chloride solution as absorbents, to find the best parameters for the preparation of structure controllable biochar (BC/SC). Slow pyrolysis and single factor experiment method were employed in the preparation of BC/CS and BC/SC, with EA, BET and SEM to illustrate the performance of BC/SC. The results showed that the best parameters for BC/CS were characterized by a ratio of cattail-sludge composites (60:40, wt%), a charring temperature of 500℃, a charring time of 0.5 hrs, KOH as an activator, an immersion ratio of 4 mL·g-1, an activation concentration of 300 g·L-1 and an immersion time of 6 hrs; the best parameters for BC/SC contained a sizing amount of 60%, a molding pressure, temperature and time of 5 N (cm2)-1, 160℃, and 95 min, respectively; compared to BC/CS, BC/SC was characterized by a higher content of H but a lower O content, leading to the increase in its hydrophobicity and stability; in addition, the addition of polyethylene enabled an increase in the pore diameter of BC/SC and a close bond with particles on the surface. Meanwhile, in BC/SC, the surface functional groups of CH3 and C—O—C were reduced in their contents, in contrast to a large amount of C crystals on its surface. Such results could provide a new process for resource recycling of cattail and sludge, as well as evidence for material selection in the treatment of eutrophication water bodies.

No competing interests reported.


On 02 Sep, 2021

On 02 Sep, 2021

On 27 Aug, 2021

On 02 Sep, 2021

On 02 Sep, 2021

On 27 Aug, 2021

Biochar obtained from cattail-sludge composites (BC/CS) was treated as a raw material, with monopotassium phosphate and ammonium chloride solution as absorbents, to find the best parameters for the preparation of structure controllable biochar (BC/SC). Slow pyrolysis and single factor experiment method were employed in the preparation of BC/CS and BC/SC, with EA, BET and SEM to illustrate the performance of BC/SC. The results showed that the best parameters for BC/CS were characterized by a ratio of cattail-sludge composites (60:40, wt%), a charring temperature of 500℃, a charring time of 0.5 hrs, KOH as an activator, an immersion ratio of 4 mL·g-1, an activation concentration of 300 g·L-1 and an immersion time of 6 hrs; the best parameters for BC/SC contained a sizing amount of 60%, a molding pressure, temperature and time of 5 N (cm2)-1, 160℃, and 95 min, respectively; compared to BC/CS, BC/SC was characterized by a higher content of H but a lower O content, leading to the increase in its hydrophobicity and stability; in addition, the addition of polyethylene enabled an increase in the pore diameter of BC/SC and a close bond with particles on the surface. Meanwhile, in BC/SC, the surface functional groups of CH3 and C—O—C were reduced in their contents, in contrast to a large amount of C crystals on its surface. Such results could provide a new process for resource recycling of cattail and sludge, as well as evidence for material selection in the treatment of eutrophication water bodies.


Box 97: Letters to the editor – Methow Valley News

8 September, 2021

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Pyrolysis to be Highly Sought-After Technology for Biochar Production Through 2029 – Digital Journal

8 September, 2021



The recently published market study by Fact.MR highlights the current trends that are expected to influence the dynamics of the Biochar Market in the upcoming years. The report introspects the supply chain, cost structure, and recent developments pertaining to the Biochar Market in the report and the impact of the COVID-19 on these facets of the market. Further, the micro and macro-economic factors that are likely to impact the growth of the Biochar Market are thoroughly studied in the presented market study.

For detailed insights on enhancing your product footprint, request for a sample here – https://www.factmr.com/connectus/sample?flag=S&rep_id=3781

A recent market intelligence on the biochar landscape tracks the global scanerio of biochar market. The report indicates that sales of biochar equaled 1,800 tons in 2018, which are likely to see an impressive 13% Y-o-Y rise by the end of 2019. Other than the high sustainability quotient and carbon negative peculiarity of biochar, the sales will remain highly influenced by its potential applicability in water filtration, stormwater management, and green infrastructure practices.

Increasing awareness about the application of biochar in soil as a viable substitute for traditional forms of mineral amendments and the ability to strengthen the ecological aspects of bioenergy engineering, are upholding the gains in market. The multifunctional positive impacts of biochar solidifying its position in the strategy to eradicate CO2 from the atmosphere is garnering substantial prominence in the market. Moreover, while growing consideration of its potential to assist the climate change mitigation will remain the strong booster to a progressing sales scenario in coming years.

The study opines that growing applications of biochar in greenhouse gas (GHG) remediation and waste management will continue to bolster the growth prospects of the market. Moreover, rising awareness about biochar and its role in improving plant growth has been fostering its adoption in farming, which is underpinning thr growth of market.

For critical insights on this market, request for methodology here – https://www.factmr.com/connectus/sample?flag=RM&rep_id=3781

As per the study, use of biochar in farming has increased significantly in the recent years, accounting for 1,251 tons of sales in 2018. This falls in line with the plethora of benefits of using biochar in farming, such as enhanced soil fertility, and consequent increase in crop yields. Biochar has also garnered substantial traction as a fertilizer to improve the water retention capacity, aeration and soil tilth. Companies are eying the lucrativeness of biochar in aiding carbon sequestration to march forward in the biochar market. These are the key determinants that are positively impacting the growth prospects of the biochar market.

Sales of biochar will pick pace in the forthcoming years, owing to growing awareness about its potential role in alleviating climate change. This falls in line with the presence of carbon in raw biomass, which would otherwise degrade to the greenhouse gases and get sequester in the soil for several years. The study indicates that as growing ongoing research and development activities are investigating potential applications of biochar, such as filtration and super capacitors, sales are likely to grow significantly through 2029.

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Pyrolyzed Biochar Accounts for 80% Shares in Revenues

According to the Fact.MR study, pyrolysis will continue to remain highly sought-after technology for biochar production. The market has witnessed sales of 1,577 tons of pyrolyzed biochar in 2018, and as per the study, it is highly likely to register ~13% Y-o-Y growth in 2019. Use of pyrolysis technology for biochar production will continue to grow, as it produces rich in carbon content and highly stable yield. Pyrolysis technology is widely used by several market players, including Earth Systems and Clean Fuels B.V. for high-yield production of biochar market. Organic waste-based biochar and its role in improving biomass production by enhancing the soil fertility and contaminant remediation, is projected to be a key determinant that will drive demand in the forthcoming years.

Fact.MR’s analysis presents a long-term outlook of the biochar market for the time frame 2019 to 2029. The biochar market is envisaged to register a volume CAGR of ~13% through 2029.

Read More Trending and Similar Reports from Fact.MR – https://www.globenewswire.com/en/news-release/2020/03/17/2001947/0/en/Sales-of-Automotive-Wrap-Films-to-Expand-6X-Between-2019-and-2029-MEA-Poised-to-Turn-Highly-Lucrative-Forecasts-a-New-Fact-MR-Report.html

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Biochar ambassadors hope to save Washington's fire-ravaged Methow: SeattleWA – Reddit

8 September, 2021

Staff Publications – Library – WUR

9 September, 2021

'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

We have a manual that explains all the features 

Biochar as a novel carbon-negative electron source and mediator – ScienceDirect.com

9 September, 2021

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Youtube biochar inoculation

10 September, 2021

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James, J. (2019) The world premiere of the Enablers of Change podcast and YouTube channel for extension professionals. In: 2019 Australasia-Pacific Extension Network Conference – APEN Conference – Extending Horizons, 12 – 13 September, 2019, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Chris Farmer speaks at the Western North Carolina Mother Earth News Fair on the exciting topic of creating a biochar cookstove that can produce high quality charcoal for inoculation and inclusion in gardens/farms. Learn the basics of how a biochar cookstove works and how you can put one together …

4/ago/2017 – Evidence that ancient farms had very different origins than previously thought – Ars Technica Jun 22, 2019 · The application of Si sources into As contaminated paddy soils may limit As(III) uptake. The supplementation of redox-sensitive elements (i.e. Fe and Mn) and the incorporation of biochar (BC) may also immobilize As in the paddy environment. Inoculation of microorganisms is another in-situ method to reduce As in rice grains. Inoculation is the process by which you introduce bacteria into liquid media. Learn various methods of inoculating media, such as using an inoculating needle, inoculating plates, and tubes.

UNG senior wins third place in research symposium – The Newnan Times-Herald

10 September, 2021

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UNG senior Bailey Bullard tied for third place in the physical sciences and engineering category at Mississippi State University's recent Summer Undergraduate Research Symposium. She is a senior pursuing a degree in chemistry.

Bailey Bullard of Sharpsburg recently was recognized for her work during a summer research symposium.

For two summers in a row, the University of North Georgia student has been accepted into a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates, including her most recent one at Mississippi State University.

Bullard, a senior pursuing a degree in chemistry, tied for third place in the physical sciences and engineering category at Mississippi State’s Summer Undergraduate Research Symposium. She was one of 11 students to receive top honors out of 113 submissions, which were faculty-guided research projects at Mississippi’s leading research university.

“A lot of great projects at the symposium were about the material I had been studying for the summer, so I was surprised to have stood out at all,” Bullard said. “I was extremely shocked that I tied for third. It felt amazing to be recognized for the work that I had put into the project this summer.”

Bullard worked on the production and testing of engineered biochar for the removal of phosphorus from stormwater runoff. Biochar is carbon-rich char left behind from burning elements under high temperatures and low oxygen levels. For Bullard’s project, Douglas fir wood chips were burned and treated to absorb and retain phosphates.

“I thoroughly loved the project that I got to work on,” she said. “During the program, I was exposed to what applied research looks like. It taught me how to ask better questions, how to better analyze data and how to improve my lab skills.”

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New functional biochar composite material helps in wastewater treatment – Fuentitech

11 September, 2021

Diagram of FBC manufacturing process and mechanism. Credit: GAO Yujie

A team led by Professor Wu Zhengyan of the Institute of Hefei Physical Sciences at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) recently produced a new functional biochar composite material (FBC) using two solid wastes (red mud and corn straw). And utilized them in acidity. Dye wastewater treatment.Related results published in Cleaner Production Journal..

Red mud is a bauxite residue produced by the Bayer process of the aluminum industry. Over 2 billion tonnes of red mud accumulated randomly around the world, causing waste of land resources and serious environmental pollution.corn straw Is a normal agricultural solid waste that generates more than 200 million tons per year in China. The development of solid waste is the best way to dispose of it.

In recent years, many methods of using red mud and red mud have been developed. corn Although straw, these methods are widely advertised and not used. Therefore, we need to create a new way to reuse red mud and corn straw.

In this work, FBC was produced by co-pyrolysis of red mud and corn straw and used for wastewater treatment of acid dyes.

According to researchers, FBC shows excellent neutralization performance because it contains alkaline substances (mainly calcium oxide CaO), and its ability to adsorb to acid dyes is high. High surface area.. In addition, FBC contains zero-valent iron, which can be collected by magnets.

This work provides an efficient approach for reuse waste Acid dye New technology for wastewater treatment.

Fire it to sustainably utilize the usefulness of cow dung

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Quote: The new functional biochar composite is wastewater obtained from https://phys.org/news/2021-09-functional-biochar-composites-wastewater.html on September 10, 2021 (September 2021). 10 days) useful for processing

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https://phys.org/news/2021-09-functional-biochar-composites-wastewater.html New functional biochar composite material helps in wastewater treatment

Biochar ageing in polluted soils and trace elements immobilisation in a 2-year field experiment

11 September, 2021

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Details about Impact of bio-char and tar of sugarcane bagasse in plant growth by Bharati… – eBay

12 September, 2021

Impact of bio-char and tar of sugarcane bagasse in plant growth by Bharati...

The team of academician Zhu Lizhong of Zhejiang University: Biochar

12 September, 2021

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In-situ mgmt, mulching effective for managing paddy straw – Tribune India

13 September, 2021


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Govt must ease adoption of new tech by removing socio-economic barriers, invest in agriculture R&D, say residents


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Updated At: Sep 13, 2021 07:13 AM (IST)

The government should educate farmers on the pernicious consequences of stubble burning rather than imposing huge fines on them or creating rigid statutory policies.

What should the government do to stop farmers from burning paddy stubble?

Make provision for effective machinery

That India is said to be the most polluted country in the world has raised a grave public concern. Every winter, thick clouds of toxic smog engulf Delhi and its surrounding areas. According to the recent American research group report, the alarming rise in the air quality index (AQI) in the wake of ongoing Covid pandemic will cause serious respiratory infection to residents and reduce life expectancy by nine years. Brazenly ignoring other reasons, the hard pressed farmers of Punjab, Haryana and UP are squarely blamed for this. With stress on increased agriculture production and the use of new technology machinery, a voluminous quantity of crop residue is generated each year. Just like China, Australia and many western countries, the National Green Tribunal and the apex court in India have prohibited stubble burning. But despite that, a vast majority of farmers resort to the traditional practice of stubble burning due to lack of labour, time and financial resources to prepare their fields for sowing wheat or potato. The parties in power are normally reluctant to strictly penalise the erring farmers because they are a strong vote bank. It is time to recognise the economic value of crop residue and convert it into the renewable energy, biochar, manure, paper and cardboard, biodegradable cutlery, packing material, etc. The government should make provision for sufficient affordable machinery such as reapers, rotavators, bailers and happy seeders, and enhance subsidies for their purchase. Moreover, farmers should be duly incentivised for growing crops that do not guzzle water. Let the governments at the Centre and in states, social and religious groups and non-government organisations make concerted efforts to take the discourse about field fires and worsening atmospheric pollution to its logical end.

Tajpreet S Kang

Educate farmers, don’t impose fines

It is better to educate farmers and highlight the demerits of stubble burning to them rather than imposing fines. The Punjab economy is based on agriculture and it is the only state which fulfilled the target of wheat for the whole country in the post-Partition era. It is the only state where the farmers yielded bumper crops to fulfill the needs of the whole of the country. Stubble burning pollutes environment and those who are allergic to respiratory diseases are always at the receiving end. As in India, the Health Department even though gives free medicine to the patients suffering from Tuberculosis (TB), some are allergic to asthma, bronchitis in the change of season or during the winters. It is up to farmers to take steps to tackle air pollution caused by stubble burning. The Union Government should give compensation to farmers and find alternative ways to deal with the stubble. Safety saves and educating farmers about the negative effects of stubble burning will certainly yield more effective results rather than imposing fines.

Rajat Kumar Mohindru

Expensive machines to blame for this mess

It’s true but unfortunate that out of the 10 most polluted cities in the world, nearly half are in India. Industries, construction works and motor vehicles are the biggest polluters. During the lockdown and curfew last year, air was so clear that mountains could be seen from the distant planes of Jalandhar. No doubt, the coming harvesting season of paddy will cause much pollution resulting in respiratory and other health problems such as hypertension and heart diseases. As per the WHO figures, India has the highest number of deaths because of air pollution. The stubble burning is not the choice of farmers but a compulsion. More than 85% farmers have land holdings less than two hectares. As such they can’t afford the costly machinery such as happy seeder and others to avoid stubble burning. The onus clearly lies on the government to subsidise the farmers so that they can use these machines in their fields to mow the stubble into their fields which can be used as manure for subsequent crops. Farmers should also be encouraged to exit from the shackles of wheat-paddy cycle to indulge in cash crops such as pulses and horticulture. People would be well advised to use masks in those days and also to stay indoors as much as possible.

Dr JS Wadhwa

Provide interest-free loans to farmers

Stubble burning is a practice of intentionally setting fire to stubble, which is a crop residue. The government tried to restrict and ban the practice by imposing fine but it continued to go on for years. After Covid, most of the people have been suffering from breathing problems. The respiratory system is affected and aged people are at a higher risk. After the stubble burning, air quality and air pollution levels are bound to increase and the air quality is likely to fall. The government should keep a check and a strong vigil. First of all they should ask companies to modify the combine harvesters to tackle the issue. Provide interest-free loan to the farmers to buy combines as the economic conditions of them doesn’t allow them to use expensive methods to clear the field. Educate the farmers about the consequences because they themselves will suffer first convince them to understand the gravity of the situation and accept the alternate method to use stubble as fodder and fuel.


Rope in NGOs and cooperative societies

The unabated practice of stubble burning by the farmers in the Northern India is a serious challenge that needs to be tackled by the government, especially in view of the ongoing farmers’ agitation against the recently enacted farm laws. The air quality index is worsening and it is a serious threat to the ongoing crusade against new variants relating to Covid-19 pandemic. Though the government has enacted laws and taken various measures to prevent the menace but the reports indicate that the incidence of stubble burning has increased substantially in spite of massive funds having been spent on subsidising the machinery to be used for prevention of burning the crop-residues. Even legal measures taken under the law could not bear the desired results. It is now proved that neither the subsidised regime nor the coercive measures could stop the farmers from burning straw. Under such a scenario, the strategy has to be urgently reviewed and reformulated to tackle the menace without losing time. The government needs to be proactive in taking both on-site and off-site measures with the help of NGOs and the farmers’ cooperatives. On-site measures include making available turbo happy seeder (THS) machines, enabling uprooting the stubble and simultaneously sowing the seeds for next crop, making the stubble as mulch for the field. Off-site initiative includes providing Pusa bio-decomposer for turning crop residue to manure. Another major off-site step is installing machinery for processing stubble into bio-fuels and bio-gas for which a cluster of five to six villages can be demarcated to procure the stubble from the farmers in exchange for energy and products to be created through biomass processing power technology.

Jagdish Chander

Need to Adopt in-situ, ex-situ approach

Sadly, the farmers of Punjab and Haryana, who spearheaded the Green Revolution and replenished the country’s granary, are in the dock again for causing acute air pollution in the Delhi-NCR region that severely impacts human health and environment. Factors such as the use of insecticides, industrial waste, deforestation, disposal of garbage in the open, construction activities, dust, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and incineration, stubble burning, undoubtedly, contributes to the ever-declining air quality index but to a smaller degree. The poor and the marginalised farmers have neither the capacity nor the means to afford mechanical clearing of their fields for the next crop. Instead of imposing heavy fines on defaulters, there is an urgent need to understand the problems and compulsions of people actively involved in farm activities. The central and state governments, political parties, NGOs, religious bodies and civil society organisations should collectively run massive awareness campaigns against the ill-effects of stubble burning on soil and for farmers’ technical and economic empowerment. Crop residue is not a waste commodity; it is a wealthy asset which can be put to maximum use through proper in-situ and ex-situ stubble management under various schemes launched by the government. Besides producing renewable energy, making cattle feed, compost manure, paper, pulp, packing material and mushroom cultivation, farmers should be provided environment-friendly machinery at affordable rates. Because of their flawed implementation, various governmental initiatives have failed to achieve the desired results. All stakeholders, including farmers, industrialists and the general public, should realise that contaminated air can aggravate the spread of Covid-19 pandemic and take remedial measures to improve the quality of life and safety of citizens.

D S Kang

Need to find viable alternatives

Nature has bestowed us with several resources in a pure form to lead a smooth and superior life, but we go on exploiting these gifts recklessly. Although the causes of desecration of environment are many, yet the burning of crops residue in the fields is much in debate for the past few years. In fact, in the process of producing more food grains, there is also a colossal increase in bio-mass residue left in the fields upon harvest. Owing to brisk cropping cycle and lack of efficient bio-waste management, the farmers have to take extreme steps for readying the soil for the transplantation of next crop. Earlier, the stubble was grossly consumed for the manufacture of card-board, packaging material, as household fuel and cattle feeder etc but now-a-days it is used quite less as other variants have replaced it. Undoubtedly, pollution is a substantial hazard disturbing the ecological balances. During the winter season, when the pollution index is phenomenally high, it gives an abnormal rise to chronic diseases such as lung infections and other respiratory complications. NGT and SPCBs have taken several steps to protect environment, but the problem goes on escalating year-by-year. It is, therefore our solemn responsibility to be extra conscious to counter the menace and impending climate changes. Emphasising the significance of these natural resources, Gurbani exhorts human beings to accord utmost respect to it as: “Pawan guru, pani pita, mata dharat mahat”. Having known that survival is impossible without these gifts of nature, each one of us must make all out efforts to sustain them for present and future generations. Amid the measures to check pollution, the government ought to proactively chalk out a farmer-friendly plan for the suitable use of agricultural organic residue. The farmers can be placated through persuasion and incentivising them, instead of ordering heavy fines or curb farm-fires.

Nirmaljit Singh Chatrath

Wrong practice, don’t blame farmers alone

Air Quality Index (AQI) goes from bad to worse during festivities beginning from Dasehra and Diwali. So, why hue and cry when farming community burn their stubble? It does not mean I support them in this otherwise unwanted practice. The moot point is we all should play our role with responsibility and maturity for the betterment of our environment which consequently would gift us with clean and hygienic air making us live peacefully and harmoniously. At the same time, the farming community needs to be encouraged to adopt innovative ideas and ways to curb down the burning of stubble. First and foremost, hay banks should be set up. Instead of burning hay, it can be mixed and melded in the ground and left for some days to absorb sunlight and moisture in a natural way before sowing seeds for the next crop. The farmers should be given incentives and rewards, including public recognition for taking up progressive farming. There should be deterrence for the culprits belonging to every strata. Farmers should be given their due for which they have been struggling for decades. There is no need of corporate intervention in the agricultural sector. In addition, farm fairs should be organised where different farmers can share their diverse experiences educating one another for the benefit of all and sundry. Any activity which worsens the AQI, should be taken seriously and dealt with sternly.

Simranjeet Singh Saini

Educate farmers on bad effects of stubble burning


The poor condition of city roads has not only been causing great hardships to commuters but also leading to accidents on a daily basis. The authorities have turned a blind eye to the inconvenience faced by the public. What should be done to improve the condition of roads?

Suggestions in not more than 200 words can be sent to jalandhardesk@tribunemail.com by Thursday (September 16)


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Humichar for sale

13 September, 2021

humichar for sale $83. Clothing Sets We recommend 24-0-6 Flagship (with 3% Iron) and Bio-Nite™ – Granular Lawn Fertilizer as a replacement. All bulk shipments of our super sack will be shipped by Freight. For use on lawns, flowers, shrubs, vegetables and trees. Was Save. com. Get it as soon as Wed, Aug 18. The Andersons HumiChar Organic Soil Amendment with Humic Acid and Biochar – Covers up to 40,000 sq ft (40 lb) $386. Sep 03, 2021 · Can be used on ANY TYPE GRASS. Products. Landscapers Supply is the Upstate’s largest locally owned commercial lawn equipment and landscape materials provider. These humic acid-based soil amendments are designed to reduce the effect of the environmental stresses of water, temperature and soil conditions on crops. I believe in their products thus far. GroundWork Pensacola Bahia Grass Seed, 25 lb. Natural Guard HuMic Granular Humic Acid is a soil amendment for Vegetables Gardens, Flowerbeds, Indoor Plants and Compost Bins. Clothing Sets Description Super Humic Acid for Plants – Concentrated Organic Matter. Will be available on Amazon late Feb 2020 . Turf & Specialty Group is pleased to announce that Humic DG is now available to customers in the Canadian turf, agriculture and horticulture markets. 28/ea. $76. HumiChar is available in pallet quantities – There are 35 bags per pallet. Clothing Sets TM HCU (Humic Coated Urea) granules are an innovative nitrogen source featuring urea-humate fusion. Jul 29, 2019 · i haven't used HumiChar so I cant comment on that. Green Man Char – Sustainably Produced. 20 Count Brown Cedar Wood Wooden Lined Cigar Humidor . Create SUPER COMPOST for Amazing Garden Soil in Only 7 Days, or use on TURF to add carbon and natural organic matter. Our products are a group of humic acid-based soil amendments designed to reduce the effect of the environmental stresses of water, temperature and soil conditions on crops. Humic Acid encourages root development. Local Ads. Humic acid is a basic product for natural gardening enthusiasts who want to build the quality and structure of the soil without chemical fertilizers. Well-timed fertilizer applications not only feed your grass to help it grow thick and lush, but also give weeds less room to grow. 5 Gallon Pail Liquid HuMate 12% Humic Acid is like concentrated compost in a bottle. -Barbara and Greg Housh. Our sales team, service repair centers and parts departments are staffed with knowledgeable employees focusing on customer service. This is a 5-Gallon Jug. kansas city farm & garden – craigslist FLYGRUBS – Sturdy box with resealable bag: customers enjoy full size grubs instead of broken worms. SKU: 686148899. Contains more iron for a deeper green. 99 ($13. HumiChar™ is 100% pet and child safe. Somehow it was forgotten from our culture but Wakefield Biochar is proud to bring it back. All of these treatments can be put down the same day and in fact they work well . Item Information. 348 likes · 8 talking about this. Jul 09, 2021 · The Andersons HumiChar Organic Soil Amendment with Humic Acid and Biochar – Covers up to 40,000 sq ft (40 lb) Features: HumiChar is an organic, carbon-based soil amendment containing 50% high-quality humic acid and 50% granulated biochar — Provides the benefit of quickly-available humic acid and the long-term soil building qualities of the biochar that lasts for decades One-Pieces, Overalls & Jum… Uniforms. 88. Product Title. How to apply Humichar. You no longer need to use fertilizers or any other additives to have amazing results. 00. Humic acid one of the primary bio-stimulants used to improve overall soil health. SKU: fa7cdfad1a5a. Around the time you put out your EARLY granular pre-emergent, also apply a treatment of HUMICHAR™ and a treatment of 10-10-10 cheap fertilizer. 27 $ 386. Complete the form below, and we’ll put you in touch with a dealer near you! Environmental Applications. Free In Store Pickup. For summer application on cool season grasses apply at a 75 – 50% rate. In this video I show you how to apply Humichar and talk about my plans for how I will use Humichar in my lawn program going forward. DirtBooster ™ creates SUPER POWERFUL, NATURAL, NUTRIENT RICH, compost that is then added to your gardens. (706) 335-0090. com Use Ironite for grass, flowers, vegetables with all soil types. This proprietary technology from The Andersons produces Land For Sale and Building Sites Rural 3-150 acres $0 (cbd > Herod, IL ) . Silica Blast reinforces and enhances plant tissues leading to bigger harvests, increased fruit quality, and higher . Take a look at the map below. The perfect temp for biochar production. The recommended application rate for 24-0-4 CX DIY is 3 lbs/1,000 sq ft. Mar 20, 2014 · Typically separated from humic matter by alkaline extraction. From our income, we invest heavily in research and development to contribute to a better understanding of how biochar can improve our soils and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Humic12 by Greene Country Fertilizer Co is 12% humic acid. The results are amazing. Product Rating is 3. Sep 02, 2021 · New For 2020 Season HUMICHAR™. 99/Fl Oz) $12. House Plant blend Trident's Pride 16 oz. The biochar used is at least 70% pure carbon. May 25, 2021 · Not for sale in California, Oregon and South Dakota HUMICHAR is a 50/50 mix of Humic Acid and Biochar which is then pelletized into DG granules for easy and clean distribution. TurfVantage Humic LC Soil Conditioner should be used as part of turf and landscape care programs. Turf Builder 50. A full lawn treatment including HUMICHAR lawn biochar, PGF Complete fertilizer, organic lawn fertilizer (organic matter), and Super Juice lawn spray. Besides charcoal, it contains abundant pottery shards, plant residues . Humichar. Rich soils and composts contain large amounts of humus. 00 -. Dirt Booster. Jul 19, 2021 · The compacted, hardpan dirt in my first yard was a despicable pass for soil. Shop REVIVE Organic Soil Treatment Granules 25-lb Improves Soil Structure in the Soil Amendments department at Lowe's. It can be applied in a 14-2-4 ratio for a full acre of lawn, or use . Silica Blast. 1). It has a high concentration of trace minerals and organic acids, specifically humic acid, which improves the plant's ability to take in nutrients. . Super Juice Lawn Fertilizer is the first ALL-IN-ONE, complete, balanced, lawn fertilizer that comes in a dry mix. It is made using The Andersons patented, Dispersible Granule (DG) technology. Commerce GA. Our technology and process is unique. Wether Goat For sale $100 (stl > Union ) pic hide this posting restore restore this posting. HARDSCAPES. Apr 03, 2018 · I would say that if you want humates to go with a product like the Anderson's Humic DG since it is all about pounds on the ground vs the Humic 12. nitrogen per 1,000 sq. Find bulk biochar options with volume discounts on trailer loads. Super Juice can be applied in a 14-2-4 ratio for a full acre of lawn, or most use it at half strength in a 7-1-2 ratio, and it treats two full acres. Can be blended with fertilizers or used alone. This GE Cafe Series 48-inch refrigerator offers control through Alexa, Google Assistant and IFTTT-compatible smart hubs for complete connectivity. Listed as a Registered Supplement by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Humic DG is a dispersing granule humic acid product that provides a full complement . Simply apply to your lawn, water in, and enjoy your lawn. Contact Wakefield Biochar with questions regarding shipping service and estimated delivery. The cured compost is placed in beds in a dark, cool and humid warehouse and then is pasteurized at about 140 degrees to kill any surface disease-causing organisms and pests. “Great treatment before & after the purchase agreement was signed—They always gave me realistic goals and attained them!”. The 12% concentration in this product is much higher than most currently available to DIYers. Nov 18, 2010 · The biochar initiative was inspired by the discovery of ‘terra preta’ (black earth) in the Amazon basin [22, 23], at sites of pre-Columbian settlements (between 450BC and 950AD), made by adding charcoal, bone, and manure to the soil over many, many years (see Fig. More essential nutrients than mealworms: 85x more calcium than meal worms, 36-42% protein, phosphorus, fiber, 25-30% healthy fat, lysine & dietary fat. OMRI organic use certified, HUMICHAR ® is a 50/50 mix of humic acid and HIGH quality biochar. The Andersons Humate Products – Humic DG, Black Gypsum DG, UltraMate LQ and K-Mate SG – represent the next generation of soil health. Green Man Char is a leader in the processing and application of biochar. (5 pounds of fert per 1000 sq feet) So if you have a 10,000 sq foot lawn… put down 50 lbs of 10-10-10. commerce , GA 30529. 2250 homer rd. Plus, we send you cool stickers with every order. Humic acid is a natural trace mineral, carbon, and humic acid based granular soil conditioner that acts as an organic chelator and microbial stimulator. The Andersons HumiChar Organic Soil Amendment with Humic Acid and Biochar 40 lb. 98/ea. Visit the website and learn more about this ground breaking product. Sep 20, 2020 · If you didnít get a soil test to determine how much starter fertilizer for the lawn you should use, Landschoot writes, “Starter fertilizers should be applied at 0. The Andersons, Inc. 59 with Subscribe & Save discount. These are all natural products containing mostly organic matter and carbon. At this application rate: The 45 lbs Bag will cover 15,000 sq ft. One-Pieces, Overalls & Jum… Uniforms. Re: Is Doc on to something with this HUMICHAR product?? Post by adgattoni » Fri Jan 24, 2020 4:13 pm 1,000 square feet 6 inches deep = 500 cubic feet, or 18. Helps grass use nutrients found naturally in the soil. The Air8 seems to help open the pores of the ground a bit for better water intrusion capabilities, and the RGS seems to help stimulate root growth to fill those openings. Simply add to water and using a hose end sprayer apply to your lawn. 5 lb. Great for ALL seasons, spring, summer and fall. It is safe to use on all soil types ranging from light sandy soils to heavy clay soils. USA. LANDSCAPING MATERIALS. I have used other Carbon Earth product with very satisfying results. Feb 19, 2003 · The result is mushroom compost, ready to grow a crop of commercial table mushrooms. of space simple, and climate-controlled drawers and LED lighting ensure it's easy to browse through this kitchen appliance. 7 out of 5 stars 2,017. This critical form of organic matter improves soil structure, aeration, nutrient retention, and provides a haven for beneficial microbes. Humate–the salts of humic acids, collectively, or the salts of humic acid specifically. Revive granules is a Colorado original and was developed to address the specific concern of homeowners who were frustrated at the decline of their lawns during A large ‘super sack’ size bag (2 cubic yards) of Wakefield Premium Biochar is made from pine wood. The 24 lbs Bag will cover 8,000 sq ft. $84. Bulk savings: Buy 1. Humic acid–(singular) the acid radical found in humic matter which is soluble in alkali but insoluble in acid, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl alcohol. Buy 2. This combination of material provides the benefit of the quickly available humic acid, and the long-term soil building qualities of the biochar that will last for decades. Apply every 6-8 weeks during the growing season. ft. Add Silica Blast to your nutrient regimen to prevent issues before they arise. FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. If you are located West of the Mississippi River, please contact Bob Eichenberg at bob_eichenberg@andersonsinc. I will see how it does over this next growing season. With three locations in Madison, Indiana, Crestwood, Kentucky, and Louisville, Kentucky. Andersons’ Sales & Service, Inc. , 266AX0002UC-25. This can improve moisture management, assist in breakdown of organic matter and may enhance nutrient uptake. Agri-Fab 45-0299 48-Inch Tow Plug . Covers up to 10,000 sq ft. has been providing outdoor power equipment to Louisville, Kentucky and Southern Indiana for over 26 years. Super Juice™ lawn fertilizer is the first ALL-IN-ONE, complete, balanced, lawn fertilizer supplement that comes in a dry mix and sprayed on the lawn. com . Humic DG is an organic, carbon-based soil amendment that is highly concentrated and contains 70% fulvic acid, humic acid and humin. The biochar used is created via pyrolysis at temps between 500 & 600 degrees. Standard Delivery Eligible. Humic Acid. $209. The Andersons HumiChar Organic Soil Amendment with Humic Acid and Biochar (40 lb) The Andersons BioChar DG Organic Soil Amendment – Covers up to 15,000 sq ft (30 lb) Dirt Booster All-Natural Super Compost Starter and Soil Amendment – 20 lb. 3. Contains 50% high-quality humic acid and 50% granulated biochar. 519 cubic yards. Jul 27, 2018 · Yes, Doc is now replacing Humic DG with HUMICHAR™ in all his lawn programs. I did pickup a few bags of XSoli to add to my front yard after a sand topdressing for leveling I just did. O ne of the final lawn treatments of the spring and will create a THICK lush green lawn. Sold & shipped by Prime Cigar Humidors. ft. Liquid Fish Fertilizer Trident's Pride 16 oz. FREE Delivery Across Martinique. Side-by-side doors make accessing the 29. The Next Generation of Soil Health. A deep green lawn without excessive growth. In any growing environment there are potential stressors that can affect the growth, health, and stability of plants. Product Image. 16 oz. It has a unique carbon matrix which includes a high concentration of trace minerals and organic acids. $199. Jonathan Greens Love Your Soil® assists in breaking up clay and loosens compacted soils, which improves root penetration, grass growth, and root mass. 5 to 1 lb. FREE Returns. Buy the cheap garden version at any big box store. 7 (55) See price at checkout. HumiChar is an organic, carbon-based soil amendment containing 50% high-quality humic acid and 50% granulated biochar. Premium Organic Humic & Fulvic Acid Conditioner (32oz) – Raw 12% Humic, 2% Fulvic Liquid Carbon Nutrients – Plant Food for Lawn, Soil, Vegetables, Flowers & More. 95. Andersons’ is the premier retailer of lawnmowers, riding mowers, zero-turn mowers, compact utility tractors . howtowithdoc. Humic acid is a natural soil conditioner that acts as an organic chelator and microbial stimulator. Derived from remains of decomposed organic plant materials, humic acids enhance nutrient uptake and stimulate soil microbial life. 7. Clearance. (The usage must be determined from the . 10,000 sq. Sep 05, 2021 · HOME. Feb 13, 2015 · February 13, 2015. There is no odor to the product. 39 with Subscribe & Save discount. Current Price $199. If you are located East of the Mississippi River, please contact John Pope at john_pope . Ideally, you should fertilize your lawn with the right Scotts® Turf Builder® lawn food for your grass type 4 times a year: in early spring, late spring, summer, and fall. Simply add to water and use a hose-end sprayer apply to your lawn. Buy Biochar For Better Soil Health For 100's of years biochar was used to support soil health for crops. Andersons HumiChar Organic Soil Amendment with Humic Acid and Biochar $30 . HUMICHAR™ is Doc’s TOP PICK for the 2020 New Product Awards, HUMICHAR™ is a 50/50 blend of SUPER high quality organic humic acid and biochar which is then formed into tiny DG particles that disburse in roughly 15 seconds after water is applied. HumiChar is an organic, carbon-based soil amendment. can burn the young turf and result in poor establishment. 88 $ 84. www. This type of biochar is used in soaps, oral treatments, etc… and can actually be eaten. HUMICHAR. The Andersons HumiChar Organic Soil Amendment with Humic Acid and Biochar (40 lb) 4. Then apply the HUMICHAR™ at the bag rate. Triple Action Lawn Fertilizer Scotts Turf Builder Triple Action provides Scotts Turf Builder Triple Action provides three benefits in one bag; it kills weeds, including dandelions and clover, prevents future weeds like crabgrass and other grassy weeds, all while feeding and strengthening your lawn. Description. My Tractor Supply store. com/humichar-application/ Doc shows you how Humichar is used, how it helps your soil and spreade. One 18 lb bag of PGF Complete Fall Fertilizer covers 5000 sq ft of lawn. Condition: New. Amounts in excess of 1. Baton Rouge Real Estate, Walker Homes, South Baton Rouge Investment Property – The Gaspard Team. Lawn Care Products Humichar Biochar and Humic Acid blend for lawns and gardens. The N-Ext Humic12™ Liquid Humic Acid product is an excellent addition to any fertilizer program for correcting soil issues. Provides the benefit of quickly-available humic acid and the long-term soil building qualities of the biochar that lasts for decades. HumiChar is a uniform granule which utilizes The Andersons proprietary dispersible granule (DG) technology. Because hard and compacted soil is often the problem when it comes to growing a great lawn, this product is designed to help release nutrients trapped in the soil for premium grass growth. 27. The builders scraped off the topsoil when they built the home in 1955, and after the clay subsoil was nice and compacted by construction machinery, they placed sod right on top of it. Feedings should be spaced 6 to 8 weeks apart. Humichar™ is made from wood biochar. 6 cu. You can find Humichar her. Make My TSC Store. From Texas A&M… Apr 14, 2020 · How to Apply Humichar. Upon contact with water, each Humic DG granule disperses into thousands of micro particles that move directly into the root zone and . Most soils contain “tied up” nutrients that need to be made accessible to plants in order to optimize both growth and yield. Our “Long Brew” technique uses high quality oxidized lignite, and allows for a cleaner, more flowable product with enhanced biological activity. 30 lb. See full list on homedepot. Liquid Humate Humic Acid. The process of N-Ext Humic12 ™ stands out against the competition. A Highly concentrated soil conditioner. 2 lb. Workers then inoculate the compost with mushroom spawn, or mycelium. House Plant blend of 100% Fish Fertilizer with nutrients that all soils and plants require for rapid, dynamic and optimal growth in place of chemical fertilizers. Clothing Sets Buy The Andersons HumiChar Organic Soil Amendment with Humic Acid and Biochar – Covers up to 40,000 sq ft (40 lb) at Desertcart. MORE INFO → https://www. humichar for sale

Biochar ambassadors hope to save fire-ravaged Methow – Opera News – Daily Advent

14 September, 2021

The economic landscape A research pyrolysis processor (Courtesy of C6 Forest to Farm) Photo Gallery Tom McCoy hopes to soon produce 6,000 to 7,500 tons of biochar per year, “a football field 20–30 feet deep.” The next step would be to determine how to utilize and sell the biochar. After research on terra preta…

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Exploring Efficiency of Biochar in Enhancing Water Retention in Soils with Varying Grain …

15 September, 2021

Recently, incentives have been provided in many countries, including Canada and Denmark, to produce biochar for construction usage. This is done because biochar is carbon negative and can help achieve the emission reduction goal of 2030. This technical note aims to analyze the efficiency of biochar in soils with varying grain size distribution for enhancing water retention capacity (WRC). The combinations of biochar content and grain size distributions corresponding to the maximum and minimum efficiency were explored. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based model for predicting Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC) as a function of soil suction and grain size distribution was developed. A new factor (the ratio of fine (silt + clay) and coarse (sand) content) was proposed for the interpretation of the efficiency of biochar in soils. The newly developed model is able to predict SWCC reasonably well. Biochar amendment is found to influence both dry and wet sides of soils with a clay content lower than threshold content (6–8%). Beyond threshold content, the influence of biochar appears to reduce. However, in the case of high sand content soils (90%), the NWC value on the drier side is generally higher as compared to soils with lower sand content. Based on sensitivity analysis, it was found that the ratio of fine to sand content is the most influential, while biochar content is the least influential.


Recently, incentives have been provided in many countries, including Canada and Denmark, to produce biochar for construction usage. This is done because biochar is carbon negative and can help achieve the emission reduction goal of 2030. This technical note aims to analyze the efficiency of biochar in soils with varying grain size distribution for enhancing water retention capacity (WRC). The combinations of biochar content and grain size distributions corresponding to the maximum and minimum efficiency were explored. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based model for predicting Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC) as a function of soil suction and grain size distribution was developed. A new factor (the ratio of fine (silt + clay) and coarse (sand) content) was proposed for the interpretation of the efficiency of biochar in soils. The newly developed model is able to predict SWCC reasonably well. Biochar amendment is found to influence both dry and wet sides of soils with a clay content lower than threshold content (6–8%). Beyond threshold content, the influence of biochar appears to reduce. However, in the case of high sand content soils (90%), the NWC value on the drier side is generally higher as compared to soils with lower sand content. Based on sensitivity analysis, it was found that the ratio of fine to sand content is the most influential, while biochar content is the least influential.


‪Renel Anderson‬ – ‪Google Scholar‬

15 September, 2021

Preparation and nutrient release kinetics of enriched biochar-based NPK fertilizers and …

16 September, 2021

In present study, two enriched biochar-based fertilizers were prepared having fertilizer grade of 6-6-4 N-P2O5-K2O by intercalation of NPK fertilizers mixture solution as EB-1 and additional humic acid and seaweed extract as EB-2. In laboratory, batch experiment were done to compare nutrients (NH4+, NO3, P and K+) release patterns of developed fertilizers along with conventional fertilizers. Enriched biochar fertilizers (EB) demonstrated much slower release pattern of NH4+, P and K+, however NO3 release was similar over conventional fertilizers. The cumulative release of N in EB fertilizers was similar to conventional fertilizer, however significantly less of P and K were released during the period of 72 hrs. The field response study of enriched fertilizers EB-2 revealed 29.5, 11.5 and 22.9% higher apparent use efficiency than conventional fertilizer. The slow nutrients release behaviour of EB fertilizers implies reduced losses and enhanced NUE as reflected by higher apparent recovery of N, P and K.


In present study, two enriched biochar-based fertilizers were prepared having fertilizer grade of 6-6-4 N-P2O5-K2O by intercalation of NPK fertilizers mixture solution as EB-1 and additional humic acid and seaweed extract as EB-2. In laboratory, batch experiment were done to compare nutrients (NH4+, NO3, P and K+) release patterns of developed fertilizers along with conventional fertilizers. Enriched biochar fertilizers (EB) demonstrated much slower release pattern of NH4+, P and K+, however NO3 release was similar over conventional fertilizers. The cumulative release of N in EB fertilizers was similar to conventional fertilizer, however significantly less of P and K were released during the period of 72 hrs. The field response study of enriched fertilizers EB-2 revealed 29.5, 11.5 and 22.9% higher apparent use efficiency than conventional fertilizer. The slow nutrients release behaviour of EB fertilizers implies reduced losses and enhanced NUE as reflected by higher apparent recovery of N, P and K.



16 September, 2021

About the Events:

Tuesday, March 27th Ord, NE 9am – 4pm
Valley County Fairgrounds
Full day workshop including a biochar overview and learning how to make biochar through a hands on demonstration.

Wednesday, March 28th Lincoln, NE Noon – 1pm
Nebraska East Campus Union, Great Plains Room
Brown bag lunch presentation titled “DIY Biochar: know it; make it; use it.”

Thursday, March 29th Lawrence, KS 8am – noon
Douglas County Fairgrounds
Half day workshop including overview of biochar and learning how to make it through a hands on demonstration

About the Presenter:

Kelpie Wilson of Wilson Biochar Associates has over 30 years’ experience in renewable energy, sustainable forestry, and resource conservation. Since 2008 she has focused on biochar. From 2008-2012 she was employed by the International Biochar Initiative and was responsible for managing a multi-stakeholder process to draft the first international standards and testing guidelines for biochar. She is on the board of the US Biochar Initiative and is a founder and contributing editor to The Biochar Journal.

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Adsorption of uremic toxins using biochar for dialysate regeneration | SpringerLink

16 September, 2021

Numerous studies have shown that patients with COVID-19 have a high incidence of renal dysfunction. However, the dialysis supplies, including dialysates, are also severely inadequate in hospitals at the pandemic centers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop materials that can efficiently and rapidly remove toxins and thus regenerate dialysate to make this vital resource remains readily available. In this work, by simple carbonization and activation treatment, the porous activated carbon from waste rubber seed shell (RAC) was prepared. The adsorption results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of the obtained RAC for creatinine and uric acid were 430 mg/g and 504 mg/g, respectively. Significantly, the adsorption process can be close to the equilibrium state within 0.5 h, which proved the ultra-fast adsorption response capacity of RAC. Further, the thermodynamics analysis results showed that both the creatinine and uric acid adsorption processes were monolayer, exothermic, and spontaneous. The adsorption kinetics results indicated that the adsorption process of the two uremic toxins followed the pseudo-second-order rate model and was dominated by chemisorption. The instrument analysis results reflected the efficient adsorption of the RAC for the above uremic toxins which might be due to the dipole–dipole interaction between the dipolar oxygen-containing groups of the surface of RAC and the dipoles of the toxins. Moreover, the formed hydrogen bonds between the oxygen groups and the toxins also played an important role. In all, the as-prepared RAC has the potential to efficiently remove major toxins from the dialysate and can be used in in vitro dialysis of numerous patients during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

At present, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rampaging around the world, which seriously threatens the survival of mankind. Early studies of patients with COVID-19 have found a high incidence of kidney function abnormalities [1, 2]. Concerningly, in hospitals in the COVID-19 pandemic area, the dialysate is increasingly in short supply, leaving partial patients with renal failure without effective dialysis treatment [3]. Generally, dialysate is stored as a concentrated solution that before use, it needs to be diluted with pure water [4]. Traditionally, hemodialysis treatment requires large, bulky machines to filter blood more than three times weekly and requires at least hundreds of liters of dialysate per treatment [5]. This is one reason why the above treatment can be difficult at home. Luckily, recycling dialysis waste liquid can greatly reduce the consumption of pure water during dialysis treatment and can also make the dialysis equipment smaller and more conducive to family dialysis treatment [6, 7]. Currently, the latest regeneration modular circulating dialysis (REDY) system combines sorbent and enzyme technology to effectively remove creatinine and uric acid from dialysis waste liquid and is the basis of many modern WAK prototypes [8]. The REDY regeneration unit consists of multiple sorbent layers: activated carbon, urease, zirconium phosphate, and finally zirconium oxide and zirconium carbonate to remove organic compounds (e.g., creatinine and uric acid), urea, cations (e.g., potassium, ammonium), and phosphates, respectively [9]. However, the drawbacks to this method include the poor adsorption of activated carbon for creatinine and uric acid and preparation of immobilized urease as well as the high cost of zirconium phosphate [10]. These may limit the ability to provide hemodialysis treatment to large numbers of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, ultra-high adsorption capacity activated carbon should be developed in order for to efficiently remove uremic toxins from the COVID-19 patient.

An activated carbon with higher adsorption capacity, except the task-specific internal structure (e.g., the high surface area, large porosity, and well-developed internal pore structure consisting of micro-, meso-, and macropores) adsorbent, also has some surface functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, carbonyl, and hydroxyl groups) which can significantly link with uremic toxin by dipole–dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding [11,12,13,14]. In order to have the above-mentioned internal structure and surface chemistry of activated carbon, with the process of synthesis to be of uppermost importance. Conventional methods for morphological and structural modulation of activated carbon include physical activation, chemical activation, and physical–chemical activation [15, 16]. During physical activation, large amounts of pores in activated carbon could be obtained only by carbonizing precursors under an inert atmosphere and then followed by activating in the presence of suitable gasifying agents (CO2 or steam) at a high-temperature range of 600–1200 °C [17]. By contrast, chemical activation and physicochemical activation allow relatively mild preparation temperatures (400–800 °C) in the presence of chemical activators (e.g., ZnCl2, KOH, K2CO3, and other molten salts) [18, 19]. The activator etches the precursor to form a 3D carbon skeleton while decomposing the tar and amorphous carbon clogged in the pores to form an abundant pore structure [20]. After the removal of the above-mentioned intercalated metal compounds, further rich micro- and mesoporous structures can be formed. Moreover, the economical operating cost from the use of low-cost adsorbents is a major concern for practical deployment. Thus, there has been a growing interest to produce activated carbon from less expensive abundant and renewable raw materials such as plants and agricultural residues [21]. It is reported that activated carbon has been successfully prepared from various biomass wastes by chemical or physicochemical activation methods, such as coconut shell [22], pine cone [23], orange peel [24], pomegranate peel [25], and rice husk[16], and has good adsorption properties for various inorganic or organic compounds. Meanwhile, the type and nature of raw materials used also affect the structure and surface chemical properties of activated carbon [26]. As a type of precursor for carbon material, rubber seed shell, the by-product in rubber planting industries, is low cost, has high lignin content, has low ash content, and has dense surface morphology, which has enormous application potential in the preparation of adsorbents with high adsorption capacity [27].

Hence, in this study, with the physical–chemical activation method, the rubber seed shell has been converted into activated carbon-based adsorbents for the adsorption of uremic toxin in an aqueous solution. The obtained porous carbon has reasonable pore distribution and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups, which could promote the formation of abundant active sites and facilitates high-level diffusion kinetics and ultra-high adsorption capacity. The results of adsorption experiments indicated that this RAC was envisioned to have excellent performance in adsorbing several typical uremic toxins in aqueous solutions, including creatinine (C4H7N3O) and uric acid (C5H4N4O3) with fast adsorption and ultra-high adsorption capacity. Furthermore, we perform kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic analyses of adsorption to understand the mechanism of adsorption of urea and creatinine uric acid onto RAC. This work expects that this will offer a low-cost adsorbent, enabling the regeneration of dialysate for use in the care of COVID-19 patients with kidney failure.

The rubber seed shell as a by-product of natural rubber harvested came from Xishuangbanna Huakun Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Yunnan, China. Sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, creatinine, and uric acid were purchased from Shanghai Aladdin Biochemical Technology Co., Ltd (China). All the chemicals were directly utilized after purchase without further purification.

The dried rubber seed shell was ground and sieved to mesh between 40 and 60. The dried rubber seed shell powders were carbonized in N2 atmosphere (100 mL/min) at 500 °C for 1 h at a ramp rate 5 °C/min. After cooling down naturally, the rubber seed shell powders (2 g) and KOH (8 g) were sufficiently ground, followed by calcining the mixture in N2 atmosphere (100 mL/min) at 800 °C for 1 h at a ramp rate of 5 °C/min, and then soaking in HNO3 to remove KOH. Subsequently, the RAC mixture was separated by suction filtration and washed with deionized water until the pH value reached 7. Then, it was boiled in 1 M hydrochloric acid and 1 M sodium hydroxide solution four times alternately for 2 h each for reducing the heavy metal content in activated carbon and then washed to neutral with deionized water. Finally, the obtained RAC was dried at 80 °C for 12 h.

Batch experiment studies were carried out by taking 25 mL of the solution with the desired concentration of creatinine or uric acid (100–1200 mg/L) and weight of RAC (0.4 g/L) in 100 mL of brown glass bottle. All the samples were shaken at 200 rpm for 1 ~ 3 h at different temperatures (298.15 K, 308.15 K, and 318.15 K). After adsorption experiments, the suspensions were filtered through 0.22 μm of Nylon membrane. The creatinine and uric acid concentrations after adsorption were measured by UV–Vis spectroscopy (Agilent, UV8453, USA) at 234 and 295 nm, respectively. The removal efficiency and the adsorption capacity could be calculated by the following equations:

where C0 and Ce are the initial and equilibrium concentration of corresponding uremic toxins in the solution (mg/L). m is the dosage of RAC (g) and V is the volume of the uremic toxin-containing solution (L).

In order to ensure that the safety of the medicinal carbon prepared in this study, its quality was tested firstly according to the reference standard was Chinese pharmacopeia (Page 718, Part II, 2015). A total of 11 items were detected, including pH, chloride, sulfate, non-carbide, iron salt, zinc salt, and other heavy metals, acidic-soluble matter, dry weight loss, incineration residue, adhesion, etc., are limited checks.

Using the micromeritics (TriStar-3020, USA) surface area pore size analyzer at 77.3 K, the nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained. The SEM image of the sample was obtained by a high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope from Zeiss (Gemini300, Germany). SEM–EDS was used to analyze the surface elements of RAC. Surface functional group analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Thermo Scientific Nicolet iS50, USA). The X-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku Ultima IV, Japan) was applied for the demonstration of the XRD pattern of the sorbent materials. Using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Thermo Scientific K-Alpha, USA) instrument, the electronic binding energy of the sample was obtained.

Various impurities in adsorbent can be harmful to human health. Therefore, in this work, following the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the quality studies on adsorbent are carried out, including characteristics, identification, examination, dissolution, and content assay, and the results are shown in Table 1. It can be observed that after carbonization, activation, and washing, the chloride and sulfate content of this adsorbent is well below 0.05% and does not lead to cellular osmolarity imbalance and diarrhea problems [28]. Moreover, the contents of iron, zinc, lead, and other heavy metal salts are lower than the limits of impurities in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, indicating that the adsorbent will not cause related diseases, such as liver failure, hypertension, reduced autoimmune function, and delayed development of the central nervous system [29]. Meanwhile, the contents of uncarbonized and dissolved matter in acid also fulfilled the standards of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, indicating that the adsorbent prepared in this study has excellent stability under acid–base conditions [30]. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent prepared in this study was much higher than that prescribed by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In conclusion, all the quality indexes of the activated carbon prepared in this study met the quality requirements of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

Firstly, the raw material (rubber seed shell) and the prepared RAC were analyzed by SEM. As shown in Fig. 1, the rubber seed shell (Fig. 1A) had dense structure, smooth surface, and no obvious holes. However, the prepared RAC shows regular cavity structure and uniform size distribution, as seen in Fig. 1B-D, which indicated that abundant pores were formed in the rubber seed shells after physicochemical activation. According to the literature [31], due to the diffusion of the pyrolysis gases, e.g., H2O, CO, CO2, and CH4, a large number of micropores will be generated. Then, the remaining carbon atoms will be randomly cyclized and condensed to form polycyclic aromatic carbon (PAC) structure or condensed to form graphite microcrystals [32]. Meanwhile, the carbon matrix was etched by KOH to form a three-dimensional porous carbon skeleton [16]. The EDS mapping analysis results of RAC have been described in Fig. 1E-I. The results of EDS showed that the RAC adsorbent contained C (90.57 wt%), O (9.13 wt%), and N (0.3 wt%) elements. The spectra of O atoms directly reflected the existence of abundant oxygen-containing groups, e.g., C = O, –OH, C–O–C, on the carbon skeleton of RAC, which provides abundant active sites for adsorption of creatinine and uric acid [15]. According to the literature, the rubber seed shell raw material contains a toxic compound, i.e., cyanogen glycoside, which can provide elements N after thermal decomposition at high temperature and oxygen-limited atmosphere [33]. However, after the carbon activation treatment, elemental N may be present on the activated carbon in the form of graphitic nitrogen, pyridine nitrogen, or pyrrole nitrogen, which will be further analyzed later [34].

SEM images of raw material (A) and RAC adsorbent (B), (C), (D); EDS mapping analysis area (E), (F), and the elemental mapping of (G) C, (H) O, and (I) N

The reasonable hierarchical structure and pore size distribution of activated carbon facilitated the adsorption of organic micropollutants. As shown in the Fig. 2A, the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms observe type I, indicating the microporosity of the samples with uniform pore sizes [35]. Meanwhile, the Brunner-Emmet-Teller and Horvath-Kawazoe methods have been used to calculate the pore size distributions, and the conclusions are presented in Fig. 2B; the BET specific surface area, pore diameter, and pore volume of RAC were 2348 m2/g, 3.43 nm, and 1.41 m3/g, respectively. Obviously, the plentiful pores of the RAC were mainly distributed at 3 nm, indicating that the RAC possessed a good deal of narrow mesopore and uniform pore diameter distribution. In this work, the effective molecular diameters of the two typical uremic toxins were less than 0.7 nm and also less than 0.5 times the narrow mesoporous diameter [36]. Thus, the above uremic toxin model pollutants could reach almost the inner pores of the RAC. The FTIR spectroscopy was carried out to confirm the surface functional groups of RAC (Fig. 2C). The characteristic absorption peak at 3435 and 1625 cm−1 was attributed to the stretching vibration of the hydroxyl group, carbonyl, and the skeletal vibration of aromatic C = C bonds [37], while the adsorption bands of 2930 and 2853 cm−1 could be attributed to –CH2 and –CH3 groups [38]. These results indicated that the surface of the sample was rich oxygen-containing functional groups, which might form hydrogen bonds with creatinine and uric acid. Meanwhile, the dipole–dipole interaction between the dipoles of the oxygen surface groups and the uremic toxin is also considered to facilitate the adsorption. The XRD patterns showed broad peaks at 23° and 43°, which corresponded to the (002) and (100) crystal plane diffraction peaks of graphite crystallite (Fig. 2D) [39]. In addition, the low intensity and broad peak of RAC indicated that the RAC sample was a porous carbon mixture consisting of microcrystalline graphite and amorphous carbon.

Nitrogen adsorption–desorption (A), pore size distribution (B), FTIR (C), and XRD patterns of RAC (D)

To further analyze the surface chemical composition of RAC, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been employed. As shown in Fig. 3A, the atomic ratio of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in RAC was 92.3%, 0.71%, and 6.99%, respectively. The XPS spectrum of C 1 s is shown in Fig. 3B. The strong peaks at 284.08 eV and 285.03 eV were assigned to the sp2-bonded carbon and sp3-bonded carbon of RAC, respectively. The results indicate that RAC has a graphite-like structure, which is consistent with the XRD analysis results [40]. The peaks at 288.58 eV belonged to -COOH, which can form a hydrogen bond with creatinine and uric acid [38]. The N 1 s spectrum in Fig. 3C could be fitted into the graphitic type of N, indicating that the element N in the RAC is mainly present in the form of graphitic nitrogen [34]. The O 1 s region spectrum is presented in Fig. 3D and shows three distinct peaks centered at 530.88 eV, 532.58 eV, and 532.6 eV, which corresponded to –COOH, C–O–C, and C–OH functional groups, respectively [41, 42]. Moreover, –COOH and –OH functional groups can form hydrogen bonds with creatinine and uric acid.

XPS survey (A) and the high-resolution XPS C 1 s (B), N 1 s (C), and O 1 s (D) spectra of RAC

An adsorption isotherm describes the relationship between the amount of adsorbate (Qe) taken up by the adsorbent and the adsorbate concentration (Ce) remaining in the solution when equilibrium is reached. The parameters determined by adsorption equilibrium models give insight into the adsorption mechanism, surface properties of the adsorbent, and affinity between adsorbent and adsorbate. In this work, the adsorption isotherms of creatinine from 298.15 to 318.15 K were constructed in order to determine the thermodynamic parameters. From Fig. 4A, the maximum adsorption capacity of creatinine at 298.15 K, 308.15 K, and 318.15 K for RAC is 430 mg/g, 393 mg/g, and 377 mg/g, respectively. The increase of adsorption equilibrium capacity was observed with increasing the initial concentration of creatinine solution at all temperatures, suggesting that a high initial concentration provides an important driving force to overcome all mass transfer resistances of adsorbates between the aqueous and solid phases [43]. Table 5 presents a comparison between the maximum uptake capacities (Qm) of various adsorbents reported in the literature and the values obtained in the present work. Surprisingly, compared to other reported absorbents, RAC performed best in the adsorption of creatinine and uric acid, indicating that RAC has showed excellent adsorption performance in adsorption of uremic toxin. In this work, the experimental data were processed with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir and Freundlich formulas were expressed by Eqs. (3) and (4), respectively[44].

Adsorption isotherms of creatinine by RAC at three different temperatures (A); Langmuir and Freundlich model fitting curves (B), (C); kinetics for creatinine adsorption on RAC (D)

In Eqs. (3) and (4), qe (mg/g) and Ce (mg/L) are the adsorption capacity of creatinine by RAC and the concentration of creatinine at equilibrium conditions. KL (L/mg), KF and n represent the Langmuir constant, Freundlich constant, and intensity factor, respectively.

The Langmuir isotherm model was developed on the assumptions that adsorbates are adsorbed at a fixed number of energetically equivalent sites and each site can hold only one adsorbate species [45]. Thus, a monolayer of the adsorbate is formed over the adsorbent surface when it gets saturated and the maximum adsorption capacity is achieved. The Freundlich isotherm model assumes that increasing amounts of adsorbate can be adsorbed on the adsorbent surface via multiple layers as the adsorbate concentration increases, and it is widely used to describe heterogeneous systems [46]. Figure 2-C and D show linear fitting curves of Langmuir and Freundlich model. The isotherm data summarized from the Eqs. (3) and (4) at various temperatures are exhibited in Table 2. A comparison of the data verified that the Langmuir isotherm (R2 > 0.9928) is more appropriate to represent the uptake behavior than the Freundlich isotherm (R2 < 0.9217), indicating the adsorption process of creatinine by RAC is monolayer adsorption. The thermodynamic data are important data to study the changes in the internal energy of adsorption. The ΔGo (standard Gibbs free-energy change), ΔHo (standard enthalpy change), and ΔSo (the standard entropy change) were investigated to predict the adsorption behavior by Eqs. (5) - (7) [47].

In Eqs. (5) and (6), R and T are the ideal gas constant (8.314 J/mol·K) and temperature in Kelvin (K).

In Eq. (7), qe (mg/g) and Ce (mg/L) are the equilibrium adsorption capacity of creatinine of RAC and the equilibrium adsorption concentration of BPA.

The thermodynamic data of RAC adsorption creatinine is showed in Table 3. The value of ΔGo was less than 0 at 298.15 K, 308.15 K, and 318.15 K, indicating that adsorption is spontaneous due to being thermodynamically favorable. With an increase of temperature, the ΔGo value kept increasing, demonstrating that higher temperature hinders the progress of the adsorption process [36]. The ΔHo value less than zero suggested that the adsorption reaction is a natural exothermic process, which further proved that lower temperature was beneficial to the adsorption behavior [39]. Meanwhile, the negative value of ΔSo indicated a shift from a three-dimensional state to a two-dimensional state with a more ordered structure at the solid–liquid interface during the creatinine adsorption process [48].

Calculating the adsorption kinetics provides useful insight into the mass transfer mechanism of the adsorption process. Thus, the experimental data has been analyzed by two conventional kinetic formulas, which included pseudo-first-order model and pseudo-second-order model, to investigate the mechanisms of creatinine adsorption by RAC. The pseudo-first-order models could be described as[49]:

In Eq. (2), qt and qe are the creatinine adsorption quantities with RAC at various time points t and at equilibrium (mg/g), respectively, as well as k1is the pseudo-first-order rate constant (h−1).

The pseudo-second-order model could be expressed as:

In Eq. (3), k2 (g·mg−1·h−1) is the rate constant of the pseudo-second-order. The value of k2 and qe can be calculated from the intercept and slope of t/qt versus t. Figure 3D shows the pseudo-first-order as well as pseudo-second-order kinetics of RAC adsorption creatinine, respectively. The kinetic relative parameters of adsorption are showed in Table 4. From Fig. 4D, it can be known that the adsorption process took place very quickly in the initial contact time (0 ~ 20 min) and then rapidly reached to the equilibrium state after 30 min, indicating that RAC has rapid creatinine removal efficiency. Normally, the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics exhibit the information of reaction dynamics and adsorption types, e.g., chemisorption and physisorption [38]. From Fig. 4D, it can be known that the R-square value (R2 = 0.9914) of pseudo-second-order was higher than that of the pseudo-first-order model (R2 = 0.9515), which indicated that the adsorption process of creatinine might be a chemisorption process (Table 5).

To explore the applicability of the RAC as an adsorbent for other types of uremic toxins, we carried out experiments to study the adsorption of uric acid by RAC. From Fig. 5A, the adsorption of uric acid by RAC was as high as 504 mg/g at room temperature (298.15 K) and showed a decreasing trend as the temperature increased. Similar to adsorption of creatinine, the Langmuir model (R2 = 9956) was more consistent with the adsorption process of uric acid than the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.9132), indicating that the adsorption of uric acid on the RAC surface remains as a single molecular layer [50]. The change of thermodynamic parameters is still calculated by formulas (5)-(7). The values of ΔGo, ΔHo, and ΔSo obtained are displayed in Table 3. The negative values of ΔGo confirmed the spontaneity and feasibility of the adsorption process. Furthermore, ΔHo with a negative value suggests an exothermic adsorption process [48]. Finally, the negative values of ΔSo demonstrated the decrease of randomness at the solid–liquid interface during the adsorption process, suggesting that the adsorption of uric acid onto RAC was driven by enthalpy changes. The corresponding linear fitting curves are shown in Fig. 5B-C, and the correlated kinetic adsorption parameters are compiled in Table 4. The correlation coefficients for the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 9957) are much higher than that for the pseudo-first-order kinetic model (R2 = 9680). Moreover, the qe values calculated from the pseudo-second-order kinetic model are much closer to the experimental qe values. Thus, the adsorption kinetics of uric acid onto RAC is better described by the pseudo-second-order model [51].

Adsorption isotherms of uric acid by RAC at three different temperatures (A); Langmuir and Freundlich model fitting curves (B), (C); kinetics for uric acid adsorption on RAC (D)

A schematic representation of the adsorption of creatinine and uric acid by RAC was drawn in combination with the characterization of RAC (Fig. 6), experimental data, and kinetic and thermodynamic fitting results to elucidate the multiple interactions between the adsorbent and the adsorbate (Fig. 6): (i) the adsorption has occurred both because of interaction between the creatinine and uric acid dipole and the dipole induced in the porous surface, as well as because of dipole–dipole interaction between surface oxygen groups on the activated carbon surface and the uremic creatinine and uric acid [47]; (ii) the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups on the inner/outer surface of RAC would form with creatinine and uric acid by hydrogen bonding [38].

The proposed adsorption mechanism of RAC for creatinine and uric acid

We employed RAC to remove creatinine and uric acid from both aqueous solutions, and the batch experiments show ultra-high adsorption capacity (430 and 504 mg/g for creatinine and uric acid, respectively) compared to other adsorbents. The higher sorbent density could decrease the use of dialysate and the size/weight of the WAK and benefit from relieving pressure on the dialysate supply. The batch experimental, characterization analysis and kinetic, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies co-verified that the removal process of creatinine and uric acid on RAC surface was a spontaneous, exothermic, and monomolecular layer chemisorption process, with adsorption behavior more consistent with the Langmuir model. Finally, it is proposed that the removal of creatinine and uric acid by RAC is an adsorption process with multi-interactions of dipole–dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding.

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21968014, 22008097), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2019YFC1805904), and the Analysis and Testing Foundation of Kunming University of Science and Technology (No. 2019T20170031).

Correspondence to Liang He or Yi Mei.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Received: 09 July 2021

Revised: 01 September 2021

Accepted: 08 September 2021

Published: 16 September 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-021-01946-4

Granular Biochar Market Strategic Insights of Developing Indusrty by Top Growing …

17 September, 2021

The “Granular Biochar Market Report” provides direct insight into the latest market trends and future opportunities along with the key players operating in the market. The report consists of all important market-related information such as size, share, growth factors, challenges, current and future trends, and emerging opportunities for the forecast period 2021-2027 in detail.

The report also forecasts and forecasts product lifecycles, emerging technologies, latest trends, demographic changes in the global economy, market saturation, and increasing competition. This report ensures that marketers remain forward-looking and vigilant about ever-evolving market dynamics. Therefore, this report will help business owners to make informed market decisions and develop effective strategies.

Request Sample of this Report for Additional Information and Full List of Key Players: https://www.worldwidemarketreports.com/sample/713967

Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra is the leading organization dominating the global market.
(*Note: other players can be added upon request)

Granular Biochar market covers the full information on Key Players and is briefly described

Granular Biochar Market Segmentation by Type:

Wood Source Biochar, Corn Source Biochar, Wheat Source Biochar

Granular Biochar Market Segmentation Based on Applications:

Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Application C

The information gathered in the primary study is completely reliable and valuable as the primary study collects all raw information directly from the surveys, direct observations, questionnaires, interviews, and focus groups conducted by our analysts. Secondary research was conducted by extracting information from the Internet, certified sites, existing market results, industry agencies, government agencies, and local councils and libraries.

In order to estimate the market potential, market estimation was performed through market segmentation, a top-down approach, and a bottom-up approach. In addition, qualitative and quantitative estimates for PEST and SWOT analyzes have been thoroughly described in order to better understand what is included in the report.

Later, the report evaluates various applications based on total revenue (volume and value), market share, market size, and market growth rate. The Granular Biochar report also focuses on regional and local markets to analyze the manufacturers, niche segments, industry environment, raw material resources, and competition in specific markets.

For an instant, support, contact an industry expert at https://www.worldwidemarketreports.com/speakanalyst/713967

Impact Analysis of the COVID-19: The full version of the report includes projected changes to the impact of COVID-19 and the future outlook of the industry, taking into account political, economic, social, and technological parameters.

As it is very important to determine the future possibilities while performing in a particular industry, the Granular Biochar Market report covers a comprehensive assessment based on upcoming business and investment opportunities, market restraining factors, business threats, challenges, regulatory alliances, and the industry environment. With the help of the suggested valuable insights, readers can achieve predetermined business goals.

The report also discusses lucrative business strategies implemented by major competitors which may include recent acquisitions, partnerships, mergers, closings, and product launches. It also provides detailed 1-minute descriptions of the competitive landscape, providing smart insights to keep readers ahead.

“If you have any custom requirements that you need to add, you can include them to enrich your final research study.”

If you need to add any queries or customizations, please follow the following URL: https://www.worldwidemarketreports.com/quiry/713967

Char Max 65% OFF Bliss-Premium Wood Biochar– 100% Conditio Soil Organic Pure – Carnes

17 September, 2021

Char Bliss-Premium Wood Biochar- Free shipping anywhere in the nation 100% Organic Soil Conditio Pure $11 Char Bliss-Premium Wood Biochar- 100% Pure Organic Soil Conditio Patio, Lawn Garden Gardening Lawn Care Soils, Fertilizers Mulches todocarnes.com.ar,100%,Bliss-Premium,Biochar-,/photos-images/family-vacation.html,Wood,Patio, Lawn Garden , Gardening Lawn Care , Soils, Fertilizers Mulches,Char,$11,Soil,Organic,Conditio,Pure Char Bliss-Premium Wood Biochar- Free shipping anywhere in the nation 100% Organic Soil Conditio Pure $11 Char Bliss-Premium Wood Biochar- 100% Pure Organic Soil Conditio Patio, Lawn Garden Gardening Lawn Care Soils, Fertilizers Mulches todocarnes.com.ar,100%,Bliss-Premium,Biochar-,/photos-images/family-vacation.html,Wood,Patio, Lawn Garden , Gardening Lawn Care , Soils, Fertilizers Mulches,Char,$11,Soil,Organic,Conditio,Pure

In soil, it is best to add biochar in small amounts every year and allow it to slowly build up in the soil where it gets charged with nutrients and soil life. Depending on the soil type and pH, the crops you are growing, and the other additives, nutrients, and inoculants, you may add as little as 1% and as much as 20%. A small amount of biochar banded under seeds where it will work in the root zone can be very effective. Up to 20% biochar added to container media along with appropriate nutrients can also work well. The added biochar will support greater water retention, increased microbial activity, better nitrogen absorption and it will continue to improve your soil year after year.

Fertilising seed potatoes | Koanga Institute

18 September, 2021


Shodhganga : a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET

19 September, 2021

Physico-chemical properties and microbial responses in biochar-amended soils – 一带一路资源平台

19 September, 2021

ICP备案号:京ICP备14021735号-1    © 2008 – 2018 IKCEST All rights reserved

Aussie first takes shape – Logan City Council

20 September, 2021

An epic journey and a tricky installation operation has delivered another piece of the City of Logan’s ground-breaking Biosolids Gasification Project.

Two sewage sludge dryers, weighing 34 tonnes each, have been installed at Australia’s first biosolids gasification facility being built at the Loganholme Wastewater Treatment Plant (LWWTP).

The dryers, made in Germany by Dutch company ELIQUO, arrived at the Port of Brisbane last month and have been craned into place at LWWTP.

The industrial-strength dryers are an integral component of the gasifier that will turn human waste into a marketable biochar suitable for a variety of uses.

City of Logan Mayor Darren Power said the latest development brings Council closer to its goal of carbon neutrality by the end of 2022.

“This is a pioneering project that has captured global attention for its innovative approach to reducing carbon emissions,” Mayor Darren Power said.

“Each milestone brings us closer to completion of this ambitious project and cements Council’s reputation as a local government leader in combating climate change.”

City Infrastructure Chair Councillor Teresa Lane said it is an exciting time for the team at Logan Water.

“The preparation and planning that has gone into the delivery and installation of the dryers has been months in the making,” Cr Lane said.

“It was a truly international project that had to overcome obstacles such as distance and time zones as well as the impacts of a global pandemic.

“With this hurdle cleared, Council, Logan Water and our delivery partners can now assemble this marvel of modern engineering.”

Once the gasifier is online, it will cut Council’s carbon dioxide output by 4800 tonnes annually and prevent organic pollutants from entering the soil.

Last year Council, along with project partners Pyrocal and Downer, successfully trialled a process of thermally treating sewage sludge (biosolids) to produce biogas.

The biogas is then used as a renewable energy source as heat to dry the remaining biosolids, turning it into a ‘biochar’, suitable for agricultural purposes.

The Loganholme Gasification Project is expected to come online by mid-2022.

The $17m project was made possible by a $6 million grant from the Australian Government’s renewable energy agency ARENA.

The gasifier will be partly powered by LWWTP’s 1MW solar array that recently came online.






Logan City Council respectfully acknowledges the Traditional Custodians of the lands across the City of Logan. We extend that respect to the Elders, past, present and emerging for they hold the memories, traditions, cultures and hopes of Australia’s First Peoples. Learn more – Reconciliation Action Plan (PDF 2182 KB)

Effect of Biochar and Legume Biomass on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés Growth …

20 September, 2021

Ethiopia is known for its large livestock population. The livestock sector in Ethiopia contributes about 46% of the country’s agricultural GDP. Livestock is primarily kept on smallholdings where it provides draught power for crop production, manure for soil fertility and fuel, and serves as a…

To implement its 2030 research and innovation strategy , the global research partnership CGIAR is developing a series of initiatives designed to achieve a world with sustainable and resilient food, land, and water systems that deliver more diverse, healthy, safe, sufficient and affordable diets,…

A recent review by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) published in Frontiers in Plant Science looks at how genomic selection could accelerate genetic gains in the development of new tropical forage cultivars, which…

The project aims to ‘Develop viable business models for forage seed production and marketing that assure economically sustainable access to high-quality forage seed to diverse clients’. International, national and local seed entrepreneurs, dairy farmers and national and international researchers…

The aim of the project is to increase livestock productivity in the smallholder farms in Kenya and Ethiopia through the adoption and utilization of forage grasses in the diet of animals. The project also intends to generate evidence on the potential of improved forage grasses in increasing the…

To train farmers on forage agronomy and conservation techniques that will help them overcome livestock feed shortage during the dry season and to train Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) on common livestock diseases and their treatments, to equip them with material and medicine kits and…

Dissolved biochar eliminates the effect of Cu(II) on the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes …

20 September, 2021

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Arla explores regenerative agriculture on 24 pilot dairy farms – Protect the Results

21 September, 2021

Arla explores regenerative agriculture on 24 pilot dairy farms –

Arla explores regenerative agriculture on 24 pilot dairy farms –

Biorefineries and their role in the development of the biobased economy.

Biomethane is booming in the UK.

Ex-situ biomethanation stores electricity, valorises CO2 but fluctuations in electricity leads to intermittent H2 supply. paper demonstrates carbonaceous material addition enhances microbial robustness and efficiency of process

Reversing degraded land restores key ecosystem services like improving water infiltration, reducing soil erosion and increased springs. In , various practices are carried out like stone bunds as a soil and water conservation measure hence improving biodiversity

Well done! did you know if you mix a bit of charcoal dust and manure in the hole you can water the tree much less 🙂 What types did you plant?

Valorisation of organic streams for a .

A new biogas system for Africa.

Carbon impact of biomethane for transport.

Huge potential for biomethane.

Clean energy, jobs, healthy air. It’s all there when the right resources are used. Thank you, for sharing your insights.

A forest-based circular bioeconomy for Sub-Saharan Africa.

Struggling rural economies in the US: biogas to the rescue.

Spread the word,.. eh bioslurry.

Biogas uit keukenafval. Nu ook in Nederland.

Specifically designed magnetic biochar from waste wood for arsenic removal | SpringerLink

23 September, 2021

Arsenic is a carcinogenic substance, with many cases of poisoning related to arsenic pollution in groundwater. In Taiwan arsenic in groundwater caused the notorious Blackfoot disease. Methods for arsenic removal from water include precipitation, membrane processes, ion exchange, and adsorption, but these processing technologies suffer from high investment costs and complex operations. The traditional adsorption method cannot be used for arsenic removal due to its high operating costs, difficulties in recovery, and low adsorption capacity. To address these issues, this study designed an adsorption material based on biochar for arsenic removal with higher adsorption properties and easy recovery. Biochar sources are readily available from waste wood as a cheap and environmentally friendly material. The efficiency of As (III) removal is also promoted by FeCl3 and KMnO4. The objectives of this research are to obtain optimum operation conditions by assessing the effects of different iron and manganese contents, different doses, different pH and different initial concentration. The adsorption mechanism between As (III) and biochar was studied by adsorption isotherms and the kinetic model. X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elemental analyzer analysis results show that modified biochar has major elements of Fe and Mn. There is greater magnetism, 40 emu g− 1, in the modified biochar. The maximum adsorption efficiency of 81% and 0.72 mg g− 1 capacity occurs when the ratio of Mn, Fe and C is 4:1:1. The adsorption capacity is high under higher pH with pristine biochar and 1FeC under lower pH with 1Fe2MnC. The reaction mechanism is divided into four pathways. The first pathway is the attachment of As (III) ions into the pore of biochar via physical adsorption. In the second pathway, biochar can connect with As (III) through hydrogen bonding from the function group -OH in the biochar and the As (III) itself. In the third pathway, they can contact each other by electron force when the biochar surface is filled with a positive charge. In the fourth pathway, the compounds of manganese have strong oxidizability to oxidize As (III) to As(V). The iron ions then act as a bridge connecting the biochar and the As (III), resulting in the formation of new complex compounds.

Arsenic is a concern in groundwater or wastewater treatment because of its health effects. Arsenic is classified as a substance that causes serious eye damage (Level 1), carcinogen (Level 1), a skin irritating substance (Level 2), reproductively toxic substances (Level 2) and a hazardous substance in water environment (Level 2). Arsenic in nature occurs in two forms: inorganic and organic. Arsenic combined with elements such as oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur is referred to as inorganic arsenic, while, arsenic combined with carbon and hydrogen is referred to as organic arsenic [1]. Arsenic is predominantly found as As (III) (H2AsO3, HAsO32− and AsO33−) and As(V) (H2AsO4, HAsO42− and AsO43−) in solutions [2]. In general, inorganic arsenic compounds are more toxic than organic arsenic compounds. In addition, As (III) is more toxic than As(V) because the former binds to single but with higher affinity for vicinal sulfhydryl groups that react with a variety of proteins and inhibit their activity. As (III) is more stable than As(V) because of its electronic configuration [3]. Arsenic is toxic and causes hyper pigmentation, skin-thickening, muscular weakness, neurological diseases, and cancer in humans. The main route of human exposure is through drinking arsenic contaminated groundwater. Therefore, the World Health Organization has lowered the arsenic standard for drinking water to 10 μg L− 1 [4].

Arsenic removal technologies primarily include ion exchange, coagulation-precipitation, membrane separation, biological treatment, oxidation and adsorption as shown in Table 1. Ion exchange is often used to remove arsenic from wastewater. It uses ions or functional groups inside to combine with target arsenic in order to separate arsenic ions from wastewater [5]. This method of removing As(V) in water is much better than As (III) because As(V) exists in the form of ions while As (III) exist largely in the form of molecules [4]. Anirudhan and Unnithan [6] used a novel anion exchanger prepared from coconut coir pith to remove arsenic with an initial arsenic concentration of 1 mg L− 1, with the removal efficiency reaching 99.2%. The coagulation-sedimentation method is a traditional method of arsenic removal. This method involves adding coagulants in arsenic containing water. The stability of the colloid is destroyed by the chemical or physical reactions with arsenic. Aggregates of fine particles are produced and formed larger precipitation particles due to clustering. Separation of arsenic pollutants and water is also achieved through filtration [7]. Membrane separation technology is divided into the two types of high-pressure membrane technology, including reverse osmosis and nano-filtration, and low-pressure membrane technology, including ultra-filtration and microfiltration. The removal of arsenic from surface water by nano-filtration membrane was studied by Waypa et al. [8], who found the removal efficiency reached 99%. Biological methods are a promising alternative to traditional arsenic removal techniques. These methods reduce toxicity by enriching the arsenic in water by itself or its metabolites or transforming As (III) into As(V) [9]. Kao et al. [10] found bacteria, designated As-7325, which can oxidize As (III) into As(V) within 3 days. After that, the As(V) was released by the metabolic products of bacteria through the process of adsorption or co-precipitation. Oxidation methods commonly include chemical oxidation and photo-catalytic oxidation. O3, H2O2, Cl2 and others are chemical oxidants. Pincus et al. [11] examined the oxidation of As (III) to As(V) by Cu2+ in the presence of dissolved oxygen to elucidate the potential and mechanisms of Cu2+ and Cu2+-n-TiO2 involvement in Fenton-like reactions. The results showed that the amount of As (III) oxidized to As(V) is strongly regulated by the Cu2+ loading, with a higher Cu2+ loading leading to more oxidized As (III) form and greater binding to the adsorbent surface as As(V) [11]. The adsorption method for treating arsenic-containing wastewater mainly uses physical, chemical or ion exchange processes to fix arsenic on the adsorbent surface. It may then be separated from the water together with the adsorbents. Adsorbents used for this purpose include activated carbon, modified biochar, metal hydroxide, inorganic nano-metal oxides and their composites. The adsorbents require a large specific surface area, an abundant porous structure and strong function groups [12].

Biochar has been identified as an effective adsorbent that can be used to remove various aqueous heavy metals, because the specific surface area and micro-porous structures of biochar are high. It hosts several surface functional groups, such as carboxyl (−COOH), hydroxyl (−OH) and amino (−NH2), for adsorbing heavy metal effectively [13]. These groups can work through electron donation, cation exchange, electrostatic attraction, or surface complexation to remove heavy metals [14]. Recent studies have focused on the use of potential adsorbents, including the use of hard wood [15], peanut hull [16], natural lignocelluloses materials [17], cottonwood [18], animal waste [19], corn straw [20], coconut shell [21], walnut shells [22], hazelnut [23], cotton stems [24] and sawdust or rice straw [25] as cheap and environment friendly materials. Therefore, in this research, a novel adsorbent with higher adsorption properties and easy recovery for arsenic removal was prepared from waste wood of a wood processing factory. The objectives of this work are to analyze (a) the preparation of biochar and modified biochar; (b) the characteristics analysis of material; (c) the effect of pH, initial concentration and dosage; (d) the adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics; and (e) the mechanism of arsenic removal.

PB was prepared by the pyrolysis method from wood biomass obtained from a wood processing factory. First, a crusher was used to crush the wood biomass, and the size after crushing was about 0.1–0.5 cm. After that, the biomass was washed three times using tap water to remove the dirt, such as soil, plastics and dust. Then, it was washed continually using the deionized water to eliminate the influence of other metal ions. It was then dried in an oven at a temperature of 333 K for the duration of 48 h. Next, it was kept in a muffle furnace at the heat-up speed of 300 K min− 1 and a pyrolysis temperature of 873 K for 1 h. Then, it was taken out from the muffle furnace when it had cooled and was washed using the deionized water twice to remove floating objects. After filtering and drying, the PB was obtained.

To improve the efficiency of magnetism and adsorption, FeCl3 is used to modify the PB in this study. The preparation procedures for magnetic biochar before obtaining the pre-treated biomass are same as for the PB. To obtain the xFeC material, different amounts of FeCl3 (x = 5, 10, 20 and 40 g) and 10 g of the PB were dissolved in 200 mL of distilled water, and stirred for 2 h. After that, the mixture was heated in a water bath and dried in an oven to remove the water to a suitable extent. Further, it was kept in a muffle furnace for pyrolysis under the same conditions as the PB. The material obtained when the procedures were completed was Fe modified biochar represented as xFeC. The value of ‘x’ depends on the weight ratio of FeCl3 and biomass. For example, 0.5FeC, 1FeC, 2FeC and 4FeC represent the weight ratios of FeCl3 at 5, 10, 20 and 40 g, respectively, when the weight of the PB is 10 g.

xFeyMnC was prepared following the method described above. To obtain the xFeyMnC material, different amounts of KMnO4 (y = 5, 10, 20 and 40 g) and 10 g of xFeC were dissolved in 200 mL of distilled water, and stirred for 2 h. After that, the mixture was heated in a water bath and dried in an oven to remove the water to a suitable extent. Further, it was kept in a muffle furnace for pyrolysis under the same conditions as the xFeC. The material obtained was Mn modified biochar represented as xFeyMnC. The value of ‘x’ depends on the weight ratio of FeCl3 with PB and the value of ‘y’ depends on the weight ratio of KMnO4 with xFeC. For example, xFe0.5MnC, xFe1MnC, xFe2MnC and xFe4MnC represent weight ratios of KMnO4 at 5, 10, 20 and 40 g, respectively, when the weight of xFeC is 10 g. The preparation method of Lin et al. [26] was used in this research.

The pore size distribution, pore volume and specific surface area were determined by performing N2 adsorption-desorption measurements with an ASAP 2020 apparatus by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) calculation methods. The morphology of the material was measured through a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The crystal phase of the material was determined by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) with employing CuKα radiation wavelength of 0.15405 nm, accelerating voltage of 40 kV and current of 30 mA over the 2θ range of 20–80°. The magnetic performance of biochar was carried out at room temperature with a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The fourier transform infrared (FTIR) of the biochar carbon was recorded to study the functional groups at room temperature.

Adsorption performance assessment was carried out in 100 mL adsorption system. The biochar was mixed with 80 mL of the appropriate As (III) solution under 25 °C for 24 h. As (III) solutions were prepared by adding As2O3 from High-Purity Standards Company. Afterward, the solution was filtered with using a membrane filter (pore size 0.45 μm). In addition, the residual As (III) in the aqueous solutions was determined by high performance liquid chromatography connected with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The ICP-AES detection limit for arsenic detection is 10 ppb. The test results were regularly tested with standard solution up to 20 ppb to get the accurate data.

The capacity adsorption of As was calculated as follows:

where qe (mg g− 1) is the equilibrium adsorption capacity, Co (mg L− 1) is the initial concentration of As, Ce (mg L− 1) stands for the equilibrium concentration measured after adsorption, W (mg) is the amount of adsorbent used in the experiments, V (mL) is the volume of As solution and Re is removal efficiency of As by biochar.

To investigate the difference of modified biochar and unmodified biochar, the samples of PB, 0.5FeC, 1FeC, 2FeC, 4FeC, 1Fe0.5MnC, 1Fe1MnC, 1Fe2MnC and 1Fe4MnC (0.08 g) were mixed with 80 mL As (III) solution (1.0 mg L− 1) in a 100 mL plastic bottle, respectively. Under the same conditions as above, samples were collected periodically up to 1440 min, filtered and measured by the ICP-AES. The Eqs. (1) and (2) were used to calculate the adsorption capacity and adsorption efficiency of the nine different types of biochar for As (III) removal.

To explore the influence of solution pH, the pH of the As (III) solution (1.0 mg L− 1) was set to 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0, respectively, adjusted by 1.0 M HCl solution or 1.0 M NaOH solution. Three types of biochar samples, including PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC weighing 0.08 g each, were put into the prepared solutions (80 mL) of different pH. The mixed solution was then shaken at 160 rpm for 24 h in the water bath shaker and taken out for analysis.

For additional identification of the biochar, its point of zero charge (pHpzc) was determined. Thus, a 0.01 M NaCl solution, different initial pH (pHInitial) and 0.08 g of PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC were employed. The as-prepared biochar was suspended in each 25 mL of NaCl solution of a pre-adjusted pH, and allowed to stir at 25 °C for 24 h. The final pH (pHFinal) of the supernatant was measured after the oxide suspension separation. The pHInitial-pHFinal curve was drawn using the measured pHInitial and pHFinal values. From the intersection between this curve and the pHInitial = pHFinal line, the pHpzc of the as-prepared biochar may be estimated.

To investigate the influence of As (III) concentration, the initial concentration was varied from 0.25 to 50.0 mg L− 1. The three types of biochar sample (0.08 g) including PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC were added into the As (III) solution with various concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 50.0 mg L− 1, respectively. In this study, the mixture of biochar and As (III) solution was shaken at 160 rpm for 24 h in the water bath shaker and taken out for analysis.

To find the impact of biochar dosage, the dosages of three different types of biochar were varied from 0.2 g L− 1 to 1.2 g L− 1. The initial concentration of As (III) was fixed at 1.0 mg L− 1 and the dosages of PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC were 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 g L− 1, respectively. This means that the added weight of biochar is 0.016, 0.032, 0.048, 0.064, 0.080 and 0.096 g corresponding to the designed dosage with 80 mL solution. After shaking the mixture at 160 rpm for 24 h, the solids were removed by filtration and the residual liquid was measured by ICP-AES.

In this section, the application potential of PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC were evaluated. The As (III) species adsorption-desorption recycles on PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC were carried out by NaOH regeneration with initial concentration 1.0 mg L− 1 and 0.08 g of biochar for 24 h contact time. Most of the adsorbed As (III) species could be desorbed from biochar by alkaline at pH 11.5, which is good accordance with the results about the effect of pH on As (III) species adsorption. The solids were removed by magnet adsorption and the residual liquid was measured by ICP-AES.

The pseudo-first-order equation is given as Eq. (3) [27].

where, qt is adsorption capacity (mg g− 1) at the time of “t”; qe is adsorption capacity (mg g− 1); k1 is rate coefficient of the first-order adsorption mode (min− 1); and t is time (min).

After the Eq. (3) is integrated, the function formula can be obtained as Eq. (4).

The pseudo-second-order model is represented as Eq. (5) [28].

where, k2 is rate coefficient of the second-order adsorption mode (mg g− 1 min− 1).

After arranging the above equation, the Eq. (6) can be obtained as shown followed.

Based on the above assumptions, Langmuir adsorption Eq. (7) is derived as follows [29].

After taking the inverse of the above equation, Eq. (8) can be obtained

where, Co is the initial concentration in the solution and Q is the amount of adsorbed by the additive. a and b are Langmuir constants related to adsorption capacity and adsorption energy, respectively. Plotting Q− 1 versus Co− 1, and measuring the slope and intercept of the plot, a and b can be directly interpreted.

The empirical formula of constant temperature adsorption is proposed, as shown below [30].

Taking the natural logarithm of both sides gives:

If experiment absorption matches the above empirical model, then by plotting lnQ versus lnCo the values of the Freundlich constants of K and n can be directly interpreted from the plot as the intercept and slope.

Temkin isotherm model takes adsorbate–adsorbent interactions into account. It is assumed that the relationship between adsorption capacity and pollutant concentration at equilibrium state is linear rather than logarithmic which is different from Freundlich equation. Besides, the adsorption heat decreases linearly rather than exponentially as all adsorbents gradually cover the adsorbent is also assumed [31].

The Eq. (11) for the linear form of Temkin model can be shown as follows:

here, B is Temkin constant related to heat of adsorption (J mol− 1); and KT is Equilibrium binding energy constant (J g− 1).

Thermodynamic behaviors are interpreted by the thermodynamic parameters including the change in standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0), and standard entropy (ΔS0). These parameters are calculated by the following Eqs [32].:

where, KL (L mol− 1) is the Langmuir equilibrium constant of the adsorption process. R (J mol− 1 K− 1) and T (K) are gas constant and absolute temperature, respectively.

As presented in Fig. 1, the XRD analysis of different Fe content modified biochar and PB. PB does not have any obvious and regular diffraction peaks, meaning that it is PB amorphous. After modification with Fe, the materials exhibit obvious characteristics peaks, because of the crystalline Fe species of hematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4). This shows that the Fe is successfully loaded into the biochar. The characteristic peak intensity of the Mn modified biochar, 1FeyMnC, changes slightly from xFeC biochar with the increasing Mn content of the 1FeyMnC biochar. This shows that the Mn is successfully added to the biochar after Mn modification. Figure 1a showed the 1FeC material has the strongest Fe crystal peak, and the increase of Fe content does not change the peak. Therefore, the best ratio of Fe and carbon is 1:1. In addition, the optimal ratio of Fe/Mn/C is 1:2:1, and the increase of Mn content leads to the decrease of Mn crystal peak (Fig. 1b). Therefore, the 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC were used for subsequent studies.

The XRD analysis of a xFeC and b xFeyMnC

To obtain the typical surface morphologies and element message, SEM and EDS analysis are performed. Figure 2a shows that the surface of the PB is smooth and the abundant pores are arranged regularly. The formation of pores is generated by the decomposition of lignocelluloses and lignin under high temperature. The EDS results in Table 2 and Fig. 2b reveal that the elemental composition includes C and O and is consistent with the results of the elemental analyzer. Figure 2c shows that the many small particles in the surface uniformly block the pores of the material, correspond to Fe particles. Given the EDS results in Fig. 2d, it is evident that the particles are Fe. In Fig. 2e, a layer of dense particles emerges on the surface, decreasing the pore amounts and causing the roughness. The EDS results in Fig. 2f reveal that the covering particles are Fe and Mn, which is consistent with the former analysis results of XRD.

SEM images and EDS analysis of a, b PB, c, d 1FeC and e, f 1Fe2MnC

Considering the recycling of biochar after adsorption through the magnetic field, the magnetization strength is tested. Figure 3a shows that the PB has almost no magnetism. However, the modification of Fe increases the magnetism of materials in contrast to PB because of the formation of Fe3O4. The 0.5FeC can reach its highest largest magnetism levels, 5.3 emu g− 1. However, this remains insufficient to recycle the biochar. Hence, the Mn is used to enhance the material’s magnetism. Figure 3b shows that the Mn modified biochar has much higher magnetism due to the interaction between Fe and Mn, which enhances its recycling ability. The highest obtained magnetization strength is 43 emu g− 1. Son et al. [33] found that the saturation magnetization value of iron modified biochar is 8.64 emu g− 1. This is sufficiently ferromagnetic to recollect the used biochar from the suspended solution via the external magnetic field. In this study, the 1Fe1MnC and 1Fe2MnC can be readily obtained by the external magnetic field with the respective saturation magnetization values of 43 and 21 emu g− 1.

Hysteresis regression analysis of a xFeC and b xFeyMnC

To obtain the pore size distribution and surface area of different biochars, a BET analyzer was used before and after modification. Figure 4 shows the pore size distribution of PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC is 20.9, 21.7 and 46.4 Å, respectively. Table 3 show the specific surface area of PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC is 524, 181 and 135 m2 g− 1, respectively. The specific surface area decreases after modification due to the Fe and Mn blocking. The results are in good agreement with the SEM analysis. The mean pore size of PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC is 20.9, 21.7 and 46.3 Å, respectively. They are thus mesoporous materials on the basis of the pore size between 2 and 50 nm, while the pore size of 1Fe2MnC is larger than that of the PB and 1FeC since many original small pores of PB are missing owing to its heavier blocking with metals and metal contents of biochar. Additionally, Fe and Mn cover on the surface of biochar and combine to form a new structure, causing the pore size of 1Fe2MnC to become larger than that of the PB.

The pore size distribution of a PB, b 1FeC and c 1Fe2MnC

The changes in the functional groups of biochars before and after modification were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy, as shown in Fig. 5. The -OH and N-H stretching vibration band are characteristic peaks of the amine group at about 3400 cm− 1 [34]. The appearance of peaks at 2930 and 2849 cm− 1 in the spectrum were attributed to C-H stretching vibration in -CH and -CH2 [34]. C=O vibrations at 1750 cm− 1 are produced by the stretching vibration of the oxygen-containing functional group C=O bond [35]. The band at 1620 cm− 1 can be ascribed to C=C aromatic ring stretching vibration [35]. The band at 1470–1430 cm− 1 is ascribed to C-H bending vibrations in CH3 groups [34]. The nature of the feedstock was reflected by the presence of bands around 1040–1100 cm− 1, which were assigned to SiO2, and these bands were observed in all biochar carbon [36].

FTIR spectrums of a PB, b 1Fe2MnC and c 1FeC

Figure 6a shows that the As (III) removal efficiency of the Fe modified biochar was greater than that of the PB. These results are consistent with the experimental results of Kim et al. [37]. The highest removal efficiency with Fe modified biochar was 62%, almost 5 times that of PB, owing to the formation of R-FeH2AsO3, R-FeHAsO3, R-FeAsO32−, R-Fe2HAsO3 and R-Fe2AsO3 species, where R identifies functional group of the biochar. The ligand exchange between the arsenite anion and the hydroxyl functional group of Fe oxide in the Fe-modified adsorbents can increase the interaction of As (III) and biochar. With the increasing Fe, the efficiency first increases, but decreases thereafter. The reason for the eventual decrease may be Fe blocking of the pore structure, which can directly decrease the specific surface area. Figure 6b clearly shows that the Mn modification has a significant effect on the removal ability. The highest efficiency is 81% with 1Fe2MnC, which is seven times higher than that of the PB. This may be due to the oxidation of As (III) to As(V) when Mn added. Similar observations of the redox potential of Mn have been found by Lin et al. [26]. Apart from this, the reduction products of Mn3+ to Mn2+ can play a role similar to that of Fe ions as noted above. Additionally, the variations in pH value were not obvious before and after the adsorption experiment.

As removal efficiency with a xFeC and b xFeyMnC

The effect of the As removal was studied by varying the pH values over the 3.0–11.0 range. To study the electrostatic force between As (III) and adsorbents, a zeta potential experiment of the three types biochar was studied and the results shown in Fig. 7a. The pH at zeta potential is 4.2, 6.1 and 2.1 for the PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC, respectively. This can help identify the surface charge of the adsorbents. When the solution pH is below the zeta potential pH, the surface is positively charged, and vice-versa. As presented in Fig. 7b, the pH exhibits different effects on the removal efficiency of the three types of biochar, which may relate to the reaction mechanism. The PB shows negligible influence. By contrast, the efficiency with 1FeC increases with slightly increasing pH. The adsorption efficiency with 1Fe2MnC clearly decreases with increasing pH.

a Zeta potentials and b effects of initial pH on the As (III) removal efficiency

The rise in As (III) removal efficiency may be due to chemical adsorption rather than electrostatic attraction at high pH value, such as pH 9. H3AsO3o and H2AsO3 could connect with deprotonated Fe–O surface sites through the hydrogen-bond at higher pH prior to chemical adsorption [38]. The 1Fe2MnC has the highest removal efficiency at a low pH, around 3. Compared to other adsorption forces, the electrostatic attraction is dominant. The zeta potential of the 1Fe2MnC is around 2.0 and the As (III) exists as almost a negative species in the experimental range. Above pH 3, the biochar surface is much more negative. Therefore, electrostatic repulsion will reduce the As (III) uptake heavily. Sattar et al. [39] have shown As (III) adsorption reaching at maximum adsorption at 7.1 and 7.2 near-neutral pH by biochar.

The three lines reveal that the removal capacity increases from 0.056 to 0.16, from 0.17 to 0.89 and from 0.22 to 1.1 mg g− 1, respectively, with an increase in the initial As (III) concentration from 0.25 to 5.0 ppm. Prior to the saturation of active sites present on the adsorbent surface and the higher concentration of As, more active sites can be used. Hence, the value of qe can greatly increase. However, the qe of PB stopped increasing after 2 ppm mainly due to the saturation occurring earlier than with the modified biochar. By contrast, the increasing trend with the modified biochar reveals a higher removal potential than the unmodified biochar, as show in Fig. 8.

The influence of initial concentration of As (III)

As shown in Fig. 9, six different dosages (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 g L− 1) of PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC have been tested. The maximum removal efficiency of 72% is found at the dosage of 1.2 g L− 1. The more adsorbents used, the more active sites can be supported. Therefore, more As (III) can be removed as the number of active sites increases. In addition, the removal efficiency increased in the range of 0.0–29%, 17–65% and 21–72%, respectively, under the studied dosages from 0.2 to 1.2 g L− 1. By contrast, the measurement of qe shows the opposite results because of the diminution of equivalent active functional sites on the surface of the adsorbents. The decrease in adsorption capacity is due to the increase in intermolecular attraction between the adsorbent.

The influence of adsorbents dosage

The adsorption capacity of As (III) on PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC is not substantially changed after seven recycles of the adsorption-desorption processes, as shown in Fig. 10. Most of the adsorbed As (III) species can be desorbed from biochar by the alkaline at pH 11.5, which is in good accordance with the previous results on the effect of pH on As (III) species adsorption. However, after seven recycles of the adsorption-desorption processes, the adsorption capacity of the As (III) on biochar exhibited an obvious decline. It is possible that the structure of the 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC begins to be damaged and the metal element is detached. Therefore, the turbidity of the solution along with the metal concentration is increased significantly after seven recycles.

The uptake of As (III) by biochar in consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles at initial concentration 1.0 mg L− 1

Foo and Hameed [40] explained that the analysis of adsorption isotherms models can be used for investigating the adsorption behavior and assessing the feasibility of field application. To obtain the three types of biochar surface properties and the behaviors in adsorbing As (III), commonly used adsorption isotherm models, such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin, are applied here in to fit the experimental data in the present study. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model is based on the assumption that the entire adsorption process is a single-molecule layer adsorption between the solute and solid phases, while the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model is an empirical equation without assumptions and without considering adsorption saturation. The multi-molecular layer adsorption process occurring on an uneven surface is simulated. The Freundlich model is based on the hypothesis that the binding sites are not equal and there is a heterogeneous surface for adsorption [41]. The Temkin equation is used to describe the adsorption equilibrium of a single molecular layer in a non-ideal adsorption system.

The experiments are operated for the concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 mg L− 1, respectively. Compared to the other models, our results better fit the Langmuir model with the linear correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.990, 0.992 and 0.980. These results reveal that the adsorption is a single molecule adsorption. In addition, the maximum adsorption capacity based on the simulation of the Langmuir model is 0.18, 1.0 and 0.90 mg g− 1 for PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC, respectively. For the constant value n for the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model, the values are 3.19, 2.57 and 3.46, respectively, all in the range of 2 to 10. Prepared biochars are thus unfavorable for As (III) adsorption. According to the value B of Temkin model with larger than 20 J mol− 1, the adsorption energies for typical chemical adsorption. In this research, the value of B is 30, 180 and 160 J mol− 1, indicating that the adsorption process involves chemical adsorption, as shown in Table 4 and Fig. 11.

Adsorption isotherm analysis of a Langmuir; b Freundlich and c Temkin model

Adsorption of As (III) in wastewater by the adsorbent is a complicated adsorption reaction process. To explore the speed of the three different types of biochar to adsorb As (III), the kinetic adsorption models are tested to obtain the related constants. In this research, the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order are simulated and the relevant kinetic parameters k1, k2, qmaxdy (maximum adsorption capacity of dynamic simulation) and R2 are presented in Table 5 and Fig. 12.

Kinetic adsorption curves of As on materials: a Pseudo-first-order and b Pseudo-second-order kinetics

The three types of biochar fit the pseudo-second-order simulation better under the consideration of both the R2 and qe value. The R2 of pseudo-second-order simulation is 0.981, 0.986 and 0.991, respectively, and the value is 0.980, 0.919 and 0.938 for the pseudo-first-order simulation. Table 5 shows that the modified biochar reveals much stronger adsorption ability towards As (III). The saturated adsorption capacity of the three types of biochar is 0.14, 0.67 and 0.62 mg g− 1, respectively, with PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC under the simulation of pseudo-second-order simulation at pH 7 and 298 K. This is much closer to the specific experimental data of 0.13, 0.68 and 0.62 mg g− 1, respectively, than with the values of 0.12, 0.50 and 0.48 mg g− 1 obtained from pseudo-first-order simulation. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the three types of biochar towards As (III) follows the ranks order as 1FeC > 1Fe2MnC > PB. This simulation trend is corresponding with the actual experiment data in the given situation of pH 7 and 298 K.

Thermodynamic parameters were determined from Eqs. (12) and (13), respectively. The plot of lnKL as a function of 1/T yields a straight line (R2 = 0.947) from which ΔHo and ΔSo were calculated from the slope and intercept, respectively. The negative values of ΔGo (− 1.42, − 4.56, − 8.93 and − 9.88 kJ mol− 1 at 288, 298, 308 and 318 K, respectively) suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous. However, the increase in absolute values of ΔGo with increasing temperature shows an increase in feasibility of adsorption at higher temperatures. In addition, the negative values of ΔGo in this study were within the ranges of − 20 and 0 kJ mol− 1, which indicated that the adsorption mechanism was mainly a spontaneous reaction [42]. The positive value of ΔHo (84.8 kJ mol− 1) indicates the endothermic nature of the adsorption processes. The positive ΔHo is an indicator of endothermic nature of the adsorption process and also its magnitude gives information on the type of adsorption, which can be either physical or chemical. The enthalpy of adsorption, ranging from 2.1 to 20.9 kJ mol− 1 corresponds to physical adsorption and higher than 20.9 kJ mol− 1 is chemical adsorption [43]. The ΔHo value of As (III) adsorption onto 1Fe2MnC is in range of chemical adsorption. Therefore, the ΔHo value shows that the adsorption process was taken place via chemical adsorption. The positive value of ΔSo (302 J mol− 1 K− 1) showed the affinity of 1Fe2MnC for As (III) and the increasing randomness at the solid-solution interface during the adsorption process, as shown in Table 6.

Base on the results of the material property analysis and adsorption performance evaluation, possibly existence reaction models can be assumed in Fig. 13. The reaction types of the adsorption of arsenic by biochar include both physical and chemical reactions, and the As (III) was removed with major contribution by chemical reaction. Biochar can connect with arsenic through hydrogen bonding from the functional group -OH in biochar and the arsenic itself. Further, they can attract each other by electron force when the biochar surface is filled with positive charge. Compounds of manganese have strong oxidizability to oxidize As (III) to As(V) [44]. By comparison, As(V) is easier to be removed. In addition, the iron ions act as a bridge to connect the biochar and the As(V) resulting in the formation of new complex compounds.

Schematic diagram of reaction mechanism analysis

XRD analysis results show that Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 occur on the surface of the xFeC. SEM-EDS analysis results demonstrates that iron and Mn ions are successfully coated because the smooth surface changes to rough surface after coating and the elements of Fe and Mn appear in the EDS analysis. Hysteresis regression analysis shows that magnetism of the xFeC and xFeyMnC is increased to far more than that of the PB. 0.5FeC adsorbents can reach the largest magnetism, 5.3 emu g− 1. The highest magnetization strength is 43 emu g− 1 from the 1Fe2MnC. From the nitrogen absorption and desorption analysis, the specific surface areas of the PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC are 524, 181 and 135 m2 g− 1, respectively. Further, they are all mesoporous materials, given their average pore size. The arsenic removal efficiency with FeC and FeMnC is much higher than that of the PB at pH 7. In particular, the removal efficiency with 1FeC and 1Fe4MnC reaches 62 and 81%, respectively. As pH increases, the removal efficiency of As (III) with PB and 1FeC increases slightly while it clearly decreases with 1Fe2MnC. The adsorption behaviors with PB, 1FeC and 1Fe2MnC all fit the Langmuir isothermal adsorption model and pseudo-second-order adsorption dynamics model better. The reaction mechanisms for removing arsenic include physical and chemical reactions, including electrostatic function, oxidation reaction, complexation reaction and hydrogen bonding function.

All data generated or analyzed during this study are examined by our group and certified for several times.

The authors acknowledge financial supports form the Taiwan’s Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 107-2622-E-197-001-CC3). First author acknowledges the Department of Environmental Engineering, National I–Lan University, Taiwan to support his research at the university.

Not applicable.

Chih-Kuei Chen provided real test data, Jia-Jia Chen supported the test data, Nhat-Thien Nguyen and Nguyen-Cong Nguyen wrote the paper, Thuy-Trang Le analyzed the test data, and Chang-Tang Chang organized the researched full structure. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Chang-Tang Chang.

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

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Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Received: 21 December 2020

Accepted: 21 July 2021

Published: 22 September 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s42834-021-00100-z

Biochar derived from spent mushroom substrate reduced N2O emissions with lower water …

23 September, 2021

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Practical Tools for a Climate-Resilient Farm: Cover Crops, Biochar, and On-Farm Water Management

23 September, 2021

Looking to stay up to date on your CEUs? Have producers asking conservation-specific questions you don’t feel confident answering? Looking to host a training and want to avoid conflicts for your audience? You have come to the right place.

Explore our Conservation Calendar for information on conservation-related events and trainings hosted across Wisconsin and beyond.

Barr Farms has raised livestock and Certified Organic mixed vegetables on a fragipan (shallow soil) in the Ohio River Valley for 13 years. In response to increasing climate challenges – heavy rain events, high humidity all year, wetter than normal summers, and the possibility of droughts in the fall – Adam and Rae have implemented several mitigating systems.

Learn about their use of rye grass and cover crops, biochar, drainage and other adaptations to increase farm resiliency. Join in a discussion of the pros and cons of various strategies for farming successfully in a changing climate. Q&A with Adam and Rae will follow the live presentation.

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The Conservation Professional Training Program is a program of UW–Madison Division of Extension providing conservation training courses to help you deliver smarter solutions to farmers and rural landowners.

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Biochar Market to Reveal Strapping Growth in Forthcoming period 2021-2027 – Stillwater Current

23 September, 2021

The huge assessments, market improvement rate, genuine scene, market drivers, examples, and stresses in the business are totally included in the audit. The investigation gives a total Biochar Market layout, similarly as a distinct examination of market parts like thing sorts and end-customers, similarly as an explanation of which part is presumably going to grow basically and what region is emerging as the market’s fundamental inescapable goal. The report’s all around assessment assists with perceiving the market’s current status, conceivable outcomes, improvement openings, and huge hardships for any industry.

Biochar Market size to expand at a massive CAGR of 15.3% from 2021 to 2027.

Top Key Players Profiled in This Report: Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Carbon Gold, ElementC6, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), BlackCarbon

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The overall market is confined into three classes: type, region, and end-customer. The advancement of these spaces will help you in exploring pathetic improvement segments in the businesses, similarly as outfitting customers with a broad market diagram and industry insights to help them in making fundamental decisions for focus market application recognizing evidence.. As said over, the market is assessed, and market size insights and examples are introduced by country, kind, therapeutic locale, and method for association. The going with regions are associated with the market report: North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South Africa, MEA. The overall market is overpowered by North America.

Biochar Market, By Segmentaion:

Market segment by Type, covers
Wood-based Biochar
Corn Straw Biochar
Rice Straw Biochar
Wheat Straw Biochar
Other Straw Biochar

Market segment by Application can be divided into
Soil Conditioner

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A review on lignocellulosic biomass waste into biochar-derived catalyst – ScienceDirect.com

23 September, 2021

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How Residents In The Methow Valley Are Hoping To Prevent Wildfire By Creating … – NewsBreak

23 September, 2021

Microbial Response to Designer Biochar and Compost Treatments for Mining Impacted Soils …

23 September, 2021

Ducey, T., J. Novak, G. Sigua, J. Ippolito, H. Rushmiller, D. Watts, K. Trippe, K. Spokas, K. Stone, AND M. Johnson. Microbial Response to Designer Biochar and Compost Treatments for Mining Impacted Soils. Biochar Journal. Ithaka Institute for Carbon Intelligence , Arbaz, Switzerland, 3:299-314, (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42773-021-00093-3

The Oronogo-Duenweg mining belt in southwestern Missouri, is a designated United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site due to lead-contaminated soil and groundwater caused by historic mining and smelting operations. Sites within this area have undergone remediation, which often entails removal of the residual mining wastes and the upper soil horizons (e.g., O, A, and B horizons) to remove the lead contamination to the “clean-up” level of 400 ppm lead. This leaves subsurface soil layers exposed and incalcitrant to revegetation efforts because of lack of soil development, the presence of coarse fragments or the presence of quantifiable amounts of Zn and Cd. In order to improve soil conditions and encourage successful remediated site revegetation this study used three biochars, sourced from different feedstocks (poultry litter, beef lot manure, and lodge pole pine), as amendments to these residual subsurface soils. These were applied at two rates, 2.5%, and 5% (by weight), coupled with compost applied at rates of 0%, 2.5% and 5%. The biochars were selected for their potential to bind zinc and other heavy metals responsible for phytotoxicity, while locally sourced compost was selected for available organic carbon and nutrient incorporation into these depleted soils. Two plant species were grown in these amended materials, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and buffalograss (Bouteloua dactyloides). Our results indicate that – to varying degrees – biochar feedstock as well as biochar and compost application rates influenced soil physicochemical factors, above ground biomass, microbial composition, and enzyme functionality. These results suggest that soil reclamation using biochar and compost can improve mine-impacted soil biogeophysical characteristics, and potentially improve future remediation and revegetation efforts not only in the Oronogo-Duenweg mining belt, but at other mine-impacted sites across the U.S.

The Oronogo-Duenweg mining belt is a designated United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site due to lead-contaminated soil and groundwater by former mining and smelting operations. This area has been subjected to almost a century of mining (from 1848 to the late 1960’s), during which over ten million tons of cadmium, lead, and zinc containing mining waste have contaminated over 10,000 acres. Sites that have undergone remediation – in which the O, A, and B horizons have been removed along with the lead contamination – have left the C horizon exposed and incalcitrant to revegetation efforts. Soils also continue to contain quantifiable Cd and Zn concentrations. In order to improve soil conditions and encourage successful site revegetation, our study employed three biochars, sourced from different feedstocks (poultry litter, beef lot manure, and lodge pole pine), at two rates of application (2.5%, and 5%), coupled with compost applied at rates of 0%, 2.5% and 5%. Biochars were selected for their potential to bind zinc and other heavy metals responsible for phytotoxicity, while locally sourced compost was selected for available organic carbon and nutrient incorporation into these depleted soils. Two plant species were grown in these amended materials, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and buffalograss (Bouteloua dactyloides). Our results indicate that – to varying degrees – biochar feedstock as well as biochar and compost application rates influenced soil physicochemical factors, above ground biomass, microbial composition, and enzyme functionality. These results suggest that soil reclamation using biochar and compost can improve mine-impacted soil biogeophysical characteristics, and potentially improve future remediation efforts.

Global Granular Biochar Market Research Report – Industry Statistical Study Of The …

23 September, 2021

The global Granular Biochar market is comprehensive and Insightful information in the report, taking into consideration various factors such as competition, regional growth, segmentation, and Granular Biochar Market size by value and volume. This is an excellent study specially designed to provide you with up-to-date information on important aspects of the Granular Biochar market. This report presents various market forecasts related to market size, production, revenue, consumption, CAGR, gross profit, price, and other key factors. Created using industry-leading primary and secondary research methods and tools.

The report on Granular Biochar market presents insights regarding major growth drivers, potential challenges, and key opportunities that shape the industry expansion over analysis period.Granular Biochar The report also calls for market driven results deriving feasibility studies for client needs.The report ensures qualified and verifiable aspects of market data operating in the real time scenario The analytical studies are conducted ensuring client needs with a thorough understanding of market capacities in the real time scenario.Details included are company description, major business, company total revenue, and the production capacity, price, revenue generated in Granular Biochar business, the date to enter into the Granular Biochar market,Granular Biochar product introduction, recent developments, etc. Market 2020 analysis provides a basic summary of the trade as well as definitions, classifications, applications and business chain structure The report provided for the international markets together with development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development standing. Development policies and plans are mentioned similarly as producing processes and value structures are analyzed.This report additionally states import/export consumption,supply and demand Figures, cost, price, revenue, and gross margins.

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Regional Framework :
This report studies the global market status and forecast, categorizes the global Granular Biochar Market size (value & volume), revenue (Million USD), product price by manufacturers, type, application, and region. Granular Biochar Market Report by Material, Application, and Geography-Global Forecast to 2028 is an expert and far-reaching research provide details regarding the world’s major provincial economic situations, Concentrating on the principle districts (North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific) and the fundamental nations (United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea, and China).

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The key players are highly focusing innovation in production technologies to improve efficiency and shelf life. The best long-term growth opportunities for this sector can be captured by ensuring ongoing process improvements and financial flexibility to invest in the optimal strategies. Company profile section of players such as Company Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra includes its basic information like legal name, website, headquarters, its market position, historical background and top competitors by Market capitalization / revenue along with contact information. Each player/ manufacturer revenue figures, growth rate and gross profit margin is provided in easy to understand tabular format for past 5 years and a separate section on recent development like mergers, acquisition or any new product/service launch etc.

Granular Biochar Market Breakdown by Types:
Wood Source Biochar, Corn Source Biochar, Wheat Source Biochar, Others

Granular Biochar Market Breakdown by Applications:
Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

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Vineyard & Winery Management – March/April 2016

23 September, 2021

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Brasil – Coconut fiber biochar alters physical and chemical properties in sandy soils … – SciELO

23 September, 2021

This work aimed to characterize the biochar produced from residues of coconut fruit and to evaluate how it might beneficially alter the retention capacity of water and nutrients in soils with a sandy texture. The biochar was produced in a retort furnace and later analyzed to determine its chemical and physical characteristics. Experiments to analyze the retention potential of the biochar for water and nutrients were performed in PVC columns filled to a 400 mm depth, with the upper 300 mm receiving treatments that consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% (p p-1) biochar mixed with soil. For the nutrient retention experiment, in addition to the biochar concentrations, the treatments received the same NPK fertilization. The experiments were performed in a completely randomized design with four replications. The water retention in the upper 300 mm, as well as the pH, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) of the substrate, base saturation, and concentrations of P and K, increased with increasing biochar concentration. Coconut biochar demonstrated potential for increasing water retention and improving nutrient retention in sandy soils.

agroindustry residues; nutrient retention; pyrolyzed carbon; sandy soil; soil water retention

The consumption of coconut water (Cocus nucifera L.) and pulp generates a significant amount of residues, represented by the husks. This material is discarded in landfills and dumping grounds, acting, similar to all organic matter, as a potential gas emitter; furthermore, such material contributes to a reduction of the useful life of these deposits, proliferation of the foci of disease-transmitting vectors, foul odors, possible contamination of soil and water bodies, and the inevitable destruction of the urban landscape. From this perspective, several works have aimed to use coconut fruit residues in agriculture as a substrate source for seedling production (Silva Junior, Sousa, Sousa, Lessa, & Silva, 2020Silva Junior, F. B. D. S., Sousa, G. G., Sousa, J. T. M., Lessa, C. I. N., & Silva, F. D. B. (2020). Salt stress and ambience on the production of watermelon seedlings. Revista Caatinga, 33(2), 518-528. DOI: 10.1590/1983-21252020v33n224rc
; Putrino, Tedesco, Bodini, & Oliveira, 2020Putrino, F. M., Tedesco, M., Bodini, R. B., & Oliveira, A. L. (2020). Study of supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment processes on green coconut fiber to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Bioresource Technology , 309(April), 123387. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123387
) and for the production of biochar (Liu & Balasubramanian, 2014Liu, Z., & Balasubramanian, R. (2014). A comparative study of nitrogen conversion during pyrolysis of coconut fiber, its corresponding biochar and their blends with lignite. Bioresource Technology , 151, 85-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.043

Biochar is the solid material obtained from biomass pyrolyzed in an environment with little or no oxygen (Placido, Capareda, & Karthikeyan, 2016Placido, J., Capareda, S., & Karthikeyan, R. (2016). Production of humic substances from cotton stalks biochar by fungal treatment with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 13, 31-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.seta.2015.11.004
); this material is rich in carbon and applied to soil to improve its attributes (Lehmann & Stephen, 2015Lehmann, J., & Stephen, J. (2015). Biochar for Environmental Management (2nd ed.). London, UK: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780203762264
). In the tropical soils of Brazil, the maintenance and improvement of carbon (C) stocks are challenging since the decomposition of organic C by soil microorganisms is rapid and stimulated by high temperatures and soil moisture (Leite, Iwata, & Araújo, 2014Leite, L. F. C., Iwata, B. de F., & Araújo, A. S. F. (2014). Soil organic matter pools in a tropical savanna under agroforestry system in Northeastern Brazil. Revista Árvore, 38(4), 711-723. DOI: 10.1590/s0100-67622014000400014
). These characteristics are prevalent in sandy soils, characteristic of the new agricultural frontiers of the country.

Although sandy soils are favorable to mechanization, they also possess a high susceptibility to erosion, low natural fertility, a low surface area of particles, and a low water retention capacity (Uzoma et al., 2011Uzoma, K. C., Inoue, M., Andry, H., Fujimaki, H., Zahoor, A., & Nishihara, E. (2011). Effect of cow manure biochar on maize productivity under sandy soil condition. Soil Use and Management , 27(2), 205-212. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2011.00340.x
). They also possess high porosity, with the predominance of macropores, which causes water to quickly seep into the soil, with little water retention on the surface in the upper horizons where the crop roots are.

Therefore, the adoption of adequate soil management practices is important to provide regular inputs of organic carbon (C) and to increase carbon stocks. This strategy improves the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in the long term (Guimarães et al., 2013Guimarães, D. V., Gonzaga, M. I. S., Silva, T. O., Silva, T. L., Silva Dias, N., & Matias, M. I. S. (2013). Soil organic matter pools and carbon fractions in soil under different land uses. Soil and Tillage Research, 126, 177-182. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2012.07.010
). One of the practices used to increase soil organic matter is the use of biochar as a soil conditioner to improve water retention, intensify biological activity, increase carbon sequestration and, consequently, improve soil fertility and crop yield (Głąb, Palmowska, Zaleski, & Gondek, 2016Głąb, T., Palmowska, J., Zaleski, T., & Gondek, K. (2016). Effect of biochar application on soil hydrological properties and physical quality of sandy soil. Geoderma, 281, 11-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.06.028
). However, biochar might present different properties depending on the source from which it was produced. Therefore, this work aimed to characterize the biochar produced from coconut fruit residues and to evaluate the benefits of its application in sandy soils in terms of the retention capacity for water and nutrients.

The sandy-textured soil (75.6% sand, 5.6% silt, and 18.8% clay), classified as a Quartzarenic Neosol (Santos et al., 2018Santos, H. G., Jacomine, P. K. T., Anjos, L. H. C., Oliveira, V. Á., Lumbreras, J. F., Coelho, M. R., … Cunha, T. J. F. (2018). Sistema brasileiro de classificação de solos (5a ed.). Brasília, DF: Embrapa Solos.), was collected in an area with native vegetation in the Chapada dos Guimarães plateau, Mato Grosso state, Brazil (15°25.707’ S 55°46.746’ W). The soil was dried and sieved (2 mm mesh size), and the chemical characterization was performed according to the method by (Teixeira, Donagemma, Fontana, & Teixeira, 2017Teixeira, P. C., Donagemma, G. K., Fontana, A., & Teixeira, W. G. (Eds.), (2017). Manual de métodos de análise de solo (3. ed.). Brasília, DF: Embrapa.) (Table 1).

The green coconut fruits were collected, crushed, and dried naturally. The coconut biochar was produced in slow pyrolysis in a handcrafted retort furnace, and the internal temperature was monitored with a type K thermocouple, reaching a maximum of 661.9°C. The biochar was crushed, ground and sieved through sieves with 2 and 0.2 mm mesh sizes, and the fraction used in the experiment was that retained between both sieves.

Coconut biochar was characterized in terms of its gravimetric yield, bulk density (Teixeira et al., 2017Teixeira, P. C., Donagemma, G. K., Fontana, A., & Teixeira, W. G. (Eds.), (2017). Manual de métodos de análise de solo (3. ed.). Brasília, DF: Embrapa.), pH, electrical conductivity, and effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento [MAPA], 2014Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento [MAPA]. (2014). Manual de métodos analíticos oficiais para fertilizantes e corretivos. Brasília, DF: MAPA/SDA/CGAL.). The contents of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N) were determined in a CHN analyzer (Series 680, LECO Corporation World Headquarters, St. Joseph, MI, USA). The contents of macro- (P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, and B) were determined according to the methodology described in the Manual of Chemical Analyses of Plants (Silva, 2009Silva, F. C. , (2009). Manual de análises químicas de solos, plantas e fertilizantes (2a ed.). Brasília, DF: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica. ). Raman scattering measurements were performed using a spectrometer (Horiba, INC. model HR-800) coupled to a microscope (50X objective lens), through which a laser beam produced by a HeNe excitation source was fired and collected with a wavelength of 633 nm. The spectra obtained were analyzed to obtain the intensity, line width at half height, and wavenumber (or Raman shift). The thermal stability of the in natura coconut fruit and its biochar was determined by using a thermal analyzer (DTG-60H Shimadzu Corporation, Japan) in a compressed air atmosphere with a flow of 100 mL min.-1 and heating rate of 10°C min.-1 from ambient temperature to 700°C. Images were obtained using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), model SSX-550 (Shimadzu Corporation, Japan). Based on images, the diameter of pores was measured using Meazure software (C Thing Software). The specific surface area of biochar was determined by the principle of adsorption of polar liquid (Brunauer, Emmett, & Teller, 1938Brunauer, S., Emmett, P. H., & Teller, E. (1938). Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 60(2), 309-319. DOI: 10.1021/ja01269a023

The evaluation of biochar water retention capacity was performed by using PVC cylinders (100 mm diameter and 500 mm length) (Eykelbosh, Johnson, & Couto, 2015Eykelbosh, A. J., Johnson, M. S., & Couto, E. G. (2015). Biochar decreases dissolved organic carbon but not nitrate leaching in relation to vinasse application in a Brazilian sugarcane soil. Journal of Environmental Management, 149, 9-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.09.033
). To avoid soil loss, a 0.25 mm mesh and a thin layer of fiberglass were placed at the bottom of the tubes.

The first 100 mm of each tube was filled with soil, after which the tubes were filled with soil containing biochar until reaching 400 mm. The treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% biochar per weight of air-dried soil. For each treatment, four replications were performed. Samples from each treatment were collected to determine the initial soil moisture. The drainage hole in each PVC tube was sealed, and distilled water was added until reaching a water depth of 20 mm under the soil. After 48 hours of saturation, drainage of the gravitational water was performed with the aid of a vacuum pump (-30.0 kPa) coupled to the drainage hole of each column. After drainage, samples from the 0-100, 100-200, 200-300, and 300-400 mm layers were removed for moisture content determination. The retained moisture was determined from the difference between the final saturated mass and initial mass and the dry mass.

Nutrient retention experiment followed the same procedure as that used for moisture retention evaluation. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design, with four replications and six treatments: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% biochar per weight of air-dried fine earth and fertilizer (2.198 g of P2O5 and 0.5495 g of KCl). The tubes were filled in such a manner that the first 100 mm from the bottom contained only fertilized soil. From this point to 300 mm above, the columns were filled with mixtures of soil and biochar specific to each treatment and supplemented with fertilizer. To each tube, 750 mL of distilled water was added to reach the field capacity of the soil. Daily, for eight days, 250 mL of distilled water was added (31.8303 mm irrigation depth) via dripping in the center of each column. After this period, soil in the upper 300 mm from each column was removed and homogenized, and a sample was removed for chemical analysis according to the methodology of Teixeira et al. (2017Teixeira, P. C., Donagemma, G. K., Fontana, A., & Teixeira, W. G. (Eds.), (2017). Manual de métodos de análise de solo (3. ed.). Brasília, DF: Embrapa.).

Effects of coconut biochar application on water and nutrient retention in the soil was analyzed through regression analysis. For the data that did not present a normal distribution, Monte Carlo analysis was performed. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical software R commander (R Core Team, 2019R Core Team. (2019). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, AT: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Recovered from http://www.r-project.org/

The pyrolysis of coconut fruits resulted in a gravimetric yield of approximately 1/3 of the raw material weight (36.28 ±1.33%) and a low bulk density (220.00 ± 0.01 kg m-3). The electrical conductivity of biochar (125.8 ± 0.01 µS m-1) was high in relation to that of the in natura coconut fruit (35.2 ± 0.005 µS m-1) due to increase in the concentration of soluble salts during the pyrolysis process (Limwikran, Kheoruenromne, Suddhiprakarn, Prakongkep, & Gilkes, 2018Limwikran, T., Kheoruenromne, I., Suddhiprakarn, A., Prakongkep, N., & Gilkes, R. J. (2018). Dissolution of K, Ca, and P from biochar grains in tropical soils. Geoderma , 312 (October 2017), 139-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.10.022
). The biochar possessed an alkaline pH (9.03 ± 0.05), in contrast to acid pH of the in natura coconut (4.50 ± 0.01). The alkalinity of biochar is influenced by presence of organic functional groups (COOH and OH), carbonates (CaCO3 and MgCO3), and alkaline salts (Prakongkep, Gilkes, & Wiriyakitnateekul, 2015Prakongkep, N., Gilkes, R. J., & Wiriyakitnateekul, W. (2015). Forms and solubility of plant nutrient elements in tropical plant waste biochars. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 178(5), 732-740. DOI: 10.1002/jpln.201500001
). The influence of organic functional groups on pH decreases with increases in pyrolysis temperature due to thermal decomposition, whereas the formation of carbonates and alkaline metals is favored by temperatures above 500°C (Yuan, Xu, & Zhang, 2011Yuan, J.-H., Xu, R.-K., & Zhang, H. (2011). The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Bioresource Technology , 102(3), 3488-3497. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.018

The ECEC was 9.53 ± 0.57 cmol kg-1, so this biochar had low negative charges, with an ECEC value similar to those of 1:1 phyllosilicates such as kaolinite. ECEC varies as a function of pyrolysis temperature (Jegajeevagan et al., 2016Jegajeevagan, K., Mabilde, L., Gebremikael, M. T., Ameloot, N., De Neve, S., Leinweber, P., & Sleutel, S. (2016). Artisanal and controlled pyrolysis-based biochars differ in biochemical composition, thermal recalcitrance, and biodegradability in soil. Biomass and Bioenergy, 84, 1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.10.025
); high pyrolysis temperatures can volatilize or decompose acid functional groups (Song & Guo, 2012Song, W., & Guo, M. (2012). Quality variations of poultry litter biochar generated at different pyrolysis temperatures. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 94, 138-145. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2011.11.018
), resulting in fewer cation exchange sites.

The C contents in coconut fruit and its biochar were 45.31 and 71.68% on a dry matter basis, respectively (Table 2); this increase in carbon content occurred due to the loss by volatilization of main biomass constituents (hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon) during pyrolysis (Lehmann & Joseph, 2009Lehmann, J., & Joseph, S. (2009). Biochar for environmental management : an introduction. In J. Lehmann, & S. Joseph (Eds.), Biochar for environmental management: science and technology (Vol. 1, p. 1-12). London, UK: Earthscan.). The concentration of N for coconut fruits was 0.5%, and for biochar, it was 0.99% on a dry matter basis (Table 2). High N concentration occurred due to low pyrolysis temperature, given that an increase in temperature reduces the concentration of N in biochar (Zheng, Wang, Deng, Herbert, & Xing, 2013Zheng, H., Wang, Z., Deng, X., Herbert, S., & Xing, B. (2013a). Impacts of adding biochar on nitrogen retention and bioavailability in agricultural soil. Geoderma , 206(9), 32-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.04.018

The concentration of H in the biochar was lower than concentration in the in natura coconut fruit (Table 2). A reduction in H content after pyrolysis was also reported by (Liu, Quek, Kent Hoekman, & Balasubramanian, 2013Liu, Z., Quek, A., Kent Hoekman, S., & Balasubramanian, R. (2013). Production of solid biochar fuel from waste biomass by hydrothermal carbonization. Fuel, 103, 943-949. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.07.069
), and this loss of H in the pyrolysis process occurs due to a reduction in hydroxyl functional groups (OH) and due to dehydration process (Zielińska, Oleszczuk, Charmas, Skubiszewska-Zięba, & Pasieczna-Patkowska, 2015Zielińska, A., Oleszczuk, P., Charmas, B., Skubiszewska-Zięba, J., & Pasieczna-Patkowska, S. (2015). Effect of sewage sludge properties on the biochar characteristic. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis , 112, 201-213. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2015.01.025
). Low H:C elemental ratio (Table 2) indicates development of aromatic structures in the biochar, given that lower the H:C ratio is, greater the development of aromatic structures in the biochar (López, Marco, Caballero, Laresgoiti, & Adrados, 2011López, A., Marco, I., Caballero, B. M., Laresgoiti, M. F., & Adrados, A. (2011). Influence of time and temperature on pyrolysis of plastic wastes in a semi-batch reactor. Chemical Engineering Journal, 173(1), 62-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.07.037
; Wu et al., 2012Wu, W., Yang, M., Feng, Q., McGrouther, K., Wang, H., Lu, H., & Chen, Y. (2012). Chemical characterization of rice straw-derived biochar for soil amendment. Biomass and Bioenergy , 47, 268-276. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.09.034
), andgreater its recalcitrance (Zheng et al., 2013Zheng, H., Wang, Z., Deng, X., Zhao, J., Luo, Y., Novak, J., … Xing, B. (2013b). Characteristics and nutrient values of biochars produced from giant reed at different temperatures. Bioresource Technology , 130, 463-471. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.12.044

Table 2
Chemical characteristics of the in natura Coconut Fruit and Coconut Biochar.

Figure 1 shows the behavior of the D-band (1,355.7 cm-1) and G-band (1,599.4 cm-1) positions for the coconut biochar sample. According to the degradation model (Ferrari & Robertson, 2000Ferrari, A. C., & Robertson, J. (2000). Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon. Physical Review B, 61(20), 14095-14107. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.61.14095
), the amorphization route results in a ratio between the integrated areas of the D and G bands (ID IG -1) of 0.9360 and a growing G band shift with the transformation process of crystalline graphite into nanocrystalline graphite.

The presence of D band is a signature of degree of amorphization, since this band is not related to the selection rules of the detectable vibrational modes through Raman scattering, according to structure of the graphite crystalline lattice (Tuinstra & Koenig, 1970Tuinstra, F., & Koenig, J. L. (1970). Raman spectrum of graphite. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 53(3), 1126-1130. DOI: 10.1063/1.1674108
). Formation of amorphous structures probably occurs due to decomposition of amorphous organic structures during the pyrolysis process (Mendonça, Cunha, Soares, Tristão, & Lago, 2017Mendonça, F. G., Cunha, I. T., Soares, R. R., Tristão, J. C., & Lago, R. M. (2017). Tuning the surface properties of biochar by thermal treatment. Bioresource Technology , 246(May), 28-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.07.099

The thermogravimetric analysis indicated a higher thermal stability of biochar than coconut fruits since thermal decomposition of biochar began at higher temperatures. The first mass loss occurred at approximately 100°C due to water loss of the materials; however, for the biochar, this water loss was subtle (Figure 2). The greater thermal stability of biochar is demonstrated by temperatures at beginning of the second mass loss, 204 and 326°C for coconut fruits and biochar, respectively. At end ofthermogravimetric analysis, the residual mass percentage was 8.76% higher for the biochar (12.43%) than coconut fruits (3.76%). This lower mass loss for biochar occurred due to its greater thermal stability. The thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and H:C ratio studies evidenced the recalcitrance of coconut fruit biochar, a factor that confers to the biochar greater resistance to decomposition and a longer residence time in soil.

SEM analysis allowed visualization of the remaining porous structures in the biochar (Figure 3). Coconut biochar presented a pore diameter of 9.51 ± 3.44 µm due to the resistance of cell structures, such as cell walls. This value is similar to that reported by Batista et al. (2018Batista, E. M. C. C., Shultz, J., Matos, T. T. S., Fornari, M. R., Ferreira, T. M., Szpoganicz, B., … Mangrich, A. S. (2018). Effect of surface and porosity of biochar on water holding capacity aiming indirectly at preservation of the Amazon biome. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-9. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-28794-z
), in which the value is approximately 10 µm. The thermal decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose revealed the cell wall structure, which is mostly composed of lignin (Lee et al., 2013Lee, Y., Park, J., Ryu, C., Gang, K. S., Yang, W., Park, Y.-K., … Hyun, S. (2013). Comparison of biochar properties from biomass residues produced by slow pyrolysis at 500°C. Bioresource Technology, 148, 196-201. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.135
). The large specific surface area of biochar (208.53 ± 2.43 m2 g-1), evidenced the biochar potential for nutrientes and water retention. The porous structure and specific surface area reinforce the potential of biochar for retention of nutrients, solutes, organic compounds, and gases (Lima et al., 2018Lima, J. R. S., Moraes Silva, W., Medeiros, E. V., Duda, G. P., Corrêa, M. M., Martins Filho, A. P., … Hammecker, C. (2018). Effect of biochar on physicochemical properties of a sandy soil and maize growth in a greenhouse experiment. Geoderma , 319(April 2017), 14-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.12.033

In all treatments, soil moisture increased with depth. The moisture was reduced, however, in treatments with biochar at a depth of 300-400 mm, a strip in which there was no biochar incorporation (Figure 4). Water retention was also higher with higher biochar contents at all depths of samples in which the material was incorporated. This result means that the efficiency of water retention is dependent on incorporation of biochar into the soil.

The ability of biochar to retain water is strongly related to a large surface area and porosity of the biochar (Suliman et al., 2017Suliman, W., Harsh, J. B., Abu-Lail, N. I., Fortuna, A. M., Dallmeyer, I., & Garcia-Pérez, M. (2017). The role of biochar porosity and surface functionality in augmenting hydrologic properties of a sandy soil. Science of the Total Environment, 574, 139-147. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.025
), characteristics that are corroborated by analyses of the specific surface area and diameter of pores in coconut biochar. These characteristics reveal the utilization potential of coconut biochar to increase water retention in soil, especially in soils that possess low water retention capacity, such as in the case of Quartzarenic Neosol, which possesses a predominance of macropores and mesopores (>50 µm and 30-50 µm, respectively) and low amounts of organic matter and clay.

The application of biochar, in addition to increasing organic matter, favors moisture conservation and can be a useful tool in the management of sandy soils. The maintenance of soil moisture is fundamental for the establishment of crops and ensures that plants suffer less stress in critical periods of hydric deficit (Cha et al., 2016Cha, J. S., Park, S. H., Jung, S. C., Ryu, C., Jeon, J. K., Shin, M. C., & Park, Y. K. (2016). Production and utilization of biochar: A review. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 40, 1-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.jiec.2016.06.002
). The application of biochar in sandy soils reduces hydric stress and increases the photosynthetic activity of plants (Tan et al., 2017Tan, X.-fei, Liu, S.-bo, Liu, Y.-guo, Gu, Y.-ling, Zeng, G.-ming, Hu, X.-jiang, … Jiang, L.-hua. (2017). Biochar as potential sustainable precursors for activated carbon production: Multiple applications in environmental protection and energy storage. Bioresource Technology , 227, 359-372. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.12.083
). Furthermore, the effects of biochar on soil water retention are similar to those provided by humus (Bruun, Petersen, Hansen, Holm, & Hauggaard-Nielsen, 2014Bruun, E. W., Petersen, C. T., Hansen, E., Holm, J. K., & Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. (2014). Biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil improves root growth and increases water retention. Soil Use and Management, 30(1), 109-118. DOI: 10.1111/sum.12102

The addition of coconut biochar to the sandy soil promoted alterations in chemical characteristics that are essential to improve soil fertility. Characteristics such as soil pH, ECEC, and base saturation increased (Monte Carlo, p = 0.001, randomizations: 1000) (Figure 5). The rise in soil pH is associated with the presence of hydroxyls (OH) and bicarbonate (HCO3 ) (Norström, Bylund, Vestin, & Lundström, 2012Norström, S. H., Bylund, D., Vestin, J. L. K., & Lundström, U. S. (2012). Initial effects of wood ash application to soil and soil solution chemistry in a small, boreal catchment. Geoderma , 187, 85-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.04.011
). The increases in ECEC and base saturation occur mainly due to biochar being a porous material and consequently possessing a large surface area that can be oxidized and increase ECEC (Tan et al., 2017Tan, X.-fei, Liu, S.-bo, Liu, Y.-guo, Gu, Y.-ling, Zeng, G.-ming, Hu, X.-jiang, … Jiang, L.-hua. (2017). Biochar as potential sustainable precursors for activated carbon production: Multiple applications in environmental protection and energy storage. Bioresource Technology , 227, 359-372. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.12.083
) and due to the presence of negative charges in the carboxylic groups of the biochar (Chintala, Subramanian, Fortuna, & Schumacher, 2016Chintala, R., Subramanian, S., Fortuna, A. M., & Schumacher, T. E. (2016). Examining biochar impacts on soil abiotic and biotic processes and exploring the potential for pyrosequencing analysis. Biochar Application: Essential Soil Microbial Ecology, 2016, 133-162. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-803433-0.00006-0

Treatments with addition of biochar presented greater retention of phosphorus and potassium (Figure 5), also suggesting that any biochar concentration is better than the control for this type of soil (Monte Carlo, P and K, p = 0.001, randomizations: 1000). Increases in the concentrations of phosphorus and potassium in the soil with the addition of biochar occurred due to pH increase (5.07 for the control and 6.05 for the treatment with 5% biochar) and ECEC increase through the increase in C content. Management systems and land use approaches that favor the preservation of soil organic matter (MOS) contribute to a higher availability of P in the soil, mainly related to the increase in Po (organic phosphorus), reducing the effects of the inorganic adsorption of phosphorus in the mineral phase of the soil (Cunha, Gama-Rodrigues, Costa, & Velloso, 2007Cunha, G. M., Gama-Rodrigues, A. C., Costa, G. S., & Velloso, A. C. X. (2007). Fósforo orgânico em solos sob florestas montanas, pastagens e eucalipto no norte fluminense. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 31(4), 667-672. DOI: 10.1590/s0100-06832007000400007

The availability of Ca and Mg did not change with the addition of biochar (Monte Carlo, Ca – P = 0.004, and Mg – P = 0.001, randomizations: 1000) (Figure 5). Although the concentrations of Ca and Mg increased with the pyrolysis process (Table 2), these changes were not enough to increase their concentrations in the soil. The chemical improvements observed are important for the management of sandy soils since they reduce the precipitation of phosphorus with Al and Fe and decrease the losses of Ca, Mg, and K through lixiviation, decreasing the risks for agriculture in such areas.

The addition of coconut biochar to the sandy soil increased the water retention capacity at all sampled depths. Therefore, the application of biochar might be a useful tool in the management of sandy soils to reduce stress of plants in critical periods of water restriction.

The application of coconut biochar raised the pH, ECEC, and BS, as well as the retention of phosphorus and potassium in sandy soil, thus promoting improvements in fertility and cropping possibility in areas with similar soil characteristics.

The authors would like to thank the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Mato Grosso (Fapemat) and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes) for financial support

Bioenergy CAP supports sought to help decarbonise farming – Agriland

23 September, 2021

Bioenergy has a “considerable role to play” in the future decarbonisation of farming – with measures under the next Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) vital to realising this.

This was a key point that the Irish Bioenergy Association (IrBEA) highlighted in its recent CAP consultation response.

Commenting, Seán Finan, CEO at IrBEA, said: “The bioenergy sector has a significant role to play in addressing some of the key challenges and opportunities that farmers, foresters and the broader agricultural industry face.”

Arguing that this should be recognised in the drafting of the Irish CAP Strategic Plan, Finan continued:

“Bioenergy has a considerable role to play in decarbonisation and the emissions reduction efforts of agriculture through development and mobilisation of energy crop, biomass and biogas industries.”

“Bioenergy has a considerable role to play in decarbonisation and the emissions reduction efforts of agriculture through development and mobilisation of energy crop, biomass and biogas industries.”

Providing examples of this, the CEO listed: “The sector can drive improvement in water quality through the use of biochar as a filter media. Biochar can also be used as a soil and slurry enhancer and animal feed additive.

“Biogas as a fuel can decarbonise heating and vehicles. Chemical fertiliser can be displaced with digestate from biogas production.

“Wood fuel production through the Wood Fuel Quality Assurance [WFQA] scheme is currently providing a market for thinning material as part of sustainable forest management,” he added.

Firstly with European Innovation Partnership (EIP-AGRI) Operational Groups, the association said this should be enhanced and developed, with a bigger budget.

IrBEA is the lead partner on a current EIP project called the “Small Biogas Demonstration Programme” which is investigating the deployment of small scale biogas facilities on farms.

“This form of research and development is important to bring together a range of interested parties including farmers, technical specialists and researchers to find innovative and practical solutions to common issues at farm level,” the association says.

Meanwhile, IrBEA also wants to see flexibility within the design of the proposed Knowledge Transfer Programme to accommodate bioenergy-based focused Knowledge Transfer groups.

Finan said that “inclusion of provision for bioenergy in the CAP Strategic Plan measures would be a positive development for the sector”.

“It would recognise the significant role that the bioenergy sector has to play in the decarbonisation and emissions reduction efforts of farming and the broader agriculture industry.

“We look forward to engaging with the Minister and Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine officials to discuss the role of bioenergy in delivering on the overall CAP Strategic Plan objectives,” Finan concluded.

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Readworks developing possible solutions and biochar answer key

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Enhanced adsorption of tetracycline by the modified tea-based biochar with the developed …

23 September, 2021