## Biochar

1 September, 2017

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When I first heard all the hype surrounding biochar, it was hard for me to believe that a material that looked as simple as charcoal could be the solution to some really serious issues. Biochar may be overlooked as simple pieces of charcoal, but don’t let its humble appearance fool you.

From biochar’s ability to sequester carbon out of the atmosphere and back into the ground to its nutrient absorption and storage properties, biochar has the potential to ensure soil fertility for millennia.

Biochar is essentially a form of charcoal that is made from the burning of organic matter (crop residues, wood chips, green wastes) with little to no oxygen. This happens through a process called pyrolysis. Burning organic wastes produces oil, gas, and charcoal. Ancient cultures have been using charcoal in agriculture for thousands of years, but it wasn’t until very recently that the use of charcoal in agriculture was coined the term “biochar.”

A post shared by Oregon Biochar Solutions (@oregonbiocharsolutions) on Aug 6, 2017 at 9:44am PDT

When the organic matter is burned and charred, the material that it produces is very porous and fine-grained, which is extremely important for a variety of reasons.

Biochar can be effectively created at home in a pit, self-made kiln, or produced by expensive machines. The quality of biochar can range from the charcoal made in a bonfire, to charcoal that is developed using a professional kiln that burns it at the perfect temperature and keeps the material away from all oxygen.

Many biochar systems can use the oil and gases produced by the combustion of the organic matter to fuel the whole process, thus relying on no other external energy source. While the quality of biochar is related to its effectiveness, there are methods of making biochar in cylinder pits, using no metal machines, that still keep out oxygen to prevent the charcoal from combusting and turning into ash.

To learn methods of making biochar, view the links below:

There are a variety of benefits associated with using biochar as a soil amendment. Ideally, these benefits lead to higher levels of fertility in your soil.

Water and air are primary elements that contribute to the loss of nutrients in soil. In places where there is heavy rainfall, nutrients like calcium and phosphorous are easily lost through groundwater leaching where they are carried away from plant’s roots and soil surfaces by running water.

Many of the nutrients that are essential for the health of plants exist in the form of cations, which hold a positive electric charge. Since carbon is negatively charged, the cations are attracted to the carbon structure like a huge magnet. Carbon plays an essential role in the process of soil holding onto cations. Using carbon allows the nutrients to stay on the surface of the soil where they are available for plants.

The capacity to which soil can hold cations is referred to as the Cation Exchange Capacity. Biochar counteracts the effects of nutrient leaching by increasing the cation exchange capacity of the soil. Certain types of Biochar even have the capability of absorbing nutrients of negative charge, called anions. Essentially, biochar has incredible abilities when it comes to the absorption of nutrients, and as an effective solution to prevent nutrient leaching.

These same nutrient absorption properties of biochar can also be used to contain conventional fertilizers. This prevents pollution and reduces the need for an overabundance of these chemicals. When conventional fertilizers come into contact with biochar, the charcoal will hold onto these dangerous chemicals. By absorbing and storing them, the biochar prevents the chemicals from flowing through the soil and into our watersheds where they enter fragile ecosystems.

Biochar can be a useful tool in sandy soils where water is easily lost. Along with it’s nutrient absorption abilities, biochar also has amazing water retention properties. The biochar’s porous texture acts as a sponge, keeping water reserved in the surface of the soil to be used by plants at any time. This can be a game changer in environments where water is easily lost by giving your plants the upper hand in soils with water drainage issues.

Perhaps one of the most interesting benefits biochar has is providing a home for microbial communities. The microscopic pores can provide perfect “condominiums” for beneficial microorganisms. These pores can be the perfect size for microbes to live with access to air and water. Biochar has been found to increase the functional diversity of microorganisms, as well as their metabolic activity in certain soil types.

A post shared by Nick (@kingnecrosis) on Jul 16, 2017 at 4:07am PDT

Biochar also provides safe refuge for microbes experiencing harsh environmental conditions, while also providing a more habitable space for their numbers to proliferate. The type of biochar and soil environment are factors that are vitally important to how the char will affect the soil microbiota, so don’t count on the leftover charcoal from a bonfire to have specific benefits for the microbes in your soil.

Not only does biochar nourish the health of our soil, but just the very act of making biochar sequesters carbon into the ground instead of it’s alternate path of being turned into CO2.

Since charcoal is pure carbon, it stays stored in the earth for thousands of years until it turns into a diamond. This tips the scale of human influenced climate change, encouraging practices that are carbon negative.

Biochar is as ancient as the first charred tree that dropped it’s charcoal to the ground. Just as biochar has been used by the ecosystem for billions of years, biochar remains ancient in human practices as well. One such civilization can be found in the Amazon around 2,000 BC.

A post shared by Maisie McNeice (@maisiemcneice) on Aug 1, 2017 at 8:49am PDT

For a long time it remained a mystery how ancient Amazonian societies could have established large civilizations given the amount of soil nutrients that were available in the Amazonian region. It wasn’t until extremely fertile black patches of soil reaching 6-8ft in height were found in these areas, dating back to 2,000 BC, that this mystery finally started to unravel.

The parcels of extremely fertile land provided the realization that Amazonian peoples were increasing the carrying capacity of their civilizations in direct correlation to when they started to integrate charcoal into their agricultural lands.

When societies started using charcoal as a soil amendment, they developed higher levels of soil fertility that enabled higher populations. These soils, called “Terra pretta,” still exist and provide higher amounts of fertility than the surrounding areas without Terra pretta soil.

Biochar’s nutrient absorption properties can be harmful to soil and plants for the first few years if you are using plain charcoal. Biochar has such a high nutrient capacity that it acts as a sponge, collecting all of the nutrients around it. Unchecked, this can lead to stunted plants and infertile soils. However, after a few years the biochar will have absorbed enough nutrients and will have been inoculated with enough microbes to develop beneficial effects. Though with the right technique, waiting a few years is not necessary and biochar can be activated with nutrients before application.

A post shared by Bohdan (@bohepi) on Aug 4, 2017 at 1:52am PDT

The easiest way to activate biochar is by combining it with active compost and letting it age. No more than a 1:1 ratio can be used when mixing biochar with compost. This will inoculate your biochar with microbes and load it with nutrients so it won’t pull from the soil. This method is very convenient, but keep in mind that you should never have more biochar than compost.

Another recipe is available from Pacific Biochar:

In activating, it is useful to use a material that is high in nitrogen. Even peeing on biochar can serve to activate the charcoal, as it absorbs the nitrogen in your urine. There are many different methods of activating char, but make sure that you do not go over 60% water content or else it will smell bad and probably be poisonous to your plants.

Other recipes use worm castings, rock dust powder, and rice bran. These three materials can be added at different rates for different types of activated biochar, but the amount of biochar will always be at least 90% of the mixture, and the other three ingredients will make 10%.

When applying biochar, you are going to want the soil around the root zone to be 5-10% biochar. You can either till it into the soil before planting season, or mix in 5-10% of biochar in your mulch before laying it down. You can also use 5-10% biochar mixed in with potting soil for potted plants. It does not have to all be applied at once. Integrating biochar slowly might be a good idea, especially if you have no till.

Biochar will absorb any nutrient you give it, so experiment and have fun!

Today’s Homestead Story about biochar was written by Adam McWilliams of Nifty Homestead. Adam lives on a farm in Eastern Washington where he is co-farming three acres of organic vegetables and melons as well as working to make self-made fertilizers and microbial inoculants.

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## Carbon Roots (carbonrootsintl)

1 September, 2017

## NORTH AMERICA BIOCHAR MARKET FORECAST 20172025

1 September, 2017

KEY FINDINGS
The North America biochar market is expected to hold the highest share by the end of the forecast period of 20172025 by exhibiting a CAGR growth of 13.02% and generating around $1550 million. MARKET INSIGHTS The market is mainly segmented on the basis of feedstock, application, and technology. The ample availability of cheap and wide variety of feedstock combined with the increasing usage of biochar in carbon sequestration process can be majorly attributed to the market boom. However, the lack of incentives and tax rebates and the significant loss of biochar during applications and transportations are proving to be a challenge for the market. COMPETITIVE INSIGHTS Avello Bioenergy, Diacarbon Energy Inc, Biochar Supreme, Vega Biofuels Inc and Tolero Energy are few of the leading companies in the North American market. ## north america biochar market forecast 2017-2025 1 September, 2017 The North America biochar market is expected to hold the highest share by the end of the forecast period of 2017-2025 by exhibiting a CAGR growth of 13.02% and generating around$1550 million.

The market is mainly segmented on the basis of feedstock, application, and technology. The ample availability of cheap and wide variety of feedstock combined with the increasing usage of biochar in carbon sequestration process can be majorly attributed to the market boom. However, the lack of incentives and tax rebates and the significant loss of biochar during applications and transportations are proving to be a challenge for the market.

Avello Bioenergy, Diacarbon Energy Inc, Biochar Supreme, Vega Biofuels Inc and Tolero Energy are few of the leading companies in the North American market.

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## Pyrolysis Diagram

1 September, 2017

## asia-pacific biochar market forecast 2017-2025

1 September, 2017

The Asia-Pacific biochar market is expected to grow with an anticipated CAGR of 20.52% over the years of 2017-2025, increasing its market worth in the process from $120 million to$659 million. Thus, it is touted to be the fastest growing region for the market.

The rapid economic and agricultural growth in the APAC countries, combined with the increasing support for biochar demonstration projects and experiments is largely fueling the market growth. The market segments include feedstock (agriculture waste, residential waste, biomass plantation, animal manure, forestry waste, etc.), technology (slow pyrolysis, microwave pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.) and applications (industrial, agriculture and livestock, horticulture, air, soil and water treatment, etc.). However, the lack of awareness regarding the benefits of biochar and the technological and financial barriers in the region are creating major issues for the further expansion of the market.

Pacific Biochar, Agri-Tech Producers LLC, Biochar Now, Biogreen-Energy, Biochar Supreme, Vega Biofuels Inc and Cool Planet Energy System are some of the prominent players in the market.

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## Organic Waste can be used for Producing Power Resources, States New Study

2 September, 2017

A study led by Uisung Lee of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory found that various organic wastes such as wood, food, paper, and yard trimmings, which emits significant amount of methane per year in the United States, could be efficiently used for producing liquid fuels and renewable natural gases such as diesel and gasoline. Published in the Cleaner Production Journal, this study has a motive of helping environment with signifying some waste-to-energy production ways while reducing air pollutants and methane emissions.

The benefits of waste-to-energy technologies

Author of this study and a postdoctoral appointee in Argonne’s Energy Systems Division, Lee shared that this paper shares the importance of using landfill waste to produce fuel instead of letting them decay. This report introduces various ways that can be allot us with potential power resources and additionally help to reduce methane emissions. The concentration of methane in the landfill gas impacts global warming 30 times more than carbon dioxide. Furthermore, various ways that are used for minimizing the impact of methane on environment cannot efficiently control these emissions. Hence, there was a need for finding a better way of eliminating municipal waste.

There are various ways of producing fuel by using municipal waste that include thermochemical ways, such as hydrothermal liquefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification and biochemical ways, such as fermentation and anaerobic digestion, and thermochemical. From these process, various types of energy products can be produced that include hydrocarbon fuels such as jet fuel, diesel, and gasoline and other fuels such as bio-oil, bio-char, and renewable natural gas.

CMFE News brings you the biggest and the breaking news items from across the globe. The ever-growing database offers its readers a wide coverage in fields of technology, business, science, and lifestyle. From latest innovations to emerging trends, CMFE News is one-stop-all for daily dose of vital information.

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## Effects of modified biochar on rhizosphere microecology of rice

2 September, 2017

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## Laramie company finds new use for old wood

2 September, 2017

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Rowdy Yeatts holds a handful of waste wood, which will be made into biochar, in his hands Wednesday afternoon at the High Plains Biochar headquarters. SHANNON BRODERICK/Boomerang photographer

Rowdy Yeatts explains the process of making biochar Wednesday afternoon at the High Plains Biochar headquarters south of Laramie. SHANNON BRODERICK/Boomerang photographer

Rowdy Yeatts holds a handful of waste wood, which will be made into biochar, in his hands Wednesday afternoon at the High Plains Biochar headquarters. SHANNON BRODERICK/Boomerang photographer

Rowdy Yeatts explains the process of making biochar Wednesday afternoon at the High Plains Biochar headquarters south of Laramie. SHANNON BRODERICK/Boomerang photographer

A Laramie businessman is turning waste wood into a product with a wide range of potential applications.

Rowdy Yeatts manufactures biochar, a form of charcoal made from biological materials such as wood or plant matter. He moved his company, High Plains Biochar, to Laramie earlier this year from Chardron, Nebraska.

“We’d been looking around for a better location that was a little closer to the markets we serve and had better sources of wood waste,” Yeatts said. “After evaluating a lot of different towns in western Nebraska, Wyoming and northern Colorado, we settled on Laramie.”

Biochar is formed through a process called pyrolysis, which is the burning of organic material at a high temperature in the absence of oxygen. If you’ve ever found a hard chunk of black stuff in the bottom of your campfire, that’s biochar.

Yeatts got into the business several years ago after his dog found a piece of biochar during a walk near a reservoir in Nebraska.

At his headquarters south of town, he gathers waste wood from around Laramie and stores it in large piles. Furniture makers produce peelings, the Albany County Fairgrounds disposes of animal bedding and Tiger Tree amasses wood chips, all of which can be turned into biochar.

Earlier this summer, the city of Laramie dropped off wood chips it collected after cleaning up debris from the June 27 wind storm.

“We’re keeping it out of the landfill,” City Arborist Randy Overstreet said.

The first step in the biochar process involves feeding the waste wood into a machine that chops everything into pieces roughly the same size. The pieces are fed into a large, specialized boiler, which cooks the wood over several hours, leaving behind a product that’s about 85 percent carbon. At the end of the process, the char is funneled out of the boiler into large bags, which Yeatts ships to customers around the country.

Farmers around the world have long used biochar to improve soil, according to the International Biochar Initiative. The material increases the moisture-holding capacity of the soil while also creating habitat for microorganisms, according to scientists.

Yeatts said the product is popular among organic farmers, as it reduces the need for fertilizer.

“It’s really big in the cannabis industry right now,” he said. “Down in Colorado is where we see most of our demand.”

Biochar has also been used for water filtration, as its porous surface attracts and absorbs contaminants. Other researchers are experimenting with feeding it to cattle to reduce methane production.

From an environmental perspective, biochar has promise as a means of storing carbon dioxide, Yeatts said.

“A tree spends its life pulling carbon out of the atmosphere and building its structure, and then when it dies, it falls over and decomposes and releases that carbon back into the atmosphere,” he said. “We stop that process by turning it into a stable form of carbon and putting that carbon back into the ground.”

Yeatts is planning to supply biochar to the city of Laramie, which plans to use it as it plants trees during the upcoming Sept. 9 Community Service Day. Overstreet said about 10 percent of 120 trees scheduled to be planted on the north side of Wyoming 130 near Laramie Regional Airport will have biochar planted beneath the root balls.

“We’re going to use biochar … just as a test, a comparison to see how it does compared to other trees,” Overstreet said.

One challenge facing transplanted trees, which biochar could help mitigate, is the loss of much of their root system.

“It takes them so long to regrow their root system before they can even really start growing above ground,” he said. “We’re trying to speed that process up a little bit.”

Yeatts said his long-term goal is to acquire larger equipment that can process the wood even faster than his current set-up.

“Our goal is to expand this and become much larger,” he said.

OK – I just want to know if his Mom and Dad watched Rawhide.

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## spmten how much and why does biochar reduce N2O emissions

2 September, 2017

## Effect of culturing temperatures on cadmium phytotoxicity alleviation by biochar

3 September, 2017

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

## PDF: The Biochar Debate: Charcoal's potential to reverse climate change and build soil fertility

3 September, 2017

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3 September, 2017

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Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.

From a comprehensive overview of the Biochar Market to the market size, industry chain structure, SWOT analysis, industry dynamics, and environmental analysis have all been extensively looked into.

Based on products type, the report describes major products type share of regional market. Products mentioned as follows: Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar.

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This report also offers market segment by application such as Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer and Other industry along with Market Forecast, 2017-2023 to help the clients benefit from. In addition to this, Market Concentration, Price & Factors, and Marketing Channel have been elaborately specified.

The report describes major regions market by products and application. Regions mentioned as follows: North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East & Africa.

1 Market Overview
2 Industry Chain
2.1 Industry Chain Structure
2.2 Upstream
2.3 Market
2.3.1 SWOT
2.3.2 Dynamics
3 Environmental Analysis
3.1 Policy
3.2 Economic
3.3 Technology
3.4 Market Entry
4 Market Segmentation by Type
5 Market Segmentation by Application
6 Market Segmentation by Region
7 Market Competitive
8 Major Vendors

List of Tables
List of Figures

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## biochar

5 September, 2017

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## Turning Trash into Fuel Reduces Need for Landfills, Study Finds

5 September, 2017

You know how the saying goes: One man’s trash is another man’s … fuel?

Instead of hauling food and yard waste to landfills, where it produces millions of tons of methane emissions each year, organic waste could be used to power cars, heat homes and potentially reduce the need for new landfills in the U.S., according to a new study led by Uisung Lee of Argonne National Laboratory.

In a paper published this month in the Journal of Cleaner Production, Lee and other scientists assessed the environmental benefits of various waste-to-energy production methods. The researchers found that waste from yard trimmings, paper, wood and food could produce significant amounts of renewable natural gas and liquid fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, while also avoiding emissions of methane and other harmful pollutants.

Landfill gas produced by waste contains high concentrations of methane, a potent greenhouse gas that Argonne says warms the climate about 30 times more than carbon dioxide. Although operators of large landfills are required to combust landfill gas, collecting all of it is impossible, resulting in large amounts of methane escaping into the atmosphere, according to Argonne.

In 2014, about 70 trillion pounds of waste wound up in landfills in the U.S., according to the Department of Energy. The following year, the amount of greenhouse gases that escaped from landfills in the U.S. had the same global warming impact as 29 million passenger vehicles, according to calculations by Lee based on data from the Environmental Protection Agency.

There are, however, several methods for transforming waste into fuel, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and gasification. The resulting energy products include natural gas, bio-char, bio-oil and hydrocarbon fuels, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel.

“By using waste to produce energy, we can avoid emissions from landfills and potentially reduce the need for additional landfills across the country,” Lee said.

Lee’s study also found that waste can be collected using existing infrastructure for collection and separation, which further lowers the cost for energy produced from waste.

Contact Alex Ruppenthal: @arupp aruppenthal@wttw.com | (773) 509-5623

Related stories:

June 26: Chicagoans dump more than 800,000 tons of garbage into their bins every year, but once city garbage trucks leave the alley, most of us have no idea where it all goes. We follow the trail.

June 26: About 5,000 tons of trash from the Chicago area is dumped every day at a landfill in Livingston County, but hardly any of it goes to waste. How yesterday’s trash becomes tomorrow’s energy.

June 26: From lost jewelry to criminal evidence, a Pontiac landfill that receives trash from Chicago has plenty of bizarre waste stories.

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## Moving on from the OMB

5 September, 2017

By Jenn Watt
Published Sept. 5, 2017

IT’S UNFORTUNATE that concerns and questions over what Haliburton Forest had planned for a biochar facility on Kennaway Road had to be taken to the Ontario Municipal Board in order to be answered.

Given the relatively minor tweaks to the bylaw that resulted from the process, it seems that a lot of money and time had to be spent in order to change so little. Not to mention the hard feelings and deep suspicions that only intensified as the process went on. But that’s what the OMB process is all about.

Local residents
are exercising their right, granted them by provincial legislation, to conduct hearings on municipal planning decisions.

In this case, the group of appellants was concerned about a variety of elements of the biochar proposal from noise and air quality to where the buildings would be placed on the property, the northern portion which formerly held a sawmill.

In the end, the parties settled, much to the relief of many and saving everyone, including the taxpayers, a pile of money.

The biochar facility now must receive approvals from the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change

on several aspects of the facility including noise and air reviews.

The Forest has already studied its biochar with University of Toronto academics, the results of which have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Their biochar has also been certified by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Forest general manager Malcolm Cockwell said. (Although the Forest does not intend to sell their biochar as a soil amendment, having it certified by CFIA means it could be sold as such.)

Assuming the MOECC deems this
project safe, there are many reasons for all of us to move on from the OMB process to learn more about biochar and what a facility could offer the local economy, but more importantly, what it offers for our environment.

Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming, edited by Paul Hawken, says biomass offers real benefits to slowing climate change.

“Scraps from sawmills and paper mills are valuable biomass…. Many such organic residues would either decompose on-site or get burned in slash piles, thus releasing their stored carbon regardless (albeit perhaps over longer periods of time). When organic matter decomposes, it often releases methane and when it is burned in piles, it releases black carbon (soot). Both methane and soot increase global warming faster than carbon dioxide; simply preventing them from being emitted can yield significant benefit, beyond putting the embodied energy of biomass to productive use,” the book reads.

The process of creating biochar involves burning wood in a low-oxygen environment, which locks in much of the carbon, trapping it for hundreds of years.

Having this kind of technology within Haliburton County is an exciting prospect. If the facility is

deemed safe to proceed, the municipality should embrace it as a source of jobs in the emerging green energy industry that we will all depend on in the years to come.

## Full Text Journal Articles by Author Yuxi Yang

5 September, 2017

Perovskite ceramics and single crystals are commonly hard and brittle due to their small maximum elastic strain. Here, large-scale BaTi0.95 Co0.05 O3 (BTCO) film with a SrRuO3 (SRO) buffered layer on a 10 µm thick mica substrate is flexible with a small bending radius of 1.4 mm and semitransparent for … Read more >>

[2017, 29(26):]

Cited: 0 times

Chondrogenesis in the developing skeleton requires transformation of chondrocytes from a simple mesenchymal condensation to cells with a highly enriched extracellular matrix (ECM). This transition is in part accomplished by alterations in the chondrocyte protein transport machinery to cope with both the increased amount and large size of ECM components. … Read more >>

Dev. Biol. (Developmental biology)
[2017, 421(1):8-15]

Cited: 0 times

Biochar is being widely considered as a promising amendment agent for immobilizing heavy metals in contaminated acidic soils, where plenty of soluble Al(III) ions exist. In view of uncertain significance of the effects of coexisting Al(III) on Pb(II) sorption by biochars, this study used kenaf core biochar (KB550; high carbon, … Read more >>

Chemosphere (Chemosphere)
[2016, 161:438-445]

Cited: 0 times

Lead sorption capacity and mechanisms by sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) were investigated to determine if treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) containing metals with SDBC is feasible. It was found that the biochar derived from pyrolysis treatment of sewage sludge could effectively remove Pb(2+) from acidic solution with the capacities of … Read more >>

Water Res. (Water research)
[2012, 46(3):854-862]

Cited: 61 times

TIANLONG SONG, XIN LI, ZHIHUAI LAN, YUAN XUE, LANJIN YU, ZHIGANG YAN, QINGYUAN LIU, YONG ZHENG, YUXI YANG, CUNSHENG SUN, QING SHAO, GUANG FENG, TING CHEN, BIN GAO,

The invention relates to a method used to separate ethylene and hydrogen at the same time from the dry gas of an oil refinery, in particular to a method used to separate ethylene and hydrogen from the dry gas of an oil refinery through pressure swing adsorption. The method is … Read more >>

()
[, :]

Cited: 0 times

## Global Biochar Market Is Anticipated to Register a CAGR of 15.1% During 2017–2025

5 September, 2017

Portland, OR — (SBWIRE) — 09/05/2017 — As per the report recently added by Progressive Markets on the materials and chemical sector which titled, “Global Biochar Market- Size, Trend, Share, Opportunity Analysis, and Forecast, 2014-2025” estimates that the industry would register a CAGR of 15. 1 % for the period, 2017–2025. The research serves best for key stakeholders and big market players owing to the fact that it carries an in-depth information of the continuous changes in the market dynamics.

Request Sample At: https://www.progressivemarkets.com/industry-research/biochar-market

The report incorporates an executive summary of the global biochar market which includes key findings, market trends, competitive landscape, and recent developments. It offers a brief description of the industry, such as introduction, scope, and definition. It includes Porter’s Five Forces Analysis (PFFA) to understand competition scenario of the industry. These scenarios include bargaining power of customers & buyers, industry rivalry, threat of substitutes & new entrants. The research analyzes market share by technology, feedstock, equipment, application, and region of the industry for the period, 2017–2025.

The study segments the global biochar market into feedstock, equipment, geography, and application. The industry finds application in various areas, such as energy based and non-energy based. These are further classified as source for power plant. Non-energy is categorized into carbon sequestration, mine reclamation, forestry, agriculture, and gardening. Based on equipment, the market is divided into continuous pyrolysis kiln, gasifier & cook stove, and batch pyrolysis kiln. The geographical distribution of the industry is spread from Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America Middle East & Africa (LAMEA). These areas are further categorized into countries, such as Canada, U.S., and Mexico for the North American region. The LAMEA countries included are Turkey, Brazil, and Africa. The nations of Europe discussed are France, U.K., Italy, and Germany. The Asia-Pacific countries explored in the report include Japan, China, India, and South Korea.

The report divides the global biochar market on the basis of technology and feedstock. The technology is split into pyrolysis and gasification. The pyrolysis is segmented into slow pyrolysis, fast & intermediate pyrolysis, and microwave pyrolysis. The feedstock is categorized as forestry waste, animal manure, agricultural waste, and biomass plantation. The research analyzes market size of all regions of the global biochar market during the historic period and forecast period, 2014–2016 as well as 2017–2025. It evaluates all equipment, feedstock, and technology for the historic and forecast period. It discusses big market players of the industry, such as Earth Systems, LLC, Biochar Supreme, Chargrow LLC, Vega Biofuels, Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd., Arsta Eco, Phoenix Energy, The Biochar Company, and Green Charcoal International.
The experts explore the factors which determine significance of vendors of the global biochar market. These factors include recent developments by each firm, financial & business segments, and overview of each company. The research describes the aspects that facilitate growth of the industry, such as benefits offered in form of environment and eco-sustainability would increase the demand for the market during the forecast period. Alternative aspects that promote growth of the industry are availability of cheaper feedstock and potential for waste management and water & food security is expected to grow the demand of the industry. Further, explores the factors that hampers growth of the market, such as stringent regulations and rules by the concerned governing agencies. Apart from this aspect, the other features that has decreased the consumption of the market are uncertainty technology and less consumer awareness.

Request Customization At: https://www.progressivemarkets.com/request-customization/biochar-market

The report on the global biochar market is beneficial to big market players, investors, and new entrepreneurs owing to several takeaways it offers to them which includes comprehensive evaluation of aspects that are have potential to restrict or drive the industry. The analysts explore competitive scenario which helps them to understand the present rivalry within the geographical locations. Further, they assess the opportunities that prevail within these regional distributions. an in-depth assessment of developments in the market aids manufacturers and new entrepreneurs to understand the industry behavior. The research thoroughly follows the status of the products and also provides a substantial examination of top manufacturers of the market framework.

The abovementioned features of the global biochar market are illustrated through tables and figures. For instance, some tables give brief description of vendors under the title of “company snapshot”. The market share of applications, technology, feedstock, equipment, and regions are shown through tables. The market value for each geography, equipment, technology, feedstock, and application of the industry is explained with the help of tables during the period, 2014–2025. The same parameters are represented through pictures. For instance, the revenue generated by every market landscape of the market is illustrated through figures for the historic as well as forecast period.

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## Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature and Feedstock Type on Agricultural Properties and Stability of …

5 September, 2017

Keywords:

Pyrolysis of organic residues results in a highly stable and carbonaceous material defined as biochar [1] . Pyrolysis reaction in high temperatures and low oxygen concentration produces biochar high C content organized in aromatic and stable structures, defined as fixed C, not available for microorganisms’ degradation [2] . Particularly for wood derived biochars, this accumulation of C and release of less stable organic compounds, combined with lower feedstock macronutrient content, produces a highly and stable C containing biochar, ideal for increasing C content of soil [3] [4] . This supports the use of such biochar as a C sequestration strategy rather than a nutrient source. Biochar can contribute to the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation not only due to its C sequestration potential [5] but also displacing the use of fossil fuel, producing alternative energy source through pyrolysis process [6] . As a global warming mitigation strategy, application of biochar in soil also showed decreasing N2O emissions. Evidence found in literature shows more than 14% decrease in N2O emissions in biochar amended soil compared to soil-only [7] . However, results are inconclusive and display variations and the underlying mechanisms explaining the effect of biochar-soil interaction include biochar properties and soil biotic and abiotic conditions [8] .

Biochar produced from different feedstock type may, however, have varied concentrations of nutrients of agricultural interest. In this sense, animal manure derived biochar is shown to accumulate important elements, such as phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) [9] [10] . Thus, animal manure derived biochar has higher potential to be used as a nutrient source in agricultural systems [11] . Macronutrients concentration in biochar increase during the pyrolysis process while volatile matter and water is released from biochar structure. These latter compounds are represented by organic acids, and as pyrolysis temperature increases, the release of such molecules and the accumulation of basic elements such as Ca and Mg are the drivers of high pH in biochars. These properties support the use of biochar as soil amendment, as liming agent and nutrient source [12] .

Higher soil aggregation was also observed for fine-textured soil where wood and animal derived biochar was added [5] , improving soil physical structure, aeration and moisture ratio, consequently an improved environment for root development. These mechanisms are often related to increased agricultural production; however, results vary due to biochar properties and its interaction with different environmental conditions [13] .

It is clear that the use of the biochar can vary according to its properties, which are defined as a function of the origin/type of biomass used and the variables related to the pyrolysis process, such as time and temperature. Several outcomes are observed from the interaction of biochar and soil particles [14] . These contrasting effects are caused by the various physicochemical properties of biochar combined with environmental conditions. Thus, elucidation of the effect of pyrolysis conditions and feedstock type on biochar structure and chemical properties provide basic information to support the understanding of the resultant interactions of biochar with soil. Moreover, this knowledge also enables the selection of feedstock type and production conditions according to the environmental conditions and desired amendments for particular situations.

The purpose of this study is to present potential uses for biochar in cultivated soils considering the variation on biochar agricultural properties and C sequestration potential, as an effect of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type. In this sense, we specifically aim to 1) evaluate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type on relevant agricultural properties and C sequestration potential of biochar and 2) investigate the effect of contrasting biochar on GHG emission applied in tropical soil from Brazil.

Selected feedstock comprised contrasting organic residues derived from agricultural production systems: poultry litter, rice hulls, sugar cane straw and sawdust.

Poultry litter (PL) was donated and collected from the poultry facility within the Department of Genetics at the University of Sao Paulo―“Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (USP-ESALQ). These poultry are part of a sustainable farming production project developed in the department, and the posture poultry are fed daily with grass. The manure sits on the ground of the facility and it is mixed with sawdust weekly. Clean rice hull (RH) was collected in the same facility where the material is used as bedding for broiler.

Sugarcane straw (SC) was collected from a commercial sugarcane field. The straw was left over the cultivated area after harvesting operation. The Department of Forestry Sciences, in the Wood Technology and Management Laboratory, at USP-ESALQ, provided sawdust (SD). Pre-treatment included drying at 45˚C for 24 h and ground to less than 1 mm particle size, followed by characterization analysis.

Prior to pyrolysis, selected feedstocks were dried at 105˚C to approximately 13% moisture (w/w) to improve the reactor efficiency. Biochars were pyrolyzed in a 60 L static reactor in N2 saturated atmosphere with a heating rate of 10˚C·min−1. The feedstock was placed individually in the reactor chamber and heated by six electrical resistances to the temperatures of 350˚C, 450˚C, 550˚C and 650˚C. Temperature was monitored by three sensors placed in the reactor, reaching its interior atmosphere close to the chamber. The reaction time varied according to each run and feedstock, and the completion was reached when the release of gases from the reactor stopped. The biochars were removed from the chamber 12 h after the reaction time was completed in order to avoid spontaneous combustion. The mass of all materials contained in the chamber reaction was determined in order to obtain biochar yield (Table 1).

Feedstocks were analyzed accordingly to the same methodologies used for biochar, concerning the determinations of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), proximate and elemental analysis. Additionally, feedstock samples were evaluated in relation to their devolatization characteristics, through thermogravimetry analysis. Grind samples of 9 mg were placed in a crucible with N2 gas flow with a heating rate of 10˚C·min−1, from 25˚C to 900˚C (TGA-50, Shimadzu). Weight loss in respect to temperature increase was recorded.

After pyrolysis of feedstock, biochars were maintained within plastic bags tightly sealed. Prior to the analyses, air-dried biochars were ground with mortar and pestle and sieved to achieve particle size of 150 – 850 µm. Proximate and elemental analyses as well as pH and EC measurements were performed following the methods recommended by the International Biochar Initiative Guideline [15] . Measurements of pH and EC were performed in 20 ml of deionized water mixed for 90 min with 1.0 g of sample [16] . pH-meter (Digimed DM-23) and conductivity-meter (Digimed DM-32) were both previously calibrated with standard solutions. CEC was determined using 0.5 g of biochar and 1 g of feedstock. Samples were mixed with 100 ml of HCl (0.5 mol·L−1) in an orbital mixer for 30 min. Samples were filtered in vacuum, while washed with 300 ml of deionized water divided in 10 aliquots of 30 ml each. The residual solution was discarded. Calcium acetate (0.5 mol·L−1, pH = 7.0) was added to the solid sam-

ples retained in the filter paper (Whatman 42) in 10 aliquots of 10 ml each. The washing procedure using deionized water was repeated and the resultant solution was titrated using NaOH (0.1 mol·L−1) to determine the amount of H+ present in the solution.

Proximate analysis methods were conducted to calculate fixed C content [17] [18] . Elemental analyses for determination of C, N and H contents were assessed by dry combustion using a Perkin Elmer CNH 2400; Oxygen (O) content was obtained by subtraction [19] .

The nutrient content was analyzed only for the bio-carbon samples and the procedure was based on the incineration of the samples in muffle, followed by suspension in acidic solution and determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP OES?Thermo Scientific iCAP 6300 series). Approximately 200 mg of biochar samples were placed in crucibles and ashed in a muffle furnace for 8 h at 500˚C. The samples were transferred to borosilicate tubes and added 5.0 ml of HNO3, then placed on a digestion bloc to reach temperature of 120˚C. After evaporation was complete and samples were cooled, 1.0 ml of HNO3 plus 4 ml of 30% H2O2 were added and heated at 120˚C to complete dryness. When cooled, concentrated 1.43 ml HNO3 was added and vortexed, then deionized water was added to complete 20 ml. The resultant solution was used for the determination of total P, K, Mg, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, Zn contents through ICP [20] .

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed in feedstock using ground material mixed with KBr in a 1:500 ratio (w/w) and in biochars with 1:1000. The mixture was compacted at 5 Mg to form pellets of 1.0 cm of diameter. Pellets were analyzed in a spectrometer (Perkin Elmer Spectrum 100) with 4 cm−1 resolution, measuring the absorbance from 400 to 4000 cm−1. Samples were corrected against a pure KBr pellet and the air as background spectrum [21] .

Following characterization, sugarcane straw (SC) and poultry litter (PL) biochar produced at 650˚C and 350˚C (SC350, SC650, PL350 and PL650) were selected to conduct an incubation trial in biochar-treated soils. Based on the results from the proximate analysis, these biochars presented higher and lower stability (SC650, PL650 and SC350, PL350 respectively) [9] . This incubation trial was performed to evaluate whether CO2-eq emission from biochar-treated soil follow trends according to biochar stability properties.

Additionally, two contrasting tropical soils were selected to investigate the effect of contrasting soil texture on biochar stability: Quartzipsament and typic Hapludox (Table 2).

Each soil respectively was collected from two different native vegetation areas located near Anhembi, Brazil (22˚43’31.1”S and 48˚1’20.2”W) and in Piracicaba, Brazil (22˚42’5.1”S and 47˚37’45.2”W). The soils were sampled at the 0 – 20 cm layer, air-dried, homogenized, and sieved to 2 mm. Contrasting biochars were

(1)Values of 0.0 were near the instrument detection.

applied in each soil. The selected materials were: sugarcane and poultry litter biochars pyrolysed at 350˚C and 650˚C. Both were added at a dose equivalent to 50 t·ha−1 of C [6] in 100 g of soil into a 500-ml jar with sealed lids and rubber stopper where the syringe (50 ml) was used to removed gas samples. The sampling was performed every day for the first 10 days and in intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after the 11th, 27th and 48th day; respectively until 56 days, during an interval of 60 min. Moisture was maintained at 60% WHC and temperature at 25˚C, jars were placed inside an incubator without the lids. After collecting gas samples, the CO2 and N2O concentrations were measured by gas chromatograph (SRI 8610, SRI Instruments, Torrance USA) equipped in with an electron capture detector (ECD) for N2O and a flame ionization detector (FID) for CO2 detection. These results were used to estimate the fluxes calculated using the equation proposed in [3] . N2O emissions were expressed in “carbon dioxide equivalent”, considering the global warming potential (GWP) of 298 for N2O, compared with the GWP of carbon dioxide [22] . Total GHG (N2O + CO2, in mg·kg−1 soil) emission was represented in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq). After incubation period, the mixture soil and biochar were evaluated for pH, EC, total C and N according to [23] . Briefly, soil samples were dried at 40˚C, ground to 1 mm sieve and mixed in water at 1:2.5 (w/w), shaken for 5 min and resting for 1 h, followed by determination of pH with previously calibrated pH-meter (Digimed DM-23) and soil samples were added in water in proportion of 1:2 (w/w), shaken for 1 hour and resting for 24 hours. The EC was determined with an EC-meter (Digimed DM-32) previously calibrated. Total C and N were determined in samples dried and sieved to 100 mesh by using an elemental analyzer (LECO-CN2000).

The effects of temperature and feedstock type were compared amongst biochars’ properties using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in a completely randomized design, with one additional treatment (original biomass). Significant differences in the factors were investigated using a Tukey’s test (p < 0.05) to compare biochars produced with different feedstock type, and regression analysis to evaluate biochar in different pyrolysis temperature. Each biochar, originated from a single combination of feedstock and temperature, was compared with its original biomass through Dunett’s test (p < 0.05).

The CO2-eq results obtained in the incubation experiment were submitted to ANOVA and the mean of each treatment with biochar was compared with the value of the control treatment (soil only) using Dunnett’s test (p < 0.05). All analyses were performed using R software.

Chemical analyses assessed in the present study reflected different rates of transformation for each biochar derived from contrasting feedstock. Electrical conductivity (EC) results varied with greater influence of the type of material rather than the pyrolysis temperature (Table 3). Our findings indicated that biochars can preserve the initial nutrient content, as also reported in [14] . Hence poultry litter showed the highest EC values since animal derived feedstock usually contain higher nutrient concentration [24] . In contrast with previous studies [25] [26] [27] there was no increase in EC when increasing pyrolysis temperature. Particularly for poultry litter biochars, the decrease in EC corroborated with literature when compared with its feedstock, which showed much higher values [28] .

Increases in pH have been observed in all pyrolyzed materials and this can be explained by the effect of the temperature on the release volatile matter composed by acid functional groups and concentrates ash contents consequently elevating the pH [9] . Nonetheless, pH values followed the trend found in literature and increased with higher pyrolysis temperature (Table 3) [14] [29] [30] , except for sawdust. Poultry litter biochar exhibited the highest values, corroborating with the higher amount of basic salts found in its feedstock [31] . Values of pH in sugarcane straw biochar were similar the data described by [29] between 8 and 10 and reflect the presence of basic elements concentrated in its composition. Particularly for rice hull, pH results exhibited lower values than what found in the literature [21] and reasons for that could be due to the different methodologies used to assess this property.

As a function of the loss of acidic functional groups by the action of the pyrolysis temperature, it was expected to reduce the CEC [30] [32] in comparison to

(1)SC = sugarcane straw, RH = rice husk, PL = poultry litter, SD = sawdust. (2)Means followed by the same letter are not different for biochars in the same pyrolysis temperature by Tukey’s test 5%. (3)Means followed by an asterisk refer to differences between each biochar and its respective original biomass by Dunnett’s test 5%. (4)Regression analysis was not significant for linear model.

the respective original biomasses and with the increase of the temperature, which was actually observed for poultry litter and sawdust (Table 3). The inverse relationship between CEC and pyrolysis temperature was also observed for sugar cane straw. The actual values of CEC are similar to values reported in literature [32] , particularly for straw derived biochar, between the ranges of 100 and 230 mmolc·kg−1 and the lowest for wood derived biochars in the range of 13 and 30 mmolc·kg−1. The higher mineral phase found in manure derived biochars promotes the formation of O-containing functional groups on biochar surface generating CEC, varying from 292 to 511 mmolc·kg−1 [27] , which can be linked with results from spectroscopic analysis showing the loss of oxygen functional groups.

As regards the application of the biochar in the soil, it can be noticed from the results of Table 3 that lower temperatures provide a higher cation exchange capacity. Nevertheless, CEC develops with surface oxidation [12] , and could potentially support CEC increase after application of biochar in the soil.

The sum of macronutrient content of animal derived biochars was higher when compared to crop residues and wood derived materials (Table 4). Poultry

(1)SC = sugarcane straw, RH = rice husk, PL = poultry litter, SD = sawdust. (2)Means followed by the same letter are not different for biochars in the same pyrolysis temperature by Tukey’s test 5%. (3)Regression analysis was not significant for linear and quadratic models. (4)Values of 0.00 were near the instrument detection.

litter biochar showed the greatest values for macronutrients especially due to high content of Ca, which explains the higher pH determined for this material [25] . Contents of P and K found in the present study were lower than other results found in the literature, which could be due to differences in methodology to determine concentration of elements, and heterogeneity of poultry litter feedstock [10] [27] . Even though the concentrations dropped with temperature increase, poultry litter biochar conserved higher amounts of the analyzed elements, when compared to the other materials studied, indicating its potential use as fertilizer [28] .

Sugarcane straw biochars showed intermediate concentration of macronutrient, and consistent increase in these elements when pyrolysis temperature rose (Table 4). This material is characterized by higher content of K when compared to the other macronutrients due to the higher concentration of such element in its feedstock [29] .

By contrast, rice hull and sawdust biochars showed very low concentration of macronutrients, and little to no variability in the concentration of the elements, when pyrolysis temperature rose (Table 4). Lower contents of nutrients in plant straw and wood derived materials when compared to animal manure biochars, regardless of pyrolysis temperature are showed in literature [30] .

Nevertheless, the total amount of macronutrient determined has no relation to the supply of available nutrients [12] when biochar is added in the soil. Similarly, the initial concentration of nutrients in biochars feedstock did not secured the concentration in its biochars after the pyrolysis process. Thus, neither feedstock material nor pyrolysis temperature are good indicators of the final nutrient concentration in the biochars [10] .

Micronutrients contents showed little to no variability in relation to temperature increase, for the majority of biochar samples (Table 5), only differences for the metallic micronutrients Fe, Mn and Zn.

Sugarcane straw biochar exhibited the highest concentration of micronutrients, especially due to the high amount of iron (Fe), that could be explained by contamination with soil, since the straw was removed from the field and was not washed before being placed inside the reactor chamber. Other element concentrated in sugarcane biochar was manganese (Mn), with linear increase as a function of temperature, reaching a maximum of 0.11 ppm when pyrolyzed at 650˚C.

Poultry litter exhibited the highest concentration of zinc (Zn) reaching 0.09 ppm, which is reflecting the common addition of Zn as a supplement in poultry diet [33] . These results represent the potential use of biochars as soil amendment.

Proximate analysis (Table 6) is an approach to evaluate recalcitrance of biochars, and its components vary mostly between different feedstocks than due to temperature increase [9] . For instance, large proportions of ash content are ex-

(1)SC = sugarcane straw, RH = rice husk, PL = poultry litter, SD = sawdust. (2)Means followed by the same letter are not different for biochars in the same pyrolysis temperature by Tukey’s test 5%. (3)Regression analysis was not significant for linear and quadratic models.

(1)SC = sugarcane straw, RH = rice husk, PL = poultry litter, SD = sawdust. (2)Means followed by the same letter are not different for biochars in the same pyrolysis temperature by Tukey’s test 5%. (3)Means followed by an asterisk refer to differences between each biochar and its respective original biomass by Dunnett test 5%. (4)Regression analysis was not significant for linear and quadratic models. (5)Values of 0.00 were near the instrument detection.

hibited by poultry litter biochar, which corroborates with literature [9] . Animal derived biochar composition reached approximately 50% of ash content and between 45% and 60% of volatile matter similar to the results reported by [27] [28] .

Larger proportions of ash are found in crop residues than in wood derived biochar due to higher nutrient concentration on the former feedstock [9] . Values from 24% to 34% were found for rice straw decreasing with higher temperature [21] and around 37% were also reported for rice husk biochar produced at 500˚C [32] . For sugarcane straw biochar, ash values found in the literature are scarce but fall in the range of 11% to 13% increasing with temperature [29] .

The unexpected decrease in ash content for this material might be explained by the volatilization of elements such as P, K and S, which can occur at lower temperatures as 500˚C [9] . The values reported for sawdust varied from more than 10% to 1% according to the type of wood and the particle size of the materials [30] [34] [35] . Ash content increases in higher temperatures, due to the release of labile components, enhancing the mineral phase proportion. Fixed C is regarded as the recalcitrant C remaining within biochar composition after thermal degradation caused by pyrolysis [1] . Fixed C content is mostly influenced by the type of feedstock than by pyrolysis temperature in the production process, even though all materials showed increase in content of fixed C while temperature increased [30] . In this sense, the content of fixed C in biochar derived from wood materials is relatively higher when compared to the different biochars, particularly when compared to poultry manure (Table 6). The higher ash content in the feedstock, the less effect of increasing fixed C in higher temperature [9] . Therefore, wood derived biochars produced at higher temperature have increased potential to sequester C in soil by adding organic C in stable forms.

Increasing pyrolysis temperature decreased the concentration of O and H and increased C of all materials. This reflects the decrease in surface reactivity and thus higher stability of biochars. Although C content (Table 7) was initially similar among feedstocks, the difference in concentration for each material became larger after pyrolysis [9] .

This is due to the fact that each material accumulates C at different rates with increasing temperature, and most of plant based biochar show high quantities of C in relation to other nutrients, which is the opposite trend found in biochars derived from manures [12] . For instance, poultry litter (30% to 40%) showed slightly decreasing content with increasing temperature. High ash materials, such as animal manure biochar, have high inorganic C content bound to carbo-

(1)SC = sugarcane straw, RH = rice husk, PL = poultry litter, SD = sawdust. (2)Means followed by the same letter are not different for biochars in the same pyrolysis temperature by Tukey’s test 5%. (3)Means followed by an asterisk refer to differences between each biochar and its respective original biomass by Dunnett test 5%. (4)Regression analysis was not significant for linear and quadratic models.

nates, which can decrease the C by 24% [9] [36] . Biochars derived from sugarcane straw exhibited total C values ranging from 67% to 73% [29] while for rice hull biochar results varied from 36% to 39% [32] . For wood derived biochars, as sawdust feedstock, total C content showed largest variation with increasing temperature, ranging from 51% to 77%. Nitrogen content varied within feedstock, exhibiting highest values for sugarcane straw (1.43%) and poultry litter biochars (1.46%), and the lowest for sawdust (0.3%) and rice hull biochars (0.02%). However, contrary to literature [9] , N regression analysis was not significant for linear and quadratic models, showing no variability with temperature increase. Hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased in all biochars. This is an indication of carbonization and aromatization of carbon structures during pyrolysis reaction, and it is reflected in the lower reactivity of biochars as temperature increases [37] .

FTIR spectroscopy results of all biochars exhibited flattening of bands located between 3200 and 3400 cm−1 with increasing temperature (Figure 1), indicating less intensity of the O-H stretching due to dehydration [38] .

All biochar samples showed decrease in the intensity of the band at 1700 cm−1 after pyrolysis process, which indicates the release of carbonyl and carboxyl organic groups, and is also associated to CEC reduction. Moreover, FTIR spectroscopy showed that with higher temperature the broadening and flattening for all biochar spectra indicates loss of labile aliphatic compounds [25] and maintenance of more recalcitrant compounds, such as aromatic chains. Specifically to the stretching at 2900 cm−1, all samples showed flattening representing the loss of aliphatic C-H bond [21] . The pyrolysis of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin was indicated by the absence of functional groups, which was more noticeable for the sugarcane straw and sawdust biochars, around 1030 cm−1 [10] [39] .

The three main components of biomass; hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin have different chemical structures and thus, correspondingly thermal stability [40] . Thermogravimetric analysis (Figure 2) indicated the thermal decomposi-

tion behavior of lignocellulosic component for each biomass [39] . In all materials, the mass loss within the first stage of temperature increased, up to 105˚C, indicating water release. The peaks observed between temperatures of 200˚C to 300˚C and 300˚C to 400˚C relate to the release of hemicellulose and cellulose, respectively [34] . Lignin has a much higher molecular weight and during pyrolysis it decomposes over a wider range of temperature, contributing for the formation of condensed aromatic carbon in biochar’s structure [40] . The interval between 300˚C and 400˚C is the highest for all samples from 20% to 50% mass loss, the highest value exhibited by sawdust and the lowest by poultry litter. Sugarcane straw and rice hull lost about 38% of its mass in the same range of temperature.

This corroborates with high cellulose contents in wood materials and low in animal manure. The cumulative mass loss was the lowest in poultry manure and rice hull within the temperature range analyzed (from 25˚C to 900˚C), which was also found by [11] [34] .

In both soil types, the cumulative CO2-eq emissions in sugarcane straw and poultry litter biochar amended soils presented similar results when each treatment was compared to control (Table 8) excluding poultry litter biochar pyrolysed at 350˚C. As shown previously, biochar from poultry litter has higher ash content and volatile matter in comparison with sugarcane straw biochars in both pyrolysis temperatures (Table 6).

The higher proportion of volatile matter determined in the poultry litter biochar (Table 6) indicates higher amount of easily degradable source of C, enabling its use by the microorganisms, which in turn cause soil respiration to spike when comparing to control treatment. In sandy soils, lower initial C content was incremented, amongst other elements that were also added to the soil with poul-

(1)SC = sugarcane straw, PL = poultry litter. (2)Means followed by an asterisk refer to differences between each biochar and its respective original biomass by Dunnett test 5%.

try litter biochar application, enabling microbial degradation which reflected in higher CO2-eq emission. The lower reactivity of sandy soils, demonstrated by lower CEC (Table 2), is unable to buffer the addition of biochar in the soil [41] . The higher CO2-eq emissions in poultry litter biochar amended soils is also reflected in the lower total C determined in the samples at the end of the incubation period. These aforementioned treatments showed the lowest levels of total C, indicating that the C added with biochar was metabolized and emitted, while the higher values, presented by sugarcane straw biochar treated soil corroborate the persistence of highly stable C structures. As the less recalcitrant material, poultry litter biochar at 350˚C, was a readily available C and N source for soil microorganisms to perform mineralization.

This study demonstrated how pyrolysis reaction affects biochar properties depending on the temperature range and the feedstock type. During pyrolysis, contrasting feedstock showed similar trends, such as the increase in pH values, and the concentration of macronutrients such as P, K, Ca and Mg. The extent of these trends however, occurred differently. Stability indicators showed same results, where release of O and H, while accumulation of C were influenced by the initial contents of such elements in each of the feedstocks.

It is essential to note that agricultural properties, that support the use of biochar as nutrient source, were improved in manure derived biochars, while C stability was lower. Contrastingly, wood derived biochars developed higher stability and have potential to be applied as C sequestration strategy; however, did not exhibit properties of agricultural interest. Biochars produced from crop residues showed intermediary properties and have the potential to fulfill both functions in soil. Specifically, the use of sugarcane straw biochar as C sequestration strategy is encouraged in this study, considering that CO2-eq emissions of biochar treated soils were similar to soil-only treatments. Further analysis should be carried to investigate the potential of sugarcane biochar as a nutrient source in cropping systems.

Overall these results demonstrate the potential of biochar as soil amendment, the selection of biochar for agricultural purposes or as a C sequestration strategy, however, must consider the biochar’s chemical properties along with the environmental conditions and expected results after application.

We thank the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for financial support, the Department of Soil Science at the College of Agriculture “Luiz de Queiroz” and the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture from the University of São Paulo for providing technical support.

Conz, R.F., Abbruzzini, T.F., de Andrade, C.A., Milori, D.M.B.P. and Cerri, C.E.P. (2017) Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature and Feedstock Type on Agricultural Properties and Stability of Biochars. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 914-933. https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2017.89067

## Effects of Biochar on the Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Sugarcane Residues Applied to Soils

5 September, 2017

Keywords:

The intensification of green cane harvesting has led to a greater deposition of leaves and tips on soil surface, ranging between 10 and 20 Mg∙ha−1 of dry matter, and the amount of sugarcane crop residues generated in Brazil is estimated in 175 million Mg∙yr−1 [1] . Against the claiming demand to use this biomass for bioenergy generation, the Brazilian sugarcane sector has considered the partial removal of the post-harvest residues from soil surface without harming sustainability and yields [2] . On the other hand, the sugar and bioethanol industry generate large amounts of filter cake and vinasse, residues that are applied to sugarcane fields as conditioners and organic fertilizers [3] .

Vinasse is an acidic (pH ≈ 4.5) nutrient-dense effluent that is produced at a rate of approximately 13 L for every liter of ethanol. Filter cake is a nutrient-rich solid residue from the filtration of sugarcane juice, produced in an average of 8 kg per ton of processed sugarcane [4] . Despite vinasse and filter cake benefits to conservation agriculture [3] , these residues may be significant sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) [5] [6] [7] .

In this context, one of the proposed means to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture is through the use of biochar (charcoal derived from the pyrolysis of biomass). Despite the benefits of biochar applications to soil [8] – [16] , studies regarding its combination with other organic residues are still limited. Positive interactions between biochar and organic residues can be expected due to the biological activation of biochar and reduced organic fertilizer mineralization, leading to synergisms between biochar and organic residues [17] .

According to [18] , the combination of biochar with poultry manure reduced N losses by volatilization and produced high quality composts. [17] showed that biochar addition to soil in combination with organic fertilizer can stabilize com- post-derived organic matter (OM) and increase soil C sequestration, as well as improve soil fertility over the sole biochar or organic/mineral fertilizer application. Biochar-amended soils have also shown to reduce CO2emissions [19] in response to vinasse application.

Under the current scenario of climate change, the combination of biochar with organic residues may be an approach to improve nutrient cycling and to fulfill non-agronomic purposes, such as reduction of GHG emissions. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of applying sugarcane straw biochar combined with vinasse and filter cake on the emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O, chemical properties and bacterial community composition of two contrasting soils (i.e. clayey and sandy tropical soils). It was hypothesized that: i) The effects of biochar amendments on soil amelioration is closely related to soil buffering capacity; ii) biochar suppresses GHG emissions from filter cake and vinasse applied to soils as a function of its application rate; and iii) soil-biochar interactions cause temporal changes in bacterial communities both directly and indirectly, affecting niche-microbe interactions related to N2O emission mitigation. For testing these hypotheses an incubation experiment was conducted under controlled environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and moisture), with and without application of vinasse and filter cake combined with addition of biochar at different rates in two contrasting forest soils.

The feedstock for biochar production was straw collected from a sugarcane field within a mill located in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A recently harvested area (i.e., 7 days after unburned mechanized harvesting) was selected since it presented a largeamount of fresh post-harvest residues on soil surface (≈ 10 Mg∙ha−1 of dry matter).

Before pyrolysis, the straw particles were cut into fragments of 5 ± 1 cm. Then, the reactor was cleaned under heating with air injection in order to remove impurities prior to allocation of the raw material. Approximately 3 kg of feedstock was manually placed into the sample port of the reactor, which consisted of 300- × 2400-cm steel cylinder (diameter × length) closed on one end with a circular steel plate.

The pyrolysis process was carried out under N2atmosphere, with a final temperature of 450˚C (∆ ≈ 20˚C) and heating rate of 10˚C∙min−1 for a retention time of 2 hours. The condensable gases were recovered on the other end of the reactor as a liquid (i.e. bio-oil). Non-condensable gases were exhausted to a water tank outside the processing unit to avoid their direct release to the atmosphere.

After completion of pyrolysis, the sample presented homogeneous carbonization and a volume reduction of 30% to 40%. The pyrolysis process yielded 30% of biochar, 40% of liquids (bio-oil) and 30% of gas, which is within the range observed in most studies for slow pyrolysis [20] . Chemical properties of the feedstock and final biochar are presented in Table 1.

Two soils with contrasting texture, a Quartzipsamment (sandy) and a Typic Hapludox (clayey), were collected from two different native forest areas located, respectively, from near Anhembi town, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil (22˚43’31.1”S; 48˚01’20.2”W) and within the ESALQ campus (22˚42’05.1”S; 47˚37’45.2”W), Piracicaba, respectively; both located at the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Native vege-

Mean (SD), n = 3.

tation (seasonal semideciduous forest) soils were chosen to avoid residual effects of filter cake and vinasse application on soil properties [21] [22] [23] . These soils were sampled at the 0 – 20 cm layer, air-dried, homogenized, and sieved to 2 mm before installing the experiment. Soil characteristics are given in Table 2.

Both the filter cake and vinasse were collected fresh from a sugarcane mill located in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Prior the application to experimental units, filter cake was dried at 45˚C by 48 h in a forced-air oven, and the dried material was gently crushed and sieved (<2 mm) before incubation. Vinasse was kept frozen at −20˚C until use.

The pH and chemical characteristics differed considerably among materials (Table 1). Paired comparisons using a Tukey-Kramer HSD test showed that biochar was richer in nutrients (p < 0.05), while vinasse showed the lowest concentrations of nutrients among residues.

The laboratory incubation was conducted with two soils (i.e. sandy and clayey) under five treatments: filter cake and vinasse amendment (FV), plus biochar at three application rates (FV + B10, FV + B20 and FV + B50), and control (soil- only). Biochar was applied at 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.9% (w/w) to sandy soil, and at 0.5%, 1% and 2.5% (w/w) to clayey soil. These additions represent field application rates of 10, 20 and 50 Mg∙ha−1 of biochar to soil (assuming an incorporation depth of 20 cm and considering the bulk density of 1.0 and 1.3 g∙cm−3 for clayey and sandy soil, Table 2). These were then placed in airtight glass jars of 1.4 L and pre-incubated at 4˚C for 24 h to minimize the disturbance effects on microbial communities and soil processes, before starting the incubation at 25˚C by 100 days.

The amount of filter cake and vinasse applied to all treatments was equivalent to 100 Mg∙ha−1 and 100 m3∙ha−1, respectively, which are the application rates commonly used in Brazilian sugarcane fields [24] . Biochar, filter cake and vinasse were thoroughly mixed with the dry soil to obtain a completely homogeneous mixture, and soil moisture was adjusted to 60% water-filled pore space (WFPS). Replicate jars from each treatment were destructively sampled at dif-

ferent times (n = 2 at 30 days and n = 4 at 100 days) to characterize soil chemical attributes and bacterial communities.

To assess the chemical characteristics of the incubated soils over time, destructive sampling was performed after 30 and 100 days of incubation, by removing four replicates per treatment at 30 days (n = 4), and the four remaining replicates after 100 days. Subsamples were kept at −20˚C for subsequent determination of mineral N (i.e. ammonium (NH4+−N) and nitrate (NO3−N)) by extraction (1:5 w:v) in a 1 M KCl solution. Extracts were immediately frozen and kept for further measurement using the flow injection analysis method [25] .

The pH was determined in H2O using a biochar: solution ratio of 1:2 (w:v) and agitation at 220 rpm for 30 min. Samples were left to settle for 30 min before pH was determined with a pH electrode. Available P and exchangeable cations (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) were determined according to the method proposed by [26] . Sulfur content was determined by extraction in monocalcium phosphate 0.01 M and subsequent quantification by colorimetry [27] . The exchangeable acidity was determined by extraction of H+and Al3+ with a Ca(OAc)21.0 M solution buffered to pH 7 [27] .

The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 in each treatment were estimated by determining the concentration of gases in the jars’ headspace over the experimental duration. Each incubation unit (i.e. glass jar containing each replicated treatment) was closed and samples of the headspace gas were taken at time zero and final using 20 mL syringes. After completion of sampling event (i.e. gas buildup), the jars were opened to flush out its gaseous contents and closed again for the next sampling, which occurred daily for the first 7 days of incubation and after this period was performed at intervals of 2 to 3 days until final incubation time (100 days).

The concentrations of CO2, N2O and CH4 at each sampling time were determined using a gas chromatograph (SRI 8610C, SRI Instruments, Torrance, USA), and daily fluxes of CO2 (mg CO2?C∙m−2∙day−1), N2O (μg N2O?N∙m−2∙day−1) and CH4 (μg CH4?C∙m−2∙day−1) were calculated from the time versus gas concentration data using linear regression. These data were then used to calculate the cumulative emissions by the linear interpolation of data points between days and numerical integration of the area under curve using the trapezoid rule [28] .

After 30 and 100 days of incubation, samples of 400 mg of soil from each treatment were subjected to a total DNA extraction using the Power Soil DNA isolation kit (Mo Bio, Carlsbad, EUA), following the manufactory instructions. DNA extraction and integrity were assessed by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis performed at 100 W and 400 mA for 50 min, followed by staining with ethidium bromide and photo documentation under ultra-violet light (transluminator, Storm 845-GE Healthcare Life Sciences, Piscataway, NJ, USA).

The amplification of the V6 region of ribosomal gene 16S rDNA was performed with primers F968/GC [29] and R1378 [30] . The PCR reaction was performed in a total volume of 50 μL, with each reagent in final concentration of 1X PCR Buffer; 0.2 mM of each dNTP; 3.5 mM of MgCl2; 0.2 pMol of each oligonucleotide; 1U-Taq DNA polymerase (Fermentas, Burlington, Canada); and 1 μL of DNA sample (20 ng).

The PCR reaction was run in Veriti Thermal Cycler (Applied Biosystems, Waltham, USA) in the following reaction conditions: initial denaturation at 94˚C for 3 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 94˚C for 1 min, 53˚C for 40 s, extension at 72˚C for 40 s and a final extension at 72˚C for 10 min.

The DGGE was performed using the phorU2 systems (Ingeny International, Goes, The Netherlands). The PCR products were loaded onto 6% (w/v) polyacrylamide gels with denaturing gradients of 45% – 65% (urea 7 M and formamide 40%). The gels were run for 16 h at 100 V and 60˚C and stained with SYBR Green I (Invitrogen, Breda, The Netherlands). The DGGE gels were photodocumented with Storm 845 (General Electric) and analyzed using the Image Quant TL unidimensional (Amersham Biosciences, Amersham, UK, v.2003) [31] , where band patterns were converted into abundance matrices of bands.

Model residuals were tested for normal distribution using quantile-quantile plot and the Shapiro-Wilk test. A nested analysis of variance (Nested ANOVA) was carried out to the results regarding soil chemical attributes. Post-hoc Tukey HSD test was applied for the comparison of mean values between and within treatments (over the incubation period). The mean cumulative GHG fluxes obtained for all treatments were also submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. All statistical analyses were carried out using the software R [32] . Regarding the bacterial groups, a Permanova test was performed to describe the significance of incubation period, doses of biochar and their interaction under 999 random permutations. Within these parameters, it was perfomed a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based in the BrayCurtis algorithm [33] . In addition, analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) was conducted to determined the significance of grouping patterns. These statistical analyses were performed using Past Statistics 1.90 program [34] .

Biochar amendment at 50 Mg∙ha−1 (FV + B50) to sandy soil significantly increased pH after 30 days of incubation compared to the other treatments (Table 3). However, the subsequent evaluation (100 days) showed a significant decrease in soil pH among treatments (Table 3). In contrast, application of FV plus biochar did not have a significant effect on pH in clayey soil (Table 3).

Values presented are means, n = 4 for 30 and 100 days. Means followed by the same uppercase letter compare within treatments between periods. Means followed by the same lowercase letter compare between treatments within period. Means do not differ statistically at 5% probability by Tukey’s test. The treatments are: soil with filter cake and vinasse (FV); plus biochar at 10 (FV + B10), 20 (FV + B20) and 50 (FV + B50) Mg∙ha−1.

The application of FV + B50 in sandy soil increased available P by 72% higher compared to FV after 30 days of incubation (Table 3). However, available P concentrations over time behaved similarly to pH, with a decrease varying between 40 (FV + B50) and 48% (FV) after 100 days of incubation.

Increased soil pH have been attributed to biochar richness in alkaline cations suchas Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+, which are released through dissolution of the mineral phase to the soil solution [8] [15] .

The further reduction in soil pH observed over time may be an effect of vinasse (Table 3). [35] observed increase of soil pH as function of vinasse dose applied to soil. However, after 100 days of incubation the soil pH where vinasse was applied reached that of the control, indicating its transient effect on pH levels. It is important to note that the steeper decrease of pH in vinasse and filter cake amendent compared to increasing additional biochar application (Table 3) can be assigned to the real potential of pure biochar to improve soil acidic conditions.

The increase in sandy soil pH caused by biochar precipitated ions Al3+and decreased potential acidity (Table 3), which often are major constraints for agricultural productivity in highly weathered tropical soils [36] . This pH rise also led to a greater P availability from filter cake, a rich-P residue (Table 1) with about 50% of its total P available in the short-term under favourable soil conditions [24] . As expected, the non-significant changes in pH for the clayey soil (Table 3) indicate that the extent of these changes will strongly depend on the soil pH- buffering capacity [14] .

All applications increased the cation exchange capacity (CEC) in sandy soil (Table 3). After 100 days of incubation, CEC increased from 43% in the FV + B10 to 59% in the FV + B50 treatment compared to FV (P < 0.05). In contrast, applications did not have a significant effect on CEC of the clayey soil after 100 days (P > 0.05).

The impacts of organic amendments on cation exchange capacity (CEC) are generally more pronounced in sandy soils, while for soils that already contain higher levels of organic matter and clay these impacts may be inconsequential [13] . The results show that nutrient retention can be improved even more by the addition of biochar to soils, especially to those with low ion-retention capacity. It is assumed that slow oxidation occurs on the edges of the aromatic backbone of biochar by both biotic [37] and abiotic processes [10] , forming carboxylic groups and sustainably increasing CEC [38] .

After 30 days of incubation, the FV treatment increased the concentrations of NH 4 + -N and NO 3 − -N in sandy soil by 43% and by 20%, respectively, compared to the control (Table 3). In contrast, in this same period, increasing doses of biochar resulted in a decreased of the mineral N concentrations (by 63% in the case of FV + B10 and by 75% in the case of FV + B50 for NH 4 + -N; and by 50% (FV + B10) and 65% (FV + B50) for NO 3 − -N) compared to FV (P < 0.05). After 100 days of incubation, it was observed a steep decrease in NH 4 + -N followed by a concomitant increase in NO 3 − -N among treatments in sandy soil.

The FV treatment in clayey soil did not affect NH 4 + -N and NO 3 − -N concentrations compared to the control (P > 0.05) (Table 3). Biochar addition decreased the mineral N concentrations in clayey soil compared to FV by 76 for NH 4 + -N and 66% for NO 3 − -N after 30 days (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences as a function of biochar application rates (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, the subsequent evaluation (100 days) showed no significant differences between applications and the control for both NH 4 + -N and NO 3 − -N concentrations (P > 0.05).

The initially lower mineral N with increasing biochar rate to both sandy and clayey soils (Table 3) may indicate the adsorption of NH 4 + -N and NO 3 − -N onto biochar. Indeed, biochar may tighten the soil N cycling through direct sorption of mineral N, organic N compounds, enzymes and gases, including N2O [11] [39] [40] . It has been suggested that physical entrapment in biochar pores may be responsible for removing NH4+ from soil solution, which is a possible mechanism given the diameter of the NH4+ ion (286 pm) and the wide range of pore sizes in biochars [41] .

The enhanced NO 3 − concentrations in soil solution at biochar amendments of 10 and 20 Mg∙ha−1 after 100 days of incubation, especially in sandy soil (Table 3), may be due to the lower ability of biochar to retain NO3compared to NH4+ [39] [42] . Biochar can sorb NH 4 + through acid surface functional groups (e.g. carboxyl and hydroxyl) via cation exchange [9] , thus reducing its availability for autotrophic conversion to NO 3 − for some period of time.

Also, autotrophic nitrification may have been stimulated by high pH micro- sites of biochar [11] . Recently, [43] have found that nitrification was increased due to a greater NH 4 + substrate supply for autotrophic nitrifiers. As the exact mechanism involved in the adsorption of N forms onto biochar and the effect of time on these processes remain to be understood, all of these phenomena are possible explanation for the enhanced nitrification with biochar addition to soil.

The results of mineral N also suggest that some microbial N immobilization had also been taking place at the highest rate of biochar amendment, since the removal of NH 4 + and NO 3 − from soil solution prevailed after 100 days of incubation for this treatment (Table 3). In this case, the highest biochar dose may have contributed with a greater proportion of bioavailable C, such as residual bio-oils, resulting in microbial demand for inorganic N present in the soil solution.

Generally, the abovementioned results indicated that, under the same experimental conditions the soil amelioration was closely related to its buffering capacity. In other words, the higher the soil CEC and its initial nutrient concentrations, the greater the soil buffering capacity and lower the effect of pure biochar and its combination with organic residues on soil chemical attributes.

The FV application increased CO2 emissions from the sandy soil by 5-fold compared to the control (Figure 1). When the sandy soil was treated with FV + B10 and FV + B20 the CO2 emissions by 4 and 8%, respectively, in comparison to soil that received F V (P < 0.05). The FV + B50 application decreased the CO2 emissions by 11% compared to FV + B20 application (P < 0.05). In clayey soil, the FV treatment increased CO2 emissions by 2.4-fold in comparison to the control (Figure 1). In addition, soils with FV + B10 increased other 6.4% the CO2 emissions in comparison to FV. In contrast, soil that received FV + B20 and FV + B50 decreased the CO2 emissions by 11% and 8%, respectively, compared to FV + B10 (P < 0.05).

The addition of filter cake to soil has been shown to increase CO2 efflux. [19] found that filter cake amendment resulted in a 100-fold increased in CO2 emissions compared to the unamended soil (control), likely due to the immediate utilization of labile sugars present in this residue. However, non-significant emissions of N applied as filter cake have been found in previous studies [5] [7] .

Besides the high biochemical oxygen demand of vinasse, which causes a temporally reduced environment after its application to soil [35] , the high amounts of bioavailable C in this residue can also fuel nitrification and denitrification processes. In plant cane, [5] observed that vinasse was associated with an increase in N2O emissions of about 1060 kg CO2-eq∙ha−1∙yr−1, and with an increase in CO2 emissions of about 965 kg CO2-eq∙ha−1∙yr−1 compared to the mineral fertilizer plots.

The slight increase in cumulative CO2 emissions with biochar amendment at 10 and 20 Mg∙ha−1 may be attributed to the mineralization of easily available biochar-C at early stages of incubation. The labile C compounds of biochar combined with the high pH of this material (Table 1) may cause rapid changes in microbial activity [44] when applied to soil, and stimulate fast growing (r-stra- tegists) microbes that are adapted to respond quickly to newly available C

sources, thereby increasing biochar-C mineralization [45] [46] . However, this phenomenon tends to decrease in the short-term due to the depletion of labile SOC [16] .

An interesting outcome from both incubated sandy and clayey soils was that the highest biochar rate to soil dropped CO2 emissions down to the levels comparable to vinasse and filter cake amendment. Although the understanding of the stability biochar C in soil has improved in recent years [16] [45] [46] , there is a lack of knowledge about how both the soil- and biochar-C mineralization are affected as a function of biochar amount applied to soil.

According to [47] , composting with biochar caused a positive priming (increased C mineralization) on non-biochar composting material at low (up to 1w%) biochar concentrations, while at high (up to 50w%) biochar concentrations negative priming (decreased non-biochar C mineralization) was observed. Moreover, [48] reported that the amount of biochar added to soil is inversely proportional to the impact of priming effect on C abatement potential.

The FV treatment also increased the N2O emissions from the soils (by 5-fold in the case of the sandy soil and by 125% in the case of clayey soil) in comparison to the control (Figure 2). In contrast, increase in biochar applications decreased the N2O emissions by 24% (FV + B10) and by 34% (FV + B50) in sandy soil, and by 14% (FV + B10) and 56% (FV + B50) in clayey soil in comparison to FV application only (P < 0.05).

[6] observed significantly higher N2O emissions in the first days after vinasse application to sugarcane fields. The same authors concluded that the ferti-irri- gation with vinasse reduced soil aeration and increased the availability of labile C to microorganisms, causing microsite of anaerobiosis due to a higher demand of O2 and stimulating denitrification processes in soil.

The mechanisms by which some biochars could induce mitigation of soil N2O

emissions remain elusive [12] [13] , and will most likely be a function of the biochar, soil properties and their interaction. Primarily, the feedstock from which biochar is produced, in particular its chemical (e.g. available N, ash content, acid neutralizing capacity, aliphatic to aromatic C ratio etc.) and physical properties (e.g. surface area, particle size, sorption capacity etc.), have a significant impact on N2O emissions.

Also, biochar application to soil may affect N2O emissions by changing soil physical, chemical and biological properties, which lead to several biotic and abiotic mechanisms that, operating concurrently, control N mineralization-im- mobilization and nitrification or denitrification processes in soil. The significant decrease in N2O emissions as a function of biochar application rate, especially in clayey soil, could have been favored by increased soil aeration, which in turn reduced anaerobic microsites that favourdenitrification.

Finally, the CH4 fluxes from the both soils (i.e., sandy and clayey soils) were negligible (0.01 μg CH4 – C∙m−2∙day−1), and did not showed significant effects of treatments and of soil matrixes (data not showed).

The Permanova analysis revealed that the distribution of bacterial communities in both sandy and clayey soils was influenced by the experimental duration, application rates of biochar, and the interaction of these factors (Table 4). Moreover, the PCoA of DGGE band patterns showed higher temporal changes in bacterial community structure comparing 30 and 100 days of incubation in sandy soil (R = 0.70, p = 0.0001) (Figure 3), while clayey soil showed barely separable bacterial groups (R = 0.24, p = 0.0001) (Figure 4).

As abovementioned, biochar application to soil might be a pathway of microbial selection and activity [49] . The large surface area and amount of pores in biochar create new niches of microbe colonization, favouring the shifts in bac-

*p-value < 0.001.

terial community according to the amount [50] , type [51] and persistence of the biochar applied to soil [40] [52] .

According to [52] , biochar have prompted the “charosphere”, a region that surrounds its surface and it is permeated by many physical and chemical reactions, thus affecting soil pH, release of soluble C and nutrients availability, which may differentially influence the soil bacterial structure and composition. Clustering the results of bacterial communities, mineral N and N2O emissions, it can be seen that the similar bacterial structure at 30 and 100 days of incubation in clayey soil (R = 0.24, p = 0.0001) was concomitant with decreasing NH 4 + -N and NO 3 − -N concentrations (Table 3) and N2O emissions (Figure 2).

These results suggest that the interactions between biochar and the microbial community may drive the mitigation of GHG emissions, mainly N2O. Most important, it seems that N2O emission mitigation in clayey soil is more directly related to biotic mechanisms (i.e. direct changes in microbial community composition through biochar addition to soil); while in sandy soil the abiotic mechanisms caused by biochar (e.g. acid neutralizing capacity, cation exchange properties) play a more important role in reducing N2O emissions, which in turn indirectly “activate” soil microbial communities to further reduce N2O.

[53] showed the influence of biochar on temporal changes in bacterial community?either promoting an increase in abundance or reducing the magnitude of loss of species, a negative effect on bacterial abundance, and changes in the N cycling. The same authors showed that transcription factor peaks were closely related to bacterial groups such as Mycobacterium, which could play a crucial role in NO 3 − reduction, and Bradyrhizobium, reducing N2O to N2. Therefore, this could be a mechanism to explain the mitigation of N2O emissions observed when biochar is applied to soil [54] .

Biochar combined with filter cake and vinasse presented synergistic effects on soil pH, availability of P and exchangeable bases contents. However, the effects of this combination on soil amelioration were closely related to the soil buffering capacity, suggesting soil-specific biochar interactions and the use of biochar not only as a soil conditioner, but also as a fertilizer itself in nutrient-poor tropical soils. Soil-biochar interactions caused temporal changes in bacterial communities both directly and indirectly, affecting niche-microbe interactions related to N2O emission mitigation. Thus, there was a significant supression of N2O emissions in contrasting soils treated with vinasse and filter cake as a function of biochar application rate.

The authors would like to thank the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), MCTI/CNPq/CT-AGRO Climate Change (Grant number CNPq/404150/2013-6), and the Sao Paulo State Research Foundation (FAPESP, Grant number 2012/19332-0) for financial support of this work.

Abbruzzini, T.F., Zenero, M.D.O., de Andrade, P.A.M., Andreote, F.D., Campo, J. and Cerri, C.E.P. (2017) Effects of Biochar on the Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Sugarcane Residues Applied to Soils. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 869-886. https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2017.89064

## Europe Biochar Fuel Industry Technology, Opportunities and Key Manufacturers Report 2017-2022

5 September, 2017

This report is an essential reference for who looks for detailed information on Europe Biochar Fuel market. The report covers data on Europe markets including historical and future trends for supply, market size, prices, trading, competition and value chain as well as Europe major vendors’ information.

In addition to the data part, the report also provides overview of Biochar Fuel market, including classification, application, manufacturing technology, industry chain analysis and latest market dynamics.

Finally, a customization report in order to meet user’s requirements is also available.

Report Scope:

– The depth industry chain include analysis value chain analysis, porter five forces model analysis and cost structure analysis

– The report covers Europe market of Biochar Fuel

– It describes present situation, historical background and future forecast

– Comprehensive data showing Biochar Fuel capacities, production, consumption, trade statistics, and prices in the recent years are provided

– The report indicates a wealth of information on Biochar Fuel manufacturers

– Biochar Fuel market forecast for next five years, including market volumes and prices is also provided

– Raw Material Supply and Downstream Consumer Information is also included

– Any other user’s requirements which is feasible for us

Request Sample Report@ http://www.reportsweb.com/inquiry&RW0001924451/sample

Chapter One Biochar Fuel Overview

1.1 Biochar Fuel Outline

1.2 Classification and Application

1.3 Manufacturing Technology

Chapter Two Industry Chain Analysis

2.1 Value Chain Analysis

2.2 Porter Five Forces Model Analysis

2.3 Cost Structure Analysis

Chapter Three Market Dynamics of Biochar Fuel Industry

3.1 Latest News and Policy

3.2 Market Drivers

3.3 Market Challenges

Chapter Four Europe Market of Biochar Fuel (2012-2016)

4.1 Biochar Fuel Supply

4.2 Biochar Fuel Market Size

4.3 Import and Export

4.4 Demand Analysis

4.5 Market Competition Analysis

4.6 Price Analysis

Chapter Five Europe Market Forecast (2017-2022)

5.1 Biochar Fuel Supply

5.2 Biochar Fuel Market Size

5.3 Import and Export

5.4 Demand Analysis

5.5 Market Competition Analysis

5.6 Price Analysis

Chapter Six Europe Raw Material Supply Analysis

6.1 Raw Material Supply

6.2 Raw Material Producers Analysis

6.3 Analysis of the Influence of Raw Material Price Fluctuation

Chapter Seven Europe Biochar Fuel Consumer Analysis

7.1 Europe Major Consumers Information

7.2 Europe Major Consumers Demand Analysis

Chapter Eight Analysis of Europe Key Manufacturers (Including Company Profile, SWOT Analysis, Production Information etc.)

8.1 Company A

8.2 Company B

8.3 Company C

8.4 Company D

8.5 Company E

Chapter Nine Research Conclusions of Europe Biochar Fuel Industry

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## News Briefs 09/05/17

5 September, 2017

Dewey Beach council to meet Sept. 8
Dewey Beach Town Council’s monthly meeting is scheduled for 6 p.m., Friday, Sept. 8, in the Dewey Beach Life Saving Station, 1 Dagsworthy Ave. There is an executive session scheduled for 5 p.m. prior to the start of the meeting. Scheduled for discussion is a change to the fee for dog events in town, and placement guidelines for tents and canopies on the beach between May 15 and Sept. 15. A full copy of the agenda can be found online at www.townofdeweybeach.com, town hall, 105 Rodney Ave., and on the life saving station’s messaging board.

Rehoboth board to hold Sept. 6 meeting
The Rehoboth Beach commissioners will hold a special meeting at 9 a.m., Wednesday, Sept. 6, at the Rehoboth fire hall, to approve a series of task orders related to the city’s ocean outfall project. The commissioners will consider approval of task orders with engineering firm GHD for work related to upgrades to the wastewater treatment plant, management and inspection services on the force main and ocean outfall, and construction of an effluent pumping station. The commissioners will also consider awarding a contract for landscaping at City Hall and discuss the status of change orders related to City Hall.

Finally, the commissioners will discuss an appeal of the Beach Walk development project and the planning commission’s motion to dismiss the appeal. This topic could see the commissioners go into executive session.

POW/MIA Chair of Honor dedication set
The Town of Bethany Beach will unveil One Empty Chair, a tribute to prisoners of war and missing in action military officers at 6 p.m., Thursday, Sept. 7, at the flagpole on the boardwalk. Since World War I, more than 91,000 American soldiers remain unaccounted for. The symbolic chair serves as a reminder of those sacrifices. The chair has been donated by the Hussey Seating Co.

Inland Bays science committee to meet
The Delaware Center for the Inland Bays Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee will meet at 9 a.m., Friday, Sept. 8, at the DNREC field office on Pilottown Road in Lewes. Topics to be covered include biochar amendments to enhance nutrient removal from stormwater runoff, the effects of irrigation on nitrate transport to groundwater, and long-term salt marsh monitoring. For a full agenda or questions, go to www.inlandbays.org or email outreach@inlandbays.org or communications@inlandbays.org.

Milton 9/11 memorial ceremony set Sept. 9
A memorial ceremony for the victims of Sept. 11, 2001, will be held at 10 a.m., Saturday, Sept. 9, at Milton Memorial Park. Limited seating is available, so people are advised to bring a chair. In case of rain, the ceremony will be held at the Milton Fire Department at 116 Front St.

Town-wide yard sale in Milton set Sept. 9
There will be a town-wide yard sale in Milton starting at 9 a.m., Saturday, Sept. 9.

Fowler Beach to reopen Sept. 5
The portions of the Fowler Beach area of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge that have been closed since March 27 for the benefit of federally and state protected beach-nesting and migratory shorebirds, including red knot, piping plovers, oystercatchers, least terns and other species will re-open Tuesday, Sept. 5. The refuge had an extremely successful season fledging 12 federally threatened piping plovers, several least terns which are state protected and one oystercatcher.

The beach nesting habitat will reopen for full use by wildlife dependent visitors. Remember that all dogs must be leashed. For more information, call 302-684-8419 or go to www.fws.gov/refuge/Prime_Hook/. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located just off Route 16 near Broadkill Beach at 11978 Turkle Pond Road, Milton.

Dewey audit shows $758,000 surplus Dewey Beach commissioners unanimously approved an unmodified independent audit that showed the town had a$758,000 surplus for Fiscal Year 2017, which ran ran from April 1, 2016 to March 31, 2017. Larry Silver, the town’s audit committee chair, said the report from Salisbury-based TGM Group showed the town has about $2 million in assets,$4 million in the beach replenishment fund and $3 million in unrestricted funds. Town Manager Marc Appelbaum said the surplus would have been greater if there weren’t$135,000 in unexpected costs. The town does not have a structural deficit, he said.

Dewey given authority to write parking tickets
During their Aug. 11 meeting, Dewey commissioners unanimously approved allowing town code enforcement personnel to write parking tickets.
Commissioners also approved wording that says a vehicle’s license plate number will be entered into the town’s electronic data base for future towing or booting if it has two or more delinquent parking fines 30 days or more past due.

Sussex council awards grants to nonprofits
At its Aug. 8 meeting, Sussex County Council presented the following grants: $1,000 to Chamber of Commerce for Greater Milford for its Riverwalk Freedom Festival;$1,500 to Coastal Concerts for its student scholarship fund; and $5,000 to Millsboro Historical Society for restoration and maintenance of the Godwin School. Apply for Sussex human service grants Applications for human service grants for fiscal year 2018 are being accepted by Sussex County. The program provides grants to nonprofit agencies that enhance health and human services to assist with programming or capital costs. The application is available at www.sussexcountyde.gov; the deadline is Friday, Sept. 29. The price of liberty is eternal vigilance. ## Method for plasma activation of biochar material 5 September, 2017 The invention is directed to activation of biochar material, and more specifically to using plasma to efficiently modify the morphology and surface of biochar, which leads to enhanced performance in various applications of activated carbon materials, such as in energy storage in supercapacitors, water treatment, and air purification. Activated carbon is a material used extensively for water treatment, food processing, air purification, energy storage, and vehicle fuel recovery. In 2013, the United States used about 480 million pounds of activated carbon for these applications. Activated carbon is made from coal or biochar through activation, which is a critical step to creating porous nanostructures in carbon materials having a large surface area, proper distribution of pore size, and high surface energy. Previous activation methods require high temperatures and are inefficient. For example, coal-based steam activation is conducted at high temperatures (>700° C.) and the yield is only about 45%. In contrast to limited coal resources, biochar obtained from biomass pyrolysis is a “green” and sustainable material that is expected to eventually dominate the market of activated carbon. Unfortunately, conventional thermal activation of biochar also needs high temperatures (700-1200° C.) for hours using steam, CO2, and/or a strong base (e.g. KOH) followed by chemical washing (to remove the residual base) and prolonged drying, respectively. This energy-intensive and lengthy treatment has become a critical barrier to meeting the globally increasing demands for activated carbon. Furthermore, in the traditional thermochemical activation with convective and/or conductive heating, the biochar temperature is generally not uniform, depending on shapes and sizes of the material. This non-uniform heating causes local overheating and leads to low yield due to the complete combustion of part of the carbon. Therefore, there is a strong need in industry for more efficient and effective methods of activating biochar. Embodiments of the invention fulfill the need in the industry for more efficient and effective methods of activating biochar. The embodiments include a plasma treatment method that efficiently activates biochar, as evidenced by the superior performance of supercapacitors made of such activated biochar. The method includes: • Introducing a reactive gas into a vacuum chamber to establish a certain pressure; • Generating plasma in the chamber with an external power supply; • Exposing biochar to the plasma for a period of time. After treatment, the plasma activated biochar is ready for use in specific applications, such as the electrode materials in supercapacitors, water treatment, air purification, and other applications involving activated carbon or biochar. In embodiments of the invention, the plasma is created through a dielectric barrier discharge. Electrodes connected to a power supply are separated from the biochar by a dielectric material such as quartz defining a vacuum chamber itself, or a window in the vacuum chamber through which RF energy can propagate. In embodiments of the invention, the biochar is placed on a carrier that is electrically biased or at floating potential. The biochar carrier can be a static or shiftable. In embodiments of the invention, the reactive gas is a mixture of multiple gases, at least one of which is a non-inert gas that strongly reacts with biochar. In embodiments of the invention, the reactive gas contains carbon, leading to deposition of a carbon layer on the surface of the biochar. In embodiments of the invention, the biochar is treated with different plasmas using different gases in sequence, or the biochar passes through one or multiple plasma regions in sequence. Each region is fed with the same or different gases. In embodiments of the invention, the plasma is generated by inductively coupled discharge or capacitively coupled discharge in a suitable low-pressure gaseous environment. The RF power supply has a frequency ranging from about 10 kHz to about 300 GHz. The plasma excitation power source can be a combination of multiple power supplies supplying different frequencies, and a combination of alternative current (AC) and direct current (DC) sources, or a pulsed DC source. In an embodiment, a method for activating biochar includes disposing biochar material in a vacuum chamber, introducing a reactive gas into the vacuum chamber at a pressure between 0.01 and 200 Torr, and generating plasma in the vacuum chamber with an external RF power supply such that the biochar material is in contact with the plasma for a time period from about 10 seconds to about 30 minutes to form activated biochar. The step of introducing a reactive gas into the vacuum chamber may include introducing oxygen, methane, silane, or a metallorganic gas. In embodiments of the invention the step of generating plasma in the vacuum chamber with an external RF power supply may involve introducing power with a frequency of between 10 kHz and 300 GHz. In an embodiment, the frequency may be 13.56 MHz. In embodiments of the invention, the step of introducing a reactive gas can involve introducing a mixture of gases. The mixture of gases can include an inert gas. In embodiments of the invention, the biochar material can be disposed on a carrier, which may be electrically biased or set at a floating electrical potential. In embodiments of the invention, the biochar material can be disposed on a conveyor. In embodiments of the invention, a step of generating plasma can involve first generating plasma with a first reactive gas, and second generating plasma using a different, second reactive gas. In further embodiments of the invention, a supercapacitor is made by a process including disposing biochar material in a vacuum chamber, introducing a reactive gas into the vacuum chamber at a pressure between 0.01 and 200 Torr, generating plasma in the vacuum chamber with an external RF power supply such that the biochar material is in contact with the plasma for a time period from about 10 seconds to about 30 minutes to form activated biochar, and forming a slurry including the activated biochar to form a material for use in an electrode of the supercapacitor. The step of forming the slurry can include mixing the activated biochar with a polymer, which may be polytetrafluoroethylene. In embodiments of the invention, the slurry can be deposited on a nickel foam material. The activated biochar may have a specific capacitance of at least 170 F g−1. In a further embodiment, a supercapacitor includes a pair of electrodes separated by a separator, each of the pair of electrodes including activated biochar material having a specific capacitance of at least 170 F g−1. The activated biochar material can be mixed with a polymer, which may be polytetrafluoroethylene. The electrodes may further include a substrate, which may be nickel foil or foam. The embodiments of the present invention may be more completely understood in consideration of the following detailed description of various embodiments in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 is a schematic depiction of a plasma treatment apparatus in use; FIG. 2a is a schematic depiction of a capacitively coupled plasma treatment apparatus; FIG. 2b is a schematic depiction of an inductively coupled plasma treatment apparatus; FIG. 3a is a schematic depiction of a plasma treatment system including a conveyor for continuous activation of biochar in large scale processing; FIG. 3b is a schematic depiction of a plasma treatment system including a plasma confinement component for continuous activation of biochar in large scale processing; FIG. 4a is a scanning electron microscope image of untreated biochar; FIG. 4b is a scanning electron microscope image of plasma activated biochar; FIG. 4c is a scanning electron microscope image of chemically activated biochar; FIG. 5 depicts Raman spectra of untreated, plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar; FIG. 6a is a transmission electron microscope image of untreated biochar; FIG. 6b is a transmission electron microscope image of plasma activated biochar; FIG. 6c is a transmission electron microscope image of chemically activated biochar; FIG. 7 depicts the cumulative pore volume vs. pore diameter for untreated, plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar; FIG. 8 depicts cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves of supercapacitors fabricated using untreated, oxygen plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar; FIG. 9 depicts electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) curves of untreated, oxygen plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar supercapacitors over a measurement frequency range of 0.1 to 10 kHz; FIG. 10 illustrates specific capacitance vs. number of charge/discharge cycles for untreated, oxygen plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar supercapacitors; FIG. 11 depicts the effects of plasma treatment time on the specific capacitance of the biochar supercapacitors; and FIG. 12 depicts an exploded view of a supercapacitor; FIG. 13 is a flow chart of an exemplary process for plasma activation of biochar; and FIG. 14 is a flow chart of an exemplary process for fabricating a supercapacitor using plasma activated biochar. While the present invention is amenable to various modifications and alternative forms, specifics thereof have been shown by way of example in the drawings and will be described in detail. It should be understood, however, that the intention is not to limit the present invention to the particular embodiments described. On the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the present invention. Embodiments of the invention are generally directed to methods of activating biochar. These methods are superior to conventional thermochemical activation in terms of energy consumption, equipment simplicity, and process time. In general, the activation creates larger surface area and pore volume in biochar material. Furthermore, the activation may also modify the surface energy and/or wettability of the biochar. The activated biochar has many applications, such as water treatment, air purification, and energy storage. Examples are given hereinbelow to demonstrate the effectiveness of plasma activation of biochar. FIG. 13 generally depicts the plasma treatment process 20 in the form of a process flow diagram. At step 30, biochar material to be activated is disposed in a vacuum chamber. At step 40, reactive gas is introduced into the vacuum chamber at a pressure between 0.01 and 200 Torr. At step 50, plasma is generated in the vacuum chamber with an external RF power supply such that the biochar material is in contact with the plasma for a time period from about 10 seconds to about 30 minutes to form activated biochar. In FIG. 1 there is depicted schematically an apparatus 100 for plasma activation of biochar 101. Apparatus 100 generally includes dielectric enclosure 102, which may be made from quartz, enclosing vacuum chamber 104, electrodes 106, 108, and RF power source 110. A reactive gas or mixture of gases at a pressure generally lower than atmospheric is introduced and contained in vacuum chamber 104. The gases may include, but are not limited to, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, argon or other inert gases, or mixtures thereof, other gases or mixtures with a chemical composition including carbon, or silane or metallorganic gases and/or mixtures thereof with other gases. The reactive gas can be supplied within a wide range of pressures, ranging from about 0.01 Torr to about 200 Torr. Discharge through the dielectric barrier defined by dielectric enclosure 102, excited by RF power from RF power source 110, creates plasma 112 for activating biochar 101 disposed within plasma 112. RF power supply 110 may supply energy within a wide range of RF excitation frequencies ranging from 10 kHz to 300 GHz, such as will enable generation of plasma 112. A typical RF excitation frequency used is 13.56 MHz. Other typical frequencies are 450 kHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz, and 27.12 MHz. Moreover, as will be appreciated by those of skill in art, the RF power supply can supply energy at a single RF frequency, or multiple RF frequencies simultaneously or in series over time. Electron-gas interactions in plasma 112 include ionization, excitation, and elastic scattering. One example reaction between the electrons and gas is an electron colliding with an oxygen atom, creating an oxygen ion and two free electrons. These electron-gas interactions can generate many reactive species, for example excited oxygen atoms O* and oxygen ions O+. It will be appreciated that plasma activation of biochar according to embodiments of the invention can include multiple steps in sequence—for example, the biochar may be first treated with plasma generated using oxygen gas as a significant component of the gas mixture in the chamber, and then treated with plasma using methane as a significant component of the gas mixture in the chamber. Generally, the time for effective activation of biochar 101 is between 10 seconds and 30 minutes, depending on the system and process parameters, and the physical characteristics of biochar 101. In general, no external heating is necessary, which makes plasma activation a room-temperature process. However, external heating may expedite the activation process or may be needed to create a specific microstructure. Moreover, higher RF power levels may generally result in shorter activation times. FIGS. 2a and 2b schematically illustrate the principles of plasma treatment using capacitively coupled plasma excitation and inductively coupled plasma excitation. In FIG. 2a, capacitively coupled plasma treatment system 114 generally includes vacuum chamber 104 containing a low-pressure reactive gas or gas mixture with components as set forth above. Cathode 116 is electrically coupled to RF power supply 110. Gas feed-through component 118 conveys the reactive gas to chamber 104. Plasma 112 is generated between cathode 116 and anode 120. Anode 120 may be negatively biased through variable capacitance 122 or at a floating potential. Biochar 101 can be disposed directly on anode 120, or in a carrier (not depicted) electrically coupled with anode 120. As depicted schematically in FIG. 2b, inductively coupled plasma treatment system 124 generally includes vacuum chamber 104 having dielectric window 126 which may be made from quartz, RF induction coil 128 electrically coupled with RF power source 110, and biochar carrier 136, which may be negatively electrically biased or at a floating potential. Gas inlet 132 and gas outlet 134, which may be coupled to a vacuum pump (not depicted), enable reactive gas to pass through chamber 104. Biochar 101 rests on biochar carrier 136. With the application of RF energy from RF power supply 110 to RF induction coil 128, induced electromagnetic fields 138 induce current 140 in the reactive gas, and generate plasma 112 for treatment of biochar 101. In embodiments of the invention, plasma treatment of biochar 101 can be a continuous process so as to enable large scale processing. FIGS. 3a and 3b depict embodiments involving movement of biochar through plasma by mechanical conveyor and gravity, respectively. FIG. 3a schematically depicts a plasma treatment system 142 having a mechanical conveyor. System 142 generally includes vacuum chamber 104 containing a low-pressure reactive gas or gas mixture, electrode 144 electrically coupled with RF power source 110, and mechanical conveyor 146. Vacuum chamber 104 is at ground potential. Application of RF power to electrode 144 using RF power source 110 creates plasma 112. Biochar 101 is transported through plasma 112 by conveyor 146. Conveyor 146 can be configured so that biochar 101 passes through plasma 112 more than once, as may be necessary in order to achieve optimal activation. FIG. 3b schematically depicts a plasma treatment system having a gravity feed arrangement. Plasma treatment system 148 generally includes vacuum chamber 104, and plasma containment enclosure 150. Plasma 112 is generated within plasma containment enclosure 150 by capacitive or inductive coupling as described hereinabove. Biochar particles 101 are released from top end 152 of plasma containment enclosure 150, and fall through plasma 112 by gravity. Biochar particles 101 exit plasma containment enclosure 150 through bottom end 154, and accumulate on bottom surface 156 of vacuum chamber 104. From this point, biochar particles 101 can be returned to top end 152 for further treatment, or can be removed from vacuum chamber 104. The effectiveness of plasma activation of biochar 101 can be evaluated by comparing it with standard chemical activation. A typical chemical activation process involves mixing NaOH and biochar at a 2:1 ratio, and then baking the mixture at 700-1200° C. for 1-6 hours in a nitrogen atmosphere. After cooling down to room temperature, the activated biochar is washed with 0.1 mol L−1 HCl and deionized water to reach a pH of 7, and then dried at 105° C. for 12 hours. Various techniques can be used to characterize the composition, structure, and porosity of biochar. A few typical tests are described here. Isotherm adsorption of N2 at 77 K can be carried out using a Micromeritics® ASAP 2010 Micropore Analyzer. The specific surface area can be calculated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation. The pore size distribution can be determined using Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analysis. The structure of biochar 101 may be characterized using Horiba Raman spectroscopy at room temperature, with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm from a diode-pumped solid-state laser. The surface morphology may be characterized using a Hitachi® S3400 scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a FEI Tecnai Spirit G2 Twin transmission electron microscope (TEM). The elemental analysis can be completed using energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) attached to the SEM system. In embodiments of the invention, the plasma activated biochar 101 can be used to fabricate supercapacitor devices. A supercapacitor device fabrication process is described next in exemplary fashion and depicted in the flow chart of FIG. 14. Supercapacitor fabrication process 60 begins with a first step 62 of preparing plasma treated biochar material as described elsewhere herein. Next, at step 64 the activated biochar is mixed with a suitable binder, which can be a polymer material, or any other material that will function as a binder and that has suitable electrical properties. In one embodiment, a slurry is prepared with the activated biochar 101 mixed with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a binder in a mass ratio of 8.5:1.5 of biochar to PTFE. Next, at step 66, the biochar and binder is loaded onto a suitable substrate to prepare electrode material. The active electrode mass loaded on the nickel foil or foam can be about 15 mg per cm2 consistency. It will be appreciated that other mass ratios, polymer materials, and loading densities can be used within the scope of the invention. The substrate can be a metallic foil or other material. In an embodiment, nickel foam (EQ-bcnf-80 um from MTI Corp.) was used as the substrate. Next, at step 68, the electrode material including the biochar material and the substrate can be cut into any desired shape so as to enable packaging into a capacitor device. The package can take the form of a CR2032 coin case cell as further described below, or can be packaged in surface mount, through-hole, lamination, or any other commonly known package. Next, at step 70, a suitable electrolyte can be dissolved into the electrodes. The electrolyte can be 6 mol L−1 KOH, or other suitable composition. A microporous separator (e.g. 3501, Celgard) is then set between a pair of electrodes at step 72. Finally, the components are assembled into the capacitor package configuration at step 74. Fabricated supercapacitors can be evaluated using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) system such as an Ametek® VersaSTAT-450 Potentiostat from Princeton Applied Research of Oak Ridge, Tenn. A typical scan rate is 20 mVs−1, with a cyclic potential sweep set with an initial and final voltage of −1.0 V and a vertex voltage of 1.0 V. The impedance of fabricated supercapacitors can be measured using impedance spectroscopy, for example the VersaSTAT-450, with a frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 100 kHz and potential amplitude of 10 mV. Specific capacitance can be calculated from galvanostatic discharge characteristics and expressed in Farads per gram of active biochar deposited on the electrode. The calculation may be done according to the equation: C=2⁢I⁢⁢Δ⁢⁢tm⁢⁢Δ⁢⁢v where I is the charge or discharge current density, Δt is the charge or discharge time, m is the electrode mass, and Δv is the total change in voltage. The present invention is further defined in the following Examples. It should be understood that these Examples, while indicating embodiments of the invention, are given by way of illustration only. From the above discussion and these Examples, one skilled in the art can ascertain characteristics of the invention, and without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, can make various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to various usages and conditions. FIGS. 4a through 4c show scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of untreated, oxygen plasma activated, and chemically activated yellow pine biochar respectively. The chemically activated sample of FIG. 4c was prepared by mixing NaOH and biochar at a 2:1 ratio, and then baking the mixture at 950° C. for 2 hrs in a nitrogen atmosphere. After cooling down to room temperature, the activated biochar was washed with 0.1 mol L−1 HCl and deionized water to reach a pH of 7, and then dried at 105° C. for 12 hours. The plasma activation was conducted for 5 minutes using oxygen gas within vacuum chamber 104 at a pressure of 2 Torr. Excitation power of 50 W was applied at a radio frequency (RF) of 13.56 MHz. No external heating was used. As depicted in the SEM image of FIG. 4a, the untreated biochar 101 contained a mixture of small and large particles. After the plasma activation, as depicted in the SEM image of FIG. 4b, the biochar surface became porous, and fewer large-size particles remained visible. These results imply that the plasma selectively etched off certain phases in the biochar. Contrary to the plasma activation result, however, chemical activation broke down large particles of the biochar 101 into smaller ones, and eliminated extremely fine particles, as depicted in the SEM image of FIG. 4c. The oxygen plasma treatment was a rapid process, with the yield of biochar depending on the time used for plasma treatment. After 5 minutes of plasma activation at the 50 W RF excitation power, the biochar yield was about 90% by comparing the weight before and after the plasma treatment. Table 1 summarizes the EDX results of the biochar 101 composition before and after activation with the plasma and chemical methods. For the untreated biochar, Kα lines of carbon and oxygen were pronounced. Oxygen content increased after the plasma treatment, which greatly modified the biochar surface bonds.  TABLE 1 Elemental composition from EDX analysis of different biochar powders. Concentration (wt %) Plasma Chemically Element. Line Untreated activated activated C Kα 77.61 79.25 84.85 O Kα 9.86 15.69 12.86 Mg Kα 2.62 1.62 1.20 Si Kα 2.35 0.00 0.45 Ca Kα 7.56 3.44 0.64 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 FIG. 5 shows the Raman spectra of untreated, plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar. The characteristic peak around 1530-1610 cm−1 (G-band) corresponds to individual graphite dominated by sp2 bonds, while the peak around 1320-1370 cm−1 (D-band) indicates a disordered and imperfect structure. An increase in ID/IG reflects a higher proportion of spa carbon. For the chemically activated biochar, the ratio of ID/IG decreased slightly from 0.95 (untreated biochar) to 0.82, indicating a weak selective chemical etching. For the plasma activated biochar, the ID/IG ratio increased by more than two times compared to the untreated biochar. This result implied that the oxygen plasma etched sp2 carbon faster than sp3 carbon. As seen in the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images of FIGS. 6a through 6c, the plasma activation resulted in the appearance of nano-fibers. The nano-fiber structure, as depicted in FIG. 6b, was consistently found all over the plasma treated biochar. The chemically activated biochar as depicted FIG. 6c, however, was found to have a microporous structure in which no nano-fibers were observed. Efficiently creating porous morphology in biochar is one of the desired effects of the activation. A large surface area combined with proper distribution of pore size (micropore, mesopore, and macropore) is the key to achieving high specific capacitance. Isotherm adsorption tests yielded varying cumulative pore volume vs. pore diameter figures for untreated, plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar, as shown in FIG. 7. The untreated biochar had fewer pores in the full test range of 0-600 Å pore size. As a result, it had the lowest cumulative pore volume. Chemical activation created uniform pores with relatively small sizes below 50 Å and the average pore size was 21.6 Å. Hence, it appears that chemical activation actually removes large pores that existed in the original biochar. Plasma activation creates various pores with sizes ranging from micropores (<20 Å) to macropores (>500 Å). The plasma activated biochar includes significantly more mesopores compared with chemically activated biochar. In other words, plasma activation created pores with wider distribution in pore size. This pore size distribution favors adsorption and/or ion transportation, leading to lower impedance and higher specific capacitance. Described below are examples of supercapacitors prepared using the treated and untreated biochar 101. As depicted in FIG. 12, supercapacitor 160 generally includes enclosure 161 which includes CR2032 coin case cell lid 162, CR2032 coin case cell base 164, electrodes 166 which generally include substrate 168 and biochar component 170, and separator 172. Substrates 168 were nickel foam (EQ-bcnf-80 um from MTI Corp.). Biochar components 170 were formed from slurry made from biochar 101. The biochar slurry was prepared using both treated and untreated biochar 101 mixed with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer in a mass ratio of 8.5:1.5 for biochar and PTFE respectively. To form electrodes 166, the biochar slurry was pressed onto the nickel foam substrate 168. Electrodes 166 were cut from the biochar coated nickel foam into a circular shape with a diameter of 1 cm. The biochar component 170 mass loaded on the nickel foam can be about 15 mg per cm2 consistency. An electrolyte of 6 mol L−1 KOH was dissolved into biochar components 170. Separator 172 made from microporous material (3501, Celgard) was set between electrodes 166. Electrodes 166 and separator 172 were then sealed in the CR2032 coin cell enclosure 161 at room temperature. FIG. 8 shows measured cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves of supercapacitors 160 fabricated according to the above procedure using untreated, oxygen plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar 101. The specific capacitance was calculated to be 60.4 F g−1, 171.4 F g−1, and 99.5 F g−1 for the untreated, plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar supercapacitors 160, respectively. The specific capacitance of 171.4 F g−1 was the highest capacitance achieved for supercapacitors 160 made from plasma activated yellow pine biochar. The CV curve of the untreated biochar appeared elliptical, while the CV curves of plasma and chemically activated biochar appeared more rectangular that were the characteristics of an ideal electric double layer capacitor. Therefore, the plasma activation processes not only created a large surface area and pore volume, but also promoted surface energy and chemical structures that favored ion transport, forming the double layer. Note that in the CV measurements, the polarity was inverted to confirm the symmetry of the I-V characteristics. FIG. 9 shows electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) plots of untreated, plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar supercapacitors 160. The measurement frequency ranged from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz, and the voltage was 10 mV. The estimated resistance values, Re(Z), of the oxygen plasma activated, chemically activated, and untreated biochar supercapacitors 160 were 3.3 Ω, 14.5Ω, and 8.2Ω respectively. The low resistance resulting from the plasma activation can be, to a great extent, attributed to ions having easy access to micropores and mesopores, as discussed above. It was also noted that chemical activation led to increased resistance. It should be noted that the EIS-measured impedance included contributions from both the biochar-based electrodes and the electrolyte. The supercapacitor fabrication process was kept constant; only the biochar activation was different. Therefore, the measured Re(Z) values reflected the effects of the different biochar activation methods on the material properties and morphologies. FIG. 10 shows the specific capacitance vs. number of charge/discharge cycles for untreated, oxygen plasma activated, and chemically activated biochar supercapacitors 160. The current density was 160 mA g−1. Notably, the specific capacitance did not change even after 1000 cycles. Oxygen plasma activation of yellow pine biochar was also performed with different process times: 2, 5, 10, and 30 minutes. Specific capacitance in the measured samples was highest following a 5 minute treatment, as illustrated in FIG. 11. This result indicated that very short plasma activation did not create enough porous morphology, while very long treatments could lead to deep but small pores and the removal of large surface pores. Notably, the 5-minute plasma activation is not necessarily the optimal time period for treatment, but appears to be more favorable than 2 or 10-30 minutes under the conditions used for the evaluation. Those of skill in the art will appreciate that optimal plasma activation time will depend on excitation power level and frequency, gas pressure, gas composition, biochar particle size, and/or temperature. Commercially activated biochar YP-50F (Kuraray Chemicals) was used in this example. YP-50F was synthesized from coconut and originally activated using steam at high temperatures. The YP-50F was then plasma treated to further improve performance. The plasma activation of YP-50F was conducted using methane (CH4) gas mixed with argon (Ar) at a volumetric ratio of 10% methane. The gas pressure was about 10 Torr. The RF power was 50 W, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The activation was performed for 5 minutes without external heating. For comparison, oxygen plasma activation was also performed under the same process conditions. Table 2 below shows the BET surface area of YP-50F before and after the plasma treatment, as well as the specific capacitance and impedance of supercapacitors 160 made of the treated and as-received YP-50F. Methane plasma treatment appeared perform better than oxygen plasma treatment for YP-50F because it led to significantly lower impedance.  TABLE 2 Summary of BET surface area, CV measurement and impedance measurement results of untreated, oxygen and methane plasma treated YP-50F biochar. BET Specific surface area capacitance Impedance YP-50 biochar (m2/g) (F g−1) (Ω) Untreated 1612 135.6 0.65 Oxygen plasma treated 1675 149.0 2.37 Methane plasma treated 1701 149.4 1.22 The above descriptions of the preferred embodiments and examples of the present invention are intended to be illustrative and are not intended to be limiting upon the scope and content of the following claims. All of the methods and materials disclosed and claimed herein can be made and executed without undue experimentation in light of the present disclosure. While the methods and materials of this invention have been described in terms of the foregoing illustrative embodiments and examples, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that variations, changes, modifications, and alterations may be applied to the materials and/or methods described herein, without departing from the concept, spirit, and scope of the invention. More specifically, it will be apparent that certain materials (like the process gas) that are chemically and/or electrically related may be substituted for the materials described herein while the same or similar results would be achieved. In some cases, components as are known to those of ordinary skill in the art have not been described in detail herein in order to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the present invention. All such similar substitutes and modifications apparent to those skilled in the art are deemed to be within the spirit, scope, and concept of the invention as defined by the appended claims. For purposes of interpreting the claims for the present invention, it is expressly intended that the provisions of 35 U.S.C. §112(f) are not to be invoked unless the specific terms “means for” or “step for” are recited in a claim. © 2004-2017 FreePatentsOnline.com. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy & Terms of Use. A SumoBrain Solutions Company ## phd thesis on biochar 5 September, 2017 Powered by Discuz! X3.2 © 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc. ## Persistence in soil of Miscanthus biochar in laboratory and field conditions 5 September, 2017 Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here. Loading metrics daniel.rasse@nibio.no Affiliation Department of Soil Quality and Climate Change, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway Affiliations Department of Soil Quality and Climate Change, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway Affiliation Department of Soil Quality and Climate Change, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway Affiliation Institute of Soil Fertilizer and Environment Resource, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China Affiliation CNRS, IEES, UMR CNRS-INRA-UPMC-UPEC-IRD-ParisAgroTech, Thiverval-Grignon, France Affiliation Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Evaluating biochars for their persistence in soil under field conditions is an important step towards their implementation for carbon sequestration. Current evaluations might be biased because the vast majority of studies are short-term laboratory incubations of biochars produced in laboratory-scale pyrolyzers. Here our objective was to investigate the stability of a biochar produced with a medium-scale pyrolyzer, first through laboratory characterization and stability tests and then through field experiment. We also aimed at relating properties of this medium-scale biochar to that of a laboratory-made biochar with the same feedstock. Biochars were made of Miscanthus biomass for isotopic C-tracing purposes and produced at temperatures between 600 and 700°C. The aromaticity and degree of condensation of aromatic rings of the medium-scale biochar was high, as was its resistance to chemical oxidation. In a 90-day laboratory incubation, cumulative mineralization was 0.1% for the medium-scale biochar vs. 45% for the Miscanthus feedstock, pointing to the absence of labile C pool in the biochar. These stability results were very close to those obtained for biochar produced at laboratory-scale, suggesting that upscaling from laboratory to medium-scale pyrolyzers had little effect on biochar stability. In the field, the medium-scale biochar applied at up to 25 t C ha-1 decomposed at an estimated 0.8% per year. In conclusion, our biochar scored high on stability indices in the laboratory and displayed a mean residence time > 100 years in the field, which is the threshold for permanent removal in C sequestration projects. Citation: Rasse DP, Budai A, O’Toole A, Ma X, Rumpel C, Abiven S (2017) Persistence in soil of Miscanthus biochar in laboratory and field conditions. PLoS ONE 12(9): e0184383. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184383 Editor: Jorge Paz-Ferreiro, RMIT University, AUSTRALIA Received: June 23, 2017; Accepted: August 22, 2017; Published: September 5, 2017 Copyright: © 2017 Rasse et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All datasets for laboratory and field experiments are available from the PANGAEA database (https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.878894). Funding: Funding for the research was provided by the Research Council of Norway (NFR) through the project “Advanced Techniques to Evaluate the Long-term Stability and Carbon Sequestration Potential of Different Types of Biochar” NFR197531 and ”Creating a scientific basis for an integrated evaluation of soil-borne GHG emissions in Norwegian agriculture” NFR/192856; by the Norwegian Financial Mechanism with Hungary “Green Industry Innovation” project HU09-0029-A1-2013; and by the Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment through the NIBIO SIS-Jordkarbon project. Alice Budai received a travel grant (EG/3958) from the MOLTER networking programme of the European Science Foundation for part of this work on BPCA at the University of Zurich. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Abbreviations: BPCA, benzene polycarboxylic acid; HTT, highest treatment temperature; MRT, mean residence time; SOM, soil organic matter; TOC, total organic carbon Progress towards implementing biochar as a technology for biological carbon capture and storage is being made on several fronts. A recent analysis indicates that biochar is on average a more favorable option than other negative emission technologies in terms of required land surface, water use, soil nutrient budgets, energy requirements and costs [1]. Early fears and uncertainty about the impact of large-scale biochar deployment have been tempered by extensive work to assess possible negative impacts and tradeoffs [24] and the creation of industry certification protocols to ensure sustainable production of safe biochar e.g. European Biochar Certificate [5] and biochar standards of the International Biochar Initiative [6]. For C-credit accounting, biochar potentially presents the considerable advantage as compared to other soil carbon sequestration methods of relying on direct C-input accounting rather than expensive soil-based verification schemes [7]. However, C-input accounting is conditional to having an accurate estimator of the mean residence time (MRT) in soil of any given biochar source. Persistence in soil is a fundamental quality of biochars for serving their role as C sequestration products. This persistence must exceed 100 years to match the definition of permanent removal, as defined by Noble and colleagues [8]. The bulk of plant residue biomass decomposes quickly when applied to soil, with even lignin molecules mineralizing at 90% within one year of residue application to soil [9]. The mean residence time of bulk soil organic matter (SOM) averages 50 years across studies [10]. In other words, biochar must be about 2 orders of magnitude more stable than untreated plant residues and at least twice as stable as bulk SOM to meet a 100-year MRT criteria. Research on biochar is often carried out using laboratory-produced biochar. Due to limitations of heat transfer and the exothermic nature of pyrolysis, small-scale production offers better control and more sensitive monitoring as compared to larger scale commercial units [11]. The implementation of biochar technology is dependent on the production of biochar through larger scale commercial units. The highest treatment temperature reached during transformation is often different from the target temperature due to the endothermic and exothermic properties of the carbonization process [12], and accurate measurement of temperatures within the reactors are not always possible, especially large-scale ones. This raises the question whether biochar produced in larger reactors is of equivalent quality to that produced in the laboratory using the same feedstock and equivalent temperature. Up to now, the vast majority of studies aiming at determining the stability of biochar in soils have been laboratory incubations. Reviews of biochar stability in soils have mostly been based on laboratory incubations and on properties of black carbon present in soils exposed to natural fires [13]. In a review of 311 papers, Gurwick and colleagues [14] found only 3 studies estimating biochar stability in the field. Similarly, less than 10% of studies presented in a recent review of biochar effects on soil respiration were based on actual field treatments [15]. Only a subset of these field treatments corresponded to CO2 field monitoring for at least one growing season. Recently, only three isotopic field studies were available for estimating biochar decomposition and priming effects in soils, while many more came from laboratory conditions [16]. This exemplifies the need for more field evaluation of biochar, especially as its mineralization might be enhanced in field, where active roots are present [17]. One of the problems with laboratory incubations is the fact that they are usually lasting for a few weeks or months and they are addressing the timeframe of 100 years only by extrapolation of the C mineralization data [18]. Field data are needed to improve upon these extrapolations and to calibrate screening methods for biochar stability [19]. Chemical oxidation is such a screening method, which has been proposed to address long-term biochar stability [20, 21]. Another approach is based on the determination of benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) as biomarkers of condensed aromatic sheets, which have been shown to isolate the most stable faction of biochar, and are therefore a promising proxy for stability [22]. Moreover, elemental composition of biochars may also be a proxy for their degradation behavior [23]. Here we considered these three types of proxies for biochar incubated under both laboratory and field conditions. The overall objective of the present study was to investigate the stability in soils of biochar produced from Miscanthus feedstock. The feedstock was chosen because it is a bioenergy crop in Europe and, being a C4-type grass, its distinct isotopic 13C signature can be used to trace the fate of its constitutive carbon in temperate soils. Biochars were produced with slow pyrolysis at different scales, using a medium-scale pyrolyzer (BCMED) and a laboratory unit (BCLAB), and their stabilities were analysed with different laboratory methods and compared to laboratory and field incubation results. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine if BCMED performed as well as BCLAB in terms of carbonization, condensation, chemical stability indicators and biological stability in laboratory incubation, and 2) estimate the stability of BCMED and its feedstock in a 2-year field experiment. The Miscanthus biochar was produced in Germany in 2010 by Pyreg® Gmbh (www.pyreg.de) in a commercial prototype slow pyrolysis screw reactor operating under a continuous feeding rate of 100–150 kg dry matter per hour and a carbon efficiency of up to 60%. We define this pyrolyzer unit as being of a medium scale and refer to it hereafter as BCMED. The estimated highest treatment temperature (HTT) provided by the manufacturer was between 500–750°C. A precise temperature measurement at each phase of pyrolysis is in general difficult to obtain due to heat transfer limitations and was not possible for this machine. In order to avoid combustion risks, the biochar was moistened to approximately 35% moisture content after leaving the pyrolysis reactor. Application rates in this article were all corrected for moisture and are presented on a dry weight basis. Using the same feedstock as BCMED, we produced slow-pyrolysis biochars under controlled laboratory conditions and obtained a measured HTT of 682°C. This was performed in a muffle furnace with a heating rate of 2.5°C min-1 as described by Budai and colleagues [12]. Hereafter, we will refer to this biochar as BCLAB. The Miscanthus biochar was analyzed for elemental and proximate compositions. Proximate analyses for volatile matter content were conducted according to ASTM E 871 and 872 except that covered crucibles were placed at the rear of a furnace and heated for 6 minutes at 950°C, and ash content was determined according to ASTM D 1102. Specific surface area was measured by N adsorption–desorption isotherms at 77 K using a Micromeritics Tri Star 3000 instrument. Before analysis, the samples were dried at 120°C and degassed overnight in a VacPrep 061 Degasser at 0.05 mbar and 393 K. The Brunauer–Emmet–Teller equation was used to calculate the specific surface area [24]. The C and N contents were determined on a Leco CHN 1000 analyzer (Leco Corp., St. Joseph, MI, USA). Aromaticity and condensation degree of the Miscanthus biochars were estimated with the method of BPCA, following Wiedemeier and colleagues [25]. BPCAs are molecular markers that originate from larger aromatic structures that compose charred biomass. The quantity and composition of the BPCA molecular markers are used to deduce information about the molecular structure of biochar. Here we used total BPCA amount in relation to organic carbon (g kg-1) as an indicator of aromaticity and the ratio of B6CA per total BPCA as an indicator of condensation, as suggested by Wiedemeier and colleagues [26]. The BPCA method was carried out by digesting each ball-milled sample in 10, 15, and 20 mg aliquots for 8 hours at 170°C in quartz tubes using 2 mL of 65% nitric acid solution. The digestate was filtered through ash-free cellulose paper and a cation exchange resin, then finally freeze-dried and re-dissolved in methanol/water (1:1, v:v) before passing through a conditioned solid phase extraction column (Supelco, USA). After drying and re-dissolving in ultrapure water, the final sample was analyzed using an Agilent 1290 Infinity HPLC system (Santa Clara, USA) according to Wiedemeier and colleagues [25]. Resistance of biochar to oxidation was tested by the acid dichromate method as described by Naisse and colleagues [20], where the total length of time for oxidation is chosen according to the time required to oxidize all of a reference material, i.e. the feedstock in this case. The method of applying fresh potassium dichromate solution and allowing for variable reaction time was applied by Rumpel and colleagues [27] and applied also at room temperature by Kuo and colleagues [28]. Here, samples of 0.3 g each were oxidized in 5 mL of 0.1 M K2Cr2O7 / 2M H2SO4 for 1.5 or 2 hours under sonication at 70°C. Samples were recovered by centrifugation and the removal of supernatant, after which oxidation was repeated with new potassium dichromate acid solution. Oxidation was repeated until the Miscanthus feedstock was consumed. Total oxidation time was 15.5 hours for all samples. Remaining samples were washed three times with 5 ml distilled water and dried at 60°C for two days. Sample remnants were ground using a mortar and pestle before C and N analysis. Incubation was carried out using a sandy loam Inceptisol collected from an agricultural field in Rygge county, Norway (59°23′15″ N; 10°46′26″ E) [29]. Soil consisted of 83% sand, 11% silt, and 6% clay (Eurofins AS, Norway), had a pH of 6.8 as measured at a 1:1 soil to water ratio, TOC content of 12 g kg-1 (dw), and a C/N ratio of 12. This soil does not come from our biochar field experiment, but it is a standard soil we used for laboratory incubation of our biochar series [30]. Because of this difference in soil type, our laboratory incubations of BCMED are not directly comparable to mineralization under field conditions, but rather provide a realistic use of laboratory incubation as a proxy for field stability, where incubation would most likely not be conducted in each soil type where field application is considered. The air-dried soil was passed through a 2 mm sieve, brought to 19.8% (g g-1) moisture content and pre-incubated at 20°C for 20 days. Feedstock and biochars were added to 20 g equivalent dry soil at rates of 0.025, 0.12, 0.58% for feedstock and 0.23, 1.14, 5.46% for biochars. For biochars, these rates mimicked application rates of about 6, 30 and 150 t BC ha-1 within a 0.20 m soil layer of bulk density 1300 kg m-3 for the untreated soil. In order to adjust for the faster mineralization of the feedstock, application rate was 10% that of biochar. All mineralization rates were computed based on precise amount added to each vial. The first two rates are close to those used in our field experiments, while the high rate provides an end member for testing potential dose dependent effects on mineralization. Incubation was carried out in 120 mL incubation vials equipped with butyl rubber septa. Determination of the accumulated CO2 concentration and 13CO2 signature was conducted every 7 to 11 days according to the batch-flush method as described in Budai and colleagues [30]. In short, sampling was conducted by flushing the vial headspace with 800 mL CO2-free air with outflow gasses collected in 1L gasbags. The concentration and 13C isotopic composition in the gasbag was then measured using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (G1101-i, Picarro, INC., Sunnyvale, CA, USA), which had been factory upgraded to reduce transient concentration response, water vapor interference and CH4 interference according to Moni and colleagues [31]. In addition, a Nafion filter with desiccator was installed on-line to further reduce possible interaction with water vapor [30]. A field trial was set up in September 2010 in Ås, Norway (59° 39′ 51″ N 10° 45′ 40″ E) in a randomized block design with 4 treatments x 4 blocks. Plots were 8 x 4 m and buffer areas between blocks were 6 m wide. The 4 treatments consisted of: (1) BCMED biochar at 8 t C ha-1 (BC8), (2) BCMED biochar at 25 t C ha-1 (BC25), (3) Miscanthus straw (non-pyrolyzed) at 8 t C ha-1 (MS8), and (4) control (neither biochar nor non-pyrolyzed Miscanthus). Application rates were computed per unit C so that equal quantities of C were added in BC8 and MS8 treatments. Biochar and Miscanthus straw were hand spread and raked out on the surface of the plots in September 2010, and immediately incorporated into the soil by inverse ploughing. Inverse ploughing to a depth of 23 cm resulted in the biochar and straw being distributed in concentrated diagonal seams in the Ap horizon in 2011. Ploughing and harrowing after harvest in 2011 and 2012 resulted in a more even distribution throughout the Ap horizon in the following years. Oats were sown in 2011 and barley in 2012. Fertilization was applied with seeding using Yaramila ™ NPK 22-3-10 at 550 kg fertilizer ha-1. The fields were not treated with fungicide, herbicide or pesticide. Hand weeding was done where weeds appeared within the closed chamber collars. Annual precipitation in 2011 was 973 mm (63% in May-Sept) and 800 mm in 2012 (47% in May-Sept). Annual average temperature was 6.7°C in 2011 (14 ± 2.6°C, May-Sept), and 5.9°C in 2012 (13.1 ± 2.3°C, May-Sept). These meteorological measurements were taken from a research weather station located on the University of Life Sciences, Ås Campus, 1.3 km from the field site. The soil of the field plots is a clay loam Epistagnic Albeluvisol (WRB classification). The clay content is 27%, silt 43% and sand 31%. pH is 6.39 (±0.18, n = 9), TOC 2.64%, total N 0.23%, and total P 0.29%. The CO2 fluxes were measured during the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012, and isotopic 13C composition in 2012 only. Fourteen CO2 flux measurements were undertaken from 23/05/2011 to 01/09/2011 and 11 measurements from 22/05/2012 to 04/10/2012. Measurements were conducted between 10:00 and 15:00. Thirty-two chamber collars (2 collars/plot x 16 plots) measuring 0.32m L x 0.12m W x 0.06 m H were inserted 0.05m into the soil between crop rows, leaving a water filled gutter (0.1m W x 0.1 m H) exposed at the soil surface to serve as a gas sealant for the chamber. The inter-row chambers capture the soil respiration, including root activities, but exclude the respiratory component of plant shoots, thereby increasing the signal to noise ratio of the isotopic measurements. Thirty-two rectangular aluminum closed chambers (0.30m L x 0.1m W x 0.2m H) were placed on the chamber collars immediately before measurement. There were no pressure valve tubes used on the chambers. The CO2 flux was measured for 2 min periods with an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) EGM-4 (PP Systems, Hitchin, UK) which cycled gases via entry and exit valves from the chamber to calculate changes in CO2 concentration and the flux. The δ13C signature of the soil CO2 efflux was measured 6 times in 2012. Samples were taken in partially inflated 1-L gas bags [31]. Because the air inside the chamber was a mixture of atmospheric air with increasing concentration of soil-emitted CO2, keeling plots were necessary to estimate the true δ13C value of the soil CO2. The keeling plot method [32] is used to differentiate δ13C SOM from atmospheric δ13C where the linear regression plot intercept represents the δ13C SOM. The Keeling plot method is based on a linear relationship between δ13C values and the inverse of CO2 concentrations, it is therefore not time dependent, making it a robust method even if release of soil air in the chamber might have been slightly accelerated at sampling. Preliminary tests indicated that 3-point keeling plots with sampling at 3, 8 and 1440 minutes were linear and suitable for covering a wide range of concentration necessary for proper estimates. In our analyses, any keeling plot that did not reach a significant correlation coefficient at P<0.1 (r ≥ 0.988) was excluded. Gas samples were analyzed for δ13C using a cavity ring down spectrometer (G1121-i, Picarro INC., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Solid sample δ13C analysis was carried out on the Miscanthus straw, biochar, and the C3 field soil by combusting 1–2 mg samples (3 replicates) in a combustion module connected to a cavity ring-down spectrometer (G2121-i, Picarro, INC., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The spectrometer was controlled for drift in δ13C signal by including known δ13C standards, in this case sucrose with -11.6 ‰ and tyrosine at -23.2 ‰, within the analysis runs. For the laboratory incubations, in order to determine if SOM decomposition was significantly modified by different types and quantities of biochar and feedstock amendment as compared to a non-amended control soil, we applied one-way ANOVA with the Dunnett’s method for multiple comparisons vs. a control group, as implemented in SigmaPlot 12.5. Multiple comparisons effects were conducted after verifying that both normality and normal variance conditions were satisfied. Fitting of incubation data to a first-order kinetics decay model was conducted with SigmaPlot 12.5. For field data, statistical analyses of the total soil respiration and mineralization of feedstock and biochar were conducted by 2-way ANOVA, considering treatment and block effects, using the Holm-Sidak method for multiple comparisons when a main effect was detected and both normality and normal variance conditions were satisfied. The BCMED produced at a reported temperature between 500–750°C appeared pyrolyzed to an equivalent extent as compared to our reference 682°C laboratory-scale slow pyrolysis biochar (BCLAB). Volatile matter content was 7.4 and 6.4% for BCMED and BCLAB, respectively (Table 1). Carbon content was 80 and 76% for BCMED and BCLAB, respectively. The H/C atomic ratio was 0.18 and 0.24 for BCMED and BCLAB, respectively. Selective oxidations were conducted until all feedstock C was mineralized by the action of the potassium dichromate. At that time, the fraction of non-oxidized C was 75 and 74% for BCMED and BCLAB, respectively (Table 1). Total benzene poly-carboxylic acid content, i.e. the sum of B3CA, B4CA, B5CA and B6CA, was 179 and 176 g BPCA-C per kg biochar C for BCMED and BCLAB, respectively (Table 2), indicating high content of aromatic moieties in both biochars. The feedstock contained no B6CA, which is a molecular marker of condensed polyaromatic sheets. By contrast, BCMED contained 136 g B6CA-C per kg biochar C, which was 48% more than BCLAB. The ratio of B6CA/BPCA was 0.76 for BCMED and 0.53 for BCLAB, respectively. Both B6CA as percent of charcoal C [33] and the ratio B6CA/BPCA [26] have been suggested as predictors of aromatic condensation, indicating that BCMED was more condensed than BCLAB. In a 90-day incubation, cumulative mineralization of feedstock, SOM and biochar approximated 45%, 1.4% and 0.12% of initial C, respectively (Table 3). This indicates that both biochar types, i.e. BCMED and BCLAB, were >300 times more stable than the Miscanthus feedstock and >10 times more stable than SOM within the 90-day incubation. Because we were interested in determining if the two biochar types behaved differently, we conducted a 2-way ANOVA biochar × dose for BCMED and BCLAB only (S1 Table). This analysis showed that cumulative mineralization after 90 days was significantly lower for BCMED than for BCLAB (P = 0.03, S1 Table), while there was neither significant dose effect nor significant dose × biochar interactions. This result suggests that biochar decomposed in a similar fashion whether applied at application rates of 0.23, 1.14 or 5.46% by weight. Feedstock mineralization was also consistent across application rates of 0.03, 0.12 and 0.58% (Table 3). As there was no significant dose effect, we investigated the mineralization kinetics of BCMED vs. BCLAB averaged across doses (Fig 1). This approach shows that the shape of the mineralization curves of BCMED and BCLAB were similar, although total mineralization was significantly lower for BCMED than for BCLAB as mentioned above. Mineralization curves of our two biochars were rather quickly leveling off (Fig 1). In fact, modelling with one-pool first-order kinetics decay, predicted reactive C pool in the BCMED biochar to be 0.10%, with the remaining fraction of about 99.9% being totally inert (S1 Fig). Using a two-pool model yielded similar results. Forcing the one-pool first-order kinetics model to reach 100% mineralization yielded a decay rate of 1.25 10−5 d-1 or MRT of about 220 years, but the fit to the data was poor (S1 Fig). Therefore, our laboratory incubation simply indicates that BCMED is highly stable and extrapolating a precise MRT remains uncertain. Standard errors reported for n = 9 (3 replicates for 3 doses). Values are in %, i.e. 100 × mineralized fraction. Cumulative mineralization of the indigenous SOM was significantly higher in several feedstock and biochar treatments than in the control soil, which averaged 1.38% at the end of the incubation period (Table 4). Largest difference was observed for Miscanthus feedstock applied at the highest gravimetric dose with additional loss of 1.08% SOM as compared to the control soil (Table 4). The BCMED applied at ten times this rate, i.e. 5.5%, resulted in a 1% priming of SOM, i.e. an increase in mineralization from 1.4% to 2.4% at the end of the 90-day incubation. All application rates at 5.5% and 1.1% for BCMED and BCLAB biochars and 0.58 and 0.12% for Miscanthus feedstock produced a significant increase in SOM mineralization rate as compared to the control. By contrast, no significant difference as compared to control was observed for the lowest amendment rates of 0.23% for BCMED and BCLAB biochars and 0.03% for Miscanthus feedstock. For the middle and high amendment doses, which produced significant increases in SOM decomposition, we computed the priming effect and tested for differences among both doses and treatments (Table 5). Both amendment type and dose had significant effects on the cumulative priming rates. The higher amendment dose consistently produced higher priming effects, both for feedstock and biochars (Table 5). Because of a significant amendment × dose interaction (P < 0.01, S2 Table), amendment effects were analyzed within dose. At the middle dose, MS and BCMED induced a similar priming effect, which was significantly higher than that of BCLAB. At the higher dose, priming effects were in the order MS > BCMED > BCLAB. Cumulated soil CO2 fluxes over the course of the growing season were not significantly affected by treatment in 2011 or 2012, with non-significant highest value in the control treatment in 2011, and in BC25 treatment in 2012 (Table 6, Fig 2). Crop yields were not significantly modified by biochar treatments in either 2011 or 2012 (S3 Table), suggesting that autotrophic respiration terms were fairly similar. Across treatments, cumulated CO2 fluxes averaged 214 g C m-2 from May 23rd to September 1st in 2011, and 288 g C m-2 from May 22nd to October 4th in 2012 (Fig 2). Cumulative soil respiration measured 14 dates in 2011 (a) and 11 dates in 2012 (b). Treatments are control (C), non-pyrolyzed Miscanthus feedstock at 8 t C ha-1 (MS8), biochar 8 t C ha-1 (BC8), and biochar 25 t C ha-1 (BC25). Data are averages of n = 4. For most sampling periods, we obtained highly linear keeling plots for estimating δ13C values of the soil CO2 (e.g. S2 Fig). The average δ13C of soil CO2 efflux in the plots amended with Miscanthus feedstock was significantly higher than in the control and biochar plots (Table 6). Neither BC8 nor BC25 displayed δ13C values of soil CO2 significantly different from that of the control, although these values were consistently higher in biochar plots (Table 6). As δ13C of BC25 and BC8 were not significantly different from one another, we averaged them per block and compared them to the control. This analysis indicated that the increase in δ13C of soil CO2 in the biochar plots as compared to the control was not significant at P < 0.05 but was so at P<0.1 (P = 0.06, S4 Table). In 2012, the proportion of the soil CO2 efflux coming from the Miscanthus sources ranged between 15 and 29% for straw, and between 0 and 8% for the biochar (Fig 3). This low contribution of biochar sources appear to mask potential differences between the two dose treatments, with the two curves crossing each other (Fig 3). Although proportions of Miscanthus-derived CO2 varied during the growing season, no clear seasonal trend was observed (Fig 3), suggesting that a season-average value for the δ13C was justified. Because 2012 was the only year with isotopic measurements, we estimated the proportions of Miscanthus-derived CO2 for the 2012 growing season only (Table 6). Combining measured CO2 fluxes and proportions of Miscanthus-derived CO2, we estimated that our MS8 treatment applied at 800 g C m-2 lost 67 g C m-2 to the atmosphere during the 2012 growing season, while biochar treatments lost between 6–8 g C m-2 during the same period (Table 6). These values correspond to a mineralization of the MS8, BC8 and BC25 by 8.3, 0.8 and 0.3%, respectively. The average mineralization value for Miscanthus biochar was therefore 0.5% from May 22 to October 4 in 2012. This value translates into an annual mineralization rate of 0.8%, assuming a Q10 of 2 applied to soil temperature values measured at a depth of 2 cm at the Ås field station. Laboratory analyses pointed towards equivalent degrees of stability and aromaticity for the medium-scale and the laboratory biochars. The H/C atomic ratio of BCMED was slightly lower than that of BCLAB, i.e. 0.18 vs 0.24 (Table 1). Similar to our results, Keiluweit and colleagues [34] reported H/C atomic ratio of 0.2 for grass biochar produced at 700°C, but did not test higher HTT. However, 0.2 is not the lowest limit for biochar produced with Miscanthus, as Budai and colleagues [12] report H/C atomic ratio of 0.1 for biochar produced in the laboratory at 800°C. Therefore, the H/C atomic ratio suggests that BCMED reached a carbonization degree comparable to that of BCLAB, i.e. a slow-pyrolysis biochar produced in the laboratory at 682°C. Our chemical oxidation values were close to those reported for a wheat-derived gasification char, which was resistant at 72% to chemical oxidation by potassium dichromate [20]. This latter study used a methodology similar to ours, only with a slightly shorter reaction time, i.e. 12 vs 15.5 h. In general, oxidation methods reported in the literature follow variable protocols, making it difficult to compare results among individual studies. Oxidation utilizing hydrogen peroxide and thermogravimetric analysis have also been used to estimate biochar stability [35]. Our chemical oxidation data suggest that BCLAB and BCMED were equally carbonized. The BPCA analyses suggest that BCMED produced at a reported temperature between 500–750°C reached a higher condensation degree than our reference 682°C BCLAB. Another Miscanthus biochar produced by Pyreg was analyzed by Wiedner and colleagues [36] using the BPCA method. Similar to our findings, they found high levels of B6CA, i.e. 85% B6CA, 10% B5CA, 5% B4CA, 0% B3CA. The degree of condensation of this biochar was reported to be higher than all other materials tested [36]. The total BPCA content of our BCLAB and BCMED are similar to those obtained for grass biochars prepared at 700–900°C [33, 37]. Our results suggest that the medium-scale pyrolysis process affected the condensation more than the aromatization degree of BCMED vs. BCLAB. Laboratory incubations confirmed the high stability of BCMED, which was suggested by H/C ratio, BPCA and chemical oxidation methods. BCMED mineralized by only 0.10% after 90 days, which is consistent with results of Luo and colleagues [38] who observed a 0.16% mineralization of 700°C Miscanthus biochars in an 87-day incubation. Lower temperature Miscanthus biochars have been reported to display higher mineralization rates, from 0.73% in 87 days for a 350°C biochar [38] to 1.1% in 200 days for a 575°C biochar [39]. Here, we could not estimate a precise MRTs based on our short-time laboratory incubation, but even the most conservative first-order kinetics model suggested it to be longer than 220 years (S1 Fig). Even if a laboratory MRT could be obtained it could not be extrapolated to field conditions, notably because incubation conditions are artificial and we used a standard soil type. Living roots can promote biochar mineralization [17] and soil type affects biochar mineralization rates [40]. What the incubations tell us is that BCMED is highly stable and therefore worthy of field investigation. Incubations are also useful to compare the decomposition kinetics of different biochars [30]. Here we show that the stability of Miscanthus biochar produced in a medium-scale pyrolyzer actually exceeds that of biochar produced at a laboratory scale, which suggests that the large volume of feedstock in the pyrolyzer was not a limitation for obtaining a well carbonized product. Mineralization rate of BCMED in the field approximated 0.5% per growing season (Table 6), which implies that the annual rate is probably lower than 1% for the entire year under the cold-climate conditions prevailing in Norway. We acknowledge that the average 0.5% mineralization rate per growing season is only an estimate. However, we found no obvious source of bias on this estimate and therefore consider it fairly robust. Although our soil respiration fluxes were obtained with a simple manual chamber system, our results appear consistent with literature values. We measured on average a soil CO2 efflux of about 275 g CO2-C m-2 over 4 months in 2012, while the annual soil respiration from all croplands averages 544 g C m-2 yr-1 [41]. Our soil respiration data appear similar or higher to those compiled for field crops in Sweden, Canada and Russia [42]. For soil respiration alone, the absence of a significant difference between our biochar treatments and the control appears consistent with recent reports. For example, Schimmelpfennig and colleagues [43] report that throughout an 18-month monitoring period, a field having received Miscanthus biochar had lower cumulative CO2 emissions than biochar-free controls. In a recent meta-analysis, Sagrilo and colleagues [15] indicate that soil CO2 efflux from biochar treated soils are not significantly higher than from no-biochar controls when the ratio of biochar-C to SOC is lower than 2. Across application dose, these authors report no increase in soil CO2 efflux with biochar addition when the biochar is produced with a pyrolysis retention time > 30 minutes or at a temperature above 550°C, or when it has a surface area > 50 m2 g-1. In addition, none of the 8 field studies included in the review of Sagrilo and colleagues [15] displayed significant higher CO2 fluxes with biochar addition to soil. These findings suggest that biochar decomposition in the field is slow. However, actual quantification of the decomposition rate is crucial, as there is for example a large difference between a 1% and a 5% biochar decomposition rate, although both are likely to produce non-significant CO2 responses in the field, being possibly hidden by negative priming effects and root respiration responses. Therefore, isotopic tracing of C sources is needed to estimate the actual biochar mineralization rate in the field [16], as was conducted for one growing season in the present study. Our biochar mineralization estimates computed from δ13C and soil respiration measurements are in the lower range of the limited set of studies having attempted a similar assessment. A mineralization rate of 9% was reported for maize biochar after 245 days [17]. However, biochar in the latter study had an atomic H/C ratio of 0.49, which is higher than our 0.18 value. In Australia, mineralization rates of Eucalyptus biochar ranged from 2% to 7% per year depending on soil type and climate [40]. This high mineralization rate might be due to the high H/C ratio of the Eucalyptus biochar, i.e. 0.63, which is higher than the H/C threshold of 0.6 for proposed for non-stable biochars [23]. Our results are similar to those of Major and colleagues [44], who reported a biochar mineralization rate of 2.2% over 2 years, i.e. about 1% per year, in tropical conditions, using a biochar made of mango tree wood with H/C atomic ratio of 0.26. Also, Maestrini and colleagues [45] reported an in situ annual mineralization rate of 0.5% for pinewood biochar in a temperate forest soil. Estimating a MRT from the measured biochar mineralization rate in the field is the most crucial yet most uncertain step for assessing the C-storage potential of different biochar products in soil. Having measured a 2% mineralization for biochar over 12 months in an arenosol, Singh and colleagues [40] applied one-, two- and infinite-pool decomposition models and inferred that the corresponding MRT was comprised between 44 and 1079 years, which clearly exemplifies the large uncertainty associated with converting annual mineralization rates into MRT. Major and colleagues [44] observed a mineralization rate of 2.2% over two years, and extrapolated this value to a MRT of 3200 years using a two-pool model. This long MRT was a result of a three-fold decrease in biochar mineralization rate from year one to year two in their study. Our estimated mineralization rate for the 2012 season was slightly lower than that of Major and colleagues [44], i.e. 0.8 vs. 1.1% per year. However, we cannot apply a two-pool model to our results because we have no indication that such two pools actually existed in our case. Laboratory incubation (Fig 1) did not reveal any significant pool of mineralizable C for BCMED at the beginning of the incubation. By contrast, the feedstock displayed a pronounced two-pool behavior, with 45% being mineralized in 90 days, which might explain why feedstock mineralization rates in the field in 2012 were fairly low. We used a one-pool model with constant mineralization rate of 0.8% per year, which yields a conservative MRT estimate for BCMED of 125 years. Although this value barely exceeds the conventional 100-year threshold for permanent removal, large gains in terms of C storage in soil can still be achieved with a pyrolysis process transforming crop residues into biochar with 1% y-1 mineralization rate [46]. In conclusion, our biochar produced in a medium-scale pyrolyzer: 1) scored high on stability indices in the laboratory, 2) had similar to higher stability indices than a laboratory-produced biochar, and 3) mineralized at an estimated 0.8% per year under field conditions. The corresponding MRT for field conditions exceeds 100 years, but is only an extrapolation. Based on laboratory re-incubations, Spokas [47] argues that field-incorporated biochar might become intrinsically more susceptible to mineralization. Others have argued the opposite, that the real MRT might greatly exceed the projected MRT because biochar is not composed of one or two pools but of a continuum of increasingly recalcitrant fractions [40]. Ascertaining the long-term dynamics of this response calls for long-term monitoring of biochar field experiments having isotopic C tracing possibilities. The authors wish to thank Raphael Fauches for his help with field measurements. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here. plos.org Blogs Collections Send us feedback Help using this site LOCKSS ## Global Biochar Market Data Survey Report 2025 [Report Updated: 06082017] Prices from USD … 6 September, 2017 Summary Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygenlimited environment. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils low pH soils, increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soilborne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. The global Biochar market will reach xxx Million USD in 2017 with CAGR xx% from 20182025. The main contents of the report including: Global market size and forecast Regional market size, production data and export import Key manufacturers manufacturing sites, capacity and production, product specifications etc. Average market price by SUK Major applications Key manufacturers are included based on manufacturing sites, capacity and production, product specifications etc.: Diacarbon Energy AgriTech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra Pacific Biochar Vega Biofuels Liaoning Jinhefu Group Hubei Jinri EcologyEnergy Nanjing Qinfeng Cropstraw Technology Seek BioTechnology Shanghai Major applications as follows: Soil Conditioner Fertilizer Others Regional market size, production data and export import: AsiaPacific North America Europe South America Middle East Africa Fertility Fertility is the ability of a couple to conceive, but can related to specifically the man or woman. Various reasons can cause a couple to be infertile, and due to the strong desire of these patients to have <!–LGfEGNT2Lhm–>children, a range of … ## Uli's repurposes rooftop into garden 6 September, 2017 Aaron Hinks photo Ulis Restaurant owner Tyson Blume holds freshly picked tomatoes and Rick Ketcheson, partner of Raven Wood Biochar, holds soil he constructed for the roof-top project. A Marine Drive restaurant owner has found a clever way to repurpose his roof — and kitchen waste — to grow vegetables for the patrons dining below. Uli’s Restaurant owner Tyson Blume told Peace Arch News last week that he began experimenting with growing vegetables on top of his restaurant last year, but had trouble keeping the plants hydrated. Last summer, Blume met Rick Ketcheson, a retired mechanical engineer who has taken an interest in soil biology, at the White Rock Farmers’ Market. Ketcheson told Blume of a design he had for sub-irrigation pots, and “not only that, we will take the kitchen waste and turn it into soil.” Ketcheson is a partner of Raven Wood Biochar — a company that helps people create living soil — and drafted a proposal for Blume. “He works with organic waste to make good, live soil. We got together and started talking about how we could do that on the roof of Uli’s,” Blume said. This past summer, Blume was able to grow a variety of herbs, radishes, and about 30 tomato plants. Most of the ingredients have gone to seed, but the tomatoes are still coming off the vine. “It’s amazing, we can’t even use them all, the tomatoes are coming off there like crazy. The flavour difference is insane. Growing your own tomatoes, there’s nothing like it. You taste the sun,” Blume said. Traditionally, Uli’s food scraps went to an organic waste program. Now, the scraps are being recycled on site, a fact Blume can feel good about, he said. “Full use of product, stuff that people don’t eat at the restaurant. I feel bad about that all the time, I feel bad about all the waste that comes from a restaurant. So it’s nice not having to contribute as much,” he said. Ketcheson said there’s a lot that goes into the construction of the soil, which he described as a “living thing.” “The key thing about healthy soil is for it to have the right microorganisms and biology… What we do is we use a special composting system that uses microorganisms to digest the kitchen waste, then you mix it with the soil and all the natural organisms go to work to finish the job,” Ketcheson said. Examining the soil, you can find bits of bone and mussel shells, which are remnants of the Bokashi composting. “You do have to pay attention to what you’re doing, but all of those things can be processed,” he added. The addition of biochar to the soil enhances its water retention, especially helpful during dry periods, he said. Uli’s is the first client Raven Wood has worked for that wished to create a garden on a roof, and Ketcheson approves of the finished product. “This is the first time and this is why we were so excited to do it. I’m just up the hill from Uli’s, I can walk down in five minutes… I tasted (the tomatoes) — I sure have — they’re delicious.” Ketcheson, who hails from the Prairies, said he only started to take a keen interest in soil biology and experimentation in the later year’s of his life. “I’m from Saskatchewan, I still have a little bit of that soil under my fingernails,” he told PAN. Aaron Hinks photo Ulis Restaurant owner Tyson Blume holds freshly picked tomatoes and Rick Ketcheson, partner of Raven Wood Biochar, holds soil he constructed for the roof-top project. ## Global Biochar Market 2017- Carbon Gold, Diacarbon Energy, Biochar Now and Agri-Tech … 6 September, 2017 The report titled “Global Biochar Market” divides the Biochar industry according to leading players, geographical regions, top manufacturers, types, and applications forecast over a period of 2017 to 2022. It highlights major aspects of Biochar industry such as market profit, top leading players, product specifications along with latest technology trends and details of upcoming industries. The report mainly wraps Biochar market in Europe, Biochar market in Latin America, North America Biochar market, Asia-Pacific Biochar market and the Middle East along with Africa. Simultaneously, the Biochar report performs SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) as a means to increase the revenue of Biochar market. Later part of the report advises key players, about the current supervisory atmosphere of the global Biochar market that will possess future advancement contingency. The report exhibit appreciation to all the Biochar technical experts and marketing specialists for conducting the Biochar survey. Further, global Biochar market study proposes a list of criterion procedures and approaches to calculating future market of Biochar industry. This criterion may act as Biochar resource supply and storage house for data investigation taking into account each aspect of Biochar market. Click here for sample report: https://market.biz/report/global-biochar-market-gir/29647/#inquiry The main objective of the report: The report inspires different facets of the Biochar market. Moreover, it performs the tenacious and exhaustive study in order to extract important visible features of global Biochar market. It collects and analyzes the Biochar historical and current data and projects future Biochar market trends. It describes the Biochar market scenario with regards to volume. The Biochar report also focuses on market contribution feasibility and captivation. It gives a brief introduction of Biochar business overview, revenue division, and Biochar product beneficence. The research findings mentioned in the Biochar report helps various collaborators to measure their accomplishment in Biochar industry and boost them to take proper decisions in near future. Segmentation of Global Biochar Market: This Global Biochar Market report determines the Biochar Industry by the following segments: Analysis of Global Biochar Market based on Key Players: Diacarbon Energy Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra Pacific Biochar Vega Biofuels Liaoning Jinhefu Group Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai) Analysis of Global Biochar Market based on Types: Wood Source Biochar Corn Stove Source Biochar Rice Stove Source Biochar Wheat Stove Source Biochar Analysis of Global Biochar Market based on Applications: Soil Conditioner Fertilizer Click here for purchasing the entire report: https://market.biz/report/global-biochar-market-gir/29647/#requestforsample The first chapter of the report displays the product scope, Biochar overview, driving force, risks and opportunities of Biochar market. Second and third chapter mainly focuses on Biochar key regions, with respect to sales, Biochar market share, and revenue of Biochar industry covering major geographical areas. It also analyzes the top leading players with Biochar industry sales and revenue of Biochar market along with the price structure. Biochar industry forecast by types, applications, and regions is explained in the fourth chapter along with revenue and sales. It also displays the competitive scenario of Biochar market. The fifth and sixth chapter analyzes Biochar market by application and types, along with Biochar market share, growth rate, sales channel and industry application of Biochar market. The seventh chapter of the report throws a light on the Biochar research findings, data source, and appendix. Various dealers, traders, and distributors of Biochar market are mentioned at the end of the report. To sum up, with, the Biochar report provides comprehensive study covering all substantial features such as Biochar market volume, current and future Biochar market tendencies, grow revenue, supply chain analysis and cost of the Biochar product depending on the different geographical regions. ## Biochar Market 6 September, 2017 CMFE News brings you the biggest and the breaking news items from across the globe. The ever-growing database offers its readers a wide coverage in fields of technology, business, science, and lifestyle. From latest innovations to emerging trends, CMFE News is one-stop-all for daily dose of vital information. The CMFE News 109, Supreme Headquarters, S.No.36/2, Mumbai ­ Bangalore Highway, Above Shivam Hyundai, Baner, PUNE – 411045, Maharashtra, INDIA. E-mail: contact@cmfenews.com ## Fueled by Demand of Organic Food, Global Biochar Market to Witness Upswing 6 September, 2017 Organic food is witnessing high demand over the last few years due to rising health concerns and lifestyle choices. The use of biochar for soil enhancement has its own benefits, such as increased carbon content, fertility, yield and nutrition to the crop. Biochar usage improves the overall productivity, and can be used as animal feed as well. Biochar is produced using contemporary processes of pyrolysis, and involves thermal decomposition of biowastes. Biochar may also be obtained through processes such as microwave pyrolysis and gasification. A report published by Transparency Market Research forecasts that the global biochar market is predicted to showcase a tremendous growth during the forecast period 2017 to 2025. The industry is set to witness a multitude of opportunities on account of the rising demand for soil enhancement and its applications dependent on the same. Biochar prevents leeching of soil, maintains its moisture, and controls fertilizer runoff. It is known to provide protection to crops during draughts and floods. Utilization of biochar is expected to aid in sustaining the environment by reutilizing agriculture wastes and reducing air pollution. Recently, the UNK Summer Student Research Program funded an independent study by Joey Haag, to prove the utility of biochar for boosting the bacterial diversity of soil and productivity of the crop. Q: What could be the pivotal driving forces of the worldwide biochar market? A: With the changing lifestyle and rising awareness of the health advantages of fertilizer free products, the world is moving toward organic food products. This is anticipated to be one of the vital factors providing traction to the world biochar market. There has been a rising interest in soil enhancement owing to a number of reasons. The benefits of waste management, regulations regarding soil preservation, increasing environment sustainability concerns and growing investments in bio-fuels could prove to be substantial factors leading to market upswing. The lack of awareness of consumers toward benefits of biochar usage over chemical fertilizers could be a key factor hampering the growth of the industry. Production of high quality biochar requires capital and thus, the market could still see some potential. However, the market is predicted to witness the realization of it complete potential over the forecast duration, and may overcome the minor restraints over the period. Get Research Report Sample on Global Biochar Industry: http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=B&rep_id=2863 Q: Which regions are expected to be leading market performers? A: TMR classifies the international biochar market geographically into Asia Pacific, Europe, North America, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. Asia Pacific is prognosticated to be the fastest growing region, on account of emerging economies of India, China and Japan witnessing high demand of biofuels, and lower costs of biochar. North America is predicted to the dominant market share holder in terms of revenue, due to increased carbon sequestration and interest in soil amendment. Some of the key players of the global biochar market are Pacific Biochar, Vega Biofuels, Inc., CharGrow LLC, Earth Systems Bioenergy, and Phoenix Energy. CMFE News brings you the biggest and the breaking news items from across the globe. The ever-growing database offers its readers a wide coverage in fields of technology, business, science, and lifestyle. From latest innovations to emerging trends, CMFE News is one-stop-all for daily dose of vital information. The CMFE News 109, Supreme Headquarters, S.No.36/2, Mumbai ­ Bangalore Highway, Above Shivam Hyundai, Baner, PUNE – 411045, Maharashtra, INDIA. E-mail: contact@cmfenews.com ## The North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability 6 September, 2017 The North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability (NCFCIS), a 501(c) (3) nonprofit sustainable farming organization has developed and employed one of the larger scale farming models in the US which focuses on the effects of biochar use on the sandy soils found throughout the Southeast coastal plain region (Southeastern North Carolina). Efficient and strategic introduction of biochar for agricultural use requires farm-scale production using locally available feedstocks. Biochar has received a lot of interest and press as a soil amendment due to the apparent ability of the material to enhance crop productivity and sequester carbon in soil (biochar normally contains in excess of 60% carbon on a dry basis, with a very long and stable soil retention time, suggested to be in thousands of years!). While an ancient product, dating back thousands of years to use in South America, called “terra preta”, the functional and critically important characteristics of biochar are only recently beginning to be identified and understood. The refinement in the understanding of this very interesting material is literally in its infancy, and thus almost any new data can play a critical role in building an understanding that can enable this ancient product to emerge once again as an important tool in our efforts to achieve ever improving environmental sustainability for the future. Use of biochar along with other complimentary technologies and processes relating to its use have the potential to impact the local and national economy in a positive manner, by allowing what once was deemed unusable or underutilized farmland to become productive. Economic stimulation begins with the creation of jobs and the influx of expendable income into the marketplace. As a land-area scale-neutral component, biochar has the potential to become a catalyst that could jump start that process by helping farm operations to expand and become more profitable, creating a need for more labor and opening the door to new business opportunities related to the production, application, and marketing of amendment-based materials. It may also serve to help regulate the availability of nutrients for crops, resulting in the possibility of achieving excellent yields with reduced inputs, a point that will be made subsequently in this report. The landscape of agriculture, especially in the Southeastern United States, is changing rapidly. Smaller family owned farms are not as prevalent as they once were, giving way to larger units depending on economies of scale to compete in commodity-based agriculture. The demise and waning popularity of tobacco production within the state of North Carolina, especially, has significantly changed the patterns of land use as well as economic viability of the rural communities in the region. What follows is the final report of the three-year study involving field trials utilizing biochar and presents results and insights that relate to potential benefits from biochar application as a soil amendment. This project should be considered a starting point in what should to be a modern national effort, modeled after the historically successful “Regional Research Project System” in USDA/CSRS (subsequently CSREES/REE), to apply a national need to an integrated and coordinated effort to understand and subsequently provide recommendations for when and where to most effectively use biochar as an AGRICULTURAL soil amendment. NRCS is encouraged to take the lead in developing this initiative, and the budgetary support to fund it. A 2009 national Conservation Innovation Grant (CIG) award from USDA provided funding to enable adding biochar as one of these promising technologies. As a result, the Farm Center is now assessing biochar’s potential for improving soil conditions and agricultural productivity in practical ways to reach the widest range of rural beneficiaries. Please click here for the full report authored by Len Bull. Please see the conclusions from the report below: The three year trial in agricultural biochar conducted by the North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability is finished. As you read the final report you will note some of our surprises and challenges. But the consensus of everyone involved in this project is that biochar as an agricultural soil amendment has a bright future—and may be the driver that brings the biochar industry of clean energy, carbon sequestration and conservation into the common nomenclature of the marketplace. The next and very important step is to take lessons learned in the sandy soils of North Carolina and translate them into a national initiative that can be regionalized to local soils. If the beneficial impact of agricultural biochar on crops in larger field trial is not pursued it would be a disservice to farmers, conservationists and taxpayers. Equally exciting, however, are the opportunities agricultural biochar offers in conservation and sustainable practices and agricultural entrepreneurship. Going forward biochar has implications that include: Climate, water, food security and carbon are moving once again into discussions that will determine national policies. Agricultural bichar has a place in each of these arenas. The North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability feels privileged and honored to have had the opportunity to have participated in these trials and in doing so have opened the door to finding solutions to issues critical to us all. For more information, contact Sharon Valentine at svalentine@ncfarmcenter.org or visit the website at: www.ncfarmcenter.org. ## Rice Husk Carbonization Furnace Can Make Waste Into Fuel 7 September, 2017 Agricultural waste is a major problem in the present day. One of several chief offenders is rice husks. Rice is amongst the most grown crops worldwide, and is also a staple from the diet of huge amounts of people. However, growing rice creates plenty of waste. Rice husks are definitely the leftover elements of rice plants following the edible rice has been harvested. Annually, a great deal of rice husk bring about landfills as there is not one other use for doing it. However, having a rice husk carbonization furnace, this is not really the case! Carbonization is one of many techniques used to turn biomass, which can be leftover products from plants or another living things, into biochar. Biochar is actually a revolutionary substance that burns similarly to coal, but with a small part of the pollution. Biochar solves two problems: one, burning coal for energy creates excessive pollution, as well as two, agricultural waste contributing a great deal of mass to landfills. Biomass like rice husks is often considered worthless since it is too complex to destroy down quickly. Even though some biomass might be rotted and considered compost, allowing more plants being grown with all the nutrients present in the biomass, a lot of agricultural byproducts take too long to biodegrade to get efficient for this function. Rice husks, coconut shells, corn husks, nut shells, and other hard, sturdy plant matter is simply too difficult to degrade, and should be dumped. This is why a rice husk carbonization furnace comes in. By heating the types of materials and breaking them down without burning them, the furnace is able to reduce the biomass into usable, burnable matter called biochar. Biochar, when packed together into briquettes, burns slightly less efficiently than coal, but is quite a bit cheaper to obtain and produces substantially less pollution. One method of energy generation that is certainly growing in popularity is known as coburning. Coburning signifies the technique of burning a couple of different types of materials together, allowing one to have the advantages of both materials. In this case, coburning means burning biochar and coal simultaneously. Coal burns efficiently, helping to maintain the furnace hot, while biochar provides a lot more energy per dollar and contains less environmental impact. By burning both materials simultaneously, energy might be produced that is cheaper, better, and cleaner than ordinary coal burning. Biochar can also be used as fertilizer. It can be spread in soil to improve the nutrition for future crops, by returning the minerals how the plants accustomed to create the biomass in the first place. By carbonizing agricultural waste, the useful energy and materials in rice husks as well as other refuse may be unlocked for use. A carbonization furnace could be used to turn what was previously trash in to a valuable source of energy or fertilizer. This product, called biochar, can be burned in addition to coal for cleaner plus more efficient energy, or spread in soil to help plants grow better. There are currently no blog comments. © Enter your own copyright or footer content here. ## Backyard Biochar Workshop Part 10 Of 22 7 September, 2017 ## Middle East And Africa Biochar Market is expected to reach USD 120 million by 2021 7 September, 2017 <!– Translate this article: Spanish | French | Italian | German –> ## Biochar Market 2017 Global Share, Trend, Segmentation and Forecast to 2021 7 September, 2017 The analysts forecast the global biochar market to grow at a CAGR of 15.46 percent over the period 2014-2019. PUNE, INDIA, September 7, 2017 /EINPresswire.com/ — Global Biochar Market Description WiseGuyReports.Com adds” Global Biochar Market 2015-2019 “Research To Its Database. Biochar is a porous stable solid, which is rich in carbon. It is produced from the carbonization of biomass. It is a type of charcoal used for soil amendment and filtration. Biochar’s carbon sequestration characteristics help mitigate climate change. It is naturally found in soil as a result of natural vegetation or forest fires. The analysts forecast the global biochar market to grow at a CAGR of 15.46 percent over the period 2014-2019. Covered in this report The report includes the segmentation of the market based on application, geography, technology, and feedstock. The Global Biochar Market 2015-2019, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market. Key vendors • Agri-Tech Producers • Biochar Products • Diacarbon Energy • Pacific Biochar • Phoenix Energy Other prominent vendors • Advanced BioRefinery • Avello Bioenergy • Biochar Now • Biochar Supreme • Biogreen-Energy • DynaMotive Energy Systems • Encendia Biochar • Green Harvest Group • International Tech • Tolero Energy Market driver • Advantages of biochar carbon sequestration projects • For a full, detailed list, view our report Market challenge • Lack of demonstration projects • For a full, detailed list, view our report Market trend • Investment in R&D and alternative financing mechanism • For a full, detailed list, view our report Key questions answered in this report • What will the market size be in 2019 and what will the growth rate be? • What are the key market trends? • What is driving this market? • What are the challenges to market growth? • Who are the key vendors in this market space? • What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the key vendors? • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the key vendors? Table of Contents -Major Key Points Executive Summary List of Abbreviations Scope of the Report 03.1 Market Overview 03.2 Product Offerings Market Research Methodology 04.1 Market Research Process 04.2 Research Methodology Introduction Market Landscape 06.1 Market Overview 06.2 Market Size and Forecast by Revenue 06.3 Market Size and Forecast by Production 06.4 Five Forces Analysis Market Segmentation by Technology 07.1 Global Biochar Market by Technology 2014 07.2 Global Biochar Market by Technology 2019 07.3 Global Biochar Market by Technology 2014-2019 07.4 Global Biochar Market by Slow Pyrolysis 07.4.1 Market Size and Forecast 07.5 Global Biochar Market by Fast Pyrolysis 07.5.1 Market Size and Forecast 07.6 Global Biochar Market by Gasification 07.6.1 Market Size and Forecast 07.7 Global Biochar Market by Intermediate Pyrolysis 07.7.1 Market Size and Forecast 07.8 Global Biochar Market by Hydrothermal Carbonization 07.8.1 Market Size and Forecast 07.9 Global Biochar Market by Microwave Pyrolysis 07.9.1 Market Size and Forecast Market Segmentation by Feedstock 08.1 Global Biochar Market by Feedstock 2014 08.2 Global Biochar Market by Feedstock 2019 08.3 Global Biochar Market by Feedstock 2014-2019 08.4 Global Biochar Market by Forestry Waste 08.4.1 Market Size and Forecast 08.5 Global Biochar Market by Agriculture Waste 08.5.1 Market Size and Forecast 08.6 Global Biochar Market by Biomass Plantation 08.6.1 Market Size and Forecast 08.7 Global Biochar Market by Residential Waste 08.7.1 Market Size and Forecast 08.8 Global Biochar Market by Animal Manure 08.8.1 Market Size and Forecast Market Segmentation by Application 09.1 Global Biochar Market by Application 2014 09.2 Global Biochar Market by Application 2019 09.3 Global Biochar Market by Application 2014-2019 09.4 Global Biochar Market by Agriculture and Livestock 09.4.1 Market Size and Forecast 09.5 Global Biochar Market by Air, Soil and Water Treatment 09.5.1 Market Size and Forecast 09.6 Global Biochar Market by Horticulture 09.6.1 Market Size and Forecast 09.7 Global Biochar Market by Industries 09.7.1 Market Size and Forecast Geographical Segmentation 10.1 Global Biochar Market by Geographical Segmentation 2014 10.2 Global Biochar Market by Geographical Segmentation 2019 10.3 Global Biochar Market by Geographical Segmentation 2014-2019 10.4 Biochar Market in APAC Region 10.4.1 Market Size and Forecast 10.5 Biochar Market in the EMEA Region 10.5.1 Market Size and Forecast 10.6 Biochar Market in the Americas 10.6.1 Market Size and Forecast Key Leading Countries 11.1 US 11.2 Australia 11.3 Canada Buying Criteria Market Growth Drivers Drivers and their Impact ………..CONTINUED ## Biochar Market Growth, Size, Trends and Regional Forecast To 2022 Global Biochar Sales Market … 7 September, 2017 ## Biochar Market Analysis by Current Industry Status &amp; Growth 7 September, 2017 Biochar Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biochar Industry. Biochar Market report provides key statistics on the market status of the Biochar Manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Biochar Industry. The Biochar industry report firstly announced the Biochar Market fundamentals: definitions, classifications, applications and market overview; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures, raw materials and so on. Biochar Market split by Application -Application 1, Application 2, Application 3 Biochar Market Segment by Regions– (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific) and the main countries (United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and China). Through the statistical analysis, the Biochar Market report depicts the global Industry Analysis, Manufacturers Analysis, Biochar Industry Development Trend, Sales Demand and Forecast to 2021. Get PDF Sample of Biochar Market Report @ https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/11210719 Table of Contents: Chapter 1 Biochar Market Overview 1.1 Definition 1.2 Classification Analysis 1.3 Application Analysis 1.4 Biochar Industry Chain Structure Analysis 1.5 Biochar Market Development Overview 1.6 Global Biochar Market Comparison Analysis 1.6.1 Global Import Market Analysis 1.6.2 Global Export Market Analysis 1.6.3 Global Main Region Market Analysis 1.6.4 Global Market Comparison Analysis 1.6.5 Global Market Development Trend Analysis Chapter 2 Biochar Up and Down Stream Industry Analysis 2.1 Upstream Raw Materials Analysis of Biochar Market 2.1.1 Upstream Raw Materials Price Analysis 2.1.2 Upstream Raw Materials Market Analysis 2.1.3 Upstream Raw Materials Market Trend 2.2 Down Stream Market Analysis of Biochar Market 2.1.1 Down Stream Market Analysis 2.2.2 Down Stream Demand Analysis 2.2.3 Down Stream Market Trend Analysis For Any Query on Biochar market, Speak to Expert@ https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/11210719 Chapter 3 Biochar Productions Supply Sales Demand Market Status and Forecast 3.1 2012-2017 Biochar Market Capacity Production Overview 3.2 2012-2017 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis 3.3 2012-2017 Biochar Market Demand Overview 3.4 2012-2017 Supply Demand and Shortage of Biochar Industry 3.5 2012-2017 Biochar Import Export Consumption 3.6 2012-2017 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin Chapter 4 Biochar New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis 4.1 Biochar Market Analysis 4.2 Biochar Project SWOT Analysis 4.3 Biochar New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis In the end Biochar Market report provides the main region, market conditions with the product price, profit, capacity, production, supply, demand and market growth rate and forecast etc. Biochar Market report also Present new project SWOT analysisinvestment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis. Information contained on this page is provided by an independent third-party content provider. Frankly and this Site make no warranties or representations in connection therewith. If you are affiliated with this page and would like it removed please contact pressreleases@franklyinc.com ## Biochar and Renewable Energy 8 September, 2017 ## Cotton gin trash finding new life for electrical power 8 September, 2017 Finding sustainable markets for gin trash, wood chips and other waste products could be viable in producing more electrical power for a growing global population, according to researchers. A demonstration was held recently on the campus of Texas A&M University in College Station showcasing a biomass-fueled fluidized bed gasifier, utilizing cotton gin and to power an electric generator. The fluidized bed gasification system was developed in the 1980s when a patent was issued to Drs. Calvin Parnell Jr. and W.A. Lepori, who were both part of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station now Texas A&M AgriLife Research. Cotton gin trash and other biomass feedstocks have been used as fuel to generate heat energy for power production. The technology has been a focal point for Dr. Sergio Capareda, AgriLife Research agricultural engineer in the department of biological and agricultural engineering at Texas A&M, who researched the technology while working on his graduate degree during the late 1980s. Parnell and LePori were Capareda’s graduate advisors. Cotton gin trash is produced in abundance at cotton gins across Texas and usually left unutilized, Capareda said. During harvest season, piles of cotton gin trash can be found at gins throughout the state. “The process is gasification,” Capareda said. “We limit the amount of air to thermally convert the biomass so the products are combustible gases. These are collectively called synthesis gas. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen, plus a little methane, ethlyene, these are a combustible mixture. Combustible in a sense that you can feed it into an internal combustible engine coupled with a generator so you can turn this fuel into electrical power.” “It’s easier said than done, because you have to remove the biochar and all the tar in the syngas before it goes into the engine. We have cleaned up the gas very well in this technology.” The technology converts biomass into electrical power, making it an attractive opportunity for the ag, processing industry and electric utilities. “For this particular demonstration, we used the conversion of cotton gin trash into electrical power,” Capareda said. “We also used wood waste and turned it into electrical power. With the price of at 10 cents per kilowatt-hour, the economics are very simple. If you run a 1 megawatt system and sell power for 10 cents per kilowatt an hour, your gross revenue is$1 million. If you find some countries overseas where is very high, this technology is very attractive.”

Capareda said the biomass used in the system has to be consistent, meaning whether you are using gin trash or wood chips, it has to be relatively dry and clean without soil, rocks or metals.

“That’s how you begin, make sure it is dry and consistent,” he said. “Then you can run this system 24/7. We need 1.5-2 tons per hour or about 36 tons a day to generate 1 megawatt depending on the type of biomass. High-energy content biomass would need a little less than that. It also depends on heating value and moisture content of biomass.”

Bob Avant, director of corporate relations for AgriLife Research, said

A team of scientists at the University of Cambridge has developed a way of using solar power to generate a fuel that is both sustainable and relatively cheap to produce. It’s using natural light to generate hydrogen from …

The process of burning fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas releases huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The effect of this carbon dioxide emission into our atmosphere is causes global warming. …

Biomass gasification is being considered as a possible technology for converting at least 10 million acres of Texas brush into biofuel, according to Dr. Jim Ansley, Texas AgriLife Research rangeland ecologist in Vernon.

Increasing the woody biomass supply sustainably, continuously and at acceptable prices is a huge challenge

The Air Force unit that defends Hawaii skies will get experimental energy technology that uses trash to generate power and relies on its own small electrical grid—a system intended to keep the unit operating if a bomb, …

A new method for producing electricity from carbon dioxide could be the start of a classic trash-to-treasure story for the troublesome greenhouse gas, scientists are reporting. Described in an article in ACS’ journal Environmental …

A US federal judge Friday rejected an effort by Qualcomm to limit legal challenges from Apple in the contentious patent battles between the two California technology giants.

The Justice Department in Manhattan is investigating whether Uber illegally used software to track drivers for Lyft, its main ride-hailing competitor, to gain an advantage in attracting and recruiting drivers, according to …

A major American credit reporting agency entrusted to safeguard personal financial information said Thursday hackers looted its system in a colossal breach that could affect nearly half the US population as well as people …

Jaguar Land Rover will make all its new vehicles available in electric or hybrid models from 2020, it said on Thursday, two months after a similar announcement from Volvo.

Chances are, you’re reading this article on a web browser that uses HTTPS, the protocol over which data is sent between a web browser and the website users are connected to. In fact, nearly half of all web traffic passes …

Human skin must flex and stretch to accommodate the body’s every move. Anything worn tight on the body must also be able to flex around muscles and joints, which helps explain why synthetic fabrics like spandex are popular …

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## United States Biochar Market Report 2017

8 September, 2017

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United States Biochar Market Report 2017
1 Biochar Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Biochar
1.2 Classification of Biochar by Product Category
1.2.1 United States Biochar Market Size (Sales Volume) Comparison by Type (2012-2022)
1.2.2 United States Biochar Market Size (Sales Volume) Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016
1.2.3 Woody Biomass
1.2.4 Agricultural Waste
1.2.5 Animal Manure
1.2.6 Others
1.3 United States Biochar Market by Application/End Users
1.3.1 United States Biochar Market Size (Consumption) and Market Share Comparison by Application (2012-2022)
1.3.2 Electricity Generation
1.3.3 Agriculture
1.3.4 Forestry
1.3.5 Others
1.4 United States Biochar Market by Region
1.4.1 United States Biochar Market Size (Value) Comparison by Region (2012-2022)
1.4.2 The West Biochar Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.3 Southwest Biochar Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.4 The Middle Atlantic Biochar Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.5 New England Biochar Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.6 The South Biochar Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.7 The Midwest Biochar Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.5 United States Market Size (Value and Volume) of Biochar (2012-2022)
1.5.1 United States Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
1.5.2 United States Biochar Revenue and Growth Rate (2012-2022)

2 United States Biochar Market Competition by Players/Suppliers
2.1 United States Biochar Sales and Market Share of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.2 United States Biochar Revenue and Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.3 United States Biochar Average Price by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.4 United States Biochar Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.4.1 United States Biochar Market Concentration Rate
2.4.2 United States Biochar Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Players/Suppliers
2.4.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion in United States Market
2.5 United States Players/Suppliers Biochar Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type

3 United States Biochar Sales (Volume) and Revenue (Value) by Region (2012-2017)
3.1 United States Biochar Sales and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.2 United States Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.3 United States Biochar Price by Region (2012-2017)

4 United States Biochar Sales (Volume) and Revenue (Value) by Type (Product Category) (2012-2017)
4.1 United States Biochar Sales and Market Share by Type (Product Category) (2012-2017)
4.2 United States Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
4.3 United States Biochar Price by Type (2012-2017)
4.4 United States Biochar Sales Growth Rate by Type (2012-2017)

5 United States Biochar Sales (Volume) by Application (2012-2017)
5.1 United States Biochar Sales and Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
5.2 United States Biochar Sales Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
5.3 Market Drivers and Opportunities

6 United States Biochar Players/Suppliers Profiles and Sales Data
6.1 Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd
6.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
6.1.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.1.2.1 Product A
6.1.2.2 Product B
6.1.3 Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.2 Vega Biofuels, Inc.
6.2.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.2.2.1 Product A
6.2.2.2 Product B
6.2.3 Vega Biofuels, Inc. Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.3 Full Circle Biochar
6.3.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.3.2.1 Product A
6.3.2.2 Product B
6.3.3 Full Circle Biochar Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.4 Genesis Industries LLC
6.4.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.4.2.1 Product A
6.4.2.2 Product B
6.4.3 Genesis Industries LLC Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.5 Diacarbonn Energy Inc.
6.5.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.5.2.1 Product A
6.5.2.2 Product B
6.5.3 Diacarbonn Energy Inc. Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.6 Earth Systems Bioenergy
6.6.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.6.2.1 Product A
6.6.2.2 Product B
6.6.3 Earth Systems Bioenergy Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.7 Agri-Tech Producers, LLC
6.7.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.7.2.1 Product A
6.7.2.2 Product B
6.7.3 Agri-Tech Producers, LLC Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.8 Pacific Biochar
6.8.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.8.2.1 Product A
6.8.2.2 Product B
6.8.3 Pacific Biochar Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.9 Phoenix Energy
6.9.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.9.2.1 Product A
6.9.2.2 Product B
6.9.3 Phoenix Energy Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.10 Biochar Supreme LLC
6.10.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.10.2.1 Product A
6.10.2.2 Product B
6.10.3 Biochar Supreme LLC Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.11 CharGrow, LLC
6.12 Cool Planet Energy Systems

7 Biochar Manufacturing Cost Analysis
7.1 Biochar Key Raw Materials Analysis
7.1.1 Key Raw Materials
7.1.2 Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
7.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
7.1.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials
7.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
7.2.1 Raw Materials
7.2.2 Labor Cost
7.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
7.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar

8 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
8.1 Biochar Industrial Chain Analysis
8.2 Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing
8.3 Raw Materials Sources of Biochar Major Manufacturers in 2016

9.1 Marketing Channel
9.1.1 Direct Marketing
9.1.2 Indirect Marketing
9.1.3 Marketing Channel Development Trend
9.2 Market Positioning
9.2.1 Pricing Strategy
9.2.2 Brand Strategy
9.2.3 Target Client

10 Market Effect Factors Analysis
10.1 Technology Progress/Risk
10.1.1 Substitutes Threat
10.1.2 Technology Progress in Related Industry
10.2 Consumer Needs/Customer Preference Change
10.3 Economic/Political Environmental Change

11 United States Biochar Market Size (Value and Volume) Forecast (2017-2022)
11.1 United States Biochar Sales Volume, Revenue Forecast (2017-2022)
11.2 United States Biochar Sales Volume Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
11.3 United States Biochar Sales Volume Forecast by Application (2017-2022)
11.4 United States Biochar Sales Volume Forecast by Region (2017-2022)

12 Research Findings and Conclusion

13 Appendix
13.1 Methodology/Research Approach
13.1.1 Research Programs/Design
13.1.2 Market Size Estimation
13.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
13.2 Data Source
13.2.1 Secondary Sources
13.2.2 Primary Sources
13.3 Disclaimer

Published On: 7, Sep,2017

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## Europe Biochar Market is expected to reach USD 450 million by 2021

8 September, 2017

The Europe Biochar Market was worth USD 240 million in 2016 and estimated to be growing at a CAGR of 13.6%, to reach USD 450 million by 2021. Biochar is a fine-grained charcoal rich in carbon, prepared by heating biomass in oxygen free air. It is added to soil to enhance the physical and chemical properties in order to amount of crops produced. The market has high growth rate due to increasing food demand and decreasing soil quality due to excessive use of chemical fertilisers.

Browse Market data tables and in-depth TOC of the Europe Biochar Market to 2021 @http://www.marketdataforecast.com/market-reports/europe-biochar-market-3016/

Apart from increasing the soil quality as they have a lot of nutrients, biochar has other advantages like retaining carbon into soil from the atmosphere. It can be used for capturing the greenhouse gas CO2, responsible for global warming. It can retain nutrients from flowing soil water. Producing biochar results in additional energy which can be used again for the same process. It also increases the quality of soil by absorption of water.

The Europe market for Biochar is primarily driven by factors like increasing demand for organic farming, rising demand from the agricultural sector, stringent environmental regulations rising usage of biochar in livestock as animal feed, and its waste management applications among others. But the market is constrained by lack of awareness  and high prices. However, the awareness about Biochar is increasing rapidly.

Free sample of the report is available @http://www.marketdataforecast.com/market-reports/europe-biochar-market-3016/request-sample

The Europe Biochar market is segmented by application into agriculture, gardening, households and others. Agriculture dominates the market having the largest market share of around 45% and is also the fastest growing segment. By technology, the market is divided into microwave pyrolysis, continuous pyrolysis, batch pyrolysis kiln, gasifier, hydrothermal, cook stove and others. By manufacturing the market is segmented into gasification, pyrolysis and others. Biochar is mostly produced by pyrolysis, hence it has the largest market share in this segment. By feedstock the market is divided into agricultural waste, forestry waste, animal manure and biomass plantations.

The Europe market for Biochar is geographically segmented into United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany and Spain. It is the second largest market in the world for Biochar. The European market is driven primarily as Biochar is used extensively in the production of meat as food stock. The growth is expected to be steady in the forecast period.

Some of the major companies dominating the Europe Biochar market are Biochar Products Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc., Agri-Tech Producers LLC, Genesis Industries, Green Charcoal International, Vega Biofuels Inc., The Biochar Company, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Full Circle Biochar, and Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd.

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## Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology

8 September, 2017

## Biochar

8 September, 2017

## Biochar

8 September, 2017

Energy XPRT is a global marketplace with solutions and suppliers for the energy sector, with product catalogs, articles, industry events, publications & more.

## Biochar Market Size, Share, Sales, Demand and Forecasts Report to 2022

8 September, 2017

The Global Biochar Market Research Report 2017 renders deep perception of the key regional market status of the Biochar Industry on a global level that primarily aims the core regions which comprises of continents like Europe, North America, and Asia and the key countries such as United States, Germany, China and Japan.

Get a Sample of Biochar Market research report from — @ https://www.qyresearchgroups.com/request-sample/501922

The report on Global Biochar Market is a professional report which provides thorough knowledge along with complete information pertaining to the Biochar industry a propos classification, definitions, applications, industry chain summary, industry policies in addition to plans, product specifications, manufacturing processes, cost structures, etc.

The potential of this industry segment has been rigorously investigated in conjunction with primary market challenges. The present market condition and future prospects of the segment has also been examined. Moreover, key strategies in the market that includes product developments, partnerships, mergers and acquisitions, etc., are discussed. Besides, upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also conducted.

Report Includes:-

The report cloaks the market analysis and projection of Biochar Market on a regional as well as global level. The report constitutes qualitative and quantitative valuation by industry analysts, first-hand data, assistance from industry experts along with their most recent verbatim and each industry manufacturers via the market value chain. The research experts have additionally assessed the in general sales and revenue generation of this particular market. In addition, this report also delivers widespread analysis of root market trends, several governing elements and macro-economic indicators, coupled with market improvements as per every segment. Furthermore, the report contains diverse profiles of primary market players of Biochar Market.

Top Market Manufacturers:

Global Biochar market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Biochar sales volume, Price (USD/MT), revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including

Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd, Vega Biofuels, Inc., Full Circle Biochar, Genesis Industries LLC, Diacarbonn Energy Inc., Earth Systems Bioenergy, Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Pacific Biochar, Phoenix Energy, Biochar Supreme LLC, CharGrow, LLC, Cool Planet Energy Systems

On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume (K MT), revenue (Million USD), product price (USD/MT), market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into

Woody Biomass, Agricultural Waste, Animal Manure, Others

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Biochar for each application, including

Electricity Generation, Agriculture, Forestry, Others ….And More

Detailed TOC and Charts & Tables of Biochar Market Research Report available -@  https://www.qyresearchgroups.com/report/global-biochar-sales-market-report-2017-d-566

The report is generically segmented into six parts and every part aims on the overview of the Biochar industry, present condition of the market, feasibleness of the investment along with several strategies and policies. Apart from the definition and classification, the report also discusses the analysis of import and export and describes a comparison of the market that is focused on the trends and development. Along with entire framework in addition to in-depth details, one can prepare and stay ahead of the competitors across the targeted locations. The fact that this market report renders details about the major market players along with their product development and current trends proves to be very beneficial for fresh entrants to comprehend and recognize the industry in an improved manner. The report also enlightens the productions, sales, supply, market condition, demand, growth, and forecast of the Biochar industry in the global markets.

Every region’s market has been studied thoroughly in this report which deals with the precise information pertaining to the Marketing Channels and novel project investments so that the new entrants as well as the established market players conduct intricate research of trends and analysis in these regional markets. Acknowledging the status of the environment and products’ up gradation, the market report foretells each and every detail.

So as to fabricate this report, complete key details, strategies and variables are examined so that entire useful information is amalgamated together for the understanding and studying the key facts pertaining the global Biochar Industry. The production value and market share in conjunction with the SWOT analysis everything is integrated in this report.

Check for Discount -@ https://www.qyresearchgroups.com/check-discount/501922

Some points from TOC:-

Global Biochar Sales Market Report 2017

2 Global Biochar Competition by Players/Suppliers, Type and Application

2.1 Global Biochar Market Competition by Players/Suppliers

2.1.1 Global Biochar Sales and Market Share of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)

2.1.2 Global Biochar Revenue and Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)

2.2 Global Biochar (Volume and Value) by Type

2.2.1 Global Biochar Sales and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)

2.2.2 Global Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)

2.3 Global Biochar (Volume and Value) by Region

2.3.1 Global Biochar Sales and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)

2.3.2 Global Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)

2.4 Global Biochar (Volume) by Application

QY Research Groups is a company that simplifies how analysts and decision makers get industry data for their business. Our unique colossal technology has been developed to offer refined search capabilities designed to exploit the long tail of free market research whilst eliminating irrelevant results. QY Research Groups is the collection of market intelligence products and services on the Web. We offer reports and update our collection daily to provide you with instant online access to the world’s most complete and current database of expert insights on global industries, companies, products, and trends.

## biochar making equipment

8 September, 2017

below is an alphabetical list of biochar and biochar equipment manufacturers and retailers.these companies are listed only as a service to you.

this sure looks good to me.so simple a well insulated container, a clean afterburner, a small water tank for quenching, a light duty loader for materials handling

what is biochar.biochar is a solid material obtained from the carbonization thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen limited environments.

he also discussed biochar production and emissions and how these relate to the super stone clean machine and all the products this company is making from nbsp

the pacific pyrolysis technology platform is based on slow pyrolysis, biochar conditioner for majority of plant equipment consists of mature

vol.no.spring page dyarrow nycap.rr to advance the use and creation of biochar cornelius biochar machine continuous feed greenhouse heat

providing biochar systems new england biochar offers three different but interconnected centers.one is education and consulting.the second is the making and selling of biochar and biochar mixes.the third is providing retorts and the associated equipment and

personal biochar kilns, por le factories, diy char team found that the tools and equipment they needed to quickly make but if we could make biochar

all power labs is the new global leader in small scale gasification.we make biomass fueled power generation systems that are ready for everyday work.

the biochar making process is called pyrolysis and offers a sustainable and effective means of producing energy from biomass and eventually, confiscating

providing biochar systems new england biochar offers three different but interconnected centers.one is education and consulting.the second is the making and selling

examples of companies making biochar biochar torrified wood, charcoal and power charcoal heat, pellets what it will take to make biochar.

biochar is internal surface area.unlike ground up charcoal which has most of its surface area on the outside of tiny dust particles, biochar is not ground and

i need to upgrade my biochar making equipment, and then train people to operate gallon burn barrel, and we made two test batches of wood chip biochar.

biochar making equipment is available in many different types and sizes, from small, very cheap stoves, to mobile truck mounted units and industrial scale nbsp

abstract.biochar carbonized biomass for agricultural use has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for brazil, since its

pellet pros is offering the average person a way to produce their own pellets with our smaller pellet mills at an affordable price.pellet pros offers a wide variety of equipment for making pellets.we have nine different sizes of

oct in between developing biochar making machines i have also been applying my creative hand to a few projects including recycled furniture and

biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment.like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis.biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon

jun various companies in europe, australia and the u.s.either sell biochar or biochar production units all are small scale.one of the most

along with stone, clay and animal parts, wood was one of the first materials worked by early humans.microwear analysis of the mousterian stone tools used by the neanderthals show that many were used to work wood.the development of civilization was closely

about triple r biochar we make biochar which is a specialised porous charcoal product.it has incredible properties including the ability to hold moisture and

the renewable energy produced can displace fossil fuels, while biochar can sequester majority of plant equipment consists of mature commodity engineering technology .methane generation from landfills and compost production

jul after exploring and making deep cone kilns, cylindrical kilns and pyramid kilns in switzerland, they presented the fastest way to get into biochar making on the small property .ph cacl ph units. . . . .

affordable biochar production options small cookstoves, medium barrels, and some large devices presentation to first midwest biochar conference

nov jbob a question are you making biochar on your farm.dependent on food supplies coming in from, in some countries like the us of a a

discusses the steps needed in making consistently good biochar with minimal . quot pyrolysis systems use kilns and retorts and other specialized equipment to nbsp

biochar in horticulture prospects for the use of biochar in australian biochar production involves high temperatures and production of flammable gases.

bsc is a professional supplier of biomass briquetting and pelleting machine, animal feed pellet mills, fertilizer pelletizers for hundreds of satisfied customers in

the bek biochar experimenter s kit is a reconfiguration of gek components to create a multi mode pyrolysis machine for characterized biochar and bio oil making.

backyard biochar button i have been making biochar in my yard since and using it in my compost, composting toilet, worm bin, vege le garden and

biochar production today there are pyrolysis ovens for any need, from camp stoves to industrial sized units for creating electricity and heating large buildings.

mm biochar briquette making machine, corn stalk briquette gongyi ut china online selling continuous biochar machine for making ch henan bedo

home brewing biochar in the sweet spot for making biochar falls the bio oil generates electricity via a microturbine to power equipment

oct the latest company to pursue manmade charcoal, called biochar, is biochar systems, which has developed a biochar making machine that nbsp

an overview of the rffi biochar demonstration project, including is an important issue and points to biochar production as part of the solution .the equipment landing is purposely located only a couple of miles from the timber harvest site.

aug the latest company to pursue manmade charcoal, called biochar, is biochar systems, which has developed a biochar making machine that

zev, pzev, lev iii credit services green giant venture fund ggvf will act as its broker on a sole and exclusive, agency basis with respect to the marketing and sale of the zero emission vehicle zev credits and carbon credits collectively, instruments

span class news dt sep span a super easy, accessible way for average folks to make some charcoal as a soil amendment with whatever brush you have lying about.no need for a kiln or

bsc is a professional supplier of biomass briquetting and pelleting machine, animal feed pellet mills, fertilizer pelletizers for hundreds of satisfied customers in

## 7-Biochar and Renewable Energy with Chris Olson

8 September, 2017

qLlZ4brI/NwQbzJPR @ Sun, 10 Sep 2017 05:55:14 GMT

SEC-43

## Kellogg Garden Products Is Using Fire to Return Nutrients to Your Soil

8 September, 2017

CARSON, Calif., Sept. 8, 2017 /PRNewswire/ — Kellogg Garden Products will be introducing two new soil products this fall to help gardeners reduce their carbon footprint while still achieving the results every gardener strives for – a beautiful garden. Kellogg continues to lead the way in sustainability. Just as forest fires are a natural and necessary part of the ecosystem turning dead and dying trees and decaying plant matter into nutrients that are returned to the soil instead of remaining captive in old vegetation, Kellogg Garden Product’s two new soils with BiocharMax provides a unique solution for gardeners to do their part, in a small way, to help the environment by sequestering carbon in the soil.

G&B Organics Eden Valley Blend Potting Mix with BiocharMax and G&B Organics Eden Valley Blend Garden Soil with BiocharMax are two new soil products made from a proprietary blend formulated with BiocharMax, a soft-wood biochar that provides soil, plant and environmental benefits.

Biochar is an excellent soil amendment created through a process called pyrolysis – the burning of organic material in a high heat-no oxygen environment. The end-result is highly porous charcoal-like material that helps soil hold more water and nutrients. Biochar Benefits:

Soil Benefits –

Plant Benefits –

Environment Benefits –

In addition, with the G&B Organics Eden Valley product line Kellogg Garden Products continues its commitment to Plant With Purpose, an organization that helps impoverished communities around the world.

“We are encouraged by our customers and their desire to help around the globe by purchasing the Eden Valley product line.  With each bag we make a donation to poverty-stricken families who are pursuing growing their own food through organic methods,” said Kathy Kellogg Johnson, Co-Owner, Kellogg Garden Products.

Founded in 1925 by H. Clay Kellogg, Kellogg Supply, Inc. has been manufacturing gardening products for over 90 years.  The company’s core business of organic soils and fertilizers is consolidated under the Kellogg Garden Products division. That core business is now complemented by other divisions that include Orcon, Organic Labs, and H&I Agritech. The focus of Orcon, also based in Southern California, is on providing repellants and live beneficial insects. Organic Labs, based in Florida, is focused on organic or naturally derived pesticides, fungicides, & liquid fertilizers. H&I Agritech, based in New York is in the business of environmentally safe, broad spectrum foliar fungicides.

The company remains owned and operated by third-generation members of the Kellogg family who maintain their grandfather’s steadfast commitment to help people grow beautiful, healthy gardens organically.

Media Contact:
Bob Lawson
951-298-8705
rel=”nofollow”>175429@email4pr.com

View original content with multimedia:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/kellogg-garden-products-is-using-fire-to-return-nutrients-to-your-soil-300516255.html

SOURCE Kellogg Garden Products

## Extreme Recycling: Kicking It Up a Notch

8 September, 2017

Articles about small ways to “save the world” can be interesting and hopeful, but also about as useful as telling you to stop buying $5 coffee drinks every day to save money. Chances are, if it matters to you, you’re already doing them. In a time of declining resources, we need something more than light green Band Aids. Perhaps these examples of extreme recycling will be just the inspiration we need to kick it up a notch in our own backyards. By now, that beautiful American eclipse has come and gone, and plenty of us are stuck with useless eclipse glasses. Another eclipse is coming to North America in 2024, but the glasses are only good for a few years. What to do? How about donating them to kids in South America and Southeast Asia, who have their own total solar eclipses coming up in 2019? Astronomers Without Borders is partnering with Explore Scientific to collect the glasses and make them available to children and schools who might not be able to obtain glasses otherwise. You can find the information here. Sick of cleaning up plastic bottle trash on the River Avon, Natalie Fee began an extreme recycling campaign in Bristol, England. Her program, the Refill Campaign, aims to match thirsty people and empty water bottles with businesses who don’t mind people using their taps. To incentivize people to use the Refill app, they get points each time they reuse a “single use” plastic bottle, which they can eventually redeem for a stainless steel water bottle. The real winners, of course, are all of us. Around 200 cafés, pubs, and other businesses in Bristol have volunteered their taps, and the program is spreading across Europe. The Refill campaign estimates that if each participating tap in Bristol is accessed once per day, that would result in 73,000 fewer bottles thrown away annually in that city alone. In Westerly, Rhode Island, Project TGIF (Turn Grease Into Fuel) began when a 10 year old girl named Cassandra Lin learned about climate change in school. She, and a bunch of her classmates, decided to launch a program where restaurants could donate their used cooking oil, which is turned into heating fuel for those in need. Now Cassandra is 19, and Project TGIF has taken off across three states. Their extreme recycling efforts have offset over three million pounds of CO2 emissions and helped warm the homes of 515 families. There’s an old barge floating on the East River in New York. Not just any old barge, though: it’s the only legal place to forage for food in New York City. Using permaculture methods to create a sustainable food forest, Mary Mattingly started a project in 2016 to bring fresh, healthy, and unique foods to a diverse array of communities. Supporting the whole endeavor is Swale, a rusty industrial barge that used to haul sand to construction sites. Turning an old sand hauler into a garden paradise is some seriously extreme recycling. On the road again! Eric Lundgren, founder and former CEO of ITAP, a recycling firm in Chatsworth, California, decided to showcase the potential in our discarded electronics. His extreme recycling project is an electric car made out of trash. Employees at ITAP take apart discarded tablets, smartphones, and other electronics, and then figure out how to repurpose the pieces. Lundgren used some of those components and the body of a scrapped BMW to build the Phoenix, 88% of which consists of recycled materials (by weight). It’s not the prettiest thing, but competing head to head with a Tesla P100D, the Phoenix went 382 miles before needing to recharge, compared to the Tesla’s 315 mile run. (Lundgren was later sentenced to 15 months in prison for attempting to defeat planned obsolescence, or distributing stolen yet free software, depending upon who you ask.) In 1997, two ecologists in Costa Rica made a deal with an orange juice company. In exchange for donating some unspoiled land to a nature preserve, the park would allow the juice maker to dump its fruit waste for free on a heavily grazed, deforested wasteland nearby. Over the next year, more than 12,000 metric tons of sticky orange waste carpeted the land. Researchers returned sixteen years later to a nearly unrecognizable plot of land. Compared to equally barren land where no fruit pulp had been deposited, the land was a green miracle, lush with vegetation. Currently, most industrial food waste is landfilled, but imagine what this kind of extreme recycling could do if we changed our ways. All around the world, several problems are converging. We are deluged with discards and wading in waste. We are pumping far too much carbon into the air, and we’re degrading our soil. This final story about extreme recycling addresses all three of these problems with an ancient solution. Pre-Columbian natives of the Amazon rainforest used to dig pits where they’d put their waste, burning it in low-oxygen conditions. The burned remains, called biochar, transformed the soil by providing long-lasting, porous shelter for all kinds of soil microbes, and the effects can be observed in especially fertile soil in the present day. We can copy their trick by burning our solid waste in a similar way and using the biochar to enrich our played out agricultural soil instead of adding to our landfills. A project much like this has helped Vietnamese coffee farmers save money and resources while improving their land. Pyrolysis and Biochar, a climate smart solution for Vietnam’s coffee sector, posted by Sofies. Extreme recycling is something we can all consider right now, wherever we are. It doesn’t have to be big to be beautiful. All it takes is a little thinking about how we can change our corner of the world, and the inspiration to bring those ideas into the real world. I’m sorry to hear that your situation is so difficult, Mindy. I totally agree that Bayer should cover removal costs. They likely aren’t going to pay a … I’m so sorry to hear this, Darlene. If you haven’t already, please go to the the Essure Problems Facebook group. They have tons of information and sup … Hi Misti, I can’t give medical advice, but I’ve seen several reports that Essure patients have been diagnosed with fibro. Too many for it to be a coin … I’m so sorry, Elizabeth. You deserved better from Bayer. I hope that things have improved for you since removal. That’s terrible, Amanda. I’m sorry to hear it. Please go to the the Essure Problems Facebook group. They have tons of information and support to offer … ## Unutilized Cotton Gin Trash Can Be Used for Electrical Power 8 September, 2017 According to Researchers finding sustainable markets for wood chips, gin trash and other waste products could be viable in creating additional electrical power for a growing global population. Recently at Texas A&M University in College Station, a demonstration showed how a biomass-fueled fluidized bed gasifier utilized wood chips and cotton gin trash to power an electric generator. The fluidized bed gasification system was formed in the 1980s when a patent was granted to Dr.s Calvin Parnell Jr. and W.A. Lepori, who were both part of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station now Texas A&M AgriLife Research. Cotton gin trash and other biomass feedstocks have been utilized as fuel to produce heat energy for power production. The technology has been a central point for Dr. Sergio Capareda, a Texas A&M AgriLife Research Agricultural Engineer in the department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at Texas A&M, who studied the technology while doing his graduate degree during the late 1980s. LePori and Parnell were Capareda’s graduate advisors. Cotton gin trash is generated a lot at cotton gins throughout Texas and typically not used for anything, Capareda said. During harvest season, piles of cotton gin trash can be found at gins across the state. The process is gasification. We limit the amount of air to thermally convert the biomass so the products are combustible gases. These are collectively called synthesis gas. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen, plus a little methane, ethlyene, these are a combustible mixture. Combustible in a sense that you can feed it into an internal combustible engine coupled with a generator so you can turn this fuel into electrical power. Dr. Sergio Capareda, a AgriLife Research Agricultural Engineer, the department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University “It’s easier said than done, because you have to remove the biochar and all the tar in the syngas before it goes into the engine. We have cleaned up the gas very well in this technology.” Dr. Capareda added. The technology changes biomass into electrical power, making it an appealing opportunity for electric utilities and the processing industry. For this particular demonstration, we used the conversion of cotton gin trash into electrical power. We also used wood waste and turned it into electrical power. With the price of electrical power at 10 cents per kilowatt-hour, the economics are very simple. If you run a 1 megawatt system and sell power for 10 cents per kilowatt an hour, your gross revenue is$1 million. If you find some countries overseas where power is very high, this technology is very attractive.

Dr. Sergio Capareda, a AgriLife Research Agricultural Engineer, the department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University

Capareda said the biomass used in the system has to be reliable, meaning whether wood chips or cotton gin trash are being used, it has to be fairly dry and clean without rocks, soil or metals.

“That’s how you begin, make sure it is dry and consistent,” he said. “Then you can run this system 24/7. We need 1.5-2 tons per hour or about 36 tons a day to generate 1 megawatt depending on the type of biomass. High-energy content biomass would need a little less than that. It also depends on heating value and moisture content of biomass.”

(This technology) has taken a very evolutionary approach going from a very basic system to one that is computerized. We’re very excited about it and think it has some good applications. We have a number of very big companies interested in this intellectual property.

Bob Avant, Director of Corporate Relations, AgriLife Research

## BioChar Pot Trials — Second Results (Even More Interesting!)

9 September, 2017

Two months ago we started these trials. (Link below.) Something very interesting is happening and although it’s early days still, it seems obvious what it is — most …

Maybe what you used to Bio up the char was a certain ph and some plants loved it while others hated it?>

Interesting and confusing 🙂

Alkali, from what I had learned the biochar adds some alkali, some plants love it, other do not grow well in it.

Is charcoal same as biocha?

interesting indeed.
thnx for sharing
cheers

thanks

how was the biochar activated?

Thanks for trying. This very poor scientific method.

Youre really talking about lump charcoal.

I say your soil has inconsistent nutrient levels. Charcoal or biochar has no nutrients within. All nutrients were destroyed during burning process. What charcoal and biochar does,is retain water and water soluble nutrients better than soil,that is where the benefits in charcoal comes. If your charcoal is presoaked in a heavy nutrient solutions it will retain those nutrients,even after a heavy rain,most of the nutrient will remain in the charcoal,because it accumulates like an air filter.
Charcoal and biochar are bad for the environment,as they increase carbon pollution. You can get greater benefits and no pollute the air; with simply composting woodchips or wood ground into dust. Wood dust compost much quicker than wood chips,but both retain their naturally nutrients,that would otherwise, be lost to biochar processing.

Hi there.
Check out bartlett's tree research on biochar. The Soil application rates are 5% of soil volume. Dr Glynn Percival really knows his stuff! One of his assistants is doing a PHD on biochar.

http://m.bartlett.com/mobile/resourceList.cfm

What kind of biochar was it?

So many variables to consider, very interesting and thought provoking.   Mrs. Tc

Very interesting experiment. I put a lot of charcoal in the bed where I sewed the tomatoes. The tomatoes have thrived.

I found your channel not long ago and subbed right away! This experiment is so interesting, much trials and research needs to be done with biochar, as it's a wonderful way to sequester carbon making it carbon negative! Thank you for the beautiful and informative videos.

For a complete review of the current science & industry applications of Biochar please see my 2014 Soil Science Society of America Biochar presentation. How thermal conversion technologies can integrate and optimize the recycling of valuable nutrients while providing energy and building soil carbon, I believe it brings together both sides of climate beliefs.
A reconciling of both Gods' and mans' controlling hands.

Agricultural Geo — Engineering; Past, Present & Future
Across scientific disciplines carbons are finding new utility to solve our most vexing problems

2014 SSSA Presentation;
Agricultural Geo-Engineering; Past, Present & Future.
https://www.soils.org/files/am/ecosystems/kinght.pdf

our soil tends toward acidic here so we have always added wood ashes to the soil which as you know has a lot of bits of charcoal in it. it's at a lot lower rate though, like 2 liters per 100sq. ft. very interesting, what you're doing.

Very interesting, thank you for that wonderful experiment. I added some to my tomatoes

excellent experiment. different plants like different things. maybe acidity and aeration. 😃

I'm not sure what this does, other than spark the interest to extend the trial over a large number of plants.  Individual seeds will produce remarkably different results, even in the same medium.  I'm not sure what you mean by "charcoal" because it has different meanings on different continents and cultures.  However, these results would tend to support an extended experiment with perhaps 100 plants of the same variety under the different environments.

Very interesting!. I know you didn't add any compost to the soil but you did charge the charcoal with some kind of nutrients. It is hard to tell whether the differences are due to the charcoal or whatever you soaked it in. I think it would be good to repeat with plain charcoal, and add the same amount of liquid feed to each pot.

## biochar gardening

9 September, 2017

For the latest in biochar
news and events..
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## Audiobook The Biochar Debate: Charcoal s Potential to Reverse Climate Change and Build Soil

9 September, 2017

## How To Get Usda Certified

9 September, 2017

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## Activated Biochar 3- 10mm 10 L bag. W'liquid kelp ,effective microbes

9 September, 2017

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## Global Granular Biochar Market Research Report 2017

10 September, 2017

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## Bid on Tree Root Invigoration Project Via Biochar Soil Amendment in Morristown

11 September, 2017

## Biochar

11 September, 2017

## Carbon sequestration potential and physicochemical properties differ between wildfire charcoals …

11 September, 2017

Reference #3.416533b8.1505195666.16d06c94

## latin america biochar market

11 September, 2017

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## Latin America Biochar Market is expected to touch USD 260 million by 2021

11 September, 2017

The Latin America Biochar Market was worth USD 140 million in 2016 and estimated to be growing at a CAGR of 13.7%, to reach USD 260 million by 2021. Biochar is a type of charcoal, fine-grained and is rich in carbon. It is obtained when biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen. Used as a soil additive, it increases the quality of soil leading to rich crop growth. The growth is high in this market since excessive chemical fertilisers are used and increasing food demand.

Browse Market data tables and in-depth TOC of the Latin America Biochar Market to 2021 @ http://www.marketdataforecast.com/market-reports/latin-america-biochar-market-3017/

Biochar enhances the soil quality by the addition of rich minerals and nutrients. It also offers other advantages like retaining carbon from the atmosphere. It can be used as a solution for absorbing the greenhouse gas CO2 responsible for global warming. It can retain nutrients from percolating water into soil. While biochar is produced, it creates energy which can be utilized for other purposes. It also water–absorbing in nature and prevents erosion of soil.

The Latin America Biochar market is driven by factors such as agricultural sector needing more Biochar, usage of biochar increasing as livestock is used as animal feed, demand rising for organic farming, rigorous environmental regulations from the government and its usefulness in waste management among others. The restraints that this market is facing are its high prices and lack of awareness. However, the awareness about it seems to be increasing rapidly.

Free sample of the report is available @ http://www.marketdataforecast.com/market-reports/latin-america-biochar-market-3017/request-sample

The Latin America Biochar market is segmented by application into agriculture, gardening, households and others. Agriculture dominates the market having the largest market share of around 45% and is also the fastest growing segment. By technology, the market is divided into microwave pyrolysis, continuous pyrolysis, batch pyrolysis kiln, gasifier, hydrothermal, cook stove and others. By manufacturing the market is segmented into gasification, pyrolysis and others. Biochar is mostly produced by pyrolysis, hence it has the largest market share in this segment. By feedstock the market is divided into agricultural waste, forestry waste, animal manure and biomass plantations.

The Latin America market for Biochar is geographically segmented into Brazil, Argentina and rest of Latin America. This market is still in its nascent stages in this region, hence it has only around 12 per cent of market share. Since the market has high potential as food demand is increasing and soil quality is degrading due to use of bio-chemicals, the market is expected to grow steadily.

Some of the major companies dominating the Latin America Biochar market are Biochar Products Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc., Agri-Tech Producers LLC, Genesis Industries, Green Charcoal International, Vega Biofuels Inc., The Biochar Company, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Full Circle Biochar, and Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd.

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## Granular Biochar Market Analysis by Product Types, Marketing Channel Development Trend …

12 September, 2017

TYPES
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Source Biochar
Wheat Source Biochar
Others

APPLICATIONS
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

The Granular Biochar industry report is a valuable source of guidance and direction. It is helpful for established businesses, new entrants in the Market as well as individuals interested in the Market.

## Granular Biochar market size

12 September, 2017

## Granular Biochar market 2017 Archives

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## Granular Biochar market

12 September, 2017

## Global Biochar Industry Drivem by Strict Government Rules and Increasing Investment in Bio-Fuel …

12 September, 2017

The global biochar market is at a very nascent stage.  The shareholders are expected to earn great revenues as a result of the diverse applications of biochar in remediation of greenhouse gases, soil amendment, and production of energy.  Some of the key companies in the global biochar market include names such as Full Circle Biochar, Biochar Supreme LLC, Vega Biofuels Inc., and Cool Planet Energy Systems among others.  Recently, Vega Biofuels Inc. announced that it has made an agreement to construct a biochar manufacturing plant in Anchorage, Alaska.  The objective of the plant will be to produce biochar that can be utilized in a top grade agricultural growing medium for legitimate farmers of cannibis in Pacific Northwest and Alaska.  Vega also announced that it has reached an agreement with a cannibis start-up in Anchorage to commercialize Vega's Biochar all over the state of Alaska.  The company aims to produce the torrefied biochar for the prupose of which it will make use of the torrefication technology at the new facility.

According to the latest report by Transparency Market Research,  the global biochar market will expand at a healthy CAGR of 14.5% over the forecast period if 2017 to 2025.  The global market stood at an overall valuation of US$444.2 thousand in 2016. The market valuation of biochar is estimated to rise to US$14,751 thousand by the end of forecast period in 2025.

Federal Rural University of Amazon, University of East Anglia, Aberystwyth University, and Massey University are some of the major institutes that are presently involved in the production and research related to biochar and are expected to redefine the global market in the coming years.

Multi-Purpose Use and Numerous Advantages Popularize Biochar Market across World

The global biochar market is gaining popularity due to a number of reasons such as increasing use of soil enhancement, rising demand for organiz food, strict government rules for preservation of soil, increasing investment in the bio-fuel segment, growing concerns about the environmental well-being, and advantages in waste management.  These factors are driving the demand for biochar and thus, propelling the market.  Some other factors are driving the demand for biochar and thus, propelling the market.  Some other factors that are positively influencing the global biochar marnet are the availability of economical feedstock and easy management of waste dump.

Biochar is primarily produced through the modern process of pyrolysis in which gives out biochar along with the byproducts of syngas and bio-oil.  Biochar can also be manufactured using different process such as microwave pyrolysis and gasification.  In the agricultural segment, it is chiefly used to improve the fertility of soil, increase yield, and offer nutrition to crops.  Apart from the overall improvement in the productivity, biochar is also becoming more popular with respect to livestock farming where it is used as an animal feed.  Due to the huge surge in the food sector, the agricultural sector is projected to growingly adopt biochar over the coming years.  However, there still is a general lack of awareness among consumers and financial barriers in many emerging economies, which many slow down the growth of the global biochar market.

Huge Boom in Bio Fuel Sector to Propel Growth of Asia Pacific Market

Geographically, the global biochar market can be segmented into key regions such as Asia Pacific, Europe, North America, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa.  According to the report by TMR, North America serves the maximum demandfor biochar in the global market, accounting for over 50% of market share.  Other regions such as Europe, Latin America and Middle East and Africa are projected to witness a steady growth in the coming years.  Meanwhile, exponential growth in the biochar market of Asia Pacific is predicted.  This is mainly because of the emerging boom in the bio fuel sector of numerous emerging economies in Asia Pacific such as India, Japan, and China.

## Discover the world granular biochar industry report 2017

12 September, 2017

– Agency -.

The comprehensive global Granular Biochar report offers clients the most efficient and dependable insight into the Granular Biochar market, ranging across different  marketing trader or distributor analysis, regional import, export, and trade analysis, marketing channels status, and much more. Every aspect of Granular Biochar market has been analysed in detail to assist clients with all the vital data to frame tactical business judgments and propose strategic growth plans.

Complete report on Granular Biochar market spread across 117 pages, profiling 12 companies and supported with tables and figures is now available at www.reportsnreports.com/contacts/.aspx?name=803788

The report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Granular Biochar industry analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status.

– Agency -.

Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, cost, price, revenue and gross margins.

#Key Manufacturers Analysis of Granular Biochar Market: Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet and Carbon Terra.

With tables and figures the report provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

#Few Point from Tables and Figures

Table Global Granular Biochar Production Share by Manufacturers (2016 and 2017)
Figure 2015 Granular Biochar Production Share by Manufacturers
Figure 2016 Granular Biochar Production Share by Manufacturers
Table Global Granular Biochar Revenue (Million USD) by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)
Table Global Granular Biochar Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)
Table 2015 Global Granular Biochar Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table 2016 Global Granular Biochar Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table Global Market Granular Biochar Average Price of Key Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)
Figure Global Market Granular Biochar Average Price of Key Manufacturers in 2015
Table Manufacturers Granular Biochar Manufacturing Base Distribution and Sales Area
Table Manufacturers Granular Biochar Product Type
Figure Granular Biochar Market Share of Top 3 Manufacturers
Figure Granular Biochar Market Share of Top 5 Manufacturers
Table Global Granular Biochar Capacity by Regions (2011-2016)
Figure Global Granular Biochar Capacity Market Share by Regions (2011-2016)
Figure Global Granular Biochar Capacity Market Share by Regions (2011-2016)
Figure 2015 Global Granular Biochar Capacity Market Share by Regions

Report: www.reportsnreports.com/.aspx?name=803788

WhaTech www.whatech.com

## New Research Report: Granular Biochar market analysis forecast to 2022

12 September, 2017

Global Granular Biochar industry research report provides overview of definitions, classifications, applications, key competitor’s profiles, sales, revenue, market share, contact information, manufacturing processes, cost structures, import/export consumption, supply/demand figures, cost, price, revenue, gross margins, marketing / sourcing strategy, investment feasibility and industry chain structure with forecast till 2022.

Global Granular Biochar market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022

Report studies Granular Biochar in Global market and presents detailed information divided by manufacturers, regions, product types and applications

Market Segment by Region:

Split by Product Type:

Split by Application:

Key Topics Covered: (Detailed Report Include Sub-Chapters, Tables, Charts & Figures)

I: Granular Biochar Market Overview

II: Global Granular Biochar Market Competition by Manufacturers

III: Global Granular Biochar Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2012-2017)

IV: Global Granular Biochar Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2012-2017)

V: Global Granular Biochar Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

VI: Global Granular Biochar Market Analysis by Application

VII: Global Granular Biochar Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis

VIII: Granular Biochar Manufacturing Cost Analysis

IX: Industrial Chain, Downstream Buyers and Sourcing Strategy

XI: Market Effect Factors Analysis

XII: Global Granular Biochar Market Forecast (2017-2022)

XIII: Research Findings, List of Tables, Charts, Figures and Conclusion

XIV: Appendix, Research Methodology, Analyst Introduction, Data Sources

Find out more about the report @ http://reportsdesk.com/global-granular-biochar-market-research-report-2017.html/

Customer Relations Team (24×7)

Tel: +1-845-262-3070 / Email: sales@reportsdesk.com

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## Granular Biochar Market Demand, Growth and Trends 2017 to 2022

12 September, 2017

Global Granular Biochar Market Research Report 2017 to 2022 presents an in-depth assessment of the Granular Biochar Market including enabling technologies, key trends, market drivers, challenges, standardization, regulatory landscape, deployment models, operator case studies, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents forecasts for Granular Biochar Market investments from 2017 till 2022.

This study answers several questions for stakeholders, primarily which market segments they should focus upon during the next five years to prioritize their efforts and investments. These stakeholders include Granular Biochar Market Manufacturers such as Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra.

Primary sources are mainly industry experts from core and related industries, and suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, service providers, and organizations related to all segments of the industry’s supply chain. The bottom-up approach was used to estimate the Global market size of Granular Biochar Market based on end-use industry and region, in terms of value. With the data triangulation procedure and validation of data through primary interviews, the exact values of the overall parent market, and individual market sizes were determined and confirmed in this study.

Global Granular Biochar Market Sales (K Units) and Revenue (Million USD) Market Split by Product Type

Global Granular Biochar Market (K Units) by Application (2016-2022)

The research provides answers to the following key questions:

This independent 117 page report guarantees you will remain better informed than your competition. With over 170 tables and figures examining the Granular Biochar Market, the report gives you a visual, one-stop breakdown of the leading products, submarkets and market leader’s market revenue forecasts as well as analysis to 2022.

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), and market share and growth rate of Storage Area Network Switch in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering

by Regions

The report provides a basic overview of the Granular Biochar Market industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. And development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures.

Then, the report focuses on Global major leading industry players with information such as company profiles, product picture and specifications, sales, market share and contact information. What’s more, the Granular Biochar Market industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed.

The research includes historic data from 2012 to 2016 and forecasts until 2022 which makes the reports an invaluable resource for industry executives, marketing, sales and product managers, consultants, analysts, and other people looking for key industry data in readily accessible documents with clearly presented tables and graphs. The report will make detailed analysis mainly on above questions and in-depth research on the development environment, market size, development trend, operation situation and future development trend of Granular Biochar Market on the basis of stating current situation of the industry in 2017 so as to make comprehensive organization and judgment on the competition situation and development trend of Granular Biochar Market and assist manufacturers and investment organization to better grasp the development course of Granular Biochar Market.

The study was conducted using an objective combination of primary and secondary information including inputs from key participants in the industry. The report contains a comprehensive market and vendor landscape in addition to a SWOT analysis of the key vendors.

There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the global Granular Biochar market.

Chapter 1, to describe Granular Biochar Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;

Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Granular Biochar, with sales, revenue, and price of Granular Biochar, in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Granular Biochar, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;

Chapter 10 and 11, to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2012 to 2017;

Chapter 12, Granular Biochar market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2017 to 2022;

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Granular Biochar sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

MarketInsightsReports provides syndicated market research reports to industries, organizations or even individuals with an aim of helping them in their decision making process. These reports include in-depth market research studies i.e. market share analysis, industry analysis, information on products, countries, market size, trends, business research details and much more. MarketInsightsReports provides global and regional market intelligence coverage, a 360-degree market view which includes statistical forecasts, competitive landscape, detailed segmentation, key trends, and strategic recommendations.

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## Global Biochar Sales Market 2017 Research Report Forecast to 2022

12 September, 2017

Posted by Sumit in News on September 12th, 2017

Supported by comprehensive primary as well as secondary research, the report Global Biochar Sales Industry 2017 presents profitable market insights. This market research report has deployed suggestions from numerous industry experts and also presents valuable recommendations from expert and experienced market analysts.

The report provides an executive-level blueprint of the Biochar Sales market beginning with the definition of the market dynamics. The analysis classifies the Biochar Sales market in terms of products, application, and key geographic regions. Presenting a detailed value chain analysis, the study evaluates the set of region-specific approaches forged by the industry. To determine the market potential for Biochar Sales in the international scenario, the study delves into the competitive landscape and development landscape exhibited by the key geographic regions.

The report’s analysis is based on technical data and industry figures sourced from the most reputable databases. Other aspects that will prove especially beneficial to readers of the report are: investment feasibility analysis, recommendations for growth, investment return analysis, trends analysis, opportunity analysis, and SWOT analyses of competing companies. With the help of inputs and insights from technical and marketing experts, the report presents an objective assessment of the Biochar Sales market.

This report also presents product specification, manufacturing process, and product cost structure etc. Production is separated by regions, technology and applications. Analysis also covers upstream raw materials, equipment, Downstream client survey, Marketing channels, Industry development trend and proposals. In the end, the report includes Biochar Sales new project SWOT analysis, Investment feasibility analysis, Investment return analysis, and Development trend analysis. In conclusion, it is a deep research report on Global Biochar Sales industry. Here, we express our thanks for the support and assistance from Biochar Sales industry chain related technical experts and marketing engineers during Research Team’s survey and interviews.

Access Full Report @ https://www.fiormarkets.com/report/global-biochar-sales-market-report-2016-16260.html

Other important aspects that have been meticulously studied in the Biochar Sales market report are: Demand and supply dynamics, import and export scenario, industry processes and cost structures, and major R&D initiatives. The new opportunities they present to market players have been mentioned in the report.

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12 September, 2017

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## BIOchar Infused with Worm Castings

12 September, 2017

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## Global Biochar Market Forecast to 2022: by Key Players, Application, Type and Region

12 September, 2017

The Report Study On Global Biochar Market 2017 offers an inherent and described analysis of Biochar industry which helps company executives, industry investors, and industry participants with in-depth intuition to enable them make informed vital decisions regarding the opportunities in the global Biochar market.

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## Global Biochar Market 2017- Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd, Vega Biofuels, Inc., Full Circle Biochar

12 September, 2017

The Report entitled Global Biochar Market 2017 analyses the crucial factors of the Biochar market based on present industry situations, market demands, business strategies adopted by Biochar market players and their growth scenario. This report isolates the Biochar market based on the key players, Type, Application and Regions.

The Biochar industry research report mainly focuses on Biochar industry in global market. The major regions which contribute to the development of Biochar market mainly cover Biochar market in North America, Biochar market in the United States, Biochar market in Europe, Biochar market in China and Japan.

For Any Kind of Query Visit Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/global-biochar-market-2017/#inquiry

Biochar Market 2017: Leading Players and Manufacturers Analysis

Biochar Market: Type Analysis

Woody Biomass
Agricultural Waste
Animal Manure
Others

Biochar Market: Application Analysis

Electricity Generation
Agriculture
Forestry
Others

The Biochar report provides the past, present and future industry trends and the forecast information related to the expected Biochar sales revenue, Biochar growth, Biochar demand and supply scenario. Furthermore, the opportunities and the threats to the development of Biochar market are also covered at depth in this research document.

Initially, the Biochar manufacturing analysis of the major industry players based on their company profiles, annual revenue, sales margin, growth aspects is also covered in this report, which will help other Biochar market players in driving business insights.

Key Emphasizes Of The Biochar Market:

The fundamental details related to Biochar industry like the product definition, cost, variety of applications, demand and supply statistics are covered in this report.

Competitive study of the major Biochar players will help all the market players in analyzing the latest trends and business strategies.

The deep research study of Biochar market based on development opportunities, growth limiting factors and feasibility of investment will forecast the market growth.

The study of emerging Biochar market segments and the existing market segments will help the readers in planning the business strategies.

Finally, the report Global Biochar Market 2017 describes Biochar industry expansion game plan, the Biochar industry data source, appendix, research findings and the conclusion.

## Biochar Market in United States Analysis, Demand, Share, Growth Estimation, Developing Trends …

12 September, 2017

The Biochar Market in United States Research Report 2017 renders deep perception of the key regional market status of the Biochar Industry in United States on a global level that primarily aims the core regions which comprises of continents like Europe, North America, and Asia and the key countries such as United States, Germany, China and Japan.

Then, Biochar Market in United States report focuses on global major leading industry players with information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials, equipment and downstream consumers’ analysis is also carried out.

Get Sample PDF of report at- https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/11245935

Major Manufacturers Analysis of Biochar in United States

Genesis Industries LLC
Diacarbonn Energy Inc.
Earth Systems Bioenergy
Agri-Tech Producers, LLC
Pacific Biochar
Phoenix Energy
Biochar Supreme LLC
CharGrow, LLC

Biochar Market in United States report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Biochar Market in United States analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regions’ development status.

By Types, the Biochar Market in United States Can Be Split Into

Woody Biomass
Agricultural Waste
Animal Manure
Others

By Applications, This Report Covers

Electricity Generation
Agriculture
Forestry
Others

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Global Biochar Market Research Report at http://www.absolutereports.com/11245935

By Regions, This Report Covers

The West
Southwest
The Middle Atlantic
New England
The South
The Midwest

For Any Query on Biochar Market report, Speak to Expert@ http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/11245935

Development policies and plans are also discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures. Biochar Market in United States report also states import/export, supply and consumption figures as well as cost, price, revenue and gross margin by regions (United States, EU, China and Japan), and other regions can be added. What’s more, the Biochar Industry in United States development trends and marketing channels are analysed.

This independent page report guarantees you will remain better informed than your competition. With over tables and figures examining the Biochar Market in United States, the report gives you a visual, one-stop breakdown of the leading products, submarkets and market leader’s market revenue forecasts as well as analysis to 2022.

In a word, the Biochar Market in United States report provides major statistics on the state of the Biochar Industry in United States and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

Single User Price: USD 3800

Purchase the Biochar Market in United States Report at: https://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/11245935

Industry Overview of Biochar Market in United States

Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Biochar Market in United States

Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Biochar Market in United States

Capacity, Production and Revenue Analysis of Biochar in United States by Regions, Types and Manufacturers

Price, Cost, Gross and Gross Margin Analysis of Biochar in United States by Regions, Types and Manufacturers

Consumption Volume, Value, Sale Price Analysis of Biochar in United States by Regions, Types and Applications

Supply, Import, Export and Consumption Analysis of Biochar in United States

Major Manufacturers Analysis of Biochar in United States

Marketing Trader or Distributor Analysis of Biochar in United States

Industry Chain Analysis of Biochar in United States

Development Trend of Analysis of Biochar in United States

New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Biochar in United States

Conclusion of the Biochar Industry in United States 2017 Market Research Report

## Biochar

13 September, 2017

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13 September, 2017

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## Difference between biochar and activated carbon?

13 September, 2017

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net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:65) com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:52) net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:107) net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:197) javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:64) com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:33) com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:78) com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:61) net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:53) net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:78) net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) net.jforum.UrlMultiSlashFilter.doFilter(UrlMultiSlashFilter.java:33) net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:34)  note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs. ## Black Owl Biochar – 100% Organic (1cf) 13 September, 2017 Pure and natural, Premium Black Owl Organic Biochar is exceptional because of its high surface area, high porosity, high activity, low bulk density and low ash content. Use it to enrich the soil ecosystem and enhance soil fertility permanently. Beneficial microbes and fungi love it! OMRI Listed for use in organic production. Benefits: • Builds fertility and organic matter in soils • Water-holding capacity = 5-6X its weight, good in droughts • Hosts an array of beneficial soil microbes and fungi • Helps retain nutrients in the soil longer — boosts plant growth! • Improves pH of acidic soils • Contains no less than 70% organic carbon Available in 1 cubic foot bags. DIRECTIONS FOR USE: Vegetable & Flower Beds: Broadcast 1/2″ to 1″ over the entire growing area and incorporate with other amendments 4″ to 6″ deep. Water thoroughly. Container Gardens: An application rate of 5%-10% is typical to maximize the utility of your potting mix. Hydroponics: Add 1 Tbsp to 1 quart of liquid nutrients for greater roots, more vigorous plants and greater budding. Compost: In a tumbling composter, mix 10% by volume and incorporate into the composting process. For pile composting add a layer with each addition of organic material. Ingredients: Produced from virgin wood waste from sustainably managed forests. Made from hydrolyzed and ground feathers collected from the poultry industry. Perma-Guard is a pure, food grade diatomaceous earth (fresh water type). No fishy odor! Slow-release nutrients grow stronger, more nutritious vegetables. Formed from molten lava, pumice will help aeration and drainage for plant roots. ## Granular Biochar Market by Type, Product, Solution and Service, End-User Industry, and Region 13 September, 2017 A new research document with title ‘Global Granular Biochar Market Research Report 2017′ covering detailed analysis, Competitive landscape, forecast and strategies. The study covers geographic analysis that includes regions and important players/vendors.The report will help user gain market insights, future trends and growth prospects for forecast period of 2017-2022 Request a sample report @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/sample-report/693957-global-granular-biochar-market-2 In this report, the global Granular Biochar market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of Granular Biochar in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering North America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Global Granular Biochar market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer; the top players including Diacarbon Energy Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into Wood Source Biochar Corn Source Biochar Wheat Source Biochar Others On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate of Granular Biochar for each application, including Soil Conditioner Fertilizer Others Get customization & check discount for report @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/request-discount/693957-global-granular-biochar-market-2 Table of Contents Global Granular Biochar Market Research Report 2017 1 Granular Biochar Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Granular Biochar 1.2 Granular Biochar Segment by Type (Product Category) 1.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Production and CAGR (%) Comparison by Type (Product Category)(2012-2022) 1.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Production Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016 1.2.3 Wood Source Biochar 1.2.4 Corn Source Biochar 1.2.5 Wheat Source Biochar 1.2.6 Others 1.3 Global Granular Biochar Segment by Application 1.3.1 Granular Biochar Consumption (Sales) Comparison by Application (2012-2022) 1.3.2 Soil Conditioner 1.3.3 Fertilizer 1.3.4 Others 1.4 Global Granular Biochar Market by Region (2012-2022) 1.4.1 Global Granular Biochar Market Size (Value) and CAGR (%) Comparison by Region (2012-2022) 1.4.2 North America Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.4 China Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.5 Japan Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.6 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.7 India Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Granular Biochar (2012-2022) 1.5.1 Global Granular Biochar Revenue Status and Outlook (2012-2022) 1.5.2 Global Granular Biochar Capacity, Production Status and Outlook (2012-2022)….Continued View Detailed Table of Content @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/reports/693957-global-granular-biochar-market-2 Thanks for reading this article, you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe or Asia. Buy this report @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/buy-now?format=1&report=693957 Contact Us: CRAIG FRANCIS (PR & Marketing Manager) sales@htfmarketreport.com Ph: +1 (206) 317 1218 ## New report shares details about the granular biochar market 13 September, 2017 – Advertising – The Granular Biochar Market Research Report Forecast 2017-2022 is a valuable source of insightful data for business strategists. It provides the Granular Biochar industry overview with growth analysis and historical & futuristic cost, revenue, demand and supply data (as applicable). The research analysts provide an elaborate description of the value chain and its distributor analysis. For this report, the Granular Biochar market value is provided for 2016 in USD millions, an expected CAGR % as well as USD million worth of industry in 2022. – Advertising – Regionally, the globe is segmented into United States, China, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia and India to study their market size and local analysis. End user applications of Granular Biochar market covering Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer and Others are studied in this research. Share of Granular Biochar market is covered by applications as well supported with potential applications in the future. Access the complete Granular Biochar report with Comprehensive table of contents at emarketorg.com/pro/granular-biocha…17/ The research methodology used to estimate and forecast the Granular Biochar market involves a primary and a secondary research. A systematic procedure has been used to arrive at the global size of the Granular Biochar market and present revenue of key players in the market. Accurate data has been collected by conducting extensive interviews with people holding key decision making positions in the industry such as CEOs, VPs, directors, and executives. Industry chain analysis covering upstream raw materials and equipments of Granular Biochar market, their suppliers’ information as well as analysis of downstream major consumers for Granular Biochar is provided to understand the complete industry chain structure. Overall market analyzed in this report is divided by regions, types and manufacturers/companies. The research estimates 2017-2022 Granular Biochar market development trends covering capacity, production and revenue forecasts as well as regional supply consumption forecasts. Towards the end, this report includes a feasibility analysis of New Project Investment covering SWOT analysis of Granular Biochar OR marketing strategy analysis and market effect factor analysis. Overall, the report provides factual insights collected and analyzed with detailed primary and secondary research on Granular Biochar market. The research compiles profiles of small and big Granular Biochar market companies covering their product details as well as important statistics on production, capacity, price and more. These active companies’ numbers are supported with information on marketing traders and/or distributors of the Granular Biochar industry along with their contact information. This data gives valuable industry insights and direction to individuals and/or companies that are new entrants, eyeing to enter or grow in the Granular Biochar market. Some of the Key vendors profiled in this research include: Diacarbon Energy Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra Partial list of Tables and Figures for this report include: Figure Global Granular Biochar Revenue (Million USD) Status and Outlook (2012-2022) Figure Global Granular Biochar Capacity, Production (K Units) Status and Outlook (2012-2022) Figure Global Granular Biochar Major Players Product Capacity (K Units) (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Capacity Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017) Figure Global Granular Biochar Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2016 Figure Global Granular Biochar Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2017 Figure Global Granular Biochar Major Players Product Production (K Units) (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Production (K Units) of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Production Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017) Figure 2016 Granular Biochar Production Share by Manufacturers Figure 2017 Granular Biochar Production Share by Manufacturers Figure Global Granular Biochar Major Players Product Revenue (Million USD) (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Revenue (Million USD) by Manufacturers (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017) Table 2016 Global Granular Biochar Revenue Share by Manufacturers WhaTech www.whatech.com ## Granular Biochar Market 2017 Research Report States Current Status and 13 September, 2017 No results found for your search The Granular Biochar Market Research Report Forecast 2017-2022 is a valuable source of insightful data for business strategists. It provides the Granular Biochar industry overview with growth analysis and historical & futuristic cost, revenue, demand and supply data (as applicable). The research analysts provide an elaborate description of the value chain and its distributor analysis. For this report, the Granular Biochar market value is provided for 2016 in USD millions, an expected CAGR % as well as USD million worth of industry in 2022. Regionally, the globe is segmented into United States, China, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia and India to study their market size and local analysis. End user applications of Granular Biochar market covering Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer and Others are studied in this research. Share of Granular Biochar market is covered by applications as well supported with potential applications in the future. Buy the complete Granular Biochar report with Comprehensive table of contents @ https://emarketorg.com/pro/granular-biochar-market-research-report-2017/ The research methodology used to estimate and forecast the Granular Biochar market involves a primary and a secondary research. A systematic procedure has been used to arrive at the global size of the Granular Biochar market and present revenue of key players in the market. Accurate data has been collected by conducting extensive interviews with people holding key decision making positions in the industry such as CEOs, VPs, directors, and executives. Inquire for discount for this report @ https://emarketorg.com/product-enquiry/?product-id=107983 Industry chain analysis covering upstream raw materials and equipments of Granular Biochar market, their suppliers’ information as well as analysis of downstream major consumers for Granular Biochar is provided to understand the complete industry chain structure. Overall market analyzed in this report is divided by regions, types and manufacturers/companies. The research estimates 2017-2022 Granular Biochar market development trends covering capacity, production and revenue forecasts as well as regional supply consumption forecasts. Towards the end, this report includes a feasibility analysis of New Project Investment covering SWOT analysis of Granular Biochar OR marketing strategy analysis and market effect factor analysis. Overall, the report provides factual insights collected and analyzed with detailed primary and secondary research on Granular Biochar market. The research compiles profiles of small and big Granular Biochar market companies covering their product details as well as important statistics on production, capacity, price and more. These active companies’ numbers are supported with information on marketing traders and/or distributors of the Granular Biochar industry along with their contact information. This data gives valuable industry insights and direction to individuals and/or companies that are new entrants, eyeing to enter or grow in the Granular Biochar market. Some of the Key vendors profiled in this research include: Diacarbon Energy Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra Partial list of Tables and Figures for this report include: Figure Global Granular Biochar Revenue (Million USD) Status and Outlook (2012-2022) Figure Global Granular Biochar Capacity, Production (K Units) Status and Outlook (2012-2022) Figure Global Granular Biochar Major Players Product Capacity (K Units) (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Capacity Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017) Figure Global Granular Biochar Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2016 Figure Global Granular Biochar Capacity (K Units) of Key Manufacturers in 2017 Figure Global Granular Biochar Major Players Product Production (K Units) (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Production (K Units) of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Production Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017) Figure 2016 Granular Biochar Production Share by Manufacturers Figure 2017 Granular Biochar Production Share by Manufacturers Figure Global Granular Biochar Major Players Product Revenue (Million USD) (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Revenue (Million USD) by Manufacturers (2012-2017) Table Global Granular Biochar Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017) Table 2016 Global Granular Biochar Revenue Share by Manufacturers About Us: eMarketOrg.com aims to provide businesses and organizations market intelligence products and services that help in making smart, instant and crucial decisions. Our database offers access to insights from industry leaders, experts and influencers on global and regional sectors, market trends, user behaviour, for companies as well as products. With data and information from reputable and trusted private and public sources, our clients are never short of statistics and analysis that are up to date. Contact Details: Ronald Alden sales@emarketorg.com info@emarketorg.com https://twitter.com/emarketorg Join over 70,000 growth pros from companies like Uber, Pinterest & Twitter Use the feedback box below if you have a question, comment or general feedback. Your feedback has been sent. ## Globally Growth Biochar Market Sales Report in 2017- 2022 13 September, 2017 Global Biochar Market Report provides an analytical assessment of the prime challenges faced by this Market currently and in the coming years, which helps Market participants in understanding the problems they may face while operating in this Market over a longer period of time. In this report, the Global Biochar Market value in 2017 and expected value by the end of 2022 along growth between 2017 and 2022 is mentioned. Various Global Biochar industry leading players are studied with respect to their company profile, product portfolio, capacity, price, cost and revenue. Get a Sample of Biochar Market report from – https://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-sample/10521783 The Key Players that are included in the Global Biochar Market report are Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd Vega Biofuels, Inc. Full Circle Biochar Genesis Industries LLC Diacarbonn Energy Inc. Earth Systems Bioenergy Agri-Tech Producers, LLC Pacific Biochar Phoenix Energy Biochar Supreme LLC CharGrow, LLC Cool Planet Energy Systems Have any Query Regarding the Global Biochar Market Report? Contact us at: https://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10521783 Various policies and news are also included in the Global Biochar Market report. This includes labour cost, depreciation cost, raw material cost and other costs. The production process is analysed with respect to various aspects like, manufacturing plant distribution, capacity, commercial production, R&D status, raw material source and technology source. By Product Analysis the Global Biochar Market is Segmented into Glass Fibre, Carbon Fibre and by End Users/Applications Analysis the Global Biochar Market is segmented into: Chemical and Others. Price of Report (single User Licence):$ 4000

Get Discount on Biochar Market Report athttps://www.marketreportsworld.com/Discount /10521783

Further in the Global Biochar Market research report, following points Production, Sales and Revenue, Supply and Consumption and other analysis are included along with in-depth study of each point. Production of the Global Biochar is analysed with respect to different regions, types and applications. Here, price analysis of various Global Biochar Market key players is also covered. Both, sales and revenue are studied for the different regions of the global Biochar Market. Another major aspect, price, which plays important part in the revenue generation, is also assessed in this section for the various regions. In continuation with sales, this section studies supply and consumption for the Global Biochar Market. This part also sheds light on the gap between supply and consumption. Apart from the aforementioned information, trade and distribution analysis for the Global Biochar Market, contact information of major manufacturers, suppliers and key consumers is also given. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.

Regions covered in the Global Biochar Market report include: United States, Japan, Europe, India, China and Southeast Asia.

## Activating / Charging Biochar For The Garden | The Ultimate Nutrient Carrier, Soil Builder!

13 September, 2017

Great channel. You are open minded and warm hearted. Thanks for the Content~

Dan, how does urine do on charcoal? Thanks as always!

• Plant Abundance  10 часов назад +2

Urine is an effective biochar activator.

• Urine is an effective biochar activator.

Great video, bio char is amazing.

• Plant Abundance  10 часов назад

Thank you! And it has many different applications.

• Thank you! And it has many different applications.

so humble yet informative thx

Learned a lot from your videos.

## New Biochar Innovation for Rural Tech Development

13 September, 2017

## OBRIST C–Transformer is raising hope for carbon storage

13 September, 2017

Stop global warming and reverse climate change — that is the stated goal of political engagements such as the Paris Agreement. Alternative energy sourcing and stricter emission standards are only the first steps in addressing humankind’s biggest problem.

In addition to those measures, carbon dioxide (CO2) needs to be actively removed from the atmosphere. OBRIST Transformer could develop a future-oriented approach. In order to enhance carbon storage, which will lead to the restoration of ecological balance, the company has started a crowdfunding campaign on Indiegogo.

In the upcoming years, CO2 emissions must be reduced drastically in order to limit global warming. Technically, it is already possible to extract the greenhouse gas CO2 from the air. Mother Nature does this via growth of trees and forests. Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and biomass accumulates. Oxygen is released as a byproduct of this process.

This is where the OBRIST C-Transformer comes in.

“We want to enhance this natural process in order to regain ecological balance,” said Frank Obrist of OBRIST Transformer. From his viewpoint, the forests will be our rescue.

During the development of the OBRIST C-Transformer concept, Obrist and his team saw nature as a role model. The result is a self–sufficient machine that combines different kinds of technologies.

Pyrolysis will turn old trees into biochar to be reintroduced into the forest soil. Tree seeds then will be worked into the biochar enriched soil, which in turn will ensure the growth of new forests. Biochar application to agricultural soils is emerging as a new management strategy for its potential role in carbon sequestration, soil quality improvements and plant growth promotion.

The OBRIST approach has numerous advantages over other carbon capture and sequestration technologies.

The OBRIST approach has numerous advantages over other carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. Expensive and dangerous storage of CO2 does not apply because carbon in its most stable form can be stored directly in the ground. The technologies required for this are already existing and established so the OBRIST C-Transformer can build upon a proven scientific base.

The OBRIST C-Transformer also will score through its efficiency. It could bind up to 600 metric tons of carbon (the equivalent of over 2100 metric tons of CO2) daily. This would make the OBRIST C-Transformer the first large-scale, sub-zero-CO2 technology not only to address current emission levels, but also to counteract previous emission excesses.

To compensate for current annual transportation emissions, the OBRIST C-Transformer would need to annually work an area as big as the state of Wisconsin.

The concept is supported by scientific proof. Professors Robert Schlögl of the Fritz Haber Institute of Max Planck Society Berlin and Pierre Ibisch of the Institute of Sustainable Development Eberswalde are part of the development team.

It is crucial for us to not only protect forest resources but also to re-establish their air cleansing capacity.

“Ecological balance is out of control,” said Ibisch. “It is crucial for us to not only protect forest resources but also to re-establish their air cleansing capacity.”

Climate change is a worldwide challenge. That is why OBRIST Transformer calls for worldwide support for the OBRIST C- Transformer by using crowdfunding on Indiegogo.com.

Starting with a little as $1, it is possible to become part of possibly the greatest crowdfunding endeavor ever. Assuming the reach of financial goals, the first OBRIST C-Transformer is scheduled to start its work in 2025. View the discussion thread. View Program & Speakers Get your copy Save the Date ## Global Biochar Market 2017 – Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char 13 September, 2017 The Biochar Report features the following: The definition of the market which helps in understanding the background of the market about what majorly the Biochar market deals with. The market is segmented in a broad way to analyze the market in a better way. The sub-segments of the market are also included for better analysis of the market. The contribution made by each segment and sub-segment is included coupled with the popularity of the segments. In the next part, the factors that are contributing to the development of the market are included. The present and the future trends of the market are summarizedso that the market players can make smart decisions in order to maintain the competitive edge. Download free sample reporthttps://www.fiormarkets.com/report-detail/94522/request-sample Other points covered in the report: The Biochar report provides not only complete details about key drivers but also includes the factors that are restraining the market. The present opportunities of the market are described along with the future avenues. The quantitative analysis of the Biochar market is made and also the future evaluation through 2011-2022 are included. Various research methods were taken into consideration while collecting the data for the market report. The top-down and the bottom-up approaches were used in order to analyze the data. SWOT analysis of the industry and the Porters Five Forces model helped in illustrating the potential of the market players that are involved in the market. The companies that are involved in the market are included along with the complete company profile, their future plans, and strategies. Leading companies in the global Biochar market profiled in the report are Cool Planet Biochar Supreme NextChar Terra Char Genesis Industries Interra Energy CharGrow Access full report with TOC: https://www.fiormarkets.com/report/global-biochar-market-by-manufacturers-countries-type-and-94522.html Additional information provided in the report In addition, considering that the global economy is ever-changing depending upon several factors, it is important to take a note that our report contains data that are not only conducted regarding CAGR forecasts but it also analyzes the key parameters such as yearly market growth in order to have complete information about the future of the market worldwide. It also helps in identifying the wide opportunities that will open up for the market. The other key feature included in this report is the analysis of the revenue forecasts of all the important regions and applications, which is in terms of dollars. ## Global Biochar Market By Material, Application, and Geography 13 September, 2017 Sep 12, 2017 (AB Digital via COMTEX) — Biochar is an emerging industry and the product is at its nascent stage. The product is expected to be a key factor for increasing agricultural productivity and crop yield in the near future. Its ability to enhance soil fertility and plant growth is expected to be a key factor on account of growing global population and rising demand for organic food. Browse Full report with TOC @ CLICK HERE Application in agriculture segment is expected to observe the fastest growth over the next nine years with an estimated CAGR of around 13.4% from 2016 to 2025. Biochar is primarily used in agriculture to enhance soil fertility, improve plant growth, and provide crop nutrition. As a result, it, improves the overall productivity. It has also gained considerable popularity in livestock farming as an animal feed. The livestock sector is extremely crucial for biochar, especially in regions such as the North America and Europe where meat is important for human consumption. Biochar is an emerging industry and the product is at its nascent stage. The product is expected to be a key factor for increasing agricultural productivity and crop yield in the near future. Its ability to enhance soil fertility and plant growth is expected to be a key factor on account of growing global population and rising demand for organic food. Agriculture was the largest product category in 2015 and is expected to grow substantially over the forecast period. Farming was the major application segment in agriculture with a share of over 45% in 2015. Get PDF request Sample @ https://goo.gl/BW9xtN The major players profiled in this report include: Earth Systems Bioenergy Cfcarbon Genesis Industries LLC Vega Biofuels, Inc BIOMACON GmbH The end users/applications and product categories analysis: On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume, revenue (Million USD), product price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into- Woody Biomass Agricultural Waste Animal Manure On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Biochar for each application, including- Electricity Generation Agriculture Forestry The major players profiled in this report include: Earth Systems Bioenergy Cfcarbon Genesis Industries LLC Vega Biofuels, Inc BIOMACON GmbH The end users/applications and product categories analysis: On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume, revenue (Million USD), product price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into- Woody Biomass Agricultural Waste Animal Manure On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Biochar for each application, including- Electricity Generation Agriculture Forestry Media Contact Company Name: Radiant Insights, Inc. Contact Person: Michelle Thoras, Corporate Sales Specialist – USA Email: sales@radiantinsights.com Phone: (415) 349-0054, Toll Free: 1-888-202-9519 Address:28 2nd Street, Suite 3036 City: San Francisco State: California Country: United States Website: http://www.radiantinsights.com/ Please read the End User Agreement. By accessing this page, you agree to the terms and conditions of the End User Agreement. News provided by COMTEX. Concerned about privacy? See TradingCharts’ Privacy Statement ## Black Owl Biochar 13 September, 2017 Forgot your password? Already have an account? Log in here Our Black Owl (TM) Premium Organic biochar is OMRI-Listed and Certified for Organic Use. Our biochar is consistently tested in top university labs and in practical studies. Our Black Owl Biochar Products (‘BOB’) products were produced specifically with the grower in mind — with ideal surface area, high water-holding capacity, available pores for healthy biota and fungi to thrive. B.O.B. is used in organic agriculture, landscaping, turf, trees, seedlings and indoor growing. Our products come from extensive research on the best mix of high-end organic ingredients to serve specific roles in agriculture and horticulture. No reviews were found for Black Owl Biochar – Premium Organic Biochar. Be the first to review! Great! review successfully added! Back to top Energy XPRT is a global marketplace with solutions and suppliers for the energy sector, with product catalogs, articles, industry events, publications & more. ## Charcoal and Biochar 13 September, 2017 Mozambique Recycling Association Every day, Maputo’s and Matola’s residents consume more than 800t of coal for cooking. On the other hand, these same residents produce approximately 800t of organic waste, paper and cardboard every day. So why not create carbon from organic waste, paper and cardboard? This will allow on one hand the reduction of municipal waste and on the other hand, the reduction of deforestation. In Vilanculos, AMOR already turns 10 m³ of organic waste, paper and cardboard in coal per day through a low-cost technique that is taught to the local communities (relying on 9 neighborhood committees of Vilankulos Village). Briquettes of coal are made out of the waste and directly used to cook. The coal thus made also gives powder that is used to produce « biochar » and been applied in the fields. The biochar and charcoal (obtained from biomass carbonizing) are added to the soil with the aim of improving their physiological functions. Among other features, the carbon acts like a sponge. It increases soil’s retention capacity of the lacking sandy soils of the country. Centuries ago, the Indians in the Amazon region were applying charcoal to improve soil’s fertility, which created the famous Terra Preta do Indio: a kind of dark soil extremely fertile due to the application of coal. Since one of the major characteristics of the biochar is to retain water and nutrients, it also allows greater efficiency of fertilizer applied to the soil. Thus the private sector has interests in developing products biochar based. Several ways to « load » biochar are now being evaluated with either compound, chemical fertilizer (NPK), guano and also human feces, in order to increase their positive impact. However, despite the interest of many actors, among others, the local office of JAM — Joint Aid Management, an international NGO working in the field of agriculture, assessing the results of biochar and the private sector, to produce a wide marketing plan, requires financial support to assess the impact of biochar. It is estimated that for the study to be well done, it takes a value of USD 55 000 for a duration of 24 months. On the other hand, the coal production process from waste is already under way and only requires an investment USD 24250 to replicate the pilot to wider scale. Vilanculos, Inhambane Province, Expansion to all Mozambique • Municipal organic waste transformation into coal • Soil fertility improvement USD 24,250 for coal, USD 55,000 for biochar, 24 months Transform municipal organic waste into charcoal and biochar • Teaching communities how to produce charcoal from organic waste, paper and cardboard • Assess the positive impact of biochar in agriculture on Vilankulos’ soils • Produce and promote biochar among rural communities by improving soil fertility as a way to increase productivity and combating climate change • Municipal waste processing (organic, garden waste and waste paper and cardboard) to make charcoal and biochar • Biochar conversion into a powerful fertilizer through its mixture (= his load) with different materials • Training farmers on biochar’s production and use • Dynamic research and adapted testing with scientific results • Registration and monitoring of waste use and calculation of greenhouse gases emissions savings. • AMOR — Mozambican Association of Recycling • JAM — Joint Aid Management • Organic municipal waste, paper and cardboard are recycled to produce coal used by citizens. • Farmers are using the coal ashes to produce biochar. • Environmental impact mitigated by recycling waste, is reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, reducing deforestation and increasing carbon sequestration in soils. ## SthlmFoodMovement / KRAV, Growing Biochar and Communities 13 September, 2017 Making the future. The Hub is an incubator for social innovation. It offers access to inspiring collaborative work and meeting spaces for entrepreneurs and people with imaginative ideas. In Stockholm, we support an increasing number of diverse people to actively engage with each other – locally… Stockholm Food Movement is back from summer break with some fantastic speakers! Come Wednesday, September 20th, to gain insight from a successful organic Swedish farmer, learn how to build community and education through urban gardens, and how to work with the city to create environmental solutions, such as biochar! ## Biochar Industry by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application 14 September, 2017 Biochar market analysis report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed thoroughly with four points Manufacturers, regional analysis, Segment by Type & Applications and the actual process of whole Biochar industry. A complete analysis of the competitive landscape of the Biochar Market is provided in the report. This section includes company profiles of market key players. The profiles include contact information, gross, capacity, product details of each firm, price, and cost of Biochar Industry are covered. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Biochar Market Research Report @ http://360marketupdates.com/10385329 Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers Get Sample PDF of Biochar Market Report @ Scope of the Report: This report focuses on the Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application. Biochar Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers Biochar Market report provides application, type impact on market. Also research report covers the present scenario of Biochar Market Consumption forecast, by regional market, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2016 to 2021. Biochar Market Segment by Type, covers Biochar Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into Have Any Query? Ask Our Expert for Biochar Market Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10385329 Key questions answered in the report: · What will the market growth rate of Biochar market in 2020? · What are the key factors driving the global Biochar market? · What are sales, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Biochar market? · Who are the distributors, traders and dealers of Biochar market? · Who are the key vendors in Biochar market space? · What are the Biochar market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Biochar market? · What are sales, revenue, and price analysis by types, application and regions of Biochar market? · What are the market opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Biochar market? No. of Report pages: 113 Price of Report:$ 3480 (Single User Licence)

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## Naturagain BioChar

14 September, 2017

Biochar is the future of sustainable gardening. Our product is 100% organic and doesn’t have any harmful additives, which makes Biochar a better soil conditioner than other chemical fertilizer. Follow the latest news on our website and get the best tips & tricks on the blog to improve your soil!

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Do you need any new ideas for your garden? Or you are looking how to use Biochar properly to improve the soil in your backyard? Visit our blog and get the latest news about the gardening industry! Stay tuned for new tips & tricks to impress your neighbors and become a true master in gardening!

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If you like Biochar or if you have any questions about our products, don’t hesitate and feel free to contact us anytime. We will be very happy to hear from you. Fill in the form below or write us an email. Our team is always there for you to answer your inquiries – Contact us and we will get back to you as soon as we can!

“Choosing Biochar was the best choice I ever made for my new garden. I am more than happy with my plants – they look much better and the taste is so delicious. And it is truly relieving finally not worry about the stuff you grow in your own backyard and that I am somehow contributing towards a better tomorrow for my children!”

“My neighbors were the ones, who showed me Biochar. And I am truly glad, that they did it. Biochar is much better than any other soil conditioner that I used to use in my garden. My veggies have much more taste and I can be sure now, that they are really without any harmful stuff. Using Biochar made me life much easier and healthier”

“Biochar was a great improvement for my garden and even my neighbors were impress by the blooming backyard. It is incredible, that the plants not only look nicer but they even taste so much better. But first of all I am happy to be part of a world without chemicals!”

Cape Town

South Africa

8002

+27837621475

jack@yourwebsitename.com

## split garden comparison

14 September, 2017

Not activated char !!!!!!!!!!!

Any carbonaceous material tilled into the soil is going to tie up nitrogen until it begins breaking down. If you had tilled mulch into the soil it would’ve done the same. You really don’t need to till the amendments in unless they are going to draw in predators or scavengers or insects, just lay them on the top, or at least only incorporate the amendments into the top two inches so that the nitrogen will be free in the root zone 2+ inches deep while the nutrients begin to release over time. The soil caps the air out and causes the amendments to have to be broken down anaerobically and take forever. I realize this was a test, but you should try "activating" your bio-char prior to amendment by incorporating some food sources into it and allowing it to set up for a couple of weeks. Some people add flour, some people add worm castings, some people add grass clippings, some people add urine, and some people add all of the above and let it sit for a few weeks.

• Scott Laskowski  3 месяца назад

Pyro, you’re correct about the carbonaceous material and nitrogen.  We’ve figured out how to deal with the C:N ratio issue in our SOS (Simple Organic Soil) by properly sizing particles and balancing the ingredients to eliminate the problem.   Our soil is made of fresh biomass (no compost or humus) which makes for soil that will break down over several years while providing a healthy environment for plants and soil ecosystem.  Check out our urban garden video updates to see and compare how well the SOS works.  We have two seasons of use so far and the soil is getting better over time.  We’ve also spent a lot of time on the biochar side of things.  We have tested all sorts of ‘activated’ char and have found it’s not necessary if you allow for offsetting attributes to your soil mix.  I.E., we know there is a bit of pH lifting and nutrient uptake with raw biochar so we simply add a bit more pH lowering ingredients and a tiny bit more fertilizer.  Biochar is just carbon – it doesn’t change with activating – carbon is carbon.  It’s the material that is adsorbed/absorbed into the char that changes over time.  As a manufacturer/user/marketer of biochar I have to had to sort through some of the hype on biochar and find ways to use it consistently.  We feel like we’ve made some good headway on this over the last few years.  Here’s a link to latest update on the urban garden growing in carbonaceous material (SOS). https://youtu.be/0lvWFVloxAU

• Pyro, you’re correct about the carbonaceous material and nitrogen.  We’ve figured out how to deal with the C:N ratio issue in our SOS (Simple Organic Soil) by properly sizing particles and balancing the ingredients to eliminate the problem.   Our soil is made of fresh biomass (no compost or humus) which makes for soil that will break down over several years while providing a healthy environment for plants and soil ecosystem.  Check out our urban garden video updates to see and compare how well the SOS works.  We have two seasons of use so far and the soil is getting better over time.  We’ve also spent a lot of time on the biochar side of things.  We have tested all sorts of ‘activated’ char and have found it’s not necessary if you allow for offsetting attributes to your soil mix.  I.E., we know there is a bit of pH lifting and nutrient uptake with raw biochar so we simply add a bit more pH lowering ingredients and a tiny bit more fertilizer.  Biochar is just carbon – it doesn’t change with activating – carbon is carbon.  It’s the material that is adsorbed/absorbed into the char that changes over time.  As a manufacturer/user/marketer of biochar I have to had to sort through some of the hype on biochar and find ways to use it consistently.  We feel like we’ve made some good headway on this over the last few years.  Here’s a link to latest update on the urban garden growing in carbonaceous material (SOS). https://youtu.be/0lvWFVloxAU

I have read that biochar’s benefits accrue over time, are you thinking of doing a follow up video to show how those plots are producing this year (2017)?

• Scott Laskowski  5 месяцев назад

Hi Russell,

The garden plot in this video ended up where the high tunnel is located so I can’t give a year-by-year comparison.  We’re on the 3rd year in the greenhouse and I can verify the soil keeps getting more vibrant each year.  Biochar plays a big role in the quality of the soil.  It’s kind of hard to explain how nice/rich the soil is when you feed it the biochar and back it up with organic matter and fertilizer.  The best way to prove it is to demonstrate it and that’s what I’m trying to do when I make the high tunnel update videos.  As for fertilizers, we add a little of our FishPlus Premium products (fish guts, chicken manure and biomass) once a year Traditional greenhouses are opened up every three years to wash out the salts and rejuvenate the soil.  In our case the soil just keeps getting healthier.

• Hi Russell,

The garden plot in this video ended up where the high tunnel is located so I can’t give a year-by-year comparison.  We’re on the 3rd year in the greenhouse and I can verify the soil keeps getting more vibrant each year.  Biochar plays a big role in the quality of the soil.  It’s kind of hard to explain how nice/rich the soil is when you feed it the biochar and back it up with organic matter and fertilizer.  The best way to prove it is to demonstrate it and that’s what I’m trying to do when I make the high tunnel update videos.  As for fertilizers, we add a little of our FishPlus Premium products (fish guts, chicken manure and biomass) once a year Traditional greenhouses are opened up every three years to wash out the salts and rejuvenate the soil.  In our case the soil just keeps getting healthier.

Great video!

i idid some research a wile back that indicated bio char will not benefit some plants and that it does something bad to the soil and i was turned off but now i cant find it , theres alot of disinformation about bio char

• NOBOX7 Год назад

+Scott Laskowski thanks for your input , its nice to learn from people actually using this stuff , you are correct there is defiantly a big picture and i was missing it

• +Scott Laskowski thanks for your input , its nice to learn from people actually using this stuff , you are correct there is defiantly a big picture and i was missing it

True.  We found you have to supply a complete solution of nutrition, biomass and life to the soil.  Biochar is one ingredient that is helpful as part of a bigger picture but not much good by itself.   We’re getting good results now with our SOS product line we’re about to introduce.

• True.  We found you have to supply a complete solution of nutrition, biomass and life to the soil.  Biochar is one ingredient that is helpful as part of a bigger picture but not much good by itself.   We’re getting good results now with our SOS product line we’re about to introduce.

Biochar "must be inoculated" with micro’s  before you put it in the garden or you will get what this video shows.. slow growth until it fills up with soil life.. Try composting it with chicken manure .. then you have something.. this is a poor example of the benefits of char

Thanks for the feedback, that’s exactly what we learned.  Check out my Biochar For Dummies videos to see how we’re managing that side of the product now.  As for our soils and micro’s, we make sure we have a bit extra fertilizer (chicken manure) and mycelium in the mix to ‘feed’ the biochar.  The results are as good as when we were inoculating with chicken tea or any process for that matter.  The results we’re getting now are consistent in both our potting mixes and soil rehab amendments.   No more delay in health of the soil – it’s off an running when you get all the right players in the mix.

• Thanks for the feedback, that’s exactly what we learned.  Check out my Biochar For Dummies videos to see how we’re managing that side of the product now.  As for our soils and micro’s, we make sure we have a bit extra fertilizer (chicken manure) and mycelium in the mix to ‘feed’ the biochar.  The results are as good as when we were inoculating with chicken tea or any process for that matter.  The results we’re getting now are consistent in both our potting mixes and soil rehab amendments.   No more delay in health of the soil – it’s off an running when you get all the right players in the mix.

You have to ‘activate’ the char. It is your "shuttle".

+duffland09 Do you have any links on the web to what you are doing?  I’d like to know more.  Love your closing statement….

• +duffland09 Do you have any links on the web to what you are doing?  I’d like to know more.  Love your closing statement….

• duffland09 Год назад

Awesome. I’ll look at more. I am the biological manager at what will be the largest organic recycling plant in Australia..maybe the planet by the end of the year. We should be producing 100,000 tonnes of Composts, Bio-chars and a combo of both.. per month by December. It will produce excess electricity for the grid and will be 60% carbon positive.

Hoping our Biologically managed Composts, as an soil inoculate, may become the Ultimate, affordable input to large scale Agriculture. The current science is suggesting so. Throw the old out… for the new Paradigm. The Biological age. Keep up the good work. I’m always interested in people who are thinking about this stuff. I apologize for my ignorance of your knowledge and level of inquiry. I’ll watch more of your stuff. Cheers.

The answer to life is not 42… It is Humus. X)

• Awesome. I’ll look at more. I am the biological manager at what will be the largest organic recycling plant in Australia..maybe the planet by the end of the year. We should be producing 100,000 tonnes of Composts, Bio-chars and a combo of both.. per month by December. It will produce excess electricity for the grid and will be 60% carbon positive.

Hoping our Biologically managed Composts, as an soil inoculate, may become the Ultimate, affordable input to large scale Agriculture. The current science is suggesting so. Throw the old out… for the new Paradigm. The Biological age. Keep up the good work. I’m always interested in people who are thinking about this stuff. I apologize for my ignorance of your knowledge and level of inquiry. I’ll watch more of your stuff. Cheers.

The answer to life is not 42… It is Humus. X)

• Scott Laskowski  Год назад +1

+duffland09 Check out my videos called Biochar for Dummies.  One of them talks about ‘charging’ the char and what we’ve learned on the subject.  A lot has happened around here since we first started testing char.  The results we’re getting are fruitful and consistent, so I guess we can’t ask for much more.

• +duffland09 Check out my videos called Biochar for Dummies.  One of them talks about ‘charging’ the char and what we’ve learned on the subject.  A lot has happened around here since we first started testing char.  The results we’re getting are fruitful and consistent, so I guess we can’t ask for much more.

Just toped up my Biochar plot with blood and bone ,plus a Lt of liquid molasses, well watered in

• Scott Laskowski  Год назад +1

Love learning things like this here…..

• Love learning things like this here…..

• duffland09 Год назад

+Scott “BioMan” Laskowski .. Fungus mostly. Glucose/Sugar. Make sure it is not high in sulfur. That can be a problem when adding it directly to soil.
Feed you soil—> A lot of Sugar, A little bit of protein, and a little bit of carbohydrate.
The ingredients of "Cake and Cookies"
That’s what a healthy plant trades with the soil daily. X).

• +Scott “BioMan” Laskowski .. Fungus mostly. Glucose/Sugar. Make sure it is not high in sulfur. That can be a problem when adding it directly to soil.
Feed you soil—> A lot of Sugar, A little bit of protein, and a little bit of carbohydrate.
The ingredients of "Cake and Cookies"
That’s what a healthy plant trades with the soil daily. X).

+frank comber Haven’t tried the molasses.  Is the molasses feed for the microbes?

• +frank comber Haven’t tried the molasses.  Is the molasses feed for the microbes?

The proof is out, Biochar beats all contenders

Excellent. As a Plant biologist I like your experiment.
I wish you had given a more detailed observation and less other treatments on biochar (e.x. chicken manure) so everything would have been exactly pure.
Hope you keep doing more experiments.

• LloydieP Год назад

• Scott Laskowski  Год назад +2

We knew at the time it wasn’t scientific but a starting point – my learning style tends to be test for extremes and see what falls out the other side.  To get the ‘viable’ info we’re all looking for I’m going to solicit our academic institutions that are showing interest in what we’re doing.  FYI – my uncle was a PHD soil scientist for Dow until he retired.  He’s confirmed our soil science is solid and our approach a bit unique, so we feel good about that.

• We knew at the time it wasn’t scientific but a starting point – my learning style tends to be test for extremes and see what falls out the other side.  To get the ‘viable’ info we’re all looking for I’m going to solicit our academic institutions that are showing interest in what we’re doing.  FYI – my uncle was a PHD soil scientist for Dow until he retired.  He’s confirmed our soil science is solid and our approach a bit unique, so we feel good about that.

great video! this might interest you….how to make biochar with a brick chimney kiln: ruclip.com/video/NrTaISI9fm4/

I checked it out, thanks for the link!

• I checked it out, thanks for the link!

it would be interesting to compare this to a 2nd year w/out addition of nutrients/biochar/manure…

• diegoayala11 Год назад

+Scott “BioMan” Laskowski – did you analyzed nutrients in your compost, bio-char, and manure? curious as to concentration/form of nutrients in the bio-char/compost mix – I would imagine mostly all in the organic form — for me in the tropics mineralization is quite fast as opposed to the temperate zone w/your winters. I would definitely like to follow-up and track mostly soil C and N and P, and soil pH. Thanks for getting back w/me. I am toying with the bio-char idea in the south pacific as added value product for my clients —

• +Scott “BioMan” Laskowski – did you analyzed nutrients in your compost, bio-char, and manure? curious as to concentration/form of nutrients in the bio-char/compost mix – I would imagine mostly all in the organic form — for me in the tropics mineralization is quite fast as opposed to the temperate zone w/your winters. I would definitely like to follow-up and track mostly soil C and N and P, and soil pH. Thanks for getting back w/me. I am toying with the bio-char idea in the south pacific as added value product for my clients —

+diegoayala11 Too late for that – we ended up with a high tunnel over the garden location.  I did pull samples before the test last year so I had a good idea of what the soil amendments did to the soil.  The lab results let me know what worked best so we built off the data and made a lot of improvements.  I’ll be following up with a lot more data in the next month or two.

• +diegoayala11 Too late for that – we ended up with a high tunnel over the garden location.  I did pull samples before the test last year so I had a good idea of what the soil amendments did to the soil.  The lab results let me know what worked best so we built off the data and made a lot of improvements.  I’ll be following up with a lot more data in the next month or two.

did you pull soil samples from each plot?  just curious to find out what your benchmark was –

• tommyderthomas Год назад +0

+Scott „BioMan“ Laskowski keep up that work !

• +Scott „BioMan“ Laskowski keep up that work !

• Scott Laskowski  Год назад +0

+diegoayala11 I did and had them analyzed.  At the time I was only checking for pH and NPK.  I didn’t know enough to check for anything else.  Only one of the plots was ‘just right’ according to the lab results – it was interesting that the ‘just right’ plot was the control plot yet it did not produce the best.  I am learning a lot more about soil science – fortunate for me that my uncle is a retired soil scientist from Dow Chemical.  We had a chat the other day discussing the things we’re doing with soils and he says what we’re doing is unique and on track – more on that later.

• +diegoayala11 I did and had them analyzed.  At the time I was only checking for pH and NPK.  I didn’t know enough to check for anything else.  Only one of the plots was ‘just right’ according to the lab results – it was interesting that the ‘just right’ plot was the control plot yet it did not produce the best.  I am learning a lot more about soil science – fortunate for me that my uncle is a retired soil scientist from Dow Chemical.  We had a chat the other day discussing the things we’re doing with soils and he says what we’re doing is unique and on track – more on that later.

Pretty good test. I would guess that your future gardens will be full of activated (charged) biochar. Veggies and grains love it and my herbs loved it too. 4 ft basils and 3 ft parsley!
I have found that mixing biochar with compost and worm castings (20/70/10) and letting it sit in a pile after mixing for 2 to 3 weeks really activates (charges) the biochar and the results have been fantastic. The best thing about the biochar is that it stays in the soil working for hundreds of years. The Amazon Terra Preta has lasted for well over a thousand years and it is still the most fertile soil in the region. Thanks for the test, nicely done!

## Citrus Trees in Biochar – Update

14 September, 2017

Is it possible to growing citrus plant in biochar potting mix? Actually i want to make this potting mix with 50%biochar + 50% worm casting.

I saw your kumquat seed video — and I had a carton of kumquats from my local market, so I saved 12 seeds. I now have 10 seedlings in potting soil, (all doing very well) and two seeds not quite ready to plant. The biggest seedlings have four leaves and are a few inches tall. I use a grow light and jars for mini greenhouse effect, and they’re doing great –they really like being moist, and droop if they get even slightly dry, so I keep a close eye on them. THANK YOU so much for the videos.

• Jani M 2 года назад

thanks again.

• thanks again.

• High Desert Garden  2 года назад

If you see a slight leaf droop or if you start to see gaps between the soil and the sides of the pot.

• If you see a slight leaf droop or if you start to see gaps between the soil and the sides of the pot.

• Jani M 2 года назад

thanks — I have a grapefruit and an orange too, a friend gave them to me when they were about 8" tall, now they are about 5 feet. It’s been a challenge taking them outside in summer since our NY summer weather can be crazy- too wet, extreme heat, then cold rain and storms…  I was scared they’d die.– they suffered and struggled …when I did bring them back inside. (garage) they had all kinds of insects on them. Now I have them in the kitchen and they get attention all day ( light, air flow, misting,   classical music ) and are thriving. They seem to do better staying indoors year round. I don’t need fruit from them, they’re just nice to have as trees.but I would like some kumquat fruits for sure.

How much should I let the soil dry out? To the point of slight leaf droop?

• thanks — I have a grapefruit and an orange too, a friend gave them to me when they were about 8" tall, now they are about 5 feet. It’s been a challenge taking them outside in summer since our NY summer weather can be crazy- too wet, extreme heat, then cold rain and storms…  I was scared they’d die.– they suffered and struggled …when I did bring them back inside. (garage) they had all kinds of insects on them. Now I have them in the kitchen and they get attention all day ( light, air flow, misting,   classical music ) and are thriving. They seem to do better staying indoors year round. I don’t need fruit from them, they’re just nice to have as trees.but I would like some kumquat fruits for sure.

How much should I let the soil dry out? To the point of slight leaf droop?

• High Desert Garden  2 года назад

+Jani M I’m so glad that my video inspired you to plant some kumquats! Just be sure that you don’t keep the roots too moist or the roots will rot away. Let the soil dry out between waterings. Especially as they get older.

• +Jani M I’m so glad that my video inspired you to plant some kumquats! Just be sure that you don’t keep the roots too moist or the roots will rot away. Let the soil dry out between waterings. Especially as they get older.

nice video!

• High Desert Garden  2 года назад

+MrWilariba thanks!

• +MrWilariba thanks!

Your citrus trees look good my friend !

• High Desert Garden  2 года назад +0

Thank you Stephen!

• Thank you Stephen!

## Biochar in the Home Garden

14 September, 2017

Jesus Mister what are you thinking. You go along with a decent lecture about a great topic then proceed to show people how to screw up air quality immensely. I am sure you consider yourself to be an educator, don’t be a ignorant one. ie you say its carbon negative ok but not after you put all that crap in the air.

Great video, I just wanted to post a quick note to everyone. I think I read somewhere that you should limit how much biochar you breath in. (I’m not sure what’s considered a large amount.) I noticed how much dust you where creating when stirring & crushing the final product. You may want to wear a mask.

• GreenGardenGuy1  9 месяцев назад

Sounds like a good plan. I just have an aversion to working with wet materials but your idea will certainly keep the dust down.

• Sounds like a good plan. I just have an aversion to working with wet materials but your idea will certainly keep the dust down.

• Joe Surma 9 месяцев назад

GreenGardenGuy1 I like to moisten my biochar before I start crushing it to keep the dust down.

• GreenGardenGuy1 I like to moisten my biochar before I start crushing it to keep the dust down.

• GreenGardenGuy1  Год назад

Fine particles of anything aren’t good in the lungs. I don’t imagine biochar is any worse than a lot of dusty stuff like soil and saw dust but point well taken. Wear a mask. Thanks, Bill

• Fine particles of anything aren’t good in the lungs. I don’t imagine biochar is any worse than a lot of dusty stuff like soil and saw dust but point well taken. Wear a mask. Thanks, Bill

I’ve had some problems with internet trolls who have never read any of the research done on biochar by major universities. I have banned the person from this channel because of foul language but here is a paper from Cornell University supporting the idea that biochar has positive benefits for soil. www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/research/biochar/biocharmain.html

I think that’s great! Another use for the barbecue pit. It makes a lot of smoke, how long does it take for the smoke to die down?

• GreenGardenGuy1  Год назад +0

+Angely1914 I see we had an ill mannered troll running down the idea that biochar had any merit. He was as uneducated as he was ill mannered. I had to ban him from the channel. Here is a paper by Cornell University supporting the merits of biochar. http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/research/biochar/biocharmain.html

• +Angely1914 I see we had an ill mannered troll running down the idea that biochar had any merit. He was as uneducated as he was ill mannered. I had to ban him from the channel. Here is a paper by Cornell University supporting the merits of biochar. http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/research/biochar/biocharmain.html

• GreenGardenGuy1  Год назад

+Angely1914 The smoke will continue until the wood carbonizes. I believe it took about two hours to finish. I believe a steel barrel fitted over the top could be modified as a smoker. This would allow the waste smoke to be recycled as smoked salmon.

• +Angely1914 The smoke will continue until the wood carbonizes. I believe it took about two hours to finish. I believe a steel barrel fitted over the top could be modified as a smoker. This would allow the waste smoke to be recycled as smoked salmon.

Not a proven deal, and raises PH in soil just like ash.

• GreenGardenGuy1  Год назад

+MrMac5150 You’re welcome.

• +MrMac5150 You’re welcome.

• MrMac5150 Год назад

+GreenGardenGuy1
Thanks for info.

• +GreenGardenGuy1
Thanks for info.

• GreenGardenGuy1  Год назад

+MrMac5150 There isn’t any real debate about biochar. It has been studied by several credible institutions and the results have been positive. One of the main points in it’s favor is it sequesters carbon rather than releasing it into the atmosphere like slash and burn tropical agriculture does. Research at Stanford indicates it could create a carbon negative balance if it was used to replace slash and burn. What interests me the most is the fact that the technique was discovered in Amazonian archaeology rather than invented in the 21st century. Here is a good Ted Talk on the topic. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrDOLx57KUU

• +MrMac5150 There isn’t any real debate about biochar. It has been studied by several credible institutions and the results have been positive. One of the main points in it’s favor is it sequesters carbon rather than releasing it into the atmosphere like slash and burn tropical agriculture does. Research at Stanford indicates it could create a carbon negative balance if it was used to replace slash and burn. What interests me the most is the fact that the technique was discovered in Amazonian archaeology rather than invented in the 21st century. Here is a good Ted Talk on the topic. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrDOLx57KUU

• MrMac5150 Год назад

+GreenGardenGuy1
Okay, I am still open on that debate.
Have a good day.

• +GreenGardenGuy1
Okay, I am still open on that debate.
Have a good day.

Thank for interesting video. I wonder about effectiveness of application by adding 1 spoonful of biochar to potting soil mix for 6 litre pot.

• GreenGardenGuy1  3 года назад +0

Thanks for the feed back.  Look into BBC or Nova documentaries about the Terra Preta culture of the Amazon.  There are several on you tube.  This is where the idea of biochar originates.  It was used by an ancient culture that knew more about farming in tropical soils than we do today.  The soils these people left behind in the Amazon are still growing to this day because the microbes living in the charcoal pores are what create the fertility.  I was also struck by my studies of the carbon cycle in soils.  I was born in the American Midwest where sequestered carbon from prairie plants created some of the most fertile soils on earth.  The whole key was carbon locked in a stable environment.  Happy gardening and keep the carbon in your soil!

• Thanks for the feed back.  Look into BBC or Nova documentaries about the Terra Preta culture of the Amazon.  There are several on you tube.  This is where the idea of biochar originates.  It was used by an ancient culture that knew more about farming in tropical soils than we do today.  The soils these people left behind in the Amazon are still growing to this day because the microbes living in the charcoal pores are what create the fertility.  I was also struck by my studies of the carbon cycle in soils.  I was born in the American Midwest where sequestered carbon from prairie plants created some of the most fertile soils on earth.  The whole key was carbon locked in a stable environment.  Happy gardening and keep the carbon in your soil!

• Rino88 3 года назад +0

+GreenGardenGuy1 Thank you for your response! 🙂 About two years ago I was reading the subjects they teach for agriculture in Wagingen University in Holland. The Carbon Cycle of Soil seemed most interesting. And two days ago I found your video on youtube making it easy to understand. Many Thanks.

• +GreenGardenGuy1 Thank you for your response! 🙂 About two years ago I was reading the subjects they teach for agriculture in Wagingen University in Holland. The Carbon Cycle of Soil seemed most interesting. And two days ago I found your video on youtube making it easy to understand. Many Thanks.

• GreenGardenGuy1  3 года назад +0

Since biochar hold moisture, nutrients and microbes it should work fine in potting soils.  I would probably inoculate the soil with a good mycorhizial culture though for full advantage of what biochar can do.  The key with this material is in the life the pores provide a home for.

• Since biochar hold moisture, nutrients and microbes it should work fine in potting soils.  I would probably inoculate the soil with a good mycorhizial culture though for full advantage of what biochar can do.  The key with this material is in the life the pores provide a home for.

Using a kettle grill makes a dirty smokey burn that I would think would be much more offensive to neighbors than a proper clean burn that is nearly smokeless and burns off the gasses produced in the char process.  My research shows that wood chips don’t work because they pack together too tightly to char through the middle of the mass of chips.  If you could make some sort of auger to stir the chips as they charred perhaps that would solve that problem.  Just my thoughts for what they’re worth.

• kwo dell 3 года назад

We work with what we have and do what we can get away with.  So far I’m getting away with my pyrolitic fun.

• We work with what we have and do what we can get away with.  So far I’m getting away with my pyrolitic fun.

• GreenGardenGuy1  3 года назад

Sure, I understand and that makes perfect sense.  You would either use a convertor where the exhaust gas was ignited and the hydrocarbons burned off or my favorite idea is to pass the smoke through a chamber where it cools and condenses leaving behind solids rather than issuing smoke.  The cooling smoke could be recycled to smoke fish or meat.   The main reason I haven’t gone to this extent is because in my location a smoky BBQ grill is pretty much ignored but a pyrolitic converter for manufacturing charcoal would get shut down by the City for sure.  Fremont CA has a rather Neolithic and repressive city council.  They stamp out all signs of life when they find them.  The grill was only an experiment to see if it could be done that way.  It worked but I haven’t repeated it since we have been in "spare the air" days most of the winter because of the drought.

• Sure, I understand and that makes perfect sense.  You would either use a convertor where the exhaust gas was ignited and the hydrocarbons burned off or my favorite idea is to pass the smoke through a chamber where it cools and condenses leaving behind solids rather than issuing smoke.  The cooling smoke could be recycled to smoke fish or meat.   The main reason I haven’t gone to this extent is because in my location a smoky BBQ grill is pretty much ignored but a pyrolitic converter for manufacturing charcoal would get shut down by the City for sure.  Fremont CA has a rather Neolithic and repressive city council.  They stamp out all signs of life when they find them.  The grill was only an experiment to see if it could be done that way.  It worked but I haven’t repeated it since we have been in "spare the air" days most of the winter because of the drought.

• kwo dell 3 года назад

When I said a clean burn what I meant was a process where the gasses produced from the material being charred is being burned off and thus almost no smoke and no polluting gases being released to the atmosphere.

Check out on Youtube –  Biochar Workshop Part 1, How to make biochar  –  Living Web Farms.

• When I said a clean burn what I meant was a process where the gasses produced from the material being charred is being burned off and thus almost no smoke and no polluting gases being released to the atmosphere.

Check out on Youtube –  Biochar Workshop Part 1, How to make biochar  –  Living Web Farms.

• GreenGardenGuy1  3 года назад

The problem with a clean burn is that it has to have a high heat and a high O2 flow to create a smokeless condition.  This is great in a wood stove but high temp. and high air flow don’t make good charcoal.  A clean burn will consume the carbon and leave behind ash instead of charcoal.  A good grey ash burn is undesirable when making charcoal.  Since making charcoal is a rather smoky process I don’t really recommend people do it in urban settings.  On the other hand my biochar doesn’t make much more of a mess than the guy down the street who smokes fish.  A possible way to deal with the smoke is to place a smoker over the grill and recycle the smoke on some salmon.  By the time it passes through the smoker the exhaust will have cooled and condensed some of the hydrocarbons as creosote.  I don’t use chips, I use chunk wood.   Thanks if you come up with a simple backyard way to make biochar with no smoke I would love for you to share it.

• The problem with a clean burn is that it has to have a high heat and a high O2 flow to create a smokeless condition.  This is great in a wood stove but high temp. and high air flow don’t make good charcoal.  A clean burn will consume the carbon and leave behind ash instead of charcoal.  A good grey ash burn is undesirable when making charcoal.  Since making charcoal is a rather smoky process I don’t really recommend people do it in urban settings.  On the other hand my biochar doesn’t make much more of a mess than the guy down the street who smokes fish.  A possible way to deal with the smoke is to place a smoker over the grill and recycle the smoke on some salmon.  By the time it passes through the smoker the exhaust will have cooled and condensed some of the hydrocarbons as creosote.  I don’t use chips, I use chunk wood.   Thanks if you come up with a simple backyard way to make biochar with no smoke I would love for you to share it.

Hello,

This all sounds extremely interesting and you tell me what your thoughts on this. Using a fireplace produces a certain amount of bio char  the fact that  burning it at a much higher level of oxygen nevertheless  this process. In fact producers bio char, but based on what you’re saying we create bio char doing the winter when we use off our places if I understand you correctly.

• GreenGardenGuy1  3 года назад +0

The burning of wood and the manufacture of high grade charcoal at two very different process.  I the burning of wood oxygen is freely available and almost all of the carbon is consumed leaving only ash.  When making charcoal most of the oxygen is excluded, most of the carbon is converted to coal and the ash is minimal.  High grade charcoal is the key to the biochar process.  You need to burn wood with almost no air to the fire.  A pit in the earth filled with burning wood that has been covered in soil will do as well as my grill.

• The burning of wood and the manufacture of high grade charcoal at two very different process.  I the burning of wood oxygen is freely available and almost all of the carbon is consumed leaving only ash.  When making charcoal most of the oxygen is excluded, most of the carbon is converted to coal and the ash is minimal.  High grade charcoal is the key to the biochar process.  You need to burn wood with almost no air to the fire.  A pit in the earth filled with burning wood that has been covered in soil will do as well as my grill.

nice video and great information. i am going to try this in my home garden next spring.

Thanks for the comment. I keep an eye on the smoke. If it starts to cool I adjust the vents a bit to keep the heat up. 90% of the process is done with the vents closed. If some of the larger wood doesn’t convert I put it back into the next batch. Even sizing of the wood is important so the conversion is even.

great video, do you leave any of the vents cracked or have them totally shut down for the entire burn period?

Thank you for the feed back and you are welcome. The biochar holds nutrients, stores moisture and makes a home for beneficial microbes. Check out some of the videos on Terra Preta on you tube. The BBC and Nova have some good ones.

This is my first video to watch about biochar. I didn’t know what it was exactly. Several years ago I made some biochar, didn’t know it was called that. I used it in some potting soil and some even got into my vermicomposting bin. Looking forward to making some more and seeing what good uses I can put it to. Thanks for your knowledge.

Davis is always good for solid information no matter where you live. The fact that they elected a cowboy actor to governor proves CA has some of the brightest and the dumbest folks in the whole USA. Guess it’s no different in the rest of the country though because they elected him president! No need to worry TX soil will never be anything like VA soil no matter what you do.
Slash and burn and Biochar have no connection, they are polar opposites. Check out BBC Terra Preta video on youtube.

thanks for the show; had to be something in slash and burn but we just didn’t quite get. Moving from Virginia to Texas shortly and will need to make my soil in TX not like VA where you can pick it up. Will check with my state U when I get there. Gotta a special place in my heart for Davis due to their hospitality in 1968 UCSB Raygun demonstrations!

Your welcome, glad I could help. Yes, I agree, the Weber char has nice rectangular chunks that look like they have a lot of open pores. If I wasn’t always on a run I might slow down long enough to experiment with the pore volume for some numbers. The open pores are the key to char. Ash is good potash and micro nutrient fertilizer. It is also as basic as lye. If you have soils with 6.5 ph and lower, ash is good. 7 & up, ash is bad. My ground is 7 in CA. I tend to stay away from ash.

With some exceptions, when in doubt, I favor "structure" (e.g., wood chips over saw dust). Perhaps both substances are "char" substances are chemically similar, but I think I prefer the "structure" your method produces. I assume that wood ash can help a garden, but not in the same way as char? I see some opinions cautioning against being too generous with the ash and suggest letting it age. Any "ash insights"? BTW, thank you for being so generous with your time/videos/commentary.

Good question. If my production method was more sophisticated I might say that my charcoal is a higher grade but that may not be true. Mine is a recycling act. I use waste wood from trees I prune to make the charcoal and I can recycle the smoke and heat to smoke fish. The charcoal from the market is crushed and then cemented back together with a binder. Mine is reduced to 1/4" and 1/2" particles and spread to the soil. Probably not a lot of difference but it is less processed.

Pardon my ignorance, Bill, but what is the difference between what you are making and a non-chemically treated charcoal one might buy at the local department store that is used for BBQs?

Yes, my sweet corn seed has sprouted nicely in the area where the char was spread. Most of the hydrocarbons condense on the cooler sides and lid of the grill in the form of creosote. The next time I load the grill they go up like gasoline after getting a fire burning. I am well aware that my method isn’t a perfect reaction but I also live in an area where they would shut me down if they thought I was making charcoal. The grill is camo for the operation.

Thank you Rick. Glad I could help.

In California I use U.C. Davis as a resource and in Hawaii I use U.H. Manoa. They are great places to start looking for answers. Check with your local state universities and go from there.

Thank you very much for the information. I really enjoy your videos and I think you do a great job.

It appears that your production method will restrict the removal and clean combustion of volatiles. If the evolving gases are contained (& not combusted) would they not re-condense on the charring surfaces. A TLUD system may provide much ‘cleaner’ char & cleaner environment. Have you tried a germination test on the char you are making?

It pays to educate one’s self on these issues. Usually in each state there is at least one Ag coll. and/or an extension service that publishes info on these issues. While much of this is meant for commercial growers, it is usually presented in terms that the average grower can understand, and may general use pesticides contain the same active ingredients as those formulations used by commercial growers. I’d send you links to NYS stuff, but as Bill notes this is an regional specific issue.

Sometimes you have to go back to the agricultural lable on a product to find it’s total product use information. What you use will depend on what your issues are in the area that you live. In CA my issues with pears are Coddling moth and Fireblight. For the moth I use Spinosad with horticultural oil right after the flower petals drop and the bees are gone. For Fireblight I usually just prune but on occasion I use Serenade (Bacillus subtilis) directly into the flowers.

I would like to know your opinion on what fungicide and insecticide combination to use on European and Asian pears and also apricots? This year I purchased these fruit varieties only to find out that the multipurpose fruit tree spray I usually use does not list these trees. I would really appreciate any advice you have to give.
Thanks.

Yup, I can’t beat most of the videos on this subject that already exist. I made this one just to get things down to the scale of a BBQ grill and a suburban garden. I am doing things on a larger scale in Hawaii with my coffee and pineapples. We try to keep the ash out of the soil in California because it is already pH 7 and I try to acid materials to drive it down rather than base to push it up. In Hawaii the soil is 6 to 5.5 so I could toss ass around till the cows come home here.

What goes in comes back out again. The ability of biochar to hold on to nutrients in the micro pores and then release it again is one of the main feature. Without biochar nutrients become mobile with rain water and head down into the soil. With the char they remain in the root zone. There is no net loss of fertilizer, if anything you get more effect from the same amount of nutrient because they aren’t lost. I am a very calm kind of grower, I seldom worry over stuff.

Are you soaking your charcoal in fertilizer before incorporating it into the soil so it doesnt soak up the nutrition thats in the soil? Ive heard and tried both ways but havent come to any conclusions yet.

No you explained it perfectly. I just wanted to point out the difference between ash and biochar. My fruit trees love it and i only ever use it on prized plants. A few years ago i saw this short piece on BioChar in Australia. If you look up ‘Biochar – agrichar – Terra Preta’ on youtube you will find some of the best explanations out there.

Plain ash will raise the soil pH. If it is below 6.5 then ash is a good thing. Unless you are growing acid loving crops. Ash also has potash and many trace minerals in it. Slugs and snails hate it too.

Sorry if some how I gave you the impression this had anything to do with ash. When making charcoal for biochar the production of ash is indesireable. What we want is a pure high grade carbon as an ammendment. This video is a very short spot on the subject. The BBC has a nice documentary called In Search of Eldorado. Check it out.

Wood ash isn’t too bad for the soil if you disperse it thinly over a large area. Lye, a strong alkaline solution which was used for tanning and cleaning, was once made by steeping wood ash in water. So a high concentration of wood ash will only increase the pH or basic nature of your soil the moment water hits it. This is good if you have acidic soil, but terrible if you have blue berries.

Nice one, Bill. I was juststaring at a bucket of Bbq ashes in the side yard and wondering how to use it in my garden. I realise it is not the same as bio-char because it doesn’t have the same properties, but I wonder if you could shed any light on using just plain ash. I’m going to cook up some bio-char in the near future.

## Bio- Char Soil Amendments

14 September, 2017

## Biochar | How To Apply In The Garden, Simple Activation & What Happens If…

14 September, 2017

wow if only commercial chickens had that kind of diet! I bet they’d taste a lot better. They definitely look healthy and happy

your chickens are SO cute! and one of them is naughty…..

## Bio-char

14 September, 2017

The blue social bookmark and publication sharing system.

BibSonomy is offered by the KDE group of the University of Kassel, the DMIR group of the University of Würzburg, and the L3S Research Center, Germany.

## Ag Energy Solutions finds unexpected market for biochar

14 September, 2017

Carbon Logic, the first product line to be produced by Ag Energy Solutions Inc., of Spokane Valley, is going to pot—yes, the green leafy stuff.

Ag Energy originally was formed in 2010 to make equipment to convert agricultural waste into energy. For now, however, the company has pivoted its mission to market the byproduct the equipment produces, says David Drinkard, Ag Energy CEO. And one of its first customers is the marijuana industry.

“We originally started building a gasification system that can take agriculture waste and covert it to make energy,” Drinkard says.

The heart of the system is a machine called an integrated biomass platform, which “cooks” feedstock, such as wheat straw, and converts it into two products; a synthetic flammable gas and a carbon-rich solid called biochar, he says.

“We were planning on selling the equipment.” Drinkard says of Ag Energy’s original mission. “The idea was for farmers to use agricultural waste to generate synthetic gas to fuel water pumps and sprinkler systems.”

During the development process, however, Ag Energy determined the biochar that the integrated biomass platform produces has more potential value than the energy the IBP produces, he says.

The biochar looks something like a mixture of charred wood shavings and black coffee grounds.

“We realized we needed to create a market for this waste product,” Drinkard says.

While experimenting with the biochar formulations and researching potential markets, one such market found Ag Energy, says Sally McLaughlin, a spokeswoman for the company.

“We did testing on a variety of things. Cannabis came to us,” McLaughlin says.

A representative of medical marijuana producer Trichome Tech 509 LLC, of Kennewick, asked for some variations of the biochar to test whether it would improve cannabis plant growth.

“He came back to us and said one particular feed stock did tremendous things,” Drinkard says.

Further testing resulted in crop-yield improvements of up to 64 percent incorporating Carbon Logic formulations as a soil amendment.

Carbon Logic’s biochar is highly porous. “One gram, which is about the size of the end of your thumb, has as much surface area as a basketball court,” Drinkard says.

As a soil amendment, it acts like a sponge, retaining water and making it available to plants over an extended period of time. More importantly, the biochar enhances microbial activity, he says.

McLaughlin adds, “It’s like a hotel for microbes, which are the ‘bugs’ that feed nutrients to the plants.”

During the last two years, Carbon Logic developed two formulations specifically for the cannabis industry; Rapid Starter, which promotes accelerated root development for seeds and cut clones; and High Growth, which enhances growth in plants with established roots.

In its marketing materials targeting the cannabis industry, Ag Energy boasts that Carbon Logic can lead to 50 percent higher yields, with five times the return on the cost of the products.

“We’re just launching the new Carbon Logic product,” Drinkard says. “The website, carbonlogicus.com just went live (in late August).”

The company currently has 3.7 million in outstanding stock, and Drinkard says, “We plan to be profitable within a year.” So far, Ag Energy has been funded primarily by friends, family, and angel investors, he says. Ag Energy has 12 employees and occupies 3,000 square feet of office and warehouse space at 7921 E. Broadway, having moved there in June from smaller quarters in the Old City Hall, at 221 N. Wall, in downtown Spokane. McLaughlin says the potential of the technology has expanded since it was conceived seven years ago. Proprietary formulations now under research and development under the Carbon Logic brand are showing potential for a slew of applications. “Since 2010, we’ve been looking at this technology and the capacity to manage a waste problem, to improve the productivity of food crops, to clean and filter water,” she says. “Just in the last couple of years, we’ve had to say, ‘Let’s focus in on this (Carbon Logic) product as a quick path to revenue.’” The broader picture for Ag Energy, however, is still about equipment sales, Drinkard says. “We’re continuing to pursue the IBP technology,” Drinkard says. Three IBP units are operating on a wheat farm near Sprague, about 35 miles southwest of Spokane. Each unit can produce 700 pounds of biochar in a day. “It’s 100 percent automated,” Drinkard says. “You push a button, it does a self-check and feeds the unit.” The equipment shuts down when it exhausts the feedstock, he adds. Ag Energy engineered and designed the IBP units and hired local manufacturers to make them, he says. Each unit is built within a 20-foot shipping container. “The units are modular, movable, and scalable,” he says. Drinkard says the company’s three-year projections show it will need 19 units to meet anticipated demand just for Carbon Logic products. “We definitely need to do more,” he says. Drinkard says IBPs have potential worldwide applications. “Multiple people are requesting to license our technology in the Middle East, Europe, and South Africa. They’ve got a huge waste problem and acidification of soil from overfertilizing.” He says Carbon Logic “helps neutralize acidity and brings organics back into the soil.” Characteristics of the biochar can be adjusted by altering the feedstock flow rate and temperature within the IBP, and Drinkard says Core Logic formulations are showing the potential to enhance yields of other crops. “Different plants react drastically different to (biochar derived from) different feedstocks,” Drinkard says. “We realized with our feedstock flexibility, we could create unique, crop-specific formulations.” In addition to wheat straw, tested feedstocks include wood chips, olive pits, walnut shells, rice hulls, and corn. “We’ve even tried tumbleweeds and Russian thistle,” he says, adding that WSU research is showing that biochar formulations made from Russian thistle are showing promise for improving tomato crop yields. Drinkard says another Carbon Logic formulation that enhances seed yields for turf grass will likely hit the market soon. The grass-seed market circles back to Ag Energy’s original mission to dispose of agricultural waste by converting it into products of value. Grass seed farmers traditionally disposed of their crop residue through open-field burning. Current regulations, however, prohibit such burning. When grass growers had to stop burning crop residue, the grass straw went to waste and the crop yields declined, Drinkard says. CHS Inc., a Minnesota-based agricultural cooperative, is looking at the potential to use grass straw as feedstock for the IBPs. In theory, synthetic gas produced from the grass-straw feedstock would fuel its seed processing plants, and the Carbon Logic product would be put back into the fields to improve crop yield, Drinkard says. “That’s what I consider a closed-loop application,” he says. McLaughlin says biochar also is showing some promise as a water-filtration medium. For that purpose, it has characteristics similar to activated charcoal commonly used in water filters. “It’s the same thing,” Drinkard asserts, comparing activated charcoal to biochar. “One is derived from coal, and one is derived from a wood base. So (biochar) would be a renewable alternative carbon structure.” Reporter Mike McLean covers real estate and construction at the Journal of Business. A multipurpose fisherman and vintage record album aficionado, Mike has worked for the Journal since 2006. ©2017 Journal of Business. All Rights Reserved. ## Activating / Charging Biochar For The Garden | The Ultimate Nutrient… 15 September, 2017 Biochar can help you take your garden to the next level of production and disease resistance. In this video Dan from http://www.plantabundance.com shares with … Great channel. You are open minded and warm hearted. Thanks for the Content~ Dan, how does urine do on charcoal? Thanks as always! 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THESIS BIOCHAR EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES A.Freddo, PhD Thesis, 2013 Biochar: for better or for worse? – UEA Digital Repositoryhttps://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/48115/1/A.Freddo,_PhD_Thesis,_2013.pdfThis thesis presents biochar state of the art and investigations into the environmental benefits of my PhD have been essential in the completion of this thesis.Phd Thesis On Biochar | Can someone write my paperaftlv.com/phd-thesis-on-biocharPhd Thesis On Biochar,Generation X Essay Thesis.Buy essays on from pencils to pixels subjectThesis On Biochar – Lavoro&Allattowww.tizianacatanzani.it/component/k2/itemlist/user/33573.htmlPhd Thesis On Biochar – writingservicewriteessay.download An investigation of physical and chemical properties of biochar Advisor: Andrew Zimmerman, Geological Phd Thesis On Biochar – topenglishpaperessay.lifetopenglishpaperessay.life/phd-thesis-on-biocharhow to write an application letter 7 year old admission papers for sale online discussion section psychology dissertationBiochar and Mitigation of Climate Change – The College of https://www.cns.umass.edu/biochar09/presentations/Lehmann.pdfBiochar and Mitigation of Climate Change. Biochar System 2005, PhD thesis (pooled data from corn and rye BC Biochar b a a Fuel Efficiency Application of fast pyrolysis biochar to a loamy soil orbit.dtu.dk/services/downloadRegister/5577195/ris-phd-78.pdfApplication of Fast Pyrolysis Biochar to a Loamy soil – Effects on carbon and nitrogen dynamics and potential for carbon sequestration This PhD thesis is Production of biochars for use in soil quality enhancement https://www.usaresearchwriters.com/holocaust/essay/production-ofProduction of biochars for use in soil quality enhancement. visit a research lab that studying the producing of biochar from organic – Dissertation – E lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3291&context=etdBiochar characterization and engineering This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate College at Iowa 2.5 Biochar Properties Newcastle University eTheses: The biochemical impact of https://theses.ncl.ac.uk/dspace/handle/10443/2676The biochemical impact of biochar in soil environments: Biochar addition to soil enhanced its basal respiration rate in the low pH soil but PhD Thesis: URI:PhD Position, Biochar for carbon sequestration in soils scholarship-positions.com/phd-position-biochar-for-carbonPhD Position, Biochar for carbon sequestration in soils, AustriaFebruary 10, 2010 Topic: Biochar for carbon sequestration in soils Contents: 1. Stability oPhD Dissertation: Biochar stability as influenced by https://www.nmbu.no/en/faculty/mina/news/node/32656Tursday September 14, 2017, Alice Budai, defends her thesisBiochar stability as influenced by production conditions”.THE USE OF BIOCHAR FOR IMPROVE SOIL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH www.agrivita.ub.ac.id/index.php/agrivita/article/view/323/377THE USE OF BIOCHAR FOR IMPROVE SOIL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF PADDY IN PEATLAND. biochar, improve of soil properties, peat, PhD Thesis. University of London Soil Nutrient Availability Properties of Biochardigitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2176&SOIL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY PROPERTIES OF BIOCHAR A Thesis presented to the Faculty of Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo In Partial FulfilmentBioasphalt and Biochar from Pyrolysis of Urban Yard Wastehttps://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/case1314813210/inlineBioasphalt and Biochar . from Pyrolysis of Urban Yard Waste . by . I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Dr. Jennings, for his support, guidance, and patience.100 Doctoral Theses at ISShttps://www.iss.nl//100PhDthesesbrochure_web.pdfthesis of two or three PhD candidates”,3 but so far no one among our ISS PhDs has opted for this interesting road to the doctorate. Maybe, in a cost-conscious world,Challenges and Opportunities of Biomass Pyrolysis to www.ag.auburn.edu/biofuel/docs/Manuel Garcia.pdfChallenges and Opportunities of Biomass Pyrolysis to Produce PhD Thesis University of Twente 2011 . EFFECT OF VAPORS RESIDENCE TIME INSIDE THE PYROLYSIS ## Charcoal & Biochar made easy! 16 September, 2017 (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i[‘GoogleAnalyticsObject’]=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,’script’,’https://www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js’,’ga’); ga(‘create’, ‘UA-29128223-7’, ‘auto’); ga(‘send’, ‘pageview’); Home made (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); ## ACRES Student Farm to host Open Gate Day 16 September, 2017 A few clouds. Mostly clear. Low 36F. Winds SSE at 5 to 10 mph. Intern Lauren Miller picks eggplant Thursday morning at the ACRES Student Farm. SHANNON BRODERICK/Boomerang photographer ACRES farmers sell produce Friday afternoon at the Downtown Laramie Farmer’s Market. SHANNON BRODERICK/Boomerang photographer Intern Lauren Miller picks eggplant Thursday morning at the ACRES Student Farm. SHANNON BRODERICK/Boomerang photographer ACRES farmers sell produce Friday afternoon at the Downtown Laramie Farmer’s Market. SHANNON BRODERICK/Boomerang photographer University of Wyoming students can sometimes be cut off from the wider Laramie community, but one student-run group is bringing people together in the ongoing effort to support local agriculture. Agricultural Community Resources for Everyday Sustainability — commonly known as ACRES — runs a student farm that works with, supports and is supported by various groups throughout the community. These groups include Feeding Laramie Valley, the Downtown Laramie Farmer’s Market and community-supported agriculture sharers, said Alanna Elder, president of the ACRES Student Farm Recognized Student Organization. “ACRES has been a part of this really great movement in Laramie around gardening and proving that we can grow things locally here, and then also supporting a pretty thriving local food movement.” Elder said. “It’s cool that this culture around local food has been thriving.” UW students and members of the Laramie community are welcome to experience ACRES for themselves as the farm hosts Open Gate Day from noon-4p.m. today. The event features presentations by local organizations and companies — such as Bright Agrotech, the High Plains Seed Library and High Plains Biochar — as well as demonstrations by experts on a wide range of topics, including worms, insects and sustainable practices. The event also includes bihourly farm tours and a potluck with snacks made from food grown by the students. Mostly volunteer students manage and run the 1.8 acres, selling the produce grown there to support paid internships that keep the farm running throughout the summer. Part RSO, part small business, the ACRES farm is geared toward teaching students and members of the community about sustainable agriculture. “A lot of them are learning from scratch or they have prior experience that they would like to share with other students as a club member,” said Urszula Norton, the RSO’s faculty adviser. “There is a whole plethora of classes that have tours on the farm and they have learning, hands-on experiences.” Norton said she brings her Agriculture 1000 class — that’s 54 students this semester — out to the farm to teach them about agroecology. “We’re teaching them different aspects of local food production,” Norton said. “And then there’s a hands-on activity when they learn, for example, how to harvest produce.” ACRES also welcomes classes from elementary, junior high and high schools, as well as lab schools. In addition to education and experiential learning, ACRES is fertile ground for research conducted by UW’s College of Agriculture and the state’s Department of Agriculture. Much of this research focuses on specialty crops and figuring out which varieties or growing methods are best for Laramie’s unique high-altitude environment. In the past, ACRES hosted experiments with edible mushrooms and strawberries. Professor Chris Hilgert of the Department of Plant Sciences, who ran the strawberry experiment, is beginning to grow different varieties of apple trees. “(Hilgert) has a couple different varieties of apple trees, and he’s going to find out which grows better in Laramie, whether any of them can grow and how to do that, how to make that work,” Elder said. “And then that information will be available for people who might want to grow apple trees.” Norton received a few specialty crop grants from the state’s Department of Agriculture, Elder said, including one that will help her grow hops — the flowers that usually give beer its distinctive flavor. “If someone is farming, and they want to try something new, but they don’t want to lose all this money, then that kind of grant can be a pretty good option,” Elder said. ACRES also allows a handful of students to try their hand at gardening through its Adopt-A-Plot program, Norton said. “There are little plots set aside as community gardens for individual students who sign up and volunteer and express interest of growing their own vegetables on their own,” she said. “There’s about ten plots over there where students pretty much learn from scratch how to grow.” Many students — such as outgoing farm manager Hannah Dunn — first explored the world of gardening and agriculture through ACRES. “I’m not from an ag background, and when I came to UW, I found ACRES, and it helped me figure out that I wanted to study agroecology,” Dunn said. “And I learned so much during my time there as an officer and also as an intern.” Open Gate Day runs noon-4 p.m. today at ACRES Student Farm, which is located just west of the UW Agriculture Experiment Station on the corner of 30th and Harney Streets. The event is free to the public. Email uwstudentfarm@gmail.com for more information. What: ACRES Open Gate Day When: Noon-4 p.m. today Where: ACRES Student Farm, corner of 30th and Harney streets How much: Free More info: uwstudentfarm@uwyo.edu Subscribe to the print or e-edition of the Boomerang! Subscribe to the website to get articles online! ## Characteristics of biochar 16 September, 2017 About this book ## How to make Bio Char 16 September, 2017 (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i[‘GoogleAnalyticsObject’]=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,’script’,’https://www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js’,’ga’); ga(‘create’, ‘UA-29128223-7’, ‘auto’); ga(‘send’, ‘pageview’); Home made (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); ## Bio-Char, Bio-Oil & Syngas from Wood Pyrolysis 17 September, 2017 I’m guessing creosote is too thick, even for an old diesel benz engine… So, how the hell would i get diesel from that apparatus? Distil the creosote? • Bob Dodds 4 дня назад check the temp accurately. see "cracking, refinery". they got close to number two heating oil, and close to gasoline, more or less accidentally without engineering the temp bracket to yield something more specific. same as for cracking petroleum, you could refine kerosene, white gasoline Coleman fuel, gasoline, different viscosities of oil for lubrication and fuel, and more, including valuable chemicals. • check the temp accurately. see "cracking, refinery". they got close to number two heating oil, and close to gasoline, more or less accidentally without engineering the temp bracket to yield something more specific. same as for cracking petroleum, you could refine kerosene, white gasoline Coleman fuel, gasoline, different viscosities of oil for lubrication and fuel, and more, including valuable chemicals. Are the plans available to me? an empty fuel tank is more dangerous than a full tank. Leave it to collage students to do this kind of experiment next to a 500 gallon Propane tank. • James Trowbridge 3 месяца назад The tank was empty. • The tank was empty. hello… can u help me with this.. i need to know the dimension of that reactor, the thickness of the plate use and type of material of the plate… i really need your help.. • Ariff Iyman 3 месяца назад if* • if* • Ariff Iyman 3 месяца назад i’ve project about this reactor…is u don’t mind can u please email me your full report bout this research • i’ve project about this reactor…is u don’t mind can u please email me your full report bout this research • lefu 3 месяца назад Ariff Iyman sounds fishy • Ariff Iyman sounds fishy believe it or not waste oil creosote turns into that color also after it burns up because of the iron in it from the motor the reason you’re creosote turns pink because of the minerals in the wood absorbs from the ground the oxide the iron oxide once the creosote Burns that pink ash comes to life can you reply my email? cuz I need your help.. Quite cool =D biofuil why don’t you just put natural gas in in computing it with water then you get methonal much less mess • Tony Boroni Год назад +0 +thor holton use a copper tank with copper chavings or dust Inside the tank run steam and Nat gas in it, heat it up to around 100c or so you shoud get methonal, have it go through a coil • +thor holton use a copper tank with copper chavings or dust Inside the tank run steam and Nat gas in it, heat it up to around 100c or so you shoud get methonal, have it go through a coil • bigbrushthor Год назад thats why I’m watching this. can you react the syngas to make methanol? easier to store liquid than gas. what do you know if you don’t mind me asking. from what i hear is that you would react the gas in a pressure vessel and have a heat source and copper catalyst. to me it would make sense to use a copper coil with a thermal fluid inside. If that is possible does the syngas to methanol reaction provide any heat once it gets started? any info that you have would be greatly appreciated • thats why I’m watching this. can you react the syngas to make methanol? easier to store liquid than gas. what do you know if you don’t mind me asking. from what i hear is that you would react the gas in a pressure vessel and have a heat source and copper catalyst. to me it would make sense to use a copper coil with a thermal fluid inside. If that is possible does the syngas to methanol reaction provide any heat once it gets started? any info that you have would be greatly appreciated asu means dog in my native language • Huda Isal 4 месяца назад wkwkwk raimu asu wkwk • wkwkwk raimu asu wkwk • natt tomes 7 месяцев назад thank you • thank you • Maulana X 7 месяцев назад javanese, part of indonesian languange. Try google translate Javanese to English and type "asu", the result is dog • javanese, part of indonesian languange. Try google translate Javanese to English and type "asu", the result is dog • natt tomes 7 месяцев назад what language is that ? • what language is that ? I have a question. During this process, whether some poisonous gases produce. • bigbrushthor Год назад yes carbon monoxide is very lethal • yes carbon monoxide is very lethal • Sir Esquire Год назад +YANG YU Yeah its the gas they filled the bag with and set on fire. Usually methane. You can also distill wood shavings in a compost pile for a similar effect ;D • +YANG YU Yeah its the gas they filled the bag with and set on fire. Usually methane. You can also distill wood shavings in a compost pile for a similar effect ;D Which purposes use this tar • Hunter Lawrence Год назад It can be refined as any other crude oil • It can be refined as any other crude oil This is great, I like your apparatus! I would also like it if, you being a University would actually analyze the components, liquids/gases, since you have the facilities and we do not. Different fuel stocks, I would imagine, lead to different components but what are they? Maybe a future project, further refinement, huh? There’s big tank of fuel behind them, they should be careful next. The SynGas is not "just a couple of gases", as suggested early on in the video.The initial product, Pyroligneous Acid is a mixture of acetone, acetic acid, ethanol, methanol, wood creosote, guaiacol , wood tar, turpentine, isoprene and other terpenes, and other flammable organic compounds, and water vapor. What condenses out depends on the temperature of the condenser. Gases which are unlikely to condense in ordinary conditions include hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane and various butanes. Henry Ford used pyrolysis of wood to make methanol and lacquer for his cars. In the UK, acetone needed for making Cordite was made in this way during WW1 until Weizmann’s A-B-E process of fermentation supplanted it. Stockholm Pitch was a valuable tar product from the distillation of selected pines and firs. Interesting video and info,. hi can someone please explain this to me Turkey • nenette hechanova 2 года назад +mucahit nurullah wood pyrolysis ..” is tahta piroliz ” • +mucahit nurullah wood pyrolysis ..” is tahta piroliz ” Why is it called bio-oil py-oil bio-crude and not wood alcohol or methanol. Is this like changing graphite (fishing rods) into carbon fiber. If the wood burned was pine, The pinkstuff could be Rosin or Abietic acid. Did anyone notice the words " NO SMOKING " painted on the fuel tank behind these well educated people demonstrating a system that uses an open flame? No one was smoking so I guess they thought it was alright? A little common sense from a 10 yr old could make some so called experts look foolish. With knowledge comes responsibility. Awareness is everything. • Patrick N 3 месяца назад +5 the tank was empty!! and had no inlet pipes!! i’m assuming it was no longer used for storage and a donation for the project!! however caution should always be taken in any case • the tank was empty!! and had no inlet pipes!! i’m assuming it was no longer used for storage and a donation for the project!! however caution should always be taken in any case Ha safety come first, let’s do the experiment next to the big vessel that says no naked flames lol. Apart from that good demonstration • Guntur Jr Год назад u • u • Maulana X Год назад +cornishman1987 you chicken • +cornishman1987 you chicken I think the pink stuff is Naphtahalene, a bit stained with heavier oil cause Naphthalene is snow white in pure crystalline form. i think hot creisode is like diesel • Bob Dodds 4 дня назад apple creosote • apple creosote • terminator10111 3 года назад yea thats what i meant what would apple wood make • yea thats what i meant what would apple wood make • pen mightygun 3 года назад creosote • creosote You need to do this when it’s -40 below. It’s interesting investigate the composition of the oil outgoing from the radiator such as fractional distillation, chromatography ecc… To Joseph Perrotta. They are giving a very basic demo. They are probably teachers making a point to a high school. There many other Youtube videos on the subject. • Plano de Negocio de Produtos de Biocombustivel e Alimento Год назад +pato milbert can you give here some links • +pato milbert can you give here some links Wow! Using half a tank of propane to get some syngas from wood. Brilliant! I think there is something wrong in your design. I can’t put my finger on it but I think using propane to make charcoal gas doesn’t seem feasible. Perhapes if you burned the wood in an controlled oxygen environment you could prove a better point show closer to the container with the words "no smoking" Is the pink stuff pitch boiling out of the wood? Did it ooze out after the fire was out? We made a new video called ASUBV. It shows the 30 gallon system heated in a kiln and operating a 5k generator. Работа испарителя на масле (motor oil,oliv oil).Смотрите. As always, safety comes first! This is why we are playing with fire in front of a huge tank of combustible propane. Lol get your dry dog poop and stick it in there try refineing the bio-crude into gasoline or dessal Automated pyrolysis plants visit nanopureindia.in c’est ce qu on appelle a PARIS :una mchina infernale. Smart people hope they get far! Did you ever find out what the pink stuff was? interesting note. Do you have a sketch of this or a link where i can search more about it. Thanks tulge eestisse if you force the syn-gas down at a 30 -35 degree it will make 3 types of oil and that oil if ran through a stainless steel tube with finely ground Aluminum in the heat source will create diesel and gasoline and methanol or butanol fuel much like propane so you can get 6 sources of energy from one reaction if done right I also use this method to gasify my waste and animal waste with plant matter. Great grandpa did it in Germany and my grandfather did in the USA during the depression… can you make an vid and using Cherry wood or Apple Wood thanks my friend l cant understand what u mean break away weak point thanks I am the professor for this research at ASU. You can contact me directly at domermuthdh@appstate.edu. I will send you our latest paper. We have moved onto a bigger system and coined the term BioVolatilization (BV) for this system. Thanks for all the comments. This is not rocket science, we are focusing on grass roots level. Systems that anyone can build and use. Yes we know about the propane tank, sort of like the little one in the foreground. Make a check valve that keeps pressure from going back to the biomass reactor. You can also incorporate a ‘break away’ weak point in your hose or pipe that will vent any explosive force before another component breaks. Interesting video. Thank you. The EPA called. They want their grant money back. Where do you get the cyclone filter from? The clean gas is interesting, but it seems tough to store. For this reason I’ve gotta say I’m more interested in the creosote. amazig video, well explain hello l am biulding a system like this but l am afraid from explosion? can syngas suck back to pyrolysis biomass ? if yes what can l do for safety? thanks My heart sank the instant I heard the music and knew I would learn nothing here IF it burns then yes… you can make some form of charcoal out of it. What will come out can only be had after trying to make some though… and you’d probably have to make a different machine for coal than wood. The idea would be instead of using PV for solar you use solar pyrolysis of any biomass. What that would give you is a way to run a generator from the syngas. It’s not very efficient but it should be more then PV tech is right now. The real beauty is the growth of biomass you gain when you use the biproduct, biochar. This becomes a positive feedback system. The whole time you are putting carbon into the ground. Won’t work on sunless days, unless you can store the syngas. So why call it SOLAR? Just to start it I use a match.How many MJoules of syngas do U get out of 1 kg bio-mass(dry wood at best);self sustaining process has a bad usage ratio.And transpprting biomass to places with many sun hours eeven worse.In future we have to use FRESH solar not FOSSIL-solar (run my car on dinosaurs). @weatherbygeorge hey we are doing the same project but using rice straw instead of wood. can u provide u tell us about the flow rate of wood in your project and the flow rate of Gas entering the cyclone? See that’s the beauty of it, Once you start making syngas, it becomes a self sustaining process, because you can use the syngas to fuel the process. First: use LED insted of a bulb.Then.where to bild?Alaska?-no sun;Aricona?-no trees… Two words… SOLAR PYROLYSIS… just think about it for a bit. Did the light bulb come on? for all the idiots who dont know anything n knock the safety: 1. propane canisters have one way valves look up this basic component. 2. they are heavily tested and if u throw one on a fire it takes quite a while to actually blow. and yes thats from experience infact we put one in the back of a truck loaded with wood and doused in petrol and it took about 20 minutes before it blew the whole truck up and im pretty sure the tank blew up first 🙂 <3 I could have said it better… No sleep for the last 4 months has some effect I guess lol. correction: A BBQ is a propane BOTTLE within a foot of an open flame lol. By the way, anyone trying to recycle propane bottles should understand concepts like inert gases. Also, lighting a gas without open access to oxygen will restrict the flames to the area the gas and oxygen meet (and mix). Fire requires oxygen, fuel, and heat. Take any of those three away and fire cannot exist. can you tell me which catalysts are you using to add it to the biomass? To all of the people commenting on "ZOMG! the propane bottle is about ESSPLODE!!1! I have welded on full propane bottles, I have cut empties open with torches, plasma cutters, and abrasives. They are extremely safe within a wide range of parameters. WTF do you thing a propane BBQ is? It is a burner within a foot of open flame. As long as you check for leaks, you’re golden. The only problem I had with this vid is they didn’t set their sights very high. You can do this in a paint can… Dumbass kids playing with fire right next to a gas tank… The pink is maybe turpentine. why not just you the propane as fuel to heat your green house lol please can you explain the tall chimney stack on the left hand side of the reactor? love the fact that you’re doing all of this right next to a giant propane tank So awesome.. can you get boilers that run on light pyro liquid. I’m sorry. My computer bad shows.Klason ;2[C42 H60 O28]Wood —> 3[C16 H10 O2] charcoal + 28H2 O [water] + 5CO2 + 3CO + 2[ CH3COOH][acetic acid] + CH3OH + + C23H22 O4[ tar oils] 1]Charcoal + waser + Q –>CO + H2 —> unit composition of the gas[ CO and H2] —>methanol synthesis reactor —–> methanol 2] module decomposition of steam-gas [gas wood]—>unit composition of steam-gas [ CO and H2] —->methanol synthesis reactor —>methanol Greetings from Polish Hajnowka and sorry ! Like me, the enthusiasm of young students.I produce charcoal for silversmiths and drawing.Do retort of stainless steel.The pipes must be copper.Coolers must have a large cross-section – and Copper.cyclone is okay.install the indicator room conditions. Cyclone-cooler.To analyze the classical formula {KLASON]. 2C42 H60 A28 —> 3C16 H10 O2 [charcoal] 28 H 2 O CO 2 5 3 Co 2 + CH 3 COOH CH 3 OH + C23 H22 O4 {tar]. And how well you think and create the methanol-fuel. And that’s close! Yours Poland safety forced……I love the no smoking marking on the propane tank behind you….OH right you didn;t smoke!!…… If you want wood gas know how contact me…… wonderful work! quite ironic to cook wood using bought gas in order to make gas (and biochar!) would recommend a rocket stove design burning wood with low emissions…. I laughed out loud when he crumpled up the paper and threw it behind him – after stating the EPA ( Environmental Protection Agency ) was funding the project. Only In America. your piece of 2×4 was prob treated w a fire retardent- usu a salt type chem is used- el pinko- try burning your creosote on an old piece of brush You might try putting the radiator in a plenum and running a fan through it at about 400cfm. Run those creosote drip lines back to a combustion chamber under the gas generator pot. I want to burn the oils in a drip type fuel oil heater. I want to use stainless so I can collect the liquid for seasoning food (like liquid smoke). @weatherbygeorge the pink stuff is rust I believe. Reaction of water vapor in new steel pipes. @ stndnthdrk: I believe we fabricated the cyclone filter using steel pipe & sheet metal, although this was before my time. All the cyclone filter does is allow the air to slow down, and particulate drops out. The inlet is tangent to the chamber, so the air swirls around. @froonbazhooley We intend to run a generator on the syngas to produce electricity and heat, after we’ve condensed out the liquid hydrocarbons and the water. The jury is still out on what we’ll do with the bio-crude/bio-oil. The answer about making diesel by this method is No. This liquid consist acetic acid and methanol. If get methanol from this liquid by netralizing acetic acid with calcium hydroxide. Then you can mix methanol with vegetable oil and caustic soda under the temperature, and then separate glycerol from biodiesel. You will get what you want – free diesel. Before this biodisel also will need to wash it with water from the rest oof caustic soda. Now I am learning this, ant trying to make practice. Great Video All! I am working at UNBC in Canada in this and we are looking at putting in a 2 MW biochar-energy system. best of luck! Great video and it answers some of my questions. Thank you. great! how do u seperate the oil in the first filter? where can i find plans for this? wonderful vid! keep em coming! The first stage bio-crude produced has properties very similar to diesel. However, we haven’t explored it yet as a possible diesel alternative. It would likely need some processing, I don’t think you could put it straight into an engine; it might work right away for home heating purposes, though. Who’s the cute blonde? Is it possible to make diesel fuel by this method? Thank you. Is it possible to make diesel fuel by this method? ## Utilization of a Novel Chitosan/Clay/Biochar Nanobiocomposite for Immobilization of Heavy Metals … 17 September, 2017 A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser. Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10924-017-1102-6.pdf ## Biochar composites with nano zerovalent iron and eggshell powder for nitrate removal from … 18 September, 2017 Biochar (BC) was produced from date palm tree leaves and its composites were prepared with nano zerovalent iron (nZVI-BC) and hen eggshell powder (EP-BC). The produced BC and its composites were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET, and FTIR for surface structural, mineralogical, and chemical groups and tested for their efficiency for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of chloride ions. The incidence of graphene and nano zerovalent iron (Fe0) in the nZVI-BC composite was confirmed by XRD. The nZVI-BC composite possessed highest surface area (220.92 m2 g−1), carbon (80.55%), nitrogen (3.78%), and hydrogen (11.09%) contents compared to other materials. Nitrate sorption data was fitted well to the Langmuir (R 2 = 0.93–0.98) and Freundlich (R 2 = 0.90–0.99) isotherms. The sorption kinetics was adequately explained by the pseudo-second-order, power function, and Elovich models. The nZVI-BC composite showed highest Langmuir predicted sorption capacity (148.10 mg g−1) followed by EP-BC composite (72.77 mg g−1). In addition to the high surface area, the higher nitrate removal capacity of nZVI-BC composite could be attributed to the combination of two processes, i.e., chemisorption (outer-sphere complexation) and reduction of nitrate to ammonia or nitrogen by Fe0. The appearance of Fe-O stretching and N-H bonds in post-sorption FTIR spectra of nZVI-BC composite suggested the occurrence of redox reaction and formation of Fe compound with N, such as ferric nitrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O). Coexistence of chloride ions negatively influenced the nitrate sorption. The decrease in nitrate sorption with increasing chloride ion concentration was observed, which could be due to the competition of free active sites on the sorbents between nitrate and chloride ions. The nZVI-BC composite exhibited higher nitrate removal efficiency compared to other materials even in the presence of highest concentration (100 mg L−1) of coexisting chloride ion. Σημείωση: Μόνο ένα μέλος αυτού του ιστολογίου μπορεί να αναρτήσει σχόλιο. ## First Certified Biodynamic and Organic Harvest for Eco Terreno Vineyards 18 September, 2017 This press release was orginally distributed by ReleaseWire Cloverdale, CA — (ReleaseWire) — 09/18/2017 — The 2017 harvest is the first vintage of biodynamically and organically certified wine grapes for Eco Terreno Vineyard. The vineyard was certified by Demeter Association, Inc., and Stellar Certification Services in June 2017. At 95 planted acres in the Alexander Valley, this makes Eco Terreno Vineyards the largest, biodynamically certified, single-vineyard operation in Sonoma County. Another 9 acres will be planted over the next two years. Biodynamic farming is a regenerative approach to organic agriculture. Its goal is to create a self-sustaining, self-nourishing ecosystem. Nutrients in the forms of self-made compost, bio-char, compost teas, cover crops, etc., create biodiversity and more life in the soils. The biodynamic standard does not allow synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, or any form of GMOs. The result is better balanced vines and healthier soils producing even higher quality grapes and wines that vividly showcase Eco Terreno Vineyards and Alexander Valley terroir. "Farming our estate vineyard biodynamically for the past four years has increased the vines' health, improving their ability to withstand the extreme heat waves we've had this year, and producing excellent quality this harvest," notes Mark Lyon, winemaker and owner. Lyon bought the 122-acre vineyard property in 1980, which was planted in the early 1970's. The vineyards are planted with Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Malbec, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, and Chardonnay. Grapes are sold to wineries such as Sebastiani Vineyards, Chateau St. Jean, Ferrari-Carano, Fetzer's Bonterra, and Benziger, with small lots reserved for Eco Terreno Wines. Today the Eco Terreno Vineyard operations are directed by Daphne Amory, an expert in biodynamic viticulture. "The conversion process to biodynamic has been a journey for us as we embraced this more ecologically friendly farming. We have had expert stewardship under Daphne and Demeter USA to arrive at this milestone of certification, and look forward to being the leader in Alexander Valley fostering biodynamic and organic farming," noted Lyon at a celebration for the certification in July 2017. The first wine to be released with the certified biodynamic, organic grapes will be the Eco Terreno 2017 "Cuvee Acero" Sauvignon Blanc in the late spring of 2018. From the 2017 vintage on, all wines will be made with 100% biodynamically, organically certified estate fruit from the Alexander Valley vineyards. About Eco Terreno Wines Eco Terreno Wines was launched in 2012 by Mark Lyon to exemplify the unique site of Eco Terreno Vineyards. Previously, Mark Lyon was the winemaker for Sebastiani Vineyards for 37 years. The wine portfolio from the Alexander Valley vineyard includes a Cabernet Sauvignon, Old Vine Cabernet Sauvignon (40+ year old vines), Three Vine Red, (a blend of Merlot, Cabernet Franc, and Petit Verdot), Barrel Fermented Chardonnay, and "Cuvee Acero" Sauvignon Blanc. For more information on this press release visit: http://www.releasewire.com/press-releases/first-certified-biodynamic-and-organic-harvest-for-eco-terreno-vineyards-861279.htm Rob Izzo, Ph.D. General Manager Eco Terreno Wines Telephone: 707-938-3833 Email: Click to Email Rob Izzo, Ph.D. Web: http://www.ecoterrenowines.com/ ## environment 19 September, 2017 use the following search parameters to narrow your results: e.g. subreddit:aww site:imgur.com dog see the search faq for details. advanced search: by author, subreddit… This subreddit is for recent news, information and issues related to the environment. Follow all general Reddit Rules. Submissions must be in English Your post will be deleted if your reddit title is editorialized. Leave your opinion in the comments, not the title. No ALL CAPS in Titles/Headings Those submissions will be removed. No Satire. No Memes. No Link Shorteners Old News, Duplicate Submissions, and Multiple Submissions on the same topic/issue will probably be removed. "Old News" is generally anything published over a week ago. No Petitions: All submissions from Petition sites will be removed. You might try /r/EnviroAction, /r/Petitions, or /r/WhiteHousePetitions. No Fundraisers: Submissions from sites like Kickstarter or No Standalone Images, Photos, Meme Gifs, Audio or Videos. No Facebook / Twitter / Linkedin. Videos and images should be embedded in an article providing additional information for context purposes. Users are our front line moderators. Please take a moment to hit the Report link below each submission or comment if you see something that breaks the rules. Send the moderators a message to explain your concern if you have time. Thanks! reddit 101 How reddit works /r/environment metrics H/T to titleproblems for his COST_Green theme and other Reddit developers for tips that helped with how things look and work here. Abstract Biochar can increase the stable C content of soil. However, studies on the longer-term role of plant–soil–biochar interactions and the consequent changes to native soil organic carbon (SOC) are lacking. Periodic 13CO2 pulse labelling of ryegrass was used to monitor belowground C allocation, SOC priming, and stabilization of root-derived C for a 15-month period—commencing 8.2 years after biochar (Eucalyptus saligna, 550 °C) was amended into a subtropical ferralsol. We found that field-aged biochar enhanced the belowground recovery of new root-derived C (13C) by 20%, and facilitated negative rhizosphere priming (it slowed SOC mineralization by 5.5%, that is, 46 g CO2-C m−2 yr−1). Retention of root-derived 13C in the stable organo-mineral fraction (<53 μm) was also increased (6%, P < 0.05). Through synchrotron-based spectroscopic analysis of bulk soil, field-aged biochar and microaggregates (<250 μm), we demonstrate that biochar accelerates the formation of microaggregates via organo-mineral interactions, resulting in the stabilization and accumulation of SOC in a rhodic ferralsol. ## BiocharVideos 19 September, 2017 use the following search parameters to narrow your results: e.g. subreddit:aww site:imgur.com dog see the search faq for details. advanced search: by author, subreddit… The Biochar Videos Reddit Biochar – a name for charcoal when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment. Like all charcoal, biochar is created by pyrolysis of biomass. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration to produce negative carbon dioxide emissions. Wikipedia: Biochar /r/Biochar Related Reddits /r/AgriChar /r/Agriculture /r/AgriScience /r/AgriTech /r/Agronomy /r/Algae /r/AnaerobicDigestion /r/Aquaculture /r/BackYardChickens /r/Bees /r/BeeKeeping /r/Biochar /r/BioDynamic /r/Biofuel /r/Biology /r/Biomass /r/Bioscience /r/BlackSoldierFly /r/Coal /r/Composting /r/Crops /r/Drought /r/Environment /r/FactoryFarms /r/Farm /r/Farming /r/FoodSovereignty /r/ForestGardening /r/Forests /r/Forestry /r/Gardening /r/Gasification /r/Geoengineering /r/Geothermal /r/GMO /r/Graphene /r/Grasslands /r/Green /r/Greenhouse /r/Greenhouses /r/Homestead /r/Horticulture /r/HydroElectric /r/Hydrology /r/Hydroponics /r/InternationalDev /r/Irrigation /r/Livestock /r/LivingOfftheLand /r/Microbiome /r/NaturalGas /r/Organic /r/OrganicFarming /r/OrganicGardening /r/Permaculture /r/Pollinators /r/Poultry /r/Pyrolysis /r/Rainforests /r/Reforestation /r/Renewables /r/RenewableEnergy /r/SeedSaving /r/Seedstock /r/Soil /r/Soils /r/Solar /r/SuburbanFarming /r/SynGas /r/UrbanAgriculture /r/UrbanFarming /r/Vermiculture /r/Waste /r/Water /r/Wetlands /r/Wind /r/WindEnergy /r/WoodGas And Check Out the Big List of Related Reddits Outside Reddit Sites International Biochar Initiative US Biochar Initiative European Biochar Research Network UK Biochar Research Centre Cornell University Agriculture Illinois Biochar Group The Biochar Solution BioChar.net Biochar.info BioChar Project.org What is Biochar? UC Davis Biochar Database Important article(s) Rice U scientists: Cooking temperature determines whether 'biochar' is boon or bane to soil ## and municipal sludge-derived biochars 20 September, 2017 Corn straw- and municipal sludge-derived biochars (CS-BC and MS-BC, respectively) were used to remove Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. Despite being pyrolysed at the same temperature (723 K), MS-BC showed higher porosity and hydrophobicity than CS-BC. The optimum biochar loading and pH values allowing efficient Pb(II) removal (greater than 80%) were 0.2 g l−1 and 7.0, respectively. The presence of PO43− (greater than 0.01 mol l−1) significantly affected the adsorptive performance of Pb(II) on the biochar samples. The adsorption data fitted well to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and a Langmuir model, and the maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacities were 352 and 387 mg g−1 for CS-BC and MS-BC, respectively. The main mechanisms involved in the adsorption of Pb(II) on biochar were electrostatic attraction and surface complexation. When comparing both biochars, CS-BC showed better cost-effectiveness for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The development of the Chinese economy and society in recent decades has significantly improved the living condition of the people. However, the living environment, particularly water and soil, are being seriously deteriorated by heavy metal due to the discharge from industry and urbanization construction [1]. Lead (Pb) is a well-known toxic heavy metal typically used as a raw material in petrochemical, printing, battery, pigment and photographic material applications, among others [2,3]. Pb can increase the health risk of ecosystems and organs at low concentrations (ng l−1) as it accumulates in the nerve, blood, kidneys and immune system [4]. Hence, this toxic metal should be effectively removed from aqueous environments in order to protect human health and ensure ecological safety [5]. Several techniques are currently used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions including adsorption, chemical precipitation, oxidation/reduction, ion-exchange, coagulation/flocculation and membrane filtration [6]. When considering efficiency, effectiveness, technical flexibility and economic feasibility, adsorption is the most promising method among these techniques [7]. Adsorption is an ion sequestration process via physi- and/or chemisorption, complexation and ion-exchange phenomena [8]. In recent years, a great diversity of living or non-living biomass materials have been used as sorbents to remove heavy metals from aquatic environments and to trap CO2 in soil [9,10]. Among these sorbents, biochar is preferred owing to its easy handling, wide availability of raw materials and inexpensiveness characteristics. Biochar is a carbon-rich solid produced by pyrolysis of biomass such as wood and agricultural wastes [11]. Biochars can be used as sorbents for the removal of heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Cd, Cr, Co and As) from water solutions [1214]. In this sense, sugar cane bagasse- and orange peel-derived biochars reached Pb(II) removal capacities as high as 87.0 mg g−1 (pH = 9.6, 298 K), and the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups on the biochar material was mainly responsible for the adsorption of Pb(II) [3]. The high positive surface charge of biochar under acidic environments hinders the adsorption of Pb(II) ions via electrostatic repulsion, whereas Pb(II) easily precipitated as hydroxide under alkaline conditions [11]. Moreover, some anions present in aquatic environment such as Cl and NO3− can interact with heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Zn and Cu) thereby affecting their adsorption capacity and removal efficiency [15]. The different surface functional groups, internal voids and surface charge characteristics of biochar materials as a result of the variability of biomass sources and pyrolytic temperatures can complicate the adsorption mechanisms and the behaviour of heavy metals on biochar [11,16]. Rapid population growth and urbanization have resulted in a higher production of agricultural and urban wastes (e.g. corn straw and municipal sludge, respectively), especially in developing countries. For example, the annual production of corn straw and dry municipal sludge in China reached 0.26 billion tons and 6.25 million tons, respectively [17,18]. Therefore, the conversion of these wastes into biochar sorbents is a ‘win–win’ solution for improving waste treatment while removing heavy metals from aquatic environments. However, the adsorption mechanism and behaviour of Pb(II) on corn straw- and municipal sludge-derived biochars in aqueous solutions under different influence factors (especially coexistence of anions such as PO43− and CO32−) have been scarcely treated in the literature. Additionally, the adsorption mechanism of Pb(II) on these biochars remains partly unknown. To fill this gap, we used corn straw- and municipal sludge-derived biochars (CS-BC and MS-BC, respectively) to remove Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The aims of the present work were (i) to determine the adsorption capacity of Pb(II) over CS-BC and MS-BC in aqueous solution; (ii) to discuss the influence of biochar loading, pH, coexisting anions, reaction time and temperature on the Pb(II) adsorption process; (iii) to compare and analyse the potential of these biochars for removing Pb(II). The biochars were prepared in the laboratory according to the method described elsewhere [11]. The pyrolysis temperature to produce biochar was 723 K based on the previous research that a relatively high temperature (673–773 K) can produce the well-carbonized biochar with higher surface area and porosity which can quickly and effectively sorb the pollutants [19,20]. Two different types of biomass (i.e. corn (maize) straw and sludge) were collected from the test field of the Beijing University of Agriculture (40.22° N, 116.23° E) and Gaobeidian Sewage Treatment Plant in Beijing (36.68° N, 115.78° E), respectively. The corn straw raw materials were washed three times with ultrapure water to remove the impurities. Corn straws were subsequently dried at 333 K for 24 h and finally, pyrolysed at 723 K for 2 h in a ceramic fibre furnace (TC-2.5-10, Beijing ZhongXing WeiYe Instrument Co., Beijing, China) under oxygen-limited conditions to produce biochar. Owing to the domestic origin of municipal sludge, the amounts of heavy metals in raw material and in the produced biochar were relatively lower based on the previous study [21] and did not exceed the EPA thresholds for land application of sewage sludge [22]. Moreover, pyrolysis at this temperature can effectively immobilize some toxic matter (such as heavy metals) in sludge to reduce bioavailability and improve the safety during reuse of the sludge [23]. The collected municipal sludge samples were dried at room temperature, sieved (100-mesh), and finally pyrolysed at 723 K for 2 h to produce biochar. After natural cooling, the produced biochars (CS-BC and MS-BC) were stored in brown glass bottles. Analytical reagent grade chemicals and ultrapure water were used throughout this study. A Pb(II) stock solution (1000 mg l−1) was prepared by dissolving Pb(NO3)2 in ultrapure water. The pH of the experimental solutions was adjusted using 0.1 mol l−1 NaOH or HNO3 solutions. NaNO3, Na2CO3 and Na3PO4 stock solutions (1 mol l−1) were prepared by dissolving the corresponding amount of the chemicals in ultrapure water. The as-prepared CS-BC and MS-BC samples were characterized by elemental analysis (Vario EL, German Elementar Co., Germany), scanning electron microscopy (SEM, S250MK3, Cambridge UK Co., UK), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Germany BRUKER Spectrometer Co., Germany) and X-ray diffraction (XRD, X’Pert PRO MPD, Holland Research Co., The Netherlands). Elemental analysis was used to determine the C, H, N, O and S contents of the two different biochars. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface areas and the micropore volumes (MV) were determined from N2 adsorption isotherm data obtained at 77 K on an accelerated surface area and porosimetry system (ASAP 2020, Micromeritics, USA). SEM was used to determine the structure of the two different biochars. XRD analysis of two different biochars was carried out on a diffractometer provided with Cu Kα radiation (Kα = 1.54 nm) at a voltage of 40 kV and a current of 40 mA [24]. FTIR analysis (400–4000 cm−1) was used to determine the surface functional groups of CS-BC and MS-BC before and after adsorption. The ash content of the biochars was determined by combusting the samples in a muffle furnace at 873 K for 4 h and subsequent cooling in a desiccator until constant weight. Moreover, the zeta potential was determined at different pH values using a potential analyser (Zetasizer Nano, UK), while the pH of the biochar samples was measured by adding biochar to ultrapure water at a mass : water ratio of 1 : 20. Batch-mode adsorption studies were conducted to investigate the effects of the biochar loading, pH and coexisting anions on the Pb(II) adsorption process. CS-BC and MS-BC were added to 10 ml polyethylene (PE) centrifuge tubes containing a Pb(II) solution with an initial concentration of 40 mg l−1 at varying solid mass : liquid volume ratios (i.e. 0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g l−1) and the resulting solutions were shaken at 150 r.p.m. and 298 K for 8 h in a vertical temperature oscillation incubator (ZQPL-200,Tianjin Lai Bo Terry instrument Equipment Co., Tianjin, China). The suspensions were filtered with a 0.45 µm polysulfone filter membrane. The concentration of Pb(II) remaining in the supernatant solution was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500, USA) with a good method recovery (98 ± 8.7%) and a low detected limit (2 ng l−1). The optimal loading was selected for further experiments. To investigate the influence of the pH, the initial pH of the Pb(II) solutions was previously varied from 2 to 11 by using 0.1 mol l−1 NaOH or HNO3 solutions before performing the adsorption experiments as indicated above. The effect of coexisting anions (i.e. NO3−, CO32− and PO43−) on the adsorption of aqueous solutions of Pb(II) over biochar was studied by adding NaNO3, Na2CO3 and Na3PO4 at varying concentrations (0.001–0.1 mol l−1) in the initial Pb(II) solution. Every batch experiment was set with three parallel samples, and a blank solution experiment was conducted under the same test procedure. The removal efficiency and the adsorbed amount of Pb(II) ion at equilibrium were calculated using equations (2.1) and (2.2), respectively [25]: removal (%)=(C0−Ce)C0×100% 2.1 and qe(mg g−1)=(C0−Ce)×Vm, 2.2 where C0 is the initial concentration of Pb(II) (mg l−1); Ce represents the equilibrium concentration of Pb(II) (mg l−1); qe is the amount of adsorbed Pb(II) (mg g−1); V is the volume of Pb(II) solution (l) and m is the weight of CS-BC or MS-BC (g). The kinetics for the adsorption of metal ions can be used to identify the main adsorption mechanism. Based on the above experiments, the optimal biochar loading, pH and anions concentration were selected for performing the adsorption kinetics, while the initial concentration of Pb(II) was fixed to 40 mg l−1. Liquid samples were collected at varying times (10, 20, 30 min and 1, 2, 3, 6 and 8 h) and the concentration of Pb(II) determined. In this study, pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the adsorption process of Pb(II) ion adsorption on CS-BC and MS-BC. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models can be expressed by the following equations [26]: log⁡(qe−qt)=logqe−K12.303t(pseudo-first-order) 2.3 and tqt=1K2 qe2+tqe(pseudo-second-order), 2.4 where, qt and qe (mg g−1) are the amounts of metal ions adsorbed at contact time t (min) and at equilibrium, respectively; K1 is the rate constant of the pseudo-first-order adsorption model (min−1); and K2 is the rate constant of the pseudo-second-order adsorption model (g mg−1 min−1). For the adsorption isotherm study, Pb(II) aqueous solutions with varying initial concentrations (i.e. 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 mg l−1) were used at optimal pH, biochar loading, coexisting anion concentration and equilibrium time conditions previously determined. Furthermore, in order to study the effect of the temperature on the adsorption of Pb(II), adsorption experiments were conducted at 298, 313 and 328 K. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models were employed to fit the Pb(II) adsorption data on biochar. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models are, respectively, described as follows [27]: qe=QmaxbCe(1+b)Ce(Langmuir) 2.5 and qe=KFCen(Freundlich), 2.6 where Qmax is the maximum adsorption capacity of the biochar sample (mg g−1); qe is the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the biochar sample (mg g−1); b is the Langmuir adsorption characteristic constant (L mg−1); KF and n represent the Freundlich empirical constants (l g−1) and Ce is the adsorption equilibrium concentration (mg l−1). The physico-chemical properties of CS-BC and MS-BC (i.e. productivity, ash content, pH and elemental composition) are listed in table 1. CS-BC showed a yield (44.4%) significantly higher than that of MS-BC (26.3%). The ash content of CS-BC (9.24%) was notably lower than that of MS-BC (48.7%) mainly because of the decomposition of volatile substances (CO2) and accumulation of minerals (KHCO3) at high content in the latter sample [9]. MS-BC showed higher BET surface area and MV as compared to CS-BC (table 1). There are the higher cellulose and lignin contents of corn straw than those of municipal sludge. High lignin-content biomass is not easily decomposed at low pyrolysis temperatures (less than 798 K), thereby resulting in incompletely developed pore structures. CS-BC and MS-BC were both weakly alkaline (average pH values of 8.18 and 7.36, respectively). CS-BC and MS-BC also showed low pHpzc values (less than 5.0), thereby revealing high acidic characteristics and thus strong buffer capacity under basic environments [28]. The carbon content of CS-BC was significantly higher than that of MS-BC, which is consistent with the higher carbon content reported for other agricultural source-derived biochars [3,29]. The O/C and H/C ratios can be uses as an indication of the hydrophilicity and carbonization degree of biochar, respectively [30]. The higher value of O/C and H/C further confirmed that these biochars were incompletely decomposed under this pyrolysis temperature. Compared with CS-BC, MS-BC showed higher hydrophobicity and carbonization degree, thereby revealing a higher number of surface adsorption sites available for this biochar [3]. SEM micrographs and XRD patterns of CS-BC and MS-BC are shown in figure 1. As shown in figure 1a,c, CS-BC showed a coarse fibre surface structure (4.36 m2 g−1), thereby revealing a significantly higher fraction of hemicellulose and cellulose as compared to MS-BC that showed a more smooth and slightly crumby structure with higher surface area (10.1 m2 g−1). Compared with CS-BC, some bright zones or points were clearly observed on the surface of MS-BC revealing the presence of Fe, Al and Si as determined by XRD analysis (figure 1d). These results were consistent with the findings of Singh et al. [31], who reported the presence of quartz, kaolinite, haematite and sylvite in cow manure- and poultry litter-derived biochars pyrolysed at 823 K. These minerals can co-precipitate along with heavy metal ions, thereby enhancing metal adsorption [3]. In the case of CS-BC, higher amounts of K+ and Ca2+ were observed (figure 1b), thereby allowing Pb(II) ions to be adsorbed on the biochar via electrostatic cation exchange with these ions or metal exchange reactions (i.e. surface complexes or precipitation) [32]. The biochar loading is an important factor during the adsorption process. As shown in figure 2a, both biochars showed similar change trends (i.e. the Pb(II) adsorption capacity increased with the biochar loading). In the case of MS-BC, the Pb(II) adsorption capacity rapidly increased up to 123 ± 0.21 mg g−1 with the dosage increasing from 0.0 to 0.1 g l−1 and slowly decreased thereafter (up to a biochar loading of 1.0 g l−1). In the case of CS-BC, the same trend was observed for biochar loadings of 0.0–0.2 g l−1 (largest Pb(II) adsorption capacity value of 84.8 ± 0.30 mg g−1). Although larger biochar loadings can provide more active sites for adsorption, the adsorption capacity of the biochar was observed to decrease at loadings above a certain value. At these conditions, biochar aggregation occurs thereby reducing the number of binding sites while also favouring electrostatic repulsion between the biochar and the metal ions [24]. The Pb(II) adsorption capacity over MS-BC was significantly higher than that of CS-BC because of the higher porosity and the presence of surface functional groups to a significantly larger extent in the former. CS-BC and MS-BC both showed their maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacity at a biochar loading of 0.2 g l−1. Thus, this biochar loading was selected herein as the optimum as it allows minimum utilization of the biochar samples, full use of their adsorption capability, and reasonable comparison between the adsorption behaviour of MS-BC and CS-BC. In natural aquatic system, Pb is present mainly as Pb2+ at pH < 6, Pb(OH)+, Pb(OH)2 at pH = 6–12 and Pb(OH)42− at pH > 12, and Pb(OH)2 starts to form when pH exceeds 7.7 [24]. Thus, pH can affect the adsorption of Pb in aqueous solutions. As shown in figure 2b, the Pb(II) adsorption on MS-BC and CS-BC was dependent on the initial pH value of the solution, with 7 being the optimal pH conditions. The Pb(II) adsorption capacity on MS-BC increased up to 172 ± 0.3 mg g−1 with the pH varying in the range of 2–7 and slightly decreased thereafter. In the case of CS-BC, no adsorption of Pb(II) was observed at low pH values (2–4). The amount of Pb(II) adsorbed increased up to 157 ± 0.4 mg g−1 with the pH varying in the 4–7 range, remained constant thereafter (pH = 7–10), and decreased at pH values higher than 10. At low pH values, MS-BC (pHpzc = 2.08) and CS-BC (pHpzc = 4.05) were positively charged on the surface, and high electrostatic repelling forces inhibited the contact of Pb(II) ions and the biochar surface. At pH values higher than pHpzc, the electrostatic attraction between the biochar surface and the metal ions is enhanced because the biochar is negatively charged on its surface. Moreover, the concentration of H+ ions in solution and thus their competition with Pb(II) for surface adsorption sites decreases with the pH, thereby positively affecting the adsorption capacity of Pb(II). However, at higher pH values (pH > 6), Pb(II) can precipitate upon reaction with the OH ions, thereby reducing its mobility and leading to a lower adsorption capacity of MS-BC. The Pb(II) adsorption capacity of CS-BC remained constant in the pH range of 7–10, and this may be attributed to the protonation–deprotonation of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the biochar in the pH region [28]. The electrostatic interactions probably play an important role in controlling the removal of Pb(II) ions over biochar from aqueous solutions at different pH values, especially in the case of MS-BC. The effect of coexisting anions including NO3−, CO32− and PO43− on the adsorption of Pb(II) over CS-BC and MS-BC are shown in figure 2c and d. The presence of PO43− significantly affected the Pb(II) adsorption on MS-BC and CS-BC, with the optimal anion strength of NO3−, CO32− and PO43− being 0.01 mol l−1. The Pb(II) adsorption capacity increased with the coexisting anion concentration increasing in the range of 0.0–0.01 mol l−1. When each coexisting anion concentration exceeded 0.01 mol l−1, different trends were observed for NO3−, CO32− and PO43− on the adsorption capacity of Pb(II). In the case of CS-BC, the Pb(II) adsorption capacity remained constant at the maximum value (172 ± 0.03 mg g−1) while increasing the NO3− and CO32− concentrations. In the case of MS-BC, the Pb(II) adsorption capacity levelled off (174 ± 0.06 mg g−1) with the concentration of NO3−, whereas it slightly decreased upon increasing the CO32− concentration. Increasing the PO43− concentration above 0.01 mol l−1 resulted in a significant decrease of the Pb(II) adsorption capacity of both MS-BC and CS-BC (figure 2b). Thus, PO43− inhibits the adsorption of Pb(II) on biochar above a certain concentration (0.01 mol l−1) because Pb(II) and PO43− ions compete for the surface adsorption sites [11]. Additionally, when coexisting in solution, Pb(II) and PO43− form Pb-phosphate precipitate (Pb9(PO4)6) that negatively affects the adsorption of Pb(II) on biochar [15]. The FTIR spectra of the two biochars were measured before and after Pb(II) adsorption (figure 3). As shown in figure 3, before Pb(II) adsorption both biochars exhibited absorption bands at 3407 cm−1 (─OH functional groups), 2919, 2852 and 796 cm−1 (─CH functional groups), 1611 cm−1 (C═C functional groups) and 1375 cm−1 (─COOH functional groups) [1,33]. Moreover, stretching P═O bands at 1242 cm−1 (CS-BC) and C═O bands at 1040 cm−1 (MS-BC) were observed. After Pb(II) adsorption, these bands corresponding to −OH, −CH and −COOH groups were notably displaced for both biochars, thereby indicating that the Pb(II) adsorption mechanisms were surface complexation (with carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups) and coordination with the π electrons of aromatic ─CH groups [34,35]. In the case of MS-BC, other functional groups such as C═C and C═O showed noticeable vibrations, thereby suggesting that a significantly higher number of functional groups were involved in the Pb(II) removal via surface complexation and coordination. Similar results were reported for Pb(II) and Cd(II) adsorption on a sludge-derived biochar [14,24], thereby implying that the functional groups play an important role during the adsorption of heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Figure 4a and b shows the adsorption rate of Pb(II) on the two different biochars as well as the possible adsorption mechanism involved. The adsorption of Pb(II) on the biochar samples rapidly increased within the first 1 h and reached adsorption equilibrium after 8 h. Both biochars showed similar adsorption kinetics. Compared with CS-BC, MS-BC showed a higher Pb(II) adsorption capacity at equilibrium. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models can be used to describe the adsorption of heavy metals [36]. The K1, K2, qe and R2 (correlation coefficient) values for these models are shown in table 2. As can be seen in table 2, unlike the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 > 0.98), the correlation coefficients for the pseudo-first-order kinetic model were low (R2 < 0.80). Thus, a pseudo-second-order model was more suitable to describe the adsorption of Pb(II) on biochars, thereby revealing that chemical interactions between Pb(II) and the surface adsorption sites occurred during the adsorption process [35]. Figure 4c and d shows the adsorption isotherm of Pb(II) on the two different biochars at three different temperatures (i.e. 298, 313 and 328 K). In this study, the adsorption isotherms were obtained at different Pb(II) concentrations (20–200 mg l−1). The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to fit the adsorption data, and the corresponding parameters are listed in table 3. The results showed that the Langmuir model provided a better fit to the Pb(II) adsorption on biochars as compared to the Freundlich model (R2: 0.89–0.95 versus 0.84–0.94), which further confirmed that chemisorption of Pb(II) is probably taking place on the surface of biochars during the Pb(II) adsorption process. The Pb(II) adsorption capacity on CS-BC and MS-BC significantly increased with the increase of initial Pb(II) concentration and the solution temperature. The maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacities of CS-BC and MS-BC obtained by the Langmuir model at 328 K were 352 and 387 mg/g for CS-BC and MS-BC, respectively. As confirmed by previous reports, the adsorption of Pb(II) on agricultural biochars is an endothermic process [33] and, therefore, the Pb(II) adsorption capacity increased with temperature. To further evaluate the interactions between Pb(II) and biochars while varying the temperature, thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG0), the standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and the standard entropy (ΔS0) were calculated using the following equations: ΔG0=−RT ln K, 3.1 ΔG0=ΔH0−TΔS0 3.2 andln K=ΔS0R−ΔH0RT, 3.3 where R is the gas constant (8.314 J K−1 mol−1), T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin and K is an equilibrium constant obtained by multiplying the Langmuir constants Qmax and b. The calculated thermodynamic parameters are listed in table 3. The negative values of ΔG0 suggested that the adsorption of Pb(II) on CS-BC and MS-BC was a thermodynamically favourable and spontaneous process. The positive value of ΔS0 revealed an increase in the disorder of the solid solution system [37]. The positive value of ΔH0 confirmed that the adsorption of Pb(II) on both biochars was an endothermic process. The high values obtained might account for the energy required to destroy the hydration sheath of Pb(II) with molecular water and to form some chemical bonds between Pb(II) and the functional groups in biochar during the adsorption process [37]. Both CS-BC and MS-BC showed high Pb(II) removal capability in water solution at room temperature (table 4). Thus, both CS-BC and MS-BC can be potentially used as efficient adsorbents for removing heavy metals such as Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The Pb(II) removal potential from aqueous solutions of the biochars tested herein (CS-BC: 288 mg g−1 and MS-BC: 289 mg g−1) was significantly higher than those of castor oil cake- (15.9 mg g−1) [38], wheat straw- (32 mg g−1) [32], sugar cane- (87 mg g−1), orange peel- (28 mg g−1) [3] and plum stone- (179 mg g−1) [32] derived biochars, and close to those of grape stalk- (273 mg g−1) [32] and Alternanthera philoxeroides– (257 mg g−1) [40] derived biochars. However, CS-BC and MS-BC showed the lower Pb(II) removal potential as compared to grape husk- (595 mg g−1) [24] and waste-art-paper- (1200 mg g−1 and 1500 mg g−1) [39] derived biochars. According to the highest adsorption capacity of Pb(II) calculated by the Langmuir isotherm model (table 2), the BET surface area of the biochars did not seem to be the key factor controlling the adsorption of Pb(II). Chemisorption might be the controlling mechanism during Pb(II) adsorption on these biochars. At room temperature, the Pb(II) removal performance in aqueous solutions was nearly similar for both CS-BC and MS-BC. However, considering the yield of the biochar, the productivity of corn straw (44.4%) was notably higher than that of municipal sewage (26.3%). Thus, CS-BC has a big potential for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous environment based on an economical point of view. CS-BC and MS-BC both showed good potential for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents loading, pH, temperature of the solutions and the functional groups on the biochar significantly influenced the Pb(II) adsorption performance on these biochars. CS-BC and MS-BC showed a maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacity of 352 and 387 mg g−1, respectively, at pH = 7.0, 0.2 g l−1 biochar loading, 0.01 mol l−1 anion strength and 328 K. Unlike PO43− coexisting NO3− and CO32− in aqueous solutions did not significantly influence the adsorption of Pb(II). The adsorption experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Electrostatic interaction and surface complexation and coordination were suggested as Pb(II) adsorption mechanisms on biochars. The adsorption of Pb(II) over CS-BC and MS-BC was mainly carried out by chemisorption. All data are provided in the main text. S.W. and W.G. designed the experiment, performed the study and wrote the manuscript. F.G. perform the preparation experiments. S.W. and R.Y. performed the characterization of biochar before and after adsorption experiments. All authors gave final approval for publication. The authors declare no competing interests. The study was funded by projects of Beijing Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 8152028) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (no. 2015MS52). The research is also supported by the Open Issue of Beijing Key Laboratory of New Technique in Agricultural Application (no. 5076516003/051). Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited. View the discussion thread. September 2017 Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Open Science. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. Please log in to add an alert for this article. Article reuse Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society ## North America Biochar Market Sales, Revenue and Market Share 2017 to 2022 20 September, 2017 MarketResearchNest.com adds “North America Biochar Market By Manufacturers, Countries, Type And Application, Forecast To 2022”new report to its research database. The report spread across in a 120 pages with table and figures in it. This report studies the Biochar market, Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Scope of the Report: This report focuses on the Biochar in North America market, especially in United States, Canada and Mexico. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, countries, type and application. Browse full table of contents and data tables at https://www.marketresearchnest.com/north-america-biochar-market-by-manufacturers-countries-type-and-application-forecast-to-2022.html Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels. Market Segment by Countries, covering United States, Canada, Mexico. Market Segment by Type, covers Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar. Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others. Order a Purchase Report Copy at https://www.marketresearchnest.com/purchase.php?reportid=262514 There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the North America Biochar market. Chapter 1, to describe Biochar Introduction, product type and application, market overview, market analysis by countries, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force; Chapter 2, to analyze the manufacturers of Biochar, with profile, main business, news, sales, price, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017; Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with profile, main business, news, sales, price, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017; Chapter 4, to show the North America market by countries, covering United States, Canada and Mexico, with sales, revenue and market share of Biochar, for each country, from 2012 to 2017; Chapter 5 and 6, to show the market by type and application, with sales, price, revenue, market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2012 to 2017; Chapter 7, 8 and 9, to analyze the segment market in United States, Canada and Mexico, by manufacturers, type and application, with sales, price, revenue and market share by manufacturers, types and applications; Chapter 10, Biochar market forecast, by countries, type and application, with sales, price and revenue, from 2017 to 2022; Chapter 11, to analyze the manufacturing cost, key raw materials and manufacturing process etc. Chapter 12, to analyze the industrial chain, sourcing strategy and downstream end users (buyers); Chapter 13, to describe sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers etc. Chapter 14 and 15, to describe Biochar Research Findings and Conclusion, Appendix, methodology and data source Top of Form Bottom of Form Request a sample copy at https://www.marketresearchnest.com/requestsample.php?reportid=262514 About Us: MarketResearchNest.com is the most comprehensive collection of market research products and services on the Web. We offer reports from almost all top publishers and update our collection on daily basis to provide you with instant online access to the world’s most complete and recent database of expert insights on Global industries, organizations, products, and trends. Contact Us Mr. Jeet Jain Sales Manager sales@marketresearchnest.com +1-240-284-8070(U.S) +44-20-3290-4151(U.K) Connect with us: Google+ | LinkedIn | Twitter | Facebook ## Biochar Fuel Market Study, Competitive Strategies, Key Manufacturers, New Project Investment … 20 September, 2017 Biochar Fuel Market report delivers a detailed study with present and upcoming Opportunities to clarify the future investment in the market. Biochar Fuel market report shares information regarding key drivers, limitations and Opportunities with its impact by regions. Get Sample PDF of Biochar Fuel Market report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/11186411 To begin with, the report elaborates the Biochar Fuel Market overview. Various definitions and classification of the Market, applications of the Market and chain structure are given. Present day status of the Biochar Fuel Market in key regions is stated and Market policies and news are analysed. Next part of the Biochar Fuel market analysis report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process. Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of the industry covering all important parameters including, Market Dynamics, Opportunities, Market Share by Region, Price and Gross Margin, Competitive Landscape and Profile, New Project Feasibility Analysis, Analysis and Suggestions on New Project Investment. By providing the above mentioned key elements on the Industry status of the Biochar Fuel Market this report is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry. Further in the report, the Biochar Fuel market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Biochar Fuel market consumption for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given. For Any Query on Biochar Fuel Market report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/11186411 Along with consumption. Import and export data for following countries is given: With the help of supply and consumption data, gap between these two is also explained. To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed profiles of Biochar Fuel Market key players. For each player, product details, capacity, price, cost, gross and revenue numbers are given. Their contact information is provided for better understanding. In this Biochar Fuel Market analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact details. For material and equipment suppliers also, contact details are given. New investment feasibility analysis is included in the report. Price of Report:2960 (Single User Licence)

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## Effects of biochar application on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration and crop growth …

20 September, 2017

Wiley, European Journal of Soil Science, 2(66), p. 329-338

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## Global Biochar Market to Grow at Over 14% CAGR to Surpass US$14700 Thousand by 2025 22 September, 2017 Need immediate assistance? Call 1-518-730-0559 (Us-Canada Toll Free) or Contact Us Albany, New York, September 22, 2017: A new report titled “Biochar Market – Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2017 – 2025” is added to Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE)’s database recently. The report projects the global biochar market to grow at over 14% CAGR and surpass US$ 14,700 thousand by the year 2025.

Biochar is a charcoal produced by heating different type of waste product such as forest waste, animal manure, agriculture waste, wood waste or plant waste. These waste products become the feedstock for producing biochar which is primarily produced through modern pyrolysis processes. Pyrolysis process is a thermochemical decomposition of biomass waste material without the oxygen.

Biochar is rich in carbon and also a fine grained residue. It can be produced using other technologies as well such as gasification, microwave pyrolysis to name a few. Biochar finds applications in a wide range of end-use industries, with food & beverage among the prominent industries. As consumer awareness leads to higher demand for organic food, demand for biochar has increased manifold.

In addition to use in organic food, biochar is also used in waste management. Globally, there has been increased emphasis on effective waste management, as leaders from around the globe make a concerted effort to mitigate global warming. Biochar’s effectiveness in waste management is likely to increase its demand in the foreseeable future. On account of these factors, key players in the market are looking to consolidate their position, leading to increasing mergers & acquisitions.

The report on biochar market offers thorough analysis to provide estimates and forecasts in the global market. The research offers forecast globally, region-wise and country-wise for the period 2017 to 2025. Report considers year 2016 as the base year and provides forecast based on revenue in USD and volume in tons. This comprehensive report provides value chain analysis based on segment of the product as well as market view. It also offers key information about value addition at every level.  Furthermore, the report provides analysis based on substitute analysis, average price trend analysis for biochar between the period 2017 and 2025.

The report contains certain key research aspects to determine the level of competition, market attractiveness, market size, profit margin, technology, environmental factors, legal factors, growth rate, raw material availability, impact strength and other. To determine the level of competition involved in the biochar market, it uses Porter’s five forces model. The report includes write-up on market attractive analysis in which region wise analysis is prepared on end-users and countries.

The report divides the analysis into geography, application and feedstock. Geographically, report is divided into regions which is based on present and future demand for Biochar in Middle East & Africa (MEA), Latin America, Asia Pacific, Europe and North America. The country level analysis is also provided in terms of revenue and volume. The key countries included in the study are Brazil, Mexico, South Africa, Japan, India, China, The U.K., Italy, Germany, France, and the U.S.

The report based on biochar market also offers insights on competitive landscape which includes market share, detailed profile of some of the major companies operating globally. Some of these key players are Cool Planet Energy Systems, LLC, CharGrow, Biochar Supreme LLC, Phoenix Energy, Pacific Biochar, Agri-Tech Producers, Earth Systems Bioenergy.

As the report offers exhaustive research, it discusses about driving factors as well as restraints for the biochar market and how demand is affected during the forecast period. It mentions how key indicators mark the growth of the market. The report helps readers identify the opportunities presented in the biochar market at regional and global level using quantitative and qualitative data provided. The report claims to have provided such details using primary and secondary research methodology. The secondary research includes online resources, broker reports, investor presentations, financial reports and other.

Browse Full Global Biochar Market Report with TOC  : http://www.mrrse.com/biochar-market

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## Automatic Waste Segregation Machine

23 September, 2017

Biochar Pyrolysis Equipment on the market Online Now To Aid Save The Environment

For a long time civilization has struggled to dump the numerous a great deal of organic materials that happen to be left from your agricultural pursuits. Virtually every sort of fruit, vegetable, or grain has numerous a lot of left over material that may be unfit for consumption and piles up in huge amounts in our landfills. The price of transporting this waste for the landfill to become recycled can frequently be the most costly a part of producing some crops. Coconuts have their own shells, rice has husks, peaches have pits and so do olives too. It is possible to name nearly every fruit, grain, and a lot of vegetables and come up with a waste recycling equipment that needs to be efficiently discarded.

Pyrolysis May Save the time by Recycling Waste

The pyrolysis machine may be used in several parts of waste recycling and renewal to help extract vital oil, syngas, and leftover carbon called biochar. The benefit a pyrolysis plant has over normal burning operations is that it limits the volume of oxygen available along the way which lessens the toxicity of your waste leaving products like the oil, gas, a charcoal within an unburned state.

After the procedure is finished there is oil that can be sold as is also or reprocessed into other combustibles, a gas which can be mostly methane and some hydrogen which may be burned in both the pyrolysis plant or sold. And lastly, there’s remaining unburnt charcoal often times known as biochar which may be burned being a combustible or together with soil where it will supply a rich and fertile topsoil while sequestering a great deal of carbon that is certainly causing our global warming problems on earth today. Browse around this site: WWW.WasteRecyclingPlant.Com.

Biochar Pyrolysis Equipment for Sale Has Become Available

A lot of people, after they first read about pyrolysis equipment appear to assume that it’s only going to be available in the foreseeable future. However, now there are numerous manufacturers selling this equipment for numerous different purposes on the web. These plants may be create near the origin of your biomass to limit the quantity of transporting that should be done and after that just the resulting oil, gas, and carbon products have to be transported right after the process.

These biochar pyrolysis equipment for sale are employed to process anything from coconut shell waste, sewage sludge, sugar cane waste, corn husks, rice hulls, leftover fruit pits, and a huge selection of other agricultural wastes across the world. The real beauty of these plants is they have turned a waste merchandise that is quite difficult and costly to eradicate and made it into a profitable product. Those items are usable in several different industries and also assistance to sequester the vast majority of carbon that would be released in the air when the waste product was burned or capable to rot on its own. Check this page to get more: http://wasterecyclingplant.com/biochar-making-machine/.

If you’re in a industry that has massive quantities of waste materials from just about any agricultural pursuit more than likely there exists a biochar pyrolysis plant made specially for your form of waste. The plants are fairly expensive, however, they can’t pay money for themselves rapidly by saving dumping fees and producing sellable byproducts while helping protect the environment for generations to come.

Beston biochar making machine has invented the newest high temperature anaerobic technology, which can process various biomass wastes into a black, porous, and fine-grained charcoal.The machine uses slow pyrolysis to burn biomass in a low-oxygen chamber. It can treat 1,000 pounds of biomass per hour with yielding 250 pounds of biochar.

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## using the carbon in old filters as biochar?

23 September, 2017

## Effects of co-composting of farm manure and biochar on plant growth and carbon mineralization in …

24 September, 2017

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

## Granular Biochar Market 2017: Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers

25 September, 2017

Sep 25, 2017 6:42 PM ET

A new research study from HTF MI with title Global Granular Biochar Sales Market Report 2017 provides an in-depth assessment of the Granular Biochar including key market trends, upcoming technologies, industry drivers, challenges, regulatory policies and issues, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The research study provides forecasts for Granular Biochar investments till 2022.

This study answers several questions for stakeholders, primarily which market segments or Region or Country they should focus in coming years to channelize their efforts and investments to maximize growth and profitability. These stakeholders include Granular Biochar manufacturers such as Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra, etc.

Primary sources are mainly industry experts from core and related industries, and suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, service providers, and organizations related to all segments of the industry’s supply chain. The bottom-up approach is being utilized to project the global market size of Granular Biochar based on end-user industry and region, in terms of value. With the data triangulation procedure and validation of data through primary interviews, the exact values of the overall primary market, and individual market share & sizes are determined and confirmed with this study.

Global Granular Biochar (K Units) and Revenue (Million USD) Market Split by Product Type such as Wood Source Biochar, Corn Source Biochar, Wheat Source Biochar

Market Segment by Type

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

Wood Source Biochar

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

-Change (%)

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

Corn Source Biochar

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

-Change (%)

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

Total

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

-Change (%)

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

xx%

The research study is segmented by Application as well such as Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer with historical and projected market share and compounded annual growth rate.

Get customization & check discount for report  @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/request-discount/710093-global-granular-biochar-sales-market-1

Global Granular Biochar Sales (K Units) by Application (2016-2022)

Market Segment

by Application

2012

2016

2022

Market Share (%)2022

CGAR (%)

(2016-2022)

Soil Conditioner

xx

xx

xx

xx%

xx%

Fertilizer

xx

xx

xx

xx%

xx%

Total

xx

xx

xx

100%

xx%

Read Detailed Index of full Research Study at @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/reports/710093-global-granular-biochar-sales-market-1

The research provides answers to the following key questions:

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions such as United States, Europe, Japan, China, India, Others, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), and market share and growth rate of Global Granular Biochar in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering

Market Segment by Regions

2012

2016

2022

Share (%)

CAGR (2016-2022)

United States

xx

xx

xx

xx%

xx%

Europe

xx

xx

xx

xx%

xx %

China

xx

xx

xx

xx%

xx%

Japan

xx

xx

xx

xx%

xx %

Southeast Asia

xx

xx

xx

xx%

xx%

Total

xx

xx

xx

xx%

xx%

The report provides a basic overview of the Granular Biochar industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. And development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and capital expenditures.

Further it focuses on global major leading industry players with information such as company profiles, product picture and specifications, sales, market share and contact information. What’s more, the Granular Biochar industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed.

The study is organized with the help of primary and secondary data collection including valuable information from key vendors and participants in the industry. It includes historical data from 2012 to 2016 and  projected forecasts till 2022 which makes the research study a valuable resource for industry executives, marketing, sales and product managers, consultants, analysts, and other people looking for key industry related data in readily accessible documents with easy to analyze visuals, graphs and tables. The report answers future development trend of Granular Biochar on the basis of stating current situation of the industry in 2017 to assist manufacturers and investment organization to better analyze the development course of Granular Biochar Market.

There are 15 chapters to deeply display the Global Granular Biochar market.

Chapter 1, to describe Granular Biochar Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;

Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Granular Biochar, with sales, revenue, and price of Granular Biochar, in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Granular Biochar, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries / regions United States, Europe, Japan, China, India, Others;

Chapter 10 and 11, to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application [Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer], from 2012 to 2017;

Chapter 12, Granular Biochar market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2017 to 2022;

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Granular Biochar sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe or Asia.

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## What is biochar and why is this important?

25 September, 2017

This presentation by Gloria Flora, Cornell University, sums up what biochar is, how to use it, and the benefits it provides – she addresses how important taking trees contaminated with disease can be turned in biochar, this kills the contaminants.