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sekam padi bakar biochar paddy husk for gardening pack 1 kg | Lazada

1 August, 2021
 

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Physical and chemical mechanisms that influence the electrical conductivity of lignin-derived …

1 August, 2021
 

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Biochar… a win/win/win opportunity? – NM Healthy Soil Working Group

1 August, 2021
 

There is another method however, depending on how deeply you’d like to get into it, that varies from only a slight alteration of the pile burning method to expensive pyrolysis kilns, which minimizes or even eliminates many of the negatives associated with pile burning while providing a potentially useful product: biochar. Pyrolysis, for those of us who are new to biochar, is a way of converting biomass (in this case our slash) to biochar by starving the burning material of oxygen…to varying degrees.

Here I should divulge that up until fairly recently bichar was just something I knew was supposed to be good for the soil so it wasn’t until I attended a 3-day conference on Biochar: Opportunities in the Southwest on Zoom put on by the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension that I learned how us tree farmers might get involved. If you are like me and are unfamiliar with biochar and its usefulness to farmers, ranchers and gardeners perhaps a brief primer is in order.

The real question for us Tree Farmers is how do you make it? Like I said, it could be just a minor tweak to how we normally burn a pile. With only slight alterations to pile construction and top- lighting instead of lighting at the bottom of the pile (this produces a “flame cap” that reduces smoke and helps the pile burn more evenly) plus squelching the coals at the proper time, you’re on your way to producing biochar! I know, squelching requires water which is something we don’t find easily in many of our forests… except in the winter… so a work-around for that might be to burn after the first good snow storm and just shovel some snow on those coals at the proper time and deal with the charcoal in Spring. A more thorough and visual explanation of this method can be found at this link: https://biochar-us.org/sites/default/files/learning/files/Smoke-Into-Biochar-flyerfinal.pdf

The photos above are from this link, explaining the easiest method for producing biochar… look familiar? Except the results of a slight shift in slash pile burning is biochar –not ash– and less carbon (smoke) in the atmosphere!

For those of us who would like to have a piece of equipment that would burn our slash piles safely and efficiently converting biomass to biochar, with much less release of carbon into the atmosphere, there is the Wilson “Ring-of-Fire” kiln pictured to the left (for about $1300) that can be transported by pick-up to a site in our forest, bolted together and fed by multiple slash piles in the vicinity. This is a double walled unit about 6 feet across and 4 feet tall that looks like it is not only well thought out and engineered but a fun outing for a group of biochar enthusiasts to “party” around… yahoo! One might be able to even apply for some grant money to help defray the initial purchase if one was more clever than me at grant writing… just a thought! Find more information on this beauty at this link https://wilsonbiochar.com/shop/ols/products/ring-of-fire-biochar-kiln

Then there are folks like me who would like to experiment with biochar for their own gardens and only want to make a relatively small amount easily. Check out this entertaining YouTube video on how to convert a steel 55 gal. drum into a small batch biochar kiln… it’s a hoot! With this method you could bring the wood to the kiln and squelch with your garden hose any time of year. Since I chip my slash and only want a relatively small amount of biochar to mix with chips on the floor of our hen house, which will eventually end up in our compost pile en-route to our gardens, this seemed like the perfect entry level biochar method. After contacting a friend I thought might have an old steel drum lying around and strategically investing a couple of very esoteric beers, I brought our new/old steel drum home and, after 10 minutes well spent with my angle grinder, was the proud owner of a “down & dirty” biochar kiln looking a lot like the one to the left! What could be easier?

Now there are WAY more expensive and complicated contraptions to make larger batches with way less carbon escaping into the air for those who are truly inspired and want to go into the business of selling biochar to the public… if I was 40 years younger I might be tempted! These days, however, I tend to belong to the KISS school of thought: Keep-It-Simple-Stupid!

Last, but definitely not least, we might consider letting our neighboring ranchers, farmers and gardeners in on the fun and invite them to participate in our biochar production (formerly called pile burning!) and in return for their labor helping us construct, top-light and baby sit our burning slash piles, er, I mean biochar production piles… we could gift them the biochar, or at least part of it, and keep the carbon sequestered in our own watershed! True, our biochar hasn’t been activated yet (that’s their job!) and it hasn’t been produced in a high-tech way but it also doesn’t cost $350 for 2 cubic yards as per this link! https://www.wakefieldbiochar.com/shop/super-sack-bulk-biochar/

Don’t know any folks who might be interested in helping you produce your/their future biochar? Just contact the NM Healthy Soil Working Group. They might be able to connect you with someone nearby who would be interested in some sort of trade.

Maybe it’s time for some of us seasoned Tree Farmers to learn a new trick? Biochar…a win/win/win opportunity!

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© 2021 NM Healthy Soil Working Group


Biochar Market Research Report 2020: COVID-19 Impact Analysis and Predictive Business …

1 August, 2021
 

https://murphyshockeylaw.net/


Biochar Market size 2021 by Product Type (Wood Source Biochar,Corn Stove Source Biochar,Rice …

1 August, 2021
 

Posted on Jul 31 2021 8:26 AM

” “

In 2021, “ Biochar Market “ Size, Status and Market Insights, Forecast to 2027 |( Number of Pages:113)

Biochar Industry Outlook Analysis 2021:- Biochar Market 2021 All Major Industrial Features, Regional Outlook, Market Revenue, Competitor Analysis, and Industrial, growth opportunity of this trend for the market of Biochar is expected to be cost-effective. With increase trends, diverse stakeholders like investors, Research Methodology, CEOs, traders, suppliers, Director, President, Research & media, More Understand about Biochar Market.

What are Industry Insights?

This report studies the Biochar market, Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.Biochar is a fragmented industry with a variety of manufacturers, among which most are small privately-owned companies. The top 5 producers account for just 38.34% of the market. Also, many companies are emerging companies that specialized in the production of biochar, and a large share of their products is sold by traders and online.A key variable in the performance of biochar producers is raw material costs, specifically the speed at which any increase can be passed through to customers. The materials of biochar include wood, rice stove, corn stove and other biomass materials. Wood now is the major raw material of biochar, but its price would be higher than other derived product. The price of crop raw material fluctuates with agricultural market in local market. Global Biochar market size will increase to Million USD by 2025, from Million USD in 2018, at a CAGR of % during the forecast period. In this study, 2018 has been considered as the base year and 2019 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Biochar.This report researches the worldwide Biochar market size (value, capacity, production and consumption) in key regions like United States, Europe, Asia Pacific (China, Japan) and other regions.This study categorizes the global Biochar breakdown data by manufacturers, region, type and application, also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis.

COVID-19 / Great lockdown has compress the global economy and with it the manufacturing sector, production, disruption, financial.

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Who are some of the key players operating in the Biochar market and how high is the competition 2021?

Company Information: List Of Top Manufacturers/ Key Players In Biochar Market Insights Report Are:

Get a sample copy of the Biochar market report 2021

On the thought of the product, this report displays the assembly, revenue, price, Classifications market share and rate of growth of each type, primarily split into

On the thought of the highest users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and rate of growth for each application, including

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A holistic research of the market is formed by considering a spread of things, from demographics conditions and business cycles during a particular country to market-specific microeconomic impacts. The study found the shift in market paradigms in terms of regional competitive advantage and therefore the competitive landscape of major players. Downstream demand analysis and upstream raw materials and equipment additionally administer.

Scope of the Report:

This report focuses on the Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application. The Biochar market report gives the clear picture of current market scenario which includes historical and projected market size in terms of value and volume, technological advancement, macro economical and governing factors in the market.

Biochar Market analysis, by Geography: Major regions covered within the report: Consumption by Region 2021:-

North America,U.S.,Canada,Europe,Germany,France,U.K.,Italy,Russia,Asia-Pacific,China,Japan,SouthKorea,India,Australia,Taiwan,Indonesia,Thailand,Malaysia,Philippines,Vietnam,Latin America,Mexico,Brazil,Argentina,Middle East & Africa,Turkey,Saudi Arabia,U.A.E

The report can help to know the market and strategize for business expansion accordingly. Within the strategy analysis, it gives insights from market positioning and marketing channel to potential growth strategies, providing in-depth analysis for brand fresh entrants or exists competitors within the Biochar industry. Global Biochar Market Report 2021 provides exclusive statistics, data, information, trends and competitive landscape details during this niche sector.

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Key questions answered in Biochar market report:

What are the Biochar market factors that are explained in the report?

Key Strategic Developments: Under this section, the study covers developments based on the moves adopted by players. This includes new product development and launch, agreements, collaborations, partnerships, joint ventures, and geographical expansion to strengthen the position in the market on a global and regional scale.

Key Market Features: The report evaluated key market features, including revenue, price, capacity utilization, gross margin, production and consumption, demand and supply, import/export, along with market share and CAGR. In addition, the study offers a comprehensive analysis of these factors, along with pertinent market segments and sub-segments.

Analytical Tools: The Global Biochar Market report studies and analyse from the view of different analytical tools including Porter’s five forces analysis, SWOT analysis, PESTLE analysis, and investment return analysis have been used to analyse the growth of the key players operating in the market. Through these models, the data is accurately studied and assessed for the key industry players and their scope in the market by means.

With tables and figures helping analyze worldwide Global Biochar Market Forecast this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and should be a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

Major Points from Table of Contents:

Table of Contents

Global Biochar Market Research Report 2019-2025, by Manufacturers, Regions, Types and Applications
1 Study Coverage
1.1 Biochar Product
1.2 Key Market Segments in This Study
1.3 Key Manufacturers Covered
1.4 Market by Type
1.4.1 Global Biochar Market Size Growth Rate by Type
1.4.2 Wood Source Biochar
1.4.3 Corn Stove Source Biochar
1.4.4 Rice Stove Source Biochar
1.4.5 Wheat Stove Source Biochar
1.4.6 Other Stove Source Biochar
1.5 Market by Application
1.5.1 Global Biochar Market Size Growth Rate by Application
1.5.2 Soil Conditioner
1.5.3 Fertilizer
1.5.4 Others
1.6 Study Objectives
1.7 Years Considered

2 Executive Summary
2.1 Global Biochar Production
2.1.1 Global Biochar Revenue 2014-2025
2.1.2 Global Biochar Production 2014-2025
2.1.3 Global Biochar Capacity 2014-2025
2.1.4 Global Biochar Marketing Pricing and Trends
2.2 Biochar Growth Rate (CAGR) 2019-2025
2.3 Analysis of Competitive Landscape
2.3.1 Manufacturers Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI)
2.3.2 Key Biochar Manufacturers
2.4 Market Drivers, Trends and Issues
2.5 Macroscopic Indicator
2.5.1 GDP for Major Regions
2.5.2 Price of Raw Materials in Dollars: Evolution

3 Market Size by Manufacturers
3.1 Biochar Production by Manufacturers
3.1.1 Biochar Production by Manufacturers
3.1.2 Biochar Production Market Share by Manufacturers
3.2 Biochar Revenue by Manufacturers
3.2.1 Biochar Revenue by Manufacturers (2014-2019)
3.2.2 Biochar Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2014-2019)
3.3 Biochar Price by Manufacturers
3.4 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

4 Biochar Production by Regions
4.1 Global Biochar Production by Regions
4.1.1 Global Biochar Production Market Share by Regions
4.1.2 Global Biochar Revenue Market Share by Regions
4.2 United States
4.2.1 United States Biochar Production
4.2.2 United States Biochar Revenue
4.2.3 Key Players in United States
4.2.4 United States Biochar Import & Export
4.3 Europe
4.3.1 Europe Biochar Production
4.3.2 Europe Biochar Revenue
4.3.3 Key Players in Europe
4.3.4 Europe Biochar Import & Export
4.4 China
4.4.1 China Biochar Production
4.4.2 China Biochar Revenue
4.4.3 Key Players in China
4.4.4 China Biochar Import & Export
4.5 Japan
4.5.1 Japan Biochar Production
4.5.2 Japan Biochar Revenue
4.5.3 Key Players in Japan
4.5.4 Japan Biochar Import & Export
4.6 Other Regions
4.6.1 South Korea
4.6.2 India
4.6.3 Southeast Asia

5 Biochar Consumption by Regions
5.1 Global Biochar Consumption by Regions
5.1.1 Global Biochar Consumption by Regions
5.1.2 Global Biochar Consumption Market Share by Regions
5.2 North America
5.2.1 North America Biochar Consumption by Application
5.2.2 North America Biochar Consumption by Countries
5.2.3 United States
5.2.4 Canada
5.2.5 Mexico
5.3 Europe
5.3.1 Europe Biochar Consumption by Application
5.3.2 Europe Biochar Consumption by Countries
5.3.3 Germany
5.3.4 France
5.3.5 UK
5.3.6 Italy
5.3.7 Russia
5.4 Asia Pacific
5.4.1 Asia Pacific Biochar Consumption by Application
5.4.2 Asia Pacific Biochar Consumption by Countries
5.4.3 China
5.4.4 Japan
5.4.5 South Korea
5.4.6 India
5.4.7 Australia
5.4.8 Indonesia
5.4.9 Thailand
5.4.10 Malaysia
5.4.11 Philippines
5.4.12 Vietnam
5.5 Central & South America
5.5.1 Central & South America Biochar Consumption by Application
5.5.2 Central & South America Biochar Consumption by Countries
5.5.3 Brazil
5.6 Middle East and Africa
5.6.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Consumption by Application
5.6.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Consumption by Countries
5.6.3 Turkey
5.6.4 GCC Countries
5.6.5 Egypt
5.6.6 South Africa

6 Market Size by Type
6.1 Global Biochar Breakdown Dada by Type
6.2 Global Biochar Revenue by Type
6.3 Biochar Price by Type

7 Market Size by Application
7.1 Overview
7.2 Global Biochar Breakdown Dada by Application
7.2.1 Global Biochar Consumption by Application
7.2.2 Global Biochar Consumption Market Share by Application (2014-2019)

8 Manufacturers Profiles
8.1 Cool Planet
8.1.1 Cool Planet Company Details
8.1.2 Company Description
8.1.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.1.4 Biochar Product Description
8.1.5 SWOT Analysis
8.2 Biochar Supreme
8.2.1 Biochar Supreme Company Details
8.2.2 Company Description
8.2.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.2.4 Biochar Product Description
8.2.5 SWOT Analysis
8.3 NextChar
8.3.1 NextChar Company Details
8.3.2 Company Description
8.3.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.3.4 Biochar Product Description
8.3.5 SWOT Analysis
8.4 Terra Char
8.4.1 Terra Char Company Details
8.4.2 Company Description
8.4.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.4.4 Biochar Product Description
8.4.5 SWOT Analysis
8.5 Genesis Industries
8.5.1 Genesis Industries Company Details
8.5.2 Company Description
8.5.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.5.4 Biochar Product Description
8.5.5 SWOT Analysis
8.6 Interra Energy
8.6.1 Interra Energy Company Details
8.6.2 Company Description
8.6.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.6.4 Biochar Product Description
8.6.5 SWOT Analysis
8.7 CharGrow
8.7.1 CharGrow Company Details
8.7.2 Company Description
8.7.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.7.4 Biochar Product Description
8.7.5 SWOT Analysis
8.8 Pacific Biochar
8.8.1 Pacific Biochar Company Details
8.8.2 Company Description
8.8.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.8.4 Biochar Product Description
8.8.5 SWOT Analysis
8.9 Biochar Now
8.9.1 Biochar Now Company Details
8.9.2 Company Description
8.9.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.9.4 Biochar Product Description
8.9.5 SWOT Analysis
8.10 The Biochar Company (TBC)
8.10.1 The Biochar Company (TBC) Company Details
8.10.2 Company Description
8.10.3 Capacity, Production and Value of Biochar
8.10.4 Biochar Product Description
8.10.5 SWOT Analysis
8.11 ElementC6
8.12 Vega Biofuels

9 Production Forecasts
9.1 Biochar Production and Revenue Forecast
9.1.1 Global Biochar Production Forecast 2019-2025
9.1.2 Global Biochar Revenue Forecast 2019-2025
9.2 Biochar Production and Revenue Forecast by Regions
9.2.1 Global Biochar Revenue Forecast by Regions
9.2.2 Global Biochar Production Forecast by Regions
9.3 Biochar Key Producers Forecast
9.3.1 United States
9.3.2 Europe
9.3.3 China
9.3.4 Japan
9.4 Forecast by Type
9.4.1 Global Biochar Production Forecast by Type
9.4.2 Global Biochar Revenue Forecast by Type

10 Consumption Forecast
10.1 Consumption Forecast by Application
10.2 Biochar Consumption Forecast by Regions
10.3 North America Market Consumption Forecast
10.3.1 North America Biochar Consumption Forecast by Countries 2019-2025
10.3.2 United States
10.3.3 Canada
10.3.4 Mexico
10.4 Europe Market Consumption Forecast
10.4.1 Europe Biochar Consumption Forecast by Countries 2019-2025
10.4.2 Germany
10.4.3 France
10.4.4 UK
10.4.5 Italy
10.4.6 Russia
10.5 Asia Pacific Market Consumption Forecast
10.5.1 Asia Pacific Biochar Consumption Forecast by Countries 2019-2025
10.5.2 China
10.5.3 Japan
10.5.4 Korea
10.5.5 India
10.5.6 Australia
10.5.7 Indonesia
10.5.8 Thailand
10.5.9 Malaysia
10.5.10 Philippines
10.5.11 Vietnam
10.6 Central & South America Market Consumption Forecast
10.6.1 Central & South America Biochar Consumption Forecast by Country 2019-2025
10.6.2 Brazil
10.7 Middle East and Africa Market Consumption Forecast
10.7.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Consumption Forecast by Countries 2019-2025
10.7.2 Middle East and Africa
10.7.3 Turkey
10.7.4 GCC Countries
10.7.5 Egypt
10.7.6 South Africa

11 Upstream, Industry Chain and Downstream Customers Analysis
11.1 Analysis of Biochar Upstream Market
11.1.1 Biochar Key Raw Material
11.1.2 Typical Suppliers of Key Biochar Raw Material
11.1.3 Biochar Raw Material Market Concentration Rate
11.2 Biochar Industry Chain Analysis
11.3 Marketing & Distribution
11.4 Biochar Distributors
11.5 Biochar Customers

12 Opportunities & Challenges, Threat and Affecting Factors
12.1 Market Opportunities
12.2 Market Challenges
12.3 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

13 Key Findings

14 Appendix
14.1 Research Methodology
14.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
14.1.2 Data Source
14.2 Author Details
14.3 Disclaimer

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Calendar-Selection – Climate Engineering – Kiel Earth Institute

2 August, 2021
 

“This week we are pleased to welcome biochar expert Kathleen Draper, Chairman of the International Biochar Initiative, to provide an overview of biochar, and to outline its potential as a CDR solution, as well as the many co-benefits it offers.”

LINK

&laquo July September &raquo

KIEL EARTH INSTITUTE, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany | Tel +49 431 600 0 | e-mail: info@climate-engineering.eu | Imprint


Timber haulers, harvesters may apply for COVID-19 aid

2 August, 2021
 


Bulk BioChar – Eco Health

2 August, 2021
 

Bulk Biochar

Bulk Biochar made from Pacific Northwest forest waste.

 

Soil Amendment

Contact an Eco Health representative for specific application rates.

Pyrolised Wood products

1/8 minus granulated powder

2-yard Bulk sack, approximately 680 Kgs

HANDLING STATEMENT:
Consult your representative for specific applications.

PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENT:
Keep out of reach of children. Rubber or impervious gloves recommended when handling. Avoid Inhalation. Do not ingest. Eyes: Flush with cool water Skin: Wash with soap and water. Ingestion: Do NOT Induce vomiting and consult a physician. Dilute by drinking plenty of water.

STORAGE:
Store in a cool dark space. Keep out of high humidity and water.

Crack the code of water-soil-plant nutrition for healthy, thriving ecosystems that will help your business blossom. With science. Ready to maximize your growth?

Sign up to learn the science of how to take better care of your environment, from turf to plants to crops and even retaining ponds.

©2021 Eco Health Industries Ltd.

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Biochar Market Key Players Change The View Of The Face Of Industry By 2028: Biokol, Biomass …

3 August, 2021
 

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Latest tech tracking ground breaking biochar use at Lansdowne Park – Marlborough District Council

3 August, 2021
 

For information and updates relating to the recent storm event: See our alerts section for updates

Sharing…

Gone are the days when a groundskeeper would put a finger to the wind or simply look out the window to check the weather.

These days science meets sport at Blenheim’s No. 1 rugby field at Lansdowne Park, where the Council and its turf managers have turned to the latest technology to assist in managing the new sand-based surface.

Last week six wireless soil sensors were buried in the field to provide ‘live’ data, including soil moisture, temperature and salinity readings, via an app on a smartphone.

Will Bowden from New Zealand Turf Management Solutions (NZTMS), a turf consultant for the Council, said Lansdowne No. 1 was the first stadium field in New Zealand where biochar has been used in a sub-section of its soil composition.

Biochar is burnt charcoal produced from plant matter and is often used as a means of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

“It’s also all about moisture and nutrient retention. It is good for the environment but also helps keep the irrigation and fertiliser used in the ground,” Mr Bowden said.

“We have never done this before. The sensors will give us hard and fast data that we are saving ‘x’ amount of water from irrigation and wastage from having biochar in the sand. We know the theory but it will be great to have field data to support this,” he said.

“This project offers a perfect opportunity to trial the units and provide us with some science,” he said. The sensors will be used to provide quarterly updates to the Council.

San Diego-based company GroundWorx offered the Council a free trial of the technology for up to 90 days to demonstrate its potential. If successful, the Council will own the system and the data it produces.

“Get up in the morning, view a dashboard on your phone and plan your day,” said Wellingtonian Lee Marshall, GroundWorx’s Oceania/Asia Master Agent and a co-founder of the company. “The sensors will collect the data to make those decisions. They are a wireless ‘cell phone in the ground’,” he said.

Each sensor contains two SIM cards – one Vodafone and one roaming – sending information up to the cloud every 10 minutes. The units have a battery life of up to seven years and a unique serial number to send updates directly to each unit anywhere in the world.

The installation of the sensors is a South Island first but the technology is already in use at Eden Park in Auckland and Sky Stadium in Wellington, plus a number of prestigious golf courses around the country.

Council Parks and Open Spaces Officer Robert Hutchinson said the new sand surface at Lansdowne required careful management for moisture levels. “This sensor technology is going to provide us with a good picture of how the systems are working with the water and biochar/sand combination,” he said.

It was hoped the No. 1 field would be in use by now but the recent storm delayed this. “We still need to get the new fold down goal posts in the ground and we have been waiting on the right weather conditions to get the concrete block foundations in for these,” Mr Hutchinson said.

The $700k renovations to the field are part of major redevelopments underway at the park, including a new multi-code sportshub building.

Photo Left: Will Bowden from NZTMS holds a sample of the new surface at Lansdowne Park No. 1 showing its biochar and sand elements

Photo Right:Science meets sport . . . one of the new wireless soil moisture sensors recently installed at the rugby field

The information in this media statement was correct at time of publication. Changes in circumstances after the time of publication may impact on the accuracy of the information.

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Fe(III) loaded chitosan-biochar composite fibers for the removal of phosphate from water …

3 August, 2021
 

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Latest Tech Tracking Ground Breaking Biochar Use At Lansdowne Park

3 August, 2021
 

Local Govt | National News Video | Parliament Headlines | Politics Headlines | <a href="http:///” style=”white-space: nowrap”>Search

Gone are the days when a groundskeeper would put a finger to the wind or simply look out the window to check the weather.

Science meets sport . . . one of the new wireless soil moisture sensors recently installed at the rugby field

These days science meets sport at Blenheim’s No. 1 rugby field at Lansdowne Park, where the Council and its turf managers have turned to the latest technology to assist in managing the new sand-based surface.

Last week six wireless soil sensors were buried in the field to provide ‘live’ data, including soil moisture, temperature and salinity readings, via an app on a smartphone.

Will Bowden from New Zealand Turf Management Solutions (NZTMS), a turf consultant for the Council, said Lansdowne No. 1 was the first stadium field in New Zealand where biochar has been used in a sub-section of its soil composition.

Biochar is burnt charcoal produced from plant matter and is often used as a means of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

“It’s also all about moisture and nutrient retention. It is good for the environment but also helps keep the irrigation and fertiliser used in the ground,” Mr Bowden said.

“We have never done this before. The sensors will give us hard and fast data that we are saving ‘x’ amount of water from irrigation and wastage from having biochar in the sand. We know the theory but it will be great to have field data to support this,” he said.

“This project offers a perfect opportunity to trial the units and provide us with some science,” he said. The sensors will be used to provide quarterly updates to the Council.

San Diego-based company GroundWorx offered the Council a free trial of the technology for up to 90 days to demonstrate its potential. If successful, the Council will own the system and the data it produces.

“Get up in the morning, view a dashboard on your phone and plan your day,” said Wellingtonian Lee Marshall, GroundWorx’s Oceania/Asia Master Agent and a co-founder of the company. “The sensors will collect the data to make those decisions. They are a wireless ‘cell phone in the ground’,” he said.

Each sensor contains two SIM cards – one Vodafone and one roaming – sending information up to the cloud every 10 minutes. The units have a battery life of up to seven years and a unique serial number to send updates directly to each unit anywhere in the world.

The installation of the sensors is a South Island first but the technology is already in use at Eden Park in Auckland and Sky Stadium in Wellington, plus a number of prestigious golf courses around the country.

Council Parks and Open Spaces Officer Robert Hutchinson said the new sand surface at Lansdowne required careful management for moisture levels. “This sensor technology is going to provide us with a good picture of how the systems are working with the water and biochar/sand combination,” he said.

It was hoped the No. 1 field would be in use by now but the recent storm delayed this. “We still need to get the new fold down goal posts in the ground and we have been waiting on the right weather conditions to get the concrete block foundations in for these,” Mr Hutchinson said.

The $700k renovations to the field are part of major redevelopments underway at the park, including a new multi-code sportshub building.

 

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The waste product which could help mitigate climate change

4 August, 2021
 

Biochar can boost crop yields in poor soils and help stop the effects of climate change, study finds. So why aren’t we using it more?

An international review study details for the first time how biochar improves the root zone of a plant. Photo: Shutterstock.

A product made from urban, agriculture and forestry waste has the added benefit of reducing the carbon footprint of modern farming, an international review involving UNSW has found.

Visiting Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at UNSW Science, Stephen Joseph, says the study published in GCB Bioenergy provides strong evidence that biochar can contribute to climate change mitigation.

“Biochar can draw down carbon from the atmosphere into the soil and store it for hundreds to thousands of years,” the lead author says.

“This study also found that biochar helps build organic carbon in soil by up to 20 per cent (average 3.8 per cent) and can reduce nitrous oxide emissions from soil by 12 to 50 per cent, which increases the climate change mitigation benefits of biochar.”

The findings are supported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s recent Special Report on Climate Change and Land, which estimated there was important climate change mitigation potential available through biochar.

“The intergovernmental panel found that globally, biochar could mitigate between 300 million to 660 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year by 2050,” Prof. Joseph says.

“Compare that to Australia’s emissions last year – an estimated 499 million tonnes of carbon dioxide – and you can see that biochar can absorb a lot of emissions. We just need a will to develop and use it.”

Biochar is the product of heating biomass residues such as wood chips, animal manures, sludges, compost and green waste, in an oxygen-starved environment – a process called pyrolysis.

The result is stable charcoal which can cut greenhouse emissions, while boosting soil fertility.

The GCB Bioenergy study reviewed approximately 300 papers including 33 meta-analyses that examined many of the 14,000 biochar studies that have been published over the last 20 years.  

“It found average crop yields increased from 10 to 42 per cent, concentrations of heavy metals in plant tissue were reduced by 17 to 39 per cent and phosphorous availability to plants increased too,” Prof. Joseph says.

“Biochar helps plants resist environmental stresses, such as diseases, and helps plants tolerate toxic metals, water stress and organic compounds such as the herbicide atrazine.”

The study details for the first time how biochar improves the root zone of a plant.

In the first three weeks, as biochar reacts with the soil it can stimulate seed germination and seedling growth.

During the next six months, reactive surfaces are created on biochar particles, improving nutrient supply to plants.

After three to six months, biochar starts to ‘age’ in the soil and forms microaggregates that protect organic matter from decomposition.

Prof. Joseph says the study found the greatest responses to biochar were in acidic and sandy soils where biochar had been applied together with fertiliser.

“We found the positive effects of biochar were dose dependent and also dependent on matching the properties of the biochar to soil constraints and plant nutrient requirements,” Prof. Joseph says.

“Plants, particularly in low-nutrient, acidic soils common in the tropics and humid subtropics, such as the north coast of NSW and Queensland, could significantly benefit from biochar.

“Sandy soils in Western Australia, Victoria and South Australia, particularly in dryland regions increasingly affected by drought under climate change, would also greatly benefit.”

Professor Stephen Joseph. Photo: Supplied

Prof. Joseph AM is an  expert in producing engineered stable biochar from agriculture, urban and forestry residues.

He has been researching the benefits of biochar in promoting healthy soils and addressing climate change since he was introduced to it by Indigenous Australians in the seventies.

He says biochar has been used for production of crops and for maintaining healthy soils by Indigenous peoples in Australia, Latin America (especially in the Amazon basin) and Africa for many hundreds of years.

Biochar has also been recorded in the 17th Century as a feed supplement for animals.

But while Australian researchers have studied biochar since 2005, it has been relatively slow to take off as a commercial product, with Australia producing around 5000 tonnes a year.

“This is in part due to the small number of large-scale demonstration programs that have been funded, as well as farmers’ and government advisors’ lack of knowledge about biochar, regulatory hurdles, and lack of venture capital and young entrepreneurs to fund and build biochar businesses,” Prof. Joseph says.

In comparison, the US is producing about 50,000 tonnes a year, while China is producing more than 500,000 tonnes a year.

Prof. Joseph, who has received an Order of Australia for his work in renewable energy and biochar, says to enable widespread adoption of biochar, it needs to be readily integrated with farming operations and be demonstrated to be economically viable.

“We’ve done the science, what we don’t have is enough resources to educate and train people, to establish demonstrations so farmers can see the benefits of using biochar, to develop this new industry,” he says.

However this is slowly changing as large corporations are purchasing carbon dioxide reduction certificates (CORC’s) to offset their emissions, which is boosting the profile of biochar in Australia.

Biochar has potential in a range of applications.

Prof. Joseph co-authored a recent study in International Materials Reviews which detailed the less well-known uses of biochar, such as a construction material, to reduce toxins in soil, grow microorganisms, in animal feed and soil remediation.

UNSW has a collaborative grant with a company and a university in Norway to develop a biochar based anti-microbial coating to kill pathogens in water and find use in air filtration systems, he says.

Read the GCB Bioenergy study.

DISCLOSURE: Stephen Joseph is a member of the Australian New Zealand Biochar Industries Group. The Universities where he works have received grants from both state and federal governments and from companies for the development and testing of biochars. He has also assisted companies and farmers develop fit for purpose biochars and equipment to make biochars.

 

Media Office, UNSW Sydney NSW 2052 Australia
Telephone. +61 2 9385 2864, Email. media@unsw.edu.au
Authorised by the Chief Communications Officer, UNSW Division of External Engagement
Provider Code: 00098G ABN: 57 195 873 179


V4 Biochar & Nutrient Management/Recovery Thematic Network – International workshop …

4 August, 2021
 

An international workshop will be organised by NUTRIMAN TN and V4 Biochar Platform. The NUTRIMAN Farmer Platform and the new EU Fertilising Products Regulation (EU 2019/1009) will be explained. ID192 Bio-Phosphate product and its organic farming application opportunities will be presented to the PRODUCER ORGANISATION farmers. Practical presentation of the Bio-Phosphate authority permit (6300/13393-2/2019) and applications of the Bio-Phosphate product.

Program:

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 818470

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Biochar can boost crop yields in poor soils and help stop the effects of climate change, study finds

4 August, 2021
 

 


Biochar Market 2021 Growth, Industry Trends, Size By Regional Forecast : BlackCarbon A/S …

4 August, 2021
 

This Biochar Market report provides a detailed assessment of the market by highlighting different aspects such as drivers, trends, opportunities, constraints and challenges. The report is a comprehensive numerical analysis of the market and provides data for formulating strategies to improve market growth and success. The report finds the basic elements of the market based on the current industry, market demand, business methods used by market participants, and prospects at different edges.

The research provides market overview, Biochar market definition, market size, Industry share, regional market opportunities, sales and revenue by region, manufacturing cost analysis, industry chain, market influencing factor analysis, market data & graphs and statistics, Tables, Bar & Pie charts, and many more for business intelligence.

Get FREE sample copy of the report : https://www.polarismarketresearch.com/industry-analysis/biochar-market/request-for-sample

This Report Sample Includes:

COMPETITOR ANALYSIS:

Biochar market competition pattern provides detailed information by competitors. Detailed information includes company profile, company finances, revenue generated, market potential, R&D investment, new market plans, regional presence, company strengths and weaknesses, product releases, product width and breadth, and application advantages.

Some well-established players in the Biochar market are –

BlackCarbon A/S , Biochar Industries, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Carbon Terra GmbH, Biochar Ireland, Sunriver Biochar, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Waste to Energy Solutions Inc., Airex Energy, Carbon Gold, Clean Fuels B.V., 3R ENVIRO TECH Group

MARKET SEGMENTATION:

The report was compiled after extensive qualitative and quantitative research on major market segments, and further subdivided into sub-segments. The research reveals the market segments that will dominate the market during the forecast period to help customers gain a competitive advantage. The report discusses regional market performance to help clients make informed strategic decisions on investment plans and regional expansion.

Polaris Market Research has segmented the global Biochar market on the basis of technology, application and region:

Biochar Technology Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion, 2015 – 2026)

Biochar Application Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion, 2015 – 2026)

Regional Analysis:

In addition to segmentation, the report also features highly structured regional studies. The researchers’ comprehensive regional analysis highlights the key regions and their major countries that account for a significant revenue share in the Biochar market. The research helps to understand how the market is performing in various regions, while also mentioning emerging regions that are growing at a significant CAGR. The following are the regions covered by this report

The main benefits for stakeholders:

This Biochar Market Research/analysis Report Contains Answers To Your Following Questions:

Table of Content: Global Biochar  Market Research Report 2021-2027

Chapter 1: Biochar Market Overview

Chapter 2: Biochar Market Economic Impact

Chapter 3: Competition by Manufacturer

Chapter 4: Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2021-2027)

Chapter 5: Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2021-2027)

Chapter 6: Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7: Biochar Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8: Biochar Market by Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9: Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10: Biochar Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11: Biochar  Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12: Biochar Market Forecast (2021-2027)

Chapter 13: Appendix

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Biochar can boost crop yields in poor soils and help stop the effects of climate change, study finds. So why aren’t we using…

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Santanu Mukherjee – Google Scholar

5 August, 2021
 


Biochar-2020 | Greenhouse Gas | Soil

5 August, 2021
 

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Environmental Pollution
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/envpol

Biochar amendment mitigates greenhouse gases emission and global

warming potential in dairy manure based silage corn in boreal
climate*
Waqar Ashiq a, b, Muhammad Nadeem a, Waqas Ali a, Muhammad Zaeem a,
Jianghua Wu a, Lakshman Galagedara a, Raymond Thomas a, Vanessa Kavanagh c,
Mumtaz Cheema a, *
a
School of Science and the Environment, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Corner Brook, NL, A2H 5G4, Canada
b
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G2W1, Canada
c
Department of Fisheries and Land Resources, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Pasadena, NL, A0L 1K0, Canada

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: About 11% of the global anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions result from agricultural
Received 11 January 2020 practices. Dairy manure (DM) application to soil is regarded as a best management practice due to C
Received in revised form sequestration and improvement of soil physiochemical properties. However, GHGs emissions from the
15 April 2020
soil following the DM application could offset its advantages. Biochar (BC) is known to affect N trans-
Accepted 22 May 2020
Available online 27 May 2020
formation and GHGs emissions from soil. There had been considerably less focus on the BC amendment
and its effects on GHGs emissions following DM application under field conditions. The objectives of this
study were; i) to determine the temporal patterns and cumulative GHGs fluxes following DM and
Keywords:
Carbon dioxide
inorganic nitrogen (IN) application and, ii) to investigate BC amendment impact on DMY, GWP, direct
Methane N2O emission factor (EFd) and the response of CH4 emissions (RC) in DM based silage corn. To achieve
Nitrous oxide these objectives a two-year field experiment was conducted with these treatments: 1) DM with high N
Global warming potential conc. (DM1: 0.37% N); 2) DM with low N conc. (DM2: 0.13% N); 3) IN; 4) DM1þBC; 5) DM2þBC; 6) IN þ BC;
Emission factor and 7) Control (N0); and were laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications. BC
amendment to DM1, DM2 and IN significantly reduced cumulative CO2 emission by 16, 25.5 and 26.5%,
CH4 emission by 184, 200 and 293% and N2O emission by 95, 86 and 93% respectively. It also reduced
area-scaled and yield-scaled GWP, EFd, RC and enhanced DMY. Thus, BC application showed great po-
tential to offset the negative effects of DM application i.e GHGs emissions from the silage corn cropping
system. Further research is needed to evaluate soil organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics (substrates for
GHG emissions) after DM and BC application on various soil types and cropping systems under field
conditions.
Crown Copyright © 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction agricultural GHGs emissions would reduce global warming poten-

tial (GWP), and consequently improve the stability of the strato-
Agriculture sector contributes 11% of the global anthropogenic spheric ozone layer (Smith et al., 2010). Different agricultural
greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions into the atmosphere (IPCC, management practices increase carbon (C) sequestration but
2019). It is the single largest source of anthropogenic N2O emis- release GHGs into the atmosphere as well (Huang et al., 2020; Hunt
sions, more than 50% of which is contributed by fertilized soils et al., 2019; Thomas et al., 2017). For instance, Dairy manure (DM)
(Robertson and Vitousek, 2009; Smith et al., 2010). Reducing application to agricultural soils enhances soil C sequestration, de-
creases soil bulk density, improves soil aggregation, nutrient up-
take, and agronomic performance of crops (Forge et al., 2016;
Mangalassery et al., 2019; Matsi et al., 2015), however, it releases a
*
This paper has been recommended for acceptance by Yong Sik Ok.
significant amount of GHGs (i.e. CO2, CH4, and N2O) into the at-
* Corresponding author.
E-mail address: mcheema@grenfell.mun.ca (M. Cheema).
mosphere (Hunt et al., 2019; Leytem et al., 2019; Reddy and Crohn,

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114869
0269-7491/Crown Copyright © 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2 W. Ashiq et al. / Environmental Pollution 265 (2020) 114869

2019). DM application is estimated to emit 32.7% more N2O than emissions, GWP, direct N2O emission factor and the response of CH4
inorganic nitrogen (IN) fertilizers (Zhou et al., 2017b). DM and IN emission in dairy manure based silage corn production system, 3)
fertilizer applications increase inorganic nitrogen ions (NHþ 4 and to investigate the effects of BC amendment on dry matter yield of
NO 3 ) in agricultural soils after mineralization (Aita et al., 2015; Kim silage corn and correlation between GHG emissions, DMY, GWP,
et al., 2019). These ions undergo nitrification and denitrification in EFd, RC, and other environmental variables.
soils and produce N2O and other GHGs. The GHGs emissions from
DM applications may offset the benefits of improving SOC (Zhou
2. Materials and methods
et al., 2017b). Therefore, there is a need to find some innovative
approach or management practices to enhance C sequestration,
2.1. Experimental treatments and crop management
physiochemical properties and reduce GHGs emissions to harvest
the real benefits of DM application.
A field experiment was carried out at Pynn’s Brook Research
Biochar (BC) is a form of black C created by thermal degradation
of biomass (wood, manure, leaves, etc.) in an oxygen-limited Station, Pasadena (49 040 21.900 N, 57 330 37.400 W), Canada, for two
environment (Lehmann and Joseph, 2009). BC is produced under years (2016 & 2017). The soil at the experimental site was classified
limited oxygen environments and it has a high percentage of as rapidly drained, Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol with reddish-brown
recalcitrant carbon (Spokas, 2010). Due to its high surface area and to brown color with 82% sand, 11.6% silt, and 6.4% clay particles. The
the presence of surface functional groups, it can sorb IN and native soils of this area were developed on a gravely sandy fluvial deposit
organic matter in the soil (Liang et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2016). It of mixed lithology with >100 cm depth to bedrock (Kirby, 1988).
also increases soil C sequestration, enhances ammonium (NHþ Soil samples were collected before crop seeding every year. The
4)
retention and availability in soil, prevents ammonia volatilization detailed soil analysis report of this site is available in our recent
and reduces NO publication (Ali et al., 2019). Briefly, experimental soil had 3.1%
3 leaching loss from soil (Cao et al., 2017; Feng et al.,
2019; Huang et al., 2017; Sun et al., 2017). BC demonstrated the organic matter, 12 cmol kg1 cation exchange capacity, bulk density
potential to reduce GHG after IN application (Shi et al., 2019; Singh 1.30 g cm3, and pH 6.5. The average amount of rainfall received
et al., 2010; Spokas and Reicosky, 2009; Sun et al., 2014). Shi et al. during the last 30 years (1985e2014) from mid-May to mid-
(2019) conducted a pot experiment using BC amendment with October at the study site was 457 mm (Ali et al., 2019). The
organic fertilizer (made from pig manure) and observed a signifi- experimental site was rainfed which received 628 mm and 461 mm
cant reduction in soil N2O emissions, compared to organic fertilizer rain during the 2016 and 2017 growing season (May to October),
alone. In another soil column experiment conducted in laboratory slightly higher than the last 30 years rainfall of 457 mm. Daily
conditions, BC addition to agricultural and forest soil decreased rainfall, maximum and minimum air temperature, and soil tem-
cumulative N2O emission by 20% and 25% respectively, whereas, perature (ST) at 5 cm depth and soil volumetric moisture content
cumulative CO2 emission increased by 7% from agricultural soil and for each treatment for 2016 and 2017 are presented in Fig. 3.
decreased by 31% from forest soil (Sun et al., 2014). In another soil Experimental treatments were: 1) dairy manure with high N conc.
column study conducted by Singh et al. (2010) determined the ef- (DM1: 0.37% N); 2) dairy manure with low N conc. (DM2: 0.13% N);
fects of BCs prepared from poultry manure and wood on GHGs 3) inorganic N fertilizer (IN); 4) DM1þBC; 5) DM2þBC; 6) IN þ BC;
emissions and reported that BC prepared from poultry manure 7) control (N0). The experiment was laid out in a randomized
increased N2O emissions and wood BC had inconsistent N2O complete block design with four replications. The net plot size for
emissions. However, both BCs reduced N2O emissions with aging each treatment was 4.8 m 1.5 m. DM samples were collected from
towards the end of the experiment. Spokas and Reicosky (2009) eleven dairy farms and chemical analysis was performed. Finally,
studied the impact of 16 different BCs addition to agricultural and DM with high and low N concentration was selected for filed ap-
forest soils and noted that most of the BCs reduced CH4 and N2O plications and was designated as DM1 and DM2 respectively.
emissions in both soils while inconsistent emission of CO2 was Analysis reports of DM1 and DM2 are presented in Table 1. DM was
recorded throughout the experiment. Most of the studies reported applied one day before seeding in respective treatment plots
on BC amendments following dairy manure and IN application and following local Farmers’ practice (30,000 L ha1) during both years.
its effects on GHGs emissions were conducted under controlled However, remaining required nutrients were added in respective
environmental conditions, however, results showed inconsistent treatment plots following soil analyses reports and regional rec-
effects of BC application on GHG emissions (Oo et al., 2018; Singh ommendations of the crop. Ammonium nitrate, triple superphos-
et al., 2010; Spokas and Reicosky, 2009; Wu et al., 2018). BC phate, and murate of potash were used as a source of nitrogen (N),
amendment following dairy manure and IN application to agri-
cultural soil and its impact on GHGs emissions, and dry matter yield Table 1
from field experiments have not been reported. Hence, we con- Chemical properties of dairy manure from two different farms (DM1 and DM2) used
ducted a two-year field experiment to measure GHGs emissions in this study.
following DM and IN applications and evaluated the potential of BC Characteristic DM1 DM2
in mitigating GHGs emissions, GWP, and enhancing dry matter
2016 2017 2016 2017
yield of silage corn in podzol soils under boreal climate. To the best
of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in the Atlantic Dry matter (%) 9.33 10.9 3.57 1.70
pH 6.80 6.80 7.00 7.10
Canada and one of the fewer studies under field conditions which Total Nitrogen (%) 0.37 0.44 0.14 0.12
evaluated the effects of BC amendment in DM and IN fertilized Total Phosphorus (%) 0.06 0.08 0.02 0.01
agricultural soils on GHGs emission. We hypothesized that the BC Total Potassium (%) 0.38 0.37 0.12 0.12
amendment following DM and IN application to agricultural soils Total Calcium (%) 0.16 0.19 0.059 0.04
Total Magnesium (%) 0.07 0.07 0.02 0.01
will reduce the cumulative and temporal emissions of CO2, CH4, and
Total Iron (ppm) 49.0 68 19.0 7.00
N2O gases. To test this hypothesis a two years field experiment was Total Manganese (ppm) 23.0 21.0 9.00 5.00
conducted with the following objectives: 1) to monitor seasonal Total Copper (ppm) 4.70 4.50 33.0 20.0
cumulative and temporal GHGs emissions following DM and IN Total Zinc (ppm) 17.0 21.0 8.00 5.00
fertilizer application in podzol soils under boreal climate, 2) to Total Boron (ppm) 3.00 3.40 1.00 0.50
Total Sodium (ppm) 911 904 275 241
evaluate the potential of BC amendment in mitigating GHGs
W. Ashiq et al. / Environmental Pollution 265 (2020) 114869 3

phosphorus (P), and potash (K). A detailed fertilizer application fluctuations (Lutes et al., 2016). ST and volumetric moisture con-
schedule is given in Table 2. Soil samples were collected from the tents were measured on GHG sampling days, at three places around
experimental site each year and were sent to Soil and Plant labo- the chamber using integrated TDR probes (EC-TM model, Decagon
ratory, department of Fisheries, Forestry and Agrifoods, St. John’s Devices Inc. Pullman WA, US). Gas samples were transferred to
NL. We followed N:P:K fertilizers rate as recommended by Soil and clear evacuated Labco Exetainer® glass vials (3-soda glass, 101 mm
Plant laboratory (115:30:160 and 115:30:155 kg ha1 during 2016 height, 15.5 mm diameter, 12 mL capacity) sealed with gas-tight
and 2017 respectively). BC for this study was acquired from Air neoprene septum. Gas samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatog-
Terra Inc. Alberta, Canada. The feedstock used for BC was yellow raphy (SICON GC-456, SCION Instruments, Scotland, UK.) equipped
pine wood (Pinus spp.), pyrolyzed at 500 C for 30 min. Detailed with thermal conductivity detector (TCD), flame ionization detector
characteristics of BC are presented in Table 3. BC was mixed (FID), and electron capture detector (ECD) (Collier et al., 2014). All
manually in the top 15e20 cm soil in respective treatment plots fluxes were adjusted for headspace volume and chamber area
using rakes before seeding only once. BC was applied at the rate of (Holland et al., 1999). Fluxes were calculated based on linear
20 t ha1 (Liu et al., 2012)., Yukon-R, was used as silage corn test regression developed by using all time points sampled: F ¼ (dC/dt)
hybrid based on low crop heating units (CHU), keeping in view x V/A (where, V is volume of the chamber, A is the area covered by
short and cool growing season of experimental area (Fig. 3 a&d). chamber, and dC/dt is the rate of concentration change over the
The crop was seeded with SAMCO 2200 system (SAMCO Agricul- sampling period). Seasonal cumulative fluxes were calculated by
tural Manufacturing Ltd, Netherlands) on May 24, 2016, and May multiplying the mean fluxes of two successive determinations by
23, 2017, using 90,900 seeds ha1. The perforated plastic sheet was the length of the period between samplings and adding that
used with a SAMCO system to cover corn crop rows to accumulate amount to the previous cumulative total as described in equation
extra heating units to enhance germination and seedling estab- (1) (Yang et al., 2017).
lishment during the early growing season. Weeds were controlled
using Roundup WeatherMax® (Monsanto Canada Inc.) following X
n .
the instructions on the label. The crop was harvested at physio- Cumulative flux ¼ ðFi þ Fiþ1 Þ 2 ðtiþ1 ti Þ 24 1
logical maturity on October 18 & 13 during 2016, and 2017, i¼1

respectively.
where F is the gas flux (mg m2 h1), i is the ith measurement,
(tiþ1- ti) denotes days between two adjacent sampling events, and
2.2. Gas and plant sampling n is the total number of sampling events.
To determine silage corn dry matter yield (DMY), the crop was
Gas samples were collected weekly for a month after seeding harvested at physiological maturity from 1 m2 area from each
and then biweekly until harvesting of the crop using the static treatment. The whole plant (shoot, leaves, and cobs) was oven-
chamber method (Holland et al., 1999). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dried at 70 C until a constant weight was achieved and the DMY
collars were inserted between corn rows to a depth of 10 cm in each was calculated following the method of Ali et al. (2019). The CO2
treatment one week before first gas sampling to mitigate any equivalents of CH4 and N2O were calculated using GWP values of 25
placement disturbance. A 50 cm high PVC chamber (26 cm inner for CH4 and 298 for N2O (Zhou et al., 2018, 2017a, 2015).
diameter) and covered with PVC lid on the top during gas sampling.
Chamber lids were covered with reflective insulation to prevent GWPðCH4þ N2OÞ ¼ CH4 25 þ N2 O 298 2
temperature fluctuations during gas sampling. The lids had a rub-
ber seal on the inner side and tubing outlets connected with three- Yield-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O) was calculated as Yield-scaled
way stopcocks, Luer-lock tip for sample collection. For each mea- GWP(CH4þN2O) ¼ area-scaled-GWP(CH4þN2O)/DMY (kg CO2 eq kg1
surement, four gas samples were collected from the tubing outlet DMY) (Zhou et al., 2018, 2017a, 2015). The direct N2O emission
using a 30 mL non-sterile syringe at 10 min intervals (0, 10, 20 and factors (EFd) and CH4 response (RC) induced by different experi-
30 min after lid closure) (Chen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2012). mental treatments were calculated as EFd ¼ 100 (Ef – N0)/N,
Samples were collected between 10:00 a.m. – 01:00 p.m. to mini- where Ef is the cumulative N2O flux from respective fertilizer
mize sampling bias and to account for diurnal temperature treatment (Kg ha1 season1), N0 is the cumulative N2O flux (Kg

Table 2
Total required fertilizers and amount of N:P:K compensated from dairy manure (s) and synthetic fertilizer during 2016 & 2017 growing seasons. Fertilizer sources used were
ammonium nitrate, triple super phosphate, and murate of potash for N, P and K.

Treatment Manure N:P:K (kg Fertilizer N:P:K at seeding (kg Fertilizer N:P:K at 6 leaves stage (kg Fertilizer N:P:K at 12 leaves stage (kg Total N:P:K (kg
ha1) ha1) ha1) ha1) ha1)
2016

DM1, 45:18:123 70:12:37 e e 115:30:160

DM1þB
DM2, 15:09:39 100:21:121 e e 115:30:160
DM2þB
IN, IN þ B e 115:30:160 e e 115:30:160
N0 e 0:30:160 e e 0:30:160
2017
DM1, 57:51:120 0:0:35 29:0:0 29:0:0 115:51:155
DM1þB
DM2, 15:09:39 0:21:116 50:0:0 50:0:0 115:30:155
DM2þB
IN, IN þ B e 0:30:155 57.5:0:0 57.5:0:0 115:30:155
N0 e e e e e

The recommended N:P:K application rate after soil test was 115:30:160 kg ha1 during 2016 and 115:30:155 kg ha1 during 2017. Dairy manure was applied at 30,000 L ha1
during both years. The recommended available N:P:K from DM1 and DM2 were adjusted for fertilizer calculations.
4 W. Ashiq et al. / Environmental Pollution 265 (2020) 114869

Table 3
Physicochemical properties of biochar used in this study. Biochar was amended at 20 t ha1 during 2016 before crop seeding.

Property Value Property Value

pH 9* bulk density (Mg m3) 0.23*, 0.19+

H (%) 0.68+ solid space (% v/v) 12.5+
O (%) 7.84+ void space (% v/v) 87.5+
N (%) 0.22+ ECe (mmhos cm1) 0.43*
S (%) 0+ fixed carbon (%) 84.5+
H/C 0.1+ recalcitrant carbon (%) 64.6*,76.2+
O/C 0.07+ particle density (acetone) (g cc1) 1.57+
moisture (%) 15.2* butane activity (g per 100 g dry char) 5.1+
ash (%) 6.7+ neutralizing value (% as CaCO3) 4.2*,4.9+
total ash (%) 6*,7.1+ carbonate value (% as CaCO3) 0.5*,0.6+
volatile matter (%) 8.5+ WHC (mls water per 100 g dry char) 74.9*+

* represents values at fresh weight basis.

+
represents values at dry weight basis.

ha1 season1) from non-N fertilizer treatment (N0), N is the N 7834 ± 476 kg ha1 season1 (Table 4). Likewise, experimental
fertilizer application (Kg N ha1 season1) (Su et al., 2017; Zhou treatments had significant effects on temporal CO2 emission.
et al., 2018, 2017a, 2015). The response of CH4 emissions per kg N Higher temporal CO2 emission events were recorded on June 22,
fertilizer was also calculated as RC ¼ (CH4F – CH4N0)/N, where CH4F August 17 during 2016; July 16, and September 22 during 2017
is the cumulative CH4 emissions (kg ha1 season1) from respective (Fig. 1 a-c). We observed a decrease in CO2 emissions with the BC
fertilizer treatment, CH4N0 is the cumulative CH4 emission (kg ha1 amendment but fluctuated with soil moisture (SM) and soil tem-
season1) from the non-fertilized treatment, and N is the N fertil- perature (ST), for example, on three events (June 22, August 17, July
izer application rate (kg N ha1 season1) (Su et al., 2017; Zhou 16), high ST enhanced CO2 emission compared to the rest of the
et al., 2018, 2017a, 2015). growing season while on September 22, 2017, higher SM stimulated
All statistical analyses were performed with Sigma plot 12 CO2 emission (Fig. 3 c-f). During 2016, significant relationship was
(Systat Software Inc.). Shapiro-Wilk test was performed to check seen between CO2 and ST & SM (p < 0.001), whereas, in 2017, CO2
the normality of data. If required, necessary transformation was and ST were correlated to each other (p ¼ 0.008, Table 5). High ST
done for analysis and data were back transformed for presentation. increases soil CO2 emissions by increasing soil microbial activities
The effects of BC amendment in DM and IN fertilizer treatments on which mineralize manure and other organic matter and lead to CO2
crop yield and CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were assessed using ana- emission (Abbas and Fares, 2009; Thangarajan et al., 2013). The
lyses of variance (ANOVA), followed by the least significant differ- high CO2 emissions on September 22, 2017, showed that higher SM
ence test (LSD); p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. stimulated CO2 emissions. Higher peaks of CO2 emission observed
The relationships between CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes and environ- with DM amendments could be attributed due to the priming effect
mental factors (soil temperature and soil moisture) and crop yield of C compounds present in DM on native soil C (Bol et al., 2003;
were evaluated using linear regression. Finally, SigmaPlot 12 (Systat Reddy and Crohn, 2019). Generally, DM applications to agricultural
Software, Inc., USA) was employed for figure preparation. soils increase microbial activities and consequently enhanced CO2
emission (Amon et al., 2006; Pokharel and Chang, 2019). However,
3. Results and discussion BC amendment to DM1, DM2 and IN significantly (p < 0.05) reduced
seasonal cumulative CO2 emission by 17% (7834 ± 476 to
DM1, DM2, and IN alone and in combination with BC had sig- 6430 ± 169 kg ha1 season1), 25% (7652 ± 31 to 5666 ± 16 kg ha1
nificant effects (p < 0.05) on temporal and seasonal cumulative season1) and 26% (7566 ± 37 to 5576 ± 29 kg ha1 season1) in
emission of CO2, CH4, and N2O during the 2016 and 2017 growing 2016. Whereas in 2017, the reduction was 15% (7078 ± 639 to
seasons. Temporal patterns of GHG emissions are shown in Fig. 1 5957 ± 714 kg ha1 season1), 26% (5601 ± 806 to
(2016) and Fig. 2 (2017). Cumulative seasonal GHG emissions 4100 ± 574 kg ha1 season1) and 27% (5248 ± 740 to
from different treatments for both growing seasons are presented 3800 ± 465 kg ha1 season1) (Table 4). Different functional groups
in Table 4. present on the BC surface enhanced CO2 adsorption which reduced
CO2 emissions in BC amended treatments. Moreover, reduction in
the availability of labile C due to the sorption of organic matter and
3.1. Carbon dioxide emissions enzymes on BC surface reduced CO2 emissions (Brennan et al.,
2015; Sheng and Zhu, 2018; Zheng et al., 2018). Pokharel and
DM1, DM2, and IN treatments alone and combination with BC Chang (2019) reported that reduction in CO2 emission can be
had significant (p < 0.05) effects on seasonal cumulative and tem- attributed to the stabilization of root exudates by the formation of
poral CO2 emission in both years. We observed higher cumulative organo-mineral complexes in BC amended soil, which reduced root
CO2 emissions (7834 ± 476 kg ha1 season1) from DM1, although exudates derived CO2 emission.
statistically at par with DM2 and IN treatments, and lowest
(5576 ± 29 kg ha1 season1) was recorded in IN þ BC treatment
during 2016 growing season (Table 4). BC amendment to DM and IN 3.2. Methane emissions
treatments reduced significant amounts of CO2 emission. For
example, BC amendment to DM1, DM2 and IN treatments reduced DM1, DM2, and IN treatments alone and in combination with BC
seasonal cumulative CO2 emissions from 7834 ± 476 to 6430 ± 169, significantly (p < 0.05) affected seasonal cumulative and temporal
7652 ± 31 to 5666 ± 16 and 7566 ± 37 to 5576 ± 29 kg ha1 sea- CH4 emissions during both years of study. Higher seasonal cumu-
son1. In 2017, significantly higher CO2 emission (7078 ± 639) was lative CH4 emission (1.26 ± 0.9 kg ha1 season1) was observed in
observed in DM1 treatment, followed by DM2 and IN treatments. DM1 treatment compared to control, although DM1, DM2 and IN
Seasonal cumulative CO2 fluxes ranged from 3800 ± 465 to treatments were statistically non-significant. Lower CH4 emission
W. Ashiq et al. / Environmental Pollution 265 (2020) 114869 5

Fig. 1. Temporal patterns of soil CO2 (a,b,c), CH4 (d,e,f) and N2O (g,h,i) emission during 2016 silage corn growing season.

(1.69 ± 0.6 kg ha1 season1) was observed in IN þ BC treatment treatments (Fig. 1 d-f). In 2017, again DM2 treatment emitted higher
during 2016. A similar pattern of seasonal cumulative CH4 emission CH4 (1.785 mg m2 h1) on October 09, 2017 (144 DAMA) when SM
was observed in 2017 (Table 4). The mean flux of CH4 emission was high (Fig. 2 d-f). Higher CH4 emission could be explained by (a)
across the treatments ranged from 1.69 ± 0.6 to 1.26 ± 0.9 kg ha1 the higher rainfall and/or (b) lower available N concentrations in
season1 during 2016 and -19 ± 5 to 11.6 ± 3 kg ha1 season1 the soil due to large N leaching loss by the extreme rainfall event. In
during 2017. During both growing seasons, a significant relation- this study, we observed higher CH4 emission with DM application
ship was seen between CH4 and SM (p < 0.05, Table 5). DM appli- than IN fertilizer, most likely because of that large fractions of re-
cation in soil enhances dissolved organic carbon and availability of sidual N remaining in the fertilized field were lost by the extreme
short-chain volatile fatty acids which increased methanogen gene rainfall event via leaching (Choudhury and Kennedy, 2005; Zhu
numbers and released CH4 from soil (Chadwick et al., 2000; et al., 2009). Several studies have demonstrated that methano-
Chadwick and Pain, 1997; Hrapovic and Rowe, 2002; Sherlock et al., trophic bacteria have a high N requirement (Bodelier and
2002). Soil CH4 emissions also dependent on SM and ST across Laanbroek, 2004; Krüger and Frenzel, 2003). After an extreme
growing seasons and treatments as we observed in the present rainfall event, soil CH4 oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria might
study (Fig. 2 d-f). Significant temporal variation in CH4 emission have been limited by insufficient N availability due to high soil N
was also observed during both growing seasons. DM2 treatment leaching losses to the hydrosphere. Thus, we cannot fully exclude
showed a peak CH4 emission (0.122 mg m2 h1) on June 01, 2016 option (b). Moreover, processes of CH4 production and emission
[12 days after manure application (DAMA)] and the sink effect was interact with many site-specific factors, such as N fertilization rate,
observed on June 08, 2016 (20 DAMA) in all BC amended microbial community and activity and soil C (Banger et al., 2012).
6 W. Ashiq et al. / Environmental Pollution 265 (2020) 114869

Fig. 2. Temporal patterns of soil CO2 (a,b,c), CH4 (d,e,f) and N2O (g,h,i) emission during 2017 silage corn growing season.

Unfortunately, we have not monitored these parameters in the amendment at 20 tons ha1.
present study. Therefore, further studies with more N fertilization
rates and simultaneous measurements of available soil C and DOC
and CH4 production, oxidation, and transportation are necessary to 3.3. Nitrous oxide emissions
elucidate the underlying mechanisms. BC amendment significantly
reduced CH4 emission in DM and IN amended treatments in both DM1, DM2, and IN treatments alone and combination with BC
years (Table 4). BC inhibits methanogen activity, stimulates meth- had significant (p < 0.05) effects on seasonal cumulative and tem-
anotrophic activity and increases the abundance of the methano- poral N2O emissions during both years. During 2016, DM2 treat-
trophic proteobacterial community (Feng et al., 2012; Yanai et al., ment emitted higher N2O (2.17 ± 0.1 kg ha1 season1) than DM1
2007). BC can adsorb CH4 on its surface because of the highly and IN treatments, although statistically non-significant with DM1
porous structure and large surface area (Fig. 4). Overall, across all (1.70 ± 0.2 kg ha1 season1) and IN (1.80 ± 0.3 kg ha1 season1)
treatments, DM and IN treatments acted as net source and BC treatments. BC amendment with DM1, DM2 and IN treatments
amended treatments as a net sink of atmospheric CH4 during the significantly reduced N2O emission, lower N2O emission
entire 2016 & 2017 growing seasons. Previous research conducted (0.15 ± 0.1 kg ha1 season1) was observed in DM1þBC treatment.
under controlled environmental conditions on forage grasses During 2017, DM1 produced higher N2O than DM2 and IN treat-
showed CH4 emissions were completely suppressed with BC ments, whereas, DM2þBC treatment emitted lower N2O (Table 4).
amendment at 20 g kg1 (Lehmann, 2007). In the present study, we Seasonal cumulative N2O fluxes ranged from 2.17 ± 0.1
also observed a significant reduction in CH4 emission with the BC to 0.15 ± 0.1 during 2016 and 1.95 ± 0.27 to 0.01 ± 0.51 during
2017. During 2016, a significant relationship was seen between N2O
W. Ashiq et al. / Environmental Pollution 265 (2020) 114869 7

Fig. 3. The average maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) air temperature, total precipitation, soil temperature at 5 cm depth and soil volumetric moisture content in experimental
treatments during 2016 (a,b,c) and 2017 (d,e,f) silage corn growing seasons. Legend: Solid circle (DM1), empty circle (DM1þB), solid triangle (DM2), empty triangle (DM2þB), solid
square (IN), empty square (INþB), and solid star (N0).

and SM (p < 0.001) whereas, in 2017 growing season significant as hotspots for complete denitrification (Ameloot et al., 2013). It is
relationship between N2O and ST was observed (p < 0.001, Table 5). thus, highly likely that in these microsites the intermediary prod-
DM and IN fertilizer applications increase the concentration of uct, N2O, might be completely reduced to N2. Moreover, the BC
inorganic nitrogen in the soil which undergoes nitrification and amendment enhanced the growth of certain soil microbes (e.g.
denitrification and releases N2O as a by-product (Inselsbacher et al., Bradyrhizobiaceae and Hyphomicrobiaceae families) that reduced
2011; Kostyanovsky et al., 2019). Furthermore, easily decomposable N2O emission by supporting denitrification of NO 3 to N2 (Anderson
C present in DM increases the N2O emission from the soil by et al., 2011). Significant temporal variation in N2O emission was also
providing substrate for denitrification (Kamewada, 2007; Velthof noted during both years. DM2 treatment recorded the highest N2O
et al., 2003). BC amendment to DM1, DM2 and IN significantly emission of 0.256 mg m2 h1 34 DAMA (June 22, 2016). BC
(p < 0.05) reduced seasonal cumulative N2O emission by 108% amendment with IN and DM1 treatments switched from source to
(1.70 ± 0.02 to 0.15 ± 0.1), 72% (2.17 ± 0.1 to 0.59 ± 0.1), and 86% net sink, N2O uptake from IN þ B and DM1þB was 0.067
(1.80 ± 0.3 to 0.24 ± 0.1) in 2016 and 82% (1.95 ± 0.27 to 0.33 ± 0.13), and 0.051 mg m2 h1 at 103 and 117 DAMA (August 31,
100% (1.63 ± 0.10 to 0.01 ± 0.51), and 86% (1.47 ± 0.20 to September 13) respectively, during 2016. In 2017, DM1 treatment
0.19 ± 0.16) kg ha1 season1 during 2017 growing seasons. BC emitted higher N2O (0.151 mg m2 h1) at 127 DAMA (September
contains organic compounds that inhibit microbial growth. For 22, 2017) and the net sink event (0.057 mg m2 h1) occurred 46
example, the presence of ethylene on the BC surface inhibits mi- DAMA (July 03, 2017) in the DM1þBC treatment. Generally, N2O
crobial population growth and reduces NO 3 (Spokas et al., 2010) emission peaks appeared immediately following N fertilization
thereby, decreases substrate availability for denitrification (Fungo (Figs. 1 and 2g-h), consistent with the fact that N fertilization
et al., 2019; Kammann et al., 2012). BC amendment reduced N2O commonly induces pulses of N2O emission (Snyder et al., 2009).
emission mainly due to suppressed denitrification rates (e.g. lower N2O is produced during soil nitrification and denitrification pro-
soil bulk density and higher aeration due to high porous structure), cesses (Paul et al., 1993; Skiba et al., 1993) and these processes are
sorption of inorganic N to BC surface and microbial N-immobili- highly dependent on SM and ST change (Li et al., 2015; Weier et al.,
zation (Ameloot et al., 2013; Clough et al., 2013; Harter et al., 2014). 1993). In the present study, we observed higher N2O emission at
Increased soil pH due to the incorporation of alkaline BC increases maximum ST and SM during 2016, and 2017 respectively.
N2O-reductase activity, thereby enhance N2 formation from N2O
and decrease the ratio of N2O-to-N2 (Lehmann et al., 2006; Shaaban 3.4. Silage corn dry matter yield
et al., 2015; Yanai et al., 2007). BC used in this study was alkaline
that enhanced soil pH and NO 3 concentration (data not presented) Experimental treatments significantly (p < 0.05) affected the
and possibly enhanced N2 formation (complete denitrification)
DMY of silage corn during both growing seasons. During 2016,
(Chapuis-lardy et al., 2007). High moisture retention and pH DM1þBC treatment produced higher DMY than the rest of all
properties of BC create local alkaline soil conditions, that might act
treatments and lower was recorded in control (Table 4). In the 2017
8 W. Ashiq et al. / Environmental Pollution 265 (2020) 114869

Table 4
Cumulative GHG emission CO2, CH4 and N2O (kg ha1 season1), Silage DMY (kg ha1), area-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O) (kg CO2 eq. ha1), yield-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O) (kg CO2 eq. kg1
silage corn dry matter), EFd (%), and RC (kg CH4 ha1 kg1 N) during 2016 & 2017 growing seasons.

Treatment CO2 CH4 N2O DMY Area-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O) Yield-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O) EFd RC

2016

DM1 7834 ± 476a 1.26 ± 0.9a 1.70 ± 0.2a 19797 ± 173c 537.5 ± 52a 0.027 ± 0.003a 0.7 ± 0.2a 0.012 ± 0.008a
DM1þB 6430 ± 169b 1.42 ± 0.1b 0.15 ± 0.1d 21050 ± 125a 79.8 ± 47d 0.004 ± 0.002d 0.9 ± 0.1c 0.012 ± 0.001b
A
DM2 7652 ± 31a 0.83 ± 0.5a 2.17 ± 0.1a 19567 ± 240c 667 ± 19a 0.034 ± 0.001a 1.1 ± 0.1a 0.008 ± 0.005a
DM2þB 5666 ± 16c 1.01 ± 0.4b 0.59 ± 0.1bc 20433 ± 176b 152 ± 41bc 0.008 ± 0.002c 0.3 ± 0.1b 0.008 ± 0.004b
IN 7566 ± 37a 0.86 ± 0.5a 1.80 ± 0.3a 18813 ± 135d 559 ± 101a 0.030 ± 0.005a 0.8 ± 0.3a 0.008 ± 0.005a
IN þ B 5576 ± 29c 1.69 ± 0.6b 0.24 ± 0.1cd 20533 ± 176ab 30.5 ± 57cd 0.002 ± 0.003cd 0.6 ± 0.1bc 0.014 ± 0.006b
N0 5961 ± 11bc 0.10 ± 0.2ab 0.89 ± 0.0b 15300 ± 152e 263.±7bc 0.017 ± 0.001b
2017
DM1 7078 ± 639a 11.6±3a 1.95 ± 0.27a 15983 ± 258bc 875 ± 79a 0.055 ± 0.006a 0.9 ± 0.2a 0.102 ± 0.028a
DM1þB 5957 ± 714ab 6.5±3bc 0.33 ± 0.13b 17160 ± 105a 63.5 ± 65cd 0.004 ± 0.004bc 0.5 ± 0.1b 0.056 ± 0.029b
DM2 5601 ± 806b 11.5±2a 1.63 ± 0.10a 15667 ± 218c 775 ± 47ab 0.050 ± 0.004a 0.6 ± 0.1a 0.101 ± 0.024a
DM2þB 4100 ± 754cd 9.1±5bc 0.01 ± 0.51b 16483 ± 44ab 232 ± 24d 0.014 ± 0.015c 0.8 ± 0.4b 0.078 ± 0.045b
IN 5248 ± 740bc 9.9±3a 1.47 ± 0.20a 14580 ± 408d 688 ± 80ab 0.047 ± 0.004a 0.5 ± 0.2a 0.087 ± 0.032a
IN þ B 3800 ± 465d 19±5c 0.19 ± 0.16b 16483 ± 130ab 418 ± 161d 0.025 ± 0.010c 0.6 ± 0.1b 0.165 ± 0.044b
N0 3997 ± 561cd 0.28±5ab 0.96 ± 0.56ab 11200 ± 152e 280 ± 284bc 0.025 ± 0.025ab

Yield-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O) ¼ area-scaled-GWP(CH4þN2O)/DMY (kg CO2 eq kg1 DMY); EFd ¼ 100 (Ef – N0)/N, where Ef is the cumulative N2O flux from respective fertilizer
treatment (Kg ha1 season1), N0 is the cumulative N2O flux (Kg ha1 season1) from non-N fertilizer treatment (N0), N is the N fertilizer application (Kg N ha1 season1);
RC ¼ (CH4F – CH4N0)/N, where CH4F is the cumulative CH4 emissions (kg ha1 season1) from respective fertilizer treatment, CH4N0 is the cumulative CH4 emission (kg ha1
season1) from the non-fertilized treatment, and N is the N fertilizer application rate (kg N ha1 season1).
Mean ± SD of different greenhouse gas (GHGs), GWP, dry matter yield (DMY), emission factors (EFd) and response of methane emission (RC). Means sharing common letters in
each column are not significantly different at p < 0.05.

Table 5
The dependencies (single factor linear regression) of GHG (CO2, CH4, N2O; mg m2 h1), seasonal cumulative CO2, CH4, N2O (CCO2, CCH4, CN2O; kg ha1 season1), emission
factor (EFd; %), response of CH4 emission (RC; kg CH4 ha1 kg1 N), area based GWP(CH4þN2O) (kg CO2 eq. ha1), yield-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O) (kg CO2 eq. kg1 silage corn dry
matter), on soil temperature (ST, 5 cm depth; C), soil moisture (SM; %), and dry matter yield (DMY; kg ha1).

Parameter Factor Equation n R2 P Equation n R2 P

2016 2017

CO2 ST CO2 ¼ 14.078ST-36.9 84 0.41 <0.001 CO2 ¼ 6.9STþ265.7 56 0.12 0.008

SM CO2 ¼ 2.96SMþ266 84 0.12 <0.001 CO2 ¼ 0.435SMþ127.2 56 0.002 0.722
CH4 ST CH4 ¼ 0.0003ST-0.009 84 0.0005 0.834 CH4 ¼ 0.01STþ0.18 56 0.002 0.733
SM CH4 ¼ 0.0021SMþ0.05 84 0.14 <0.001 CH4 ¼ 0.03SMþ0.84 56 0.085 0.029
N2O ST N2O ¼ 0.0019STþ0.001 84 0.02 0.19 N2O ¼ 0.009STþ0.21 56 0.38 <0.001
SM N2O ¼ 0.002SMþ0.09 84 0.19 <0.001 N2O ¼ 0.0005SMþ0.018 56 0.005 0.579
CCO2 DMY CCO2 ¼ 0.015DMYþ6380 7 0.0008 0.95 CCO2 ¼ 0.2DMYþ2046 7 0.10 0.47
CCH4 CCH4 ¼ 0.0002DMYþ3.97 7 0.11 0.44 CCH4 ¼ 0.0016DMYþ24.5 7 0.074 0.55
CN2O CN2O ¼ 0.0001DMYþ3.38 7 0.07 0.56 CN2O ¼ 0.0001DMYþ2.62 7 0.08 0.53
EFd EFd ¼ 0.0009DMYþ18.61 6 0.79 0.02 EFd ¼ 0.0005DMYþ9.06 6 0.44 0.14
RC RC ¼ 0.000012DMYþ0.240 6 0.70 0.03 RC ¼ 0.00008DMYþ1.4 6 0.46 0.13
area-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O) GWP ¼ 0.0414DMYþ1106 7 0.07 0.54 GWP ¼ 0.073DMYþ1399 7 0.07 0.54
yield-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O) GWP ¼ 0.000002DMYþ0.07 7 0.13 0.41 GWP ¼ 0.000005DMYþ1.109 7 0.12 0.43

Fig. 4. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of yellow pine wood (Pinus spp.) biochar used in study.
W. Ashiq et al. / Environmental Pollution 265 (2020) 114869 9

growing season, again higher DMY was recorded in DM1þBC CH4 emissions with BC application had been reported by previous
treatment than DM2þBC, IN þ BC, and other treatments; lower soil column and pot studies (Singla and Inubushi, 2014; Yu et al.,
DMY was observed in control (Table 4). In general, BC amended 2013). These negative emissions from BC amended treatments
treatments produced higher DMY compared to non-BC amended decreased area-scaled and yield-scaled GWP of N2O and CH4 in the
treatments and the lowest was observed in control. BC amendment present study (Table 4). During 2016, a significant relationship was
to DM1, DM2, and IN treatment plots increased DMY by 6, 4, and 8% seen between DMY and EFd & RC (p < 0.05, Table 5).
during 2016 and 7, 5 and 13% during 2017, respectively (Table 4). Experimental treatments significantly (p < 0.05) affected direct
Overall, DMY was higher during 2016 than the 2017 growing sea- N2O emission factor (EFd) and the response of CH4 emission (RC)
son. Drier soil condition during 2017, particularly at the active crop during both growing seasons. Maximum EFd were recorded from
growth stage could be one of the possible reasons for reduced DMY DM2 (1.1 ± 0.1%) in 2016 and DM1 (0.9 ± 0.2%) in 2017, whereas
(Fig. 3 c-f). BC amendments improve soil moisture contents and maximum RC was observed from DM1 (0.012 ± 0.008% and
other physicochemical properties result in increased crop yield 0.102 ± 0.028%) during both years (Table 4). Direct N2O emission
(Baronti et al., 2014; Duarte et al., 2019; Hass et al., 2012). Due to factor (EFd) observed in this study (Table 4) was comparable to
high SM retention property, porous structure and large surface area 1.06% of N reported from the corn cropping system in a meta-
of BC and soil organic carbon accumulation enhance mineral nu- analysis (Linquist et al., 2012). Negative EFd and RC were
trients uptake, photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation in crop observed from all BC treatments as a result of BC addition. These
plants (Cao et al., 2019). We also observed a 4e13% increase in DMY negative trends were observed due to a reduction in GHGs emis-
of silage corn in BC amended treatments. The combination of bio- sions because of the BC application. BC application to DM1, DM2 and
char with manure and IN fertilizer application might have stimu- IN reduced EFd by 228, 122 and 170% during 2016 and by 151, 221,
lated microbial activities, enhanced nutrient release (Steinbeiss and 219% in 2017 respectively. It also reduced RC by 197, 196 and
et al., 2009) which reduced nutrient losses and increased dry 265% in 2016 and by 155, 177 and 288% in 2017 respectively
matter yield (Laird et al., 2010). (Table 4). Limited studies reported the effects of BC application on
EFd, RC and GWP of CH4 and N2O from corn production in North
3.5. Global warming potential, N2O emission factors and the America. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that
response of CH4 emission evaluated area-scaled and yield-scaled GWP of CH4 and N2O, EFd,
and RC after BC application to dairy manure and inorganic N fer-
Experimental treatments had significantly (p < 0.05) affected tilizer in silage corn. Further, long terms studies are needed to
area-scaled GWP and yield-scaled GWP of N2O and CH4 in both compare and evaluate the effects of BC application with different
growing seasons. During 2016, maximum area-scaled fertilization regimes on yield-scaled GWP, EFd, and RC in silage corn
GWP(CH4þN20) was observed from IN (559 ± 101 kg CO2 eq. ha1 cropping systems.
season1), whereas minimum area-scaled GWP(CH4þN20) was
recorded from DM1þBC (79.8 ± 47 kg CO2 eq. ha1 season1). 3.6. Correlation between GHGs, GWP, EFd, RC, DMY and soil
During 2017, DM1 (875 ± 79 kg CO2 eq. ha1 season1) treatment moisture and temperature
exhibited higher area-scaled GWP(CH4þN20) and lowest was
observed from IN þ B (418 ± 161 kg CO2 eq. ha1 season1) The dependencies of CO2, CH4, N2O fluxes, cumulative CO2, CH4,
(Table 4). BC application to DM1, DM2, and IN treatments reduced and N2O, area-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O), yield-scaled GWP(CH4þN2O),
area-scaled GWP(CH4þN20) by 114, 77 and 94% during 2016; and 107, EFd, RC and silage corn DMY on soil moisture and temperature are
129 and 160% during 2017 growing seasons. The area-scaled presented in Table 5. There was significant relationship observed
GWP(CH4þN20) values observed from non-BC amended treatments between CO2 and ST (R2 ¼ 0.41, p < 0.001), CO2 and SM (R2 ¼ 0.12,
in this study (263e875 kg CO2 eq. ha1 season1) during both p < 0.001), CH4 and SM (R2 ¼ 0.14, p < 0.001), N2O and SM
growing seasons were comparable to the GWP(CH4þN20) from pre- (R2 ¼ 0.19, p < 0.001), EFd and DMY (R2 ¼ 0.79, p < 0.05), RC and
vious corn studies in North America (Linquist et al., 2012). Negative DMY (R2 ¼ 0.70, p < 0.05) during 2016 growing season. In second
area-scaled GWP(CH4þN20) was observed from DM1þB in 2016 and year (2017), we observed significant relationships between CO2 and
all BC amended treatments in 2017. These negative trends were ST (R2 ¼ 0.12, p ¼ 0.008), N2O and ST (R2 ¼ 0.38, p < 0.001). Some
observed due to a reduction in GHG emissions with the BC studies reported significant relationship between crop grain yield/
amendment. Significant reduction in area-scaled GWP(CH4þN20) was straw yield and seasonal cumulative GHG emissions (Zhou et al.,
observed from corn production system by using enhanced effi- 2015). But we did not find significant relations between these
ciency fertilizers and N application timing management (Halvorson factors. We observed that DMY was significantly related to EFd and
et al., 2010; Linquist et al., 2012; Phillips et al., 2009). Previous RC during 2016 but this relationship was not significant during
studies also evaluated the GWP of CH4 and N2O as a function of crop 2017. More research is needed to quantify the relationships be-
yield (Su et al., 2017; Zhou et al., 2017a, 2015). In this study, yield- tween crop yields and GHG emissions and yield-scaled GWP. This
scale GWP(CH4þN20) ranged from 0.004 ± 0.002 to 0.034 ± 0.001 kg could help to understand the GHG emission potential of various
CO2 eq kg1 silage corn dry matter in DM1þBC and DM1 respec- crops per unit yield and their dependence on each ether and other
tively in 2016. Whereas, in 2017 it ranged from 0.025 ± 0.010 to environmental factors like soil temperature, moisture, and
0.055 ± 0.006 kg CO2 eq. kg1 silage corn dry matter from IN þ B precipitation.
and DM1 respectively. Biochar application to DM1, DM2 and IN
reduced yield-scaled GWP(CH4þN20) by 114, 78 and 94% in 2016, 4. Conclusion
while during 2017 it was decreased by 106, 128 and 153% respec-
tively (Table 4). Yield-based GWP(CH4þN20) had been reported from Intensive agricultural production systems need high input to
corn-based on grain yield (0.185 kg CO2 eq kg1 grain yield) meet the challenges of food security without considering serious
(Linquist et al., 2012). But, the corn in the present experiment was implications associated with the environment and agroecosystems.
silage so yield-scaled GWP(CH4þN20) was presented based on silage Therefore, effective and best management practices to mitigate
dry matter production. BC amended treatments mostly exhibited environmental implications due to excessive fertilizer applications
negative yield-scale GWP(CH4þN20) which was attributed to nega- are urgently needed. The present field study enhanced our un-
tive N2O and CH4 emission in these treatments. Negative N2O and derstandings of GHGs emissions, GWP, DMY, EFd, and RC following
10 W. Ashiq et al. / Environmental Pollution 265 (2020) 114869

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Declaration of competing interest Clough, T.J., Condron, L.M., Kammann, C., Müller, C., 2013. A review of biochar and
soil nitrogen dynamics. Agronomy 3, 275e293.
Collier, S.M., Ruark, M.D., Oates, L.G., Jokela, W.E., Dell, C.J., 2014. Measurement of
The authors declare that they have no known competing greenhouse gas flux from agricultural soils using static chambers. J. Vis. Exp.,
financial interests or personal relationships that could have e52110
Duarte, S. de J., Glaser, B., Cerri, C.E.P., 2019. Effect of Biochar Particle Size on
appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
Physical, Hydrological and Chemical Properties of Loamy and Sandy Tropical
Soils, vol. 9. Agronomy.
Acknowledgments Feng, Y., Xu, Y., Yu, Y., Xie, Z., Lin, X., 2012. Mechanisms of biochar decreasing
methane emission from Chinese paddy soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 46, 80e88.
Feng, Y., Yang, X., Singh, B.P., Mandal, S., Guo, J., Che, L., Wang, H., 2019. Effects of
Authors are thankful to the Research and Development Corpo- contrasting biochars on the leaching of inorganic nitrogen from soil. J. Soils
ration of NL (RDC-ignite 5404-1789-101) and Atlantic Canada Op- Sediments. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-019-02369-5.
portunities Agency (ACOA # 208422) for providing financial Forge, T., Kenney, E., Hashimoto, N., Neilsen, D., Zebarth, B., 2016. Compost and
poultry manure as preplant soil amendments for red raspberry: comparative
support to execute this field experiment. Special thanks to the effects on root lesion nematodes, soil quality and risk of nitrate leaching. Agric.
Department of Fisheries and Land resources, Government of NL. for Ecosyst. Environ. 223, 48e58.
providing the land and other logistics to conduct this field Fungo, B., Lehmann, J., Kalbitz, K., Thionģo, M., Tenywa, M., Okeyo, I., Neufeldt, H.,
2019. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from a field Ultisol amended with
experiment. tithonia green manure, urea, and biochar. Biol. Fertil. Soils 55, 135e148.
Halvorson, A.D., Del Grosso, S.J., Alluvione, F., 2010. Nitrogen source effects on
Appendix A. Supplementary data nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated no-till corn. J. Environ. Qual. 39, 1554.
Harter, J., Krause, H.-M., Schuettler, S., Ruser, R., Fromme, M., Scholten, T.,
Kappler, A., Behrens, S., 2014. Linking N2O emissions from biochar-amended
Supplementary data to this article can be found online at soil to the structure and function of the N-cycling microbial community.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114869. ISME J. 8, 660e674.
Hass, A., Gonzalez, J.M., Lima, I.M., Godwin, H.W., Halvorson, J.J., Boyer, D.G., 2012.
Chicken manure biochar as liming and nutrient source for acid Appalachian soil.
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chars on nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching from two contrasting largely offset carbon benefits: a global meta-analysis. Global Change Biol. 23,
soils. J. Environ. Qual. 39, 1224e1235. 4068e4083.
Singla, A., Inubushi, K., 2014. Effect of biochar on CH4 and N2O emission from soils Zhu, B., Wang, T., Kuang, F., Luo, Z., Tang, J., Xu, T., 2009. Measurements of nitrate
vegetated with paddy. Paddy Water Environ. 12, 239e243. leaching from a hillslope cropland in the Central Sichuan Basin, China. Soil Sci.
Skiba, U., Smith, K.A., Fowler, D., 1993. Nitrification and denitrification as sources of Soc. Am. J. 73, 1419e1426.

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Agronomy | Free Full-Text | Effect of Biochar on Soil CO2 Fluxes from Agricultural Field …

6 August, 2021
 

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Figure 1

Bovsun, M.A.; Castaldi, S.; Nesterova, O.V.; Semal, V.A.; Sakara, N.A.; Brikmans, A.V.; Khokhlova, A.I.; Karpenko, T.Y. Effect of Biochar on Soil CO2 Fluxes from Agricultural Field Experiments in Russian Far East. Agronomy 2021, 11, 1559. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081559

Bovsun MA, Castaldi S, Nesterova OV, Semal VA, Sakara NA, Brikmans AV, Khokhlova AI, Karpenko TY. Effect of Biochar on Soil CO2 Fluxes from Agricultural Field Experiments in Russian Far East. Agronomy. 2021; 11(8):1559. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081559

Bovsun, Mariia A., Simona Castaldi, Olga V. Nesterova, Viktoriia. A. Semal, Nikolay A. Sakara, Anastasia V. Brikmans, Alexandra I. Khokhlova, and Tatyana Y. Karpenko 2021. “Effect of Biochar on Soil CO2 Fluxes from Agricultural Field Experiments in Russian Far East” Agronomy 11, no. 8: 1559. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081559

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Tunable active sites on biogas digestate derived biochar for sulfanilamide degradation by …

6 August, 2021
 

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Granular Biochar Industry Growth Situation and Prospects Research Report Featuring Top Key …

6 August, 2021
 

Granular Biochar market 2021 Informative Report by Manufacturers, Regions, Type, and Application, Forecast to 2027 contains a combination of industry insight, intelligent-practical solutions, and the Current technology to provide a better understanding of the overall industry situation. It also focuses on the supply and demand analysis between leading key players and industry investors with a complete estimation of sales margin, market share, and growth statistics of the business, Top countries, along with forecast.

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The Granular Biochar market has been significantly affected by the outbreak of COVID-19. New projects around the world have come to a standstill, resulting in reduced market demand. This COVID-19 pandemic helped Granular Biochar businesses to think about more unconventional ways to increase efficiency. Although, the recent stability and growing developmental projects can grow in the Granular Biochar market. The current estimation of 2027 is projected to be higher than pre-COVID-19 estimates. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly pushed the growth rate of the Granular Biochar market.

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ToC of Global Granular Biochar Market:

Chapter 1 Executive Summary
Chapter 2 Abbreviation and Acronyms
Chapter 3 Preface
3.1 Research Scope
3.2 Research Methodology
3.2.1 Primary Sources
3.2.2 Secondary Sources
3.2.3 Assumptions
Chapter 4 Market Landscape
4.1 Market Overview
4.2 Classification/Types
4.3 Application/End Users
Chapter 5 Market Trend Analysis
Chapter 6 Industry Chain Analysis
Chapter 7 Latest Market Dynamics
Chapter 8 Trading Analysis
Chapter 9 Historical and Current Granular Biochar in North America
Chapter 10 Historical and Current Granular Biochar in South America
Chapter 11 Historical and Current Granular Biochar in Asia & Pacific
Chapter 12 Historical and Current Granular Biochar in Europe
Chapter 13 Historical and Current Granular Biochar in MEA
Chapter 14 Summary
Chapter 15 Forecast
Chapter 16 Analysis of Global Key Vendors
Chapter 17 Conclusion

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7 August, 2021
 

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Mitigating climate change with biochar? | Daily Finance Centre

8 August, 2021
 

A product made out of city, agriculture and forestry waste has the additional benefit of decreasing the carbon footprint of contemporary farming, a world evaluation involving UNSW has discovered.

Visiting Professor within the College of Supplies Science and Engineering at UNSW Science, Stephen Joseph, says the research printed in GCB Bioenergy supplies sturdy proof that biochar can contribute to local weather change mitigation.

“Biochar can draw down carbon from the ambiance into the soil and retailer it for lots of to hundreds of years,” the lead creator says.

“This research additionally discovered that biochar helps construct natural carbon in soil by as much as 20 per cent (common 3.8 per cent) and may cut back nitrous oxide emissions from soil by 12 to 50 per cent, which will increase the local weather change mitigation advantages of biochar.”

The findings are supported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Local weather Change’s latest Particular Report on Local weather Change and Land, which estimated there was vital local weather change mitigation potential accessible via biochar.

“The intergovernmental panel discovered that globally, biochar might mitigate between 300 million to 660 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per 12 months by 2050,” Prof. Joseph says.

“Evaluate that to Australia’s emissions final 12 months – an estimated 499 million tonnes of carbon dioxide – and you may see that biochar can soak up a variety of emissions. We simply want a will to develop and use it.”

Biochar is the product of heating biomass residues resembling wooden chips, animal manures, sludges, compost and inexperienced waste, in an oxygen-starved atmosphere – a course of known as pyrolysis.

The result’s steady charcoal which might minimize greenhouse emissions, whereas boosting soil fertility.

The GCB Bioenergy research reviewed roughly 300 papers together with 33 meta-analyses that examined most of the 14,000 biochar research which were printed over the past 20 years.

“It discovered common crop yields elevated from 10 to 42 per cent, concentrations of heavy metals in plant tissue had been lowered by 17 to 39 per cent and phosphorous availability to vegetation elevated too,” Prof. Joseph says.

“Biochar helps vegetation resist environmental stresses, resembling illnesses, and helps vegetation tolerate poisonous metals, water stress and natural compounds such because the herbicide atrazine.”

The research particulars for the primary time how biochar improves the foundation zone of a plant.

Within the first three weeks, as biochar reacts with the soil it may possibly stimulate seed germination and seedling progress.

Throughout the subsequent six months, reactive surfaces are created on biochar particles, enhancing nutrient provide to vegetation.

After three to 6 months, biochar begins to ‘age’ within the soil and varieties microaggregates that defend natural matter from decomposition.

Prof. Joseph says the research discovered the best responses to biochar had been in acidic and sandy soils the place biochar had been utilized along with fertiliser.

“We discovered the constructive results of biochar had been dose dependent and likewise depending on matching the properties of the biochar to soil constraints and plant nutrient necessities,” Prof. Joseph says.

“Vegetation, notably in low-nutrient, acidic soils widespread within the tropics and humid subtropics, such because the north coast of NSW and Queensland, might considerably profit from biochar.

“Sandy soils in Western Australia, Victoria and South Australia, notably in dryland areas more and more affected by drought below local weather change, would additionally tremendously profit.”

Prof. Joseph AM is an knowledgeable in producing engineered steady biochar from agriculture, city and forestry residues.

He has been researching the advantages of biochar in selling wholesome soils and addressing local weather change since he was launched to it by Indigenous Australians within the seventies.

He says biochar has been used for manufacturing of crops and for sustaining wholesome soils by Indigenous peoples in Australia, Latin America (particularly within the Amazon basin) and Africa for a lot of lots of of years.

Biochar has additionally been recorded within the seventeenth Century as a feed complement for animals.

However whereas Australian researchers have studied biochar since 2005, it has been comparatively sluggish to take off as a industrial product, with Australia producing round 5000 tonnes a 12 months.

“That is partly as a result of small variety of large-scale demonstration packages which were funded, in addition to farmers’ and authorities advisors’ lack of information about biochar, regulatory hurdles, and lack of enterprise capital and younger entrepreneurs to fund and construct biochar companies,” Prof. Joseph says.

As compared, the US is producing about 50,000 tonnes a 12 months, whereas China is producing greater than 500,000 tonnes a 12 months.

Prof. Joseph, who has obtained an Order of Australia for his work in renewable vitality and biochar, says to allow widespread adoption of biochar, it must be readily built-in with farming operations and be demonstrated to be economically viable.

“We’ve finished the science, what we don’t have is sufficient assets to teach and prepare individuals, to determine demonstrations so farmers can see the advantages of utilizing biochar, to develop this new business,” he says.

Nonetheless that is slowly altering as giant firms are buying carbon dioxide discount certificates (CORC’s) to offset their emissions, which is boosting the profile of biochar in Australia.

Biochar has potential in a spread of functions.

Prof. Joseph co-authored a latest research in Worldwide Supplies Evaluations which detailed the much less well-known makes use of of biochar, resembling a building materials, to scale back toxins in soil, develop microorganisms, in animal feed and soil remediation.

UNSW has a collaborative grant with an organization and a college in Norway to develop a biochar primarily based anti-microbial coating to kill pathogens in water and discover use in air filtration techniques, he says.

 

Unique Article: The waste product which might assist mitigate local weather change

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Constraining bioavailable polyaromatic hydrocarbons effectively during the production and …

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Qoo10 – Biochar Hydroponic Sponge Pods – Excellent Aeration & Water Distributi… : Shoes

8 August, 2021
 

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Know What Makes Wood Vinegar Market Top Key Players Outperforming Its Opponents by Vast …

9 August, 2021
 

The Global Wood Vinegar Market report focuses on the growth analysis of the industry and its historical and future costs. Wood Vinegar Market Research Report provides granular analysis of competitive landscape and propensity by manufacturers, production, average price, manufacturing base distribution, sales regions, and product types, applications, concentration, mergers and acquisitions, expansions, revenue, and share.

The report covers the various company profiles of the primary market players in the Wood Vinegar Market. With sophisticated market stages in different countries, this report segments the market into many major countries with sales (consumption), revenue, market share, and market growth rate in those countries over the forecast period (2021-2027)

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Market Segmentation by Key Players:

By Company Profile, Product Image and Specification, Product Application Analysis, Production Capability, Price Cost, Production Value, Contact Data

Market Segmentation by Type:

Market Segmentation by Application:

We’ve compiled an incisive guide to creating a trustworthy forecast — rather than a wish-cast. Get Sample PDF: https://www.worldwidemarketreports.com/sample/714330

Market Segmentation by Geographic Regions:

North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa.

The points mentioned in the report are the major market players involved in the market, such as manufacturers, material suppliers, equipment suppliers, end users, traders, distributors, and so on.

Our analysts, who monitor the situation around the world, explain that the market creates a reward outlook for producers after the COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional picture of the latest scenarios, economic slowdowns, and the impact of COVID-19 on the industry as a whole.

This market analysis includes a Wood Vinegar industry overview, target market research, competition analysis, business forecasting, and regulation. The following are important points to be covered in this research:

1. Industry outlook
First of all, here you can find out about the current state of the Wood Vinegar industry as a whole and its direction. Relevant industry indicators such as size, trends, life cycle, and projected growth are included here. This report contains data to back up your business ideas. On a regional basis, the global Wood Vinegar market is divided into Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.

2. the Target market
This target market section of the survey includes:

3. Competitive Analysis
Discover your competitors. While this report can tell you what you’re facing, it can also reveal weaknesses in your competitors. Do you have customers who lack service? What can you offer that similar businesses don’t? Competitive analysis includes the following components:

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4. Expectations
Likewise, we provided thoughtful predictions, not hockey stick predictions.

Market Share: We also provided the consumption behavior of users. Knowing how much your future customers will be able to spend will help you understand how much of an opportunity they have in the Wood Vinegar industry. And here we come up with real statistics and figures. These bottom-up forecasts describe how to achieve a certain percentage of the market through your marketing and sales efforts.

Pricing and Gross Margin: Also lay out the pricing structure. Gross margin is the difference between the cost of your Wood Vinegar and the selling price of your Wood Vinegar. These optimistic predictions can be guiding as well as motivating.

5. Regulations
Are there any specific government regulations or restrictions on the global Wood Vinegar market according to the report? If so, we’ve brought it here to discuss how to comply.

6. The key to success
First of all, what is the difference between success and failure? Key factors have been identified by the Wood Vinegar segment, including price, value, availability, functionality, finance, upgrade or return policy, and customer service.

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The research report answers some important questions related to the growth of the Wood Vinegar market. Finally, the feasibility of the new investment project is evaluated and the overall research conclusion is presented. In short, the report provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

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Biochar improved soil health and mitigated greenhouse gas emission from controlled irrigation …

9 August, 2021
 

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Agricultural waste could help mitigate climate change – EnvironmentJournal – Nikke 2

10 August, 2021
 

Biochar, a product made from urban, agricultural and forestry waste, could help tackle the climate crisis, according to a new international journal from the University of New South Wales.

Biochar is the by-product of heating biomass residues such as wood chips, animal droppings, sludge, compost and green waste in an oxygen-poor environment.

The result is a stable charcoal that can draw carbon from the atmosphere into the soil and store it for hundreds to thousands of years.

It can increase the amount of organic carbon in soil by up to 20% (on average 3.8%) and can reduce nitrous oxide emissions from soil by 12 to 50%.

These findings are supported by the recent special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on Climate Change and Land.

Professor Stephen Joseph, lead author of the study, said: “The intergovernmental panel found that globally, biochar could attenuate between 300 million and 660 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. by 2050.

“Biochar also helps plants resist environmental stresses, such as disease, and helps plants tolerate toxic metals, water stress, and organic compounds such as the herbicide atrazine.

“We found that the positive effects of biochar depend on the dose and also depend on the suitability of the properties of the biochar to the constraints of the soil and the nutrient requirements of the plants.

“Plants, especially in low-nutrient acidic soils common in humid tropics and subtropics, such as the north coast of New South Wales and Queensland, could benefit significantly from biochar. The sandy soils of Western Australia, Victoria and South Australia, especially in arid regions increasingly affected by drought due to climate change, would also benefit greatly. ‘

Deputy Mayor Manote Nongyai (right) and Sutee Nongthubhee (left), director of the Pattaya Environmental Bureau, …


Global Biochar Machine Market Growth 2021-2026

10 August, 2021
 

Reports available on Market Reports World incorporate a comprehensive research statistics of all aspects of the market that offer you a thorough business intelligence. Gaining an in-depth predicative and competitive analysis of the market aids your business in dominating the market and that is what we aspire towards. Market Reports World provide you various industry-centric reports that aid your business in augmenting its growth. The reports we sell are integrated with market analysis data of the key players, leading market segments and latest market trends across the globe.

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A review on nano-catalysts and biochar-based catalysts for biofuel production – ScienceDirect

11 August, 2021
 

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Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using biochar produced from Araucaria Columnaris Bark …

12 August, 2021
 

Abstract This work investigates the removal of phenol from aqueous solution using Araucaria Columnaris bark (ACB) as biochar. Five different types of biochars were developed through pyrolysis at different temp from 300 to 500°C. The effects of initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature on adsorption behavior were studied in batch mode for each biochar. The optimum contact time observed for equilibrium condition was 60 mins for every biochar. And, the maximum adsorption followed the order 298 K > 308 K > 318 K. Adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms by non-linear regression method and kinetic data by linear regression method, and fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Intraparticle diffusion models. Adsorption kinetics was reasonably described by pseudo-second order model with R 2 value 0.99. Thermodynamic parameters were also estimated that implied, the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Study further showed that the acidic pH increased adsorption capacity of biochar but decreases continuously towards basic side. The removal of phenol with prepared biochar was achieved as high as 100 % for ACB-500. The maximum iodine adsorption value of prepared biochar was found to be 453.3 mg/g.

This preprint is available for download as a PDF.

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Abstract This work investigates the removal of phenol from aqueous solution using Araucaria Columnaris bark (ACB) as biochar. Five different types of biochars were developed through pyrolysis at different temp from 300 to 500°C. The effects of initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature on adsorption behavior were studied in batch mode for each biochar. The optimum contact time observed for equilibrium condition was 60 mins for every biochar. And, the maximum adsorption followed the order 298 K > 308 K > 318 K. Adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms by non-linear regression method and kinetic data by linear regression method, and fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Intraparticle diffusion models. Adsorption kinetics was reasonably described by pseudo-second order model with R 2 value 0.99. Thermodynamic parameters were also estimated that implied, the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Study further showed that the acidic pH increased adsorption capacity of biochar but decreases continuously towards basic side. The removal of phenol with prepared biochar was achieved as high as 100 % for ACB-500. The maximum iodine adsorption value of prepared biochar was found to be 453.3 mg/g.

This preprint is available for download as a PDF.

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Selective Demethoxylation of Lignin-Derived Methoxyphenols to Phenols over Lignin-Derived …

12 August, 2021
 

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Alarmist claims Kangaroo Island will burn again upset locals

13 August, 2021
 

Spurious headlines in Adelaide media that Kangaroo Island will burn again like it did in the bushfires have upset locals.

Particularly when construction of any timber port was potentially years away and there have always been plans to make use of burned timber on the Island.

While a portion of pine logs are being salvaged for the timber industry, the vast majority of timber on the Island was Tasmanian blue gum slated for woodchipping.

The Smith Bay port was designed to stockpile and load up woodchips into giant Panamax class ships for export to Asia.

Up to 90 per cent of timber was completely or partially destroyed in the fires, meaning the value of that material as woodchip or sawlog is unclear.

Much of the damaged blue gums are sprouting back in an unkempt fashion, while “wildlings” or escaped seedlings are now causing ecological problems.

The spectre of Kangaroo Island burning again was raised after the state government denied approval of Kangaroo Island Plantation Timber port at Smith Bay.

The company has since released a statement to the Australian Stock Exchange announcing it was adopting an agricultural strategy.

See: KIPT adopts agricultural strategy; trees replaced with farms

KIPT chairman Paul McKenzie told The Islander he could not make any comment beyond what was said the stock exchange announcement.

The stock exchange announcement stated the current managing director had resigned and the position would not be replaced.

Mayor Michael Pengilly questioned why comments were made on behalf of the company in the Adelaide media when the chairman could not speak to the local newspaper.

Mr Pengilly said the company had received $60 million in insurance payouts, as well as government grants, and should have developed plans by now.

He questioned why the company’s existing but damaged timber mill and processing facilities near Parndana at its base had not be already repaired to process salvageable timber.

“It’s outrageous that a company that has already received millions is still asking for more,” he said.

KIPT itself announced in December that it received $5.5 million bushfire recovery grant to support the establishment of a biomass pellet mill plant capable of processing fire-damaged timber.

“Over the past 12 months, KIPT has worked to secure diversified markets for dry product, that is, logs produced from forests that have been damaged by bushfire, beyond the tolerance of traditional export markets.”

Kangaroo Island Plantation Timbers was also looking at alternative options to export salvageable pine logs at Kingscote, while logs were also being carted off the Island on the ferry, albeit at a loss by one particular mill.

See: Jamestown sawmill is desperate for KI logs

The Kangaroo Island agricultural sector is delighted with the decision and AgKI chairman Rick Morris said he had been waiting 20 years for the decision.

“This is the best news for the Island since the Soldier Settler Scheme in terms of the economic and social development,” Mr Morris said.

“Hopefully we see more businesses, more families and more farm workers as what originally were 35 farms go back to agriculture.”

The reversion back to farms and people living on the land could result in $15 million being injected into the local economy, as well as more students for the school and members for sporting clubs, he said.

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The Waste Product That Could Help Mitigate Climate Change – Locking Carbon in the Soil “For …

14 August, 2021
 

A product made from urban, agriculture, and forestry waste has the added benefit of reducing the carbon footprint of modern farming, an international review involving UNSW has found.

Visiting Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at UNSW Science, Stephen Joseph, says the study published in GCB Bioenergy provides strong evidence that biochar can contribute to climate change mitigation.

“Biochar can draw down carbon from the atmosphere into the soil and store it for hundreds to thousands of years,” the lead author says.

“This study also found that biochar helps build organic carbon in soil by up to 20 percent (average 3.8 percent) and can reduce nitrous oxide emissions from soil by 12 to 50 percent, which increases the climate change mitigation benefits of biochar.”

The findings are supported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s recent Special Report on Climate Change and Land, which estimated there was important climate change mitigation potential available through biochar.

“The intergovernmental panel found that globally, biochar could mitigate between 300 million to 660 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year by 2050,” Prof. Joseph says.

“Compare that to Australia’s emissions last year — an estimated 499 million tonnes of carbon dioxide – and you can see that biochar can absorb a lot of emissions. We just need a will to develop and use it.”

Biochar is the product of heating biomass residues such as wood chips, animal manures, sludges, compost, and green waste, in an oxygen-starved environment – a process called pyrolysis.

The result is stable charcoal which can cut greenhouse emissions, while boosting soil fertility.

The GCB Bioenergy study reviewed approximately 300 papers including 33 meta-analyses that examined many of the 14,000 biochar studies that have been published over the last 20 years.  

“It found average crop yields increased from 10 to 42 percent, concentrations of heavy metals in plant tissue were reduced by 17 to 39 percent and phosphorous availability to plants increased too,” Prof. Joseph says.

“Biochar helps plants resist environmental stresses, such as diseases, and helps plants tolerate toxic metals, water stress and organic compounds such as the herbicide atrazine.”

The study details for the first time how biochar improves the root zone of a plant.

In the first three weeks, as biochar reacts with the soil it can stimulate seed germination and seedling growth.

During the next six months, reactive surfaces are created on biochar particles, improving nutrient supply to plants.

After three to six months, biochar starts to ‘age’ in the soil and forms microaggregates that protect organic matter from decomposition.

Prof. Joseph says the study found the greatest responses to biochar were in acidic and sandy soils where biochar had been applied together with fertiliser.

“We found the positive effects of biochar were dose-dependent and also dependent on matching the properties of the biochar to soil constraints and plant nutrient requirements,” Prof. Joseph says.

“Plants, particularly in low-nutrient, acidic soils common in the tropics and humid subtropics, such as the north coast of NSW and Queensland, could significantly benefit from biochar.

“Sandy soils in Western Australia, Victoria, and South Australia, particularly in dryland regions increasingly affected by drought under climate change, would also greatly benefit.”

Prof. Joseph AM is an expert in producing engineered stable biochar from agriculture, urban and forestry residues.

He has been researching the benefits of biochar in promoting healthy soils and addressing climate change since he was introduced to it by Indigenous Australians in the seventies.

He says biochar has been used for production of crops and for maintaining healthy soils by Indigenous peoples in Australia, Latin America (especially in the Amazon basin) and Africa for many hundreds of years.

Biochar has also been recorded in the 17th Century as a feed supplement for animals.

But while Australian researchers have studied biochar since 2005, it has been relatively slow to take off as a commercial product, with Australia producing around 5000 tonnes a year.

“This is in part due to the small number of large-scale demonstration programs that have been funded, as well as farmers’ and government advisors’ lack of knowledge about biochar, regulatory hurdles, and lack of venture capital and young entrepreneurs to fund and build biochar businesses,” Prof. Joseph says.

In comparison, the US is producing about 50,000 tonnes a year, while China is producing more than 500,000 tonnes a year.

Prof. Joseph, who has received an Order of Australia for his work in renewable energy and biochar, says to enable widespread adoption of biochar, it needs to be readily integrated with farming operations and be demonstrated to be economically viable.

“We’ve done the science, what we don’t have is enough resources to educate and train people, to establish demonstrations so farmers can see the benefits of using biochar, to develop this new industry,” he says.

However, this is slowly changing as large corporations are purchasing carbon dioxide reduction certificates (CORC’s) to offset their emissions, which is boosting the profile of biochar in Australia.

Biochar has potential in a range of applications.

Prof. Joseph co-authored a recent study in International Materials Reviews which detailed the less well-known uses of biochar, such as a construction material, to reduce toxins in soil, grow microorganisms, in animal feed and soil remediation.

UNSW has a collaborative grant with a company and a university in Norway to develop a biochar based anti-microbial coating to kill pathogens in water and find use in air filtration systems, he says.

Reference: “How biochar works, and when it doesn’t: A review of mechanisms controlling soil and plant responses to biochar” by Stephen Joseph, Annette L. Cowie, Lukas Van Zwieten, Nanthi Bolan, Alice Budai, Wolfram Buss, Maria Luz Cayuela, Ellen R. Graber, Jim Ippolito, Yakov Kuzyakov, Yu Luo, Yong Sik Ok, Kumuduni Niroshika Palansooriya, Jessica Shepherd, Scott Stephens, Zhe (Han) Weng and Johannes Lehmann, 27 July 2021, GCB Bioenergy.
DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12885

DISCLOSURE: Stephen Joseph is a member of the Australian New Zealand Biochar Industries Group. The Universities where he works have received grants from both state and federal governments and from companies for the development and testing of biochars. He has also assisted companies and farmers develop fit for purpose biochars and equipment to make biochars.

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The feeding patterns of black holes offer insight into their size, researchers report. A new study revealed that the flickering in the brightness observed in…


Citation – PubAg – USDA

16 August, 2021
 

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black char – Bing

17 August, 2021
 

Black_Char 0 points 1 point 2 points 6 months ago If you’re looking for an actual answer. To the best of my knowledge uruk-hai and orcs are elfs and humans who have been tainted by dark magic.

Buy organic biochar products online from Biochar Supreme. Our Black Owl (TM) premium organic biochar is OMRI-listed and certified for organic use.

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Bone black, also called bone char, or bone charcoal, a form of charcoal produced by heating bone in the presence of a limited amount of air. It is used in removing coloured impurities from liquids, especially solutions of raw sugar.

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Black Earth Biochar soil amendment will get your garden off to a great start. Flowers to vegetables whether your inside or planting raised garden bed . Flowers, vegetables, raised garden bed, planters or fields "When Organic Matters" raised garden bed gardening indoor planters.

Jul 02, 2019 · A law enforcement source told KGMB Char is believed to have used a black-colored permanent marker to pull off the offensive look, which dates back to minstrel shows of …

The Arctic char or Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a cold-water fish in the family Salmonidae, native to alpine lakes and arctic and subarctic coastal waters. Its distribution is Circumpolar North. It spawns in freshwater and populations can be lacustrine, riverine, or anadromous, where they return from the ocean to their fresh water birth rivers to spawn.

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Blackchar Cave[21.2, 79] is a mysterious, sealed-off cave near Blackrock Mountain. This is where players can find [1-60] Ironband the Elder during the Lunar Festival.

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A method of refining carbon black char derived from the pyrolysation of scrap tyres. The method comprises a pyrolysation step wherein the carbon black char is pyrolised to produce a pyrolysed carbon black char

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Magnifico cover interpretado por el gran Char lml un temazo de santana The Black Magic Woman

Char is speculated to be a Constrictai due to his black coloring. He is similar to Glutinous in overall movement. He and Glutinous are both working for harsher main antagonists.

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Char-O-Lot Ranchis a highly successful Appaloosa breeding, showing and training facility, known worldwide for raising, training, selling and showing national and world champion Appaloosa horses, specializing in halter, western pleasure, hunter under saddle and all-around horses.. History: Char-O-Lot Ranch was established in 1972 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida by Doug and Susan Schembri and has …

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C concentration of the resulting char increased -an average of 41 g C kg 1 among feedstocks . • As pyrolysis temperature increased from 350 to o600 C, feedstocks lost 60 – 70% of total N . Char Production Yield of char was 30-45%

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Jul 16, 2021 · July 16, 2021, 8:33 AM PDT. By Char Adams. The Black Lives Matter Global Network Foundation is facing backlash after calling for the end of the U.S. government’s embargo on …

Dec 29, 2020 · Dec. 29, 2020, 7:04 AM PST. By Char Adams. In 2013, Alicia Garza offered words of comfort in a Facebook post to Black people after George Zimmerman was acquitted of …

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Jan 03, 2021 · Subject: Dc Black Lightning mugen char WIP by RenatoNato December 30th 2020, 2:06 am I was so excited about the release of Nightmax by Jmaxximus & The Illusionist that I was inspired. I had an idea for BlackLightning mugen and just then I started editing 3 sprites by Deanjo and the result is these sprites that you are now seeing.

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Nov 14, 2019 · Arguments. integer_expression An integer from 0 through 255. CHAR returns a NULL value for integer expressions outside this input range or not representing a complete character.CHAR also returns a NULL value when the character exceeds the length of the return type. Many common character sets share ASCII as a sub-set and will return the same character for integer values in the …

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Jul 22, 2014 · However if you’re using a BeagleBone Black or changed the wiring, first open char_lcd.py in a text editor (like nano) and uncomment/comment the lines towards the top that set the LCD pins. Note: If you’re using a BeagleBone Black wired for hardware PWM of the backlight, skip down the page to the section on using hardware PWM.

Module IsWhiteSpaceSample Sub Main() Dim str As String str = "black matter" Console.WriteLine(Char.IsWhiteSpace("A"c)) ‘ Output: "False" Console.WriteLine(Char.IsWhiteSpace(str, 5)) ‘ Output: "True" End Sub End Module Remarks. White space characters are …

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The char is a freshwater fish found in all games. Prior to Wild World, it was known as the large char. It is commonly associated with waterfalls, and is always found near them. In games prior to New Leaf, it was found in the pool at the bottom of the waterfall, but in New Leaf it can be found both above and below both waterfalls.

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Global Biochar Market Size By Manufacturers, Growth, Trends, Types and Applications …

18 August, 2021
 

Global Biochar Market 2020-2027 | COVID-19 impact Analysis, Top Regions analysis, and Business Opportunities

Global Biochar Market Report helps the readers to maximize their profits and business making ventures by gaining complete insights of Biochar Industry. The latest developments and growth opportunities in Biochar market are covered. Development trends, revenue analysis, Biochar market share and market dynamics are presented to optimize the business. The vital Biochar insights, opportunities in existing and emerging segments are explained. An in-depth analysis on the present state of Biochar, progressive future trends, and comprehensive analysis based on type, application, players and regions are covered. The report thoroughly analyzes the competitors, SWOT analysis, industry chain structure and production process view.

Get A Free Sample Copy Here:

https://www.globalmarketers.biz/report/energy/2015-2027-global-biochar-industry-market-research-report,-segment-by-player,-type,-application,-marketing-channel,-and-region/145372#request_sample

Biochar Market Leading Players (2020-2027):

Full Circle Biochar
Vega Biofuels Inc.
Gree Charcoal International
The Biochar Company
Avello Bioenergy
Biochar Supreme
Cool Planet Energy Systems
Pacific Biochar
Agri-Tech Producers LLC
Tolero Energy
Biochar Products
Diacarbon Energy Inc

Market Segmentation:

Regional Analysis

Inquire Before Buying Or Ask For Custom Requirement:

https://www.globalmarketers.biz/report/energy/2015-2027-global-biochar-industry-market-research-report,-segment-by-player,-type,-application,-marketing-channel,-and-region/145372#inquiry_before_buying

Segmentation Market by Type

Gasified Rice Hull Biochar (GRHB)
Sawdust Biochar (SDB)
Bark and Wood Biochar (BWB)

Market by Application

Industrial Fuel
Soil Amendment
Carbon Black
Barbecuing
Decontamination
Livestock Production
Others

Click Here To Get Discount (50%) On The Purchase Of This Report  

Some highlighting Points Of TOC:

1 Biochar Introduction and Market Overview

1.1 Objectives of the Study

1.2 Overview of Biochar

1.3 Scope of The Study

1.3.1 Key Market Segments

1.3.2 Players Covered

1.3.3 COVID-19’s impact on the Biochar industry

1.4 Methodology of The Study

1.5 Research Data Source

2 Executive Summary

2.1 Market Overview

2.1.1 Global Biochar Market Size, 2015 – 2020

2.1.2 Global Biochar Market Size by Type, 2015 – 2020

2.1.3 Global Biochar Market Size by Application, 2015 – 2020

2.1.4 Global Biochar Market Size by Region, 2015 – 2027

2.2 Business Environment Analysis

2.2.1 Global COVID-19 Status and Economic Overview

2.2.2 Influence of COVID-19 Outbreak on Biochar Industry Development

3 Industry Chain Analysis

3.1 Upstream Raw Material Suppliers of Biochar Analysis

3.2 Major Players of Biochar

3.3 Biochar Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis

3.3.1 Production Process Analysis

3.3.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure of Biochar

3.3.3 Labor Cost of Biochar

3.4 Market Distributors of Biochar

3.5 Major Downstream Buyers of Biochar Analysis

3.6 The Impact of Covid-19 From the Perspective of Industry Chain

3.7 Regional Import and Export Controls Will Exist for a Long Time

4 Global Biochar Market, by Type

4.1 Global Biochar Value and Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

4.2 Global Biochar Production and Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

4.3 Global Biochar Value and Growth Rate by Type (2015-2020)

5 Biochar Market, by Application

5.1 Downstream Market Overview

5.2 Global Biochar Consumption and Market Share by Application (2015-2020)

5.3 Global Biochar Consumption and Growth Rate by Application (2015-2020)

Biochar Report Will Answer Below Queries:

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Biochar Epic Gardening: Daily Growing Tips And Advice podcast – Player FM

19 August, 2021
 

I’ve undervalued biochar in my garden, and Matt Rees-Warren comes on the show today to discuss how he both produces and uses it.

Connect With Matthew Rees-Warren:

Matthew Rees-Warren is a gardener and author of The Ecological Gardener, which is out now

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Full article: Pyrogenic conversion of rice straw and wood to biochar increases aromaticity …

19 August, 2021
 

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Snapklik.com: The Andersons Biochar DG Organic Soil Builder 5000 Sq Ft

19 August, 2021
 

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Project Manager – Biochar Demonstrator Addressing Key Deployment Barriers for Carbon …

23 August, 2021
 

The Biochar Demonstrator is a £4.5M project funded by BBSCR as part of the £30M Greenhouse Gas Removal (GGR) programme.  

The Demonstrator will address the uncertainties concerning the extent and scope of deployment of biochar, its stability with respect to carbon sequestration, and to quantify the effects on ecosystem services by establishing the most comprehensive large-scale demonstration programme to date, involving the deployment of over 200 tonnes of biochar.  

The Demonstrator is led by the University of Nottingham (Principal Investigator: Prof. Colin Snape) and involves 5 other academic/research institute partners (Universities of Bangor and Leeds, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Forest Research and Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre), with over 10 other project partners spanning biochar production, the agricultural sector and other stakeholders, including local government.  

The successful candidate will act as the focal point for engagement across the academic and wider stakeholder community through a dynamic network and with a Flexible Fund to addresses any research gaps that emerge, targeted at encouraging early career researcher development.  The Demonstrator Project Manager is the primary operational contact point for all the partners and stakeholders and will handle all administration, including the arrangements for all the trials across arable land, woodland/forestry, grassland and contaminated land.  

Day-to-day activities range from servicing the governance structure, arranging all the stakeholder and networking activities, including meetings and workshops, as well as being the first point of contact for all matters involving the GGR Programme Hub led by the University of Oxford. Other duties include running the Network programme, administrating the flexible fund, managing the web site, the social media presence and collating the information for the monthly news bulletins for all sent Network members. 

Applicants should have (i) the ability to fully understand the science, including a strong overall appreciation of climate change and GGR technologies; (ii) have experience with working with industry and other stakeholders and (iii) the ability to network and display commitment to the development of early career researchers.  

At the University of Nottingham, we are committed to providing competitive employment packages whilst supporting the well-being of our staff to help them reach their full potential. As a University employee, you will have access to a range of benefits and rewards, including leading fitness and health facilities, staff discounts and travel schemes, along with a generous holiday allowance and a highly attractive pension scheme,

This is a full time (36.25 hours), fixed term post for 49 months. Arrangements for job share would be considered.

Informal enquiries may be addressed to Prof. Colin Snape, email: colin.snape@nottingham.ac.uk. Please note that applications sent directly to this email address will not be accepted.

Our University has always been a supportive, inclusive, caring and positive community. We warmly welcome those of different cultures, ethnicities and beliefs – indeed this very diversity is vital to our success, it is fundamental to our values and enriches life on campus. We welcome applications from UK, Europe and from across the globe. For more information on the support we offer our international colleagues, see our Moving to Nottingham pages.

For successful international applicants, we provide financial support for your visa and the immigration health surcharge, plus an interest-free loan to help cover the cost of immigration-related expenses for any dependants accompanying you to the UK. For more information please see the our webpage on Financial support for visas and the immigration health surcharge.

Connect with the University of Nottingham through social media and our blogs.

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Making Charcoal and Biochar: A Comprehensive Guide by Rebecca Oaks – Google Sites

24 August, 2021
 


Fine Biochar Powder Market 2021-2027 By Top Key Players: Cool Planet, Carbon Gold …

25 August, 2021
 

A new informative report titled as “Global Fine Biochar Powder Market” has recently published by Credible Markets to its humongous database which helps to shape the future of the businesses by making well-informed business decisions. It offers a comprehensive analysis of various business aspects such as COVID-19 impact analysis impacts, global market trends, recent technological advancements, market shares, size, and new innovations. Furthermore, this analytical data has been compiled through data exploratory techniques such as primary and secondary research. Moreover, an expert team of researchers throws light on various static as well as dynamic aspects of the global Fine Biochar Powder market.

An exhaustive competition analysis that covers insightful data on industry leaders is intended to help potential market entrants and existing players in competition with the right direction to arrive at their decisions. Market structure analysis discusses in detail Fine Biochar Powder companies with their profiles, revenue shares in market, comprehensive portfolio of their offerings, networking and distribution strategies, regional market footprints, and much more.

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By Top Key Players

Cool Planet
Carbon Gold
BlackCarbon
Kina
Biochar Now
Swiss Biochar GmbH
BioChar Products
ElementC6
The Biochar Company
Carbon Terra
Diacarbon Energy
Agri-Tech Producers

By Types

Wood Source Biochar
Corn  Source Biochar
Wheat  Source Biochar
Others

By Applications

Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Regional Analysis of Global Fine Biochar Powder Market

All the regional segmentation has been studied based on recent and future trends, and the market is forecasted throughout the prediction period. The countries covered in the regional analysis of the Global Fine Biochar Powder market report are U.S., Canada, and Mexico in North America, Germany, France, U.K., Russia, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, and Rest of Europe in Europe, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, China, Japan, India, South Korea, Rest of Asia-Pacific (APAC) in the Asia-Pacific (APAC), Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, South Africa, Egypt, Israel, Rest of Middle East and Africa (MEA) as a part of Middle East and Africa (MEA), and Argentina, Brazil, and Rest of South America as part of South America.

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What does the Report Include?

The market report includes a detailed assessment of various drivers and restraints, opportunities, and challenges that the market will face during the projected horizon. Additionally, the report provides comprehensive insights into the regional developments of the market, affecting its growth during the forecast period. It includes information sourced from the advice of expert professionals from the industry by our research analysts using several research methodologies. The competitive landscape offers further detailed insights into strategies such as product launches, partnership, merger and acquisition, and collaborations adopted by the companies to maintain market stronghold between 2021 and 2027.

The report can answer the following questions:

• North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, Latin America market size (sales, revenue and growth rate) of Global Fine Biochar Powder industry.

• Global major manufacturers’ operating situation (sales, revenue, growth rate and gross margin) of Global Fine Biochar Powder industry.

• Global major countries (United States, Canada, Germany, France, UK, Italy, Russia, Spain, China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, New Zealand, Southeast Asia, Middle East, Africa, Mexico, Brazil, C. America, Chile, Peru, Colombia) market size (sales, revenue and growth rate) of Global Fine Biochar Powder industry.

• Different types and applications of Global Fine Biochar Powder industry, market share of each type and application by revenue.

• Global market size (sales, revenue) forecast by regions and countries from 2021 to 2027 of Global Fine Biochar Powder industry.

• Upstream raw materials and manufacturing equipment, industry chain analysis of Global Fine Biochar Powder industry.

• SWOT analysis of Global Fine Biochar Powder industry.

• New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Global Fine Biochar Powder industry.

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Biochar Market Size, Future Growth, Share, Supply, Demand, Segments and Forecast 2021 …

26 August, 2021
 

Posted on Aug 26 2021 5:45 AM

“Top Players in Biochar Market are American Biochar Company, Carbonis GmbH & Co., Farm2Energy Pvt Ltd., Terra Humana Ltd., CarbonScape Ltd., Tolero Energy LLC., Oregon Biochar Solutions, Terra Char, Vedic Orgo LLP, Interra Energy Inc., Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Cool Planet, and CharGrow USA LLC “

The global “Biochar Market” is expected to rise with an impressive CAGR and generate the highest revenue by 2026. Fortune Business Insights™ in its latest report published this information. The report is titled “Biochar Market Size, Industry Share and Growth Rate 2019-2026”. The report discusses research objectives, research scope, methodology, timeline and challenges during the entire forecast period.

The report evaluates the important characteristics of the market based on present industry scenarios, market demands and business strategies. Also, the research report separates the industry based on the Biochar Market share, types, applications, growth factor, key players and regions.

Key Industry Development:

In May 2019, KTV Green Enterprises Limited has launched operations in order to generate 8,000 Mw capacity of electricity using biochar, water vapour, and other soil additives.

Report Highlights:

An Overview of the Impact of COVID-19 on this Market:

The emergence of COVID-19 has brought the world to a standstill. We understand that this health crisis has brought an unprecedented impact on businesses across industries. However, this too shall pass. Rising support from governments and several companies can help in the fight against this highly contagious disease. There are some industries that are struggling and some are thriving. Overall, almost every sector is anticipated to be impacted by the pandemic.

We are making continuous efforts to help your business sustain and grow during COVID-19 pandemics. Based on our experience and expertise, we will offer you an impact analysis of coronavirus outbreaks across industries to help you prepare for the future.

Get a Sample Copy of the Report at – https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/enquiry/request-sample-pdf/100750

List of Top Key Manufacturers for Biochar Market:

“Rising Awareness Regarding Curbing Carbon Emission Will Encourage Growth”

The global biochar market, on the basis of feedstock, is segmented into agricultural waste, forestry waste, and animal manure and others. Forestry and agricultural waste are widely used for the production of biochar. Biochar is mainly produced from agricultural and forestry wastes due to abundance in the availability of the feedstock as compared to animal manure. Further, the global biochar market is segmented on the basis of the production process into the pyrolysis process, gasification and combustion process. Gasification produces lesser quantities of biochar as compared to pyrolysis, Pyrolysis produces oils, liquids, and syngas depending on the rate of the pyrolysis (fast or slow). The global biochar on the basis of applications is segmented into feedstock additive, soil conditioner and as a raw material for power generation. Furthermore, the launch of operations by KTV Green Enterprises is expected to enable global biochar market growth.

For instance, KTV Green Enterprises Limited has launched operations in order to generate 8,000 Mw capacity of electricity using biochar, water vapor, and other soil additives. The increasing awareness of greenhouse gas emissions is also expected to boost the global biochar market. For instance, an NGO named African Soils Initiative has launched an initiative in order to raise awareness among the natives for the benefits and applications of biochar. In addition, the construction of biochar plants and facilities is also likely to contribute to the global biochar market revenue. For instance, Environotics Unlimited company announced its plans to start a USD 10 Million composting facilities and a biochar plant in the Buckhannon part of West Virginia. However, the cost of offsite production and transportation of biochar makes it an uneconomical product for the end-users in some particular regions. This factor is expected to hamper the growth of the global biochar market.

Some of the Key Questions Answered in this Report:

For More Specific Information, Ask for customization at – https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/enquiry/customization/100750

Regional Analysis for Biochar Market:

The Biochar Market research report offers a complete assessment of the industry. The projections included in the report have been determined utilizing demonstrated research philosophies and presumptions.

Research Methodology:

We follow a robust research methodology that involves data triangulation based on top-down, bottom-up approaches, and validation of the estimated market numbers through primary research. The information used to estimate the market size and forecast for various segments at the global, regional, and country-level is derived from the most credible published sources and through interviews with the right stakeholders.

The Growth rate or CAGR exhibited by a market for a certain forecast period is calculated on the basis of various factors and their level of impact on the market. These factors include market drivers, restraints, industry challenges, market and technological developments, market trends, etc.

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Major Table of Contents for Biochar Market Research Report:

About Us:

Fortune Business Insights offers expert corporate analysis and accurate data, helping organizations of all sizes make timely decisions. We tailor innovative solutions for our clients, assisting them to address challenges distinct to their businesses. Our goal is to empower our clients with holistic market intelligence, giving a granular overview of the market they are operating in.

Our reports contain a unique mix of tangible insights and qualitative analysis to help companies achieve sustainable growth. Our team of experienced analysts and consultants use industry-leading research tools and techniques to compile comprehensive market studies, interspersed with relevant data.

At Fortune Business Insights, we aim at highlighting the most lucrative growth opportunities for our clients. We, therefore, offer recommendations, making it easier for them to navigate through technological and market-related changes. Our consulting services are designed to help organizations identify hidden opportunities and understand prevailing competitive challenges.

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Young Indian American researcher wins Stockholm Junior Water Prize

27 August, 2021
 

Eshani Jha, an Indian American girl from from San Jose, California, has won the prestigious 2021 Stockholm Junior Water Prize. for her research on simple and affordable ways to purify water.

Stockholm Junior Water Prize is an international competition where students between the ages of 15 and 20 present solutions to major water challenges.

With water contamination being a growing global problem, Jha’s research can in the future help saving lives, particularly in places where state of the art water filtration is not available or simply too costly.

“The simplicity of this solution is that it addresses multiple, varied contaminants with a single device, and that device is potentially scalable to global use, with the added benefit of localized manufacture,” the Water Prize jury said acknowledging the potential of Jha’s work.

She was awarded the prize by its official patron Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, during an online ceremony on Aug. 24 as part of World Water Week.

Read: Indian American Tara Srinivas wins Fulbright scholarship (June 22, 2021)

“I am honored and humbled, and I would like to thank everyone involved for the amazing experience that Stockholm Junior water Prize provides,” Jha said.

“I have got to know many of the other participants along the way and we are determined to find ways to work together. As young scientists we really are the future of the water world,” Jha said.

The friendly atmosphere has always been at the heart of the event and even though the 2021 edition was an entirely digital affair, Jha said that the interaction with other participants was still one of the highlights.

Her own research has been going on for some years and she said that it started with a strong wish to find a simple and cost-effective alternative to using active carbon for water filtration. This led her to biochar, which at the time was already used to purify soil.

“I thought that if it could purify soil, why not water too? Biochar’s advantage is that it is much more affordable than active carbon, with added benefits such as the possibility of local production.”

Jha’s invention targets certain classes of contaminants, particularly pesticides, emerging contaminants, and heavy metals. She has enhanced the biochar’s existing ability to act like a sponge for these contaminants, essentially creating a ‘super sponge’.

“I see a multitude of applications for this, and I also see great potential in targeting other contaminants in the future. My ambition is that this should be a one-stop water filter.”

Jha has already obtained a patent for her invention and she hopes to be able to commercialize it within a couple of years.

Jha stresses that her successful research had not been possible without the support from her family, school, and scientific mentors. She pays particular tribute to her dedicated teachers, underlining the importance of inspiring and supportive role models in school.

“The significance of good teachers cannot be overstated. They play a big role in both character development and career choices, and they can make all the difference for young people pursuing their dreams.”

The Stockholm Junior Water Prize has been organized every year since 1997 by the Stockholm International Water Institute, SIWI, with Xylem as Founding Partner. Tens of thousands of students from around the world participate each year.

“Stockholm Junior Water Prize celebrates young people’s determination to be part of a better future. The passion and ingenuity that all participants show is truly inspiring and an important contribution to the global water world,” said Torgny Holmgren, Executive Director at Stockholm International Water Institute.

A Diploma of Excellence was awarded to Thanawit Namjaidee and Future Kongchu from Thailand, for developing a way to use organic waste material for moisture retention, thereby accelerating plant growth.

Read: Young Indian American Researcher Wins Prestigious Stockholm Junior Water Prize 2021 (August 27, 2021)

The People’s Choice Award went to Gabriel Fernandes Mello Ferreira from Brazil for developing a microplastic retention mechanism for water treatment.

“These winners are part of a global movement,” said Patrick Decker, Xylem’s CEO. “We’re so inspired by them – and all 125,000 entrants in 25 years of the Stockholm Junior Water Prize.

“A generation of young people, motivated to solve society’s biggest water challenges, can and are changing the world. We’re so proud to champion their innovation by sponsoring this great Prize.”

Let’s connect on any of these social networks!


Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House – The Market Writeuo

28 August, 2021
 

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The Major Manufacturers Covered in this Report: Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House, Anaerob Systems, Algae AquaCulture Technologies, CECEP Golden Mountain Agricultural Science And Technology, EarthSpring Biochar/Biochar Central, Energy Management Concept, 3R Environmental Technology Group and Renargi

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Biochar : A Guide to Analytical Methods, Paperback by Singh, Balwant (EDT) – eBay

29 August, 2021
 


What plants like charcoal – Invoice Crowd

30 August, 2021
 

Instagram


Classification, Opportunities, Types, Applications, Status and Forecast to 2026 – The Market Writeuo

31 August, 2021
 

Granular Biochar market research report provides the details about Industry Chain structure, Market Competition, Market Size and Share, SWOT Analysis, Technology, Cost, Raw Materials, Consumer Preference, Development and Trends, Regional Forecast, Company and Profile and Product and Service.

The report also contains brief information on the key players in the Granular Biochar industry operating on the Market. The report provides in-depth information on the industry overview, market size, share, revenues, recent developments, acquisitions and mergers, and expansion strategies. The report consist a full analysis of product innovation and consumer behavior. The Granular Biochar market has been segmented by commodity type, end-users, technology, industry verticals, and regions. The in-depth research will allow readers to better understand well-established and emerging players in shaping their business strategies to achieve long-term and short-term goals. The report outlines a wide range of areas and locations where key participants could identify opportunities for the future.

Top Companies Profiles:

Diacarbon Energy
Agri-Tech Producers
Biochar Now
Carbon Gold
Kina
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
ElementC6
BioChar Products
BlackCarbon
Cool Planet
Carbon Terra

Get the Impact of Covid-19 on Granular Biochar Market at https://www.insidemarketreports.com/covid-19/6/866843/Granular-Biochar

An Overview of the Impact of COVID-19 on this Market:

Effect of COVID-19: Granular Biochar Market report investigate the effect of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on the Granular Biochar industry. Since December 2019, the COVID-19 infection spread to practically 180+ nations around the world with the World Health Organization pronouncing it a general wellbeing crisis. The worldwide effects of the Covid infection 2020 (COVID-19) are now beginning to be felt, and will essentially influence the Granular Biochar market in 2020 and 2021.

Notwithstanding, this also will pass. Rising help from governments and a few organizations can help in the battle against this exceptionally infectious illness. There are a few ventures that are battling and some are flourishing. Generally speaking, pretty much every area is expected to be affected by the pandemic.

We are taking persistent endeavours to assist your business with maintaining and develop during COVID-19 pandemics. In view of our experience and aptitude, we will offer you an effective examination of Covid flare-up across enterprises to assist you with setting up what’s to come.

Cautious assessment of the components molding the Granular Biochar market size, share, and the development direction of the market;

Segmentation:

Detailed segmentation of the Granular Biochar market, on the basis of Type and Application and a descriptive structure of trends of the segments and sub-segments are elaborated in the report. It also provides the market size and estimates a forecast from the year 2020 to 2026 with respect to five major regions, namely; North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa (MEA) and South & Central America. The report also provides exhaustive PEST analysis for all five regions after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors effecting the Granular Biochar market.

The major types mentioned in the report are Wood Source Biochar, Corn Source Biochar, Wheat Source Biochar and the applications covered in the report are Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Application C, etc.

The Granular Biochar Market report has been segregated based on distinct categories, such as product type, application, end user, and region. Each segment is evaluated based on CAGR, share, and growth potential.

The study objectives are:

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