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Environmental Erosion Research Journal

1 August, 2020
 


Mitigating methane emission via annual biochar amendment pyrolyzed with rice straw from the …

1 August, 2020
 

Low Annual prevailed over High Single in mitigating methane emission.

Methanotrophs and methanogens largely dwelled on biochar particles.

Low rate biochar promoted methanotrophs abundance.

Low Annual prevailed over High Single in mitigating methane emission.

Methanotrophs and methanogens largely dwelled on biochar particles.

Low rate biochar promoted methanotrophs abundance.

To develop an economic and sustainable biochar application strategy for mitigating methane emission from paddy fields, a four-year field experiment was conducted to compare two biochar amendment methods. The annual low (AL) rate pyrolyzed biochar returning method used the same amount of biochar as was harvested from rice straw in the field, 2.8 t ha−1 yr−1. The high single (HS) biochar returning method consisted of a single application of 22.5 t ha−1 biochar only in the first year, 2015. Our results showed that the AL biochar returning strategy prevailed over the HS strategy in mitigating methane emission from paddy fields. On average, AL and HS could reduce methane emissions by 41% and 38.25% in four years, respectively. Methane accumulation per unit rice production was 45.8% and 43.1% in AL and HS, respectively. AL showed a stable effect on mitigating methane emission over four successive years, which resulted from the continuously increasing methanotrophs due to annual fresh biochar application. Aged biochar weakened the promotion of methanotrophs, leading to lower methane reduction rates in HS than in AL in the 4 years. Our results indicate that AL is a highly sustainable strategy for methane mitigation in paddy fields due to its high efficiency, practical operation, and economical acceptance.


Long-term biochar addition alters the characteristics but not the chlorine reactivity of soil-derived …

1 August, 2020
 

Character and chlorine reactivity of DOM in biochar-added soils were examined.

Condensed aromatics increased and microbial DOM decreased with 11 years of treatment.

Such responses were not significant for the DOM with 5 years of treatment.

Formation/toxicity of disinfection byproducts of DOM chlorination were not altered.

Character and chlorine reactivity of DOM in biochar-added soils were examined.

Condensed aromatics increased and microbial DOM decreased with 11 years of treatment.

Such responses were not significant for the DOM with 5 years of treatment.

Formation/toxicity of disinfection byproducts of DOM chlorination were not altered.

Biochar is widely and increasingly applied to farmlands. However, it remains unclear how long-term biochar addition alters the characteristics and chlorine reactivity of soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM), an important terrestrial disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursor in watersheds. Here, we analyzed the spectroscopic and molecular-level characteristics of soil-derived DOM and the formation and toxicity of DBP mixtures from DOM chlorination for two long-term (5 and 11 years) biochar addition experimental farmlands. As indicated by spectroscopic indices and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analyses, 11 years of biochar addition could increase the humic-like and aromatic and condensed aromatic DOM and decrease the microbial-derived DOM, while 5 years of biochar addition at the other site did not. The response of condensed aromatic dissolved black carbon did not increase with increasing cumulative biochar dose but appeared to be affected by biochar aging time. Despite the possible increase in aromatic DOM, biochar addition neither increased the reactivity of DOM in forming trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrates, or haloketones nor significantly increased the microtoxicity or genotoxicity of the DBP mixture. This study indicates that biochar addition in watersheds may not deteriorate the drinking water quality via the export of terrestrial DBP precursors like wildfire events.


Long-term biochar addition alters the characteristics but not the chlorine reactivity of soil-derived …

1 August, 2020
 

Biochar is widely and increasingly applied to farmlands. However, it remains unclear how long-term biochar addition alters the characteristics and chlorine reactivity of soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM), an important terrestrial disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursor in watersheds. Here, we analyzed the spectroscopic and molecular-level characteristics of soil-derived DOM and the formation and toxicity of DBP mixtures from DOM chlorination for two long-term (5 and 11 years) biochar addition experimental farmlands. As indicated by spectroscopic indices and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analyses, 11 years of biochar addition could increase the humic-like and aromatic and condensed aromatic DOM and decrease the microbial-derived DOM, while 5 years of biochar addition at the other site did not. The response of condensed aromatic dissolved black carbon did not increase with increasing cumulative biochar dose but appeared to be affected by biochar aging time. Despite the possible increase in aromatic DOM, biochar addition neither increased the reactivity of DOM in forming trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrates, or haloketones nor significantly increased the microtoxicity or genotoxicity of the DBP mixture. This study indicates that biochar addition in watersheds may not deteriorate the drinking water quality via the export of terrestrial DBP precursors like wildfire events.

 


Ozone and Ammonium Hydroxide Modification of Biochar Prepared from Pisum sativum Peels …

1 August, 2020
 

This study evaluated the effectiveness of unmodified and modified biochar derived from Pisum sativum peels waste biomass as an adsorbent of copper (II) from aqueous medium under batch adsorption experiments at room temperature. The unmodified biochar was chemically modified by ozone oxidation followed by reaction with ammonium hydroxide and labeled as Pea-B and Pea-BO-NH2. The adsorption behavior of Cu2+ ions and the effect of required experimental parameters as initial Cu2+ ions concentrations, biochar dose, reaction time, and pH were intensively studied. The unmodified biochar (Pea-B) and modified biochar (Pea-BO-NH2) had significant copper (II) adsorption capacities of 126.25 and 156.25 mg/g, respectively, with 100% removal efficiency. The prepared biochars were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Barrett, Joyner, Halenda (BJH), Scan Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Thermal gravimetrical analysis (TGA) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDAX) analyses. EDAX and FTIR analyses proved that amino groups were successfully formed onto the modified biochar surface. The data of adsorption experiments at equilibrium were studied by using various isotherm models as well as the error function equations were applied to the data of isotherm models. The analysis of the experimental data of Pea-B and Pea-BO-NH2 biochars showed that the best fit isotherm models were the Langmuir and Tempkin isotherm models, respectively. The adsorption rate of copper (II) was analyzed using different kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order was expressed as the most appropriate model for both Pea-B and Pea-BO-NH2 biochars.

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Correspondence to Ahmed El Nemr.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Received: 16 April 2020

Accepted: 15 July 2020

Published: 31 July 2020

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-020-00455-2

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COVID-19 Impact: Granular Biochar Market | Strategic Industry Evolutionary Analysis Focus on …

1 August, 2020
 

Latest Research Report: Granular Biochar industry

Granular Biochar Market report is to provide accurate and strategic analysis of the Profile Projectors industry. The report closely examines each segment and its sub-segment futures before looking at the 360-degree view of the market mentioned above. Market forecasts will provide deep insight into industry parameters by accessing growth, consumption, upcoming market trends and various price fluctuations.

This has brought along several changes in This report also covers the impact of COVID-19 on the global market.

Granular Biochar Market competition by top manufacturers as follow: , Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra

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Global Granular Biochar Market research reports growth rates and market value based on market dynamics, growth factors. Complete knowledge is based on the latest innovations in the industry, opportunities and trends. In addition to SWOT analysis by key suppliers, the report contains a comprehensive market analysis and major player’s landscape.
The Type Coverage in the Market are:
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Source Biochar
Wheat Source Biochar
Others

Market Segment by Applications, covers:
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Market segment by Regions/Countries, this report covers
North America
Europe
China
Rest of Asia Pacific
Central & South America
Middle East & Africa

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Biochar produced from cotton husks and its application for the adsorption of oil products

1 August, 2020
 

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Mouyuan Yang et al 2020 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 545 012022

https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/545/1/012022

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Due to their low-cost, light weight, environmental protection, biological carbon as the oil adsorbent has aroused widely attention. The discovery and research of novel biological carbon for the separation of oil from water is still required urgently. In this work, the cotton husks were prepared through high-temperature pyrolysis and they are utilized to adsorb different oils. The adsorption process and reusability were also investigated, it founded that the carbonized cotton husks (CNH) exhibit fast adsorption capacity and excellent sorption capacity and reusability, which can be the great candidate for oil spill cleanup application.

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Biochar Market : Key Players Business Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2020 to 2029

1 August, 2020
 

An exclusive market study published by Fact.MR on the Biochar market offers insights related to how the market is projected to grow over the forecast period (2019-2029). The objective of the report is to enable our readers to understand the various aspects of the Biochar market and assist them to formulate impactful business strategies. Furthermore, the different factors that are expected to influence the current and future dynamics of the Biochar market are discussed in the presented study.

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The report offers a clear picture of how the Biochar is utilized in various applications. The different applications covered in the report include:

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Does Biochar Promise to Help Mitigate Climate Changes? 

Growing awareness about the carbon negative nature of pyrolysis-derived biochar is creating fresh growth avenues for stakeholders. The potential role of this bichar system derived by the process of pyrolysis is being increasingly viewed as a potential tool to mitigate climate change, by restoring plant based carbon in a stabilized form in soil to prevent decomposition. Though the consensus revolving around the effectiveness of soil biochar amendments in eradicating CO2 from the atmosphere continues to grow, its chemical properties and net carbon footprint are widely variable. 

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Application of peanut biochar as admixture in cement mortar

1 August, 2020
 

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Removal of tetracycline with Aluminum Boride Carbide and boehmite particles decorated biochar

2 August, 2020
 

The Electrocoagulation process was used for microalgae separation.

Aluminum-boron electrodes were exploited in the electrocoagulation cell.

The studied biochar was the by-product of the hydrothermal liquefaction reaction.

Several characterizations revealed the biochar decoration with Al-B compounds.

The biochar was an efficient adsorbent for tetracycline removal from water.

The Electrocoagulation process was used for microalgae separation.

Aluminum-boron electrodes were exploited in the electrocoagulation cell.

The studied biochar was the by-product of the hydrothermal liquefaction reaction.

Several characterizations revealed the biochar decoration with Al-B compounds.

The biochar was an efficient adsorbent for tetracycline removal from water.

For the first time, using aluminum-boron electrodes in the electrocoagulation cell for harvesting the cultivated Chlorella microalgae and then performing a hydrothermal process of producing biofuel, mesoporous biochar was produced with an average pore diameter of 11.62 nm, a high specific surface area of 126.4 m2/g and a total pore volume of 0.55 cm3/g. Based on the chemical characterization, aluminum boride carbide (Al3B48C2) and boehmite [Al2(OOH)2] were identified in the biochar composition so that 7.17 wt% Al and 16.67 wt% B were measured on the biochar surface by EDS analysis. As the by-product of hydrothermal converting microalgae Chlorella into biofuel, the residual biochar was innovatively used to separate tetracycline from aqueous solutions. The nonlinear form of the Freundlich model fitted the adsorption equilibrium data well with the least error function value explained by the intraparticle diffusion model. The maximum adsorption capacity of 25.94 mg/g was obtained through endothermic physical adsorption.


Application of a novel biochar adsorbent and membrane to the selective separation of phosphate …

2 August, 2020
 

Biochar from Rosmarinus officinalis leaves (BRM) was employed in this study.

Adsorptive mixed matrix membrane(PVC-BRM) was fabricated by incorporating BRM.

BRM and PVC-BRM membranes exhibited high phosphate removal efficiencies.

The PVC-BRM membrane showed higher reusability than BRM adsorbent.

BRM exhibits excellent separation of phosphate from different wastewaters.

Biochar from Rosmarinus officinalis leaves (BRM) was employed in this study.

Adsorptive mixed matrix membrane(PVC-BRM) was fabricated by incorporating BRM.

BRM and PVC-BRM membranes exhibited high phosphate removal efficiencies.

The PVC-BRM membrane showed higher reusability than BRM adsorbent.

BRM exhibits excellent separation of phosphate from different wastewaters.

A novel biochar from Rosmarinus officinalis leaves (BRM) was employed for phosphate removal and recovery and compared with ZnO as a reference. Further, an adsorptive mixed matrix membrane suitable for practical adsorption applications in industry was fabricated by incorporating BRM particles in a polymeric matrix (PVC-BRM). The adsorption capacity of the BRM was tested by isotherm and kinetic experiments, and the adsorption properties of the membranes were evaluated by filtration experiments in a cross-flow system. Both BRM and PVC-BRM were characterized by analyzing their morphology and composition. The maximum adsorption capacity of BRM was 50.47mg/g, and the adsorption of phosphate was endothermic and obeyed the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, indicating that multiple mechanisms are involved in the adsorption. BRM and PVC-BRM exhibited high removal efficiencies toward phosphate in a wide range of single and multi-component solutions. In a multi-component system, phosphate displayed preferential adsorption for BRM; in PVC-BRM, however, phosphate selectivity decreased. The adsorption of phosphate was pH-dependent and was enhanced in acidic conditions. The adsorption capacity increased with higher initial phosphate concentration for BRM and PVC-BRM, although removal efficiency decreased. Desorption efficiency was low in both BRM and PVC-BRM; however, 75% regeneration was achieved by NaOH in BRM. The membrane showed higher reusability than BRM. Adsorption mechanism studies revealed that the removal of phosphate was associated with ion exchange, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, and precipitation with metal oxides and hydroxides. Besides, BRM exhibits excellent selective separation of phosphate from different wastewaters and agriculture runoff as secondary resources.


Effect and mechanism of biochar on CO2 and N2O emissions under different nitrogen fertilization …

2 August, 2020
 

When nitrogen fertilization input was relatively low (50 mg N/kg), biochar increased soil CO2 and N2O emission.

The emission promotion effect of biochar was induced by its labile fraction and the promotion of nitrification.

When nitrogen fertilization input was relatively high (450 mg N/kg), biochar increased less soil CO2 emission and decreased soil N2O emission.

The reduction of N2O mainly came from the inhibition of denitrification by biochar.

When nitrogen fertilization input was relatively low (50 mg N/kg), biochar increased soil CO2 and N2O emission.

The emission promotion effect of biochar was induced by its labile fraction and the promotion of nitrification.

When nitrogen fertilization input was relatively high (450 mg N/kg), biochar increased less soil CO2 emission and decreased soil N2O emission.

The reduction of N2O mainly came from the inhibition of denitrification by biochar.

“Nature based solutions” has been proposed at COP25 as an important venture for combating anthropogenic climate change, and soil biochar amendment have been proposed to have vast carbon sequestration potential. On the other hand, biochar carbon storage in soils is confronted with both biochar and soil carbon and nitrogen loss. The superposition of these two influences leads to complex variation in net greenhouse gas emissions from biochar-amended-soils. Nitrogen fertilization is a common agriculture practice in China and worldwide. To study the effects and mechanisms of biochar on soil net greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O) under different nitrogen fertilization gradient in a ferrallitic soil, a soil column experiment was conducted. Maize straw derived biochar (pyrolysed at 500 °C) and nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium sulfate) were investigated at varying application rates. It was found that biochar amendment increased CO2 emissions by 51.1%–57.1% and N2O emissions by 50.0%–73.7%, respectively, when soil was incubated with 50 mg N/kg nitrogen fertilization. The N2O emission in soil was dominated by nitrification, and the labile fraction of biochar played the dominant role in increasing soil CO2 and N2O emissions. Therefore, water or acid washing of biochar before its application would significantly reduce the net GHG emissions. When the nitrogen fertilization was applied at the unusually high level of 450 mg N/kg, the N2O emissions mainly came from denitrification. Biochar amendment introduced less soil CO2 emission increment, and suppressed N2O emissions by inhibition of denitrification via adsorption protection mechanism (towards nitrogen) and aeration effect. A chain mechanism has been illustrated and results from this study suggest that biochar is best applied to an environment or the circumstance that maximizes adsorption protection mechanism and aeration effect to achieve total greenhouse gas emission reduction. This study therefore provides basis for the scientific sound application and regulation of biochar amendment in soils.


MgO modified biochar produced through ball milling: A dual-functional adsorbent for removal of …

2 August, 2020
 

Solvent-free synthesis of MgO/biochar nanocomposites was achieved through ball milling.

MgO nanoparticles (20 nm) dispersed uniformly on the surface of the biochar matrix.

MgO/biochar nanocomposites showed dual functions to effectively adsorb cationic dye and anionic phosphate.

Ball milling method has the advantage of operational flexibility and chemical adjustability.

Solvent-free synthesis of MgO/biochar nanocomposites was achieved through ball milling.

MgO nanoparticles (20 nm) dispersed uniformly on the surface of the biochar matrix.

MgO/biochar nanocomposites showed dual functions to effectively adsorb cationic dye and anionic phosphate.

Ball milling method has the advantage of operational flexibility and chemical adjustability.

A facile ball-milling method was developed to synthesize MgO/biochar nanocomposites as a dual-functional adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized nanocomposites indicated that the composites achieved nano-scaled morphologies and mesoporous structure with MgO nanoparticles, which is approximate 20 nm and dispersed uniformly on the surface of the biochar matrix. Batch sorption experiments yielded 62.9% removal of phosphate, an anion, and 87.5% removal of methylene blue, a cationic organic dye, at low adsorbent dosages of 1.0 g L−1 and 0.2 g L−1, respectively. This work indicates that ball milling, as a facile and promising method for synthesis of carbon-metal oxide nanocomposites, lends the advantage of operational flexibility and chemical adjustability for targeted remediation of diverse environmental pollutants.


Mobility and Bioavailability of Fomesafen in Biochar Amended Soils

2 August, 2020
 


Biochar stoves for socio-ecological resilience

3 August, 2020
 

World Agroforestry (ICRAF) is a centre of science and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. Leveraging the world’s largest repository of agroforestry science and information, we develop knowledge practices, from farmers’ fields to the global sphere, to ensure food security and environmental sustainability.

 

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Driven by our vision of a world where all people have viable livelihoods supported by healthy and productive landscapes, our global team of science, research, development, institutional and resource professionals seeks to better combine the science of discovery with the science of delivery. To realize this vision, we focus on four key interacting themes: By combining more productive trees with more resilient and profitable agricultural systems and a sounder understanding of the health of the soil, land and people that is part of ‘greener’, better governed landscapes, we offer valuable and timely knowledge products and services to the global community as it tackles the major challenges of the Anthropocene. These include dealing with climate change; low soil carbon; widespread forest, tree and soil loss leading to degradation; poverty; demographic upheavals and conflict; and securing equitable futures for all with a special focus on women and children.

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World Agroforestry works throughout the Global South with footprints in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Our activities span over 44 countries in six regions. Each office oversees, plans, coordinates and supports initiatives within their region, and maintains liaisons and partnerships with governments, development partners, learning institutions and civil society

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ICRAF publishes content on a regular basis. Subscribe and stay up-to-date on the latest news and trends on agroforestry

World Agroforestry (ICRAF) is a centre of science and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. Leveraging the world’s largest repository of agroforestry science and information, we develop knowledge practices, from farmers’ fields to the global sphere, to ensure food security and environmental sustainability.

 

ICRAF publishes content on a regular basis. Subscribe and stay up-to-date on the latest news and trends on agroforestry

Driven by our vision of a world where all people have viable livelihoods supported by healthy and productive landscapes, our global team of science, research, development, institutional and resource professionals seeks to better combine the science of discovery with the science of delivery. To realize this vision, we focus on four key interacting themes: By combining more productive trees with more resilient and profitable agricultural systems and a sounder understanding of the health of the soil, land and people that is part of ‘greener’, better governed landscapes, we offer valuable and timely knowledge products and services to the global community as it tackles the major challenges of the Anthropocene. These include dealing with climate change; low soil carbon; widespread forest, tree and soil loss leading to degradation; poverty; demographic upheavals and conflict; and securing equitable futures for all with a special focus on women and children.

The goal of the African Orphan Crops Consortiu

This easy-to-use App shows you data on the distribution of indigenous tree species in d

The Landscape Portal is ICRAF’s interactive online spatial data storage and visualizati

ICRAF publishes content on a regular basis. Subscribe and stay up-to-date on the latest news and trends on agroforestry

World Agroforestry works throughout the Global South with footprints in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Our activities span over 44 countries in six regions. Each office oversees, plans, coordinates and supports initiatives within their region, and maintains liaisons and partnerships with governments, development partners, learning institutions and civil society

ICRAF publishes content on a regular basis. Subscribe and stay up-to-date on the latest news and trends on agroforestry

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Majority of households in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) cook with charcoal and/or firewood using inefficient stoves. This leads to high consumption of wood fuel as well as exposure to the negative effects of indoor air pollution, which disproportionately affects women and children. Concurrently, the rural population in SSA depends on agriculture, which faces the challenges of low soil fertility and high cost of mineral fertilizers. This brief presents an innovative way of cooking with an improved and more efficient gasifier stove that converts biomass to heat for cooking while producing biochar as a by-product.

Cooking with the gasifier reduces fuel consumption and indoor air pollution. In addition, biochar, when used as a soil amendment, improves soil fertility leading to increased crop yields. The effect of biochar on soil fertility can last for over a decade (Kätterer et al., 2019); use of biochar for soil improvement stores carbon underground, thus resulting in carbon dioxide removal, and mitigating the effects of climate change (Sundberg et al., 2020). This novel bioenergy-biochar system should thus be included in agriculture, energy, gender and climate change policies forimproved socio-ecological farming systems.

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Biochar Perceive Robust Expansion by 2019-2025

3 August, 2020
 

Analysis of the Global Biochar Market

The presented global Biochar market report provides reliable and credible insights related to the various segments and sub-segments of the market. The market study throws light on the various factors that are projected to impact the overall dynamics of the global Biochar market over the forecast period (20XX-20XX).

According to the report, the value of the Biochar market was estimated to reach ~US$ XX in 2019 and attain a market value of ~US$ XX by the end of 2029. Further, the study reveals that the market is set to grow at a      CAGR of XX% during the forecast period owing to a plethora of factors.

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The market study aims to provide answers to the following questions related to the Biochar market:

The report splits the global Biochar market into different market segments such as:

The region-wise segmentation offers critical information such as the market share, size, revenue analysis, growth prospects, and market attractiveness of each region.

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Competition Analysis
In the competitive analysis section of the report, leading as well as prominent players of the global Biochar market are broadly studied on the basis of key factors. The report offers comprehensive analysis and accurate statistics on sales by the player for the period 2015-2020. It also offers detailed analysis supported by reliable statistics on price and revenue (global level) by player for the period 2015-2020.
On the whole, the report proves to be an effective tool that players can use to gain a competitive edge over their competitors and ensure lasting success in the global Biochar market. All of the findings, data, and information provided in the report are validated and revalidated with the help of trustworthy sources. The analysts who have authored the report took a unique and industry-best research and analysis approach for an in-depth study of the global Biochar market.
The following manufacturers are covered in this report:
Cool Planet
Biochar Supreme
NextChar
Terra Char
Genesis Industries
Interra Energy
CharGrow
Pacific Biochar
Biochar Now
The Biochar Company (TBC)
ElementC6
Vega Biofuels
Biochar Breakdown Data by Type
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar
Other Stove Source Biochar
Biochar Breakdown Data by Application
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Vital data enclosed in the report:

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Biochar kiln for sale

3 August, 2020
 

6. Coppice Products. Our soil ecological consultancy services are focused on plant biology, mycorrhizal symbioses & on the unintended environmental consequences of intensive soil disturbance and prolonged vegetation clearance. Charcoal Green® PURE Dec 18, 2017 · Biochar is produced in a kiln. This is aimed at agricultural enhancement rather than fuel production. Kiln#2: 3-drum Biochar Retort The Vuthisa 3-drum Biochar Retort (DIY Kit) is the next generation Emission Reduction (ER) model. This unique kiln can dry and char wet feedstocks in alternate kiln bodies, using heat and gas produced during the pyrolysis process. Cleaner in operation – up to 75% fewer pollutants released. , 2016). The kiln has been tested on a wide range of feedstocks including woodshavings, woodchip, logs, rice husks, coffee husks, rush and wetland reed. Here are more parameters for your reference. First, put a little dirt in the bottom of the cone around the edges to seal air leaks. Thus, biochar can be viewed as a permanent addition to soils, making it On a molecular level, biochar is made up of sheets of Graphene Oxide. Biochar Solutions: Located in Carbondale, CO, they offer wholesale biochar as well as equipment such as the B-1000 Thermal Conversion System. biochar klin for sale in Benin Products List HM BIOCHAR KILN – BIOCHAR Benin This is a very simple Biochar kiln recently designed for Sarada Mutt (Holy Mother), at Almora, Uttarakhand, Benin , Nepal Jaw Crusher for Sale,Cone Crusher ,Grinding , it&39;s a interesting, More details » Get Price Compost | Get-Growing. In most cases, the purpose of carbonizing biomass and waste sludge is to get charcoal; But carbonization of municipal solid waste is mainly to reduce the amount of garba The woody material that would otherwise be wasted is turned into a valuable resource. Large Capacity Continuous Air Flow Biochar Hard Wood Charcoal Carbonization Retort Kiln Furnace , Find Complete Details about Large Capacity Continuous Air Flow Biochar Hard Wood Charcoal Carbonization Retort Kiln Furnace,Air Flow Charcoal Kiln,Charcoal Carbonization Furnace,Hard Wood Charcoal Kiln from Supplier or Manufacturer-Gongyi City Jingying Machinery Manufacturing Factory Kiln name. Alan R. It takes about 10 pounds (4. Biochar is not just carbon neutral; it is “carbon negative”, according to its proponents, because buried biochar is stable for thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of years. com). These. The indirect rotary kiln chemically reacts sludge in a closed, anaerobic, non-combustible and high-temperature state. Hammer milled , fine grade – effective compost booster – in composting toilets – water filter – lessens nasty odours – perfect for bokashi process + EM – in animal bedding and poultry sheds Available at Rosevears 1ltr – 2. On the topic of biochar. Green Feed For Cattle. I made a Kon Tiki biochar kiln to convert wood waste in biochar. The negative cost-effectiveness value indicates that if the biochar stove and kiln project is Jun 19, 2020 · Biochar was recently included as a promising negative emissions technology (NET) in the Special Report on Global Warming of 1. have arisen from pressures from all. , representing the most advanced crusher technology in the world. [email protected]. It contains all the adaptations of the Trans-Portable kiln, but is 30% wider, heavier and capable of producing biochar. Find the best Kiln price! Kiln for sale in South Africa. I have used corn stover biochar for increasing the growth and dry matter of corn crop. To extract charcoal/biochar, remove with gantry or tip over. Auger assembly of a Pyreg biochar kiln installed near Stockholm, Sweden. com) "This 30. $1,440. The set up of four kilns is capable of producing one cubic yard of biochar in six hours. The oxygen atoms that are attached to the carbon sheet give it polarity. From the YouTube notes: A 30 gallon retort heated by a 55 gallon TLUD is the basic idea. biochar for sale in south africa. biochar did not show significant effect with 1%  charcoal retort or kiln is of very low value. Another method that doesnt require special equipment,but I think if one had that type of timber (cut to length) it would be better used in the stove! Dec 01, 2019 · The results for these chemicals must be considered with caution. Its capacity of absorption is also 8 times more than that of the ordinary Biochar: The porosity and the absorption efficiency is less compared to Supr Activ Biochar. Dig a conical pit in the form of a Kon-Tiki, ram the clay, level stones as a upper rim shield around the pit and start barely one hour later to produce your first own biochar. The biochar, which is vir-tually pure carbon, can then be used as an agricultural soil amendment. Special features. 15 Sep 2012 To do this, the team came up with a design for a biochar kiln (it is technically a low cost pyrolizer) that uses a 55 gallon oil drum. get price The long term benefits of making biochar is a huge reduction of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. We also know that no matter how well you maintain it, minor repairs are part of kiln ownership. We also carry thicker grades of hardwoods should you need them. But NECMA wanted a transportable 'kiln' that could char the wood as and where it was found without chipping it. References APPENDIX 10. MDO. The biomass pyrolysis plant for sale designed by Beston Group uses high temperature heating to generate a renewable energy- biochar, also called biomass charcoal. Now we have a series of biochar equipment for sale, whose feeding capacity ranges from 500 kg to 3000 kg per hour. Furthermore, AirTerra also works with people in developing countries to promote the use of life-saving clean and efficient cooking stoves that have the added benefit of producing biochar as a byproduct of cooking. Through this process, that takes place at temperatures between 660 and 1,650 degrees F, two co-products are obtained: syngas and Biochar. Biochar is under investigation as a viable approach for carbon sequestration, as it has the potential to help mitigate global warming and climate change. The price includes GST but does not include the cost of shipping. That is to say, it will save your time and energy to preheat the furnace and discharge charcoal. We also manage our hardwood plantation forest holistically. Get Our biochar is made from kiln dried oak wood (biomass). I’ve used it a few times now and I have to say it is the easiest way to make biochar ever! Not only is it easy, but it allows you to char materials that can be difficult to char in other kilns or TLUDs. May 15, 2010 · Like so many others bit by the biochar bug, I wanted to create a kiln for my own use. 4 n = 35 (Bruckman unpublished data). Commercial charcoal is not going to necessarily be good for use in soil. SEED – Project to reuse waste charcoal as biochar. Biomass feedstock 4. Indoor biochar kiln and heat source. Fully transportable – trailer mounted (optional). With a focused central burn 500-700 C, carbon platelets are maintained, producing a fast and effective stable carbon for regenerative gardening. In this video by Big Family Homestead, Brad says he saw a 40% increase in his output of fruits and veggies. Quick payback period: many commercial biochars sell for $30 – $50 per cubic foot so the Kon-Tiki can pay for itself after just a few uses. Learn more about this Single Family with Weichert’s property listing for 12839 LIME KILN ROAD. A retort kiln in which biochar is produced “Think of it as cooking kleftiko,” Papasolomontos said. Flue gases from fire box heat, dry & roast the feedstock. Pit method used to make biochar. This method of biochar production has been extensively tested and is a cost effective method that pyrolyzes biomass layer by layer (Cornelissen et al. The use of biochar in soils contributes to a healthy planet by balancing carbon in the atmosphere and the soil. Distribution still needs to be finalised. Used rotary kiln for sale and missouri – deniseohlsoncozaew and used direct fired kilns for sale nelson machinery supplies direct fired rotary kilns worldwide manufactured by fl, feeco, fuller, traylor, kvs, and more a rotary kiln is a pyroprocessing device used to raise materials to a high temperature calcination in a continuous process. Biochar is widely seen as the successor to biofuels on grounds that it will sequester carbon and improve soil fertility while also producing energy. " "Biochar" is a modern word to describe charcoal used as a soil amendment. It would be powered using the syngas stream, return the biochar to the earth, and transport the bio-oil to a refinery or storage site. Disadvantages of this kiln type are that it requires some capital investment for the chimney and it is more difficult to construct. The idea of biochar comes from the Amazonian rain forests of Brazil, where a civilization thrived for 2,000 years, from about 500 B. net). The adam retort biochar making kiln was selected for its abillity to make charcoal out of all kinds of wood sizes. biochar. And a description of a DIY gasifier kiln is also included. Apr 30, 2011 · Stabilization of heavy metal-contaminated soils by biochar 1 May, 2020 Best biochar kiln 1 May, 2020 A wide variety of price for biochar options are available to you, There are 275 suppliers who sells price for biochar on Alibaba. Sale. A work-in-progress describing activities in South Africa relating to biochar, primarily as a soil amendment but touching on some non-soil applications. Biochar saves water, fertilizer, and prevents fertilizer run-off. Kelpie Wilson shows off a piece of biochar wood in Douglas County's Yew Creek Forest. Now, I came to know that biochar can be used for feeding to the cattle and some research worker have got excellent results. This study found a 42% increase in yield when 10 tonnes/hectare were applied and a 96% increase at 50t/ha (that's 5kg/m 2 for those of us with less land) Biochar is a specially designed charcoal which offers a bright future for organic resource management, soil improvement and energy production. ) Active, expires 2033-01-23 Application number US13/694,276 Other versions Biochar equipment biochar equipment suppliers and. This ability makes Biogreen® an excellent tool for many biomass and waste processing facilities. Minor pyrogas flaming (yellow flames) and CO combustion (blue flames) continued on top of kiln brimming with water. Here at Biochar Industries we are going to put it through its paces and write a full report so other biocharians can learn critical information to help them select the right The woody material that would otherwise be wasted is turned into a valuable resource. Tom and Renel Anderson (Biochar Supreme) gave a great couple of short talks During the San Juan Island Agriculture Summit about making and using biochar at a farm scale. 6. Production capacity of this kiln is 3400, 6000, 12000 tonnes/year of charcoal; the yield of charcoal when using hardwood species – not less than 170 kg/solid m3. The report, titled “Global Biochar Market – Industry Analysis, Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 – 2020”, is available for sale on the company website. Creates significant amounts of biochar quickly : 5 – 7 cubic feet in under 2 hours for most types of biomass. 50 – 500. Premium Biochar – Direct from Manufacturer – Australian Made Ready to use , this material has been carefully ground to a flowing material easy to apply to your soil. Our primary processing facility is located in Willows, a small farming town north of Sacramento on the I-5. While this method does introduce carbon emissions into the air, it is a free way to create biochar. youtube. NOTE: Each purchase donates a kiln to a Kenyan farmer. biocharretort. com Nov 02, 2014 · The terms kiln and retort are used for a reactor that has the ability to pyrolyse biomass into biochar. This is made in a low oxygen process burned at about 500 degrees C, which is called Pyrolysis, meaning decomposition brought about by high temperatures. Pyrolysis can be defined as the thermal decomposition of organic material through the application of heat without the addition of extra air or oxygen. 7 US$/tCO 2 e with carbon price of 6 US$/tCO 2 e and -157. is a technology intensive company playing a leading role in zero emission pyrolysis technology engineering, phosphorus recovery and biochar industrial production. 7, 9 a. This site consists of low cost efficient Good Stoves designed by Dr. Products List. Used rotary kiln for sale products are most The Dorset Charcoal Company specialises in the production and supply of a range of Charcoal Products; from lump wood for barbecues, to Biochar for gardeners, to powder for pyrotechnics, as well as Granular Charcoal as an Animal Feed Supplement to name but a few. Biochar production is a carbon-negative process, which means that it actually reduces CO2 in the atmosphere. The BioCharlie is a biochar making metal log that fits into your fireplace, wood stove, or outdoor fire pit. "We currently are offering pre-manufactured small to medium scale biochar kilns, as well as customized engineering plans that can be used to manufacture  BIOCHAR IN THE WOODS: WHAT TECHNOLOGIES. Finally Figure 2-3 A ” Värmlandsmila” (typical kiln from the region Värmland in Sweden) in Brunskog. I cut the end with the hole from the tank. The Global Biochar Market is poised to grow at a CAGR of around 16. Proudly created with Wix. Low-Cost Portable Kiln for Biochar Production from On-Farm Crop Residue. You won't find wood of this high quality at any home improvement store for twice the price. The material is activated in a large kiln increasing the adsorption capacity and opening the pores. We just cut and then bolted together a 0. Buy 100% ethically sourced Lumpwood Gourmet Charcoal and Biochar from the Oxford Charcoal Company. vuthisa. Biochar is a type of charcoal or activated carbon that is especially good at supporting plant growth. Browse the full Biochar Market – Global Industry Analysis, Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 – 2020 report at https://www. More efficient – 100% of wood is pyrolised. Biochar Making Machine Biochar is charcoal that is used for gardening, horticultural and agricultural purposes. The kiln uses any small dimensioned, dry feedstock that won’t pack together – sawdust or wood chips are too small. Romo For People & Planet. Biochar is ideal for gardeners and professional growers. In order to be called Biochar, it must be suitable for use in soil. The biochar kiln cooking process means around half the carbon is locked-in to the biochar. The 3R senior management team having capabilities and highly experienced to develop business opportunity in the agricultural raw material recovery sector. $15. It is carbon-rich and specifically designed for soil enhancement. A Water & Nutrient conserving Soil Amendment Aug 27, 2019 · As principal engineer John Sanderson puts it, 'Biochar wasn’t a new thing. These efforts have resulted in a biochar substrate embodiment plant method Prior art date 2011-11-14 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. The best choice for Country Parks, Nature Reserves, and private woodland owners. Brief Introduction of Beston Biochar Production Equipment For Sale. 505 Sharptown Road. Biochar making machine charcoal retort carbonization stove kiln . Schapiro, P. Biochar Production Biochar Sales Equipment Manufacturing Contact Us. PRICE: $995 Quick payback period: many commercial biochars sell for $30 – $50 per cubic foot so the Kon- Tiki  We fabricated our small cone kiln from a single (scrapyard sourced) 3'x5′ sheet of 22 gauge stainless steel. Charcoal Retorts – Of any size to fit your budget. There are 1,079 used rotary kiln for sale suppliers, mainly located in Asia. The plans consist of step by step guide to how to build the hookway retort, including photos, plans of the retort and how to fire the retort. The Backyard Biochar Retort Kiln This low cost wood-fired biochar kiln can be even cheaper if you have some of the materials already lying around or if you have welding skills. TLUD is an acronym for Top Lit Up Draught meaning you lite it at the top and the air is sucked up through the fire. These efforts have resulted in a of biochar, and to determine the potential revenues that can be generated from the sale of biochar as a soil amend-ment. The solar kiln described was designed, constructed, and tested at Virginia Tech. A method for making biochar includes placing waste bio mass in a cylindrical retort chamber. Gold Kiln For Activated For Mining In. However, the authors believe that biochar available for sale at quantity should be thoroughly characterized by a qualified laboratory. The volunteers, calling themselves the Project 540 Biochar Kiln Group , are  Do-It-Yourself Low Temperature Biochar Kiln. View our Kiln real estate area information to learn about the weather, local school districts, demographic data, and general information about Kiln, MS. comWix. Brick kilns have been used for thousands of years to create pottery, tiles, and other common objects. Biochar kiln View gallery It contains about 60 per cent carbon and has many uses, including as a soil conditioner, to absorb smells in sale yards. Regardless of the scale, biochar requires biomass (organic material) to be produced. It’s best to leave the kiln for 24 hours to cool, so perhaps on day 4, lift the lid and carefully extract the charcoal. • Umpqua  THE EXETER CHARCOAL RETORT. See www. A microscale electrically heated rotary kiln for slow pyrolysis of biomass and waste was designed and built at the university of perugiahe reactor is connected to a wet scrubbing section, for tar removal, and to a monitored combustion chamber to evaluate the lower heating value of the syngas. The retort systems offer a higher productivity and more efficient way of scaling up production than operating a larger number of small round kilns. This 16- or 18-gauge paired wire is priced in the United States at 28 to 30 cents a running foot and is used only for installations inside the kiln, as shown in Figure 5. want to bild a retort kiln to produce charcoal and biochar This wil be benefit of ecological cultivation and logging I live in South America in the country Suriname We have here a very large rainforest and a lot of wood The waste of te wood get burn in staad of making charcoal or biochar Can Systems and methods for a biochar retort kiln are disclosed herein. Biochar can be made more efficiently using a charcoal retort. A medium size kiln with water heating for a bath, and an option for multi-chamber continuous firing. For loads more than about 2000 ft, I spread the load out over the length of the carts, and band it down in shorter stacks. And improving the air as well. Paragon Kiln – SC2. 0 / Set, New, Henan, China, Philippines, Brazil, Indonesia, Pakistan, Thailand, Uzbekistan Jun 07, 2016 · The inventors have discovered that biochar can act as a suitable substrate for growth and maintenance of container plants, such as greenhouse and nursery crops, which include, but are not limited to, container plants for production or for sale and display in homes and businesses. Build a small fire on the bottom and keep adding sticks, etc. There are several other reasons biochar is great for garden soil, but the main takeaway is that by using it, you will significantly boost garden production. Definition of biochar 3. 375" W x 16" D x 3. of hookah charcoal, charcoal briquettes, activated carbon or bio-char. May 30, 2019 · Kiln Creek Homes for Sale. want to bild a retort kiln to produce charcoal and biochar. This biochar kiln is manufactured in a modular fashion, in 3 main sections, and its throughput capacity can be easily increased by adding units to the mid-section to make it longer. General requirements for keeping production records 5. A pile of biochar at Menoken Farm later will be used to fertilize fields. Get An Adam Retort Biochar kiln and established business is in operation on the property (may be negotiated for sale in the future). Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed. The challenge isto seek better ways of producing charcoal. It is roughly the size of a fireplace log and looks like a log when in the fire. Pacific Biochar has roots in California. Up here in the need some sort of kiln. Adding biochar to soil increases its carbon content and could help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Environmentally, the retort releases approx. 201836 »portable wash plant sale »stone crusher manufacturers in nashik »fine grinding with a ball mill pdf »inclined vibrating screen vibration analysis »machines used in coal handling plant »vibrating screen india china australia »sayaji crusher 36 x 24 »parker company for crushers and (kiln is 20" deep). My thoughts on his method – he might find he gets a cleaner burn if he adds a few more vents higher up the afterburner. • Biochar is made at large and small scales. A third system is a mobile system where a truck equipped with a pyrolyzer would be driven around to pyrolyze biomass. org – backed by Richard Branson• Reports: – Black is the New Green: Nature, Aug 2006 – A Handful of Carbon: Nature, May 2007 – Black Soil, Green Rice: Rice Today, June 2007 – Life cycle The TLUD method is how we make our biochar at home, but we don't have the after burner. Find kiln for sale in South Africa! View Gumtree Free Online Classified Ads for kiln for sale and more in South Africa. The Charter of the Forest gave protection to charcoal makers in 1217. Biochar Solutions, Inc . You can spread pure inoculated biochar around a grow area, then mulch as normal to hold the biochar in place. Biochar is a new venture for the conservation demonstration farm. Have you ever fired a load that seemed to take forever? Once you remove the wares, you test the elements, and discover one isn’t working. 0. Kiln term is used if reactor is made up of bricks and earth (eg. Make an offer! OfferUp is the simplest way to buy and sell locally. of livestock, dairy and eggs. Local sourcing and nation-wide delivery of the highest value rock dust products This biochar kiln is manufactured in a modular fashion, in 3 main sections, and its throughput capacity can be easily increased by adding units to the mid-section to make it longer. http://www. The production of biochar is an undertaking that is usually much more complex than people realize. Heated kiln length [m] Inner diameter [m] Temperature range [°C] Raw material throughput [kg/h] Mode of operation. Producing high quality barbeque charcoal and biochar in a fraction of the time taken by traditional ring kilns. Dec 01, 2019 · The results for these chemicals must be considered with caution. With a little luck, the other It is entirely possible to make these in a biochar kiln – we have seen them. Included below are homes for sale in Kiln Creek. Paragon Kiln – SC2 (READY to 2010 videos: Biochar in a Food Forest I – Biochar in a Food Forest II – Biochar in a Food Forest III My own kiln/retort (May 2010) The classic pit method seems to work well, but there is some criticism on the biochar list of open burns, saying that emissions aren’t fully combusted and carbon yield is low, recommending a kiln or even better, a Charcoal and biochar kiln in our Myddfai Coppice . " Biochar Market Analysis, Global Market Report, US market, market strategy, market research report, Size, Share, Forecast, Trends, The key to understanding biochar is to independently analyze its production and its value as a soil amendment. Liquid manure is used to create the optimal nutrient enriched Biochar ready for use as soil amendment and odourless fertiliser • produced in our revolutionary Tasmanian built KON-TIKI-TAS Deep Cone Kiln. Objective of the biochar guidelines 2. Oct 1, 2019 – Ben Elms is an expert compost-maker. Based out of Golden, Colorado, US. They offer Black Owl biochar blends for specific applications by the bag, cubic foot, cubic yard or Byron Biochar – Merchant of Australian made biochar, hort char & wood vinegar, provides a mobile service, workshops, is the ANZBC20 Event Coordinator & Public Officer of ANZBI. All bulk shipments of our super sack will be shipped by Freight. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, Geoecology Energy Organisation (GEO) for people using biomass as fuel. Kunghur NSW Biochar for Sale. 41 US$/tCO 2 e for high carbon price of 30 US$/tCO 2 e in the developing countries. Hot flue gas with. 2001 AllPax Retort Sterilizer, Model 30S-6ALL-2S2, S/S. High Mineral Content (k,Mg,Ca,Si,Mn, Zn etc) Low compared to Supr Activ Biochar Starting from $135/cubic yard, Rogue Biochar is the most affordable high-quality biochar available today. Our production method is low tech, yet has been tested and rated as the best low emission farm-scale method in Australia by the leading biochar equipment makers! You can find test results for our Biochar here. . The materials should be of fairly uniform size. In the process of making biochar, the unstable carbon in decaying plant material is converted into a stable form of carbon that is then stored in the biochar. Renel generously shared her struggles with getting her biochar tested, certified, and the packaging issues sorted out for sale in retail and farm stores. Sale and application of biochar 8. Some of the prominent trends that the market is witnessing include rising demand from the agricultural sector, increasing demand for organic farming in developed nations and growing biochar importance in livestock farming. Author: N Fuhrmann Created Date: 6/2/2020 8:37:32 PM Charcoal is defined as "a dark or black porous carbon prepared from vegetable or animal substances (as from wood by charring in a kiln from which air is excluded)". This 30. charcoal retort kilns and bio char YouTube. For this reason simple carbonization methods, similar to the original biochar piles but in improved form are likely to be more economical than more complicated plants that place emphasis ‘Biochar stove’ or ‘kiln’ have also been used for these types of units. The retort chamber extends outwardly at a first end and a second end from a fire box. 8M DIAMETER, 5 TPH DIESEL OR COAL FIRED DRYER FOR SALE10m long dryer, 1. Read More Combining mobility, efficiency, and a sleek cylindrical shape, the Exeter is a simple and straightforward retort for users who want to make charcoal of consistent quality without the headaches often associated with homemade fabrications or complex machines involving combustion engines and piping. 1 lb. 12839 LIME KILN ROAD is for sale in Highland Maryland. Jun 13, 2012 . At Big Ceramic Store, we know how valuable your kiln is. • Industrial pyrolyzers are growing in capacity. You can spread 1 cu/ft box of biochar over ~375 sq/ft of soil. To do this, the team came up with a design for a biochar kiln (it is technically a low cost pyrolizer) that uses a 55 gallon oil drum. Biochar bags in the Barossa Valley will soon be available for sale for AUD$30. BIOCHAR AS A SOIL AMENDMENT The carbon in biochar is highly resistant to decomposition and there-fore can hold carbon in soils from hundreds to thousands of years. Biochar can be produced without any investment and with only natural construction materials. Remember to comment, chime in and tell us your thoughts, this podcast is one man’s opinion, not a lecture or sermon. In other words, with a kiln the wood is set alight and the air is restricted by banking up soil around the base of it, whilst in a retort the fire does not come into contact with the wood as it is sealed in a chamber so the air can not come in contact with it. Biochar for humans? Mar 24, 2020 – Explore flood1982's board "biochar", followed by 110 people on Pinterest. He says biochar decreased nitrate leaching more than the clay treatment, possibly because the biochar decreased the conversion of ammonium into nitrates (nitrification). In the worst case, she said, improperly made biochar can harm soil rather than improve it. Aug 01, 2012 · Biochar Kiln (Near Fairlight) 66% yield increase. A wide variety of price of biochar options are available to you, such as easy to operate. 4. P Taylor  7 Jun 2018 From left to right: the biochar kiln at Against the Grain Farm; a finished The heated water drawn from the tank passes through small irrigation  Price: R 7,000 (No VAT payable) + Delivery (CTN ±R 1,600), (JHB ±R 1,300), ( DBN ± R1,000). An Adam Retort Biochar kiln and established business is in operation on the property (may be negotiated for sale in the future). , Biochar Retort). Find high quality Kilns For Sale Suppliers on Alibaba. 540 Phoenix-2. Accordingly, those kilns are unsuitable for the production of larger amounts of biochar to be used in agriculture or industry. Our freight rates flow through to the buyer. Ghana grass pellet mill for sale for sale sep 01 2017 middot grass is familiar to everyone and you can see it everywhere square lawn residential green belt and farmland and anytime in a year grass can not only be used for making feed pellets but also can be used for making biofuel biofuel pellet is a kind of pellet produced by pressing This site has been created to facilitate the establishment of a South East Asian biochar interest group. We have here a very large rainforest and a lot of wood. Kilns can be of very large size and often have internal burning, particularly when used in charcoal making. Jun 2, 2015 – Want to make biochar? Carbon Gold's SuperChar kilns use pyrolysis to efficiently convert a range of wet and dry feedstocks into biochar. Our Stainless steel Biochar cone kiln reduces fire risk to household and other yards. More information on biochar production equipment for sale. limits or prohibitions on the sale. 594 likes. The pyrolysis process produced a biochar yield of 25 ± 0. • Gasification systems can recover energy and biochar. You can also choose from easy to operate, high productivity biochar stove for sale, as well as from egypt, indonesia, and turkey biochar stove for sale, and whether biochar stove for sale is manufacturing plant, farms, or garment shops. GDO. 2 The indirect-fired rotary kiln can recycle the condensed water, combustible gas and biochar left by the calcined sludge. •. So how to choose a suitable biochar equipment for sale is an arduous task for most buyers. Positive list of Biochar is a stable, carbon–rich form of charcoal that is applied to soil. Based out of Pennsylvania, Colorado, and Tennessee. ( EcoTopic give more char and small particles give more biooil. Although there isn’t a proven market, it may also be a business opportunity for small woodland owners to produce biochar for sale through local outlets as a soil improver. The retorts are processed in alternate cycles so that excess heat from the active retort is used to dry the feedstock in the inactive retort (and possibly initiate pyrolysis if 24/7 operation is desired). Their own testing with the product has convinced them of its benefits. 50 A new biochar friend of mine from Western NY has just started manufacturing a nifty little retort for making biochar called the ‘Biocharlie’. 3m 2). A large ‘super sack’ size bag (2 cubic yards) of Wakefield Premium Biochar is made from pine wood. costs $10, and unlike fertilizer that has to be reapplied each year, the purchase of biochar is a one-time cost spread across the soil’s life. Aug 27, 2013 · WA’s First Mobile Biochar Kiln. The biochar may be sold in bulk to local compost manufacturers and the income of the sale of this biochar may be used to sustain the operation of the small business. charcoal kiln for sale KAMY is the worldwide leader in manufacturing hydraulic cutters, road headers, tunnel support systems, and other specialized machinery used in Read more The Exeter Biochar Retort – The cleaner and more efficient European Biochar Certificate 3 Table of contents 1. Excellent experimenter’s batching kiln for characterizing biochar feed stock and varying kiln parameters, for efficiency testing, batching, and loading and unloading access issues. com. May 22, 2011 Tlud Biochar Stoves for sale at www. biocharproject. To figure the price, I considered the time it takes to schedule receiving and customer pickup, loading & unloading the kiln, firing time, cost of electricity, plus wear on my kiln. Apr 08, 2013 · Jez also uses a biochar-based compost for larger vegetables that go into the shops for sale as plants. , standardized production processes to ensure the smooth operation of equipment and processes, and ensure the interests of customers. Finished biochar Biochar kiln burning. from furniture factories – and package it up for sale to farmers and gardeners. Biochar making machine is an airflow carbonization stove,whhich used for carbonizing wood, sawdust briquette, coal, bamboo, coconut shell into charcoal. Email us to get your customized machine. The color and vibrancy is amazing. New England Biochar LLC specializes in building biochar production systems on a small to community scale. The kiln was named Kon-Tiki after the Peruvian sun God, and inspired by the voyage of discovery of the Kon-Tiki raft Thor Heyerdahl sailed across the pacific. 5" H One 3" X 1. Charcoal production techniques have existed for thousands for years'. In Europe we have an approved food additive known as vegetable carbon (carbon black) ie E153. O. Four Seasons Fuel manufacture Charcoal Retorts and Kilns to produce coal and charcoal. Issues are sent quarterly: March, June, September, and December. Commercial charcoal kiln for sale crusher south africa biochar crusher crusherasia charcoal kilns for sale south africa presaw dust and peanut husk biochar commercial sale nextstone crusher machine auctions in spice milling machines in south africa May 14, 2017 · Posted on May 14, 2017 by Steven Edholm and filed under BioChar, fire, Forestry, Homesteading, Philosophy and tagged problem solving context charcoal char biochar burning biochar open pile biochar biochar brush pile biochar pit biochar trench cone kiln how to make charcoal youtube. Some types can even be fed to livestock. • Small scale batch or continuous pyrolyzers and gasifiers Feb 28, 2020 · How to Make a Brick Kiln. Here are his instructions for making charcoal and biochar. Used Rotary Kiln For Sale And Missouri. There are two models of charcoal kiln,one is brick kiln and the other is movable kiln. Please get in touch if you are interested in supporting or participating in this effort. com/c/vuthisa?sub_confi for many designs, the amount of biochar produced per unit kiln volume is small. These methods allow forest landowners to create their own charcoal for use on-site, but the volumes are not usually great enough to allow sale of it. 75% fewer pollutants to the atmosphere than ring kilns. £1350 ex-works' A 5' Ring Kiln is a good choice for smaller operations, perhaps without such a commercial output in mind. Biochar Supreme: Located in Everson, WA on the west coast just south of Canada. Biochar is a better growth media than sand as it holds water and nutrients better than sand. The long term benefits of making biochar is a huge reduction of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. China 2018 New Non-Smoke Charcoal Retort Kiln/Biochar Making Machine/Wood Briquette Carbonization Furnace for Sale, Find details about China Carbonization Furnace, Charcoal Retort Kiln from 2018 New Non-Smoke Charcoal Retort Kiln/Biochar Making Machine/Wood Briquette Carbonization Furnace for Sale – Gongyi Shi Jingying Machinery Manufacturing Factory The Biochar Kiln is a top-lit updraft (TLUD) design. The top supplying countries or regions are China, India, and Iran (Islamic Republic of), which supply 99%, 1%, and 1% of used rotary kiln for sale respectively. Quality assurance and certification 9. Kiln was filled to top with water, which floated up char. May 19, 2016 · I am very excited about the potential of biochar and firmly believe that before too much longer it will eclipse the price of BBQ charcoal. Industrial dryer is a type of drying machine which is mainly used for drying the materials with a certain humidity and granularity in ore beneficiation, building material, metallurgy, chemistry and other departments. Jayme Stonbraker 46,270 Making Biochar and Charcoal with the Brick Chimney Kiln – Duration: 20:59. We take a resource that is a waste product from another manufacturing process and activate. It saves you water while giving your plants a healthy start to life. Most small scale methods of producing biochar, such as the Kon-Tiki kiln, fire pits, traditional heaps, many barrel methods, rocket stoves, gasifiers, etc, can only function at high pyrolysis temperatures, and particularly in the case of the heap method, long process times. Our modular post-pyrolysis processing systems can apply a wide range of treatments, including […] The kiln discussed is designed to be inexpensive to construct and be simple to operate. Biochar Industries Project – Adam Retort Biochar Kiln The adam retort biochar making kiln was selected for its abillity to make charcoal out of all kinds of wood sizes. eu. Besides, Beston charcoal making machine is of continuous design. Hoping to promote simple, scalable, environmentally sound methods for making biochar for improving the soil on small farms and in backyard gardens. Lay turf – apply BioChar to topsoil. Biochar produced from woody biomass feedstock; can take larger orders of more than a ton . The biochar process described is scalable for small acreage farms. Basically I've been looking for  Vithusa Biochar Kiln. With new soil use a 1 cubic foot box of Biochar soil conditioner for an 8×4 raised bed. Not really MAKING CHARCOAL AND BIOCHAR – A Comprehensive Guide. Charge your homemade biochar by blending it 50/50 with compost and you’re ready to introduce all the benefits of biochar to your own home garden. Solution for a healthier planet. generation. com commercial charcoal kiln for sale india. To arrange a viewing and purchase of your cone kiln please contact us  Kon-Tiki biochar kiln now available for sale in Australia! This fact sheet describes a do-it-yourself technique for making small-batch biochar. 8M BTU’s of process heat. 22 Jan 2017 They make batches that are too small, or too labour intensive, or require nicely dried wood (which I don't have). Crop residues, manures, and wood are all potential feedstocks. The kiln has a kiln body which is 4ft high and 5ft in diameter. ) Ghana Grass Pellet Mill For Sale For Sale Scaie Heavy. image of retort The advantages of our retort over a ring kiln are: Short burn time – around 8 hours, from lighting to shut  10 Mar 2015 I'll start by explaining biochar and pyrolysis, explain the Dome Kiln and then Boosted with biochar and the right bacteria those lousy soils were a clear answer (sorry) – it belongs to some friends who have a small acreage. 5 Feb 2014 Pit kilns have been used in traditional charcoal making, with the sole purpose of producing charcoal. Mar 11, 2013 · The attributes of biochar as a soil amendment seem pretty significant – it’s like adding small, stable sponges to your soil – they don’t break down easily (with good soil management) which means the biochar can provide more habitat for the soil food web, as well as help holding water and nutrients in place. commercial charcoal kiln for sale india. " Lessons and Projects on Biochar for K-12 Students and Teachers (International Biochar Initiative) The advantages of our retort over a ring kiln are: Short burn time – around 8 hours, from lighting to shut down. The bioChar is made in a large steel ring kiln in the same way as our top quality BBQ charcoal. If biochar is not  13 Mar 2019 kilns in Switzerland, Canada, and California it seemed they presented the fastest way to get into biochar making on the small property. Then you need to bake your organic material in your kiln. • Nov. A Simple Backyard Biochar Kiln Design (BestBiocharKiln. 150 – 1,500. 12 Apr 2019 Biochar, otherwise known as charcoal, is an age-old method of increasing a variation of wood sizes, but requires a small range of diameter within each Whereas flame cap kilns look to eliminate oxygen to the charcoal by  Landowner Ken Carloni with biochar kiln, Kelpie Wilson holding biocharred wood it to create biochar directly on the farm, using a variety of small-scale kilns. "In the case of the Jiggi kiln, a blend of fibre, manure, clay and straw is pre-mixed to provide an enhanced biochar rich in minerals and ripe for microbial colonisation. charcoal retort kilns and bio char. 99. 1) is a small-scale traditional method used for charcoal  31 Mar 2011 Re: Mini charcoal retort – Mk2 The CAT kiln: Biochar at the Centre for Alternative Technology: business opportunity for small woodland owners or  25 Jul 2013 pyrolysis process and the European biochar market. The BIO-KILN carbonization furnace is a patented, environmentally friendly, continuous installation for the thermal processing of plant materials. Whether of simple or complex design, all brick kilns use a wood fire to harden objects inside. Make Your Own BioChar and Terra Preta: A simple way to make BioChar in a 55 gallon drum. The pyrolysis system once focused on waste management now looks to biochar and carbon sequestering. For those curious about making it, you need some organic material, like yard waste or forest fire debris. Small-scale, simple and accessible Biochar production may be a key component in grassroots paths to ecological sustainability. 7 months ago 60 replies [ 1, 2] 1 3 8. price of rotary kiln in philippines – zostanliderem. Get Price Jun 23, 2020 · The procedure is called “pyrolysis” and uses an environment with good temperatures and almost no oxygen to transform organic materials into a carbonized fuel called biochar, when sourced from biomass, or charcoal when produced from coconut shells or wood materials. All the stove designs are declared as OHANDA / Open Knowledge for communities to adopt or adapt. E. Biochar is a fast-growing, carbon-rich product used as a … Read More» Making biochar and using biochar kilns transforms your waste biomass into a valuable resource – reducing atmospheric carbon, improving soil health and  APE-UK grants are funded from sales of world music tracks donated by musicians. I live in South America in the country Suriname. Organic, chemical-free biochar for strong, healthy plants from root to tip. Jun 13, 2012 charcoal retort kilns and bio char . HFC Refrigerants (55) HST Hydraulic Cone CrusherHST series hydraulic cone crusher is combined with technology such as machinery, hydraulic pressure, electricity, automation, intelligent control, etc. Enjoy! Last summer at the ‘Plumplot’ (our farm in Margate, southern Tasmania) we built a dome kiln with the aim of making biochar. What You Need: Plenty Our Biochar We’ve worked on R&D for about five years under the Biochar Project. Chiu Apr 03, 2019 · Biochar Now is focused on producing and marketing biochar for specialty uses: used by oil and gas industries to help capture pollutants, to help reduce and treat water pollutants and control odors. N. 8m diameter, diesel fired, with hot blast diesel powered heater for sale- 5 tphAlternate sizes availableCustom Designed, Custom Built to suit your process demandCoal, Diesel, Gas, Electric Fired units18mmThick Shell10m Dryer supplied with 500mm*10m feed and Discharge conveyorsNew Equipment, 90-120 day delivery ex Kiln sizes from 5' to 8' diameter have the option to add a seperate TOP RING at a later date if extra production capacity is required. Rake in 1Kg per one cubic metre turfing area and water well. Our kiln dried wood retains its natural pigments. Beston (Henan) Machinery Co. Adam Retort charcoal kiln is suitable for small and medium size bussiness to make clean, cheap charcoal from wood, coconuts shells, compacted saw-dust briquettes, etc. If you put your old magazines in the biochar kiln and char the pages black, you will end up with clay incorporated biochar which will be a great amendment for sandy soil. kiln for each farmer or small group of farmers. Example input and output rates of feedstock, biochar and energy are displayed in a table below. No, please find an individual, an entrepreneur , who will be interested in manufacturing a whole series of these mobile retorts and who will be willing to be a country's representative. 5cm long by 1cm wide by . a rotary kiln is involved but that may Jun 26, 2013 · The creation of biochar includes the same basic concepts no matter which design you decide to go with. Charcoal making and Biochar at Feel Free Farm. Biochar Technology, Holywood. Firstly, we were engaged by Chandala Poultry to design a system that would recover the energy from chicken litter the farm produces and use it to meet the farms energy requirements. Bruckman November 2016. The last ten years have seen a resurgence in woodland businesses and given the new bio twist the fiscal attraction will re – invigorate woodland enterprises, make it viable to manage woodland and tackle climate change on at local and national levels. charcoal retort south africa price – Mining equipment & mine Charcoal bags, Stuff cornell charcoal retort kiln Philippines, iron ore blue dust effect in rotary kiln; Get More Info Biochar Industries Project – Adam Retort Biochar Kiln Yes it is true Biochar Industries is now taking on more projects biocharprojectorg see progress report on . , Ltd. kilns, furnaces, ovens in Africa. Charcoal production for soil  19 Jun 2020 Biochar was recently included as a promising negative emissions The small kiln used was a relatively simple design that the Rwandan  or kiln, transportation, the price of biochar and surplus crop yields, and the sav- pyrolysis technologies, such as biochar kilns that aim to maximize char produc-. biochar kiln report at biochar industries. Better yet, their biochar kiln . Jun 11, 2019 – Mobile charcoal making kilns for making charcoal and biochar. There is a more efficient charcoal kiln, the ‘retort’, of which mobile versions are available. , Biochar Kiln) and retort term is used for more controlled reactors made up of say metal (eg. The brick kiln is stationary, unlike the Casamance or traditional kilns. In contrast, 1% cold nutrient enriched. Quick Guide to using the Pennsylvania Pyramid Kiln The 76 pound kiln is assembled using four sheets of steel that are held together with 5/16" bolts and nuts. After purification, it is used to heat the carbonization furnace to save your fuel cost. The Kon-Tiki deep-cone flame-curtain process was developed by Dr Paul Taylor (author of 'The Biochar Revolution' book) and Hans-Peter Schmidt at the Ithaka Institute in Switzerland in 2014. au. When you bury the c Biochar Additions to Denitrifying Bioreactors and Ag Treatment BMPs: Agriculture & Horticulture: Paul Taylor : Simple biochar production for garden and farm-scale biochar usage: Kon-Tiki flame cap kiln development, operation, and testing: Forestry & Biomass: Pei C. has been a professional manufacturer and supplier of Sludge Treatment Equipment, Waste Carbonization Furnace, Agro Waste Carbonization Furnace and Wood Carbonization Furnace since 1998. There is a nice description in the video of air currents around the cone kilns. Some biochars can increase soil fertility, water holding capacity and crop productivity. “Biochar Plus” from the Biochar Engineering Company $10US for 10 kg bag of biochar plus . The kiln body has an internal combustor; this leaves a feedstock capacity of 1. A 4 lb. until Spanish and Portuguese explorers introduced devastating May 16, 2018 · The role of biochar in sequestering carbon and mitigating climate change . © 2023 by Nature Org. Our pyrolysis equipment allows to convert all type of bulk materials (biomass, biosolids, waste) into high value products (syngas, biochar, oil compounds, solid fuels and other). Biochar Discussion List (BioEnergy Lists: Biochar Mailing Lists) Biochar eBooks; Chip Energy; Green Your Head (Blog by Kelpie Wilson) Haiti Clean Stove Project; NextChar | High-Performance Biochar; SeaChar (The Seattle BioChar Working Group) Servals; Stoves Discussion List (Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves) The Biochar Solution; The Warm Heart Jan 01, 2019 · In this case, biochar (or charcoal) can be made with some control over the feedstock quality, temperature, and burn time in kilns or carefully constructed slash piles (Page-Dumroese et al. Biochar kiln for sale south africa. Ours uses invasive buckthorn for feedstock and our biochar kiln is fired without fossil fuels. Feb 08, 2016 · Making Your Own Wood Charcoal With The PA Pyramid Kiln – Duration: 13:24. There are 460 OEM, 404 ODM, 87 Self Patent. Oct 26, 2017 · Biochar, considered as a more cost-effective alternative to activated carbon, is a solid material, obtained through thermochemical conversion of biomass (primarily wood) in a kiln. See more ideas about Soil improvement, Carbon sequestration, Soil microorganisms. In a replicated field trial, Mr Dempster investigated the effects of adding 4t/ha of wheat chaff biochar as a banded treatment into the subsoil and compared it with 4t/ha of Apr 07, 2014 · Building a Biochar Kiln – Lessons Learnt Drivers. Mar 10, 2015 · How to Make Biochar with a Dome Kiln on March 10, 2015. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. The process is smokey and usually far from carbon neutral. They sell their “climate kiln” in the US for $290 (including shipping) if you are interested. 1. . com, of which carbonization stove accounts for 6%, organic fertilizer accounts for 1%. Now, we will show you how to make it happen. A comprehensive examination of TLUD technology will necessarily involve four essential realms or areas of focus: Fuels Combustion Devices Applications of Heat Human Factors Every successful cookstove project must address four essential components: fuels as the source of energy for producing heat, combustion devices (devices to release the energy of fuels as heat and light) … Biochar Industries Project – Adam Retort Biochar Kiln. They sell their  For small scale charcoal production producing about 30 – 40kg of charcoal, ideal for This kiln should consistently produce about 30 – 35kg from native hardwoods. May 25, 2012 · Proof• Literature and papers• Big Biochar experiment UK• Sonoma Biochar initiative• IBI – first international Biochar standard• Seachar. Here, my question will be which A new design from the Jiggi bamboo plantation in New South Wales (Australia) processes two cubic meters of fast-growing bamboo. , 2014). Adam Retort charcoal kiln system reduces the emission of harmful volatiles into the atmosphere to about up to 75%! (Compared to a traditional earth-mount kiln). The kiln is an open source design and we hope that people will make many of them and use them to make biochar from forestry and fuel reduction waste. Our California biochar products currently consist of series of organic material inputs sourced from and processed in Northern California. to noon, NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center — biochar basics and biochar’s use in livestock applications such as feed supplements and manure management. Nowadays, making charcoal from sawdust is no longer a problem. biochar, more cheaply than the pyrolysis process the main emphasis in the latter is on the production of biochar. A layer of biochar in the bottom of the pot keeps good drainage at the bottom, while also acting as a filter to help catch nutrients before they run away down the drain. There are several things that are important with our biochar: To demonstrate the benefits using biochar to improve soil fertility, we have established the Hill Of Abundance food project for 500 families here on the property. 5m3. Up to 90% emissions reduction. Different heating and cooling methods are available. This book will be of interest to all biochar enthusiasts, small landowners, horticulturalists and anyone else interested in the improvement of soils by the addition of carbon and the potential for a biochar industry Rock Dust Local is the first company in North America specializing in the local sourcing and delivery of the BEST (Broad Elemental Spectrum Tectonic) rock dusts for remineralization, enhanced weathering, and the best in Biochar formulations nationally. com/biochar Kindly subscribe to our channel – http://www. Mar 21, 2017 · March 21, 2017 – Edmonton-based Innovative Reduction Strategies Inc. Pyrolysis 7. Pyrolysis chamber approx 8 – 15 litres. 02. Vegetable or animal substances. A versatile dual body biochar kiln capable of both drying and charring a wide range of feedstocks, allowing you to produce up to 800kg of biochar per day. It was three-eighths-inch thick and had a hole in one end from rust. Turn fire risk reduction into Carbon Sequestration! Basic batch stoves, retorts and kilns are often used for small-scale manufacture of biochar, and also for larger scale production of fuel- or process-charcoal (eg  A small mobile 1000 tonnes per annum biochar plant. 20 Nov 2019 Modern biochar retort kilns reduce the harmful emissions over We believe the most advantageous size of biochars is small granules  Monday morning, three of New England Biochar LLC's staff were winding up 13 Biochar Retort System for shipment to Ocean University of China in Qingdao. Essentially, efforts have revolved around finding improved methods to heat the wood and to promote destructive distillation (forcing water and other materials from the wood) without burning large amounts of wood to ashes. A mixer box let’s the user choose between these CharGrow makes probiotic formulations and biochar products that allow growers to cut cost, move away from harmful chemicals and permanently build the fertility of their soil. @charcoalchaps Our pyrolysis equipment allows to convert all type of bulk materials (biomass, biosolids, waste) into high value products (syngas, biochar, oil compounds, solid fuels and other). 50 to $38. This process can take place on a range of scales from DIY to an industrial plant. For hosting the workshop, the farm got to keep some biochar. DIY charcoal kilns, charcoal kilns South Africa, charcoal ovens, pyrolysis ovens, TLUD, emission reduction charcoal kilns, feedstock, 3-drum biochar retort, trans-portable kiln . More. A business plan will be generated for on-going bio-char production at the pilot and/or an expanded facility, including the possibility of eventual carbon crediting for terrestrial carbon sequestration by means of biochar. Then when you spread the compost on the garden the biochar is already mixed in with it and has had a chance to absorb nutrients and allow fungi and bacteria to The Biochar Kiln is a top-lit updraft (TLUD) design. is a Colorado based company that is developing a distributed network of pyrolyzers for the production of biochar and Matt Delaney and other NW Biochar Working Group stakeholders will develop a strategy paper that articulates key themes from the 2014 meeting, and identify opportunities for collective action to help propel the biochar market forward. The B-1000 Thermal Conversion System is capable of processing upto 500-pounds of dry-biomass per hour into 120 pounds of biochar and 1. Beston had BST-50 biochar making machine installed in Turkey last June. charcoal kiln for sale KAMY is the worldwide leader in manufacturing hydraulic cutters, road headers, tunnel support systems, and other specialized machinery used in Read more The Exeter Biochar Retort – The cleaner and more efficient Used (normal wear), Kiln oven. Van Tuyls is situated in Johannesburg, and are one of the largest suppliers of heat treatment products, i. • Processing temperature determines biochar qualities. Please note – there are case studies illustrating biochar improves sandy soils. You can use it to nourish your soil, enhance growing conditions and get better soil structure. Jan 09, 2018 · When you purchase clones for sale, be sure to ask if your grower also sells biochar. This simple kiln design is starting to catch on and we are excited that Utah State will be training forestry workers and firefighters in how to use the kilns. The Use of Air Curtain Destructors for Fuel Reduction. Biochar equipment for sale designed by Beston Group adopts the advanced carbonization and pyrolysis technology, which can convert various biomass materials to charcoal through the process of drying, crushing, feeding, carbonization, cooling, discharging, etc. I've been a biochar enthusiast for 5 years now and riding the learning curve on how to make and use biochar at home. 7 months ago 17 replies 4 2 5. ] Florida Publisher: University of Florida Publication Date: 2013 Language: english Physical Description: 1 online resource (159 p. " Anthrosols ' is the scientific name for 'man-made' soils. The Kon-Tiki biochar kiln is the fastest, cleanest way to make substantial batches of biochar from local unprocessed biomass, and condition it for application. charcoal retort kilns and bio char . Biochar and Forestry March 24, 2020 – 12:00 – 1:30 pm ET (US) Woody debris is a prime feedstock that is often available for biochar in forested regions. Direct-fired kilns utilize direct contact between the material and process gas to efficiently process the material. Confluence Energy's Jonah Levine, also industry rep to the International Biochar Initiative, was featured in ColoradoBiz article (ColoradoBiz Biochar Article ) about biochar and Confluence Energy's TrueChar biochar product. During the biochar pyrolysis process, we can also get combustible gas. Featured on this page are several biochar products including plain biochar, blended and composted biochar and fertilizer blends Biochar Now has negotiated national discount rates with major carriers to handle the company’s shipments. 1112 biochar equipment products are offered for sale by suppliers on alibabacom of which carbonization stove accounts for 19 energy saving equipment accounts for 2 a wide variety of biochar equipment options are available to you there are 312 suppli Sep 07, 2018 · A case study on using a retort kiln by a commercial winery is included. Quite simply, we believe its the best charcoal in the world. Unlike other NETs, it can potentially be used to mitigate global climate change while adding to local resilience in countries highly exposed and sensitive to impacts of climate change, such as least 環境にやさしい Biochar 木炭木材レトルト窯販売 , Find Complete Details about 環境にやさしい Biochar 木炭木材レトルト窯販売,Biochar炭レトルト窯、炭窯竹、炭焼き窯 from Carbonization Stove Supplier or Manufacturer-Zhengzhou Shuliy Machinery Co. 5cm thick, and about 20% of the material is a fine dust fraction on the order of 10s to 100s of microns. Jan 01, 2019 · Biochar did not have a negative effect on herbaceous vegetation, despite the fact that the fresh biochar was alkaline (pH: 10. Raise demand and it will only become easier and easier to acquire. is a Colorado based company that is developing a distributed network of pyrolyzers for the production of biochar and Biochar, as a renewable energy with high caloric value, has been widely used as fuel or additive in various areas. Fantastic device that is light to carry and will The cost effectiveness of biochar stove and kiln projects in developing countries (Asia) up to 2030 is -43. Supr Activ Biochar, the level of porosity is 4 times higher. Early indications are that quality biochar powder will meet the standard for E153. Three 210 L oil drums (with perforated bases) are placed CHARCOAL – 5 Litre bucket 100% Bio Char Soil enhancer and conditioner for healthier, more productive plant growth. Putting it All Together for Public Education Taking biochar education to the public is a crucial step in not only capturing the myriad environmental and social benefits of biochar, but in building markets that Feb 05, 2016 · Biochar Session – Using a nearly no cost, flexible, lightweight kiln to make 6 wheelbarrow loads of finished charcoal in the woods. Charcoal kilns for sale south africa know more charcoal kiln manufacturers, , 433 steel kiln 434 adam retort charcoal is a prime source of energy in most african countries, and is a photo up madagascar, photo down puja initiation of a , armco robson kiln y lump. 8 out of 5 stars 28. Utilizing the advanced pyrolysis and carbonization technology, the plant can be also called biochar pyrolysis plant, biochar production equipment, biomass carbonization plant or biomass charcoal making machine. 42 $ 4,272. 5″ wide by 11″ deep kiln, made of sturdy 20 gauge steel, is by far the easiest,  150litre Stainless Steel Biochar cone kiln will make 150L of high grade biochar in an hour. The following is the detailed introduction of sawdust charcoal machine without the gasification device. Now you can cost effectively make your own quality biochar. The effective carbonization of the biomass takes only 10 hours. It is as green as we can make it. Two size fractions of biochar are produced: approximately 80% of material is approximately 1. 0 – 120000. first head gardener to install a biochar kiln to deal with his garden's waste and improve An Adam Retort Biochar kiln and established business is in operation on the property (may be negotiated for sale in the future). Apr 26, 2009 · Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist Product Development Specialist 603-48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada 905-707-8754 ; 647-886-8754 (cell) Procedure for making Biochar One has to build pyramid-like structure (brick kiln) of bricks and clay — raised to a height of 14 feet. Its functional capacity can be enhanced by adding sections to fractionate the condensate yield, producing essential oils or chemicals like terpenes for instance. Polarity allows the sheet to attract and hold onto water and fertilizer. There are 71 real estate listings found in Kiln, MS. com Hours of A wide variety of biochar stove for sale options are available to you, such as new. Per batch, a profit between $75 and $150 could be generated. Jim Geist, chief operating officer for Biochar Now, checks a computer near some of the kilns Tuesday, June 13, 2017, at the business in Berthoud. Trees are used to make lump charcoal used as a cooking fuel. Our COVID-19 Community Guidelines Tips, advice and news related to trading on Gumtree during the COVID-19 crisis. 30 $ 1,007. I am building a firewood kiln out of a 20 foot land sea container. Because we can get sawdust charcoal with the help of charcoal making machines. Biochar properties 6. How to use Bio Char Tubs and Pots – apply 10% on Biochar to 90% compost or top soil. We recommend a maximum 20% biochar (by volume) for heavy clayey soils, 10% for existing loams, and 5% for sandy soils. INSTRUCTIONS FOR BIOCHAR KILN USE Seal air leaks, Start the fire. Used Rotary Kiln For Sale, Wholesale & Suppliers Alibaba. BIOCHAR DEFINITION: Charcoal produced from plant matter and stored in the soil as a means of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Can pyrolise any type of wood – logs to twigs. See full list on homedepot. Paragon Kiln – SB-25 Sand Bath (Knife Making Kiln) $ 4,058. Characterization of Biochar and Coal Combustion Residues and Mechanisms of Biochar-Induced Immobilization and Transformation of Soluble Heavy Metals Creator: Dong, Xiaoling Place of Publication: [Gainesville, Fla. See more ideas about Charcoal, Making charcoal, Survival prepping. The biochar appears to change the microbial activity in the soil – so that there is less ‘soil respiration’ The biochar also reduces the conversion of N based fertiliser to nitrous oxide The biochar adds carbon to the soil, and the use of willow / Miscanthus means that the soil is not churned up by ploughing each year and the carbon is Biochar history, physics and chemistry, soil microbial ecology and the carbon cycle for soil remediation and regeneration, water management, trees, organic waste stream management, livestock and This site consists of low cost efficient Good Stoves designed by Dr. Most small scale methods of producing biochar, such as the Kon-Tiki kiln, fire pits, traditional heaps, many barrel  To produce biochar, the Trans-Portable Biochar Kiln can be constructed from the use of a small, affordable and portable biochar retort to convert Invasive Alien   The Best BioChar Garden Kiln is based on the Japanese cone kiln. South Africa (7) Spain (1) Sri Lanka (1) Turkey (1) United Kingdom . Traditional kiln production of charcoal and biochar without the combustion of pyrolytic gases is unsatisfactory with regards to its carbon efficiency and its overall environmental footprint. The third kiln was the easiest to build. Do come for a chat and a biscuit if you are ever venturing South. Jul 18, 2017 · We have made it our mission to improve the Portable Kiln charcoal-producing-kiln and investigate ways to turn it into a biochar producing kiln. Biochar Now uses custom-designed, patented, slow-pyrolysis kilns to make its biochar. 5) while the topsoil horizon (0–5 cm) had a pH (H 2 O) in the range of 3. Most commercial kilns use harsh processes, and even bleach wood to give a consistent but bland color. Charcoal is defined as "a dark or black porous carbon prepared from vegetable or animal substances (as from wood by charring in a kiln from which air is excluded)". So far the plant has run very well. In these classroom examples, combustible gases and oils can be separated from the biochar by creating a top light, updraft (TLUD) pyrolysis kiln or oven. In South Africa. Backyard Biochar Article on the Cone Kiln Note – Additional resource links will be added as soon as I receive them from Gloria. Charmaster Dolph Cooke uses and recommends Barefoot-Biochar from Biochar-Industries Kunghur. 5ltr – 5ltr – 10ltr – 25ltr – price range starting from $5. Low and Brent use 10-25 cubic yards of the material on their own farm, and produce an additional 25-30 cubic yards for sale both onsite and online. Mighty Knife; $985 CAD; Two burner, individually controlled with stainless steel burner tip Main body is made with premium 12 gauge hot rolled steel with two 2" insulated doors Inside fire box dimension is 5. 99 $ 15. We use raw materials from recycled wood. There are many homebrewed versions of creating a biochar kiln  26 Jun 2013 I am assigned to the Small-Scale Intensive Farm (SIFT), more specifically I am working on the design and construction of a biochar retort kiln. ” Masiello, who specializes in studying the carbon cycle, said the microscopic properties of biochar can vary widely depending upon how it’s made. One litre of Biochar can be blended with 10 Litres of soil or compost (10%), for example 5 L of Biochar can be used with 50L of soil or compost. Rotary Kiln Slow Pyrolysis For Syngas And Char . Convert your biomass to produce charcoal with a modern retort-kiln, biomass conversion techniques, pyrolysis,retort klin, biochar production, Sustainable charcoal production and charcoal kiln. • High carbon wood ash can be an useful source of carbon. A New Feed Supplement which can increase milk & meat production (and deliver many health benefits). Energy Farmers Australia is pleased to announce the development of our first mobile biochar kiln. Fom Blue Skys Cone Kiln- technique used in Japan for years. 5 inch wide by 11 inch deep kiln, made of sturdy 20 gauge steel, is by far the easiest, affordable, and fastest way to make biochar at home. 3) Low investment costs of about ~900Euro (2014) and a simple construction with locally available materials. Mar 22, 2012 · Making biochar is one way to remove carbon from the atmosphere and lock it away for a long time. This type of equipment is used for sterilization under high temperatures. The kiln holds about 4200 bdft, if the lengths are just right. Brick Kiln. The plants can be any plant, seed, cutting, or transplant. The charcoal kiln is designed for continuous charcoal production from hardwood and softwood. Add to Wishlist Add to Compare. OLX South Africa offers online, local & free classified ads for new & second hand Tools & DIY. We profitably repurpose traditional waste into renewable energy, recycled nutrients, Biochar and other Shipment of Beston Biochar Production Equipment. Biochar products for sale. As a way of creating charcoal, the biochar process seems to be very efficient, and much quicker than traditional methods of creating charcoal. first head gardener to install a biochar kiln to deal with his garden's waste and improve Charcoal and biochar kiln in our Myddfai Coppice . The first piece of the “cooker” was a 200-gallon butane tank. Heating type. e. Movable biochar kiln is a simple but high efficient equipment,it has completely resolved the problem of building brick kiln and the problem of moving it,suitable for small charcoal makers. Verbesserte Holzkohle und Meiler Technik, carbon vegetal, carvao vegetal, wood vinegar, Holzessig, CDM, Clean Development Mechanism Biochar – Helping Gardens Stay Green through Summer Totally Natural made from woody plants- Improves soil structure, microbial activity and nutrient holding capacity. So, yes, the Hazel coupe is all cut. Mar 29, 2015 · California Biochar California Biochar is now available in bulk. 9–4. RETORT AND WOOD KILN DRYER. Activate English Auto generated Subtitles / Closed Captions by clicking on CC nex Biochar Kilns "Before discharging the charcoal, when the kiln is sufficiently cool, sufficient water must be available to avoid re-ignition when opening the door of the kiln One drum of about 200 litres is sufficient for one kiln , This is the case in many areas of East- and South Africa where the Lelechwa wood grows" 08-09 Tlud biochar stove for sale at Biochar Industries – Biochar Project. Swedesboro, NJ 08085 ©2020 L&L Kiln Mfg Inc The equipment: Two metal barrels, the larger about 20 cm (8 in) wider and 10 cm (4in) higher than the smaller vessel. ARE BEST FOR SMALL For greater efficiency: Flame Cap Kiln Removal of small trees. I also recognized the potential that a practical, high-performance, "personal" biochar kiln could have in leveraging distributed production among home gardeners and other small stakeholders, and perhaps ultimately, subsistence farmers worldwide. 00. They didn’t stop there. Sep 13, 2013 · Biochar, a form of charcoal, describes the material left over after burning bark that’s stripped from trees after it enters a mill. Our Black Owl (TM) premium organic biochar is OMRI-listed and certified for organic use. Also called a canning retort, a retort is typically batch style. Another method that doesnt require special equipment,but I think if one had that type of timber (cut to length) it would be better used in the stove! The Pyrolizer Biochar Kiln cleans easily making it convenient to transport and share if desired. Seneca Farms Biochar’s unique horizontal bed process allows us the ability to produce consistent high volume, high quality carbon products needed for the many soil conditions in the agriculture landscape. See more ideas about Making charcoal, Kiln, Charcoal. Chris Adam was just emailed me said that he developed an unique new system for a more environmentally friendly charcoal production: The Pennsylvania Pyramid Kiln is designed for ease of use whether putting it together or using it to make charcoal. com for full details. Wood chunks, sticks or stalks will work better. Beston Biochar Production Equipment for Sale Biochar can be made from a much broader range of materials than charcoal can. 5″ wide by 11″ deep kiln, made of sturdy 20 gauge steel, is by far the easiest, affordable, and fastest way to make biochar at home. Get it as soon as Thu Do-It-Yourself Low Temperature Biochar Kiln. ’ While the types of cement kilns have changed and evolved over the years, modern cement processing typically uses a continuous direct fired kiln to thermally process material. This flame curtain pro Slow pyrolyis requires low-to-medium temperatures between 350 and 700 °C at relatively long residence times typically taking hours or days (depending on kiln size) and generates three yields: between 35 and 50% biochar from the original weight of the biomass; water; and a syngas. With the increasing demand of charcoal, biochar production equipment for sale has become a hot product in the international market. Call (541) 275-1160 to order today. Kon Tiki Biochar Cone Kiln The Kon-Tiki was developed by Hans-Peter Schmidt in Switzerland with the Ithaka Institute> based on the MOKI Cone Kiln from Japan. Here at Biochar Industries we are going to put it through its paces and write a full report so other biocharians can learn critical information to help them Biochar as a System-Defined Concept 3 Acceleration of Published Research on Biochar and Charcoal 18 Terra Preta Soil Pit near Manaus, Brazil, Showing Thick, Dark, Carbon-Enriched Top Layer 22 2. May 16, 2016 – Charcoal and biochar kiln in our Myddfai Coppice. This system uses a ‘direct combustion’ method, whereby the heat for carbonisation comes from burning a portion of the biomass feedstock in a limited air environment. We now have already mentioned that and help it will help you will make an effective decision in terms of biochar pyrolysis plant available for sale. resulting in several kiln designs that can easily be replicated and fabricated for wide spread use I made a Kon Tiki biochar kiln to convert wood waste in biochar. Biochar production is not limited to just replacing agricultural field burning in the developing world, anywhere there is a need to remove biomass there is an opportunity to make biochar. Used AllPax retort sterilizer model 30S-6ALL-2S2, stainless steel construction, with approximately 30" diameter x 58" long main chamber, rated 70 psi and full vacuum at 325 f, quick release hinged door with pneum Biochar Production Equipment Beston biochar production equipment for sale refers to carbonizing biomass materials into charcoal through a series of reactions The final product- bio-char, is a kind of green energy With the features of higher caloric value, long burning time, no smoke emission, it can be widely applied for industrial smelting German Kiln Technology (GKT) is a major supplier of sintering lines and kilns for producing all kinds of technical ceramics, such as: For the firing process GKT offers the most diverse selection of equipment, dependant on capacity and procedure, operating electrically or with fossil fuels: Biochar can be made from any organic material however ours is made from softwood thinnings from our sustainable management plan approved by the Forestry Commission England and we are licensed under the Grown in Britain scheme. economic problems with eand tracting aluminium from ore Stone crusher machine is widely used in mine ore » biochar pulverizers india » economic problems with eand tracting aluminium from ore » gold crushing machine » Learn More Iron eand traction from hematite flow chart Iron eand traction from hematite flow P: $59926, Rating . www. Start day two as early as you can – light the kiln around 5-6am, and be prepared to come home around 12 hours later. The whole process from start to finish can take 3-4 days. 2020-6-19A versatile dual body biochar kiln capable of both drying and charring a wide range of feedstocks, allowing you to produce up to 800kg of biochar per day. The small business will employ members of local, marginalised communities to operate the biochar production units on site where the biomass has accumulated. Though  A comparative assessment of these biochar production kiln models was made P S AndersonMaking biochar in small gasifier cookstoves and heaters. We can provide you with disclosures, past sales history, dates and prices of homes recently Cornell charcoal retort kiln philippines charcoal crusher philippines calcium carbonate grinding mill mtw138 in the philippines charcoal crusher is a machine widely used in stone plant,framing plant to smash stone dust , charcoal mill crusher company in rsa charcoal crusher mill youtube apr 12, 2015 hot selling in philippines,south africa and india shanghai manufacturer heavy. Seeding – Apply Biochar to Systems and methods for a biochar retort kiln are disclosed herein. In the larger one you make air intakes some centimetres (about1 in) from the bottom that allow an ample amount of air intake. Biochar cone kilns. If you would like more information on any of these Kiln Creek real estate listings, just click the "Request More Information" button when viewing the details of that property. This process works by lighting a small fire  29 May 2013 This technique is very similar to the Japanese cone kiln design that has or the end of your wood supply, you finish with small diameter wood. Owners are willing to train you in its operation and can offer you some immediate on-site employment in the business, and may be willing to discuss a long term business transition option with you. 8 (mean: 4. We are in the process of commissioning the unit and expect to have it operating in the next couple of months. J. This post has been written by Mike Thomas, a great bloke who was a student on our 2013 Permaculture Design Course. Pyrolysis is fueled by igniting the waste biomass. The Vuthisa Biochar Kiln – Process Explained We explain the inner workings of the Vuthisa Biochar Kiln with a 360° view. The Oregon Kiln is a Flame Cap Biochar Kiln intended for use with forest slash and other kinds of waste wood commonly found in the forested regions of Oregon and elsewhere. Then it is filled with straw. Design and deployment of biochar producing technologies by slow and fast pyrolysis. Conservation burns offer the simplest method for producing biochar because they don't require a kiln. Kilns For Sale Suppliers, Manufacturer, Distributor . FOB Reference Price: Get Latest Price Production capacity : 1. 5 °C published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We are proud to make our biochar from locally sourced renewable green matter, including hard and soft woods and brambles. Examples: full bisque kiln is $36, or 3 shelves x $12 each; one 12"H. They are usually of smaller capacity as well. No ash or waste. We have used these kilns ourselves commercially from this maker for more than 15 years to produce BBQ charcoal and unreservedly recommend them for their design, build quality, ease of use and longevity. The Kon-Tiki 1. Most rural people who live in colder climates already have a biochar kiln. One cubic foot of biochar retails between $30 and $60. Get the free app. See full list on carbonizer. Jun 21, 2017 · This simple kiln design is starting to catch on and we are excited that Utah State will be training forestry workers and firefighters in how to use the kilns. Biochar forum in North and North West Tasmania! Biochar and Kiln showcase at 2019 Burnie Show Terra Preta Developments at Campbell Town Show – Friday 31st May – Saturday 1st June 2019 welcome to kiln frog great kilns! groovy prices! THANK YOU FOR SUPPORTING US AND OUR MANUFACTURERS! All READY-to-SHIP kilns all ship within days of your order date, so if you've always wanted to try that new glass, clay, metals, jewelry, or blade project, maybe now is the time to start! Each brand has a particular shipping speed, allowing you to get a kiln when you need one. The bags contain horticultural unmilled biochar enhanced with liquid sea kelp with a neutral pH (7). This flame curtain pro The ring kiln follows the principals of a traditional earthburn but removes the need for constant supervision as the fire cannot break out through a steel kiln as it can through mud and turf. Biochar as a food colouring and food supplement. Combustion can occur in a combustion chamber to avoid direct flame radiation, or the flame can be directed down the length of the kiln. Courtesy, Nevada Division of Forestry Crews with the Nevada Division of Forestry load a kiln as they prepare to make charcoal from pinion L&L Kiln Mfg. Jan 31, 2015 · Biochar production with the Vuthisa Biochar kiln. Building Materials Equipment – Rotary kiln pyrolysis for sale – Building materials equipment mainly includes cement production equipment, activated lime production equipment, etc. 87. as the ash just begins to form. natural gas. Top layer was quenched with hose spray Biochar Industries Project – Adam Retort Biochar Kiln The adam retort biochar making kiln was selected for its abillity to make charcoal out of all kinds of wood sizes. Today: BioChar Warehouse BioChar is a recreation of this activity on a scale that is better for the environment. Find out the price. Tlud biochar stove for sale at Biochar Industries. The first one is a fixed equipment and can be used in the same place,the 144 price of biochar products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba. Beston charcoal making machines for sale can be used to carbonize biomass (wood, sawdust, coconut shell, rice husk, palm shells, etc. The BEK (Biochar Experimenter’s Kit) is a reconfiguration of GEK components to create a multi-mode pyrolysis machine for characterized biochar and bio-oil making. WEIGHT: FLAT RATE More. The retort is surrounded by a kiln made of cement blocks to hold in the heat You build a fire underneath the retort and keep it going for about an hour until the hot wood inside starts to outgas The gas vents through the tube under the retort and ignites Once the gas is burning you Biochar kiln View gallery It contains about 60 per cent carbon and has many uses, including as a soil conditioner, to absorb smells in sale yards. 10M * 1. The waste of te wood get burn in staad of making charcoal or biochar. I have dried a few small loads without spreading it out and without baffling the ends Biochar prepared from different feed-stocks and its quality depend upon biomass material of feed-stock. The charcoal production plant is used to process olive seeds and it can process 3 to 5 tons of raw materials each hour. (Charcoal added to soil) I would consider renting it for your farm or land clearing project. 4% by weight. The B-1000 Thermal Conversion System is operated under optimal conditions to produce biochar that has enhanced adsorption and absorption properties, high fixed carbon, and high surface activation. Their Kon-Tiki flame curtain biochar kiln is what, in turn, inspired us. WIKIPEDIA THE FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA BIOCHAR European Biochar Certificate 3 Table of contents 1. 1 Dec 2016 Biochar – edited by Viktor J. The material was heated at a rate of 5 °C per minute up to 500 °C where it was then held at constant temperature for one hour. Our engineers were on site to help their installation and commissioning. I sorta giggle derisively when I hear of $290 biochar kilns. The ring kiln follows the principals of a traditional earthburn but removes the need for constant supervision as the fire cannot break out through a steel kiln as it can through mud and turf. 2m 'Rolls' biochar kiln with 3mm weathering steel cone with dished bottom and 40mm drain, a flatpacked cradle that easily tips on 4 heavy duty wheels on castors (removable) for logistics and flatpacked lightweight galvanised 'quad' heat shield. Expert advice from practicing charcoal burners. The so-called biochar production equipment has adopted this advanced biochar production technology and has been equipped with related mature devices, which is aimed at making charcoal from biomass and turning waste to energy. kiln as the kiln will produce. For Seeding, Transplants, At this point you could spread your wet biochar onto the soil, however I prefer to spend a few minutes breaking up the larger bits first and then compost it with my normal garden waste. I am using an air stove to heat the kiln and pump the heat in thermostat controlled. Buy biochar online with Carbon Gold to get seedlings off to a flying start, avoid transplant stress, and naturally revitalise tired plants. 9 Super Easy DIY Outdoor Firewood Racks! Rotary Kiln Design Philippines. The Utah Biomass Resources Group has demonstrated this method for  To make enhanced biochars that fit into small scale agronomic systems: Kiln. Now Firewood Kiln Here, SearchNow For Best CBSi Content! free firewood eBay. They have an efficiency of up to 30 % and are suitable for semi-industrial production of charcoal. The retort gets extremely hot, so if you are using a barrel as your containment vessel, it burns up pretty quickly. Biochar Industries part of Biochar Project in Kunghur Australia is now selling Biochar TLUD cook stoves as part of our plan to make more people aware of the benefits of biochar. “Fine Horticulture Charcoal” from Quarter Acres Orchards Bulk Biochar Available. Grown in British Woodlands with no nasty chemicals or additives. Ideal for flowers, herbs, vegetables and hanging baskets. Biochar has been shown to have the following benefits: * stronger plants * increased yield * improved soil drainage* healthier soils Used Rotary Kiln For Sale And Missouri. “You have to seal the oven and the heat and pressure cook the meat slowly. Sawdust and woodchips are too small. , Inc. 8 mm truncated cone as upper part of a hybrid metal/soil-pit-kiln Kon-Tiki. You can also spread biochar over the ground and rake it in thoroughly. The BEK supports multiple pyrolysis process modes in direct combustion (updraft, TLUD and stratified downdraft), indirect combustion retort, and sweep gas through bed heat transfer Blue Sky Biochar retails unique products for all your agricultural needs from Biochar to bamboo vinegar and biomass stoves and kilns for your go green needs. Portable Dry Rotary Kiln Grinding Mill China. The negative cost-effectiveness value indicates that if the biochar stove and kiln project is The biochar is then used to improve soil conditions. – Weight The Vuthisa 3-drum Biochar Retort (DIY Kit) is the next  The CRIDA biochar kiln was used to produce biochar from maize, cotton, castor and pigeonpea stalks on a small scale and the operational (process) parameters   Aug 29, 2019 – Want to make biochar? Carbon Gold's SuperChar kilns use pyrolysis to efficiently convert a range of wet and dry feedstocks into biochar. There is another, lesser known method of indirect heat charcoal making, and that is the Iwasaki style barrel kiln. In addition to use in the soil, newer uses for biochar are now competing with traditional uses for activated carbon, carbon black, and graphite. Farmers improve their income by selling the biochar as fuel or using it on-site as fertilizer. My question for anyone who has Biomass carbonization rotary retort kiln for coal, US $ 30000. Biochar alone gave 0% increase, N fertilizer alone gave 95% increase, while biochar and N fertilizer increased yield 266% This trial on maize yields in Ghana found a 91% increase in yield. The regulations on production of commercial char are quite strict and you would need to be using a suitable kiln. High Mineral Content (k,Mg,Ca,Si,Mn, Zn etc) Low compared to Supr Activ Biochar Apr 03, 2019 · Biochar Now is focused on producing and marketing biochar for specialty uses: used by oil and gas industries to help capture pollutants, to help reduce and treat water pollutants and control odors. Humankind has used charcoal for thousands of years as an aid digestion, and as an antidote to poisons. For sale. piece = 1/4 shelf x 2 high = $6. Batch pyrolysers: TLUD Gasifier Stoves – The Principles Fire is ignited at the top of a column of biomass fuel, and a hot “pyrolysis front” moves down through the stationary fuel bed, converting biomass to biochar, and liberating pyrolysis gas. 12. Byron Biochar (BB) delivers bio-products and bio-services for industrial, commercial & domestic applications. There are dozens of innovations found in the patent literature that attempt to solve the problem of bridging, including clutch assemblies to prevent the auger from breaking when it jams, auger housings fitted with a series of hatches to allow an operator to clear these KILN-BASED MANUFACTURING. The kiln has been in the pipeline for well over a year and we have just finished construction. Get in touch with a Kiln real estate agent who can help you find the home of your dreams in Kiln. 5kg) of biochar to properly cover 100 square feet (9. Keep adding, building up the depth of the biomass. com To examine this application further, we produced biochar with a sample of the dehydrated food waste material from the university cafeteria. Alibaba offers 802 Kilns For Sale Suppliers, and Kilns For Sale Manufacturers, Distributors, Factories, Companies. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. counter in south africa charcoal kiln for sale. Company: Model Name: Biomass Conversion Technology Comparison Type of System: Basic Unit Cost : Feedstock Type: Ideal Moisture Content: Throughput Per Day Biochar Discussion List (BioEnergy Lists: Biochar Mailing Lists) Biochar eBooks; Chip Energy; Green Your Head (Blog by Kelpie Wilson) Haiti Clean Stove Project; NextChar | High-Performance Biochar; SeaChar (The Seattle BioChar Working Group) Servals; Stoves Discussion List (Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves) The Biochar Solution; The Warm Heart For Pick up at Tyagarah Prices contact Biochar Don directly on 0459175729 or email don@byronbiochar. On day one, get the kiln filled and ready to light. The biochar is then packed into 2-gallon or 8-gallon bags which sell for $12 and $40 respectively. Personal Biochar Kilns, Portable Factories, DiY Septic. Considering it was a first cut we weren’t sure what we’d get out of it but we’ve been pleasantly surprised at how much we’ve managed to sell and use. The paper will be released in February 2015. Established in 1992, Ecoremedy specializes in renewable energy power generation, is the inventor and licensor of Ecoremedy patented advanced gasification, pyrolysis and nutrient recovery systems. biocharsolutions. , (IRSI) moves forward in alternative energy production with the testing of Ulysses in Drayton Valley, Alta. All of it starts off with doing your homework. up to 1,400. Beston Biochar Production Equipment for Sale. Clean Biochar. 5 cubic feet of biochar per batch. Based in the Pacific Northwest USA, where abundant forestry residues are often burned for disposal, biochar consultant Kelpie Wilson has had th The Backyard Biochar Retort Kiln This low cost wood-fired biochar kiln can be even cheaper if you have some of the materials already lying around or if you have welding skills. com The kiln uses a two stage process: the first stage dries the feedstock, while the second stage pyrolyzes the feedstock into biochar. BIG-SEA could provide communication and linkage between biochar researchers, farmers, related industry and supporting organisations, interested in tropically focused biochar industry development. The cost effectiveness of biochar stove and kiln projects in developing countries (Asia) up to 2030 is -43. Farmers can buy this at a very low price from charcoal producers and use it as a soil amendment. The BC was produced via pyrolysis at 500–650 °C using the flame curtain kiln technology (Schmidt et al. Retort Kiln Retort kilns are  Inspired by Kelpie's efforts, the Ithaka Institute expanded and refined the original design. 3R-BioPhosphate Ltd. The current draft of our paper The “Jolly Roger Ovens” family of Biochar-making devices in pdf, and attached to this story. Biochar Now is a pioneer in the biochar industry with strong engineering, manufacturing, sales and administrative personnel focused on making and selling quality biochar on a very large scale. m. For large scale production,   22 Nov 2013 Small scale biochar by Irene Shonle. I was [  the official source for Kon-Tiki kilns in the USA. Phone: (719) 544-2194 Fax: (719) 544-2195 Email: info@colobiochar. The kiln is set at a slight slope to assist in moving material through the drum. It contains a high proportion of extremely stable carbon, and so sustainable production of biochar can be a significant, viable Negative Emissions Technology for mitigating human-induced climate change. 5" door port for bar stock to place in Fuel type – Propane with operating pressure of 2 to 15 PSI Interior fire box lined with 2" vacuum formed Thermo MENOKEN — Though many fields in the area remain damp from the wet, cool spring, the staff at Menoken Farm are finding plenty of projects to keep them busy, like Recent trials on biochar have shown a doubling or even a tripling of crop yield coupled with vigorous root development when biochar was added to the soil. But his latest way to create better soil is by adding biochar, made in his new bespoke kiln. Branches and small diameter wood are stacked in a  9 Sep 2019 Retorts require small dimension feedstocks that won't pack together. This design is based on 25 years of research and development on the solar drying of lumber in the United States and foreign countries. For more information contact Matt Delaney ( mdelaney1@centurytel. This wil be benefit of ecological cultivation and logging. To build the retort I used hand tools to make the body of the retort and had a welder to make the insides. Simple Biochar Trench Method, Like a Cone Kiln for Long Wood Easy Biochar, Top Lit Open Burn Brush Pile Style Biochar in 19th Century America and Europe, Historical Accounts Nov 18, 2010 · Biochar is widely seen as the successor to biofuels on grounds that it will sequester carbon and improve soil fertility while also producing energy. Very often, retort kilns will include two main components: a chamber for which pyrolysis will take place, as well as a chamber for which combustion will take place. C. 8% over the next decade to reach approximately $1,440 million by 2025. Sep 09, 2019 · Anyone interested in producing biochar for small, niche markets such as farmers markets; Example: Assuming a biochar recovery rate of 33%, a 55-gallon drum retort kiln would yield ~2. Creates a Natural Ecosystem Add some initial nutrients to get it started and it will create a natural ecosystem of nutrient rich soil microfauna and flora that will carry on working well into BIOCHAR FOR SALE KILN-DRIED LUMBER FOR SALE ELECTRIC SAWMILL . All of our 5% biochar is often a very safe place to start, but there have been great successes with 30%-50% biochar when pH and nutrient levels are balanced properly in the beginning. Can you advise me what Kiln is best to build. Seneca Farms Biochar is leading the way in producing biochar and other products with its new horizontal bed kiln. The equipment: Two metal barrels, the larger about 20 cm (8 in) wider and 10 cm (4in) higher than the smaller vessel. Biochar’s Environmental Benefits If I was making biochar for agriculture use, this is the method that I would use. The BEK supports multiple pyrolysis process modes in direct combustion (updraft, TLUD and stratified downdraft), indirect combustion retort, and sweep gas through bed heat transfer. From $ 806. The woody material that would otherwise be wasted is turned into a valuable resource. So if you are a farmer, a permaculturalist, biochar user, a NGO staff person, don’t come to me and ask for drawings and my advice how to build this retort. x 6"D. Small wood (brush, orchard and forestry prunings, hedge prunings), bamboo and coarse grasses are far better suited to the production of biochar, which should be applied in granular form (pea to coarse sand size). Vuthisa Technologies in South Africa have been working on improving the Portable Metal Kiln Charcoal Making Method and using a retort  Small scale production can be through pyrolysis using modified stoves and kilns which are low cost and relatively simple technologies. QUENCHED BIOCHAR. All the best, TVI BIOCHAR! Thus, our products are agriculturally sustainable. transparencymarketresearch. The Oregon Kiln was designed by Kelpie Wilson, Wilson Biochar Associates (wilsonbiochar. Holds extra nutrients and moisture; Increases carbon content of soil by sequestering carbon for hundreds of years The Kon-Tiki biochar kiln is the fastest, cleanest way to make substantial batches of biochar from local unprocessed biomass, and condition it for application. Find bulk biochar options with volume discounts on trailer loads. Our charcoal retort The Exeter Retort is available to order. Gives you a gardening edge – Plants love it. Adding biochar to sand often gives a better growth The BEK (Biochar Experimenter’s Kit) is a reconfiguration of GEK components to create a multi-mode pyrolysis machine for characterized biochar and bio-oil making. SEED Project to reuse waste charcoal as biochar. Buy organic biochar products online from Biochar Supreme. We then dug a half meter deep cone in the loose clay soil and fixed the truncated metal cone above it. For potted plants, use pure biochar at a ratio of about 1:16 with your potting soil – about ½ cup per gallon of soil (118ml per 4 litres of soil). Biochar Market Analysis, Global Market Report, US market, market strategy, market research report, Size, Share, Forecast, Trends, The second kiln was much easier. Jun 24, 2017 · Jenny Sparks, Reporter-Herald. 5 Outside the kiln a cheaper paired iron-constantan extension 24-gauge wire, with a weatherproof polyvinyl insulation, can be used, costing only about 3 US cents per running foot. biochar pulverizers Nigeria – johannsoutdoor. 2017-11-30desc ription activated carbon regeneration kiln is suitable for all-sliming cyanidation-inc method in the process of gold also can be used in other industries roasting or dryingtructure regenerating activated carbon kiln is made of seven parts such as rotary cylinder heat preservation kiln body spiral feeding device head cover rear cover kiln charcoal kilns for sale south africa – hotelrosim charcoal kilns for sale south africa South Africa – BioEnergy Lists: Biochar Mailing Lists Vuthisa Technologies in South Africa have been working on improving the Portable Metal Kiln Charcoal Making Method and using a retort design to reduce Get Price And Support Online. In general, the total volume of the soil that is used for planting seeds needs 5%-10% biochar. counter-current (co-current) raw material silo, 10 m rotary cooler, cyclone preheater. Built into a 20ft container for ease of transport, this The Best BioChar Garden Kiln is based on the Japanese cone kiln. The Backyard Biochar Retort Kiln. A kiln heats the wood directly and a retort heats indirectly. Here at Biochar Industries we are going to put it through its paces and write a full report so other biocharians can learn critical information to help them select the right 3R-BioPhosphate Ltd. At an incipient stage of development of the biochar industry, small property The deep cone Kon-Tiki kiln was developed in Jul 2014 to answer this need. The advantage of biochar in crops is  Prices range depending on Australian/ New Zealand destination , $350-$550. However, this is a low volume use. Farmers generate an average of $200-300 in additional income each year by using a re:char kiln. net Wakefield Biochar Soil Conditioner – Premium – 1 Gallon Bag – 100% Biochar – Low Dust – USDA Certified. The kiln’s unique multi-zone combustion, airflow, negative pressure and recipe-driven control system allow each kiln to independently produce consistent, high quality biochar. Words & images: Ben Elms I first read about the wonders of biochar about 10 years ago, but it was an idea I left smouldering on the back burner while I dug deep into compost-making and waste… Feb 18, 2013 · Though most of Carbon Culture’s customers are shoppers at the U District Farmers Market, Tovey is working to expand the sale of their product to local nurseries and garden centers. The Tao Op kiln ( Figure 13. Our locally made Japanese style cone kilns are available here with the backing of our years of knowledge of the kiln process and use of the stable carbon product. On Sale in Garden Centres, Waitrose, Amazon and other Online suppliers. org these stoves make great This particular model was imported from India and has a very nice finish Hello Jim is the Adam retort biochar kiln the right thing for the job ? More details » Get Price Charcoal Green® PURE BIOCHAR COARSE-(MEDIUM ) 250 lbs Super Sack – (1 Cubit Yard) Add to Cart. Biochar 100 Biochar is a type of charcoal or activated carbon that is especially good at supporting plant growth. You can use tree prunings, sticks, wood scraps, corn stalks, and other biomass “waste” that is generated around the home and garden. Coated paper used for magazines and junk mail advertisements is about 1/3 clay and 2/3 wood pulp fiber. However, biochar stoves (and stoves in general) primary are for cooking and heating. Based in the Pacific Northwest USA, where abundant forestry residues are often burned for disposal, biochar consultant Kelpie Wilson has had th The Nebraska Forest Service publishes Timber Talk as a service to the forest industry of Nebraska. up to 1,500. Contact Wakefield Biochar with questions regarding shipping service and estimated delivery. A cement plant uses a rotary kiln, also referred to as a cement kiln or rotary cement kiln, to heat raw material into a product commonly referred to as ‘clinker. Mix in well. Update on 30th, may 2015 : Dr. , 2017). This flame curtain pro Aug 27, 2019 · As principal engineer John Sanderson puts it, 'Biochar wasn’t a new thing. Mechanical Engineer Summary The San Dimas Technology and Development Center (SDTDC) investigated the use of air curtain destructors (ACDs) as an efficient, environmentally friendly, and technically viable means of disposing of slash, wood, and other burnable waste materials. Water was slowly introduced to kiln through the drain valve cooling bottom of kiln, while pyrolysis continued on top. Wood Charcoal Kiln, Vertical Charcoal Carbonizer, Carbonization Furnace manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Environmental Friendly Biochar Charcoal Wood Retort Kiln for Sale, Facotry Price Cassava Starch Spin Flash Dryer, China Starch Airflow Spin Flash Dryer Price and so on. May 24, 2020 – Explore Gary Yates's board "charcoal stuff", followed by 13286 people on Pinterest. One year after application, we found no differences in pH between ambient soil and biochar re:char builds and sells affordable biochar kilns to small farmers in Western Kenya, which they use to produce biochar from their crop wastes. 27 Apr 2017 steel small cone kiln and TLUD (Fig 2, Fig G in S1 File). Typically, because there is little other market for the bark, it’s burned to generate heat in the production of kiln-dried lumber. I have the design of the chamber as far as the tin can studs, insulation and metal sheeting down how i want it. It is designed to make a small amount of biochar and may be re-used over and over, whenever you want to relax by your fireplace. ), sludge and municipal solid waste. 9-76t/h . biochar kiln for sale

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Malaysia Biochar Market Overview 2020: Innovative Technologies, Current And Future Trends …

3 August, 2020
 

New Jersey, United States,- The research report on Malaysia Biochar market comprises of insights in terms of pivotal parameters such as production as well as the consumption patterns alongside revenue estimations for the projected timeframe. Speaking of production aspects, the study offers an in-depth analysis regarding the manufacturing processes along with the gross revenue amassed by the leading producers operating in this business arena. The unit cost deployed by these producers in various regions during the estimated timeframe is also mentioned in the report.

Significant information pertaining to the product volume and consumption value is enlisted in the document. Additionally, the report contains details regarding the consumption graphs, Individual sale prices, and import & export activities. Additional information concerning the production and consumption patterns are presented in the report.

In market segmentation by manufacturers, the report covers the following companies-

Exploring the growth rate over a period

Business owners looking to scale up their business can refer this report that contains data regarding the rise in sales within a given consumer base for the forecast period, 2020 to 2027. Product owners can use this information along with the driving factors such as demographics and revenue generated from other products discussed in the report to get a better analysis of their products and services. Besides, the research analysts have compared the market growth rate with product sales to enable business owners to determine the success or failure of a specific product or service.

By Type

By Application

Regions Covered in the Global Malaysia Biochar Market:

– The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries and Egypt)

– North America (the United States, Mexico, and Canada)

– South America (Brazil etc.)

– Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.)

– Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

Highlights of the Report:

– Accurate market size and CAGR forecasts for the period 2020-2026

– Identification and in-depth assessment of growth opportunities in key segments and regions

– Detailed company profiling of top players of the global Malaysia Biochar market

– Exhaustive research on innovation and other trends of the global Malaysia Biochar market

– Reliable industry value chain and supply chain analysis

– Comprehensive analysis of important growth drivers, restraints, challenges, and growth prospects

The scope of the Report:

The report offers a complete company profiling of leading players competing in the global Malaysia Biochar market with a high focus on the share, gross margin, net profit, sales, product portfolio, new applications, recent developments, and several other factors. It also throws light on the vendor landscape to help players become aware of future competitive changes in the global Malaysia Biochar market.

Reasons to Buy the Report:

About Us:

Market Research Intellect provides syndicated and customized research reports to clients from various industries and organizations with the aim of delivering functional expertise. We provide reports for all industries including Energy, Technology, Manufacturing and Construction, Chemicals and Materials, Food and Beverage, and more. These reports deliver an in-depth study of the market with industry analysis, the market value for regions and countries, and trends that are pertinent to the industry.

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Biochar Fertilizer Market Size, Analysis, and Forecast Report 2019-2026

3 August, 2020
 

Future Prospects of the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market

The presented market study provides valuable insights to stakeholders, market leaders, upcoming market players, investors, and more who are aiming to solidify their presence in the global Biochar Fertilizer market. The report scrutinizes the various market trends that are expected to influence the growth of the Biochar Fertilizer market over the forecast period.

According to the study, the global Biochar Fertilizer market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~XX% during the forecast period owing to a range of factors including, increase in the research & development activities, favorable government and regulatory policies, and growing demand for the Biochar Fertilizer , especially in the developing regions.

Get PDF Sample Copy of this Report to understand the structure of the complete report: (Including Full TOC, List of Tables & Figures, Chart) @ https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2647304&source=atm

Important queries addressed in the report:

The report sheds light on the competitive landscape of the Biochar Fertilizer market and tracks the development made by key vendors operating in the current market scenario.

Some of the leading players profiled in the report include:

The region-wise analysis of the Biochar Fertilizer market offers a detailed understanding of the Biochar Fertilizer market in each region. In addition, a complete analysis of the market growth, size, trends, and the micro & macro-economic factors that are anticipated to influence the prospects of the Biochar Fertilizer market in various regions is enclosed in the report. 

Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [email protected] https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2647304&source=atm 

Market Segment Analysis
The research report includes specific segments by Type and by Application. This study provides information about the sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of 2015 to 2026. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.
Segment by Type, the Biochar Fertilizer market is segmented into
Organic Fertilizer
Inorganic Fertilizer
Compound Fertilizer

Segment by Application
Cereals
Oil Crops
Fruits and Vegetables
Others

Global Biochar Fertilizer Market: Regional Analysis
The Biochar Fertilizer market is analysed and market size information is provided by regions (countries). The report includes country-wise and region-wise market size for the period 2015-2026. It also includes market size and forecast by Type and by Application segment in terms of sales and revenue for the period 2015-2026.
The key regions covered in the Biochar Fertilizer market report are:
North America
U.S.
Canada
Europe
Germany
France
U.K.
Italy
Russia
Asia-Pacific
China
Japan
South Korea
India
Australia
Taiwan
Indonesia
Thailand
Malaysia
Philippines
Vietnam
Latin America
Mexico
Brazil
Argentina
Middle East & Africa
Turkey
Saudi Arabia
U.A.E
Global Biochar Fertilizer Market: Competitive Analysis
This section of the report identifies various key manufacturers of the market. It helps the reader understand the strategies and collaborations that players are focusing on combat competition in the market. The comprehensive report provides a significant microscopic look at the market. The reader can identify the footprints of the manufacturers by knowing about the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and sales by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2015 to 2019.
The major players in global Biochar Fertilizer market include:
Biogrow Limited
Biochar Farms
Anulekh
GreenBack
Carbon Fertilizer
Global Harvest Organics

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Biochar Fertilizer Market Increasing demand with Leading key players: Adsorb, Anulekh, ArSta Eco …

3 August, 2020
 

The Premium market Insights provides you global research analysis on “Biochar Fertilizer Market” and forecast to 2027. Biochars are defined as solid, carbon-rich materials which are added in soil to improve soil charaterstics and agronomic performance. It is produced with the help of pyrolysis by using several biomasses. According to various studies, the use of biochar as a fertilizer to boost the crop growth and yield. Biochar-based compound fertilizers (BCF) and amendments also helps to alter soil properties in the form of pH, nutrients, organic matter, structure etc.

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Major Key Players Covered in this Report:

The study conducts SWOT analysis to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the key players in the Biochar Fertilizer market. Further, the report conducts an intricate examination of drivers and restraints operating in the market. The report also evaluates the trends observed in the parent market, along with the macro-economic indicators, prevailing factors, and market appeal with regard to different segments. The report predicts the influence of different industry aspects on the Biochar Fertilizer market segments and regions.

Biochar Fertilizer Market Segmented by Region/Country: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and Central & South America

The research on the Biochar Fertilizer market focuses on mining out valuable data on investment pockets, growth opportunities, and major market vendors to help clients understand their competitor’s methodologies. The research also segments the Biochar Fertilizer market on the basis of end user, product type, application, and demography for the forecast period 2020–2027. Comprehensive analysis of critical aspects such as impacting factors and competitive landscape are showcased with the help of vital resources, such as charts, tables, and infographics.

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This report strategically examines the micro-markets and sheds light on the impact of technology upgrades on the performance of the Biochar Fertilizer market.

Fundamentals of Table of Content:

1 Report Overview
1.1 Study Scope
1.2 Key Market Segments
1.3 Players Covered
1.4 Market Analysis by Type
1.5 Market by Application
1.6 Study Objectives
1.7 Years Considered

2 Global Growth Trends
2.1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Size
2.2 Biochar Fertilizer Growth Trends by Regions
2.3 Industry Trends

3 Market Share by Key Players
3.1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Size by Manufacturers
3.2 Biochar Fertilizer Key Players Head office and Area Served
3.3 Key Players Biochar Fertilizer Product/Solution/Service
3.4 Date of Enter into Biochar Fertilizer Market
3.5 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

4 Breakdown Data by Product
4.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Product
4.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue by Product
4.3 Biochar Fertilizer Price by Product

5 Breakdown Data by End User
5.1 Overview
5.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Breakdown Data by End User

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Thanks for reading this release; you can also customize this report to get select chapters or region-wise coverage with regions such as Asia, North America, and Europe.

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Biochar Market Size 2020: Covid-19 Impact Analysis with Top Countries Data, Market Share …

3 August, 2020
 

Hongchun Research has added an exhaustive research study of the ‘ Biochar market’, detailing every single market driver and intricately analyzing the business vertical. This ‘ Biochar market’ study will aid in seeking out new business opportunities and fine-tuning existing marketing strategies through insights regarding SWOT analysis, market valuation, competitive spectrum, regional share, and revenue predictions.

Download PDF Sample of Biochar Market report @ https://hongchunresearch.com/request-a-sample/51214

The global Biochar market focuses on encompassing major statistical evidence for the Biochar industry as it offers our readers a value addition on guiding them in encountering the obstacles surrounding the market. A comprehensive addition of several factors such as global distribution, manufacturers, market size, and market factors that affect the global contributions are reported in the study. In addition the Biochar study also shifts its attention with an in-depth competitive landscape, defined growth opportunities, market share coupled with product type and applications, key companies responsible for the production, and utilized strategies are also marked.

This intelligence and 2026 forecasts Biochar industry report further exhibits a pattern of analyzing previous data sources gathered from reliable sources and sets a precedented growth trajectory for the Biochar market. The report also focuses on a comprehensive market revenue streams along with growth patterns, analytics focused on market trends, and the overall volume of the market.

Moreover, the Biochar report describes the market division based on various parameters and attributes that are based on geographical distribution, product types, applications, etc. The market segmentation clarifies further regional distribution for the Biochar market, business trends, potential revenue sources, and upcoming market opportunities.

Key players in the global Biochar market covered in Chapter 4:, Phoenix Energy, Carbon Gold Ltd, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc., Biochar Supreme, LLC, Vega Biofuels, Inc., Carbon Terra GmbH, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, ArSta Eco, PYREG GmbH, Sonnenerde, BlackCarbon A/S, Pacific Pyrolysis, Biochar Products, Inc.

In Chapter 11 and 13.3, on the basis of types, the Biochar market from 2015 to 2026 is primarily split into:, Agriculture Waste, Forestry Waste, Animal Manure, Biomass Plantation

In Chapter 12 and 13.4, on the basis of applications, the Biochar market from 2015 to 2026 covers:, Gardening, Agriculture, Household

Geographically, the detailed analysis of consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate, historic and forecast (2015-2026) of the following regions are covered in Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13:, North America (Covered in Chapter 6 and 13), United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe (Covered in Chapter 7 and 13), Germany, UK, France, Italy, Spain, Russia, Others, Asia-Pacific (Covered in Chapter 8 and 13), China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, India, Southeast Asia, Others, Middle East and Africa (Covered in Chapter 9 and 13), Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, Others, South America (Covered in Chapter 10 and 13), Brazil, Argentina, Columbia, Chile, Others

The Biochar market study further highlights the segmentation of the Biochar industry on a global distribution. The report focuses on regions of North America, Europe, Asia, and the Rest of the World in terms of developing business trends, preferred market channels, investment feasibility, long term investments, and environmental analysis. The Biochar report also calls attention to investigate product capacity, product price, profit streams, supply to demand ratio, production and market growth rate, and a projected growth forecast.

In addition, the Biochar market study also covers several factors such as market status, key market trends, growth forecast, and growth opportunities. Furthermore, we analyze the challenges faced by the Biochar market in terms of global and regional basis. The study also encompasses a number of opportunities and emerging trends which are considered by considering their impact on the global scale in acquiring a majority of the market share.

The study encompasses a variety of analytical resources such as SWOT analysis and Porters Five Forces analysis coupled with primary and secondary research methodologies. It covers all the bases surrounding the Biochar industry as it explores the competitive nature of the market complete with a regional analysis.

Brief about Biochar Market Report with [email protected]https://hongchunresearch.com/report/biochar-market-51214

Some Point of Table of Content:

Chapter One: Report Overview

Chapter Two: Global Market Growth Trends

Chapter Three: Value Chain of Biochar Market

Chapter Four: Players Profiles

Chapter Five: Global Biochar Market Analysis by Regions

Chapter Six: North America Biochar Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Seven: Europe Biochar Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eight: Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Nine: Middle East and Africa Biochar Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Ten: South America Biochar Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eleven: Global Biochar Market Segment by Types

Chapter Twelve: Global Biochar Market Segment by Applications
12.1 Global Biochar Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)
12.1.1 Global Biochar Sales and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)
12.1.2 Global Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)
12.2 Gardening Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
12.3 Agriculture Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
12.4 Household Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

Chapter Thirteen: Biochar Market Forecast by Regions (2020-2026) continued…

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List of tables
List of Tables and Figures
Table Global Biochar Market Size Growth Rate by Type (2020-2026)
Figure Global Biochar Market Share by Type in 2019 & 2026
Figure Agriculture Waste Features
Figure Forestry Waste Features
Figure Animal Manure Features
Figure Biomass Plantation Features
Table Global Biochar Market Size Growth by Application (2020-2026)
Figure Global Biochar Market Share by Application in 2019 & 2026
Figure Gardening Description
Figure Agriculture Description
Figure Household Description
Figure Global COVID-19 Status Overview
Table Influence of COVID-19 Outbreak on Biochar Industry Development
Table SWOT Analysis
Figure Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
Figure Global Biochar Market Size and Growth Rate 2015-2026
Table Industry News
Table Industry Policies
Figure Value Chain Status of Biochar
Figure Production Process of Biochar
Figure Manufacturing Cost Structure of Biochar
Figure Major Company Analysis (by Business Distribution Base, by Product Type)
Table Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)
Table Phoenix Energy Profile
Table Phoenix Energy Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Carbon Gold Ltd Profile
Table Carbon Gold Ltd Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc. Profile
Table Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc. Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Diacarbon Energy Inc. Profile
Table Diacarbon Energy Inc. Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Biochar Supreme, LLC Profile
Table Biochar Supreme, LLC Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Vega Biofuels, Inc. Profile
Table Vega Biofuels, Inc. Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Carbon Terra GmbH Profile
Table Carbon Terra GmbH Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table The Biochar Company Profile
Table The Biochar Company Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Swiss Biochar GmbH Profile
Table Swiss Biochar GmbH Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Agri-Tech Producers, LLC Profile
Table Agri-Tech Producers, LLC Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table ArSta Eco Profile
Table ArSta Eco Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table PYREG GmbH Profile
Table PYREG GmbH Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Sonnenerde Profile
Table Sonnenerde Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table BlackCarbon A/S Profile
Table BlackCarbon A/S Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Pacific Pyrolysis Profile
Table Pacific Pyrolysis Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Biochar Products, Inc. Profile
Table Biochar Products, Inc. Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Figure Global Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Global Biochar Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)
Table Global Biochar Sales by Regions (2015-2020)
Table Global Biochar Sales Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)
Table Global Biochar Revenue ($) by Regions (2015-2020)
Table Global Biochar Revenue Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)
Table Global Biochar Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2015
Table Global Biochar Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2019
Figure North America Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Europe Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Asia-Pacific Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Middle East and Africa Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure South America Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure North America Biochar Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)
Table North America Biochar Sales by Countries (2015-2020)
Table North America Biochar Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure North America Biochar Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure North America Biochar Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019
Table North America Biochar Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)
Table North America Biochar Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure North America Biochar Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure North America Biochar Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019
Figure United States Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Canada Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Mexico Biochar Sales and Growth (2015-2020)
Figure Europe Biochar Revenue ($) Growth (2015-2020)
Table Europe Biochar Sales by Countries (2015-2020)
Table Europe Biochar Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure Europe Biochar Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure Europe Biochar Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019
Table Europe Biochar Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)
Table Europe Biochar Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure Europe Biochar Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure Europe Biochar Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019
Figure Germany Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure UK Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure France Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Italy Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Spain Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Russia Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Asia-Pacific Biochar Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)
Table Asia-Pacific Biochar Sales by Countries (2015-2020)
Table Asia-Pacific Biochar Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure Asia-Pacific Biochar Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure Asia-Pacific Biochar Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019
Table Asia-Pacific Biochar Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)
Table Asia-Pacific Biochar Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure Asia-Pacific Biochar Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure Asia-Pacific Biochar Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019
Figure China Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Japan Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure South Korea Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Australia Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure India Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Southeast Asia Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Middle East and Africa Biochar Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020) continued…

About HongChun Research:
HongChun Research main aim is to assist our clients in order to give a detailed perspective on the current market trends and build long-lasting connections with our clientele. Our studies are designed to provide solid quantitative facts combined with strategic industrial insights that are acquired from proprietary sources and an in-house model.

Contact Details:
Jennifer Gray
Manager — Global Sales
+ 852 8170 0792
[email protected]

NOTE: Our report does take into account the impact of coronavirus pandemic and dedicates qualitative as well as quantitative sections of information within the report that emphasizes the impact of COVID-19.

As this pandemic is ongoing and leading to dynamic shifts in stocks and businesses worldwide, we take into account the current condition and forecast the market data taking into consideration the micro and macroeconomic factors that will be affected by the pandemic.

 

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Value of Wood Vinegar Market Predicted to Surpass US$ by the of 2019 – 2029

3 August, 2020
 

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Global Granular Biochar Market Analysis by Regions, Types, Applications and Key Companies …

4 August, 2020
 

The global Granular Biochar market is valued at US$ xx million in 2020 is expected to reach US$ xx million by the end of 2026, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2021-2026.

Access more details about this report at: https://www.themarketreports.com/report/global-granular-biochar-market-research-report

(This is our latest offering and this report also analyzes the impact of COVID-19 on Granular Biochar market and updated by the current situation, especially the forecast)

This report focuses on Granular Biochar volume and value at the global level, regional level and company level. From a global perspective, this report represents overall Granular Biochar market size by analysing historical data and future prospect. Regionally, this report focuses on several key regions: North America, Europe, China and Japan etc.

Market Segment Analysis

The research report includes specific segments by Type and by Application. This study provides information about the sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of 2015 to 2026. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.

Global Granular Biochar Market: Competitive Analysis

This section of the report identifies various key manufacturers of the market. It helps the reader understand the strategies and collaborations that players are focusing on combat competition in the market. The comprehensive report provides a significant microscopic look at the market. The reader can identify the footprints of the manufacturers by knowing about the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and sales by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2015 to 2019. Key companies profiled in this report are Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra, etc.

Purchase this exclusive research report at: https://www.themarketreports.com/report/buy-now/1573906

Global Granular Biochar Market: Regional Analysis

The Granular Biochar market is analysed and market size information is provided by regions (countries). The report includes country-wise and region-wise market size for the period 2015-2026. It also includes market size and forecast by Type and by Application segment in terms of sales and revenue for the period 2015-2026.

The key regions covered in the Granular Biochar market report are:

Table of Contents:

1 Granular Biochar Market Overview

1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Granular Biochar

1.2 Granular Biochar Segment by Type

1.3 Granular Biochar Segment by Application

1.4 Global Granular Biochar Market Size Estimates and Forecasts

2 Global Granular Biochar Market Competitions by Manufacturers

2.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)

2.2 Global Granular Biochar Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)

2.3 Global Granular Biochar Average Price by Manufacturers (2015-2020)

2.4 Manufacturers Granular Biochar Manufacturing Sites, Area Served, Product Type

2.5 Granular Biochar Market Competitive Situation and Trends

2.6 Manufacturers Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

2.7 Primary Interviews with Key Granular Biochar Players (Opinion Leaders)

3 Granular Biochar Retrospective Market Scenario by Region

3.1 Global Granular Biochar Retrospective Market Scenario in Sales by Region: 2015-2020

3.2 Global Granular Biochar Retrospective Market Scenario in Revenue by Region: 2015-2020

3.3 North America Granular Biochar Market Facts & Figures by Country

3.4 Europe Granular Biochar Market Facts & Figures by Country

3.5 Asia Pacific Granular Biochar Market Facts & Figures by Region

3.6 Latin America Granular Biochar Market Facts & Figures by Country

3.7 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Market Facts & Figures by Country

4 Global Granular Biochar Historic Market Analysis by Type

4.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

4.2 Global Granular Biochar Revenue Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

4.3 Global Granular Biochar Price Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

4.4 Global Granular Biochar Market Share by Price Tier (2015-2020): Low-End, Mid-Range and High-End

5 Global Granular Biochar Historic Market Analysis by Application

5.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Market Share by Application (2015-2020)

5.2 Global Granular Biochar Revenue Market Share by Application (2015-2020)

5.3 Global Granular Biochar Price by Application (2015-2020)

6 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Granular Biochar Business

6.1 Company 1

6.1.1 Corporation Information

6.1.2 Company 1Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue

6.1.3 Company 1Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)

6.1.4 Company 1Products Offered

6.1.5 Company 1Recent Development

6.2 Company B

6.3 Company C….and so on

7 Granular Biochar Manufacturing Cost Analysis

7.1 Granular Biochar Key Raw Materials Analysis

7.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure

7.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Granular Biochar

7.4 Granular Biochar Industrial Chain Analysis

8 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers

8.1 Marketing Channel

8.2 Granular Biochar Distributors List

8.3 Granular Biochar Customers

9 Market Dynamics

9.1 Market Trends

9.2 Opportunities and Drivers

9.3 Challenges

9.4 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

10 Global Market Forecast

10.1 Global Granular Biochar Market Estimates and Projections by Type

10.2 Granular Biochar Market Estimates and Projections by Application

10.3 Granular Biochar Market Estimates and Projections by Region

10.4 North America Granular Biochar Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

10.5 Europe Granular Biochar Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

10.6 Asia Pacific Granular Biochar Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

10.7 Latin America Granular Biochar Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

10.8 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

11 Research Finding and Conclusion

12 Methodology and Data Source

12.1 Methodology/Research Approach

12.2 Data Source

12.3 Author List

12.4 Disclaimer

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Biochar Fertilizer Market 2019 Global Industry Growth, Size, Demand, Trends, Insights and …

4 August, 2020
 

Up Market Research (UMR) has published a latest market research report on Global Biochar Fertilizer Market. The global report is prepared in collaboration with the leading industry experts and dedicated research analyst team to provide an enterprise with in-depth market insights and help them to take crucial business decisions. This report covers current market trends, opportunities, challenges, and detailed competitive analysis of the industry players in the market.

The published report explains about the current supply and demand scenario and presents the future outlook of the market in a detailed manner. Up Market Research (UMR) has applied a robust market research methodology to bestow the new entrants and emerging players with 360° wide-view analysis on the latest advancements and their impacts on the market. It has congregated massive amount of data on the key segments of the market in an easy to understand format. The research report has laid out the numbers and figures in a comprehensive manner with the help of graphical and pictorial representation which embodies more clarity on the market.

You can buy this complete report @ https://www.upmarketresearch.com/buy/biochar-fertilizer-market

Report Covers Impacts of COVID-19 to the market.

The on-going pandemic has overhauled various facets of the market. This research report provides the financial impacts and market disturbance on the Biochar Fertilizer market. It also includes analysis on the potential lucrative opportunities and challenges in the foreseeable future. Up Market Research (UMR) has interviewed various delegates of the industry and got involved in the primary and secondary research to confer the clients with information and strategies to fight against the market challenges amidst and after COVID-19 pandemic.

Market Segmentation:

Few of the companies that are covered in the report.

Biogrow Limited
Biochar Farms
Anulekh
GreenBack
Carbon Fertilizer
Global Harvest Organics LLC

Note: Additional companies can be included in the list upon the request.

By Product Type:

Organic Fertilizer
Inorganic Fertilizer
Compound Fertilizer

By Applications:

Cereals
Oil Crops
Fruits and Vegetables
Others

By Geographical Location:
Asia Pacific: China, Japan, India, and Rest of Asia Pacific
Europe: Germany, the UK, France, and Rest of Europe
North America: The US, Mexico, and Canada
Latin America: Brazil and Rest of Latin America
Middle East & Africa: GCC Countries and Rest of Middle East & Africa

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The research report provides a detailed analysis of the prominent player in the market, products, applications, and regional analysis which also include impacts of government policies in the market. Moreover, you can sign up for the yearly updates on the Biochar Fertilizer market.

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Goethite dispersed corn straw-derived biochar for phosphate recovery from synthetic urine and its …

4 August, 2020
 

α-FeOOH-BC composites were developed from co-precipitation reaction.

Composites were used as adsorbents for phosphate recovery in urine.

α-FeOOH loaded BC was found to be amorphous.

P adsorption was better on α-FeOOH-600BC under acidic conditions than basic ones.

α-FeOOH-600BC after adsorption could be used as a slow-release fertilizer.

α-FeOOH-BC composites were developed from co-precipitation reaction.

Composites were used as adsorbents for phosphate recovery in urine.

α-FeOOH loaded BC was found to be amorphous.

P adsorption was better on α-FeOOH-600BC under acidic conditions than basic ones.

α-FeOOH-600BC after adsorption could be used as a slow-release fertilizer.

In this study, goethiete (α-FeOOH) -biochar (BC) composites were successfully developed from a co-precipitation reaction under alkaline conditions (pH = 11.93) and used as the adsorbent for phosphate recovery from urine. The morphology and crystallinity of α-FeOOH-BC composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. α-FeOOH loaded BC was found to be amorphous. This may be caused by the Si residue in BC. The Elovich model and the Langmuir model fit better to the kinetic and isotherm results of α-FeOOH-600BC, respectively, indicating that phosphate adsorption is mainly a chemisorption and monolayer adsorption process. The α-FeOOH-600BC with amorphous structure showed higher adsorption capacity than crystalline α-FeOOH, and the maximum phosphate sorption capacity reached 57.39 mg g-1. Additionally, the extractable phosphate of this material was approximately 967.5 mg·P·kg−1 suggesting the α-FeOOH-600BC after adsorption could be a promising alternative as a slow-phosphate-release fertilizer. Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the active sites of the adsorption of phosphate were the F-OH bonds that formed inner-sphere complexes (Fe-O-P).


TRANSITIONS: JMIE's Susan Ustin, Ben Houlton

4 August, 2020
 

Susan Ustin, distinguished professor emeritus of environmental and resource science, has been named interim director of the John Muir Institute of the Environment, where she has served as the associate director of research since 2017.

She replaces Benjamin Houlton, her faculty colleague in the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, who has been appointed dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University.

Ustin retired last year, although she stayed on at the Muir Institute and as the director of the UC Davis Center for Spatial Technologies and Remote Sensing, or CSTARS.

Ustin’s appointment as the JMIE’s interim director took effect Aug. 1, as announced this week by Prasant Mohapatra, vice chancellor of research.

“We are thankful for Dr. Houlton’s leadership and wish him well in his new endeavor,” Mohapatra said. “Dr. Ustin has worked closely with the programs in the Muir Institute over the past three years, and is herself a pioneer in environmental research. Her experience and demonstrated leadership will help the institute continue its progress and impact during this transition.”

Ustin received a Ph.D. in botany from UC Davis in 1983 and joined the faculty in 1990. At that time, using research data from satellites and airplanes was considered novel, but she went on to become a world leader in the field of remote sensing, which is now considered a mainstay for tracking environmental changes around the globe. Read more about her career.

“Despite the problems stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, we need to move forward with solutions for energy, food and water security for California,” Ustin said, adding that the JMIE is perfectly suited for the task. “There is no other organization on campus that has the breadth of mission to take on the intersecting program areas of environmental sustainability and health, climate change and sustainable solutions, and climate justice.”

Ustin will work with Majdi Abou Najm, associate professor, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, and Beth Rose Middleton, professor and chair, Department of Native American Studies, to help advance the Muir Institute’s One Climate program, which leverages the broad expertise at UC Davis to find solutions to the world’s most pressing climate problems.

Houlton joined the UC Davis faculty in 2007 and served as the Muir Institute’s director for the last four years. Under his guidance, the institute became a leader in environmental sustainability and a hub for large multidisciplinary and out-of-the-box environmental programs. His appointment at Cornell takes effect Oct. 1.

He will remain principal investigator for the UC Working Lands Innovation Center, which was initially supported by the state’s Climate Change Research Program. The center received a multiyear grant in 2019 from the California Strategic Growth Council to examine the capacity for soil amendments — rock, compost and biochar — to sequester greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide in agricultural soil.

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Applying our collective strengths in science, engineering, art and design to the problem of climate change and a warming planet.

Advancing the study of medicine as a worldwide leader in human health and veterinary sciences.

Connecting our research and expertise to the effort to feed a growing population under a changing climate.

Answering foundational questions about our world and how we live in it, showcasing how our research transcends science, technology, arts and humanities, and social sciences.

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Growing Bedding Plants With Biochar And Vermicompost

4 August, 2020
 

August 4, 2020 | Climate, General, Markets

Much of the work on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and carbon (C) sequestration using biotic strategies has been conducted in row crops and forest systems. Little research has focused on contributions from sectors of the specialty crop industry such as ornamental horticulture. In fact, there is much uncertainty regarding best practices for lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon storage in the ornamental horticulture industry. This is an area to be studied (Marble et al..2012).

Peat moss is the most used soilless substrate in production of containerized plants. Globally, over 11 million tons of peat are used annually in horticulture (U.S. Dept. of Interior, 2013) due to its consistent physical characteristics and high nutrient exchange capacity. Environmental concerns about draining peat bogs and the fact that peatland mining eliminates the carbon sink function of the peatland (Waddington et al.,2002) have spurred research on complementary products that can be added to peat, including different kinds of compost. More recently, biochar has also been considered as a possible perlite and peat replacement in horticulture (Bedussi et al., 2015). Similarly there is a synergy between compost and biochar when using them together as soil amendment (Alvarez et al., 2018b).

The author conducted three different comparative greenhouse studies to assess the suitability of biochar (B) and vermicompost (V) as partial substitutes for peat-based growing media for ornamental plant production. Vermicompost was chosen because of its nutrient quality and lack of heavy metals. The first study, discussed in this article (Part I), focused on the possibility of growing commercial quality containerized ornamental bedding plants (e.g., petunia and geranium) using 24 different biochar/vermicompost mixes.

In the second study, the five best performing growing media were selected and the physiological plant responses when growing those species with our selected mixtures were verified. In the final study, leachates from the containers were analyzed to verify if fewer nutrients were lost by irrigation when growing those species with the selected mixes. The latter two studies will be discussed in Part II of this article.

A peer reviewed article on the first study was published in the Journal of Applied Horticulture in 2017 (Alvarez et al., 2017). The goal was to assess the viability of vermicompost and biochar as growing media replacement for ornamental plant production. 

Materials and Mixes: Both biochar and vermicomposts are commercially available, produced from raw materials that exist in most regions, and that are capable of being recycled as partial substitutes for peat. The biochar for this study (Soil Reef Pure 02, Biochar Solutions Inc.) was produced by pyrolysis of Pinus monticola wood at high temperature (600°-800°C). The vermicompost (Black Diamond Vermicompost) was made from dairy manure solids. The raw material was precomposted for two weeks in an aerated system, then processed by vermicomposting for 70 to 80 days. Twenty-three blends of biochar at a volume fraction of 0, 4, 8, and 12%, and vermicompost at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%, were compared to a baseline peat substrate (S) as control in the cultivation of geranium (Pelargonium peltatum) and petunia (Petunia hybrida) (Table 1).

1) Seedlings were produced on 200 plugs (21.8 cm3) plastic germination tray for 40 days under average 54% moisture and at 24°C in a greenhouse with a microsprinkler irrigation system.

2) Seedlings were transferred to 800 ml plastic containers and placed on 15 m2 tables per species at a greenhouse with an average 20°C temperature and 29% humidity. Containers were watered manually as needed.

3) The growing period was 8 weeks for Petunia and 11 weeks for Pelargonium.

Measurements: Substrates were characterized for physical properties following the North Carolina State University porometers methodology. Chemical properties were measured after water extract at a volume ratio 1:6. The plants’ commercial quality was evaluated measuring plant growth by shoot dry weight and flower production. For Petunias, only the number of flowers was counted. For Pelargonium, both the number of open inflorescences and inflorescence buds number were counted.

Nutrient concentrations were assessed in leaves after samples were digested in nitric acid. Phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, boron, copper, zinc, and sodium were determined. Total nitrogen was also determined by spectrophotometry in a flow auto analyzer after Kjeldahl digestion. Nutrients in substrates were measured before and after cultivation using an ICP-OES Plasma Spectrometer after extraction, and were expressed on a volume basis.

Results: The substrates’ physical properties, bulk density, water holding capacity, total porosity and air space were determined. The general trend was a slight but significant decrease in air space as the vermicompost ratio increased in the mixture, and similarly a slight bulk density increase as the percent of vermicompost increased in the mixture. The tendency was a significant increase of pH and electrical conductivity when the percent of vermicompost increased. The pH raised from 5.2 in control to 6.6 with 50% vermicompost in the mixture.

Mixtures with low to medium levels of vermicompost (10-30%) and high biochar level (8–12%) in Petunia and Pelargonium induced more growth and flower production than that of the control. In terms of leaf nutrients, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur contents increased with the increase in volume fraction of vermicompost.

Some studies (Steiner & Harttung, 2014) have shown reductions in GHG emissions when biochar is used as peat substitute for growing plants. Biochar decomposes slowly (Kuzyakov et al., 2009) and can be stored for relatively long periods. Vermicompost, on the other hand, has a faster decomposition rate, so no significant C storage in soil is expected by vermicompost when compared to biochar. This is why carbon storage was only calculated based on the biochar potential effect.

José M. Álvarez de la Puente is an independent scientific advisor and has been a BioCycle contributor on urban and agroindustrial compost. He holds a PhD in Industrial and Environmental Science and Technology from the University of Huelva, Spain. His PhD dissertation was defended in June 2019 at the Carbon Sequestration and Management Center of the Ohio State University as a visiting scholar.

Alvarez J.M., Pasian C., Lal R., Lopez R., Fernandez M.. (2017). Vermicompost and Biochar as growing media replacement for ornamental plant production. J. Appl. Hortic.19(3), 205-214. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/PZBFS

Alvarez, J. M.; Pasian, C.; Lal, R.; Lopez-Nuñez, R.; Fernández, M. (2018b). A biotic strategy to sequester carbon in the ornamental containerized bedding plant production: A review. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, Volume 16, Issue 3, e03R01. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2018163-12871

Kuzyakov, Y., Subbotina, I., Chen, H., Bogomolova, I., Xu, X., 2009. Black carbon decomposition and incorporation into soil microbial biomass estimated by 14C labeling. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41, 210–219, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.10.016

Marble, S.C., Prior, S.A., Runion, G.B., Torbert, H.A., Gilliam, C.H., Fain, G.B., Sibley, J.L., Knight, P.R., 2012. Determining trace gas efflux from container production of woody nursery crops. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 30, 118–124. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.46.2.240

Steiner, C., Harttung, T., 2014. Biochar as growing media additive and peat substitute. Solid Earth Discussions, 6(1), 1023–1035. https://doi.org/10.5194/se-5-995-2014

U.S. Department of the Interior. 2013. U.S. Geological Survey DOI-USGS.

Waddington, J.M., Warner, K.D., Kennedy, G.W., 2002. Cutover peatlands: A persistent source of atmospheric CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GB001398

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Biochar Market : Key Players Business Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2020 to 2029

4 August, 2020
 

Fact.MR, in a recently published report, offers valuable insights related to the key factors that are projected to influence the growth of the Biochar market during the forecast period, 2019-2029. The current market trends, vast growth opportunities in different regional markets, market drivers, and restraining factors are thoroughly analyzed in the report on the Biochar market.

The data enclosed in the report such as the Year-on-Year (Y-o-Y) market growth, supply chain analysis, value chain analysis and more will enable readers to assess the quantitative aspects of the Biochar market with clarity. The presented study is a vital asset for stakeholders, investors, and market players involved in the Biochar market who can leverage the information in the report to develop effective business strategies.

Request Sample Report @ https://www.factmr.co/connectus/sample?flag=S&rep_id=3781

Key Findings of the Report:

Biochar Market Segmentation

The report on the Biochar market provides vital analytical insights related to the key market segments including, region, application, and end-use. Further, the report discusses the current and future prospects of each market segment along with informative graphs, tables, and figures.

Segments of the Biochar market assessed in the report:

competitive dynamics of biochar market, get the sample of this report 

Biochar Market – Additional Insight 

Does Biochar Promise to Help Mitigate Climate Changes? 

Growing awareness about the carbon negative nature of pyrolysis-derived biochar is creating fresh growth avenues for stakeholders. The potential role of this bichar system derived by the process of pyrolysis is being increasingly viewed as a potential tool to mitigate climate change, by restoring plant based carbon in a stabilized form in soil to prevent decomposition. Though the consensus revolving around the effectiveness of soil biochar amendments in eradicating CO2 from the atmosphere continues to grow, its chemical properties and net carbon footprint are widely variable. 

Research Methodology 

An authentic methodology, coupled with a holistic approach, lays the base for the actionable insights mentioned in the biochar market for the time frame, 2019-2029. The Fact.MR report provides comprehensive information about the future opportunistic value of biochar market along with enthralling insights into the forecast analysis of the market.

Intensive primary and secondary research has been employed to garner riveting insights into the projection analysis of biochar market market. The report on biochar market has further undergone various cross-validation tunnels to ensure that the report carries one-of-its-kind and exclusive information for the readers.

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Important Queries Related to the Biochar Market Addressed in the Report:

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Making biochar from sawdust

4 August, 2020
 


Biochar Pellets – 100% Organic Irish Fertiliser

4 August, 2020
 


Biochar Fertilizer Market 2020-2027 | Including Impact of COVID-19 Analysis By The Insight …

4 August, 2020
 

According to The Insight Partners Biochar Fertilizer Market report 2027, discusses various factors driving or restraining the market, which will help the future market to grow with promising CAGR. The Biochar Fertilizer Market Research Reports offers an extensive collection of reports on different markets covering crucial details. The report studies the competitive environment of the Biochar Fertilizer Market is based on company profiles and their efforts on increasing product value and production.

Biochar Fertilizer Market research study involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources. The research process involved the study of various factors affecting the industry, including market environment, competitive landscape, historical data, present trends in the market, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, opportunities, market barriers, and challenges.

The final report will add the analysis of the Impact of Covid-19 in this report Biochar Fertilizer Market.

Adapting to the recent novel COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global Biochar Fertilizer Market is included in the present report. The influence of the novel coronavirus pandemic on the growth of the Biochar Fertilizer Market is analyzed and depicted in the report.

Some of the companies competing in the Biochar Fertilizer Market are Adsorb, Anulekh, ArSta Eco Pvt Ltd, Biochar Farms, Biogrow Limited, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics LLC, GreenBack, Kingeta Group Co., Ltd.

Get a Sample Copy of the [email protected] https://www.theinsightpartners.com/sample/TIPRE00011244

The report scrutinizes different business approaches and frameworks that pave the way for success in businesses. The report used expert techniques for analyzing the Biochar Fertilizer Market; it also offers an examination of the global market. To make the report more potent and easy to understand, it consists of infographics and diagrams. Furthermore, it has different policies and development plans which are presented in summary. It analyzes the technical barriers, other issues, and cost-effectiveness affecting the market.

Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Research Report 2027 carries in-depth case studies on the various countries which are involved in the Biochar Fertilizer Market. The report is segmented according to usage wherever applicable and the report offers all this information for all major countries and associations. It offers an analysis of the technical barriers, other issues, and cost-effectiveness affecting the market. Important contents analyzed and discussed in the report include market size, operation situation, and current & future development trends of the market, market segments, business development, and consumption tendencies. Moreover, the report includes the list of major companies/competitors and their competition data that helps the user to determine their current position in the market and take corrective measures to maintain or increase their share holds.

What questions does the Biochar Fertilizer Market report answer about the regional reach of the industry

The report claims to split the regional scope of the Biochar Fertilizer Market into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America & Middle East and Africa. Which among these regions has been touted to amass the largest market share over the anticipated duration

The scope of the Report:

The report segments the global Biochar Fertilizer Market based on application, type, service, technology, and region. Each chapter under this segmentation allows readers to grasp the nitty-gritty of the market. A magnified look at the segment-based analysis is aimed at giving the readers a closer look at the opportunities and threats in the market. It also addresses political scenarios that are expected to impact the market in both small and big ways. The report on the global Biochar Fertilizer Market examines changing regulatory scenarios to make accurate projections about potential investments. It also evaluates the risk for new entrants and the intensity of the competitive rivalry.

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The Insight Partners is a one stop industry research provider of actionable intelligence. We help our clients in getting solutions to their research requirements through our syndicated and consulting research services. We specialize in industries such as Semiconductor and Electronics, Aerospace and Defense, Automotive and Transportation, Biotechnology, Healthcare IT, Manufacturing and Construction, Medical Device, Technology, Media and Telecommunications, Chemicals and Materials.

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Thanks for reading this release; you can also customize this report to get select chapters or region-wise coverage with regions such as Asia, North America, and Europe.

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Using Biochar To Save The Planet

4 August, 2020
 

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         Carbon dioxide is the main component responsible for climate change. Currently, we have no sustainable solution to limit the amount of carbon dioxide we produce as humans. This is causing us to continue to put CO2 into the atmosphere, adding to climate change.  However, with the utilization of carbon sequestration, we can at least attempt to become carbon neutral in a sustainable fashion.

Carbon sequestration is when we take carbon from either the air or another source and place it deep into the ground. This allows us to walk back some of the CO2 we put into the atmosphere. It is sustainable because the carbon stays in the ground for a long time. One such carbon sequestration project is biochar. 


Biochar is charcoal that is made from biomass via a process known as pyrolysis. Biomass is any plant or animal material that is used in energy production. Some examples include the waste from food crops, wood leftovers, and even animal manure. Pyrolysis is a process where carbon-based materials are burned in an environment that contains and absence of oxygen. This creates a combustion reaction that leaves the biomass with the majority of its carbon molecules intact, which means that CO2 is released in minute amounts in this process. By allowing the biomass to retain its carbon, you can then sequester it into the ground, where it is unable to add to the CO2 in the atmosphere. 

Another issue is that most of our organic waste ends up in landfills, which can cause higher levels of gases like methane to be released into the atmosphere. By taking in these waste products and converting them to biochar we prevent this from happening. 

Biochar is also really good for the soil as a fertilizer alternative as it increases soil fertility and can provide protection against some soil-borne plant diseases. Biochar is great at water retention (hygroscopic).  When used in combination with fertilizers and other farm chemicals, it can prevent phosphorus and other chemicals from leaking into a water supply.

Also, research was done that explored biochar as an additive to fodder. It has been found that it helps assist in digestion and reduces methane production in cattle. Newer research suggests that biochar also may result in increased milk production and odor reduction in dairy cattle.

A carbon-negative process is where you remove more CO2 from the atmosphere than released. Such a thing naturally happens when we use our waste products to create biochar. Even when biochar chemically is turned into a bio-fuel it still is a carbon-negative process as the less CO2 is produced from the burning of this fuel. Also, we really should start making our fuel out of things like Biochar as it is fuel from our waste products. This is way better than stealing the planet’s waste products aka fossil fuels. By creating our fuel for cars, planes, boats, and electricity. By doing this, we can take the step to be both a zero-waste society as well as a carbon-neutral society. This allows us to create a sustainable civilization that saves the planet in the process of our daily activities. 


In all, take the time to explore these technologies as they are our future. Biochar at its core is a solution based on science, and it is important to fund and encourage these solutions to save our planet. 

MAL


Surface quinone-induced formation of aqueous reactive sulfur species controls pine wood biochar

4 August, 2020
 

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Understanding the mechanisms controlling the redox transformation of organic contaminants mediated by biochar is of great significance for application of biochar in remediation of contaminated soils and sediments. Here we investigated the mediation effect of a pine wood-derived biochar (P-char) in comparison with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MCNT) and graphite on the reductive dechlorination of hexachloroethane by sulfide. Upon normalization of mediator’s surface area, the reduction efficiency of hexachloroethane followes an order of P-char < MCNT < graphite. Aqueous polysulfides and polysulfide free radicals were readily produced by reacting sulfide only with P-char, and the supernatant separated from the reaction system could account for 83.4% of the pseudo-kinetic rate constant of hexachloroethane mediated by P-char. In contrast, MCNT and graphite had weak abilities to produce reactive sulfur species, and the supernatant exhibited very low reduction (< 20.7%) of hexachloroethane. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis demonstrated that the surface quinone moieties on P-char induced the formation of polysulfides and polysulfide free radicals from sulfide by serving as one-electron acceptors. Consistently, polysulfides prepared by reacting elemental sulfur with sulfide showed much stronger reducing capability compared to sulfide. Thus, the mediation effect of P-char was dominantly attributed to the surface quinone-induced formation of reactive reducing sulfur species, whereas the mediation effect of MCNT and graphite mainly stemmed from the enhanced electron transfer by the graphitized carbon. These results showed for the first time that surface quinone-induced formation of aqueous reactive sulfur species could control biochar-mediated reductive dechlorination of chloroorganic contaminants by sulfides.

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The Biochar Solution Carbon Farming And Climate Change

4 August, 2020
 

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Biochar Market By Top Key Players like – InSightec Ltd, Integra LifeSciences, Alpinion Medical …

4 August, 2020
 

Biochar

The global Biochar market size was valued at USD XX million in 2019 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of XX%, with the market expected to reach evaluation of up to USD XX million by 2027.

 

The global Biochar Market is expected to reach at xx % CAGR in the forecast period, stated by a recent study of Contrive Datum Insights. It offers a complete overview of the global market along with the market influencing factors. Furthermore, it offers a detailed description of the global market with respect to the dynamics of the market such as internal and external driving forces, restraining factors, risks, challenges, threats, and opportunities. Analysts of this research report are predicting the financial attributes such as investment, pricing structures along with the profit margin.

“The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted lives and is challenging the business landscape globally. Pre and Post COVID-19 market outlook is covered in this report. This is the most recent report, covering the current economic situation after the COVID-19 outbreak”

For Sample Copy of Reports: https://www.contrivedatuminsights.com/request-sample/26933

The global intelligence report is broadly examined that sheds light on business perspectives. It offers details about different critical business parameters like market size, shares, growth rate, and competitive landscape.

The report has analyzed several players in the market, some of which include:

Johnson & Johnson
SonaCare Medical
InSightec Ltd
Integra LifeSciences
Alpinion Medical Systems
Chongqing Haifu Medical Technology Co. ltd.

The report is based on research done specifically on consumer goods. The goods have bifurcated depending on their use and type. The type segment contains all the necessary information about the different forms and their scope in the global Biochar market. The application segment defines the uses of the product. It points out the various changes that these products have been through over the years and the innovation that players are bringing in. The focus of the report on the consumer goods aspect helps in explaining changing consumer behavior that will impact the global Biochar market.

Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

On the Basis of Type:
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar
Other Stove Source Biochar

On the Basis of Application:
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Regions Covered in the Global Biochar Market:
The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries and Egypt)
North America (the United States, Mexico, and Canada)
South America (Brazil etc.)
Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.)
Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

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Key benefits of the global research report:

-Gaining a competitive edge in the global marketplace

-It offers a comprehensive analysis of market dynamics

-Business profiling of leading industry key players, vendors and traders

-Demand-supply chain analysis

Years Considered to Estimate the Biochar Market Size:
History Year: 2015-2019
Base Year: 2019
Estimated Year: 2020
Forecast Year: 2020-2027

It gives the broad elaboration of the market by analyzing the global market into several regions such as North America, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, the Middle East and Africa. They also throw light on prominent players in the global market. Additionally, it presents a comparative study of key players operating in global regions.

The major key questions addressed through this innovative research report:

Table of Content (TOC):

Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview

Chapter 2 Industry Cost Structure and Economic Impact

Chapter 3 Rising Trends and New Technologies with Major key players

Chapter 4 Global Biochar Market Analysis, Trends, Growth Factor

Chapter 5 Biochar Market Application and Business with Potential Analysis

Chapter 6 Global Biochar Market Segment, Type, Application

Chapter 7 Global Biochar Market Analysis (by Application, Type, End User)

Chapter 8 Major Key Vendors Analysis of Biochar Market

Chapter 9 Development Trend of Analysis

Chapter 10 Conclusion

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Characterisation, adsorption and desorption of ammonium and nitrate of biochar derived from …

4 August, 2020
 

Registered in England & Wales No. 3099067
5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG


How to make biochar

4 August, 2020
 


Impact of COVID-19 on Biochar Fertilizer Market – Global Industry Outlook, Share, Growth Analysis …

4 August, 2020
 

Note: Due to the pandemic, we have included a special section on the Impact of COVID 19 on the Biochar Fertilizer Market which would mention How the Covid-19 is Affecting the Industry, Market Trends and Potential Opportunities in the COVID-19 Landscape, Key Regions and Proposal for Biochar Fertilizer Market Players to battle Covid-19 Impact.

The Biochar Fertilizer Market report is compilation of intelligent, broad research studies that will help players and stakeholders to make informed business decisions in future. It offers detailed research and analysis of key aspects of the Biochar Fertilizer market. Readers will be able to gain deeper understanding of the competitive landscape and its future scenarios, crucial dynamics, and leading segments of the global Biochar Fertilizer market. Buyers of the report will have access to accurate PESTLE, SWOT and other types of analysis on the global Biochar Fertilizer market. Moreover, it offers highly accurate estimations on the CAGR, market share, and market size of key regions and countries. Players can use this study to explore untapped Biochar Fertilizer markets to extend their reach and create sales opportunities.

The study encompasses profiles of major Companies/Manufacturers operating in the global Biochar Fertilizer Market. Key players profiled in the report include: Biogrow Limited, Anulekh, GreenBack, Global Harvest Organics LLC, Pacific Biochar, American BioChar, Pyrotech Energy, AIRTERRA, MBD Industries and More…

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Market By Product Types:
Organic Fertilizer
Inorganic Fertilizer
Compound Fertilizer

Market By Applications:
Cereals
Oil Crops
Fruits and Vegetables
Others

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The authors of the report have analyzed both developing and developed regions considered for the research and analysis of the global Biochar Fertilizer market. The regional analysis section of the report provides an extensive research study on different regional and country-wise Biochar Fertilizer industry to help players plan effective expansion strategies.

Regions Covered in the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market:
The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries and Egypt)
North America (the United States, Mexico, and Canada)
South America (Brazil etc.)
Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.)
Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

Years Considered to Estimate the Market Size:
History Year: 2015-2019
Base Year: 2019
Estimated Year: 2020
Forecast Year: 2020-2025

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Biochar kiln plans

4 August, 2020
 

Sig Sauer Electro Optics BDX


grinding aids in anti clogging broy

4 August, 2020
 

SHANGHAI GME MINERALS CO., LTD. is a hi-tech, engineering group. We are specialized in the research, development, and production of industrial crushing, powder grinding, mineral processing equipments and other related devices.

No.416 Jianye Road, South Jinqiao Area, Pudong, Shanghai, China

Phone : 0086-21-58386256 0086-21-58386258

Email : [email protected]


Biochar Market Business Growth Statistics and Key Players Insights |Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar

4 August, 2020
 

Global Biochar Market business report estimates the existing state of the market, market size and market share, revenue generated from the product sale, and necessary changes required in the future products. As market research reports are gaining immense importance in this swiftly transforming market place, this market report has been created in a way that is anticipated. Biochar Market report showcases historic data, present market trends, environment, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in the related industry. The report discusses about the key players with respect to their share (by volume) in key regions (APAC, EMEA, Americas) and the challenges faced by them. This report gives an edge not only to compete but also to outdo the competition.

Global biochar market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026. Rising consumption of livestock feed and rapidly growing agricultural industry are the major factors for the growth of this market.

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Biochar is usually formed when biomass like wood leaves or manure are heated or burned in the presence of oxygen. They are usually formed by a process called pyrolysis and are widely used to improve the quality of the soil and mitigate climate change. Biochar have the ability to convert carbon into stable form and is cleaner than the other form of charcoal. They are widely used in applications like gardening, agriculture, electricity generation etc. Increasing demand of biochar in greenhouse gas remediation is the major factor fuelling the growth of this market.

Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

Global Biochar Market By Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Microwave Pyrolysis, Cookstove and Others)

Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household, Electricity Generation)

Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Animal Manure, Forestry Waste, Biomass Plantation)

Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa)

Key Developments in the Market:

In April 2016, ICEM announced the launch of their Interactive GMS Biochar and Soil Mapping Tool. This GMS has the ability to identify the regions which is highly suitable for the production of the biochar. This also have the feature to zoom into the areas for a more deeper view

In April 2014, VEGA BIOFUELS, INC announced that they have acquired Biochar Now, LLC so that they can expand their business in United States and in other parts of the country. This acquisition will help the VEGA to produce better quality product strengthening their position in the market place

Table Of Contents Is Available Here @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

Competitive Landscape:

The Biochar Market report contains an in-depth profiling of the key market players, along with the recent developments (New product launches, partnerships, agreements, collaborations, and joint ventures) and strategies adopted by them to sustain and strengthen their positions in the market.

Top Players- Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture

With the help of market insights covered in this Biochar Market document, manufacturer and dealers can find out the best way of reaching the potential customers. Also, the defects in the existing product can be discovered and the required corrective steps to improve the product can be taken. With this report, effectiveness of the existing channels of distribution can be uncovered and the most excellent way of distributing the goods to the ultimate consumers can be identified or implemented. The market insights of this Biochar Market report make the task of planning advertising and sales promotion efforts easy and are also helpful in assessing the effectiveness of advertising programmes.

Inquire for further detailed information of Biochar Market Report at: https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/inquire-before-buying/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

Important Questions Answered in Biochar Market Report:-

What will the market growth rate, overview, and analysis by type of Biochar Market in 2026?

What are the key factors driving, analysis by applications and countries Biochar Market?

What are dynamics, this overview includes analysis of scope and price analysis of top vendors profiles of Biochar Market?

What are opportunities, risk and driving force of Biochar Market?

Who are the opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in Biochar Market?

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Global Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) Market Future …

5 August, 2020
 

Global Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) Industry Competitive Analysis – Forecast and Historical Market Analysis by Key Market Segments

The research report on the global Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) market encompasses a wide-scope analysis of various macroeconomic and microeconomic factors affecting the industry performance on a regional and global level. The research report offers a detailed outline of the industry chain components including suppliers, customers, manufacturers, and distributors. Moreover, The COVID-19 outbreak is currently going the world over, this report covers the impact of the corona-virus on leading companies in the Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) sector. This research report categorizes as the key players in the Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) market and also gives a comprehensive study of Covid-19 impact analysis of the market by type, application and by regions like (Americas, APAC, and EMEA).

To Access Free PDF Sample Report (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures), Click Here: https://www.syndicatemarketresearch.com/market-analysis/biochar-pyrolysis-gasification-hydrothermal-and-others-technology-market.html#sample

The report intends to offer important highlights about qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) industry. In detail analysis of marketing environments for Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) products include the examination of demographic trends, consumer attitudes and preferences, technological requirements, pricing trends, and major economic concerns. Well-defined market scope and systematically designed research methodology have been employed for simplified the industry analysis and forecast estimation for the Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) market.

Major Companies Profiled in the Global Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) Market are: Diacarbon Energy Inc, Vega Biofuels Inc, Agri-Tech Producers LLC, Hawaii Biochar Products. LLC, Biochar Products Inc, Cool Planet Energy Technologys Inc, Blackcarbon A/S, Green Charcoal International, Earth Technologys Pty Ltd, Genesis

Market drivers and opportunities for the Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) market has been explained for different market segments such as product type, application, sales channel, and geographical segments. Market dynamics analysis will allow the key competitors to design industry-specific strategies and marketing plans. Product proliferation, product innovation, intensive promotion, and advertising, and customized solutions are some of the important strategies that the company can adopt to gain a competitive advantage in the global Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) market. The research project encompasses an overview and analysis of the manufacturing process for Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) products.

Market segmentation of global Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) market:

The report delivers a broad analysis of key product types, applications, and regional markets.

Product Types are: Woody Biomass, Agricultural Waste, Animal Manure, Others

Applications are: Agriculture, Water & Waste Water Treatment, Others

Do Inquiry of the Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) Market Report [email protected] https://www.syndicatemarketresearch.com/inquiry/biochar-pyrolysis-gasification-hydrothermal-and-others-technology-market

Competitive Analysis:

Well explained profiles of leading players comprise the information about company history, overview, business operations, and key partners including customers and distributors. The company’s financial metrics have been studied to determine the realistic industry rivalry among key competitors.

Important Insights from the Report Study:

Technology advancements, regulation trends, business policies, promotion strategies, marketing tools, and marketplace diversity across different countries and regions. The research report on Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) market offers important insight about capacity utilization trend, industry size in terms of both production volume, consumption volume, import-export, revenue, value chain, traders and distributors, pricing policies, segments, and sub-segments trends analysis, etc. for the global and regional Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) market. Strategy analysis with tools such as Porter’s five forces analysis, root cause analysis, competitor analysis, PESTLE analysis, SWOT analysis.

Regional and Global Economic Changes

> Overview and analysis of key product types
> Overview and analysis of key application types
> Industry concentration rate

Browse full Research [email protected] https://www.syndicatemarketresearch.com/market-analysis/biochar-pyrolysis-gasification-hydrothermal-and-others-technology-market.html

Key Region& Countries: North America [The U.S. and Canada], Europe [Germany, France, U.K., Italy, Spain, and Rest of Europe (Russia, Netherlands, Switzerland, Poland, Sweden, Belgium, Norway, Austria, Ireland, Denmark, etc.)], Asia Pacific [China, Japan, India, South Korea, Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, etc.), and Rest of Asia Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, etc.)], Latin America [Brazil, Mexico, and Rest of Latin America (Chile, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, etc.)], and the Middle East and Africa [GCC Countries, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, South Africa, and Rest of Middle East Africa (Iran, Turkey, Israel, Egypt, Nigeria, Algeria, Morocco, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Angola, etc.)]

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Popped Rice Biochar and Superhydrophobic SiO 2 / Popped Rice Biochar for Oil Adsorption

5 August, 2020
 

A novel biochar, whose precursor is popped rice, was produced to remove oil pollution in water. Popped rice biochar is characteristic with large pores. When popped rice was carbonized at 300 °C, its oil absorption capacity for paraffin oil is up to 10.88 ± 0.51 g/g, being much higher than that of the original popped rice (4.03 ± 0.39 g/g). In order to improve the oil-water separation property of popped rice biochar to absorb oil selectively, epoxy resin was used as a binder to make superhydrophobic SiO2 coated on the surface of popped rice biochar. The water contact angle of superhydrophobic SiO2 / popped rice biochar is 153 ± 0.9°, and it has good oil-absorption capacity with low water-absorption ratio. As the oil-absorption material is environmentally friendly, it will be a good select for the removal of oil pollution.

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All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51003030).

Xiaoye Huang and Ying Jiang contributed equally to this work.

Ying Jiang provide Superhydrophobic SiO2 and coating method, Xiaoye Huang prepared the popped rice biochar and analyzed the data, and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Ruobing Yu.

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Received: 01 May 2020

Accepted: 21 July 2020

Published: 03 August 2020

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-020-00621-z

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Activation of grapefruit derived biochar by its peel extracts and its performance for tetracycline …

5 August, 2020
 

GP extracts was used as novel activator to prepare GP based biochar.

The biochar had more abundant O-containing groups for TC adsorption.

Pore structure, charge effect and molecular interaction control TC adsorption onto GPBC.

The prepared GPBC adsorbed TC rapidly with high qe per unit surface area.

GP extracts was used as novel activator to prepare GP based biochar.

The biochar had more abundant O-containing groups for TC adsorption.

Pore structure, charge effect and molecular interaction control TC adsorption onto GPBC.

The prepared GPBC adsorbed TC rapidly with high qe per unit surface area.

A novel adsorbent derived from grapefruit peel (GP) based biochar (GPBC) was synthesized by combined carbonization of GP and subsequent activation by GP extracts. Compared to biochar without extracts activation, the technique granted GPBC-20 (with 1:20 of solid-solution ratio) more abundant surface functional groups, which exerts the adsorbent superior performance for tetracycline (TC) adsorption (37.92 mg/g v.s. 16.64 mg/g). The adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics models were further used to evaluate the adsorption behavior of GPBC. The enhanced adsorption was analyzed by characterization of fresh and used GPBC, revealing that the adsorption mechanism was comprised of pore filling, charge interaction and chemical bonding. The comprehensive investigation of using agricultural waste extracts as activator to prepare its raw materials-based adsorbents may be of great significance for enhanced resource utilization.


Chitosan-derived biochars obtained at low pyrolysis temperatures for potential application in …

5 August, 2020
 

Chitosan has been converted into N-rich biochars via pyrolysis at mild conditions.

N-doped biochars were tested as host structure in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries.

S/biochar cathodes showed improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency.

Chitosan has been converted into N-rich biochars via pyrolysis at mild conditions.

N-doped biochars were tested as host structure in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries.

S/biochar cathodes showed improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency.

N-rich biochars were obtained via pyrolysis treatment of chitosan (a low-cost biopolymer from natural biomasses) at mild conditions (in the 284 °C–540 °C range), thus offering an energy efficient and low carbon footprint synthesis. These low surface area N-doped biochars were morphologically and physicochemically characterized, and tested as hosting material in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Sulfur/biochars cathodes thus obtained showed good capacity retention and improved Coulombic efficiency compared to a standard N-rich high surface area carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reference substrates. Such enhanced electrochemical properties are attributable to the better retention of Li polysulfides by means of the residual functionalities still present in the biochars, thus making the valorization of chitosan potentially appealing even in the industrial sector related to the development of energy storage devices.

Current address: Independent Researcher, Via Borgomasino 39, 10149 Torino, Italy.


Effects of feedstock biopolymer compositions on the physiochemical characteristics of dissolved …

5 August, 2020
 

DBC formation was associated with different biopolymer compositions with HTT varying.

The pyrolysis of CEL and HEM had significant effects on DBC properties under low HTT.

DBC properties were closely related to LIG and its proportions in biomass under high HTT.

LIG-rich DBCs illustrated more surface negative charges and transport potential.

DBC formation was associated with different biopolymer compositions with HTT varying.

The pyrolysis of CEL and HEM had significant effects on DBC properties under low HTT.

DBC properties were closely related to LIG and its proportions in biomass under high HTT.

LIG-rich DBCs illustrated more surface negative charges and transport potential.

Dissolved black carbon (DBC) is becoming increasingly concerned by researchers due to its unique environmental behavior. However, understanding of the influence mechanism of biopolymer compositions of cellulose (CEL), hemicellulose (HEM) and lignin (LIG) on the formation and physiochemical characteristics of DBC from lignocellulose-based biochar is limited. This study therefore examined the formation of DBCs derived from the biopolymer compositions, corn straw (CS), corncob (CC), bamboo sawdust (BS) and pinewood sawdust (PS) under the heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) of 300–500 °C. Zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameters (Dh) of DBCs produced under 300 °C were further investigated. DBC formation may be closely associated with the HTT-dependent heterogeneities of biopolymer compositions, in which significant effects of CEL and HEM charring on physiochemical properties of DBCs were identified under the HTT of 300 and 400 °C, while the formation of DBCs was closely related to LIG and its proportions in biomass under high HTT (>500 °C). On the rise of the HTT, the carbonaceous structures of biopolymer compositions were reorganized and converted to graphitic structures in biochar accompanied by the large decomposition or carbonization of CEL and HEM, leading to the reduced carbon content, surface functional groups, aromaticity and molecular weight of DBCs, as well as the decrease of protein-like and relative increase of fulvic-like fluorescent substances in most DBCs. LIG in biomass may facilitate the migration of DBCs due to abundant surface negative charges and the formation of low Dh. This study offered new insights into our understanding of influencing mechanisms of biopolymer compositions on the characteristic of DBCs under different HTTs.


Biochar Market Research with Industry Outlook, Current Trends 2020 Insights by Geography, Size …

5 August, 2020
 

Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.

The report on the Biochar Market covers the current status of the market including market size, growth rate, prominent players and current competition landscape. It also analyzes the future opportunities and forecasts the market assessing the strategies of the key players in terms of merger and acquisitions, R&D investments, technological advancements. The report further provides key recent developments, profiling of key players and market dynamics.

To Understand How Covid-19 Impact Is Covered in This Report

The global Biochar market is highly fragmented with number of global regional players operating in the market as below:

Some of the major companies that are present in the global biochar market are American Biochar Company, Carbonis GmbH & Co., Farm2Energy Pvt Ltd., Terra Humana Ltd., CarbonScape Ltd., Tolero Energy LLC., Oregon Biochar Solutions, Terra Char, Vedic Orgo LLP, Interra Energy Inc., Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Cool Planet, and CharGrow USA LLC.

The Global Biochar market research provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Global Biochar market report is provided for the international markets as well as development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analysed. This report additionally states import/export consumption, supply and demand Figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins.

Get a sample copy of the report at — https://www.industryresearch.biz/enquiry/request-sample/15701028

Global Biochar Market Segmentations: this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each segmentation, primarily split into:

By Feedstock

  • Agriculture Waste
  • Forestry Waste
  • Animal Manure
  • Others
  • By Process

  • Pyrolysis
  • Gasification
  • Others
  • By Application

  • Agriculture
  • Power Generation
  • Others
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    Some of the key questions answered in this report:

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    Global Biochar Market providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and instrumentation and downstream demand analysis is additionally dispensed. The Global Biochar market development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally, the feasibility of latest investment projects is assessed and overall analysis conclusions offered.

    With tables and figures helping analyse worldwide Global Biochar market trends, this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

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    Biochar Market Business Growth Statistics and Key Players Insights |Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar

    5 August, 2020
     

    Biochar Market is the most appropriate, realistic and admirable market research report delivered with a supreme devotion and comprehension of business needs. The data and information included in the Biochar Market report are taken from reliable sources such as websites, annual reports of the companies, journals, and others and were checked and validated by the market experts. The market data is analysed and forecasted using well established market statistical and coherent models. The most up to date market insights and analysis performed in this Biochar Market report brings marketplace clearly into focus.

    Global biochar market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026. Rising consumption of livestock feed and rapidly growing agricultural industry are the major factors for the growth of this market.

    Click to get Global Biochar Market Research Sample PDF Copy Here https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

    Biochar is usually formed when biomass like wood leaves or manure are heated or burned in the presence of oxygen. They are usually formed by a process called pyrolysis and are widely used to improve the quality of the soil and mitigate climate change. Biochar have the ability to convert carbon into stable form and is cleaner than the other form of charcoal. They are widely used in applications like gardening, agriculture, electricity generation etc. Increasing demand of biochar in greenhouse gas remediation is the major factor fuelling the growth of this market.

    Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

    Global Biochar Market By Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Microwave Pyrolysis, Cookstove and Others)

    Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household, Electricity Generation)

    Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Animal Manure, Forestry Waste, Biomass Plantation)

    Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa)

    Key Developments in the Market:

    In April 2016, ICEM announced the launch of their Interactive GMS Biochar and Soil Mapping Tool. This GMS has the ability to identify the regions which is highly suitable for the production of the biochar. This also have the feature to zoom into the areas for a more deeper view

    In April 2014, VEGA BIOFUELS, INC announced that they have acquired Biochar Now, LLC so that they can expand their business in United States and in other parts of the country. This acquisition will help the VEGA to produce better quality product strengthening their position in the market place

    Table Of Contents Is Available Here @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

    Competitive Landscape:

    The Biochar Market report contains an in-depth profiling of the key market players, along with the recent developments (New product launches, partnerships, agreements, collaborations, and joint ventures) and strategies adopted by them to sustain and strengthen their positions in the market.

    Top Players- Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture

    With the help of market insights covered in this Biochar Market document, manufacturer and dealers can find out the best way of reaching the potential customers. Also, the defects in the existing product can be discovered and the required corrective steps to improve the product can be taken. With this report, effectiveness of the existing channels of distribution can be uncovered and the most excellent way of distributing the goods to the ultimate consumers can be identified or implemented. The market insights of this Biochar Market report make the task of planning advertising and sales promotion efforts easy and are also helpful in assessing the effectiveness of advertising programmes.

    Inquire for further detailed information of Biochar Market Report at: https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/inquire-before-buying/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

    Important Questions Answered in Biochar Market Report:-

    What will the market growth rate, overview, and analysis by type of Biochar Market in 2026?

    What are the key factors driving, analysis by applications and countries Biochar Market?

    What are dynamics, this overview includes analysis of scope and price analysis of top vendors profiles of Biochar Market?

    What are opportunities, risk and driving force of Biochar Market?

    Who are the opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in Biochar Market?

    Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe, MEA or Asia Pacific.

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    Latest Trends in Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market 2020, Share, Growth, Types and …

    5 August, 2020
     

    An overview of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers industry for the years 2020 to 2026 has surfaced through a new report. The report begins with basic information about the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers industry and outlines an overview of the market. The report also describes the growth of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market by portraying information such as the main manufacturing technologies and applications used. This information has also been used to segment the market into different segments. In fact, the information displays the maximum market share during the forecast period by 2026.

    Get The Sample Copy https://www.reportsandmarkets.com/sample-request/global-biochar-bonechar-phosphate-fertilizers-market-report-2020-by-key-players-types-applications-countries-market-size-forecast-to-2026-based-on-2020-covid-19-worldwide-spread

    The report is an all-inclusive research study of the global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market taking into account the growth factors, recent trends, developments, opportunities, and competitive landscape. The market analysts and researchers have done extensive analysis of the global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market with the help of research methodologies such as PESTLE and Porter’s Five Forces analysis. They have provided accurate and reliable market data and useful recommendations with an aim to help the players gain an insight into the overall present and future market scenario. The Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers report

    Major Companies Included in Report are–  3R Agrocarbon, Retaj Chemicals Co., Vega Biofuels Inc, Brimac Char Inc., Clean Fuels BV, Fertoz, Earth Systems, Diacarbon Energy Inc, and Agri-Tech Producers

    In addition to the above, information about the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market is based on key players, partners as well as their market revenue in the years 2020 to 2026. This information is inclusive of numbers from global, regional and country-specific players that are currently making the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market fragmented. Market research has also been conducted on the different levels of study that involve trends in the industry as well as profiling of different companies in order to look at market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities. Another focus of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers report is the sale of products, product revenues and product categories that are experiencing the most traction.

    The potential of the market along with different predictive figures for the years 2020 to 2026 has been revealed in the report. Prospects for the market have come from data as well as figures that stem from detailed studies in order to enjoy an overall understanding of the market. The presence of the market giants along with new entrants has made the global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market a highly fragmented one. The market is being joined by new entrants all the time which is making the entire market more competitive. These entrants are making use of many strategic moves such as mergers, acquisitions, collaboration, product launches, innovation and plenty more in order to change the balance of power.

    Market segmentation
    Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market is split by Type and by Application. For the period 2015-2026, the growth among segments provide accurate calculations and forecasts for sales by Type and by Application in terms of volume and value. This analysis can help you expand your business by targeting qualified niche markets.

    What questions does the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market report answer pertaining to the regional reach of the industry?

    What is the growth potential of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market?

    Which regional market will emerge as a frontrunner in coming years?

    Which application segment will grow at a robust rate?

    What are the growth opportunities that may emerge in Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers industry in the years to come?

    What are the key challenges that the global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market may face in future?

    Which are the leading companies in the global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market?

    Which are the key trends positively impacting the market growth?

    Which are the growth strategies considered by the players to sustain hold in the global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market?

    For More Information About this Report @ https://www.reportsandmarkets.com/enquiry/global-biochar-bonechar-phosphate-fertilizers-market-report-2020-by-key-players-types-applications-countries-market-size-forecast-to-2026-based-on-2020-covid-19-worldwide-spread

    Major Points Covered in Table of Contents:
    1 Industry Overview
    2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market
    3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis
    4 Production Analyses of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market by Regions, Technology, and Applications
    5 Sales and Revenue Analysis of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market by Regions
    6 Analyses of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Production, Supply, Sales and Market Status 2015-2026
    7 Analysis of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market industry Key Manufacturers
    8 Price and Gross Mar Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Analysis
    9 Marketing Traders or Distributor Analysis of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market
    10 Development Trend of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market industries 2015-2026
    11 Industry Chain Suppliers of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market with Contact Information
    12 New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market
    13 Conclusion of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers industry 2020 Market Research Report

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    Biochar as bedding?

    5 August, 2020
     


    Plant growth response of broad bean ( Vicia faba L.) to biochar amendment of loamy sand soil …

    5 August, 2020
     

    The broad bean (Vicia faba L.) originated in the Near East, and is cultivated around the world, however, its cultivation is affected by drought stress in several central growing regions of the globe. The present study was designed to determine the effect of biochar on bean plant growth, acquisition of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and on soil nutrient contents under drought and irrigated conditions. Pyrolysis char from maize (MBC) at 2 and 4% concentrations was used for pot experiments. The shoot and/or root biomass of bean grown in soil amended with 2 and 4% MBC under irrigated condition was increased. Furthermore, increased nodule numbers of bean grown at 4% MBC amendment was observed under both irrigated and drought conditions. P and K uptake of plants under drought conditions increased by 14% and 23% under 2% MBC amendment, and by 23% and 34% under 4% MBC amendment as compared to plants grown without biochar application, respectively. This study demonstrated beneficial effects of biochar produced from maize on growth and nutrient uptake of broad bean, by improving the nodule formation and soil nutritional contents in a sandy loam soil.

    Biochar is considered as a tool in climate change mitigation and also used as a soil amendment for improving soil health (Barrow 2012; Ma et al. 2019a). The improvement of plant growth and health in response to biochar application was reported by many studies (Graber et al. 2010; Alburquerque et al. 2015; Egamberdieva et al. 2016, 2019; Ma et al. 2019b). Positive effects were related to improved soil cation exchange capacity, nutrient retention, microbial activity and soil water holding capacity (Kolton et al. 2011; Yu et al. 2013; Soudek et al. 2016). Biochar was also reportedly used for the formulation of bacterial inoculants and provided potential applications in crop production (Egamberdieva et al. 2017). Moreover, Elad et al. (2010) demonstrated an induced systemic resistance in plants to various fungal pathogens after the application of biochar. In another study, however, biochar produced from maize caused root rot disease in lupin grown in loamy sand soil, whereas hydrochar improved plant growth and health (Egamberdieva et al. 2020). The response of soil enzymes to biochar also differ, as studies reported either an increase or a decrease after biochar application (Ameloot et al. 2013; Paz-Ferreiro et al. 2014). It has been stated that biochar effects depend on the technology and on the source of organic feedstock used for biochar production (Gul and Whalen 2016). Moreover, the interaction of biochar with plants and soils under different environmental conditions is another constraint for revealing distinctive effects. Therefore, knowledge on the response of plants to biochar amendment under different soil conditions is essential for resolving the best practices in the use of biochar.

    Legumes are an important food source consumed in daily life and also used for feeding animals (Lüscher et al. 2014). Moreover, they are valuable components in crop rotation, increasing soil nitrogen content. However, drought has been reported as a main issue declining legume growth and yield (Bodner et al. 2015). The broad bean (Vicia faba L.) belongs to the family Fabaceae, originated in Mediterranean countries and Central Asia and cultivated around the world for food and oil production (Ammar et al. 2014). In Germany, faba bean is an almost negligible crop and its acreage was 16,000 hectares (FAO 2005). The cultivation of bean is mostly affected by abiotic stress such as drought in most legume growing regions. The water deficit in many bean cropping regions results in severe yield decline (Mukeshimana et al. 2014). Furthermore, the symbiotic performance of beans is restricted by drought, resulting in decreased nodulation (Loss and Siddique 1997). Thus, the knowledge on the effect of different biochar types and application rates on plant growth and soil nutrient availability provides important guidance for future field applications. The present study was designed to assess the effect of biochar on bean growth, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) acquisition under drought and irrigated soil conditions.

    Seeds of the broad bean (V. faba L. var. Gubbestad) were obtained from the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research e.V. (ZALF) Müncheberg, Germany, and the biochar was from the Leibniz-Institute for Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Germany. The biochar was produced from maize at a pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C for 30 min. The characteristics of maize biochar (MBC) are as follows: carbon (C)—75.1%, nitrogen (N)—1.65%, phosphorus (P)—5.26 and potassium (K)—31.12 (g/kg fresh weight), pH—9.89 and electrical conductivity—3.08 (Reibe et al. 2015). The soil was taken from the experimental field site of ZALF. The soil pH is 6.2, and contains 0.50% C, 0.07% N, 0.03% P, and 1.25% K (Egamberdieva et al. 2019).

    The pots were filled with 800 g of air-dried soil for the plant growth experiments. The crushed biochar (particle size < 3 mm) was added at 2 and 4% concentrations and mixed with soil. The following three treatments were set up; (1) control—soil without MBC, (2) soil amended with 2% MBC and (3) soil amended with 4% MBC. Three seeds were sown in each pot, and after one week, the seedlings were thinned to one plant per pot. Four replicate pots were used for all treatments, and pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design.

    Plants were grown in two different soil conditions, (1) well-watered (80% soil moisture) and (2) under drought (40% soil moisture) in a greenhouse located at ZALF. Plants were irrigated with tap water and the soil moisture levels were monitored using the commercially available UMP-1 BT soil moisture sensor (Umwelt-Geräte-Technik GmbH, Germany) (Egamberdieva et al. 2019). The temperature was maintained at 24 °C/16 °C (day/night) at a humidity of 50–60%. The plants were grown for 30 days, then at harvest the root and shoots were separated, washed and oven-dried. The dry biomass and nodule numbers were determined. The total nitrogen (N) of the plant tissue and soil samples were determined by the dry combustion method (Nelson and Sommers 1982) using an elemental determinator (TruSpec CNS). P and K were analyzed with an inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (iCAP 6300 Duo). Data were tested for statistical significance using the analysis of variance package included in Microsoft Excel 2010. Mean comparisons were conducted using the least significant difference (LSD) test (P = 0.05).

    The root and shoot of bean responded differently to MBC concentrations. The shoot and root biomass of bean under irrigated soil condition were affected by MBC soil amendments at 2 to 4%, being increased by 17 and 11% for shoot and 13 and 37% for root respectively (Fig. 1). The root dry weight of bean was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in soil amended with MBC compared to soil without biochar addition. The root growth was increased by 38% and 28% by MBC amendment at 2% and 4% concentration respectively, when compared to control plants grown in soil without biochar addition (Figs. 1, 2). There are numerous reports on the positive effect of biochar on legume growth and physiological properties. For example, the application of biochar increased the root and shoot dry mass, as well as the number and pods of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (da Silva et al. 2017). Berihun et al. (2017) found increased seed germination, root and shoot growth, number of seeds and grain yield of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) by application of biochar produced from corncob. Notably, both biochar concentrations improved the plant growth, and nodule number of bean under drought conditions. The root biomass of bean was increased significantly by 58 and 68% under 2 and 4% MBC amended soil and drought conditions, respectively (Fig. 1). The positive effect of biochar on plant growth was demonstrated in many other reports (Akhtar et al. 2015), e.g. for sunflower (Paneque et al. 2016), tomato (Agbna et al. 2017) and rapeseed (Bamminger et al. 2016). Moreover, growth increment was explained by improved soil water holding capacity by biochar amendment (Basso et al. 2013).

    Shoot and root growth of broad bean grown in soil amended with maize biochar (MBC, 2% and 4%) under irrigated and drought conditions. Column means with an asterisk are significantly different from the control at P < 0.05

    The effect of 2% maize biochar (MBC) on plant growth of broad bean in loamy sand soil. Plants were grown in soil amended with 2% MBC and in soil without biochar for 30 days

    The nodule numbers of bean were 23.6 and 7.6 in plants grown in soil without biochar under irrigated and drought conditions, while 4% MBC char addition to soil increased nodule numbers to 36.6 and 16.3 per plant, respectively (Fig. 3). There are several explanations discussed on the beneficial effect of biochar on plant nodule formation. The biochar pores where bacteria colonize, play a role in the protection of microbes from various stresses, providing better gas exchange and nutrient supply (Iijima et al. 2015). In another study it was reported that biochar amendment provided favourable conditions for microbial proliferation and survival (Kolton et al. 2011). The nodule number of chickpea grown in soil amended with MBC was also increased, thereby promoting plant growth and nutrient concentrations (Egamberdieva et al. 2019).

    The nodule number of broad bean grown in soil amended with maize biochar (MBC, 2% and 4%) under irrigated and drought conditions. Column means with an asterisk are significantly different from the control at P < 0.05

    The nutrient uptake of beans was also affected by the biochar concentrations under both conditions. The N and K contents of plants were increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 17 and 26% under 2% MBC amended soil and irrigated conditions, respectively. The P concentrations in plant tissue were increased (10%) only in soil amended with 4% MBC. The N uptake of bean was increased in 2% MBC amended soil only. Similar results were reported by Rondon et al. (2007) for bean, showing higher N concentrations in plant tissue grown in biochar-amended soil. Similar observations were also reported by Wang et al. (2018) where plant growth and K uptake in soybean increased in soil amended with bamboo biochar. According to Prendergast-Miller et al. (2011), biochar may contribute to the availablility of N and P for plants through inducing soil biological activity and mineralization (Prendergast-Miller et al. 2011). Biochar derived from willow woodchips improved P uptake of plants compared to non-amended soil (Shen et al. 2016). Higher concentrations of P and K in plant tissues were observed for MBC amended soil under drought conditions, increasing by 14% and 23% under 2% MBC char, and by 23 and 34% under 4%MBC char as compared to plants grown on soil without biochar application, respectively (Table 1). In previous reports, it was indicated that biochar amendment of soils affects the availability of K for plants (Rogovska et al. 2014) and this effect was due to improved soil water holding capacity (Abel et al. 2013; Bruun et al., 2014).

    MBC under drought and irrigated conditions affected the N, P, and K, concentrations in soil (Table 2). Higher concentrations of soil P and K were detected in soil amended with 2 and 4% MBC both under drought and irrigated conditions. Several studies reported that biochar amendment affects the availability of P and K in soil, depending on physicochemical properties of biochar (Joseph et al. 2010; Rogovska et al. 2014; Farrell et al. 2013). In our study, MBC contains high concentrations of K and this could be related to the increased K concentration in soil.

    In this study, we have demonstrated that soil amendment with MBC had a positive effect on plant growth, nodule number, as well as P and K acquisition of broad bean, which was more pronounced under the drought conditions as compared to the irrigated soil. The soil P and K concentrations were also increased by MBC application which supplies additional sources of nutrients for plant nutrition. Our results imply that maize biochar is a promising practical approach to improve growth, nutrient acquisition, and yield of legumes under hostile environments in a sustainable way.

    Open Access funding provided by Projekt DEAL.

    Correspondence to Dilfuza Egamberdieva.

    Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

    Received: 27 April 2020

    Revised: 18 July 2020

    Accepted: 21 July 2020

    Published: 04 August 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42398-020-00116-y


    Global Biochar Market 2020 Trends Analysis and Coronavirus (COVID-19) Effect Analysis | Key …

    6 August, 2020
     

    The global Biochar market is expected to grow USD XX Million by the end of 2026. The Biochar market was valued at USD XX Million in 2019. The market values that are included in the report are from 2016 to 2026. The expected CAGR for the Biochar market during 2021 to 2026 is XX%.

    The Biochar report includes all the minute details about the market dynamics and the new market opportunities that are expected owing to the outbreak of COVID-19. The Biochar market impact is expected to quite significant in the first quarter of the year but there are possibilities that the effect will lessen in the subsequent quarters. Market Data Analytics in its latest report on the Biochar market has tried to cover all the market analysis on the full-year economic growth.

    Click Here To Access The Free Sample PDF Report (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures)https://www.marketdataanalytics.biz/worldwide-biochar-market-report-2020-industry-analysis-size-share-39464.html#request-sample

    Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this Industry.

    As per the analysts, the growth of the Biochar market will have a positive impact on the global platform and will witness a gradual growth in the coming years. This report study incorporates all the market growth and restraining factors along with the significant trends that has been noted over the years 2020 to 2026.

    The Biochar market is segmented into {Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar}; {Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others}. The Biochar market is also segregated based on regions (Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, North America, and the Middle East and Africa).

    The key players that are included in the report are Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels.

    Read Detailed Index of full Research Study at:: https://www.marketdataanalytics.biz/worldwide-biochar-market-report-2020-industry-analysis-size-share-39464.html

    The major sections that are included within the Biochar report are market size and forecast, drivers, limitations, opportunities, challenges, and much more.

    The research and analysis that were conducted for the Biochar market focused on emerging market trends. The research analysts have provided actionable insights for the clients in order to help them to identify market opportunities and accordingly plan and develop effective strategies to optimize their market positions.

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    Some of the key topics covered in the report include:

    1. Biochar Market Drivers
    2. Biochar Market Challenges
    3. Biochar Market Trends
    4. Vendor Landscape
    5. Vendors covered
    6. Vendor classification
    7. Market positioning of vendors
    8. Competitive scenario

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    Synthesis of pyrolyzed biochar and its application for dye removal

    6 August, 2020
     

    The adsorbent was prepared from pyrolyzed rice husk -an agricultural industry waste- efficiently utilized for the removal of dye molecule (malachite green) from a water-based mixture in a bioreactor. The maximum removal of dye by the biochar was about 99.98% with an adsorbent dosage of 0.2 mg L−1 at pH 6.2, 20 mg L−1 dye concentration after 2 hours. In the present research study, adsorption isotherm and equilibrium kinetics on Malachite green dye molecule by pyrolyzed biochar was analyzed. Intraparticle Diffusion Model, Elovich models, pseudo second order, and Pseudo-first order model was utilized for the analysis of adsorption kinetics whereas the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and D-R model was used to describe the equilibrium isotherm. Pseudo second order kinetics best describes the adsorption uptake rate of dye on biochar surface with R2=0.996. Equilibrium isotherm was only worthy fitted by Langmuir Isotherm with R2=0.999. A comparative study between non-linearized and linearized methods of determining the isotherm and kinetic parameters were done. Four different pseudo second order and Langmuir isotherm expressions have been discussed in detail in this paper. The R2 (coefficient of determination) was employed to determine the best-fit expression. It can be concluded from the results, that the non-linearized model is the best fit for both the parameters.


    Tilting batch biochar kiln

    6 August, 2020
     


    Global Biochar Market Analysis Of Global Trends, Demand And Competition 2020-2029

    6 August, 2020
     

    Trusted Business Insights answers what are the scenarios for growth and recovery and whether there will be any lasting structural impact from the unfolding crisis for the Biochar market.

    Trusted Business Insights presents an updated and Latest Study on Biochar Market 2019-2029. The report contains market predictions related to market size, revenue, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factors. While emphasizing the key driving and restraining forces for this market, the report also offers a complete study of the future trends and developments of the market. The report further elaborates on the micro and macroeconomic aspects including the socio-political landscape that is anticipated to shape the demand of the Biochar market during the forecast period (2019-2029).
    It also examines the role of the leading market players involved in the industry including their corporate overview, financial summary, and SWOT analysis.

    Get Sample Copy of this Report @ Biochar Market by Feedstock Type (Woody Biomass, Agricultural Waste, Animal Manure, and Others), by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, and Others), and by Application (Electricity Generation, Agriculture, and Forestry)-Global Industry Analytics, COVID-19 Business Impact, and Trends, 2020“2029

    Abstract

    The report of the biochar market provides a comprehensive glance at the global and regional level. The study provides historical data from 2016 to 2018 along with a forecast from 2019 to 2025 based on revenue (USD Billion) and volume (Kilotons). The study includes major driving forces and restraints of the biochar market along with their impact on the demand over the forecast time period. Furthermore, the study also provides the major avenues of the global biochar market.

    The global biochar market study comprises a detailed value chain analysis for providing a comprehensive market view. Moreover, the study also includes Porters Five Forces model for the biochar market to understand the competitive landscape of the global market. The study includes a market attractiveness analysis of all the market segments.

    The study provides a significant view of the global biochar market by classifying it into feedstock type, technology, application, and region. These segments have been estimated and forecasted in terms of future and past trends. The regional segment includes North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.

    Some major players of the global biochar market are Airex Energy, BSEI, Diacarbon Energy, Pacific Pyrolysis, Phoenix Energy, 3R ENVIRO TECH Group, Biochar Supreme, Cool Planet Energy Systems. Research institutions like the Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Aberystwyth University, University of East Anglia, and Massey University are also engaged in the R&D and production of biochar.

    This report segments the global biochar market into:

    Global Biochar Market: Feedstock Type Analysis

    Woody Biomass
    Agricultural Waste
    Animal Manure
    Others

    Global Biochar Market: Technology Analysis

    Pyrolysis
    Gasification
    Others

    Global Biochar Market: Application Analysis

    Electricity Generation
    Agriculture
    Forestry

    Global Biochar Market: Regional Analysis

    North America

    The U.S.

    Europe

    UK
    France
    Germany

    Asia Pacific

    China
    Japan
    India

    Latin America

    Brazil

    Middle East and Africa

    Quick Read Table of Contents of this Report @ Biochar Market by Feedstock Type (Woody Biomass, Agricultural Waste, Animal Manure, and Others), by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, and Others), and by Application (Electricity Generation, Agriculture, and Forestry)-Global Industry Analytics, COVID-19 Business Impact, and Trends, 2020“2029

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    Biochar Market Seen Strong Growth from 2019 to 2026

    6 August, 2020
     

    Data Bridge Market Research has recently published the Global research Report Titled Biochar Market. The study provides an overview of current statistics and future predictions of the Global Biochar Market. The study highlights a detailed assessment of the Market and displays market sizing trends by revenue & volume (if applicable), current growth factors, expert opinions, facts, and industry-validated market development data.

    Global biochar market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026. Rising consumption of livestock feed and rapidly growing agricultural industry are the major factors for the growth of this market.

    Get Free Sample Report + All Related Graphs & Charts: https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-biochar-market&utm_source=&kunal

    The Global Biochar Market research report assembles data collected from different regulatory organizations to assess the growth of the segments. In addition, the study also appraises the global Biochar market on the basis of topography. It reviews the macro- and microeconomic features influencing the growth of the Biochar Market in each region. Various methodological tools are used to analyze the growth of the worldwide Biochar market.

    Prominent Key Players – Covered in the report: 

    Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture, GreenBack Pte Ltd and others….

    Major Regions as Follows:

    North America (USA, Canada and Mexico)

    Europe (Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Russia , Italy and Rest of Europe)

    Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, India and Southeast Asia)

    South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, rest of countries etc.)

    Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

    A complete value chain of the global Biochar market is presented in the research report. It is associated with the review of the downstream and upstream components of the Biochar Market. The market is bifurcated on the basis of the categories of products and customer application segments. The market analysis demonstrates the expansion of each segment of the global Biochar market. The research report assists the user in taking a decisive step that will be a milestone in developing and expanding their businesses in the global Biochar market.

    Get Table Of Contents of This Premium Research For Free: https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-biochar-market&utm_source=&kunal

    How Does This Market Insights Help?

    Key Pointers Covered in the Biochar Market Industry Trends and Forecast to 2026

    Reasons to Purchase this Report

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Part 01: Executive Summary

    Part 02: Scope of the Report

    Part 03: Research Methodology

    Part 04: Market Landscape

    Part 05: Pipeline Analysis

    Pipeline Analysis

    Part 06: Market Sizing

    Market Definition

    Market Sizing

    Market Size And Forecast

    Part 07: Five Forces Analysis

    Bargaining Power Of Buyers

    Bargaining Power Of Suppliers

    Threat Of New Entrants

    Threat Of Substitutes

    Threat Of Rivalry

    Market Condition

    Part 08: Market Segmentation

    Segmentation

    Comparison

    Market Opportunity

    Part 09: Customer Landscape

    Part 10: Regional Landscape

    Part 11: Decision Framework

    Part 12: Drivers and Challenges

    Market Drivers

    Market Challenges

    Part 13: Market Trends

    Part 14: Vendor Landscape

    Part 15: Vendor Analysis

    Vendors Covered

    Vendor Classification

    Market Positioning Of Vendors

    Part 16: Appendix

    In conclusion, the Biochar Market report is a reliable source for accessing the research data that is projected to exponentially accelerate your business. The report provides information such as economic scenarios, benefits, limits, trends, market growth rates, and figures. SWOT analysis is also incorporated in the report along with speculation attainability investigation and venture return investigation.

    Get Enquiry About This Comprehensive Report: https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/inquire-before-buying/?dbmr=global-biochar-market&utm_source=&kunal

    Customization of the Report:

    Data Bridge Market Research also provides customization options to tailor the reports as per client requirements. This report can be personalized to cater to your research needs. Feel free to get in touch with our sales team, who will ensure that you get a report as per your needs.

    About Us:

    Data Bridge Market Research set forth itself as an unconventional and neoteric Market research and consulting firm with an unparalleled level of resilience and integrated approaches. We are determined to unearth the best market opportunities and foster efficient information for your business to thrive in the market. Data Bridge Market Research provides appropriate solutions to complex business challenges and initiates an effortless decision-making process.

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    procedure for grinding biochar for nano analysis

    6 August, 2020
     

    authors: basak b, saha s, chatterjee pk, ganguly a, woong chang s, jeon bh abstract biological pretreatment of polysaccharidic wastes (pws) is a cost effective and environmentally friendly approach to improve the digestibility and utilization of these valuable

    (چکیده) 247 ni–cr matrix composites reinforced with nano and micron sized surface modified zirconia: synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties (چکیده) 248 zinc oxide nanofluids: the influence of modality combinations on prostate cancer du145 cells (چکیده) 249

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    موارد یافت شده: 28880 1 of amino acids, organic solvents and surfactants on azo hydrazone tautomerism in methyl red: spectral luminescent and nonlinear optical properties (چکیده) 2 reinforcement of epoxy composites: alignment of multi walled carbon nanotubes in two directions (چکیده) 3 some new approaches on prime and composite order cayley

    analysis of decoupling economic growth from material and energy use for several eu countries; analysis of dynamical and chemical processes which form athmospheric composition over bulgaria; analysis of the selected properties of the surface layer of aluminum alloy 2024 after laser beam impact in the environmental context

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    based on analysis of several global and regional land surface air temperature (lsat) datasets, ar5 concluded that the global lsat had increased over the instrumental period of record, with the warming rate approximately double that reported over the oceans since 1979 and that ‘it is certain that globally averaged lsat has risen since the

    biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil. science of the total environment 556, 89 97 . wang j., xiong z., kuzyakov y. 2016.

    to the extent that some of the steps along these paths involve advanced technologies and elaborate methods of analysis or simulation, there is a definite risk of drift, i.e., to focus excessively on tools, perfect them, and progressively forget over time the reason for doing all this work in the first place, as one could argue has unfortunately

    موارد یافت شده: 28880 1 of amino acids, organic solvents and surfactants on azo hydrazone tautomerism in methyl red: spectral luminescent and nonlinear optical properties (چکیده) 2 reinforcement of epoxy composites: alignment of multi walled carbon nanotubes in two directions (چکیده) 3 some new approaches on prime and composite order cayley

    siam journal on scientific computing 40:3, a1936 a1960. abstract pdf (422 kb) (2018) an experimental and theoretical analysis of a foil air bearing rotor system.

    in this study, secondary effluent from the wulongkou (wlk) municipal wastewater plant (zhengzhou, china) was tested for its toxicity effects before and after five advanced treatment processes (atps, i.e. coagulation sedimentation, nan da magnetic polyacrylic anion exchange resin (ndmp) resin adsorption, activated carbon adsorption, ozonation and electro adsorption).

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    these questions can be targeted via gas phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (gemma) based on a nano electrospray (nes) charge reduction source. this instrument separates single charged nanoparticles in the gas phase according to size in a high laminar sheath flow by means of an orthogonal, tunable electric field. nes gemma

    biochar amendment for batch composting of nitrogen rich organic waste: effect on degradation kinetics, composting physics and nutritional properties. bioresource technology 253, 204 213. jain, m.s., kalamdhad, a.s., 2018. composting physics: a degradation process determining tool

    biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil. science of the total environment 556, 89 97 . wang j., xiong z., kuzyakov y. 2016.

    analysis of decoupling economic growth from material and energy use for several eu countries; analysis of dynamical and chemical processes which form athmospheric composition over bulgaria; analysis of the selected properties of the surface layer of aluminum alloy 2024 after laser beam impact in the environmental context

    analysis of decoupling economic growth from material and energy use for several eu countries; analysis of dynamical and chemical processes which form athmospheric composition over bulgaria; analysis of the selected properties of the surface layer of aluminum alloy 2024 after laser beam impact in the environmental context

    analysis of static and dynamic factors of the gravitational flow sewer pipe in dried in an oven at 103℃ for minimum of 8hrs before grinding. the finely ground leaf domain:a flexible modelling procedure for mapping potential distributions of plants and animals. biodiversity conservation, 6(2), pp.67–80. craven, l.a., 1999. behind the

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    موارد یافت شده: 28880 1 of amino acids, organic solvents and surfactants on azo hydrazone tautomerism in methyl red: spectral luminescent and nonlinear optical properties (چکیده) 2 reinforcement of epoxy composites: alignment of multi walled carbon nanotubes in two directions (چکیده) 3 some new approaches on prime and composite order cayley

    authors: basak b, saha s, chatterjee pk, ganguly a, woong chang s, jeon bh abstract biological pretreatment of polysaccharidic wastes (pws) is a cost effective and environmentally friendly approach to improve the digestibility and utilization of these valuable

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    Redox-active biochar and conductive graphite stimulate methanogenic metabolism in anaerobic …

    6 August, 2020
     

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    Due to Covid19, Biochar Market Sucks, But Will Recover, Concludes Fact.MR

    6 August, 2020
     

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    Report provides estimations of the size of the global market and share and size of key regional markets during the historical period.

    Fact.MR, in its latest business intelligence study, depicts the nuts and bolts of the global Biochar market. The Biochar report presents detailed information regarding the drivers, restraints, opportunities and trends affecting market growth. Each segment along with its sub-segment is analyzed in terms of value and volume. Further, the Biochar report elaborates the market behavior of each vendor operating in the Biochar market. The report suggests that the global Hydrothermal Carbonization Biochar market is expected to witness a considerable CAGR growth of 14% during the forecast period and surpass the value of ~US$ by 2029.

    The report provides a Y-o-Y growth trend analysis and the current and future market volume projections (Units) for the assessment period. The impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Biochar market is assessed in the report along with valuable insights pertaining to how market participants are adapting to the current situation.

    Request for Sample Report @ https://www.factmr.com/connectus/sample?flag=S&rep_id=3781

    Key findings of the Biochar market study:

    On the basis of product Technology, the Biochar market study consists of:

    Pyrolysis
    Gasification
    Hydrothermal Carbonization

    On the basis of end use Application, the Biochar market study incorporates:

    Farming
    Livestock Farming
    Electricity Generation
    Others

    Key players analyzed in the Biochar market study:

    Biochar Now LLC
    Terra Char
    Carbon Gold Ltd.
    Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation
    Full Circle Biochar
    Diacarbon Energy Inc.
    Biochar Supreme LLC

    On the basis of region, the Biochar market study contains:

    Queries addressed in the Biochar market report:

    Have any Query? Ask Our Expert @ https://www.factmr.com/connectus/sample?flag=AE&rep_id=3781

    Why choose Fact.MR?

    Reports published by Fact.MR are a result of the combination of our experts and digital technologies. We thrive to provide innovative business solutions to the clients as well as tailor the reports aligning with the clients’ requisites. Our analysts perform comprehensive research to offer ins and outs of the current market situation. Clients across various time zones tend to utilize our 24/7 service availability.

    Contact:

    Unit No: AU-01-H Gold Tower (AU), Plot No: JLT-PH1-I3A,

    Jumeirah Lakes Towers, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

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    Questions, feedback or anything you would like to get off your chest, feel free to contact us.


    Due to Covid19, Biochar Market Sucks, But Will Recover, Concludes Fact.MR

    6 August, 2020
     

    Fact.MR, in its latest business intelligence study, depicts the nuts and bolts of the global Biochar market. The Biochar report presents detailed information regarding the drivers, restraints, opportunities and trends affecting market growth. Each segment along with its sub-segment is analyzed in terms of value and volume. Further, the Biochar report elaborates the market behavior of each vendor operating in the Biochar market. The report suggests that the global Hydrothermal Carbonization Biochar market is expected to witness a considerable CAGR growth of 14% during the forecast period and surpass the value of ~US$ by 2029.

    The report provides a Y-o-Y growth trend analysis and the current and future market volume projections (Units) for the assessment period. The impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Biochar market is assessed in the report along with valuable insights pertaining to how market participants are adapting to the current situation.

    Request for Sample Report @ https://www.factmr.com/connectus/sample?flag=S&rep_id=3781

    Key findings of the Biochar market study:

    On the basis of product Technology, the Biochar market study consists of:

    Pyrolysis
    Gasification
    Hydrothermal Carbonization

    On the basis of end use Application, the Biochar market study incorporates:

    Farming
    Livestock Farming
    Electricity Generation
    Others

    Key players analyzed in the Biochar market study:

    Biochar Now LLC
    Terra Char
    Carbon Gold Ltd.
    Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation
    Full Circle Biochar
    Diacarbon Energy Inc.
    Biochar Supreme LLC

    On the basis of region, the Biochar market study contains:

    Queries addressed in the Biochar market report:

    Have any Query? Ask Our Expert @ https://www.factmr.com/connectus/sample?flag=AE&rep_id=3781

    Why choose Fact.MR?

    Reports published by Fact.MR are a result of the combination of our experts and digital technologies. We thrive to provide innovative business solutions to the clients as well as tailor the reports aligning with the clients’ requisites. Our analysts perform comprehensive research to offer ins and outs of the current market situation. Clients across various time zones tend to utilize our 24/7 service availability.

    Contact:

    Unit No: AU-01-H Gold Tower (AU), Plot No: JLT-PH1-I3A,

    Jumeirah Lakes Towers, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    MARKET ACCESS DMCC Initiative

    Email: sales@factmr.com

    Web: https://www.factmr.com/


    Efficient removal of Pb(II) through recycled biochar-mineral composite from the coagulation sludge …

    6 August, 2020
     

    Recycled BMC adsorbent derived from a swine wastewater enhanced coagulation unit.

    Pb(II) removal via ion exchange, electrostatic interaction, & physical adsorption.

    Pseudo-second-order kinetic adsorption model fit kinetic adsorption process of BMC.

    Increased Na+ concentration weakened Pb(II) adsorption by BMC.

    Recycled BMC adsorbent derived from a swine wastewater enhanced coagulation unit.

    Pb(II) removal via ion exchange, electrostatic interaction, & physical adsorption.

    Pseudo-second-order kinetic adsorption model fit kinetic adsorption process of BMC.

    Increased Na+ concentration weakened Pb(II) adsorption by BMC.

    Zeolite-Mg/Fe chloride dual enhanced coagulation is a cost-effective method for advanced treatment of swine wastewater, but the sludge generated after the enhanced coagulation remains to be a problem. In this study, the precipitate from a swine wastewater coagulation unit was regenerated by pyrolysis treatment in an O2-limited environment to develop a high efficient adsorbent (biochar-mineral composite, BMC) for the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater. SEM images indicate that complex Mg/Fe oxides and sludge biochar gathered around zeolite particles. Effects of different influencing factors such as Pb(II) initial concentration, pH, adsorption time and ion concentration on the adsorption performance were investigated. The results show that the Langmuir isotherm model can better express the adsorption of Pb(II) on BMC than Freundlich model and Temkin model. BMC pyrolyzed at 500°C showed the maximum adsorption capacity of 450.58 mg/g under experimental condition of 25°C, 100 mg/L Pb(II) initial concentration and the initial pH of 5.6. The adsorption mechanisms on BMC mainly include ion exchange, electrostatic interaction. Therefore, it is a cost-effective and environmental-friendly strategy to obtain biochar-mineral composite from recycled sludge, which can efficiently remove Pb(II) from wastewater.


    Biochar Market Size To Reach USD 3.23 Billion by 2026

    6 August, 2020
     

    New York, NY 6 August 2020 :The global biochar market is estimated to reach USD 3.23 billion by 2026 growing at a CAGR of 9.1% during the forecast period, according to a new study published by Polaris Market Research. The report ‘Biochar Market Share, Size, Trends, & Industry Analysis Report, [By Technology (Gasification, Pyrolysis, Others), By Application (Agriculture {Livestock Farming, General Farming (Organic Farming, Inorganic Farming, Others)} Others), By Regions Segment Forecast, 2019 – 2026’ provides an extensive analysis of present market dynamics and predicted future trends. In 2018, pyrolysis technology segment dominated the market, in terms of revenue. In 2018, North America accounted for the majority share in the global market.

    Biochar, a carbon rich product or a pyrogenic black carbon that has been attracting significant attention in both academic and political arenas. Much of the product’s attention is owing to its potential to mitigate the climate change, offer food security along with offering a solution for organic waste management.

    Product application to soils has been gaining immense interest worldwide, owing to its potential to enhance soil capacity of nutrient retention and soil’s water holding capacity. Moreover, this also helps in sustainable storage of carbon thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Request for a sample of this research report @https://www.polarismarketresearch.com/industry-analysis/biochar-market/request-for-sample

    However, commercialization of biochar as a soil additive is yet to achieve its full potential among its primary users, the farmers. To make this happen, the industry participants manufacturing biochar are focused on arranging several programs in different geographical marketspaces to explicitly educate farmers.

    Farming methods including mixing the product with seeds and fertilizers, uniform mixing with soil, applying through no till systems deep banding of soil with plow, hoeing into ground, top-dressed, applying char and compost on raised beds. However, the type of application of biochar to soil depends on farming system, labor and available machinery. These types of methods are promoted and increasing use of such methods among farmers will boost product application and henceforth its overall demand.

    Biochar retains its potential to control/mitigate climate change owing to its inherent fixed carbon in the raw biomass, which would otherwise degrade to the greenhouse gases and sequestered within the soil for years. The product acts as tool for soil amendment owing to its beneficial impact on cation exchange that leads to higher water holding capacity and greater soil pH, and an affinity for macro and micro plant nutrients.

    Although biochar applications have been increasing owing to its great agricultural and environmental contributions, there are also controversial restraining factors of the product. Cutting of timber, a major feedstock of biochar is the primary concern which might lead to complete deforestation and eventually threaten the food security. As this could compromise on the amount of rainfall useful for agriculture. Hence, to avoid this industry participants and government organizations are focused on producing it from saw dust, waste wood, rice husk, rice straw, empty bunches of fruit etc.

    The physical and chemical properties of the product add to another layer of complexity to the interactions between soil and food web. This happens as it alters the availability of mineral nutrients, soluble organic matter, soil aggregation, pH and even the effects of the extracellular enzymes. Hence, the product has an important role to affect the diversity, abundance and also circulation of related microbial communities. The environmental factors that most strongly influence the bacterial abundance, its activity and diversity are temperature, moisture and the pH, and all of these are enhanced by biochar presence in soil. But, optimal and efficient use of the product will help mitigate climate and enhance agricultural soil productivity.

    The global biochar market is a moderately growing sector and numerous companies participate in the marketspace from different phase of the industry value chain. Some of the leading participants include BlackCarbon A/S , Biochar Industries, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Carbon Terra GmbH, Biochar Ireland, Sunriver Biochar, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Waste to Energy Solutions Inc., Airex Energy, Carbon Gold, Clean Fuels B.V., 3R ENVIRO TECH Group, Earth Systems PTY. LTD., ArSta Eco, Pacific Pyrolysis, Biochar Supreme, LLC, Phoenix Energy, The Biochar Company, Vega Biofuels, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Biochar Products, Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc., and Agri-Tech Producers, LLC.

    Polaris Market Research has segmented the global Biochar market on the basis of technology, application and region:

    Biochar Technology Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion, 2015 – 2026)

    Biochar Application Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion, 2015 – 2026)

    Get Exclusive Discount on This Report @https://www.polarismarketresearch.com/industry-analysis/biochar-market/request-for-discount-pricing

    About Polaris Market Research

    Polaris Market Research is a global market research and consulting company. The company specializes in providing exceptional market intelligence and in-depth business research services for our clientele spread across different enterprises. We at Polaris are obliged to serve our diverse customer base present across the industries of healthcare, technology, semi-conductors and chemicals among various other industries present around the world.

    Contact us

    Polaris Market Research

    Phone: 1-646-568-9980

    Email: [email protected]

    Web: www.polarismarketresearch.com

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    Co-Inoculation of Rhizobacteria and Biochar Application Improves Growth and Nutrientsin …

    6 August, 2020
     

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    Granular Biochar Market Expansion to Be Persistent During 2019-2025

    6 August, 2020
     

    The ‘Granular Biochar Market’ research report added by Market Study Report, LLC, provides a succinct analysis on the recent market trends. In addition, the report offers a thorough abstract on the statistics, market estimates and revenue forecasts, which further highlights its position in the industry, in tandem with the growth strategies adopted by leading industry players.

    The Granular Biochar market study is a well-researched report encompassing a detailed analysis of this industry with respect to certain parameters such as the product capacity as well as the overall market remuneration. The report enumerates details about production and consumption patterns in the business as well, in addition to the current scenario of the Granular Biochar market and the trends that will prevail in this industry.

    Get PDF Sample Copy of this Report to understand the structure of the complete report: (Including Full TOC, List of Tables & Figures, Chart) @ https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2718806&source=atm

    What pointers are covered in the Granular Biochar market research study?

    The Granular Biochar market report — Elucidated with regards to the regional landscape of the industry:

    The geographical reach of the Granular Biochar market has been meticulously segmented into United States, China, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia & India, according to the report.

    The research enumerates the consumption market share of every region in minute detail, in conjunction with the production market share and revenue.

    Also, the report is inclusive of the growth rate that each region is projected to register over the estimated period.

    The Granular Biochar market report — Elucidated with regards to the competitive landscape of the industry:

    Segment by Type, the Granular Biochar market is segmented into
    Wood Source Biochar
    Corn Source Biochar
    Wheat Source Biochar
    Others

    Segment by Application, the Granular Biochar market is segmented into
    Soil Conditioner
    Fertilizer
    Others

    Regional and Country-level Analysis
    The Granular Biochar market is analysed and market size information is provided by regions (countries).
    The key regions covered in the Granular Biochar market report are North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa. It also covers key regions (countries), viz, U.S., Canada, Germany, France, U.K., Italy, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Brazil, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, etc.
    The report includes country-wise and region-wise market size for the period 2015-2026. It also includes market size and forecast by Type, and by Application segment in terms of sales and revenue for the period 2015-2026.
    Competitive Landscape and Granular Biochar Market Share Analysis
    Granular Biochar market competitive landscape provides details and data information by players. The report offers comprehensive analysis and accurate statistics on revenue by the player for the period 2015-2020. It also offers detailed analysis supported by reliable statistics on revenue (global and regional level) by players for the period 2015-2020. Details included are company description, major business, company total revenue and the sales, revenue generated in Granular Biochar business, the date to enter into the Granular Biochar market, Granular Biochar product introduction, recent developments, etc.

    The major vendors covered:
    Diacarbon Energy
    Agri-Tech Producers
    Biochar Now
    Carbon Gold
    Kina
    The Biochar Company
    Swiss Biochar GmbH
    ElementC6
    BioChar Products
    BlackCarbon
    Cool Planet
    Carbon Terra

    You can Buy This Report from Here @ https://www.researchmoz.com/checkout?rep_id=2718806&licType=S&source=atm 

    Exclusive details pertaining to the contribution that every firm has made to the industry have been outlined in the study. Not to mention, a brief gist of the company description has been provided as well.

    Substantial information subject to the production patterns of each firm and the area that is catered to, has been elucidated.

    The valuation that each company holds, in tandem with the description as well as substantial specifications of the manufactured products have been enumerated in the study as well.

    The Granular Biochar market research study conscientiously mentions a separate section that enumerates details with regards to major parameters like the price fads of key raw material and industrial chain analysis, not to mention, details about the suppliers of the raw material. That said, it is pivotal to mention that the Granular Biochar market report also expounds an analysis of the industry distribution chain, further advancing on aspects such as important distributors and the customer pool.

    The ‘Granular Biochar market’ report enumerates information about the industry in terms of market share, market size, revenue forecasts, and regional outlook. The report further illustrates competitive insights of key players in the business vertical followed by an overview of their diverse portfolios and growth strategies.

    Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [email protected] https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2718806&source=atm 

    Some of the Major Highlights of TOC covers:


    Applications of Biochar

    6 August, 2020
     

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    Co-Inoculation of Rhizobacteria and Biochar Application Improves Growth and Nutrientsin …

    6 August, 2020
     

    Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website.

    Please let us know what you think of our products and services.

    Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI.

    Graphical abstract

    Jabborova, D.; Wirth, S.; Kannepalli, A.; Narimanov, A.; Desouky, S.; Davranov, K.; Sayyed, R.Z.; El Enshasy, H.; Malek, R.A.; Syed, A.; Bahkali, A.H. Co-Inoculation of Rhizobacteria and Biochar Application Improves Growth and Nutrientsin Soybean and Enriches Soil Nutrients and Enzymes. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1142.

    Jabborova D, Wirth S, Kannepalli A, Narimanov A, Desouky S, Davranov K, Sayyed RZ, El Enshasy H, Malek RA, Syed A, Bahkali AH. Co-Inoculation of Rhizobacteria and Biochar Application Improves Growth and Nutrientsin Soybean and Enriches Soil Nutrients and Enzymes. Agronomy. 2020; 10(8):1142.

    Jabborova, Dilfuza; Wirth, Stephan; Kannepalli, Annapurna; Narimanov, Abdujalil; Desouky, Said; Davranov, Kakhramon; Sayyed, R. Z.; El Enshasy, Hesham; Malek, Roslinda A.; Syed, Asad; Bahkali, Ali H. 2020. “Co-Inoculation of Rhizobacteria and Biochar Application Improves Growth and Nutrientsin Soybean and Enriches Soil Nutrients and Enzymes.” Agronomy 10, no. 8: 1142.

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    Watering techniques and zero-valent iron biochar pH effects on As and Cd concentrations in rice …

    6 August, 2020
     

    Brown rice Cd and yield was highly dependent on amendment's pH and watering amount.

    Both ZVIB 6.3 and 9.7 amendments reduced >50% grain As in all watering treatments.

    ZVIB 6.3 with 3/72 watering reduced grain As and Cd by increasing grain yield efficiently.

    ZVIB 9.7 could reduce grain As and Cd, but proper watering is required for expected grain yield.

    Brown rice Cd and yield was highly dependent on amendment's pH and watering amount.

    Both ZVIB 6.3 and 9.7 amendments reduced >50% grain As in all watering treatments.

    ZVIB 6.3 with 3/72 watering reduced grain As and Cd by increasing grain yield efficiently.

    ZVIB 9.7 could reduce grain As and Cd, but proper watering is required for expected grain yield.

    Zero-valent iron amended biochar (ZVIB) has been proposed as a promising material in immobilizing heavy metals in paddy fields. In this study, the impacts of pH of ZVIB (pH 6.3 and pH 9.7) and watering management techniques (watering amount in the order of CON (control, 5/72)>3/72>1–3/72>3/100>1/72, with 5/72, for example, representing irrigation given to 5 cm above soil surface in 72 hr regular interval) on As and Cd bioavailability for rice and its grain yield (YieldBR) were investigated in a pot experiment. Brown rice As (AsBR) content was irrelative to the watering treatments, while significantly decreased (>50%) with the addition of both ZVIB materials. The diminutions of brown rice Cd (CdBR) content as well as the YieldBR were highly dependent on both the soil amendment materials’ pH and watering amount. Among all the watering treatments, 3/72 treatment (15% less irrigation water than the CON) with ZVIB 6.3 amendment was the optimum fit for simultaneous reduction of AsBR (50%) and CdBR contents (19%) as well as for significant increment (12%) of the YieldBR. Although high pH (9.7) ZVIB application could also efficiently decrease As and Cd contents in brown rice, it might risk grain yield lost if appropriate (e.g. 3/72 in our study) watering management technique was not chosen. Therefore, ZVIB would be an environmentally friendly option as an amendment material with proper selection of watering management technique to utilize As and Cd co-contaminated arable soils safely for paddy cultivation.


    Activation of grapefruit derived biochar by its peel extracts and its performance for tetracycline …

    6 August, 2020
     

    A novel adsorbent derived from grapefruit peel (GP) based biochar (GPBC) was synthesized by combined carbonization of GP and subsequent activation by GP extracts. Compared to biochar without extracts activation, the technique granted GPBC-20 (with 1:20 of solid-solution ratio) more abundant surface functional groups, which exerts the adsorbent superior performance for tetracycline (TC) adsorption (37.92 mg/g v.s. 16.64 mg/g). The adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics models were further used to evaluate the adsorption behavior of GPBC. The enhanced adsorption was analyzed by characterization of fresh and used GPBC, revealing that the adsorption mechanism was comprised of pore filling, charge interaction and chemical bonding. The comprehensive investigation of using agricultural waste extracts as activator to prepare its raw materials-based adsorbents may be of great significance for enhanced resource utilization.

     


    Book of the Week: The Modern Grower's Guide to Terra Preta

    7 August, 2020
     

    Welcome to Book of the Week – a weekly feature of an Acres U.S.A. published title offering you a glimpse between the pages! Get the Book of the Week email newsletter delivered directly to your inbox!

    This week’s Book of the Week feature is The Modern Grower’s Guide to Terra Pretaby Caroline Pfützner.

    Add The Modern Grower’s Guide to Terra Preta to my cart

    This chapter discusses the ingredients you can use to make terra preta.
    The most important element is biochar, which, together with rock dust and effective microorganisms, produces 
    the ideal mixture for rich soil life and strong plant growth. How these substances work—and how they interact with each other—will be the subject of the following pages.

    Biochar is the central component of terra preta. It contributes to stable humus formation like no other soil additive can. Thanks to its diverse characteristics, however, its effects go well beyond soil creation. From environmental protection and wastewater treatment to agriculture and animal health, it is employed in countless ways. Biochar’s effectiveness is greatly dependent on how it is produced.

    Biochar is the result of the incomplete burning of biomass at high temperatures with limited or no access to oxygen. Complete burning simply produces ashes. This charring process is referred to as pyrolysis, or carbonization. At the beginning of the pyrolysis process, residual moisture evaporates as temperature increases. Volatile components (gases) are then released. As these gases burn, the initial biomaterial carbonizes, resulting in a product that is mostly just carbon. If the pyrolysis is not stopped at this point, the charcoal will continue to burn into ash.

    During this process, a portion of the emitted gases form PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and dioxins—two groups of substances that are extremely damaging to our health.

    When producing charcoal for use in the soil or for other agricultural purposes, pyrolysis needs to be steered in a way that causes these pollutants to fully burn off into steam and CO2. Charcoal prepared in this way is called biochar, both in order to differentiate it from the charcoal used for grilling, which often contains damaging substances, and to emphasize the fact that it can be made not only from wood but from practically any organic material.

    Up until well into the nineteenth century, Europeans produced the charcoal they needed for iron and steel manufacturing in large charcoal piles. The piles were created by stacking layers of logs in the general shape of a cone near a water source, which was used to extinguish the finished charcoal. The cones were covered with light material like foliage, hay, grass, or moss. They were then sealed on all sides with soil or clay such that they were airtight up to a layer in the middle. Depending on the size of the pile, the carbonization process would take days or weeks, and it had to be constantly monitored and its airflow precisely regulated so that it would char but not burn. There was no way in those days to make use of the resulting heat, and the quality of the charcoal that was produced would not meet modern standards.

    Today, large quantities of high-grade biochar are produced industrially. Factories use either a continuous process, in which biomass is constantly fed in and carbonized, or a batch process, in which production takes place in sealed containers whose contents are replaced each time the pyrolysis process finishes. Wood gasifiers, whose primary function is energy production, also produce a small amount of low-contaminant biochar as a by-product.

    The major advantages of industrial biochar production are the largely autonomous nature of the pyrolysis process and the fact that we have ways to utilize the excess heat it produces. Industrial producers also generally adhere closely to the maximum recommended limits for PAHs, heavy metals, and other pollutants. Many of them have the European Biochar Certificate (EBC) to prove it.

    Regular people can make equally high-quality biochar, though, as long as certain conditions are observed (page 108). A completely different method of bio- char production is hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). However, there is not yet any suitable way to use the material  it produces in the soil (see page 169 of the appendix).

    Due to its enormous surface area, biochar has a very high storage capacity for water and nutrients, and it can also bind to (adsorb) contaminants of all sorts. The temperatures that occur during pyrolysis play a big role in this.

    At temperatures under 450°C, biochar rarely has a surface area
    of more than 150 m
    2/g; above 600°C, though, its surface area usually increases to more than 300 m2/g, which is the desirable level for both biochar and feed biochar (page 151).

    The higher the temperature, the more water the biochar will later be able to store in its pores, and thus the larger the number of micro- organisms that will be able to populate them. An increase in temperature also increases the proportion of long-lasting stable carbon in the biochar as well as its pH value: at temperatures above 500°C, the pH will be 10 to 12—in the strongly basic part of the spectrum.

    Similarly, at high temperatures, biochar’s cation exchange capacity also increases (CEC, page 24), as does its adsorption capacity: the ability to bind to other materials—primarily nutrients, but also drug residues, dioxins, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), heavy metals, and pesticides.

    The toxic PAHs resulting from pyrolysis reliably burn away at temperatures above 600°C; even 400°C is sufficient if the material is exposed to such temperatures for at least an hour.

    Maximum biochar yields are achieved at temperatures around 450°C. Production gradually decreases as temperature continues to increase, although the proportion of long-lasting, stable carbon continues to increase.

    Learn more about The Modern Grower’s Guide to Terra Preta here

    Add The Modern Grower’s Guide to Terra Preta to my cart

    Caroline Pfützner is a passionate hobby gardener with many years of terra preta experience. As a young entrepreneur at TerraTirol KG, which has been producing high-quality soil using the Terra Preta method since 2014, she was awarded the Tyrolean Regional Environment Prize in 2016. She passes on her practical knowledge in numerous workshops and lectures. 

    Secrets of Fertile Soil, by Erhard Hennig

    Humusphere, by Herwig Pommeresche

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    Catalytic ozonation oxidation of ketoprofen by peanut shell-based biochar

    7 August, 2020
     

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    What do you mean by Biochar? How it helps the environment?

    7 August, 2020
     

    What do you mean by Biochar? How it helps the environment?

    Biochar is a long term method to store carbon. To increase plants ability to store more carbon, plants are partly burnt such as crop waste, waste woods to become carbon rich slow decomposing substances of material called Biochar. It is a kind of charcoal used as a soil amendment. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. (Heating biomas in low oxygen environment) which arrests wood from complete burning.

    Biochar thus has the potential to help mitigate climate change via carbon sequestration. Independently, biochar when added to soil can increase soil fertility of acidic soils, increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil borne diseases. It is a good method of preventing waste woods and logs getting decayed instead we can convert them into biochar thus converting them to carbon storage material.

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    Impact of application of Trichoderma and biochar on growth, productivity and nutritional quality of …

    7 August, 2020
     

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    Biochar Market See Huge Growth by 2026 | Top Players- Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit …

    7 August, 2020
     

    The Biochar Market report makes to focus on the important aspects of the market such as recent market trends and market conditions. Moreover, the report also contains all the information including market definition, classifications, key developments, applications, and engagements while detailing about the actions of key players with respect to product launches, joint ventures, developments, mergers and acquisitions and effects of the same in terms of sales, import, export, revenue and CAGR values. This industry analysis report speaks in detail about the manufacturing process, type and applications. The Biochar Market analysis report consists of drivers and restraints for the market which are obtained with the help of SWOT analysis, along with their impact on the demand over the forecast period

    Global biochar market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026. Rising consumption of livestock feed and rapidly growing agricultural industry are the major factors for the growth of this market.

    Click to get Global Biochar Market Research Sample PDF Copy Here https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

    Biochar is usually formed when biomass like wood leaves or manure are heated or burned in the presence of oxygen. They are usually formed by a process called pyrolysis and are widely used to improve the quality of the soil and mitigate climate change. Biochar have the ability to convert carbon into stable form and is cleaner than the other form of charcoal. They are widely used in applications like gardening, agriculture, electricity generation etc. Increasing demand of biochar in greenhouse gas remediation is the major factor fuelling the growth of this market.

    Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

    Global Biochar Market By Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Microwave Pyrolysis, Cookstove and Others)

    Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household, Electricity Generation)

    Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Animal Manure, Forestry Waste, Biomass Plantation)

    Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa)

    Key Developments in the Market:

    In April 2016, ICEM announced the launch of their Interactive GMS Biochar and Soil Mapping Tool. This GMS has the ability to identify the regions which is highly suitable for the production of the biochar. This also have the feature to zoom into the areas for a more deeper view

    In April 2014, VEGA BIOFUELS, INC announced that they have acquired Biochar Now, LLC so that they can expand their business in United States and in other parts of the country. This acquisition will help the VEGA to produce better quality product strengthening their position in the market place

    Table Of Contents Is Available Here @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

    Competitive Landscape:

    The Biochar Market report contains an in-depth profiling of the key market players, along with the recent developments (New product launches, partnerships, agreements, collaborations, and joint ventures) and strategies adopted by them to sustain and strengthen their positions in the market.

    Top Players- Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture

    With the help of market insights covered in this Biochar Market document, manufacturer and dealers can find out the best way of reaching the potential customers. Also, the defects in the existing product can be discovered and the required corrective steps to improve the product can be taken. With this report, effectiveness of the existing channels of distribution can be uncovered and the most excellent way of distributing the goods to the ultimate consumers can be identified or implemented. The market insights of this Biochar Market report make the task of planning advertising and sales promotion efforts easy and are also helpful in assessing the effectiveness of advertising programmes.

    Inquire for further detailed information of Biochar Market Report at: https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/inquire-before-buying/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

    Important Questions Answered in Biochar Market Report:-

    What will the market growth rate, overview, and analysis by type of Biochar Market in 2026?

    What are the key factors driving, analysis by applications and countries Biochar Market?

    What are dynamics, this overview includes analysis of scope and price analysis of top vendors profiles of Biochar Market?

    What are opportunities, risk and driving force of Biochar Market?

    Who are the opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in Biochar Market?

    Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe, MEA or Asia Pacific.

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    Effects of aging and weathering on immobilization of trace metals/metalloids in soils amended with …

    7 August, 2020
     

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    Biochar is an effective amendment for trace metals/metalloids (TMs) immobilization in soils. The capacity of biochar to immobilize TMs in soil can be positively or negatively altered due to the changes in surface and structural chemistry of biochar after soil application. Biochar surfaces are oxidized in soils and induce structural changes through physical and biochemical weathering processes. These changes in biochar surface and structural chemistry generally increase the ability to immobilize TMs, although the generation of dissolved black carbon during weathering may increase TM mobility. Moreover, biochar modification can improve its capacity to immobilize TMs in soils. Over the short-term, engineered/modified biochar exhibited increased TM immobilization capacity compared with unmodified biochar. In the long-term, no large distinctions in such capacities were seen between modified and unmodified biochars due to weathering. In addition, artificial weathering at laboratories also revealed increased TM immobilization in soils. Continued collection of mechanistic evidence will help evaluate the effect of natural and artificial weathering, and biochar modification on long-term TM immobilization capacity of biochar with respect to feedstock and synthesis conditions in contaminated soils.

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    Biochar Fine Granules Market 2020 Size, Share, Global Trends, Comprehensive Research Study …

    7 August, 2020
     

    Global “Biochar Fine Granules Market” 2020 Global Industry Research Report is deep analysis by historical and current status of the market/industries for Global Biochar Fine Granules industry. Also, research report categorizes the global Biochar Fine Granules market by Segment by Player, Type, Application, Marketing Channel, and Region. Biochar Fine Granules Market report also tracks the latest market dynamics, such as driving factors, restraining factors, and industry news like mergers, acquisitions, and investments. Biochar Fine Granules Market Research Report provides market size (value and volume), market share, growth rate by types, applications, and combines both qualitative and quantitative methods to make micro and macro forecasts.

    Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry

    Get a sample copy of the report athttps://www.researchreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-sample/15334501

    The global Biochar Fine Granules market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2020 and 2026. In 2020, the market was growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

    The Global Biochar Fine Granules market 2020 research provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Global Biochar Fine Granules Market Share analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand Figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins. For each manufacturer covered, this report analyzes their Biochar Fine Granules manufacturing sites, capacity, production, ex-factory price, revenue and market share in global market.

    Global Biochar Fine Granules Market Report 2020 provides exclusive vital statistics, data, information, trends and competitive landscape details in this niche sector.

    Enquire before purchasing this reporthttps://www.researchreportsworld.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/15334501

    List Of TOP KEY PLAYERS in Biochar Fine Granules Market Report are —

     

     

    The report also focuses on global major leading industry players of Global Biochar Fine Granules market providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. This report focuses on Biochar Fine Granules Market Trend, volume and value at global level, regional level and company level. From a global perspective, this report represents overall Biochar Fine Granules Market Size by analyzing historical data and future prospect.

    With tables and figures helping analyze worldwide Global Biochar Fine Granules Market Forecast provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

    Purchase this report (Price 2900 USD for single user license)https://www.researchreportsworld.com/purchase/15334501

    On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into

     

     

    On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including

     

     

    Major Points from Table of Contents:

    1 Biochar Fine Granules Market Overview
    1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Biochar Fine Granules
    1.2 Biochar Fine Granules Segment by Type
    1.2.1 Global Biochar Fine Granules Sales Growth Rate Comparison by Type (2021-2026)
    1.2.2 Wood Source Biochar
    1.2.3 Corn Source Biochar
    1.2.4 Wheat Source Biochar
    1.2.5 Others
    1.3 Biochar Fine Granules Segment by Application
    1.3.1 Biochar Fine Granules Sales Comparison by Application: 2020 VS 2026
    1.3.2 Soil Conditioner
    1.3.3 Fertilizer
    1.3.4 Others
    1.4 Global Biochar Fine Granules Market Size Estimates and Forecasts
    1.4.1 Global Biochar Fine Granules Revenue 2015-2026
    1.4.2 Global Biochar Fine Granules Sales 2015-2026
    1.4.3 Biochar Fine Granules Market Size by Region: 2020 Versus 2026

    2 Global Biochar Fine Granules Market Competition by Manufacturers
    2.1 Global Biochar Fine Granules Sales Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
    2.2 Global Biochar Fine Granules Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
    2.3 Global Biochar Fine Granules Average Price by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
    2.4 Manufacturers Biochar Fine Granules Manufacturing Sites, Area Served, Product Type
    2.5 Biochar Fine Granules Market Competitive Situation and Trends
    2.5.1 Biochar Fine Granules Market Concentration Rate
    2.5.2 Global Top 5 and Top 10 Players Market Share by Revenue
    2.5.3 Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3)
    2.6 Manufacturers Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
    2.7 Primary Interviews with Key Biochar Fine Granules Players (Opinion Leaders)

    3 Biochar Fine Granules Retrospective Market Scenario by Region
    3.1 Global Biochar Fine Granules Retrospective Market Scenario in Sales by Region: 2015-2020
    3.2 Global Biochar Fine Granules Retrospective Market Scenario in Revenue by Region: 2015-2020
    3.3 North America Biochar Fine Granules Market Facts & Figures by Country
    3.3.1 North America Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Country
    3.3.2 North America Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Country
    3.3.3 U.S.
    3.3.4 Canada
    3.4 Europe Biochar Fine Granules Market Facts & Figures by Country
    3.4.1 Europe Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Country
    3.4.2 Europe Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Country
    3.4.3 Germany
    3.4.4 France
    3.4.5 U.K.
    3.4.6 Italy
    3.4.7 Russia
    3.5 Asia Pacific Biochar Fine Granules Market Facts & Figures by Region
    3.5.1 Asia Pacific Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Region
    3.5.2 Asia Pacific Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Region
    3.5.3 China
    3.5.4 Japan
    3.5.5 South Korea
    3.5.6 India
    3.5.7 Australia
    3.5.8 Taiwan
    3.5.9 Indonesia
    3.5.10 Thailand
    3.5.11 Malaysia
    3.5.12 Philippines
    3.5.13 Vietnam
    3.6 Latin America Biochar Fine Granules Market Facts & Figures by Country
    3.6.1 Latin America Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Country
    3.6.2 Latin America Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Country
    3.6.3 Mexico
    3.6.3 Brazil
    3.6.3 Argentina
    3.7 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fine Granules Market Facts & Figures by Country
    3.7.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Country
    3.7.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fine Granules Sales by Country
    3.7.3 Turkey
    3.7.4 Saudi Arabia
    3.7.5 U.A.E
    4 Global Biochar Fine Granules Historic Market Analysis by Type
    4.1 Global Biochar Fine Granules Sales Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
    4.2 Global Biochar Fine Granules Revenue Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
    4.3 Global Biochar Fine Granules Price Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
    4.4 Global Biochar Fine Granules Market Share by Price Tier (2015-2020): Low-End, Mid-Range and High-End

    5 Global Biochar Fine Granules Historic Market Analysis by Application
    5.1 Global Biochar Fine Granules Sales Market Share by Application (2015-2020)
    5.2 Global Biochar Fine Granules Revenue Market Share by Application (2015-2020)
    5.3 Global Biochar Fine Granules Price by Application (2015-2020)

    6 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Biochar Fine Granules Business
    6.1 Cool Planet Energy Systems
    6.1.1 Corporation Information
    6.1.2 Cool Planet Energy Systems Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue
    6.1.3 Cool Planet Energy Systems Biochar Fine Granules Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
    6.1.4 Cool Planet Energy Systems Products Offered
    6.1.5 Cool Planet Energy Systems Recent Development
    6.2 Biochar Supreme
    6.2.1 Biochar Supreme Biochar Fine Granules Production Sites and Area Served
    6.2.2 Biochar Supreme Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue
    6.2.3 Biochar Supreme Biochar Fine Granules Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
    6.2.4 Biochar Supreme Products Offered
    6.2.5 Biochar Supreme Recent Development
    6.3 NextChar
    6.3.1 NextChar Biochar Fine Granules Production Sites and Area Served
    6.3.2 NextChar Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue
    6.3.3 NextChar Biochar Fine Granules Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
    6.3.4 NextChar Products Offered
    6.3.5 NextChar Recent Development
    6.4 Terra Char
    6.4.1 Terra Char Biochar Fine Granules Production Sites and Area Served
    6.4.2 Terra Char Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue
    6.4.3 Terra Char Biochar Fine Granules Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
    6.4.4 Terra Char Products Offered
    6.4.5 Terra Char Recent Development
    6.5 CharGrow
    6.5.1 CharGrow Biochar Fine Granules Production Sites and Area Served
    6.5.2 CharGrow Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue
    6.5.3 CharGrow Biochar Fine Granules Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
    6.5.4 CharGrow Products Offered
    6.5.5 CharGrow Recent Development
    6.6 Pacific Biochar
    6.6.1 Pacific Biochar Biochar Fine Granules Production Sites and Area Served
    6.6.2 Pacific Biochar Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue
    6.6.3 Pacific Biochar Biochar Fine Granules Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
    6.6.4 Pacific Biochar Products Offered
    6.6.5 Pacific Biochar Recent Development
    6.7 Biochar Now
    6.6.1 Biochar Now Biochar Fine Granules Production Sites and Area Served
    6.6.2 Biochar Now Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue
    6.6.3 Biochar Now Biochar Fine Granules Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
    6.4.4 Biochar Now Products Offered
    6.7.5 Biochar Now Recent Development
    6.8 The Biochar Company (TBC)
    6.8.1 The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fine Granules Production Sites and Area Served
    6.8.2 The Biochar Company (TBC) Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue
    6.8.3 The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fine Granules Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
    6.8.4 The Biochar Company (TBC) Products Offered
    6.8.5 The Biochar Company (TBC) Recent Development

    7 Biochar Fine Granules Manufacturing Cost Analysis
    7.1 Biochar Fine Granules Key Raw Materials Analysis
    7.1.1 Key Raw Materials
    7.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price Trend
    7.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
    7.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
    7.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar Fine Granules
    7.4 Biochar Fine Granules Industrial Chain Analysis

    8 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
    8.1 Marketing Channel
    8.2 Biochar Fine Granules Distributors List
    8.3 Biochar Fine Granules Customers

    9 Market Dynamics
    9.1 Market Trends
    9.2 Opportunities and Drivers
    9.3 Challenges
    9.4 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

    10 Global Market Forecast
    10.1 Global Biochar Fine Granules Market Estimates and Projections by Type
    10.1.1 Global Forecasted Sales of Biochar Fine Granules by Type (2021-2026)
    10.1.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Biochar Fine Granules by Type (2021-2026)
    10.2 Biochar Fine Granules Market Estimates and Projections by Application
    10.2.1 Global Forecasted Sales of Biochar Fine Granules by Application (2021-2026)
    10.2.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Biochar Fine Granules by Application (2021-2026)
    10.3 Biochar Fine Granules Market Estimates and Projections by Region
    10.3.1 Global Forecasted Sales of Biochar Fine Granules by Region (2021-2026)
    10.3.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Biochar Fine Granules by Region (2021-2026)
    10.4 North America Biochar Fine Granules Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)
    10.5 Europe Biochar Fine Granules Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)
    10.6 Asia Pacific Biochar Fine Granules Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)
    10.7 Latin America Biochar Fine Granules Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)
    10.8 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fine Granules Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)
    11 Research Finding and Conclusion

    12 Methodology and Data Source
    12.1 Methodology/Research Approach
    12.1.1 Research Programs/Design
    12.1.2 Market Size Estimation
    12.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
    12.2 Data Source
    12.2.1 Secondary Sources
    12.2.2 Primary Sources
    12.3 Author List
    12.4 Disclaimer

    ………………………Continued

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    An NMR study of porous rock and biochar containing organic material

    8 August, 2020
     

    Updating…

    Updating…


    Full Length Article Co-pyrolysis of softwood with waste mussel shells

    8 August, 2020
     

    Mussel shell as co-pyrolysis additive improves liquid and char adsorbent properties.

    Co-pyrolysis char is suitable for soil amendment with pH increased to 9.

    In-situ chars as additive in combustion applications for sulfur removal.

    Potential adsorbent for hydrophobic molecules, acidic gases, and metal ions (aq).

    Use of waste products to replace commercial catalysts is worth investigating.

    Mussel shell as co-pyrolysis additive improves liquid and char adsorbent properties.

    Co-pyrolysis char is suitable for soil amendment with pH increased to 9.

    In-situ chars as additive in combustion applications for sulfur removal.

    Potential adsorbent for hydrophobic molecules, acidic gases, and metal ions (aq).

    Use of waste products to replace commercial catalysts is worth investigating.

    In this work, fisheries by-product (mussel shells) is co-pyrolyzed with forestry residues in a fast pyrolysis lab scale reactor to determine impact on biochar quality. Both mussel shells and forestry residues are waste materials with potential for the production of value added products. The pyrolysis temperature, nitrogen flow, and wood-to-mussel shell ratio (up to 50 wt%) were varied, and thermal, physical, and chemical properties of the produced biochars were investigated in a lab scale tube furnace reactor via response surface methodology (RSM). The smaller mussel shell (MS) particles decreased the surface area by filling the pores in the biochar structure. Biochars containing MS showed lower heating values, higher alkaline pH values, and higher ash content (due to the formation of CaO from CaCO3). Surface analysis showed higher functionality in co-pyrolyzed biochars, decreased hydrogen and increased nitrogen and oxygen. These properties could potentially improve adsorption of hydrophobic molecules (e.g. VOCs), acidic gases, and metal ions in aqueous solution compared to forestry biochar. Moreover, alkaline pH makes the biochar a promising additive for acidic soil.


    Relationship of the physicochemical properties of novel ZnO/biochar composites to their …

    8 August, 2020
     

    Novel ZnO/biochar composites were produced from Salvinia molesta, sugarcane bagasse, and exhausted black wattle bark.

    Composites produced at 450 °C showed higher catalytic activity, due to greater quantities of organic free radicals.

    All the ZnO/biochar composites showed lower band gap energy, compared to ZnO.

    Degradation efficiencies of 90% for methyl orange and 100% for sulfamethoxazole were achieved.

    The SB450 and SM450 composites showed avoidance of ē/h+ recombination during the degradation reactions.

    Novel ZnO/biochar composites were produced from Salvinia molesta, sugarcane bagasse, and exhausted black wattle bark.

    Composites produced at 450 °C showed higher catalytic activity, due to greater quantities of organic free radicals.

    All the ZnO/biochar composites showed lower band gap energy, compared to ZnO.

    Degradation efficiencies of 90% for methyl orange and 100% for sulfamethoxazole were achieved.

    The SB450 and SM450 composites showed avoidance of ē/h+ recombination during the degradation reactions.

    Three different composites were produced, based on zinc oxide and biochar (ZnO/biochar), varying the type of biomass (Salvinia molesta: SM; exhausted husk of black wattle: EH; and sugarcane bagasse: SB), with pyrolysis under mild conditions at 350 and 450 °C. Evaluation was made of the capacities of the composites for photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole antibiotic (SMX) and methyl orange dye (MO). The properties of the prepared composites were influenced by the biomass source, with larger crystallite size (SB), lower band gap energy (SM), higher specific surface area (SB), and larger pore size (SM) resulting in higher photocatalytic efficiency. Good degradation results were obtained using these innovative photocatalysts prepared at low temperatures, when compared to ZnO/biochar materials reported in previous studies. The best degradation capacities were obtained for the composites produced at 450 °C from SB and SM, with 99.3 and 97% degradation of SMX after 45 min, and 90.8 and 88.3% degradation of MO after 120 min, respectively.


    Enhanced bioremediation of diesel range hydrocarbons in soil using biochar made from organic …

    8 August, 2020
     

    Hydrocarbon contamination due to anthropogenic activities is a major environmental concern worldwide. The present study focuses on biochar prepared from fruit and vegetable waste and sewage sludge using a thermochemical approach and its application for the enhanced bioremediation (biostimulation and bioaugmentation) of diesel-polluted soil. The biochar was characterized using FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), elemental analysis, surface area analysis, and pore analysis. Adsorption experiments showed that hydrocarbon degradation was attributed to biological processes rather than adsorption. The study found that various biochar amendments could significantly increase the rate of hydrocarbon biodegradation with removal efficiencies > 70%. Bioaugmentation using cow dung further improved the removal efficiency to 82%. Treatments showing the highest degree of removal efficiency indicated the presence of 27 different bacteria phyla with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria as the most abundant phyla. The present study concludes that biochar amendments have great potential for enhancing the bioremediation of soils contaminated with diesel range hydrocarbons.

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    Data supporting the findings in this study are available within the article and its Supplementary Information files. Extra data are available from the corresponding author on request.

    Funds for the study were provided by the Higher Education Commission, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    Correspondence to Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali or Zaixing Huang.

    The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

    Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    (DOCX 221 kb)

    Received: 31 March 2020

    Accepted: 02 August 2020

    Published: 07 August 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08540-7

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    Remediation of Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Groundwater by Sulfide-Modified Nanoscale Zero …

    8 August, 2020
     

    This study investigated the feasibility and mechanism of sulfide-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron supported on biochar (S-nZVI@BC) for the removal of TCE in the scenario of groundwater remediation. The effects of some critical factors, including pyrolysis temperature of biochar, mass ratio of S-nZVI to BC, initial pH, typical groundwater compositions, co-contaminants, and particle aging time, on the TCE removal were examined. The results revealed that the different pyrolysis temperatures could change physicochemical properties of BC, which influenced the TCE adsorption and degradation by S-nZVI@BC. The mass ratio of S-nZVI to BC could determine the extent of adsorption and degradation of TCE. The total removal of TCE was not significantly influenced by the initial pH (3.0–9.0), but the degradation of TCE was enhanced at higher pH. Notably, the typical anions (SO42−, HCO3, and HPO42−), humic acid, and co-contaminants (Cr(VI) and NO3) in groundwater all slightly influenced the total removal of TCE, but markedly inhibited its degradation. Additionally, after exposure to air over different times (5 days, 10 days, 20 days, and 30 days), the reactivity of S-nZVI@BC composites was apparently decreased due to surface passivation. Nevertheless, the aged S-nZVI@BC composites still maintained relative high removal and degradation of TCE when the reaction time prolonged. Overall, the results showed that the S-nZVI@BC, combining the high adsorption capacity of BC and the high reductive capacity of S-nZVI, had a much better performance than the single S-nZVI or BC, suggesting that S-nZVI@BC is one promising material for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater.

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    This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51879100).

    Correspondence to Haoran Dong.

    Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    (DOCX 14407 kb)

    Received: 18 May 2020

    Accepted: 23 July 2020

    Published: 07 August 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-020-04797-3

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    The effects of biochar and AM fungi ( Funneliformis mosseae )

    8 August, 2020
     

    Due to the increase of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated land area worldwide, effective measures should be taken to minimize the Cd bioavailability in crops. A study was performed to explore the effectiveness of biochar pyrolyzed from rice straw at 400 °C alone or combined with AM fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on the corn growth and Cd uptake in corn in Cd-contaminated soil with different levels of phosphorus supplies. The results showed that biochar significantly reduced 66% and 38% of Cd uptake in shoot and root respectively (P < 0.001) attributed to the increase of soil pH and dissolved organic matter. In contrast, AM fungi inoculation of corn plants had little effect on Cd bioavailability due to the AM was suppressed by the highly contaminated acid soil (31.76 mg/kg), and had neither synergistic effect with biochar on decreasing the Cd bioavailability with high or low phosphorus supplies. This study demonstrated that biochar application could be a promising method to immobilize Cd in the contaminated soil to ensure the safety of agro-product while high Cd-contaminated soil would suppress the growth of mycorrhizae, so this remains an open question to be further studied.

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    The study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41977209 and No. 41471410).

    Huawei Zhang and Huayang Zhen contributed equally to this work.

    Correspondence to Yuhui Qiao.

    The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

    Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    Responsible Editor: Zhihong Xu

    Received: 07 May 2020

    Accepted: 03 August 2020

    Published: 07 August 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10363-5

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    Kevin Dietzel's tweet – "Did a little grinding of burr oak biochar for Burrnt Oak cheese. "

    8 August, 2020
     


    Ru/P-Containing Porous Biochar-Efficiently Catalyzed Cascade Conversion of Cellulose to Sorbitol …

    8 August, 2020
     

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    Biochar Fuel Market : Which Region will Register Higher CAGR?

    8 August, 2020
     

     

     

     

    The Global Biochar Fuel  Market 2020-2025 report covers both industry and therefore the commercial side of the industry. The market, on the opposite hand, includes some important topics that provide additional benefits for this report. Global marketing research shows that we are deeply studying variety of areas of research that play a crucial role in gaining a holistic view of the international market. The list of those key aspects of the market report includes the competitive environment, company profile, regional analysis by country, and comparative analysis of the main players.

    Key Player Mentioned: Biochar Fuel Products, Agri-Tech Producers, Hawaii Biochar Fuel, Pacific Biochar Fuel, The Biochar Fuel Company (TBC), Cool Planet Energy Systems, Walking Point, Ec6Grow, RAUCH INTERNATIONAL, Diacarbon Energy

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    Product Segment Analysis: Fine Biochar Fuel Powder, Granular Biochar Fuel, Big Chip Biochar Fuel

    Application Segment Analysis: Agriculture, Energy Production, Environmental Protection, Others

    Regional Segment Analysis: North America (U.S.; Canada; Mexico), Europe (Germany; U.K.; France; Italy; Russia; Spain etc.), Asia-Pacific (China; India; Japan; Southeast Asia etc.), South America (Brazil; Argentina etc.), Middle East & Africa (Saudi Arabia; South Africa etc.)

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    1. An all Biochar Fuel  comprehensive analysis of the parent marketplace
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    Biochar is ______ (i) a kind of char coal used as a soil amendment

    8 August, 2020
     

    Biochar is __________ 

    (i) a kind of char coal used as a soil amendment 

    (ii) a potent way of sequestring carbon 

    (iii) made from biomass via pyrolysis 

    (iv) a notable solid, rich in carbon. 

    (a) (i) and (iii) is correct 

    (b) (ii) and (iv) is correct 

    (c) (i) and (ii) is correct 

    (d) all the above is correct.

    (d) all the above is correct.

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    Bmc Biochar Machine

    8 August, 2020
     

    BMC BIOTECHNOLOGY 201717-2.415 148 Kinetics and the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide removal by biochar derived from rice hull JOURNAL OF THE AIR WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 2016665439-445 1.57 149

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    Anna Chlingaryan Salah Sukkarieh Brett Whelan Machine learning approaches for crop yield prediction and nitrogen status estimation in precision agriculture A review Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 10.1016j.compag.2018.05.012 151 61-69 2018

    In the era of big data feature selection is an essential process in machine learning. Although the class imbalance problem has recently attracted a great deal of attention little effort has been undertaken to develop feature selection techniques. In addition most applications involving feature selection focus on classification accuracy but not cost although costs are important

    Effect of biochar on soil physical properties in two contrasting soils an Alfisol and an Andisol. Geoderma 209210188197. Huang W Ji H Gheysen G Debode J and Kyndt T. 2015. Biochar-amended potting medium reduces the susceptibility of rice to root-knot nematode infections. BMC Plant Biology 15267-281. doi 10.1186s12870-015-0654-7

    2016-7-22Steam explosion pretreatment has been examined in many studies for enhancing the enymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and is currently the most common pretreatment method in commercial biorefineries. The information available about the effect of the explosive decompression on the biochemical conversion is however very limited and no studies prove that the latter is actually

    Robertson S. J. Rutherford P. M. Lpe-Gutirre J. C. and Massicotte H. B. 2012. Biochar enhances seedling growth and alters root symbioses and properties of sub-boreal forest soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 92 329-340. Biochar application may enhance soil properties improve plant productivity and increase long-term carbon storage but impacts of biochar on plant-microbe symbioses

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    Synthesis of Rice Husk-Derived Magnetic Biochar Through Liquefaction to Adsorb Anionic and Cationic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions Arab. J. Sci. Eng. IF 1.518 Pub Date 2020-05-22

    2019-4-1In situ remediation and assessment of sediments contaminated with both antibiotics and heavy metals remains a technological challenge. In this study MgCl 2-modified biochar BCM was obtained at 500 C through slow pyrolysis of Thalia dealbata and used for remediation of sediments contaminated by sulfamethoxaole SMX and Cd. The BCM showed greater surface area 110.6 m 2

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    2019-4-1In situ remediation and assessment of sediments contaminated with both antibiotics and heavy metals remains a technological challenge. In this study MgCl 2-modified biochar BCM was obtained at 500 C through slow pyrolysis of Thalia dealbata and used for remediation of sediments contaminated by sulfamethoxaole SMX and Cd. The BCM showed greater surface area 110.6 m 2

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    Coffee waste biochar: characterization and zinc adsorption from aqueous solution.

    8 August, 2020
     

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    Global Granular Biochar Market Size 2020 – Current Industry Status, Share, CAGR, Growth Rate …

    9 August, 2020
     

    Artificial Intelligence driven Marketing Communications

    Global Granular Biochar Market Report analyse Top Manufacturers, Application & Types by Segments and covers all the essential details about the Future Market Developments and prospect during the forecast period.

    Global “Granular Biochar Market” Research Report delivers Key Analysis and Prospects of Granular Biochar Manufacturers with the best Data and Figures, Facts about Industry challenges and Potential Growth Opportunity with the latest developments across the globe. This Report also calculates Market Share, Size, Granular Biochar sales, Gross Margin, Price, Revenue, leading growth drivers, Competitive Outlook, future trends, distributors and growth rate.

     

    Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this Industry.

     

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    The Global Granular Biochar Market analysis report provides a detail study of market size of different segments and countries of previous years and forecasts the values to the next Five years. This Granular Biochar Market report delivers both qualitative and quantitative aspect of the industry with respect to regions and countries involved in the report. Furthermore, this report also categorizes the market based on the type, application, manufacturers and all the crucial aspects of market drivers and restraining factors which can define the growth of the industry.

     

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    Major Key Playersof Granular Biochar Market Report:

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    About Granular Biochar Market:

     

    The report begins from overview of Industry Chain structure, and describes industry environment, then analyses market size and forecast of Granular Biochar by product, region and application, in addition, this report introduces market competition situation among the vendors and company profile, besides, market price analysis and value chain features are covered in this report.

     

    The worldwide market for Industrial Granular Biochar is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly over the next five years, will reach million USD in 2025, from million USD.

     

    Market Segment byProductTypesconsidering Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trends:

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Market Segment byApplicationsconsidering Consumption Growth Rate and Market Share:

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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    Regional analysis covers:

     

     

     

     

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    The next part also sheds light on the gap between supply and consumption. Apart from the mentioned information, Granular Biochar trendis also explained.Additionally, type wise and application wise consumptiontables andfiguresof Granular Biochar forecast up to 2025are also given.

     

    Table of Contents

     

    Market Overview1.1 Granular Biochar Introduction1.2 Market Analysis by Type1.3 Market Analysis by Applications1.4 Market Analysis by Regions1.5 Market Dynamics1.5.1 Market Opportunities1.5.2 Market Risk1.5.3 Market Driving Force2 Manufacturers Profiles

     

    3 Global Granular Biochar Analysis by Regions

     

    4 Global Granular Biochar Competition, by Manufacturer

     

    5 Sales Channel, Distributors, Traders and Dealers

     

    Continued…

     

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    Biochar companies

    9 August, 2020
     


    Research article Effect of soluble calcium on enhancing nitrate retention by biochar

    9 August, 2020
     

    Addition of Ca enabled nitrate retention by the biochar material.

    This was via adsorption of by negatively charged biochar surfaces.

    Optimal nitrate retention at a Ca/NO3 molar ratio of 2 for aqueous system.

    Ca/NO3 ratio for optimal nitrate retention in soil was greater.

    Nitrate retention was enhanced by increasing dose of the biochar.

    Addition of Ca enabled nitrate retention by the biochar material.

    This was via adsorption of by negatively charged biochar surfaces.

    Optimal nitrate retention at a Ca/NO3 molar ratio of 2 for aqueous system.

    Ca/NO3 ratio for optimal nitrate retention in soil was greater.

    Nitrate retention was enhanced by increasing dose of the biochar.

    Batch experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that nitrate (NO3) could be immobilized by biochar via adsorption of CaNO3+ to the negatively charged biochar surfaces. The results show that addition of soluble Ca in both aqueous and soil systems enabled NO3 retention by the biochar material. Increase in the added Ca enhanced the retention rate and the optimal NO3 retention was gained at a Ca/NO3 molar ratio of 2 for the aqueous system. For the soil system, the Ca/NO3 molar ratio required to attain the optimal NO3 retention was much greater due to competition of other soil-borne ligands and soil colloids for the available Ca. At the same level of added Ca, the amount of NO3 being retained tended to increase with increasing dose of the biochar. More NO3 was retained in the soil system than in the aqueous system at the same dosage level of biochar due to additional adsorption of CaNO3+ by negatively changed soil organic and inorganic colloids. The findings obtained from this study have implications for developing effective methods for reducing NO3 leaching from soils.


    Assessment of hydro-mechanical properties of biochar-amended soil sourced from two contrasting …

    9 August, 2020
     

    In geo-environmental applications, the potential of biochar has been explored as a suitable cover material of landfill and vegetated slopes. The inherent nature of biochar affects the geo-environmental properties of the soil-biochar composite like water retention, compressive strength, infiltration, and soil erosion. Performance of a cover depends on biochar’s surface functional groups, which can be either hydrophobic or hydrophilic based on bio-source. The objective of this paper is to investigate the geotechnical properties of biochar-amended soil sourced from two contrasting feedstock, i.e., poultry litter (animal based) and water hyacinth (plant based). The test results show that biochar addition increased the Atterberg limits and reduced the acidity of soil. Biochar addition directly increased the optimum moisture content and decreased the maximum dry density. Both biochar addition decreased the composite compressive strength by 25–50% but increased the ductility of composite. Water hyacinth biochar (WHB) inclusion decreased the erosion rate of soil while it is not the same for poultry litter biochar (PLB). In the case of water retention, only the addition of WHB increases retention and holding capacity of soil. The obtained results have been discussed in context with the conducted microstructural, chemical, and physical tests on both biochar. Through these analyses on biochar of different origin and having contrasting functional groups and intra-pore network, the development of a complex biochar-water network was confirmed.

    Instant access to the full article PDF.

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    This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant No. 41722209).

    Correspondence to Hong-Hu Zhu.

    Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    Received: 14 May 2020

    Revised: 27 July 2020

    Accepted: 04 August 2020

    Published: 09 August 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-020-00946-0

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    Simple and low-cost sensor based on activated biochar for the voltammetric stripping detection of …

    9 August, 2020
     

    Renewable feedstock for the easy construction of low-cost and eco-friendly sensor.

    The biochar presents high sorption enhanced by the chemical activation.

    Excellent performance obtained for caffeic acid spontaneous preconcentration and detection.

    Wine samples results comparable with the spectroscopic method by Folin-Ciocalteu.

    Renewable feedstock for the easy construction of low-cost and eco-friendly sensor.

    The biochar presents high sorption enhanced by the chemical activation.

    Excellent performance obtained for caffeic acid spontaneous preconcentration and detection.

    Wine samples results comparable with the spectroscopic method by Folin-Ciocalteu.

    The development of simple and low-cost electrochemical sensors is of great interest for the detection of food, environmental and biological species. Biochar-based electrodes can be easily constructed using biomass waste providing these characteristics. Herein we developed a composite sensor based on activated biochar for the sensitive stripping detection of caffeic acid, exploring the spontaneous preconcentration of analyte on the biochar surface. Biochar was prepared by pyrolysis of castor cake waste biomass at 400 °C. The sorption properties of biochar were improved after chemical treatment by HNO3 refluxing, increasing the amount of oxygenated functional groups. The proposed sensor showed excellent results for caffeic acid preconcentration compared to unmodified electrodes. This demonstrates the versatility and feasibility of the biochar for the sensors development, which is also interesting from the economic and environmental point. Under optimized conditions the proposed sensor presented a wide linear range from 1.0 to 3000 µmol L-1, good repeatability and reproducibility for consecutive measurements, high sensitivity (11.06 μA L mmol-1) and low limit of detection (30.9 nmol L-1). The method was successfully applied for caffeic acid detection in real and spiked wine samples without sample pretreatment. Therefore, the use of a castor cake waste provides an eco-friendly and sustainable material for the development of a sensible and accurate sensor.


    برخی ویژگی‌های مورفو- فیزیولوژیکی و ‏تغذیه‌ای ‏‎(Solanum lycopersicum Mill)

    9 August, 2020
     

    Journal Management System. Designed by sinaweb.


    Global Fine Biochar Powder Market 2020 with Coronavirus/COVID-19 Impact Analysis | likewise …

    9 August, 2020
     

    Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Size, Growth, Share, and Trends Fine Biochar Powder Market Is Expected to Reach USD XXX Million By 2026

    The Market Research Store has published the report on the Global Fine Biochar Powder Market. The report offers to provide the clients the latest insights about the Fine Biochar Powder market. The key findings you will find in the report include market value and size, growth rate, consumption and production, pricings, gross margin, and other influential factors.

    Some of the major industry players that are operating in the Fine Biochar Powder market are Kina, BlackCarbon, The Biochar Company, ElementC6, Carbon Gold, Biochar Now, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Carbon Terra, Cool Planet, Agri-Tech Producers, Diacarbon Energy, BioChar Products. Along with these you will find detailed information about all the suppliers, distributors, and retailers of the Fine Biochar Powder market in the report. The competitive landscape of all the industry players are mentioned in-detail within the report. The market players have strategically changed their business plans owing to the outbreak of the pandemic.

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    Through month of analysis research analysts have projected that the Fine Biochar Powder market reached USD XX Million in 2019 and it is anticipated that the market demand will reach USD XXX Million by 2026. The expected CAGR during the forecast period 2020 to 2026 is XX%. The rising technological advancements in the Fine Biochar Powder market and the increasing investments in the research and development activities are augmenting the market growth.
    Outbreak of the pandemic has lead to several market issues around the world. It has lead to economic crisis in various regions along with loss of employment.

    The questions that are answered in the report:

    •    What are the top opportunities and trends that are currently ruling the market?
    •    What are the drivers that are shaping the Fine Biochar Powder market?
    •    What are the opportunities and challenges for the Fine Biochar Powder market created by the outbreak of the COVID-19?
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    •    What are the regional developments prominent in the Fine Biochar Powder market?

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    Overall industries on the global platform are struggling to revive the markets. It has been observed that almost every market domain has been impacted through the pandemic.

    Market Segmentation

    The Fine Biochar Powder market is segmented into {Wood Source Biochar, Corn  Source Biochar, Wheat  Source Biochar, Others}; {Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others}. The regional presence of the Fine Biochar Powder market is showcased in five major regions North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa. The country-level analysis is also provided in the report.

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    The major points that are covered:

    Overview: In this section, definition of the global Fine Biochar Powder Market is given along with the overview of the report in order to give a board outlook about the nature and contents of the research study.

    Industry Players’ Strategies Analysis: The market players will be benefitted from this analysis as it will help to gain competitive advantage over their competitors.

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    Market Forecasts: The research analysts have provided accurate and validated values of the total market size in terms of value and volume. Other offerings in the report include consumption, production, sales, and other forecasts for the global Fine Biochar Powder Market.

    Regional Analysis: Major five regions and its countries have been covered in the global Fine Biochar Powder market report. With the help of this analysis, market players will have estimates about the untapped regional markets and other benefits.

    Segment Analysis: Accurate and reliable forecasts about the market share of the important segments of the Fine Biochar Powder market is provided.


    Biochar Market will earnings to Cross USD 699 million in 2020 to 2025 Research by Business …

    9 August, 2020
     

    Biochar Market Overview, The global Biochar market size is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025, with a CAGR of 8.6% in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025 and will expected to reach USD 699 million by 2025, from USD 502.3 million in 2019

    The Biochar market report provides a detailed analysis of global market size, regional and country-level market size, segmentation market growth, market share, competitive Landscape, sales analysis, impact of domestic and global market players, value chain optimization, trade regulations, recent developments, opportunities analysis, strategic market growth analysis, product launches, area marketplace expanding, and technological innovations

    with growth trends, various stakeholders like investors, CEOs, traders, suppliers, Research & media, Global Manager, Director, President, SWOT analysis i.e. Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat to the organization and others.

    Get a sample copy of the Biochar market report 2020

    Competitive Landscape and BiocharMarket Share Analysis
    Biochar competitive landscape provides details by vendors, including company overview, company total earnings (financials), market potential, global presence, Biocharsales and earnings generated, market share, price, production sites and facilities, SWOT analysis, product launch. For the period 2015-2020, this study provides the Biocharsales, earnings and market share for each player covered in this report.

    Biochar Market competition by Top Countries manufacturers/ Key player Data Profiled:

    And More……

    Get a Sample PDF of report @   https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/14828012

    Market segmentation

    Biochar Market is split by Type and by Application. For the period 2015-2025, the growth among segments provide accurate calculations and forecasts for sales by Type and by Application in terms of volume and value. This analysis can help you expand your business by targeting qualified niche markets.

    Biochar Market Segment by Type covers:

    Biochar Market Segment by Applications can be divided into:

    Scope of the Biochar Market Report:

    This report focuses on the Biochar in global market, especially in North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, types and applications.

    Fill the Pre-Order Enquiry form for the report @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/14828012    

     Regional analysis covers:

    The report provides an in-depth knowledge of the Global Biochar market scenario:

    Other Major Topics Covered in Biochar market research report are as follows:

    And another component ….

     

    The next part also sheds light on the gap between supply and consumption. Apart from the mentioned information, growth rate of Biochar market in 2025 is also explained. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption tables and figures of Biochar market are also given.

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    จัดสวน

    9 August, 2020
     

    Below is a list of Free ebooks and documents on survival. There's a lot of material here so I encourage you to bookmark this page.

    Biochar is a great amendment for any garden soil. I wrote about the wonder product a month ago (May 9, 2012, "What is Biochar?"), and have incorporated it in a few of my garden beds for testing. Biochar research is in its infancy so information on how to use it in gardens is still being…

    Biochar is a great amendment for any garden soil. I wrote about the wonder product a month ago (May 9, 2012, "What is Biochar?"), and have incorporated it in a few of my garden beds for testing. Biochar research is in its infancy so information on how to use it in gardens is still being…

    Biochar is a great amendment for any garden soil. I wrote about the wonder product a month ago (May 9, 2012, "What is Biochar?"), and have incorporated it in a few of my garden beds for testing. Biochar research is in its infancy so information on how to use it in gardens is still being…

    Biochar is a great amendment for any garden soil. I wrote about the wonder product a month ago (May 9, 2012, "What is Biochar?"), and have incorporated it in a few of my garden beds for testing. Biochar research is in its infancy so information on how to use it in gardens is still being…

    Guest post by Laura McLain Madsen, DVM Click here for a downloadable checklist. Do you own one (or more) of the 69 million pet dogs and 74 million pet

    Biochar is a great amendment for any garden soil. I wrote about the wonder product a month ago (May 9, 2012, "What is Biochar?"), and have incorporated it in a few of my garden beds for testing. Biochar research is in its infancy so information on how to use it in gardens is still being…

    Biochar is a great amendment for any garden soil. I wrote about the wonder product a month ago (May 9, 2012, "What is Biochar?"), and have incorporated it in a few of my garden beds for testing. Biochar research is in its infancy so information on how to use it in gardens is still being…

    You decided to use biochar to create a better soil. So, how do you apply biochar correctly? Find out more about how to apply biochar correctly.

    Biochar is a great amendment for any garden soil. I wrote about the wonder product a month ago (May 9, 2012, "What is Biochar?"), and have incorporated it in a few of my garden beds for testing. Biochar research is in its infancy so information on how to use it in gardens is still being…

    Biochar is a great amendment for any garden soil. I wrote about the wonder product a month ago (May 9, 2012, "What is Biochar?"), and have incorporated it in a few of my garden beds for testing. Biochar research is in its infancy so information on how to use it in gardens is still being…


    A comprehensive assessment of potential hazard caused by organic compounds in biochar for …

    10 August, 2020
     

    Great attention has been paid to using biochar as soil conditioner and bio-accumulator. Nevertheless, biochar application in agriculture might cause a potential hazard to ecosystems, considering that toxic organic pollutants present in biochar may enter the environment. European Biochar Certificate (EBC) set certain criteria for biochar production. Achieving the EBC established values of the molar ratio of H/Corg <0.7 and O/Corg <0.4, does not ensure that biochar will not cause phytotoxicity. The results of root growth inhibition of Sinapis alba were in the range of 9% (eucalyptus wood biochar) to 82% (maize biochar). Phytotoxicity of biochar was possibly caused by the presence of water-soluble organic compounds. In total, 62 organic compounds were identified in the leachate from noncertified biochar and 35 organic compounds in the leachate from certified biochar. Biochar safety, in terms of the presence of organic compounds, can be recognised by the evaluation of the ratio of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Biochar with the highest phytotoxicity showed the ratio between OC/EC > 0.1, inhibition of Sinapis alba <30% was observed with OC/EC < 0.02. To achieve Sinapis alba inhibition <20%, these parameters should be met: volatile matter (VM) <30%; concentration of OC < 4%; aromaticity ratio AL/AR < 0.35.

     


    Boutique Biochars: Exploring Engineering Strategies to Increase Phosphate Adsorption

    10 August, 2020
     

    Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of woody (technically, lignocellulosic) materials. By controlling the conditions under which it is produced, researchers can engineer biochar to be more effective for particular purposes. In previous articles, I explored work looking at the potential for biochar to draw down atmospheric carbon dioxide and increase water holding capacity in soils. Michael Aniayia (Figure 1) and his colleagues in the lab of Dr. Manuel Garcia-Perez at Washington State University, engineered biochar for a specific purpose—adsorbing phosphate, a nutrient that, because it is also common in wastewater and manure, can pollute waterways. Aniayia’s objective was to evaluate strategies for producing biochar in order to improve its ability to remove phosphate.

    Ayiania used and evaluated a number of strategies, each designed to change the physical or chemical makeup of the biochar to improve phosphate adsorption. He produced a first generation biochar using a pyrolysis step, followed by an activation step with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide-activated char from anaerobically digested fiber had phosphate adsorption capacity of 32.4 mg of phosphate per gram of biochar. He also produced a second generation biochar by “nitrogen doping.” Nitrogen doping is the process of introducing nitrogen functional groups into a carbonaceous material, like biochar. Nitrogen doping increased phosphate adsorption capacity to 110.3 mg of phosphate per gram of biochar. He also evaluated third generation biochar, produced by first impregnating the feedstock with metals (magnesium, calcium, or iron) and then using the N-doping process to create a metal-N-doped biochar. The synergy between magnesium and nitrogen doping resulted in biochar with an enhanced ability to adsorb phosphate (Figure 2). Biochar produced from cellulose that was magnesium-N-doped, had a phosphate adsorption capacity of 335 mg per gram of biochar—more than ten times the adsorption capacity of the first generation biochar.

    The bottom line is that Ayiania and colleagues were able to dramatically improve the capacity of biochar to adsorb phosphate. “Boutique biochars” like these, engineered for specific purposes, are an important specialty market for the biochar industry. From a climate change perspective, sizeable benefits will occur when  large amounts of biochar are applied to the landscape, most likely as field-scale agricultural amendments. However, demand for biochar by agricultural producers is not widespread at its current price. Developing markets for high-value biochars could help support the emerging biochar industry. If economically feasible, they could also sequester small amounts of carbon as a side-benefit to their primary use, while helping agricultural producers become more familiar with these new materials. Further technological advances in the industry and policy changes (e.g., carbon policy) could lower cost of production and spur greater adoption by agriculture in the future, leading to carbon sequestration benefits.

    For more detail, see the brief project report (7 pages, Chapter 7 in Hills et al. 2019) or the longer technical report (Ayiania et al., 2019: 71 pages).

    This article is also posted on AgClimate.net.

    Enter your email address to subscribe to our blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

    CSANR, Washington State University, 2606 W. Pioneer, Puyallup, WA 98371-4998 USA, 509-293-8798, Contact Us
     
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    Biochar in European Soils and Agriculture, Science and Practice by Simon Shackley

    10 August, 2020
     

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    Potential role of biochar in advanced oxidation processes

    10 August, 2020
     

    Utilization of sustainable raw materials for biochar preparation are summarized.

    Changes in properties of biochar prepared from different feedstocks are reviewed.

    Role of biochar as a catalyst, support material and electrode in AOPs are discussed.

    ROS generation in biochar in the presence/absence of H2O2 and light are explained.

    Biochar supported catalyst outperformed unsupported catalysts in pollutant removal.

    Utilization of sustainable raw materials for biochar preparation are summarized.

    Changes in properties of biochar prepared from different feedstocks are reviewed.

    Role of biochar as a catalyst, support material and electrode in AOPs are discussed.

    ROS generation in biochar in the presence/absence of H2O2 and light are explained.

    Biochar supported catalyst outperformed unsupported catalysts in pollutant removal.

    Biochar, a multifaceted and sustainable carbonaceous material has gained extensive research attention over the past couple of decades in advanced oxidation processes (AOP) owing to its tunable physico-chemical properties. Pyrolysis is the most widely employed method for biochar preparation as the desired properties can be acquired by wisely choosing pyrolysis temperature and feedstock. High conductivity, enormous surface area, active functional groups and porous structure obtained via pyrolysis instigate the biochar to function like a catalyst, a support and cathode material for the degradation of organic contaminants. Moreover, pyrolysed biomass contains persistent free radicals necessary for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which are the key contributors in AOPs. Biochar modified with metallic and non-metallic components play synergistic action in ROS generation, electron transfer, adsorption and oxidation of pollutants. This review explores biochar and biochar based catalyst preparation strategies, its multifunctional role in AOPs with special emphasis on the mechanisms involved in the activation of hydrogen peroxide, persulfate and peroxymonosulfate as well as its sequence towards degradation process. Finally, bottlenecks and research gaps that will open a way to explore novel and fruitful inventions in this field were provided.


    Chem. Eng. J.

    10 August, 2020
     

    Biochar, a multifaceted and sustainable carbonaceous material has gained extensive research attention over the past couple of decades in advanced oxidation processes (AOP) owing to its tunable physico-chemical properties. Pyrolysis is the most widely employed method for biochar preparation as the desired properties can be acquired by wisely choosing pyrolysis temperature and feedstock. High conductivity, enormous surface area, active functional groups and porous structure obtained via pyrolysis instigate the biochar to function like a catalyst, a support and cathode material for the degradation of organic contaminants. Moreover, pyrolysed biomass contains persistent free radicals necessary for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which are the key contributors in AOPs. Biochar modified with metallic and non-metallic components play synergistic action in ROS generation, electron transfer, adsorption and oxidation of pollutants. This review explores biochar and biochar based catalyst preparation strategies, its multifunctional role in AOPs with special emphasis on the mechanisms involved in the activation of hydrogen peroxide, persulfate and peroxymonosulfate as well as its sequence towards degradation process. Finally, bottlenecks and research gaps that will open a way to explore novel and fruitful inventions in this field were provided.

     


    Powerful plant partners

    10 August, 2020
     

    Mycorrhizal fungi and other biological controls all suffer from the same disadvantage. Many people, even those with experience in the horticulture industry, are hesitant to use them because they don’t know how they work.

    Manny Dutra is the owner of Horticultural Professionals, a supplier of mycorrhizal fungi, biological controls, beneficial bacteria, biochar and more. He’s based in Vermont, but sells to clients all over the U.S. He has more than 200 vendors, but MycoApply inoculants by Mycorrhizal Applications is his best-selling line.

    Dutra sells MycoApply inoculant to nurseries, greenhouses, landscapers, and he sells a lot of it. He says it’s been so successful because it is the best product in the field. It has the highest concentration of active ingredients of mycorrhizal products, which he says is the most important number to check.

    “If you’re looking at that, you can understand that it’s the biggest bang for your buck,” he says. “But that’s the whole thing about these mycorrhizal fungi. People are really not familiar with them. But once they understand, it’s really a no brainer to use when you do the mathematics of it all.”

    Mycorrhizal fungi is what Dutra calls a “technical sale.” So he prioritizes education. He walks potential customers through the process and sets up a controlled trial for them so they can see results.

    “If you start using this product when the plants are really young, you’re talking about pennies per plant, which makes it extremely economical,” Dutra says.

    The benefits outweigh the cost by tenfold, he says.

    The growers Dutra sells to have reported several benefits of using MycoApply. First, it creates a much more fibrous root mass in a shorter amount of time. Second, the plants require less water and fertilizer. Plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi can grow at the same rate with half the fertilizer, Dutra says.

    Aside from the active ingredient concentrations, there are other factors that have influenced Dutra’s decision to stock MycoApply. One of the biggest is that every bag, large, small or even bulk orders, have a production lot number with an expiration date. This is not something every microbial manufacturer does. However, most biological products tend to have an extremely short shelf life and they need to be stored properly. If a mycorrhizal product doesn’t have an expiration date on the package or a lot number you can track, the spores inside may not even be viable anymore.

    “I go to other places and I see microbial products on the shelf and none of them have expiration dates on them, and some of them have an inch of dust on them,” Dutra says. “They’d been sitting there for years; those products aren’t viable anymore. It’s not like buying fertilizer that’s good for a hundred years if it’s kept dry. It doesn’t work that way with microbes. Having a lot number and an expiration date says a lot about the company. They care about the effectiveness of the product.”

    The shelf life of MycoApply is two years from time of production. If a bag is partially used, it should be stored in a cool, dry place with the bag closed to keep moisture out and maximize efficacy and remaining shelf life

    Dutra has been working with Mycorrhizal Applications’ products for about 20 years. MycoApply has had a tremendous impact on the bottom line at Horticultural Professionals.

    “It IS the bottom line,” he says. “When we’re writing a protocol for any grower, it’s the first thing we recommend.”

    For more: hortpros.com; mycorrhizae.com

    Sepers Nursery in Newfield, New Jersey, is a wholesale grower that receives liners from Van Belle Nursery. Sepers’ container division spreads over 50 acres. The business sells to landscapers, rewholesalers and IGCs, and has its own retail store on the property.

    Dan Sepers is operations manager at the fourth-generation family-owned business. He appreciates the loyalty Van Belle shows to its customers and says it makes them easily one of his favorite vendors.

    “They have a whole family aspect that we have in our business as well,” he says.

    Sepers buys RocketLiners from Van Belle. These massive plugs are heavier and deeper than the typical liner, with a well-developed root system. Sepers likes how the root system is more like getting the value of a one-gallon plant in a much smaller liner. And the way Van Belle stands behind their liners by shipping them without pots really impresses Sepers.

    “What they’re doing with the FloGo shipping is they’re de-potting the plants and sending them across the country as basically dirt in boxes,” Sepers says. “A lot of people couldn’t do that because of the development of the root systems on the product you’re getting. Van Belle is fully confident that what they’re sending you isn’t going to fall apart in transit.”

    Aside from getting a stronger liner that is further along with a better-developed root system, the other advantage of pot-less shipping includes an increase in profitability.

    “It saves money on the whole labor side of it and the freight too,” he says. “I mean, you’re shipping weight for the most part.”

    The labor savings impact the bottom line by reducing the time spent planting the liners and getting them out to the field. The nursery constantly strives to become more efficient, searching for answers to questions like how long it takes to do a task well or how fast can the workers complete the task and still do it the right way.

    “At a production nursery like ours, time is everything,” he says. “I think that they are leading the pack there because it saves us so much time.”

    Van Belle is a Canadian young plant supplier that has developed a reputation as a problem solver. The company designed and patented the propagation tray for RocketLiners and found a better way to ship them with the FloGo system. The system uses 100% recycled cardboard boxes and fits more plants on a pallet, saves freight costs and labor costs because there is no longer a plastic pot to wrestle off and throw away.

    “If I had to take plants off a pallet and then have to take them out of a box and then take them out of a plastic tray or another plastic pot, I end up with a load of trash and it’s time consuming,” Sepers says. “Our people get paid here by the hour. For us to streamline our production and keep our operations flowing, this makes it way easier.”

    For more: sepersnursery.com; vanbelle.com

    John Barone is the owner of Barone Gardens, a multi-faceted New York business. He added a retail garden center in 1990 and a production greenhouse in 1991, which became the dominant force driving the business. The greenhouse produces plants for wholesale and retail applications, and Barone sells them to regional IGCs and in his own store.

    Barone is also a young plant propagator for plant breeders like Suntory and Syngenta. Barone’s young plants are predominantly distributed throughout the Northeast, but are steadily spreading throughout the country.

    The three different mixes he uses from Lambert Peat Moss are a key factor to Barone’s plant production. A Lambert mix is used in everything from finished material to the greenhouse’s Ellepot system. Barone says his business has been using Lambert growing mixes for about 20 years. He’s had a long relationship with Jeff Bishop, a sales representative for Lambert, and was unhappy with his previous growing media situation.

    “I decided to try that and I’ve been quite pleased with it,” Barone says. “And I haven’t had any reason to switch ever since. It’s competitively-priced; it’s been an excellent product. I haven’t had any problems at all with it.”

    The Lambert mixes help increase profitability for his operation because the company is easy to work with, they’re priced competitively and they’re reliable.

    “Supply has always been there, the response has always been there and it’s just worked and it’s worked very well,” Barone says.

    Barone recently opened Hot House Brewing, after acquiring a New York state farm brewery license. He’d been interested in growing hops in his greenhouse with the aid of LED lighting. Traditionally grown outdoors during the fall, he had a vision of greenhouse-grown hops producing multiple harvests per year. Longtime friends Tim Parkhurst and Paul Richer brought the homebrewing knowledge.

    “It’s been a great crossover,” he says. “We’ve had no complaints that we opened a brewery, quite the opposite. It opened up another, younger demographic that we hadn’t been getting.”

    Along with the brewery, Barone has opened a bistro to serve sandwiches, charcuterie boards and hot pretzels to his brewery’s customers. He’s devoted about 5,000 square feet to producing baby greens, which are used in the bistro’s popular panini sandwiches. As locally-sourced ingredients and the farm-to-table movement become more popular, interest has spiked in the bistro.

    “Especially with everything that’s happened with the pandemic, you kind of look at yourself and say, ‘Are we essential?’ This year is proof that we are, but I still felt that growing and producing produce was just a good fit for the business,” Barone says.

    Barone uses Lambert mixes for the produce and the hops, too, and says that has worked out very well.

    “We’ve been extremely happy working with them over the years,” he says. “They’re good people to work with, a good family, just a good group of guys.”

    For more: www.bgardens.com; www.lambertpeatmoss.com

    Spring Meadow Nursery is eager to roll out the latest innovations to dazzle growers and garden centers alike, and that’s no exception when it comes to its newest Proven Winners® ColorChoice® Hydrangea paniculata collection.

    Timothy Kane, inventory/marketing manager at Prides Corner Farms in Lebanon, Connecticut, is sure the three new H. paniculata varieties, Fire Light Tidbit™, Limelight Prime™ and Quick Fire Fab™, will be a hit among consumers.

    Kane shared some of the new improvements that hydrangea enthusiasts can expect from the new varieties. Hydrangea Limelight Prime™ (pictured) is more compact than its Limelight™ predecessor and, according to Kane, has darker foliage, stronger stems, and a more useful, upright, form. Limelight Prime™ hydrangea also maintains its green flower color longer, as well as displays better flower color when the blooms age to deep pink. He notes that Quick Fire Fab™ is still an early bloomer, but is more compact with larger, fuller blooms that emerge green and age to pink from the bottom up. Firelight Tidbit™ is a heavy bloomer with large flowers on a dwarf, bun-shaped habit. The rounded blooms emerge light green-white and age to pink. Kane says all have something really big to bring to the table.

    “2021 is going to be a big year for new Hydrangea paniculata releases. Proven Winners® ColorChoice® is introducing three new varieties and we’re going to roll out a fair amount,” he says. “We really think it’s going to be great.”

    The new varieties are improvements on their predecessors, and Kane considers these new shrubs to be “the next generation” of the paniculata line. Early access to new plants is something that Spring Meadow reserves for their high-volume, licensed growers.

    “We’re Gold Key growers, so we’re given the first opportunity to get these plants before a lot of other growers, and it’s a great thing to have this exclusivity,” he says.

    According to Kane, when a small number of growers can hit the market first with new varieties, it gives them a competitive edge. But they have to agree to grow enough plants to provide adequate supply. As a licensed grower for the brand, Prides’ has permission to propagate the hydrangeas, which they will do in the future, but for the first go-around they purchased liners from Spring Meadow.

    “We planted thousands of these earlier in the spring, and they are doing exceedingly well,” he says.

    Spring Meadow’s marketing for the three new varieties began with an announcement at Cultivate’20 Virtual and will continue to ramp up as the season progresses. All efforts directing growers and garden retailers to its Gold Key growers for supply.

    “We’ve been promoting these plants since the beginning of the year, even though we were not going to be selling them until next spring. We just wanted to give people the heads up about these great new plants,” Kane says. “They’re really going to complement what people are already handling at their garden centers.”

    Kane says the lasting familiarity and the beauty of the variety is what keeps customers — and growers — interested in hydrangeas.

    “It’s one of those plants that really resonates with the gardener. I mean, it’s instantly recognizable, and I think sometimes people measure their gardening season against these plants and look forward to them blooming at a particular time,” he says.

    He also notes that they are easy to grow, which helps draw in the customers. Kane says the lasting popularity also has everything to do with consistent consumer and retailer demand.

    “The fact of the matter is, people that run garden centers — a lot of times — buy plants they like and hope that the consumer buys them,” he says. “But in the case of the hydrangea, they’re buying plants because the consumer knows them, and they want to buy them.”

    Kane notes that, while there are many different plants out there, Proven Winners® ColorChoice® plants are a high-performance, premium product, and Prides Corner Farms prices them as such (as do garden centers) which means better profit margins for all.

    “Proven Winners® ColorChoice® is the biggest brand we sell and quite honestly it’s because they continue to come up with great plants like this and the marketplace continues to support that. That’s important for growers like us — and for retailers — because it gives us an opportunity to make more money on the plants all the way through the chain,” he says.

    For More: LimelightPrimeHydrangea.com; QuickFireFabHydrangea.com; FireLightTidbitHydrangea.com; www.pridescorner.com

    Monrovia uses plastic containers from The HC Companies for general ornamental crops, anything from perennials to conifers and trees to roses.

    Ron Kinney, production resource planning manager with Monrovia in Oregon, says there are several factors that determine whether a container would meet the nursery company’s standards.

    “The main thing that we look at is quality of the container,” Kinney says. “Reliability, as far as availability, and timeliness on deliveries is also key. Pricing is always there too, but quality is definitely the number one for us.”

    Monrovia has production facilities in multiple states, including a 600-acre nursery in Central California, 550-acre nursery in Oregon, 160-acre nursery in Connecticut and 240-acre nursery in Georgia. As spread out as the company is, it’s important that when one of those locations needs containers that the supplier is able to get those containers where they need to be.

    The HC Companies, with manufacturing facilities in Ohio, Florida, Nevada and Canada, produces quarts and trays along with 1-, 2- and 5-gallon containers for Monrovia. That includes the custom green container with the band in another color which bears the Monrovia logo.

    There are several ways Monrovia measures quality in containers. First is color. The brand is known for that exact shade of “Monrovia green” so any container manufacturer must be able to accurately match it. Next, the band placement. It has to be done consistently, placed in nthe same location on the container each time. Third, the quality of the plastic itself. Some plastic containers can be too brittle, which makes them unacceptable for a nursery like Monrovia.

    “Our plants sometimes will sit in the field for up to three years before they’re sold,” Kinney says. “And so they have to be out in the environment with the watering, the fertilizing, the extremes of the cold and the sun and the heat.”

    Kinney says The HC Companies have been a reliable supplier that gets all those quality metrics right.

    Automation is a big deal for Monrovia, as it is for many nurseries across the U.S. More nurseries are using loaders and forks to pick up, move or space containers to cut down on the manual labor costs and add uniformity to the production process. It helps to have a manufacturer that will work with you on any necessary changes to the product as your process changes.

    “On occasion, their upper management will come out and visit us, tour the nursery and see how we use the pots, how they go through our canning machines, how we move them around in the field,” he says. “Automation is big now in the nursery business. So in some cases we’ve had to have some adjustments to how the containers are made, like a little bit thicker lip on the top part of the can. They’re always willing to help us out with improvements to the container as well.”

    For more: monrovia.com; hc-companies.com


    Pioneer and fibrous root seasonal dynamics of Vitis vinifera L. are affected by biochar application …

    10 August, 2020
     

    The rhizobox method unveiled a unimodal seasonal pattern of grapevine root growth.

    Biochar increased soil pH and nutrient concentration, while reducing bulk density.

    Treated soil promoted an earlier root production in terms of number and length.

    Biochar increased the soil water content during the harsh summer period

    In summer, treated plants lowered the number of fibrous roots.

    The rhizobox method unveiled a unimodal seasonal pattern of grapevine root growth.

    Biochar increased soil pH and nutrient concentration, while reducing bulk density.

    Treated soil promoted an earlier root production in terms of number and length.

    Biochar increased the soil water content during the harsh summer period

    In summer, treated plants lowered the number of fibrous roots.

    The present work analyzes the impact of biochar-induced modification of soil physico-chemical properties on intra-annual growth dynamics of pioneer and fibrous grapevine roots. A scanner inserted into a buried rhizobox with a transparent side facing the plant root system was used to acquire images of pioneer and fibrous roots of control and biochar-treated plants throughout the vegetative season. Images were analyzed with ImageJ software to measure root traits. Biochar treatment increased soil pH, nutrient concentration, and water content during the driest and warmest period, while bulk density was reduced. Analysis of both pioneer and fibrous root traits highlighted a single peak of growth during the vegetative season. Pioneer roots were thicker and grew faster than fibrous roots, which were longer and more numerous. Amelioration of physico-chemical properties of biochar-amended soil stimulated an earlier root lengthening, and a higher root number at the onset of the season, which resulted in a greater canopy development compared to control plants. Later, in summer, as a consequence of the higher water content of biochar-treated soil, plants modified their root architecture, lowering the number of fibrous roots probably because of the reduced need to exploit soil for water and nutrient uptake.

    Present address: Department of Chemistry and Biology ‘A. Zambelli’, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.


    Australia New Zealand Biochar Initiative

    10 August, 2020
     

    Australia New Zealand as global leaders in the sustainable production and use of biochar

    Australia New Zealand as global leaders in the sustainable production and use of biochar

    Australia New Zealand as global leaders in the sustainable production and use of biochar

    Australia New Zealand as global leaders in the sustainable production and use of biochar

    The ANZ Biochar Industry Group (ANZBIG) will facilitate and assist companies, governments and institutions in the effective use and production of Biochar. ANZBIG will focus and streamline Biochar education, research, collaboration and commercialisation activities to provide better outcomes for the societies of Australia and New Zealand.

    The global biochar market size is estimated to reach USD 3.1 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc.. It is expected to expand at a CAGR of 13.2% over the forecast period.

    A summary of the great benefits we can offer our members.

    Support/ initiate adaptation of legal regulations regarding production and usage of biochar

    Provide relevant market information for members and for publications

    Increase the level of awareness of biochar and its commercial and environmental benefits

    Develop and establish scientifically sound standards for biochar for different applications in industry (based on EBC)

    Get notified of events, news and projects


    Global Wood Vinegar Market- Industry Analysis and forecast 2019 – 2027: By Method, Application …

    10 August, 2020
     

    Global Wood Vinegar Market size was valued US$ XX Mn. in 2019 and the total revenue is expected to grow at 5.30% from 2019 to 2027, reaching nearly US$ XX Mn.

     

    The report study has analyzed the revenue impact of COVID -19 pandemic on the sales revenue of market leaders, market followers, and market disrupters in the report, and the same is reflected in our analysis.

    Wood vinegar is a non-toxic and biodegradable material and has found usage in animal feeds & agriculture and a good source for acetic acids. It is considered as one of the good choices for organic farming. Acetic acids account for 6 to 7% of overall ingredients and nearly 70% of natural matter. Also, vinegar comprises 80 to 90% water and over 200 organic compounds. Wood vinegar is used as a germicide because of the presence of germicidal ingredients like high acidity property.

    Global Wood vinegar market revenue is expected to grow at a rapid growth rate, over 2019-2027. Low manufacturing cost, growing application of wood vinegar among many industries, the potential for waste management, and expanding the food industry are some of the major factors that can boost the demand for wood vinegar during the forecast period. Also, research and development initiatives to develop advanced products provide vast opportunities for industry participants. Technological development is a major trend being observed in the market for wood vinegar. With the rapid innovations in technology, advanced and well pyrolysis kiln methods have been developed for the production of wood vinegar or biochar. On the other hand, government regulation on charcoal production is expected to hamper the wood vinegar market growth. Likewise, the report contains a detailed study of factors that will drive and restrain the growth of the wood vinegar market globally.

     

    Request For View Sample Report Page :@ https://www.maximizemarketresearch.com/request-sample/66938/

    The MMR report covers the segments in the wood vinegar market such as method and application. Based on the method, the slow pyrolysis segment dominated the market, with market size of US$ XX Mn in 2019 and to reach US$ XX Mn by 2027, with a CAGR of XX.12%. The benefit of the slow pyrolysis method is the flexibility in the usage of feedstock in residues of agricultural & biorefinery. By application, the agriculture segment of wood vinegar is expected to grow at the highest CAGR of XX.20% and is expected to reach a value of US$ XX Mn. by 2027. This is because of the wide use in pesticides and fertilizers for the prevention of insect attacks on crops.

    Asia Pacific wood vinegar market was valued US$ XX million in 2019 and is expected to reach a value of US$ XX million by 2027, with a CAGR of XX.89% during the forecast period. APAC is the largest producer and user of wood vinegar. Approximately 80% of worldwide wood vinegar produced in Asia in 2019. North America and Europe boost the wood vinegar market because of the high rate of technological developments. Lack of government policies and a low level of awareness in major economies is a big hurdle for the growth of the market for wood vinegar.

    The research study includes the profiles of leading companies operating in the global wood vinegar market. In 2017, Pyrotech Energy Pty Ltd Company is an Australian Energy Firm which is specified in the Biomass Field has set up a partnership with Nettenergy BV for its Nettenergy’s Pyroflash Technology.

    The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive analysis of the Global Wood Vinegar Market including all the stakeholders of the industry. The past and current status of the industry with forecasted market size and trends are presented in the report with the analysis of complicated data in simple language. The report covers all the aspects of the industry with a dedicated study of key players that includes market leaders, followers, and new entrants. PORTER, SVOR, PESTEL analysis with the potential impact of micro-economic factors of the market has been presented in the report. External as well as internal factors that are supposed to affect the business positively or negatively have been analyzed, which will give a clear futuristic view of the industry to the decision-makers.
    The report also helps in understanding Global Wood Vinegar Market dynamics, structure by analyzing the market segments and projects the Global Wood Vinegar Market size. Clear representation of competitive analysis of key players by Application, price, financial position, Product portfolio, growth strategies, and regional presence in the Global Wood Vinegar Market make the report investor’s guide.
    Scope of the Global Wood Vinegar Market

    Global Wood Vinegar Market, By Application

    • Agriculture
    • Animal-Feed
    • Food, Medicinal, and Consumer Products
    • Others
    Global Wood Vinegar Market, By Method

    • Slow Pyrolysis
    • Intermediate Pyrolysis
    • Fast Pyrolysis
    Global Wood Vinegar Market, By Region

    • Asia Pacific
    • North America
    • Europe
    • South America
    • Middle East & Africa
    Key players operating in Global Wood Vinegar Market

    • ACE (Singapore) Pte Ltd
    • Canada Renewable Bioenergy Corp.
    • Nettenergy Bv
    • Tagrow Co., Ltd.
    • Byron Biochar
    • Kerry Group PLC
    • New Life Agro
    • Verdi Life
    • Red Arrow International LLC,
    • Nakashima Trading Co. Ltd.
    • Penta Manufacturer
    • Doi & Co., Ltd
    • XX
    • XX

    North America key players:

    • Canada Renewable Bioenergy Corp
    • Doi & Co., Ltd
    • XX
    • XX

    APAC key players:

    • Tagrow Co., Ltd
    • ACE (Singapore) Pte Ltd
    • Nettenergy Bv
    • XX
    • XX

    Major Table Wood Vinegar Market of Contents Report

     

    1. Preface
    1.1. Report Scope and Market Segmentation
    1.2. Research Highlights
    1.3. Research Objectives

    2. Assumptions and Research Methodology
    2.1. Report Assumptions
    2.2. Abbreviations
    2.3. Research Methodology
    2.3.1. Secondary Research
    2.3.1.1. Secondary data
    2.3.1.2. Secondary Sources
    2.3.2. Primary Research
    2.3.2.1. Data from Primary Sources
    2.3.2.2. Breakdown of Primary Sources

    3. Executive Summary: Global Wood Vinegar Market Size, by Market Value (US$ Mn)

    4. Market Overview
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. Market Indicator
    4.2.1. Drivers
    4.2.2. Restraints
    4.2.3. Opportunities
    4.2.4. Challenges
    4.3. Porter’s Analysis
    4.4. Value Chain Analysis
    4.5. Market Risk Analysis
    4.6. SWOT Analysis
    4.7. Industry Trends and Emerging Technologies

    5. Supply Side and Demand Side Indicators

    6. Global Wood Vinegar Market Analysis and Forecast
    6.1. Wood Vinegar Market Size & Y-o-Y Growth Analysis
    6.1.1. North America
    6.1.2. Europe
    6.1.3. Asia Pacific
    6.1.4. Middle East & Africa
    6.1.5. South America

    Browse Full Report with Facts and Figures of Wood Vinegar Market Report at: https://www.maximizemarketresearch.com/market-report/global-wood-vinegar-market/66938/

    About Us:

     

    Maximize Market Research provides B2B and B2C market research on 20,000 high growth emerging technologies & opportunities in Chemical, Healthcare, Pharmaceuticals, Electronics & Communications, Internet of Things, Food and Beverages, Aerospace and Defense and other manufacturing sectors.

     

    Contact info:

     

    Name: Vikas Godage

    Organization: Maximize Market Research Pvt. Ltd.

    Email: sales@maximizemarketresearch.com

    Contact: +919607065656 / +919607195908

    Website: www.maximizemarketresearch.com

    Twitter : Maximize Market Research at : https://twitter.com/MMR_Business

     

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    Biochar: Sustainable Forest Fertilisation on AllEvents.in | Online Events

    11 August, 2020
     

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    Influence of Different Rates of Fertilizer and Biochar on Growth and Yield of Carrot

    11 August, 2020
     

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    Making biochar from sawdust

    11 August, 2020
     


    A study on the mixture repairing effect of biochar and nano iron oxide on toxicity of Cd toward …

    11 August, 2020
     

    Cd content in fruits of all treated groups were significantly reduced.

    Compared to γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4, biochar and α-Fe2O3 NPs are more suitable foralleviating cadmium toxicity.

    Biochar combined with α-Fe2O3 NPs could alleviated the oxidative damage of melon produced by Cd2+.

    Cd content in fruits of all treated groups were significantly reduced.

    Compared to γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4, biochar and α-Fe2O3 NPs are more suitable foralleviating cadmium toxicity.

    Biochar combined with α-Fe2O3 NPs could alleviated the oxidative damage of melon produced by Cd2+.

    Soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious problem, adversely affecting food safety and human health. Effective methods are urgently needed to alleviate toxicity of Cd in plants. In this study, a nine-week continuous pot experiments was conducted to explore the effectiveness of the different nano iron oxide (α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4) alone and combined with biochar in muskmelon grown on a Cd-contaminated soil. The antioxidant system, chlorophyll, soluble protein, other physiological indexes of muskmelon leaves and the distribution of Cd in matrix soil, leaves and fruit were detected. The results showed that Cd was readily absorbed by plants and caused oxidative stress on plants, while biochar, α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) and their mixture group (BFe1 group) could significantly improve it. Specifically, the three treatments reduced the Cd content of the fruit by 19.51-78.86%, reduced the Cd content of leaves by 15.44-36.23% and 22.36-31.77% in weeks 3 and 5, respectively. For the activity of enzymes, three treatments decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase (CAT) activity by 3.41-38.57% and 24.27-30.33% in week 7, respectively. So BFe1 group application immobilized Cd in soil and reduced Cd partitioning in the aboveground tissues. Overall the combination of biochar and α-Fe2O3 NPs can alleviate Cd toxicity in muskmelon and can protect human beings from Cd exposure.

    This paper has been recommended for acceptance by Dr. Jörg Rinklebe.

    Co-first authors


    A study on the mixture repairing effect of biochar and nano iron oxide on toxicity of Cd toward …

    11 August, 2020
     

    Soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious problem, adversely affecting food safety and human health. Effective methods are urgently needed to alleviate toxicity of Cd in plants. In this study, a nine-week continuous pot experiments was conducted to explore the effectiveness of the different nano iron oxide (α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4) alone and combined with biochar in muskmelon grown on a Cd-contaminated soil. The antioxidant system, chlorophyll, soluble protein, other physiological indexes of muskmelon leaves and the distribution of Cd in matrix soil, leaves and fruit were detected. The results showed that Cd was readily absorbed by plants and caused oxidative stress on plants, while biochar, α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) and their mixture group (BFe1 group) could significantly improve it. Specifically, the three treatments reduced the Cd content of the fruit by 19.51-78.86%, reduced the Cd content of leaves by 15.44-36.23% and 22.36-31.77% in weeks 3 and 5, respectively. For the activity of enzymes, three treatments decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase (CAT) activity by 3.41-38.57% and 24.27-30.33% in week 7, respectively. So BFe1 group application immobilized Cd in soil and reduced Cd partitioning in the aboveground tissues. Overall the combination of biochar and α-Fe2O3 NPs can alleviate Cd toxicity in muskmelon and can protect human beings from Cd exposure.

     


    Immobilization of heavy metals in biochar derived from co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and calcium …

    11 August, 2020
     

    Appropriate CaSO4 dose for HMs immobilization is in the range of 0.01 to 0.075.

    Suitable temperatures for HMs immobilization are 750 ℃ (Cr/Pb/ Zn) and 350℃ (Cu/Ni).

    The optimal holding time for HMs immobilization are 60 min (Cr/Cu) and 15 min (Pb/Ni/Zn).

    Improvement in HMs immobilization is due to more crystals, pores, and tiny particles.

    Appropriate CaSO4 dose for HMs immobilization is in the range of 0.01 to 0.075.

    Suitable temperatures for HMs immobilization are 750 ℃ (Cr/Pb/ Zn) and 350℃ (Cu/Ni).

    The optimal holding time for HMs immobilization are 60 min (Cr/Cu) and 15 min (Pb/Ni/Zn).

    Improvement in HMs immobilization is due to more crystals, pores, and tiny particles.

    The effects of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) dosage (mass ratio of CaSO4 to sludge), pyrolysis temperature and holding time on speciation distribution of Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn in biochar derived from co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and CaSO4 were investigated. The appropriate CaSO4 dosages for better immobilization of different heavy metals were 0.075 (Cr), 0.025 (Pb), 0.025 (Cu), 0.025 (Ni), and 0.01(Zn), respectively. The corresponding proportions of heavy metals in stable state (oxidizable and residue fractions) were 96.99%, 89.23%, 99.55%, 87.43%, and 54.33%. The high pyrolysis temperature (750 ℃) was conducive to immobilization of Cr, Pb and Zn, while the percentages of Cu and Ni in stable state were higher at low pyrolysis temperature (350 ℃). The suitable holding time was 60 min (Cr, Cu) and 15 min (Pb, Ni and Zn), respectively. The characterization of samples showed that suitable pyrolysis temperature and holding time could promote the formation of crystals and spherical or ellipsoidal particles in biochar, and pyrolysis of aliphatic to form more mesopores and macropores, resulting in immobilization of more heavy metals. During co-pyrolysis process, CaSO4 was easily decomposed and generated CaS, CaO, CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2, which were beneficial to the immobilization of heavy metals.


    Assessment of Bioavailability of Biochar-Sorbed Tetracycline to Escherichia coli for Activation of …

    11 August, 2020
     

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    Can biochar amendment be an ecological engineering technology to depress N2O emission in rice …

    11 August, 2020
     

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    Global Wood Vinegar Industry Market Size will Observe Substantial Growth by 2027

    11 August, 2020
     

    A newly published market study by Fior Markets, titled Global Wood Vinegar Industry Market, highlights many aspects of the industry along with a complete study of the business sectors. The report is built up with a step by step analysis from expert research. The report takes into consideration the major regional market situations, key driving factors, major competitors, and the size & scope of the market. The report comprises a wide-broadening valid evaluation for the client to identify future complicity and gauge the right execution strategy for prediction period from 2020 to 2027. The report delivers an analysis of the global Wood Vinegar Industry market industry status where error-free calculations of the market are included based on past and present estimates.

    NOTE: Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explains that the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers post COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry. 

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    Market Rundown:

    The report offers a close summary of the main driver, opportunities, challenges, current market trends, and strategies impacting the global market. It then projects the robust future growth of the Wood Vinegar Industry market with the relevant findings. Our team of experts has compiled the industry data components and represented them in the form of pie-charts, tables, systematic overview, and product diagrams. With this report, you will be able to understand the degree of competition within the industry, demand-supply statistics, competition with other emerging industries, and future prospects of the Wood Vinegar Industry industry. While developing this report, its basic data, the basic parts responsible for the enthusiasm for its items, and organizations were considered.

    Key companies profiled in the market report are Tagrow, Taiko Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., DaeSeung, VerdiLife LLC, Nettenergy B.V., Applied Gaia, Sigma Aldrich, Agribolics Technology Sdn Bhd, and Byron Biochar and more in terms of company basic information, product introduction, application, specification, production, revenue, price, and gross margin.

    Regional Spread:

    The users of this report will also find the geographical regions that are playing an important role in enhancing the growth and development of the Wood Vinegar Industry market. Then, the report has covered vital information regarding supply and demand, market development enhancers, market share, sales distributors in a very formal pattern. The research study encompasses the value that each region contributes collectively along with the anticipated regional market share. The key countries in each region are taken into consideration as well, such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, and the Middle East and Africa.

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    Biochar Market is Thriving with Rising Latest Trends by 2026 | Top Players-Cool Planet, Pacific …

    11 August, 2020
     

    Biochar Market is the most promising market research report which has been framed in the way you foresee.  As today’s businesses insist the market research analysis before taking any verdict about the products, opting such market research report is essential for the businesses. This Biochar Market research report deals with an array of important market related aspects which can be listed as follows; market size estimations, company and market best practices, entry level strategies, market dynamics, positioning, segmentations, competitive landscaping and benchmarking, opportunity analysis, economic forecasting, industry-specific technology solutions, roadmap analysis, and in-depth benchmarking of vendor offerings.

    Global biochar market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026. Rising consumption of livestock feed and rapidly growing agricultural industry are the major factors for the growth of this market.

    Click to get Global Biochar Market Research Sample PDF Copy Here https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

    Biochar is usually formed when biomass like wood leaves or manure are heated or burned in the presence of oxygen. They are usually formed by a process called pyrolysis and are widely used to improve the quality of the soil and mitigate climate change. Biochar have the ability to convert carbon into stable form and is cleaner than the other form of charcoal. They are widely used in applications like gardening, agriculture, electricity generation etc. Increasing demand of biochar in greenhouse gas remediation is the major factor fuelling the growth of this market.

    Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

    Global Biochar Market By Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Microwave Pyrolysis, Cookstove and Others)

    Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household, Electricity Generation)

    Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Animal Manure, Forestry Waste, Biomass Plantation)

    Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa)

    Key Developments in the Market:

    In April 2016, ICEM announced the launch of their Interactive GMS Biochar and Soil Mapping Tool. This GMS has the ability to identify the regions which is highly suitable for the production of the biochar. This also have the feature to zoom into the areas for a more deeper view

    In April 2014, VEGA BIOFUELS, INC announced that they have acquired Biochar Now, LLC so that they can expand their business in United States and in other parts of the country. This acquisition will help the VEGA to produce better quality product strengthening their position in the market place

    Table Of Contents Is Available Here @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

    Competitive Landscape:

    The Biochar Market report contains an in-depth profiling of the key market players, along with the recent developments (New product launches, partnerships, agreements, collaborations, and joint ventures) and strategies adopted by them to sustain and strengthen their positions in the market.

    Top Players- Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture

    With the help of market insights covered in this Biochar Market document, manufacturer and dealers can find out the best way of reaching the potential customers. Also, the defects in the existing product can be discovered and the required corrective steps to improve the product can be taken. With this report, effectiveness of the existing channels of distribution can be uncovered and the most excellent way of distributing the goods to the ultimate consumers can be identified or implemented. The market insights of this Biochar Market report make the task of planning advertising and sales promotion efforts easy and are also helpful in assessing the effectiveness of advertising programmes.

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    Important Questions Answered in Biochar Market Report:-

    What will the market growth rate, overview, and analysis by type of Biochar Market in 2026?

    What are the key factors driving, analysis by applications and countries Biochar Market?

    What are dynamics, this overview includes analysis of scope and price analysis of top vendors profiles of Biochar Market?

    What are opportunities, risk and driving force of Biochar Market?

    Who are the opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in Biochar Market?

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    ARS Helps Farmers and Ranchers Prospect for Non-Fossil Oil and Gas

    11 August, 2020
     

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    Agricultural producers may soon hit a trifecta – the ability to clean up the environment, reduce dependence on fossil fuel, and create a new source of income.

    Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists are helping farmers and ranchers convert farm and ranch leftovers and waste to sources of bioenergy (oil and gas), and high-value by-products.

    The researchers are testing a mobile thermo-catalytic system that brings refining to the farm, by employing pyrolysis to create crude bio-oil and bio-char. Pyrolysis uses heat in a no-oxygen environment to rapidly decompose organic material.

    According to Charles Mullen, research chemist at ARS’ Eastern Regional Research Center (ERRC), slow pyrolysis has been around for centuries as the traditional way to make charcoal. ERRC’s research has focused on speeding up the process by increasing the temperature to about 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

    The research team developed the Combustion Reduction Integrated Pyrolysis System (CRIPS) mobile pyrolysis system, which travels to farms and converts feedstocks to bio-oil. The research unit can run “off-the-grid” and process low-value crop leftovers like grasses grown on marginal-quality lands, forest residues, and animal manure.

    CRIPS breaks down about 80% of the plant material into vapors, 50-60% of which condense into bio-oil. The 20% of biomass that does not vaporize becomes bio-char. The vapors that do not condense are combustible gas. Burning this gas and some of the bio-char provides enough energy to power the process.

    Mullen said that fast pyrolysis is a possible first step to making fuels that are exactly like those produced from petroleum, such as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel.

    The CRIPS system can produce bio-oil that can be upgraded, with a final output of about 40 gallons of gasoline-quality fuel per 1,000 pounds of dry farm waste.

    “In addition to producing fuel-grade chemicals, we have also developed methods that purify potential chemical products from the bio-oil,” Mullen said. An especially promising product is bio-coke, a biobased carbon solid that could be a higher quality replacement for petroleum-coke, a material that is used in the production of aluminum, steel, and other materials.

    “Essentially, what we are really trying to do is exactly what nature does, turn biomass into hydrocarbon fuels,” Mullen said. “We are just trying to speed up the process.”

    USDA will stimulate innovation so that American agriculture can achieve the shared goal of increasing U.S. agricultural production by 40 percent while cutting the environmental footprint of U.S. agriculture in half by 2050.


    Short-term application of biochar increases the amount of fertilizer required to obtain potential yield …

    11 August, 2020
     

    There is little understanding as to whether the addition of biochar requires less fertilizer to obtain the potential yield. Furthermore, the additional yield ascribed to the non-nutrient effects of biochar is ambiguously quantified. Therefore, this study is aimed to elucidate the influence of biochar application rate and production temperature on (i) marginal agronomic efficiency (AELN), (ii) potential yield (Yopt), (iii) the amount of mineral fertilizer required to obtain the potential yield (Fopt); and (iv) nutrient use efficiency. AELN, Yopt and Fopt were calculated after fitting the yield response at different levels of mineral fertilizer with a second-degree polynomial. Application of biochar reduced marginal agronomic efficiency, implying that the plant utilized the applied nutrient more efficiently without biochar at a low dose of mineral fertilizer. Biochar increased potential yield but required more mineral fertilizer to obtain the optimum yield. The non-nutrient associated effect of biochar reached to 39% and is mainly attributed to its liming effect. The effect of biochar on AELN, Yopt, Fopt, fertilizer use efficiency and soil pH were more pronounced at the higher application rate. Addition of biochar, however, increased soil Mehlich-P and carbon content, irrespective of production temperature and application rate. This study demonstrated that the short-term effect of biochar application on fertilizer utilization should be examined with caution in low-input cropping systems because the biochar effects were dependent on fertilizer level, biochar application rate, production temperature and their interactions. Further manipulative experiments are recommended to identify the mechanisms that explain the non-nutrient effect of biochar on yield.

    Biochar—a solid carbonaceous material produced by pyrolysis in an oxygen-limited environment—has attracted increasing attention in recent decades as a way of mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon in soil with the co-benefits of waste management (Woolf et al. 2010). Many studies have also demonstrated the importance of biochar in improving soil functions such as soil fertility (Kätterer et al. 2019), soil microbial activity and diversity (Lehmann et al. 2011), mitigating greenhouse gas emissions (Jeffery et al. 2016), and improving the immobilization and adsorption of pollutants (Zhelezova et al. 2017). Consequently, there is considerable interest in biochar application on soil for long-term carbon sequestration and soil fertility management.

    Several attempts have been made to evaluate the beneficial effect of biochar on crop yield because it is broadly believed that biochar improves all soil fertility dimensions (i.e. physical, chemical and biological properties). However, the existing literature is inconsistent, ranging from negative effects with up to a 28% decrease in yield (Wisnubroto et al. 2010) and no significant effects (Hood-Nowotny et al. 2018) to positive effects with up to a 50% increase in yield (Kätterer et al. 2019). The positive effect of biochar on yield is more pronounced in the tropics (Cornelissen et al. 2018; Jeffery et al. 2017), where the soils are characterized by low carbon content, soil pH, cation exchange capacity and water-holding capacity. Jeffery et al. (2017) conducted a meta-analysis and found that biochar increased yields by 25% in tropical agroecosystems, but its effect was small or negative in temperate regions. Soil type, crop species, biochar properties and environmental conditions have been proposed as explanations for the variations in the literature (Jeffery et al. 2011, 2017).

    The beneficial effect of biochar on yield is correlated with an overall improvement in soil quality, such as soil pH and nutrient availability (Cornelissen et al. 2018), soil structure and water-holding capacity (Blanco-Canqui 2017; Hood-Nowotny et al. 2018). However, no studies have been conducted to explicitly identify the non-nutrient effects of biochar on yield. In other words, an investigation is needed as to whether biochar has an additional yield effect at the optimum nutrient level. The interactive effect of biochar and mineral fertilizer on yield and nutrient uptake has recently been studied (Alburquerque et al. 2013; Güereña et al. 2015; Huang et al. 2018; Sarfraz et al. 2017), but the reports are inconclusive. Nutrient release from biochar (Cornelissen et al. 2018) and the positive priming effect of biochar on native soil organic matter are well documented (Fang et al. 2019). Consequently, the addition of biochar is expected to decrease the amount of mineral fertilizer required to obtain the optimum yield. To the authors’ knowledge, no studies have been conducted to support such a claim. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether biochar influences marginal agronomic efficiency, that is, an increase in yield per unit of mineral fertilizer at a low dose. These knowledge gaps imply that the interactive effect of biochar and mineral fertilizer needs further investigation. Understanding this biochar-mineral fertilizer interaction is essential to elucidate when and how biochar-based soil management practices have a positive effect on yield.

    The positive effect of biochar on yield has been observed when biochar is applied at a higher rate (Huang et al. 2018; Kätterer et al. 2019) and nutrient-rich materials such as poultry litter are used as feedstock (Jeffery et al. 2011). Lignocellulosic materials, which are low in nutrient content, are the main biochar feedstock. Application of lignocellulosic biochar in large quantities could influence the fate of mineral fertilizer (i.e. immobilization, ammonia volatilization) (Ameloot et al. 2015; Huang et al. 2018), thereby determining the yield response curve. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to clarify the influence of biochar application rate and production temperature on (i) the potential yield (Yopt), that is the yield obtained when no nutrients are limiting crop production, (ii) the amount of fertilizer required to obtain the potential yield (Fopt), and (iii) an increase in crop yield per unit of mineral fertilizer at a low dose, i.e. marginal agronomic efficiency (AELN). It was hypothesized that: (i) biochar increases Yopt and AELN, with the additional yield at optimum nutrient level explained by the liming effect of biochar, (ii) application of biochar reduces the demand for mineral fertilizer, and (iii) the biochar effect on Yopt, Fopt, and AELN is significant at the higher application rate and production temperature.

    This experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Jimma University in Ethiopia. Soils were collected from cultivated land at a depth of 20 cm. The soils were air-dried, mixed thoroughly and passed through a < 2 mm sieve. The soil used for the experiment was characterized by a pH of 4.5 (1:2.5 soil/water ratio) and 4.0 in 1 M KCl. Total carbon was 19 g kg−1 and total nitrogen was 2.0 g kg−1. Bray II extractable P was 1.4 mg P kg−1 soil. The soil had a maximum P-sorption capacity of 456 mg P kg−1 soil. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) was 41.26 cmolc kg−1 soil, and the Mellich(III)-extractable macronutrient contents were 646.64 mg K kg−1 soil, 1.2 g Ca kg−1 soil, 204 mg Mg kg−1 soil and 11.48 mg S kg−1. The soil had micronutrient contents of 20.28 mg B kg−1, 2.33 mg Cu kg−1, 36.49 mg Fe kg−1, 271.19 mg Mn kg−1, 0.08 mg Mo kg−1, 6.12 mg Zn kg−1 and 1.43 mg Co kg−1. The texture was 50% clay, 48% silt and 2% sand, and the soil had a bulk density of 1.02 g cm−3.

    Coffee husks were collected from the university’s farmland and the biochar was prepared at temperatures of 300 °C and 500 °C with a residence time of three hours. The biochar was ground and passed through a 0.25 mm sieve prior to application. The biochar produced at 300 °C was characterized by pH-H2O (9.68), EC (4.7 mS cm −1), CEC (36.30 meq/100 g), ash (24.05%). Similarly, biochar produced at 500 °C was characterized by pH-H2O (10.55), EC (6.07 mS cm −1), CEC (48.30 meq/100 g), ash (29.80%).

    Five kg of soil was filled into each pot (0.18 m diameter, 0.2 m height) and mixed thoroughly with the biochar. The moisture content of the pot was maintained at 60% water-holding capacity (WHC) throughout the experimental period. Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), variety Mareko Fana, was used as the test crop. This variety was selected because of its high productivity and adaptability to wide ranges of climate conditions.

    Previous studies by the authors have shown that the measurable effects of biochar addition are observed with a higher application rate, particularly for soil with a high buffering capacity. Therefore, biochar produced at 300 °C and 500 °C was applied at two rates: 6 t ha−1 and 18 t ha−1. Treatment without biochar was also included. To determine the biochar-fertilizer interaction effect and the nutrient response curve, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied at three rates: (i) without mineral fertilizer, (ii) 60 kg urea ha−1 and 60 kg DAP ha−1 and (iii) 100 kg urea ha−1 and 100 kg DAP ha−1. These mineral fertilizer rates correspond to 60% and 100% of the recommended rate for Capsicum annuum (EIAR 2007). Therefore, the experiment had five biochar-based treatments and three mineral fertilizer rates, which were replicated four times.

    Biochar produced at 300 °C did not fulfil the criteria described in Sect. 2.3 when it was applied at the rate of 6 t ha−1. Therefore, only the four biochar-based treatments were included to study the effect of biochar on AELN, Fopt and Yopt. These treatments were: (i) control (without biochar), (ii) biochar produced at 500 °C and applied at the rate of 6 t ha−1, (iii) biochar produced at 500 °C and applied at the rate of 18 t ha−1, and (iv) biochar produced at 300 °C and applied at the rate of 18 t ha−1.

    Oelofse et al. (2015) and Schjønning et al. (2018) describe the detail of the calculations to estimate potential yield (Yopt), marginal agronomic efficiency (AELN) and the amount of mineral fertilizer required to obtain the potential yield (Fopt). Briefly, the measured yield data across each mineral fertilizer rate were fitted with a second-degree polynomial function:

    where Y is the fruit yield (g pot−1), IF is the amount of mineral fertilizer applied (g) and a, b, and c are estimates from least-squares fitting of Eq. (1). The coefficient, a, in Eq. (1) represents the yield without application of mineral fertilizer (Y0). The first derivative of Eq. (1) is expressed as:

    When no inorganic fertilizer is applied, Eq. (2) becomes:

    Hence, the coefficient, b (g g−1), provides an estimate of the marginal agronomic efficiency (AELN), i.e. the increase in yield per unit of mineral fertilizer at a low dose. The amount of fertilizer required to obtain the potential yield (Fopt) is calculated from the first derivative (i.e. Eq. 2). Fopt is the value of (IF) which makes the first derivative equal to zero.

    The potential yield (Yopt) was then calculated by inserting the value of Fopt into Eq. (1). The potential yield assumes no nutrients are limiting crop production.

    The difference in Yopt between biochar-treated soils and the control (without biochar) indicated the non-nutrient effect of the biochar. It has been debated whether quadratic models for the nutrient response curve can provide reliable estimates of Yopt (Schjønning et al. 2018), however, the error occurs when the fertilizer response curve includes data far above Fopt (Schjønning et al. 2018), which was not the case in the present study.

    Data were, however, excluded when: (i) the nutrient response curve fitted well to the linear function (r2 > 0.97) (Oelofse et al. 2015) and (ii) the estimated potential yield was considerably higher than the yield obtained at the maximum inorganic fertilizer application rate (Schjønning et al. 2018). In both cases the calculated potential yield was unreliable. Accordingly, the data from biochar produced at 300 °C and applied at 6 t ha−1 were excluded from the analysis. However, it was still possible to determine the effect of biochar application rate and production temperature using the remaining treatments. Nutrient use efficiency (NUE) is defined as a measure of fruit nutrient uptake per kg nutrient applied. Here, nutrient use efficiency (i.e. of both nitrogen and phosphorus) was calculated as the slope of a linear regression of fruit nutrient content against the amount of nutrient applied. R2 values below 0.97 were excluded from the analysis (Oelofse et al. 2015).

    The biochar effect was calculated as follows:

    Soil pH was determined from a soil-to-water ratio of 1:2.5 (w/v), while biochar pH was measured from the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) (ASTM Standard 2009). Electrical conductivity (EC) was analyzed using a soil-to-water ratio of 1:5 (w/v). Soil texture was determined using the hydrometer method after removing soil organic carbon (SOC) by H2O2. SOC was analyzed using the Walkley–Black method, total nitrogen using the Kjeldahl method, and phosphorus using Bray II extraction (Van Reeuwijk 1992). Cation exchange capacity (CEC) was determined using 1 N ammonium acetate (pH = 7.0). At physiological maturity, plant samples were collected, washed, oven-dried at 65 °C, ground and passed through a 1 mm sieve. The nitrogen and phosphorus contents of tissue were determined by Kjeldahl and calorimetrically using molybdate, respectively. After harvest, soil samples were collected from each treatment, homogenized and passed through a 2 mm sieve. The soil samples were then analyzed for pH, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as described earlier.

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test whether biochar addition influenced yield, nutrient uptake, AELN, Yopt and Fopt. A contrast analysis was conducted using the LSMEANS package to determine the effects of biochar application rate and production temperatures on yield and soil properties. Prior to data analysis, the assumption of homogeneity of variance was checked using Levene’s test, while the Shapiro–Wilk test was used to check the normality. Data on Y0, Yopt and Fopt were log-transformed to fulfil the ANOVA assumptions. All statistical analyses were performed using the R software version 3.6.0.

    The highest yield was observed when biochar produced at 500 °C applied at a rate of 18 t ha−1 in combination with mineral fertilizer, while the lowest value was found with the control (i.e. without the addition of biochar or mineral fertilizer). The output of contrast analysis (Table 1) showed that production temperature and application rate influenced yield (P < 0.001). Production of biochar at 500 °C increased the yield by 30% compared with 300 °C, whereas the application of biochar at 18 t ha−1 increased the yield by 59% compared with the lower rate (6 t ha−1).

    The biochar’s effect on yield ranged from − 40% to + 483%. When biochar alone was applied (i.e. without mineral fertilizer), the biochar ’seffect was between 145% and 483%. However, the biochar’s effect tended to decrease and even reached a negative effect when it was applied in combination with mineral fertilizer. For instance, the biochar’s effect was − 40% when biochar was produced at 300 °C and applied at a lower rate (i.e. 6 t ha−1) in combination with mineral fertilizer (Fig. 1).

    Fruit yield of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) across different biochar application rates, production temperatures and amounts of mineral fertilizers. Control indicates no addition of mineral fertilizer; 60%_RR represents 60 kg ha−1 DAP and 60 kg ha−1 urea; 100%_RR represents 100 kg ha−1 DAP and 100 kg ha−1 Urea; Temp_300 and Temp_500 indicate biochar produced at 300 °C and 500 °C, respectively; 6 t and 18 t represents an application rate of 6 t ha−1 and 18 t ha−1, respectively; different letters indicate significant differences

    The effect of biochar on potential yield (Yopt) was variable and ranged − 4% and 64% (Fig. 2a). The biochar’s effect on Yopt was positive and significant (P < 0.001) when biochar was applied at the higher rate (18 t ha−1) or was produced at the higher temperature, otherwise the biochar’s effect was non-significant. Similarly, the data revealed significant differences (P = 0.003) between the treatments in terms of optimum fertilizer rate (Fopt), i.e. the amount of fertilizer required to obtain the potential yield (Fig. 2b). Biochar increased Fopt, but the biochar’s effect was significant (P = 0.002) when it was applied at the higher rate and produced at a higher temperature. The biochar’s effect on Fopt ranged between 55% and 196%.

    The effect of biochar application rate and production temperature on (a) potential yield at optimum nutrient level (Yopt) and (b) the amount of mineral fertilizer required to obtain the optimum yield (Fopt); ***represents significance at P < 0.001; the control is without biochar; 18 t ha−1_L represents biochar produced at 300 °C; different letters indicate significant differences between treatments

    Application of biochar decreased AELN, irrespective of the application rate and production temperature. Application of biochar at a higher rate (18 t ha−1) decreased (P = 0.002) AELN by 37% compared to the lower rate (6 t ha−1). Similarly, the higher production temperature decreased (P < 0.001) AELN by 50% compared to the lower production temperature. Unlike AELN, the yield without mineral fertilizer (Y0) was increased following the addition of biochar (Fig. 3b). Compared to the control, application of biochar at the higher rate (18 t ha−1) increased Y0 by 171%–483% (P < 0.001), whereas the lower application rate (6 t ha−1) increased Y0 by 146% (P < 0.001). Similarly, the higher production temperature increased Y0 by 115% compared to the lower temperature (P < 0.001).

    The effect of biochar application rate and production temperature on (a) marginal agronomic efficiency (AELN) and (b) yield obtained without the addition of mineral fertilizer (Y0); ***represents significance at P < 0.001; the control is without biochar; 18 t ha−1_L represents biochar produced at 300 °C; different letters indicate significant differences between treatments

    The arrows indicate the calculated values of Yopt and Fopt on the curve. The curve clearly indicates that biochar-treated soil has an additional yield effect at the optimum nutrient level (i.e. non-nutrient effect), consequently the curve has a higher yield at Fopt, labelled as Yopt. The Fopt value has shifted to the right in biochar-amended soils, implying that more mineral fertilizer is required to obtain the optimum yield (Fig.4).

    Nutrient response curves of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) for biochar-treated soils (black circles) and only mineral fertilizers (i.e. without biochar) (white circles). The second-degree polynomial function was used to calculate Yopt and Fopt

    The addition of biochar increased both nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency when applied at a higher rate (Fig. 5). At the lower application rate, however, biochar had a marginal effect (P = 0.053) on phosphorus use efficiency and a non-significant effect (P = 0.72) on nitrogen use efficiency. Production temperature had a non-significant effect on nitrogen use efficiency (P = 0.99) and a marginal effect (0.07) on phosphorus use efficiency.

    Nutrient use efficiency across different biochar application rates and production temperatures; NUE = nitrogen use efficiency; PUE = phosphorus use efficiency; ***represents significance at P < 0.001; capital and small letters represent mean separation for NUE and PUE, respectively; the control is without biochar; 18 t ha−1_L represents biochar produced at 300 °C; different letters indicate significant differences between treatments

    The present data add more evidence to the existing literature, suggesting that biochar has both positive and negative effects on yield in high P-fixing soils. The beneficial effect of biochar was observed when: (i) biochar alone was applied, irrespective of its production temperature and application rate, and (ii) biochar was applied at the higher rate (18 t ha−1) in combination with mineral fertilizer, irrespective of its production temperature. For these treatments, soil pH and Bray II extractable P were 10–15% and 60–108% higher than the control, respectively. Hence, the beneficial effect of biochar at a higher rate was attributed to the liming effect and nutrient availability, particularly of phosphorus. In line with these findings, Kätterer et al. (2019) and Sarfraz et al. (2017) showed a higher maize yield, soil pH and plant-available phosphorus after a decade of biochar application at the rate of > 30 t ha−1.

    The biochar effect was negative (− 40%) or non-significant when biochar was applied at the lower rate (6 t ha−1) in combination with mineral fertilizer (Fig. 1). It is highly unlikely that the potential toxic effect of biochar can explain the negative effects because beneficial effects were observed when biochar alone was applied. The soil had a maximum P-sorption capacity of 456 mg P kg−1 soil, and the addition of biochar at the lower rate had little effect on pH (Fig. 6; Table 1). Thus, the biochar effect may not be enough to reduce P sorption when applied at a lower rate, which explains the non-significant effect of biochar. In addition, soil N content was less than the control (− 20%) when biochar was applied at the lower rate (Table 1). Therefore, immobilization and volatilization could also explain the negative effect of biochar. Similarly, Gao et al. (2019) and Güereña et al. (2015) found that biochar combined with mineral fertilizer decreased grain yield, and the yield reduction under biochar produced at a higher temperature (700 °C) was lower than that produced at 400 °C (Gao et al. 2019). The results of the present study imply that biochar should be applied at a higher rate in high P-fixing soils to ensure its beneficial effect on yield. Thus, the short-term effect of biochar should be examined with caution, particularly in low-input tropical cropping systems where the soils have a high P-sorption capacity and biochar could probably be applied at a low rate due to limited availability of biomass.

    The interactive effect of biochar application rate, production temperature and mineral fertilizers on soil chemical properties after harvest; (a) soil pH, (b) Mehlich-P, (c) organic carbon and (d) total nitrogen; Control indicates no addition of mineral fertilizer; 60%_RR represents 60 kg ha−1 DAP and 60 kg ha−1 urea; 100%_RR represents 100 kg ha−1 DAP and 100 kg ha−1 urea; 6 t and 18 t represents application rate of 6 t ha−1 and 18 t ha−1, respectively

    To the authors’ knowledge, no attempts have been made to unambiguously distinguish between the general effect of biochar and the non-nutrient effects. In other words, there is still limited understanding about the additional yield obtained at the optimum nutrient level (Nopt) following biochar addition. The difference in potential yield (Yopt) (Schjønning et al. 2018) between biochar-amended soils and the control was used to quantify the non-nutrient effect of biochar. In the present experiment, nitrogen and phosphorus were the only nutrients limiting crop yield. The authors are certain that neither of the primary or secondary macronutrients restricted yield at Yopt because these nutrients were found in the soil according to the crop requirement (Sect. 2.1). Therefore, Yopt and the non-nutrient effect of biochar could be explicitly quantified.

    Biochar increased Yopt, as hypothesized. However, the biochar’s effect on Yopt was significant when biochar was applied at a higher rate, irrespective of the production temperature (Fig. 2a). The additional yield ascribed to the non-nutrient effects of biochar was up to 39% at the higher application rate. A positive and significant correlation was found between soil pH and additional yield at Nopt (r2 = 0.79; P = 0.011), implying that liming was one of the factors elucidating the non-nutrient effect. At the lower application rate, the biochar effect on soil pH was non-significant (Fig. 6), thus making the insignificant effect of biochar on Yopt apparent. The moisture content was maintained at 60% WHC throughout the experimental period. Therefore, the effect of biochar on water availability could not explain the additional yield at Nopt (non-nutrient effect). There are several processes (i.e. physical, chemical and biological) that could explain the additional yield at Nopt, however, providing insight into all the possible mechanisms is beyond the scope of this study. Therefore, further manipulative experiments are recommended to examine mechanisms that explain the non-nutrient effect of biochar on yield. Recent studies (Hijbeek et al. 2017; Oelofse et al. 2015; Schjønning et al. 2018) indicate a non-significant effect of SOC on Yopt, in contrast to the findings of the present study. These studies were conducted in temperate soils where soil acidity and moisture are not limiting factors for crop growth. Further studies are, therefore, suggested to determine the non-nutrient effect of SOC and different organic amendments (i.e. biochar) on tropical agroecosystems.

    The literature has shown nutrient release from biochar (Hood-Nowotny et al. 2018; Kätterer et al. 2019) and its effect on mineralization soil organic matter. Therefore, a lower amount of mineral fertilizer to obtain the optimum yield (Fopt) was expected under biochar-amended soils. Fopt increased with the addition of biochar (Fig. 6), in contrast to the hypothesis of this study. However, a significant effect of biochar on Fopt was only found at the higher application rate. At the lower application rate, biochar had a non-significant effect on pH, soil nutrient content and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) (Figs. 5 and 6), hence the insignificant effect on Fopt was expected. Despite the high nutrient content and NUE being observed at the higher application rate, Fopt decreased (P < 0.001). Crop growth with the control treatment was restricted by non-nutrient factors (i.e. acidity) and was subsequently less responsive to the mineral fertilizers applied. In contrast, crop growth was vigorous when biochar was applied at a higher rate because the non-nutrient-related growth-limiting factors were partly improved (Fig. 6), thus requiring more nutrients to obtain the optimum yield.

    Application of biochar decreased the marginal agronomic potential (AELN), i.e. the increase yield per unit of fertilizer at a low dose, irrespective of the application rate and production temperature (Fig. 6). Schjønning et al. (2018) point out the negative relationship between AELN and SOC irrespective of soil type, which is in accordance with the trends in the present study. The vigorous crop growth was attributed to the significant decrease in AELN with the application of biochar, particularly at the higher rate, due to the crop investing in its biomass rather than yield at the lower fertilizer dose. The AELN was the highest for soils without biochar, indicating that the crop utilizes the applied mineral fertilizer efficiently for its yield without biochar at the lower fertilizer dose. These data, therefore, challenge the general claim that biochar increases agronomic efficiency. The findings of this study imply that the effect of biochar on agronomic efficiency was found to depend on the application rate of both biochar and mineral fertilizer, as well as on the production temperature. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to determine the interactive effect of biochar rate and production temperature on Yopt, Fopt and AELN. Further studies are, therefore, recommended to explain the underlying mechanisms.

    The effect of biochar on potential yield, marginal agronomic efficiency and the optimum fertilizer requirement depends on the biochar application rate and production temperature. Biochar increased potential yield but required more mineral fertilizer to obtain the optimum yield. Additional yield at the optimum nutrient level (i.e. non-nutrient effect) was observed at the higher biochar application rate and attributed to the liming effect of biochar. Biochar increased nutrient use efficiency, but the crop utilized nutrients more efficiently without biochar at a low dose of mineral fertilizer. Biochar properties vary with the feedstock, hence further studies are recommended to determine the effect of biochar on potential yield, marginal agronomic efficiency and fertilizer demand using different materials, soil types and production temperatures.

    The data are available at doi: https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:fde4adf7-93ff-4da7-888a-d8fc34ec5d24.

    We gratefully acknowledge the United Nations Environment program for its funding of the “Biochar for sustainable soil” project (GEF-5824-GFL-5060-2770-4F17), for which this research work was one of the working packages. We acknowledge Mr. Abraham for his help during data collection. We greatly appreciate Mr. Bayu Dume, Mr. Zeleke Wondimu and Mr. Abiyot Hunde for their considerable help during laboratory work.

    MA, EB and AM conceived the idea and TM designed the study. TM performed the fieldwork. ABN and GA conducted the statistical analyses. MA and AN supervised the development of the work. ABN wrote the draft manuscript and all the authors contributed equally to editing the manuscript. All the authors gave their final approval for publication and have no competing interests or conflict of interest.

    Correspondence to Abebe Nigussie.

    The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

    Received: 08 March 2020

    Accepted: 09 July 2020

    Published: 10 August 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42773-020-00059-x


    Combined use of municipal solid waste biochar and bacterial biosorbent synergistically decreases …

    11 August, 2020
     

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    Tex Cycle accelerates RE venture

    11 August, 2020
     

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    GOING by the slew of Bursa Malaysia announcements on its renewable energy (RE) ventures in the past four months, Tex Cycle Technology (M) Bhd does not intend to wait out the Covid-19 pandemic.

    Its CEO Gary Dass says the pickup in activity underscores the acceleration of the company’s ambitions to become an RE player, not just in Malaysia but globally.

    “Right now, our core business and major revenue contributor is our recycling and recovery business, but we expect the RE segment to be a major contributor to group revenue in the near future,” he tells The Edge in a recent interview.

    On July 9, Tex Cycle announced that its 60%-owned subsidiary Pakar B2E Sdn Bhd had received the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) approval from the Sustainable Energy Development Authority for its renewable electrical energy power plant (REEP) in the Gurun Industrial Area in Kedah.

    For clarity, a Feed-in Approval (FiA) is needed to sell renewable energy in Malaysia at the FiT rate, which in this case is 37.84sen/kWh.

    Thirty per cent of Pakar B2E is held by Pakar Go Green Sdn Bhd, a biochar industry expert, and the remaining 10% by KLPK Niaga Sdn Bhd, the plantation arm of the Kedah State Economic Development Corporation.

    “The FiT certificate allows us to export 4mw of power to the national grid, and currently we are applying for the Renewable Energy Power Purchase Agreement (REPPA) with Tenaga Nasional Bhd.

    “We are confident about moving ahead, as we have the backing of the state government. In fact, we met the menteri besar of Kedah [Muhammad Sanusi Md Nor], and he was very supportive of this whole project, and he even asked us to try to speed up the project as soon as possible, as it is going to be a state-of-the-art biomass-to-energy plant in Kedah,” says Dass.

    Meanwhile, the group’s REEP in Telok Gong, Klang, is expected to commence ­operations by year-end, after a few delays. Tex Cycle had successfully installed a REEP on its own site in Telok Gong and was almost ready to generate electricity from decontaminated biomass and supply it to Tenaga Nasional’s grid.

    It faced a setback in April last year, however, when the Department of Environment (DOE) requested that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) under the Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order 2015 be done on the REEP.

    “We have engaged with the DOE and we have got approval to do a test run, from July 1 to Nov 30, which is currently in progress, to ensure that our system is up and ready. At the same time, we are also conducting the EIA. Once this is done, we can start running the plant, and we will make an announcement when that happens,” says Dass.

    Apart from its biomass-to-energy initiative, the group has also made a foray into solar energy.

    On May 13, the group’s 70%-owned subsidiary EFS MySolar Sdn Bhd (formerly known as TC Champ Sdn Bhd) entered into a share sale agreement with EFS Revision Energy Sdn Bhd for the acquisition of Revision Solar Sdn Bhd.

    Revision Solar is an FiA holder with a solar photovoltaic plant in Penang under the Malaysia FiT Programme that has an RE Power Purchase Agreement with Tenaga Nasional for 21 years.

    Dass acknowledges that the solar energy market in Malaysia is competitive, with many companies venturing into the space, but adds that Tex Cycle is able to hold its own.

    “Of course, it is competitive, but we also have our strengths. For us, our foray into solar is focused on the net energy metering scheme, where companies that are our customers can save on their electricity bills via solar energy generated from their rooftops. We have even installed solar panels on our own facility’s rooftop, where we saw effective savings of 40% of our annual electricity costs, which is a boon for businesses that require high electricity usage, such as ours,” he says.

    Besides its recent acquisition of Revision Solar, Tex Cycle is also acquiring other companies that are FiA holders.

    “We are looking to grow this part of the business as well, with the acquisition of more FiT [solar] plants. Another area in solar energy that we are interested in is the large-scale solar projects,” Dass says.

     

    Recycling medical waste in the UK

    Tex Cycle previously announced its plans to undertake REEP projects in the UK with local firm Culzean Generation Ltd via a 50:50 joint venture company called Culzean W2E Ltd. Tex Cycle chief financial officer Geraldine Hii Siaw Wei says, however, that the roll-out of the projects has been held up by the coronavirus outbreak.

    “The Covid-19 pandemic has caused a delay to our waste-to-energy projects. On the other hand, the pandemic has brought about a new waste management business proposal for us, because the medical waste there needs to be disposed of.

    “We have already started engaging with industry players on managing their medical waste. There is a demand for this service because of Covid-19, and the government is also encouraging players to (manage waste),” says Hii, who is also a director at Culzean W2E.

    On July 13, Tex Cycle announced that Culzean W2E had entered into a memorandum of understanding with Medisort Ltd to work together to set up a facility to process 3,200 tonnes of medical and clinical waste a year via a high-temperature incinerator.

    “This is a mini kind of incineration system that is pegged together with pollution control systems to ensure that we meet emission standards. It will also be located closer to the source [of the waste] so that we can save costs on transportation,” Hii says.

    In Malaysia, the group does not have a licence to treat medical waste, nor does it have an incineration licence. Nevertheless, if its UK venture succeeds, Tex Cycle says it will employ the business model not only in Malaysia but also in neighbouring countries.

     

    What’s next for Tex Cycle

    On its RE projects, Dass says the group is carrying out joint research with universities and a foreign establishment on converting food waste into liquid methane.

    “This could be a replacement for cooking gas. Just imagine, from your food waste, you can create gas that can be used to cook your next meal. So, it’s something that we are working on to solve the issues being faced in landfills. If this project kicks off, it will be quite major for the waste management industry,” he notes.

    Tex Cycle reported a net loss of RM465,000 in its first financial quarter ended March 31, 2020 on the back of a 32% year-on year decline in revenue to RM5.42 million. It had made a net profit of RM1.15 million a year ago. The net loss was mainly due to operating expenses incurred for its RE project in the UK, as well as lower investment gains for its unit trusts because of the economic downturn.

    Nevertheless, the group is confident that it will return to the black in the following quarters, supported by its recovery and recycling business and as RE projects come onstream.

    The group is in a net cash position, with total cash of RM11.32 million as at March 31, 2020 and borrowings of RM10.48 million.

    Despite the challenging business environment because of the pandemic, Tex Cycle group executive chairman Ho Siew Choong says the company hopes to continue to reward its shareholders.

    “We have never failed to pay dividends since the company’s inception [in 2005]. Of course, this is a trying year, but we will try our best to [maintain our dividend payment],” he says.

    Tex Cycle shares closed at 40 sen last Tuesday, giving the company a market capitalisation of RM101 million. Year to date, its share price has risen 18%.

     

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    Biochar Market Future Scope and Trend By Leading Players Full Circle Biochar, Vega Biofuels Inc …

    12 August, 2020
     

    Global Marketers has recently come up with a new market research report titled, Biochar Market. This statistical market study compromises an extensive understanding of the present-day and impending stages of the industry market based on factors such as major research skills, management schemes, drivers, restraints, opportunities, challenges and visions include the subdivisions in the industries and regional distribution. The report comprises detailed study of the potential segments including product type, application, and end-user and their contribution to the overall market size.

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    Tolero Energy
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    Diacarbon Energy Inc

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    The report attempts to offer high-quality and accurate analysis of the global Biochar Market, keeping in view market forecasts, competitive intelligence, and technological risks and advancements, and other important subjects. … Read More


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    Co loaded N-doped Biochar as a High Performance of Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalyst …

    12 August, 2020
     

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    Biochar

    12 August, 2020
     

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    Global Fine Biochar Powder Market to Record Study Growth, Geography Trends & Forecasts by 2026

    12 August, 2020
     

    This study covers following key players:
    Diacarbon Energy
    Agri-Tech Producers
    Biochar Now
    Carbon Gold
    Kina
    The Biochar Company
    Swiss Biochar GmbH
    ElementC6
    BioChar Products
    BlackCarbon
    Cool Planet
    Carbon Terra

    Request a sample of this report @ https://www.orbisresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/4604780?utm_source=Ulhas

    The Fine Biochar Powder Market is categorized into several segmentation including type, applications and region catering to the chemical and materials industry. Furthermore, it offers detailed graphs and figures regarding sales analysis, strategic market growth analysis, trade regulations, technological innovations, growing trends, market share, market size, CAGR, opportunities analysis, product launches, current developments of every particular segment. The Fine Biochar Powder Market is categorized into several segmentation including type, application, and region. Moreover, it measures the sales and revenue during the forecast period with the help of recognizing the importance of several different factors aiding the market growth. Looping onto the leading vendors of the Fine Biochar Powder Market, the research report recognizes several key manufacturers and strategizes the acquisitions and mergers players focusing on competing the Global Fine Biochar Powder Market. The report also understands the export and import, production, and consumption of every particular region holding highest market share, market size, or CAGR for the chemical industry.

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    Market segment by Type, the product can be split into
    Wood Source Biochar
    Corn Source Biochar
    Wheat Source Biochar
    Others

    Market segment by Application, split into
    Soil Conditioner
    Fertilizer
    Others

    It also provides accurate calculations and sales report of the segments in terms of volume and value. The report introduces the industrial chain analysis, downstream buyers, and raw material sources along with the accurate insights of market dynamics. The report also studies about the individual sales, revenue, and market share of every prominent vendors of the Fine Biochar Powder Market. It majorly focuses on manufacturing analysis including about the raw materials, cost structure, process, operations, and manufacturing cost strategies. The report delivers the detailed data of big companies with information about their revenue margins, sales data, upcoming innovations and development, business models, strategies, investments, and business estimations.

    The Fine Biochar Powder Market reports delivers the information about chemical market competition between vendors through regional segmentation of markets in terms of revenue generation potential, business opportunities, demand & supply comparison taking place in the future. Understanding the Global perspective, the Fine Biochar Powder Market report introduces an aerial view by analyzing historical data and future growth rate.

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    Biochar Market Assessment Analysis: Before and After COVID-19 Crisis Impact

    12 August, 2020
     

    A new study published by Fact.MR on the global Biochar market includes a global analysis and opportunity assessment for the period 2019-2029. The report offers a comprehensive assessment of the key market dynamics in detail. The analysts take into account the historic as well as the current growth parameters to project the growth of the Biochar market with maximum accuracy.

    A recent market intelligence on the biochar landscape tracks the global scanerio of biochar market. The report indicates that sales of biochar equaled 1,800 tons in 2018, which are likely to see an impressive 13% Y-o-Y rise by the end of 2019. The report provides a Y-o-Y growth trend analysis and the current and future market volume projections (Units) for the assessment period. The impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Biochar market is assessed in the report along with valuable insights pertaining to how market participants are adapting to the current situation.

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    In a bid to recognize the growth prospects in the Biochar market, the market study has been geographically fragmented into important regions that are progressing faster than the overall market. Each segment of the Biochar market has been individually analyzed on the basis of pricing, distribution, and demand prospect for the following regions:

    The key players in the global Biochar market report consist of

    Each market player encompassed in the Biochar market study is assessed according to its market share, production footprint, current launches, agreements, ongoing R&D projects, and business tactics. In addition, the Biochar market study scrutinizes the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis.

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    Co-application of a biochar and an electric potential accelerates soil nitrate removal while …

    13 August, 2020
     

    Electric potential accelerates soil denitrification but increases N2O emission.

    Co-application of biochar and voltage depresses soil N2O emission.

    Co-application of oxidized-biochar and voltage increases soil N2O emission.

    Biochar shuttles electrode electrons to Proteobacteria for complete denitrification.

    Electric potential accelerates soil denitrification but increases N2O emission.

    Co-application of biochar and voltage depresses soil N2O emission.

    Co-application of oxidized-biochar and voltage increases soil N2O emission.

    Biochar shuttles electrode electrons to Proteobacteria for complete denitrification.

    Denitrification is an important mechanism for mitigating groundwater nitrate (NO3) pollution. Our previous results showed that electric potential application (−0.5 V versus standard hydrogen electrode) accelerated subsoil NO3 reduction efficiently, but nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were also elevated with the application of the electric potential. Biochar has previously been considered to act as an electron shuttle to mitigate soil N2O emission. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if, and how, a combined amendment of electric potential and biochar could simultaneously accelerate soil NO3 reduction and suppress N2O emission. The results showed that the electric potential application alone (E) significantly increased the soil N2O emission by 144% compared with soil only (CK), whereas the co-application of electric potential and biochar (E + BC) markedly decreased the soil N2O emission by 83%, which was more than two times higher than the efficiency of biochar amendment alone (BC) on soil N2O mitigation (35%). Moreover, the E + BC treatment further decreased the N2O/(N2O + N2) emission ratio by 62% on average at the end of the experiment compared with the BC treatment. These results indicate that there is an interaction between biochar and electric potential on soil N2O mitigation. Contrary to the E + BC treatment, the combined amendment of electric potential and H2O2-oxidized biochar (E + BC_H2O2) increased the soil N2O emission by 151% compared with the BC treatment. The cathode coulombic efficiency did not differ significantly between the E + BC_H2O2 and E treatments, but the cathode coulombic efficiency in the E + BC treatment was almost double that of the E treatment. Besides, the abundance of Proteobacteria, which include most electrotrophic microorganisms, and the nosZ/(nirS  +  nirK) gene ratio were higher in the E + BC treatment than that in other treatments. These results indicate that the biochar interacts with electric potential treatment via shuttling electrons from electrodes to soil electrotrophic denitrifying consortia and consequently accelerates soil NO3 reduction and decreases the N2O/(N2O + N2) emission ratio.


    Organic Garden Soil

    13 August, 2020
     


    Revolutionize energy, agriculture, and the environment—in the most ap-peel-ing way

    13 August, 2020
     

    Title: Biochar from the Thermochemical Conversion of Orange (Citrus sinensis) Peel and Albedo: Product Quality and Potential Applications

    Authors: Adewale George Adeniyi, Joshua O. Ighalo, Damilola Victoria Onifade

    Journal: Chemistry Africa

    Year: 2020

    Featured image by esudroff from Pixabay

    Picture a wood fire, logs set alight. Flames appear, the wood shrinks, eventually only some ashes remain. But where did the rest of the mass of the wood disappear to? Well, the carbon in the wood reacted with oxygen in the air, forming gaseous carbon dioxide—the combustion reaction. If, however, you were to heat the wood in an enclosed, oxygen-free environment instead (a process called pyrolysis), you could prevent the combustion reaction from occurring. As a result, instead of gas and ashes, you would get a solid carbon-based material we usually call charcoal. You might be familiar with charcoal as a convenient fuel, whether for home cooking or other industrial uses.

    But saying that charcoal makes a good fuel is like saying that an iPhone makes a good paperweight… it’s true, but the potential uses of charcoal are astronomically more impressive than fuel alone. Charcoal has the potential to revolutionize the way we grow food, the way we produce and purify chemicals, our ability to clean up the environment, and even the kinds of materials we make our electronics out of. When charcoal is used for these purposes, it commonly goes by another name: biochar. Western Africa is one of many regions of the world where scientists have taken a particular interest in biochar; today, we’ll take a look at the work of researchers from Ilorin, Nigeria, on the potential applications of biochar made from orange peel waste.

    While the feedstock (i.e. the initial raw material) used to make fuel charcoal is traditionally wood, charcoal/biochar for agricultural or other purposes can be made from nearly any source of biomass. However, that doesn’t mean that all biochar turns out exactly the same. Different starting materials, depending on the specific chemical composition and structure, can have drastic effects on the resulting material properties. Part of what gives biochar its usefulness is its porous structure. When added to soil, the many pores hold water, and provide an environment for beneficial microorganisms to grow and accumulate nutrients, helping crops grow (Figure 1). Biochar’s porosity, plus the varying chemical functional groups on its surfaces, can also facilitate certain catalytic reactions or adsorption (i.e. deposition onto a surface—in this case, the biochar surface) of other chemical compounds. As a result, biochar may also be used in environmental remediation efforts to pull contaminants from local soil or water, thereby preventing people, plants, or animals from ingesting or absorbing them.

    Due to the wide variety of possible biochar feedstocks, there is still a lot of work to be done to find out how both feedstock type and production process affect the end product and—therefore—the types of applications the resulting biochar is suitable for. In this study, Adeniyi et. al. investigated and compared the resulting characteristics of biochar made from orange fruit peels versus orange albedo (i.e. the white chewy bits everyone picks off before eating). As common food waste residues in many parts of Nigeria, both peel and albedo could serve as convenient local biochar feedstocks.

    The researchers used a variety of methods to characterize different aspects of the biochar: they looked at the surface texture and elemental distribution using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS); they identified the different chemical bonds present in the material (and therefore the different surface functional groups) with infrared spectroscopy (IR); and lastly, the pore volume and size distribution were determined by analytical methods involving the adsorption of an inert gas on the biochar surface.

    The SEM images revealed much smoother surfaces on the peel biochar compared to albedo which looked more “spongy” and porous (Figure 2). This would indicate that albedo biochar might be better suited for chemical adsorption and water retention applications. However, through physical measurements of pore volume the researchers found that despite the visibly higher surface area of the albedo, the peels biochar was actually slightly more porous overall! But that’s not the whole story; after all, chemical makeup matters as much as physical structure. In biochar, high carbon content and the presence of polar functional groups are also highly desirable for pollutant adsorption applications. Happily, EDS and IR results showed that peel as well as albedo biochar had these properties, and therefore both would be viable feedstock options.

    Biochar, in its many variations, is a material with untold potential for creating more efficient and sustainable methods for growing food, decontaminating the environment, and producing clean energy. The work done by Adeniyi et. al. is part of a large and necessary push to understand the varying properties of biochar produced through different feedstocks and methods. Thanks to their work and others, step by step we are developing ways of living healthier and more sustainably on our planet.

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    carbon gold kiln

    14 August, 2020
     

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    Effects of biochar from invasive weed on soil erosion under varying compaction and slope conditions

    14 August, 2020
     

    Biochar amendment technique having been applied in the landfill cover or green roof was found to have the potential of erosion control. The strategy of utilizing excess biomass resource from an invasive weed (water hyacinth) in China and converting it into a new type of biochar is proposed to address the erosion issue. It is noted that the erosion process influenced by multiple factors (i.e., slope conditions, soil properties, and rainfall intensity) in biochar-amended soils has not been well understood. The aim of this study is to estimate the individual and coupled effects of five investigated factors (i.e., biochar content, soil compaction degree, slope gradient, slope length, and rainfall intensity) on infiltration, runoff, and soil erosion using in-house designed flume tests. Flume tests were planned based on factorial experiment design on bare soil (BS) and soil-biochar composites (SBCs). The results showed that biochar addition could reduce soil erosion by 10–69% and improve rainwater storage by 20–59%. Soil with 5% biochar amendment achieved the best amendment efficiency. This is likely due to the enhanced formation of water-stable macroaggregates in the presence of biochar. Biochar content was assessed as the most important factor in determining water retention and erosion reduction with 33% and 40% contribution, respectively. The total impact of slope conditions was vital on improving rainwater storage and erosion control by 29% and 43%, respectively. This study broadened the understanding of water erosion and hydrologic responses under the influence of biochar on SBCs and provided a sustainable perspective for the hydrologic management practice.

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    The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

    The authors would like to acknowledge the Scientific Research Fund from Shantou University (NTF17007) and also the National Natural Science Foundation Youth Grant (NSFC 41907252) for their generous support to complete the project. We also acknowledge Prof. Tjalfe Poulsen from GTIIT and Dr. Viroon Kamchoom from KMITL, Thailand, for their useful suggestions during the planning of the experiments.

    Correspondence to Peng Lin.

    Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    Highlights

    1. Biochar content is the most influential on predicting erosion and hydrologic responses.

    2. Biochar addition decreased the sensitivity of rainfall and compaction to water erosion.

    3. Slope conditions are vital external factors in the management of rainwater and erosion.

    Received: 05 May 2020

    Revised: 24 July 2020

    Accepted: 04 August 2020

    Published: 13 August 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-020-00943-3

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    nEvaluating biochar and its modifications for the removal of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate in …

    15 August, 2020
     

    Removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from water through the use of various sorbents is often considered an economically viable way for supplementing conventional methods. Biochar has been widely studied for its potential adsorption capabilities for soluble N and P, but the performance of different types of biochars can vary widely. In this review, we summarized the adsorption capacities of biochars in removing N (NH4-N and NO3-N) and P (PO4-P) based on the reported data, and discussed the possible mechanisms and influencing factors. In general, the NH4-N adsorption capacity of unmodified biochars is relatively low, at levels of less than 20 mg/g. This adsorption is mainly via ion exchange and/or interactions with oxygen-containing functional groups on biochar surfaces. The affinity is even lower for NO3-N, because of electrostatic repulsion by negatively charged biochar surfaces. Precipitation of PO4-P by metals/metal oxides in biochar is the primary mechanism for PO4-P removal. Biochars modified by metals have a significantly higher capacity to remove NH4-N, NO3-N, and PO4-P than unmodified biochar, due to the change in surface charge and the increase in metal oxides on the biochar surface. Ambient conditions in the aqueous phase, including temperature, pH, and co-existing ions, can significantly alter the adsorption of N and P by biochars, indicating the importance of optimal processing parameters for N and P removal. However, the release of endogenous N and P from biochar to water can impede its performance, and the presence of competing ions in water poses practical challenges for the use of biochar for nutrient removal. This review demonstrates that progress is needed to improve the performance of biochars and overcome challenges before the widespread field application of biochar for N and P removal is realized.

     


    Facile assembled N, S-codoped corn straw biochar loaded Bi2WO6 with the enhanced electron …

    15 August, 2020
     

    Porous graphitized structure of NSBC helps transport of photoinduced electron-holes.

    Bi2WO6 loads on surface of NSBC by a facile solvothermal method to avoid agglomeration.

    This composite efficiently removed CIP and Cr(VI) by adsorption and photocatalysis.

    This composite could be applied at a wide pH range in photocatalytic reactions.

    Possible photocatalytic mechanisms of CIP and Cr(VI) were proposed.

    Porous graphitized structure of NSBC helps transport of photoinduced electron-holes.

    Bi2WO6 loads on surface of NSBC by a facile solvothermal method to avoid agglomeration.

    This composite efficiently removed CIP and Cr(VI) by adsorption and photocatalysis.

    This composite could be applied at a wide pH range in photocatalytic reactions.

    Possible photocatalytic mechanisms of CIP and Cr(VI) were proposed.

    To the best of our knowledge, in few studies, biochar (BC)-based materials have been used as the photocatalyst for water purification, and their application is limited to a great extent due to catalyst agglomeration and inefficient electron migration. In this study, a novel Bi2WO6 loaded N, S co-doping corn straw biochar (Bi2WO6/NSBC) was successfully synthesized with a simple solvothermal method for the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Cr(VI) under visible light irradiation. The Bi2WO6/NSBC was featured with efficient and rapid catalytic removal toward CIP (5 mg/L) and Cr(VI) (10 mg/L), with efficiencies of ∼90.33% and ∼99.86% within 75 min, respectively. More attractively, this composite can be applied in a wide pH range (3.0–9.0) and with weak effects by coexisting ions (Cl, CO32–, SO42–, and Ca2+). The facile synthesized porous graphitized structure demonstrates an outstanding performance of superior conductivity and promoted photoelectron transport. Meanwhile, it is found that N, S co-doping of the BC induces highly interconnected fibrous structures, high catalytic property, and favorable specific surface areas, which is considered to avoid agglomeration of Bi2WO6. The increased photocatalytic activity results from the synergistic effects of Bi2WO6 and NSBC by the optimized band gap and enhanced visible light response, due to higher migration and utilization efficiency of photoinduced carriers in photocatalytic reactions. In this approach, a cheap catalyst is provided, and at the same time, a synergistic effect of N, S co-doping is formed to rapidly remove contaminants in wastewater treatment.


    Biochar as Soil Enhancer

    16 August, 2020
     

    Bio-Arang Penyubur Tanah Biochar Soil Rich/Organic Soil Conditioner (5kg) – Wood Based Charcoal Chips

    InstanChar Soil Rich is a type of biochar (100% bio-based carbon) produced by burning biomass/agriculture waste via clean and environmental friendly system.

    InstanChar Soil Rich comes with different types of sources namely coconut husk, empty fruit bunch palm biomass, bamboo, wood and rice husk. It helps to boost crops’ yield by 50-70%, neutralize acidic soils, and remediate degraded soil by the strong ability to absorb and retain moistures, soil nutrients, fertilizers and soil bacteria.

    BENEFITS/ADVANTAGES:

    • Enhances plant growth
    • Improves soil-microorganism ecosystem
    • Reduces leaching of nutrient
    • Improves soil water handling
    • Adsorbs bad odour
    • Made in Malaysia
    • Easy storage (packaging in a bag with cabel tie)
    • Available type : 5kg biochar wood
    • Sustainable raw material (Wood wastes)
    • Suitable for indoor and outdoor gardening as well as deodorizer.

    HOW TO USE:

    • Gardening application : Mix 10% to 15% biochar to soil mix of growing media.
    • Deodorizer application: Place 50 -100 grams biochar into non-woven pouches or suitable containers that have tiny holes to allow biochar to absorb the surrounding odour.
    • No shelf life as long as keep it seal and place in the dry area.

    Visit Pakar B2E for more info


    Utilization of biochar produced from invasive plant species to efficiently adsorb Cd

    16 August, 2020
     

    Ragweed and horseweed were directly pyrolyzed to biochars without modification.

    The properties and sorption capacity of biochars varied with pyrolysis temperature.

    RB450 showed unprecedented adsorption capacity for both Cd and Pb.

    RB450 was characterized by better adsorption capacity than most reported biochars.

    Precipitation and cation exchange were important mechanisms for Cd and Pb sorption.

    Ragweed and horseweed were directly pyrolyzed to biochars without modification.

    The properties and sorption capacity of biochars varied with pyrolysis temperature.

    RB450 showed unprecedented adsorption capacity for both Cd and Pb.

    RB450 was characterized by better adsorption capacity than most reported biochars.

    Precipitation and cation exchange were important mechanisms for Cd and Pb sorption.

    Global expansion of invasive plant species has caused serious ecological and economic problems. Two such invasive species, ragweed and horseweed, were pyrolyzed at temperatures of 350, 450 and 550 ℃ for biochar production (RB350, RB450, RB550 and HB350, HB450, HB550). The biochars produced were used for Cd(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) removal in aqueous solutions. The results indicated that the properties of the biochars varied with pyrolysis temperature, which further affected their adsorption performance. The maximum adsorption capacity of RB450 for Cd(Ⅱ) (139 mg·g-1) and Pb(Ⅱ) (358.7 mg·g-1) was much higher than that shown in previous studies. The immobilized Cd(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) fraction on RB450, RB550, HB450 and HB550 was mainly attributable to the acid soluble and non-available fractions. These findings suggested that pyrolysis of invasive plants at 450 ℃ could not only be an option to control invasive plants but also could be of benefit in using biochar as excellent adsorbent.


    Utilization of biochar produced from invasive plant species to efficiently adsorb Cd

    16 August, 2020
     

    Global expansion of invasive plant species has caused serious ecological and economic problems. Two such invasive species, ragweed and horseweed, were pyrolyzed at temperatures of 350, 450 and 550 ℃ for biochar production (RB350, RB450, RB550 and HB350, HB450, HB550). The biochars produced were used for Cd(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) removal in aqueous solutions. The results indicated that the properties of the biochars varied with pyrolysis temperature, which further affected their adsorption performance. The maximum adsorption capacity of RB450 for Cd(Ⅱ) (139 mg·g-1) and Pb(Ⅱ) (358.7 mg·g-1) was much higher than that shown in previous studies. The immobilized Cd(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) fraction on RB450, RB550, HB450 and HB550 was mainly attributable to the acid soluble and non-available fractions. These findings suggested that pyrolysis of invasive plants at 450 ℃ could not only be an option to control invasive plants but also could be of benefit in using biochar as excellent adsorbent.

     


    Supporting Material – Biochar selection for Escherichia coli removal in stormwater biofilters

    17 August, 2020
     


    Wood chips, clean, great for spreading on ground or biochar

    17 August, 2020
     

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    Biochar Industry Market likely to touch new heights by end of forecast period 2020-2025

    18 August, 2020
     

    The latest research on Biochar Industry Market 2020-2025. A comprehensive report accumulated to offer latest insights about acute features of the Biochar Industry market. The report accommodates different market predictions related to market to size, revenue, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factor. The report furthermore offers an all-out research of trends to come examples and movements of the market.  Additionally, the document comprises of insights regarding the challenges & restraints faced by the key contenders and new entrants alongside its impact on the y-o-y growth rate and future remuneration of this market.

    The report evaluates the competitive arena of the Biochar Industry market and provides crucial information regarding the raw materials used and downstream buyers. The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on growth opportunities of this industry vertical has also been mentioned in the document.

    From the regional point of view of the Biochar Industry market:

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    Impact of biochar on the metabolic networks of a PHE-degrading microbial community and its …

    19 August, 2020
     

    Impact of biochar on the metabolic networks of a PHE-degrading microbial community and its influencing mechanism on soil biogeochemical cycles

    Background: Straw pyrolysis into biochar are beneficial for resource recovery and soil improvement. However, little is known about how biochar influences polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolic pathways and biogeochemical cycles in PAH-contaminated agricultural soil. Here we assessed the influence of biochar and bacterial inoculant on the soil physicochemical properties, the microorganisms involved in the metabolism of PAH and C, N, P and S cycling.

    Results: The addition of biochar and bacterial inoculant improved soil fertility and crop nutrition. The community metabolism of phenanthrene was revealed by modeling a gene network based on shotgun metagenomes. Biochar addition in soil promoted the abundance of various phenanthrene-degrading microorganisms involved in multiple steps of phenanthrene catabolism, thereby promoting phenanthrene degradation. Meanwhile, biochar addition increased nitrate reduction and degradation of relatively easily decomposable organic carbon, including cellulose, but it also inhibited lignin and chitin degradation and C and N fixation, while the addition of bacterial inoculant partially mitigated biochar’s inhibitory effects in element cycle and inhibited N2O emission, which alleviated the greenhouse effect.

    Conclusions: When bioremediating PAH-contaminated soil, recommendation is to use biochar combined with functional microorganism. This work contributes to expand the current knowledge of the treatment of contaminated soil and provide some empirical evidence for the treatment of contaminated soil by biochar and bacterial inoculant.

    Biochar is the product of limited oxygen pyrolysis of biomass and is used in agriculture as a soil improver, compost additive and livestock feed supplement [14].Some studies have investigated whether biochar not only provides space for soil microorganisms with pore structures but also provides nutrients to soil microorganisms to enhance their growth, and these nutrients are adsorbed on the biochar [5, 6]. In this way, biochar will positively affect soil microbes, thereby accelerating the biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil. Studies have indicated that the effects of biochar on soil microbes and the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are significant [79]. As a kind of persistent environmental contaminant, PAHs can be efficiently degraded by microbes [10, 11]. Microorganisms using PAHs as carbon sources play a vital role in natural pollutant attenuation in polluted ecosystems [12, 13]. In fact, PAH degradation by mixed microbial communities requires various microbial coordination [14, 15]. However, we still lack a comprehensive view of the principal microbial actors of PAH degradation and their metabolic network in contaminated soils, especially in terms of how PAH degradation is altered by the presence of biochar.

    As a kind of soil amendment, the use of biochar with functional microorganisms to treat contaminated soil will not only affect organic contaminant degradation and catabolic pathways but also affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrient elements [1, 16]. Studies have found that biochar produced via pyrolysis of biomass wastes can enhance and supply long-term soil organic carbon storage [17, 18]. Nitrogen, the most important nutrient in the ecosystem, is a necessary part of biological organisms and nucleic acids; additionally, nitrogen often represents a limiting factor that restricts the net primary production of ecosystems [19]. Evidence suggests that biochar addition can arouse cardinal changes in soil nutrient cycles, usually leading to crop yield increases, especially in acidic and sterile soils with low soil organic matter content, despite the comparable results in temperate soils that are mutable [20, 21]. However, although these insights into the role of biochar in ecosystems exist, a detailed understanding of how biochar affects the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrient elements is still lacking. Research on how biochar affects the phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) cycles of organic contaminated soil is lacking, but several microorganisms are related to the process of circulation, and changes in the cycles will change the existence of P and S in the soil, thereby affecting the soil ecological environment. It is unclear how biochar can affect the cycling processes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), P, and S in organically contaminated soils and whether biochar can improve the soil environment and ecosystems when remediating contaminated soil. The answers to these questions are critical for determining the ability of biochar to repair soil.

    Our study aims to provide insights into the impact of the addition of biochar and PAH-degrading bacterial inoculant on the metabolic networks of a PAH-degrading microbial community. We also wanted to provide a detailed mechanistic understanding of how biochar influences the global biogeochemical cycles of the basic nutrient elements (C, N, P, S) in soil.

    The rice straw used in this study came from rural areas located around Yilan County, Hei Longjiang Province, China (46°19’22.79”N, 129°33’40.24”E). The straw was dried to a constant weight at 80℃ and then crushed at 25 000 rpm before pyrolysis. The obtained straw powders were stored in a desiccator. The seeds used in this study were collected from the Liyuan seed shop; the seed was a perennial ryegrass seed, which is a high-quality grass species with a high germination rate.

    The soil was collected from the cultivated layer of the experimental field (45°44’31.44”N, 126°43’14.00”E) located at Northeast Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Province, China. After the soil reached the laboratory, it passed a 2-mm sieve and was air-dried before the experiment. The obtained soil was stored at room temperature. The soil physicochemical properties were as follows: 1.12 mg kg− 1 total nitrogen (N), 0.96 mg kg− 1 total phosphorus (P), 20.8 mg kg− 1 total potassium (K), 37.9 mg kg− 1 organic matter, and pH 7.40. For spiking, phenanthrene (PHE) at 300 mg kg− 1 was applied to the soil. PHE standards (98.7% purity) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (America). We mixed 1 kg dry soil with 60 mL of the PHE stock solutions (50 mg mL− 1 in acetone). After the solvent had completely evaporated (in a fume hood for 48 h), an aliquot of 0.8 kg contaminated soil was mixed with 7.2 kg uncontaminated soil (dilution ratio 1:9) to obtain a final concentration of fresh PHE of 300 mg kg− 1.

    Achromobacter sp. LH-1 were isolated from soil sample obtained from the Daqing Oilfield in China and then stored in our laboratory. (substrate concentration, 100 mg L− 1; pH, 7; inoculum size, 5%, culture time, 7d; temperature, 28.1℃; degradation rate, 97.48%) [22].

    Biochar was created in a programmable tube furnace (Jinan Jingrui Instrument Co., Ltd., China) through slow pyrolysis. Briefly, the straw was air-dried and ground to less than 2 mm and pyrolyzed at a heating rate of 5 ℃ min− 1 under N2 conditions for 4 h. Final temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 ℃ were used, and the produced biochars were allowed to cool to room temperature after pyrolysis. For simplicity, the biochars were denoted as BC 300, BC 500, and BC 700, where BC represents biochar and the numbers represent the final temperature. All biochars were milled to a homogenous fine powder using a ball mill to pass a 2-mm sieve and dried overnight at 105℃ prior to being analyzed.

    The biochar yield was calculated by the following equation:

    Ash matter contents was calculated from the residual weight obtained after heating at 815 ± 1 ℃ for 2 h in a muffle furnace (National Standard of the People's Republic of China). The ash yield was calculated by the following equation:

    As for the pH of biochar sample, mixed dried sample to water ratio of 1:20 (w/v) and stirred for 60 min. The obtained supernatant after centrifugation was used to determine the pH with a pH meter (Mettler Toledo, ME403E). Contents of C, H, N, and S in the biochar were determined using an elemental analyzer (Vario EL/micro cube, Elementar, Germany). The oxygen content was calculated by subtracting C, N, H, S, and ash contents from the total char mass. The surface functional groups of biochars were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (Varian 640-IR, USA) in a wavelength range of 400–4000 cm− 1 using KBr pellets. Sigma Plot 10.0 software was used for drawing figures. The microstructures of the synthesized composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ZEISS SUPRA40) [23, 24]. All analyses were conducted in triplicate.

    The composition of the Luria-Bertani (LB) was as follows: yeast extract 10 g L− 1, peptone 5 g L− 1 and NaCl 10 g L− 1 [25]. For the preparation of cell suspensions, one loop of isolate was picked up and inoculated into a liquid LB. After 18 h incubation on a rotary shaker at 27℃ 150 rpm, the cells grew to the logarithmic growth phase and were then harvested. The cell culture was centrifuged at 8000 r min− 1 for 5 min, rinsed 3 times, and resuspended; thereafter, the cell suspension was condensed (OD600 = 2.0 ± 0.1) and prepared for further inoculations.

    To immobilize LH-1 cells on rice straw biochar, 5 g biochar (dry weight) was then soaked with fresh mineral salt medium (MSM) (1:20, w/v) in 150 mL flasks. Subsequently, the cells were sterilized at 121℃ for 30 min [26]. After cooling, cell suspensions were introduced to the flasks, with each flask receiving 5 mL of condensed cell suspension. The flask contents were then incubated on a rotary shaker at 30℃ and 80 rpm for 48 h. The mixtures were separated with a 75-µm sieve and rinsed with deionized water thrice to remove the planktonic cells. The obtained LH-1-composite should be collected and stored at 4℃ if immediate inoculation into soil is not possible [27]. All operations were performed under strict aseptic conditions.

    The experiment used the potting method for ryegrass cultivation [28], and 2 kg of soil was weighed for each pot. In this pot trial, six treatments with three replicates were carried out: addition of 1% biochar (BC), addition of 1% biochar and 300 mg/kg PHE (PBC), addition of 1% Achromobacter sp. LH-1 and 300 mg kg− 1 PHE (PLH), addition of 1% bacterial inoculant (biochar + Achromobacter sp. LH-1) and 300 mg kg− 1 PHE (PCLH), addition of 300 mg kg− 1 PHE (SPHE), and untreated soil (CK).

    The main applications were as follows. We weighed 2 kg each of non-recontaminated soil and PHE-contaminated soil, a mixture of soil with biochar and a mixture of soil with a bacterial inoculant into each pot, and we activated the soil microbes by incubating the soil for 10 days at a water content of approximately 50% WHC (water holding capacity). After ryegrass seeds vernalized at 4℃, the ryegrass seeds were sterilized in 30% H2O2 for 20 min, washed, and then balanced for 24 h. The sowing depth was 2–3 cm. After growing seeds in the pots, ryegrass was grown at a temperature of 30℃ during the day and 22℃ at night for 45 days. The water content was maintained at approximately 50% WHC, and fertilizer was not added during incubation. The position of the pots was randomly exchanged every 2 days. Independent triplicates were performed for the six conditions, for a total of 18 pots. Each pot had 40 ryegrass seedlings [29].

    After 45 days, measured the seedling length and weight of ryegrass and retrieved the soil sample from each pot, and then removed roots from the soil sample. Each pot’s soil sample was divided and stored differently as required. One subsample of the rhizosphere soil was collected for the determination of high-throughput sequencing and shotgun metagenomics. The remaining sample was sieved with a 2-mm sieve to remove biochar particles, after which some was freeze-dried to detect phenanthrene (PHE) concentrations and some was air-dried to analyze soil physicochemical properties.

    For the pH of the soil sample, approximately 10 g of dried sample, sieved through 10 meshes, was mixed with 25 mL distilled water and stirred for 30 min. Finally, the obtained supernatant after centrifugation was used to determine the pH with a pH meter [30]. The water content of the soil was determined by subtraction. The quality was calculated by the subtracting the constant weight of soil dried at 105℃ in triplicate from the wet soil value. The soil organic matter was measured using the potassium dichromate capacity method (diluted heat method), the total nitrogen was measured using semi-micro-Kelvin method [31], the total phosphorus was measured using HCIO4-H2SO4 method [32], and the total potassium was determined by flame photometry with NaOH melting [30]. All analyses were conducted in triplicate.

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect soil PHE quantification. The Philippine standards (98.7% purity) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (America). Briefly, frozen soil was sieved through a 100 mesh sieve, and then ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane (1:12.5, w/v) (Tianjin Komeo Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd., chromatographic grade) was used for 10 min. The suspension was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 5 min, and the supernatant was decanted. This procedure was performed thrice. The elute was concentrated via the rotary evaporation method, dissolved in 5 mL of methanol (Zidi ma Technology Co., Ltd., chromatographic grade), and filtered through a 0.22-µm organic filter before column chromatography [33, 34].

    The HPLC conditions were as follows: The mobile phase was 70% acetonitrile (Zidi ma technology co., Ltd., chromatographic grade) and 30% ultrapure water at flow rate of 1.5 mL L− 1. The analysis time was 10 min and the injection volume was 10µL. The experiment was repeated three times.

    The soil samples from CK, BC, SPHE, PBC, PLH, and PCLH in triplicate were sent to Shanghai Sangon Biological Co., Ltd. for high-throughput and metagenome sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from the microbial community samples with the E.Z.N.A™ Mag-Bind Soil DNA Kit (Omega Bio-Tek, GA, USA) according to kit and instrument protocols. DNA was stored at -20 °C until further processing. Two PCR amplifications were performed. The first PCR amplification of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes was PCR amplified with 341F (5'-CCCTACACGACGCTCTTCCGATCTG-3') and 805R (5'-GACTGGAGTTCCTTGGCACCCGAGAATTCCA-3') primers containing barcodes at the 5' end of the front primer. PCR was performed in 30 µl reactions containing 1 µl of Bar-PCR primer F (10 µM), 15 µl of 2 × Taq master Mix, 1 µl of Primer R (10 µM) and up to 10–20 ng of genomic DNA. The PCR process was as follows: initial denaturation at 94℃ for 3 min; 5 cycles of 94℃ for 30 s, 45℃ for 20 s, and 65℃ for 30 s; 20 cycles of 94℃ for 20 s, 55℃ for 20 s, and 72℃ for 30 s; and final extension at 72℃ for 5 min. A second round of amplification was conducted after the PCR. The second PCR amplification introduced Illumina bridge PCR compatible primers. PCR was performed in 30 µl reactions containing 1 µl of primer F (10 µM); 15 µl of 2 × Taq master Mix; 1 µl of Primer R (10 µM) and up to 20 ng of PCR products (from first PCR amplification). The PCR process was as follows: initial denaturation at 95 ℃ for 3 min; 5 cycles of 94 ℃ for 30 s, 55 ℃ for 20 s, and 72 ℃ for 30 s and final extension at 72 ℃ for 5 min. PCR products for each sample were purified using the E.Z.N.A. Gel Extraction Kit (Omega Bio-Tek, Inc., GA, USA) and then quantified using the Qubit3.0 DNA Test Kit (Life, CA, USA). Equal amounts of PCR products were pooled to produce equivalent sequencing depths from all samples. After purification with the Agencourt AMPure XP KIT, the pooled PCR products were used to construct a DNA library using the NEB E7370L DNA Library preparation kit according to instructions from Illumina. Finally, the single composite barcoded PCR product was sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq™ machine using the PE250 protocol.

    The soil samples from CK, BC, SPHE, PBC, PLH, and PCLH in triplicate were sent to Shanghai Sangon Biological Co., Ltd., for high-throughput sequencing to determine the relationship among the bacterial communities in the soil samples [35]. Sequenced reads were subjected to the Cutadapt program (version 0.1.123) with -O 5 -m 50. Subsequent quality cuts of reads used the Prinseq program with the -lc_method dust -lc_threshold 40 -min_len 200. The trimmed paired reads were combined by the PEAR program (version 0.9.5) with a p-value of 0.01. More than 60,000 raw sequences for each sample were obtained for data analysis on average. Usearch was used to remove non-amplified region sequences, the sequences were corrected, and uchime was used to identify chimeras. The sequence of the removed chimera was blastn-aligned with the representative sequence of the database to remove alignment results below the threshold. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were picked (clustered at 97% similarity), and by plotting the relationship between the change in the number of OTUs and the similarity value of the cluster, the best similarity value was selected for OTU analysis and taxonomic analysis. The alpha diversity of the samples was estimated by Chao1 richness estimators and the inverse Simpson diversity index. Each sequence was species classified by the naïve Bayesian assignment algorithm using the RDP classifier (RDP classification threshold > 0.8).

    SPHE, PBC and PCLH samples were subjected to metagenome sequencing by Roche 454 pyrosequencing approaches. The total genomic DNA of each soil sample extracted using the E.Z.N.A™ Mag-Bind Soil DNA Kit (QIAGEN, 51504) of OMEGA. Library construction and sequencing were carried out by Shanghai Shengon Biological Co., Ltd., using standard shotgun protocols to obtain 40,781,536 − 52,804,630 raw reads per sample, with an average length of 150 bp for each sample. FastQC and Trimmomatic programs were used to quality control the sequences with a 0.01 maximum error rate, leading to 133,482,380 high-quality sequences. Prodigal was used for gene prediction, as it can predict high-quality gene fragments by short reads and surmounts homopolymer errors. BLAST searching protein sequences against the NCBI nr database was used to assign functional and taxonomic assignments of the predicted genes. Allocating KEGG orthologies to genes in the metagenome was conducted through the Ghost-KOALA annotation server and by rebuilding metabolic pathways. Statistical differences in the abundance of gene families involved in the C, N, P and S element cycles were measured by response ratio analysis. We mapped and explored alterations of genes and then speculated on the alterations of elemental circulation and the ecological environment caused by the addition of biochar and PHE-degrading bacterial inoculant during the repair process of PHE-contaminated soil.

    The yields, elemental compositions and ash contents, atomic ratios and pH of the biochar derived from straw at the 300℃, 500℃ and 700℃ temperatures are listed in Fig. 1 and Table 1. Biochar production is inversely proportional to pyrolysis temperature because of the large amount of cellulose and hemicellulose contained in rice straw, which ranged from 26.6 to 49.6 wt%. The ash content of BC300 (biochar prepared at 300℃) was 13.83%, which was lower than that of BC500 and BC700. This difference may be caused by the incomplete volatilization of cellulose and hemicellulose at lower pyrolysis temperatures. The ash contents of BC500 (biochar prepared at 500℃) and BC700 (biochar prepared at 700℃) were 17.25% and 29.95%, respectively, indicating that as the pyrolysis temperature increased, the proportion of non-volatile ash increased. The amount of ash produced by pyrolysis was close to one-third of the total production of biochar at the pyrolysis temperature of 700℃. BC300 had the highest yield and the lowest ash content. BC700 had a relatively lower yield and an extremely high ash content, which also required higher energy consumption in the preparation process. Therefore, BC700 should be avoided in actual production.

    pH and elemental analysis of biochars (BC300, BC500 and BC700). BC refers to the biochar obtained from rice straws; 300, 500 and 700 are the heating treatment temperatures.

    Samples

    pH

    elements(%)

    atomic ratio (%)

    C

    H

    N

    O

    P

    S

    (N + O)/C

    H/C

    (C + H)/O

    O/C

    BC300

    7.49

    54.91

    3.04

    1.29

    21.61

    0.73

    0.92

    0.417

    0.053

    2.681

    0.393

    BC500

    10.14

    57

    1.72

    1.08

    15.01

    0.76

    0.74

    0.282

    0.03

    3.912

    0.263

    BC700

    10.31

    63.35

    0.95

    1.12

    6.93

    0.73

    0.62

    0.127

    0.014

    9.278

    0.109

    The pH of biochar is directly proportional to the pyrolysis temperature, and the pH values of BC300, BC500 and BC700 were 7.49, 10.14 and 10.31, respectively. The C content in biochar (≥ 54.91) was the highest compared with H, N, O, P and S. The C contents of BC300, BC500 and BC700 were 54.91%, 57.00% and 63.35%, respectively, indicating that the C content of BC700 was significantly higher than that of the other two. The H contents of BC300, BC500, and BC700 were 3.04%, 1.72%, and 0.95%, respectively, and the O contents were 21.61%, 15.01%, and 6.93%, respectively, which means that the contents of H and O decreased as the temperature increased. O and H combined to form vapor that disappeared as the pyrolysis temperature increased, thereby reducing the element content. In contrast, C continued to accumulate through carbonization and increased in proportion. The atomic ratio can usually be used to reflect the physicochemical properties of biochar. The degree of aromatization of biochar also increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The H/C ratios of BC300, BC500, and BC700 were 0.053, 0.030, and 0.014, respectively, which were affected by the degree of carbonization being directly proportional to the pyrolysis temperature during the preparation of biochar. Moreover, large amounts of aromatic ring structures were produced, which gave them a high degree of aromatization. All three biochars had high reducibility and good stability, and BC700 had special reduction and stability characteristics. From the perspective of elemental analysis, the difference in polarity, reducibility and stability of biochars may be the main reason for their different properties and functions.

    Figure 2 shows the FTIR spectra of biochars. The vibration position appeared in the same band, but the intensities of the main significant peaks were different. In general, the degree of carbonized biochar increased with the loss of functional groups. The broad band at 3400 cm− 1 was due to the O-H stretching vibration in the carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups because the O-H structure contained in the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin was not destroyed completely in the processes of pyrolysis and carbonization. As the pyrolysis temperature increased, the peak became less pronounced in biochar, indicating that the O-H structure was well preserved in BC300 and BC500, while that in BC700 was seriously damaged after pyrolysis carbonization. The band intensity between 3000 and 2800 cm− 1 was related to aliphatic group stretching. The band strength of biochar was positively related to the pyrolysis temperature because of condensation and polymerization. This result was connected with the differences in the O/C and H/C of biochar (Table 2). The peak at about 1640 cm− 1 may because of -OH and C = O vibrations. The peaks of BC300 and BC500 were similar, while the band intensity of 700BC became weaker, which proved that the temperature at 700℃ have a strong decarboxylation reaction, while the reaction of BC500 was similar to BC300. The band at 1400 cm− 1 was have connection with -COOH stretching, and the increased of intensity have connection with pyrolysis temperature increase. This was related with the peaks at 468.84 cm− 1, 486.03 cm− 1 and 464.57 cm− 1 associated to -CH stretching vibration. The broad band between 1000 cm-1 and 1300 cm-1 was related to alcohols (C-O) stretching, which was cellulose and hemicellulose characteristic. The broad band of biochar between 1000 cm− 1 and 1300 cm− 1 decreased with pyrolysis increases. The peaks at 464 cm− 1 and 473 cm− 1 were attributed to -CH stretching vibration. The peaks at 786 cm− 1, 801 cm− 1 and 804 cm− 1 were attributed to the presence of aromatic substances in the material. The band intensity of BC700 was significantly weaker than that of the BC300 and BC500, indicates excessive temperatures resulting in the breaking of functional group bonds and the reduction of functional groups. The difference in the strengths of the functional groups was one of the main reasons for the difference in biochar properties and functions.

    The SEM images in Fig. 3, enlarged multiples 2 k (left) and 5 k (right), neatly display the dramatically different surface and pore structures of the three kinds of biochar. Compared with BC300, the surfaces of BC700 were more damaged (Fig. 3, left). The surfaces of biochar particles (BC500 and BC700) were relatively rough and porous, with massive substances (Fig. 3, right). The difference in porosity was uniformly distributed on the biochar surface, and this was the key reason for the difference in biochar adsorption performance. Therefore, BC500 and BC700 had better adsorption and an easier diffusion process in the adsorbate particles effect than did BC300, which improved the adsorption efficiency in the pores. Through the analyses of elemental, SEM and FTIR, it could be concluded that straw pyrolysis at 500℃ formed biochar with the best application performance.

    The experiment was carried out with 4 treatments: SPHE, PLH, PBC and PCLH; the amount of degraded PHE was measured after 45 days of incubation. The residual PHE in the soil was 45.7%, 24.3%, 14.6%, and 6.6%, respectively (Fig. 4). The decrease in PHE in SPHE may be because of the plants that were planted and some microorganisms of the original microbes in the soil degraded the PHE. The PHE in surface soils were easily volatized or degraded under long-term lighting. The PHE residue curve showed that the soil PHE concentration in the PBC and PCLH decreased rapidly with residual ratios of 50.8% and 47.9% at 15 days, respectively (Fig. 4), which indicates that biochar had a relatively fast adsorption of organic pollutants, implying that biochar could improve contaminated soil effectively in a short time. The SPHE degradation rate was faster in the middle of the experiment, which indicated that the ryegrass gradually matured with the absorption of more pollutants. Therefore, the role of plants in the process of treating contaminated soils was equally important. Similar results have been reported in that plants could also support the degradation of PHE by improving the microbial population, soil physiochemical properties and adsorption of pollutants in the rhizosphere.

    PCLH and PBC had the more efficient degradation in PLH, PBC and PCLH (75.7%, 85.4% and 93.4%), implying that biochar can adsorb soil pollutants and reduce the amount of pollutants in the soil. Among the six treatments, PCLH was the most degradable treatment, which indicates that the PHE-degrading bacteria adsorbed on the bacterial inoculant could degrade the PHE adsorbed into biochar. The above results indicated that biochar and bacterial inoculant had obvious repairing effects on the PHE-contaminated soil; they could effectually reduce soil pollutant content and toxicity and improve the soil ecological environment. Meanwhile, because PCLH and PBC had a fast adsorption speed and a remarkable effect, they had suitable repair performance in terms of improving PHE-contaminated soil.

    The soil microorganisms, plant growth and reproduction changed with the changes in water content. The water contents of treatments CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH, and SPHE were 6.20%, 6.03%, 6.30%, 8.03%, 8.23%, and 8.20%, respectively (Fig. 5a). The soil water contents of the treatments with biochar (first three groups) were increased by approximately 2% compared with the treatments without biochar (last three groups), indicating that biochar addition to soil might make it possible to change the soil porosity and agglomeration, which affects the soil water retention capacity. The soil pH was significantly different in the 6 treatments, with pH values of CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH and SPHE of 7.44, 7.81, 7.80, 7.76, 7.42 and 7.48, respectively (Fig. 5b). The pH of BC was found to be significantly higher than that of CK, indicating that biochar increased the pH of the soil because biochar, an alkaline substance, can continuously supply alkalinity to the soil during its application. The use of bacterial inoculant in the process of PHE-contaminated soil treatment increased the pH of the soil as well, implying that these two methods could improve the acidity of the soil in the process of soil pollution remediation. The organic matter content of CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH and SPHE was 32.4 g kg− 1, 46.68 g kg− 1, 47.29 g kg− 1, 38.54 g kg− 1, 28.02 g kg− 1 and 34.24 g kg− 1, respectively (Fig. 5c). Biochar addition in nonpolluted soil increased the organic matter content by 44.07% because the incomplete pyrolysis of biochar results in a large amount of carbon-containing compounds that slowly flow to the soil and increase the soil organic matter content. The biochar and bacterial inoculant improved the soil organic matter by 38.11% and 12.56%, respectively, implying that the biochar and bacterial inoculant were soil remediation agents and good soil amendments.

    The total N, P and K contents in the soil at 45 days are shown in Fig. 5. The total N contents of treatment CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH, and SPHE were 0.89 g/kg, 1.02 g/kg, 1.05 g/kg, 1.01 g/kg, 0.84 g/kg, and 1.01 g/kg, respectively (Fig. 5d). The increase in soil total N by biochar addition indicated that biochar was rich in N and carried N into the soil. The total N content in PLH and PCLH was lower than that in PBC, which may be because a large amount of exogenous bacteria was brought in by PLH and PCLH. These exogenous bacteria promoted N consumption in the soil, resulting in a lower total N content than that in PBC. The trend of total P was similar to that of N in soil. The total P of treatment CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH and SPHE were 0.83 g/kg, 0.93 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 0.89 g/kg, 0.79 g/kg, and 0.84 g/kg, respectively (Fig. 5e). Biochar addition increased the soil total P by 12.04%. The total P of PBC was increased by 5.95% compared with SPHE, and PLH was reduced by 7.976% compared with SPHE. The change in P in different groups was not obvious. The total K of treatment CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH, SPHE were 17.2 g/kg, 20.1 g/kg, 19.7 g/kg, 18.7 g/kg, 16.8 g/kg, and 18.3 g/kg, respectively (Fig. 5f). The increase in the content of total K compared to CK was 16.86% for BC and 2.1% for PCLH, while it decreased by 8.19% for PLH. The content of total K of PLH was lower than that of PLH, and they were both lower than that of PBC. The decrease in the total K of PLH was caused by the addition of exogenous microorganisms. These results showed that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition in the PHE-contaminated soil degraded the total NPK and organic matter but significantly increased the soil water content and soil pH. These ingredients were the essential materials for the growth of plants and microorganisms, implying that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition could effectively reduce pollution and increase soil nutrients and fertility levels.

    Ryegrass, because of its well-developed root system, can respond to soil changed in a timely manner, so it was used as an indicator plant in this experiment. After 45 days of experiment, the average seedling length of the SPHE was 27.3% less than that of the CK, indicating that PHE pollution inhibited the growth of ryegrass in soil (Fig. 5g). The average length of ryegrass in the BC was 7.94% increased than CK, indicating that biochar addition promoted the growth of ryegrass, which may be because biochar releasing its own nutrients into the soil, thereby improving soil properties and fixing nutrients. The average seedling length of PBC, PLH and PCLH were 18.9%, 15.8% and 42.7% higher than that of SPHE, respectively. It implied that the repair method of the bacterial inoculant had the greatest effect on the growth of ryegrass, which could restore the length of ryegrass to the level of non-polluted soil.

    After 45 days of experiment, the average weight of ryegrass in the BC was 11.7% increased than CK, indicating that biochar addition promoted the growth of ryegrass (Fig. 5h). The average seedling weight of ryegrass in the SPHE group was 31.2% lower than that in the CK group, indicating that PHE pollution inhibited the growth of ryegrass. The seedling weight of the PBC, PLH and PCLH groups was higher than that of the SPHE group, which was because all three treatments reduced the concentration of PHE in the soil, thereby reducing the toxicity of PHE in the soil, and thus reducing its inhibition of the growth of ryegrass. In summary, the application of biochar and bacterial inoculant can promote the growth of ryegrass and restore the weight and length of ryegrass to normal levels. It indicated that biochar and bacterial inoculant were suitable as soil amendments for remediation of PHE-contaminated soil.

    Number of sequences analyzed, OTUs, estimated community richness estimators (Chao and ACE) and community diversity indices (Shannon and Simpson) of the 16S rRNA libraries of the samples

    Sample

    ID

    Clean

    num

    Mean

    len

    OUT

    num

    Shannon

    index

    Chao1

    index

    Coverage

    CK

    43750

    420.59

    4035

    6.79

    5548.16

    0.96

    BC

    43201

    421.28

    3985

    6.58

    5614.95

    0.96

    SPHE

    51615

    419.02

    4035

    6.54

    5401.42

    0.97

    PBC

    49303

    419.48

    3981

    6.66

    5468.70

    0.97

    PLH

    53580

    419.43

    3407

    6.06

    5015.33

    0.97

    PCLH

    45560

    417.48

    3380

    6.36

    4991.04

    0.97

    To understand the community changes and explore the relationships between the community changes and PHE degradation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing data were collected and analyzed. Based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) results, 287,009 valid reads across the 6 samples were obtained after quality control measures. The coverage index (Table 2) ranged from 83–92%, which indicated that these results truly reflected the majority of bacterial community information in the sample. The Shannon index and Chao1 index of CK were higher than those of SPHE because PHE contamination inhibited the growth of a large number of microorganisms. The Shannon index declined after biochar addition in soil, but the Chao1 index increased, which meant that the species diversity was lower and the species richness was higher. This result may be because biochar addition increased the total abundance of soil species but destroyed the uniformity of the species. However, biochar addition to contaminated soil increased both the Chao1 and the fragrance index, implying that biochar addition reduced the soil PHE concentration and had a positive effect on soil microbes, which was similar to the results of previous research. PLH and PCLH had the lowest species richness, which indicated that the added PHE-degrading bacteria could use PHE as a carbon source to grow into a dominant flora and destroy the microbial balance in the original soil, resulting in a decrease in microbial abundance in the soil. However, the degradation of PHE in PLH and PCLH was higher than that in others, indicating that the addition of degrading bacteria and bacterial inoculant had positive effects in terms of repairing contaminated soil.

    The abundance of bacteria at the phylum level and genus level was examined. Phylogenetic assignments from 31 phyla and 48 genera of 6 soil samples were identified. The most abundant phyla among the 6 samples were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, whose richness exceeded 50% of all soil phyla, indicating that these 3 bacteria were the dominant phyla in the soil (Fig. 6a). The abundance of soil microbes changed greatly during the restoration process. The abundance of Achromobacter sp. in the PLH and PCLH groups was significantly increased compared with that in PHE (SPHE: 0.03%, PLH: 1.99%, PCLH: 2.43%), implying that the addition of LH-1 can be stably present in the soil (Fig. 6b). The abundance of Achromobacter sp. in PCLH was higher than that in PLH, implying that biochar could effectively immobilize the addition of LH-1 in soil. The abundance of Sphingobacterium sp. (PBC:9.35%, PLH:14.1%, PCLH:10.67%), Subdivision 3 genera Incertae sedis sp. (PBC:3.36%, PLH:3.05%, PCLH:4.11%), Ohtaekwangia sp. (PBC:2.63%, PLH:1.57%, PCLH:2.46%) and Lysobacter sp. (PBC:0.96, PLH:3.69%, PCLH:1.84%), were greater in PBC, PLH and PCLH than in SPHE and recovered to CK levels during processing (Fig. 6b). This result may be because these three treatments reduced the PHE in soil, leading to changes in the soil microenvironment and resulting in the slow recovery of some bacteria.

    The links between PHE degradation and soil bacteria were analyzed for phylogenetic classification using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) (Fig. 7). Each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number is represented in the PCoA, and the correspondence of these OTUs with their taxonomic classification (obtained for a 97% similarity threshold) is presented in Table 3. We observed that in terms of PAH degradation, the abundance of 34 OTUs (out of 50) correlated well together, indicating that PHE degradation in soil may be highly correlated with Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, and particularly with the Micrococcaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Comamonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Gemmatimonadaceae and Chitinophagaceae families. The abundance of these bacteria in PCLH and PBC was high, and the degradation ability of both treatments was very high, indicating that PAH degradation was related to the abundance of specific bacteria that could metabolize them and to the proportion of these bacteria. Therefore, in the following content, we specifically analyze the contribution of these microorganisms in the PHE metabolic pathway and analyze the differences between PBC and PCLH in the PHE metabolic pathway.

    Taxonomic correspondences of the abundance of 50 first OTUs in terms of abundance in the six studied soils at a similarity threshold of 97% with percentages of similarity.

    phylum

    class

    order

    family

    genus

    Otu2545

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Gp4

    Otu17478

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu12278

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu18554

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Erythrobacteraceae

    Porphyrobacter

    Otu16369

    Actinobacteria

    Actinobacteria

    Actinomycetales

    Micrococcaceae

    Arthrobacter

    Otu18534

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    unclassified

    Otu187

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Comamonadaceae

    Ramlibacter

    Otu18544

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu17944

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Erythrobacteraceae

    Altererythrobacter

    Otu18540

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingobium

    Otu18537

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Novosphingobium

    Otu17953

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    Otu10027

    Bacteroidetes

    Cytophagia

    Cytophagales

    NA

    Ohtaekwangia

    Otu368

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Alcaligenaceae

    Achromobacter

    Otu17947

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    Otu370

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Xanthomonadales

    Xanthomonadaceae

    unclassified

    Otu17480

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Blastocatella

    Otu15723

    Actinobacteria

    Actinobacteria

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    Otu18535

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu17948

    Candidatus Saccharibacteria

    NA

    NA

    NA

    Saccharibacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu18536

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Aridibacter

    Otu1033

    Actinobacteria

    Actinobacteria

    Gaiellales

    Gaiellaceae

    Gaiella

    Otu372

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Oxalobacteraceae

    Massilia

    Otu18539

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu10872

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadales

    Gemmatimonadaceae

    Gemmatimonas

    Otu18541

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Erythrobacteraceae

    Porphyrobacter

    Otu8880

    Bacteroidetes

    Sphingobacteriia

    Sphingobacteriales

    Chitinophagaceae

    Terrimonas

    Otu1102

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Gp4

    Otu18538

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp1

    NA

    NA

    Gp1

    Otu369

    Verrucomicrobia

    Verrucomicrobiae

    Verrucomicrobiales

    Verrucomicrobiaceae

    Luteolibacter

    Otu8881

    Bacteroidetes

    Cytophagia

    Cytophagales

    Cytophagaceae

    Adhaeribacter

    Otu2546

    Verrucomicrobia

    Spartobacteria

    NA

    NA

    Spartobacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu1034

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Xanthomonadales

    Xanthomonadaceae

    Lysobacter

    Otu2636

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Gp4

    Otu238

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp7

    NA

    NA

    Gp7

    Otu375

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Xanthomonadales

    Xanthomonadaceae

    Lysobacter

    Otu17991

    Candidatus Saccharibacteria

    NA

    NA

    NA

    Saccharibacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu7541

    Bacteroidetes

    Sphingobacteriia

    Sphingobacteriales

    Chitinophagaceae

    Flavisolibacter

    Otu7540

    Bacteroidetes

    Sphingobacteriia

    Sphingobacteriales

    Sphingobacteriaceae

    Pedobacter

    Otu8887

    Bacteroidetes

    Sphingobacteriia

    Sphingobacteriales

    Chitinophagaceae

    Flavisolibacter

    Otu1035

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp7

    NA

    NA

    Gp7

    Otu19471

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Caulobacterales

    Caulobacteraceae

    Brevundimonas

    Otu10854

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadales

    Gemmatimonadaceae

    Gemmatimonas

    Otu385

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Comamonadaceae

    unclassified

    Otu1036

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Comamonadaceae

    Hydrogenophaga

    Otu4358

    Verrucomicrobia

    Spartobacteria

    NA

    NA

    Spartobacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu371

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Xanthomonadales

    Xanthomonadaceae

    Lysobacter

    Otu4

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadales

    Gemmatimonadaceae

    Gemmatimonas

    Otu17479

    Candidatus Saccharibacteria

    NA

    NA

    NA

    Saccharibacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu374

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Pseudomonadales

    Pseudomonadaceae

    Pseudomonas

    To determine which community members were involved in genes encoding PHE degradation-related enzymes, combining the results of the NCBI NR annotation pipeline and the GhostKOALA annotation pipeline, we mapped the PHE metabolic pathway. The first step of PHE degradation is catalysis by dioxygenase, where oxygen reacts with two adjacent carbon atoms (C-4 and C-5 positions) of the PHE, resulting in cis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4dihydrophenanthrene formation. PAH dioxygenase large (K11943) and small (K11944) subunits participated in initial PHE oxidation. Cis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrophenanthrene is then metabolized by cis-3,4-dihydrophenanthrene-3,4-diol dehydrogenase (K18257) to form 3,4-dihydroxyphenanthrene, which is further metabolized to produce 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. Hydroxy-2-naphthoate is further metabolized through both the O-phthalate pathway and naphthalene pathway, leading to protocatechuate and salicylate, respectively. No salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase (K00152) was found in soil samples to degrade salicylaldehyde through the naphthalene pathway. However, benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD) (K00141) was found in the soil, and its function is similar to that of K00152, allowing the degradation of salicylaldehyde to continue. Salicylaldehyde is dehydrogenated to form salicylate and then hydroxylated to produce catechol. Catechol was further degraded in three ways. Firstly, catechol could be metabolized through the catechol meta- and ortho-cleavage pathways, leading to intermediates of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle. Secondly, it could be converted to protocatechuate for further degradation. Thirdly, protocatechuate could be further metabolized through protocatechuate meta- and ortho-cleavage until finally entering the TCA cycle.

    The genes encoding PHE degradation-related enzymes are mainly produced by Mycobacteriaceae and Commonarceaceae and have a good correlation with the degradation of PAHs in PCoA. In this consortium, Mycobacterium rhodesiae in the Mycobacteriaceae family was the main taxon that performed the early steps of PHE degradation, resulting in 1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde (Fig. 8). Biochar induction significantly increased the abundance of mycobacterium rhodesiae (Fig. 9), suggesting that biochar induction could promote degradation and lead to a decrease in soil PHE content (Fig. 4). The exogenous microorganism LH-1 applied to PCLH was Achromobacter sp. Previous research found that LH-1 can degrade PHE through the salicylate pathway [36]. This is the same degradation pathway found in soil containing Achromobacter sp. It was found that the abundance of most species containing genes that convert naphthalene-1,2-diol to catechol in PBC and PCLH was greater than that in CK, and the increase in PCLH was greater than the increase in PBC. This result may be because the increase in Achromobacter sp. in the soil caused a large amount of PHE to be degraded by the catechol ortho-cleaving pathway, leading to an increase in the abundance of most species participating in this pathway. In addition, biochar addition increased the abundance of most species in the protocatechuic meta-cleavage pathway; in contrast, the addition of bacterial inoculant reduced the abundance of most species in the protocatechuic ortho-cleavage pathway.

    The reconstructed catabolic pathway (Fig. 8) shows that soil PHE mineralizes in several pathways, as genes distributed to the catechol ortho- and meta-cleavage pathways and the protocatechuate ortho- and meta-cleavage pathways were detected. The addition of biochar and bacterial inoculant may reduce substrate competition between different degrading populations, thereby promoting the growth of soil PHE-degrading microorganisms, which can produce key enzymes in PHE degradation (Fig. 6), leading to PBC and PCLH. The residual amount of PHE was lower than that of PLH (Fig. 4). Our previous research showed that LH-1 could degrade PHE in the salicylate pathway and produce abundant intermediate metabolites in the degradation process [36], which increased the microbial activity that could utilize and degrade these intermediate metabolites. This process may be the reason why the abundance of most microorganisms in the catechol ortho-cleavage pathway in PCLH is higher than that in SPHE. This result is consistent with the Black Queen theory [37], in which one microorganism produces byproducts that will enhance the adaptability of other microorganisms capable of using these products [38].

    In summary, biochar promoted microbial interactions to achieve PHE mineralization for metabolic steps by combining different symbiotic microorganisms. In most steps of PHE degradation, biochar increased the abundance of microorganisms that produced key enzymes. In contrast, the addition of bacterial inoculant mainly increased the abundance of microorganisms that produced key enzymes in the catechol ortho-cleavage pathway, indicating that PHE in PCLH is mainly carried out through the catechol ortho-cleavage pathway, which means that biochar in PCLH may play an auxiliary role and degradation is mainly processed by Alcaligenaceae sp. Regardless of the degradation effect or degradation pathway, the best treatment method is PCLH. However, the addition of bacterial inoculant has affected the diversity of soil microorganisms to some extent; thus, a comprehensive analysis is needed in future applications.

    The genes encoding C cycle-related enzymes were mainly contributed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (Fig. 10). Carbon metabolism is mainly divided into carbon anabolism and carbon catabolism, and microorganisms participate in carbon metabolism by participating in these two processes. The Calvin cycle is the most important way to fix CO2 in microorganisms involved in C assimilation. The key enzyme of the Calvin cycle is RuBisCO. Biochar treatment reduced the abundance of the soil RuBisCO gene by 15.8% (Fig. 11a), indicating that biochar treatment had an inhibitory effect on soil C fixation. Biochar contained plentiful undecomposed and amorphous C that could be directly utilized or decomposed by microorganisms. This process causes the autotrophic microorganisms to lose their growth advantage, ultimately reducing C fixation [39]. Because biochar contains plentiful C sources, its application made the increment of soil C larger than the amount of C that was fixed. Bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of the RuBisCO gene in the soil by 74.02%, which may be because Achromobacter sp. in the bacterial inoculant was found to fix C through the metagenome (Fig. 10); thus, bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of the RuBisCO gene in the soil.

    Another type of microorganism that participates in C metabolism is involved in organic C degradation, which is numerous and abundant. These microorganisms degrade organic carbon such as starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, fructose, chitin, and lignin. Starch is a relatively easy to degrade organic carbon compound. Biochar and bacterial inoculant had little effect on the abundances of the glucoamylase and alpha-amylase gene families; however, the abundance of the pullulanase gene family was obviously improved, indicating that biochar and bacterial inoculant had a promoting effect on soil starch metabolism (Fig. 11a). The abundances of soil gene families related to pectin- and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes were researched. Except for the pectin esterase and xylose isomerase gene families, biochar and bacterial inoculant addition obviously promoted the abundance of the gene family related to pectin- and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes (Fig. 11a). The above results indicated that biochar and bacterial inoculant promoted the metabolic process of soil, easily degrading C in the soil C cycle. Biochar and bacterial inoculant carry a large amount of soluble carbon compounds into the soil, providing nutrients for a large number of bacteria, which promotes the cycling process.

    Cellulose is a typical agricultural waste that is relatively stable in soil, and its degradation is slow. Cellobiose phosphorylase, cellulase and endoglucanase are the main cellulose-degrading enzymes. Figure 11a shows that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition decreased the abundance of the cellobiose phosphorylase gene family but greatly increased the abundance of the cellulase and endoglucanase gene families. Overall, biochar and bacterial inoculant addition can promote soil cellulose metabolism. Chitin and lignin are the most difficult organic agricultural wastes [40]. Deacetylase and polyphenol oxidase are the main chitin- and lignin-degrading enzymes, respectively. Biochar addition partly decreased the abundance of the gene families that encoded these two enzymes, and bacterial inoculant reduced the abundance of polyphenol oxidase gene families. The decomposition of organic carbon in soil is carried out in an order from easy to difficult [34]. When biochar carries a large amount of soluble carbon into the soil, microorganisms preferentially degrade easily decomposable carbon compounds, which leads to biochar inhibiting soil chitin and lignin metabolism. Bacterial inoculant addition alleviated the inhibition of lignin degradation caused by biochar and promoted chitin degradation, which may be because Achromobacter sp. in the bacterial inoculant addition in PCLH has the ability to degrade chitin based on the metagenomic data, leading to the abundance of the gene families that encoded lignin-degrading enzymes to be slightly higher than that seen after the addition of biochar.

    In summary, the C cycle in the three soil samples was mainly transformed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition changed the gene families that encoded enzymes related to the C cycle and further changed the content of enzymes related to the soil C cycle. Biochar addition to PHE-contaminated soil promoted the degradation of relatively easy decomposable organic carbon compounds, thereby promoting the use of organic carbon compounds by soil plants, arthropods and microorganisms. However, biochar addition inhibited C fixation and lignin and chitin degradation, which are degradation-resistant agricultural wastes; thus, biochar addition may have adversely affected the C cycle in the soil to some extent. However, the inhibition of lignin and chitin degradation may also lead to soil C accumulation, which may compensate for the decline of C fixation to some extent. Bacterial inoculant addition in PHE-contaminated soil basically has similar effects as those of biochar on the C cycle. However, bacterial inoculant addition relieved the inhibition of lignin degradation and promoted chitin degradation and C fixation compared to biochar. This result may be because Achromobacter sp. in bacterial inoculant have the functions of chitin degradation and C fixation. This result provides a new possibility for improving polluted soil using biochar; specifically, biochar can be mixed with functional bacteria to balance the inhibitory effect of biochar on soil. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition can promote the conversion of complex organic compounds into small-molecule compounds, promoting agricultural production and reducing chemical fertilizer application to some extent, which also protects the ecological environment. Currently, an increasing number of researchers are focusing on the disposal of agricultural waste, mainly cellulose-rich straw degradation. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition could promote cellulose degradation, which presents more possibilities for agricultural production and ecological management.

    In this study, nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and N2 fixation were presented and analyzed. The gene families involved in the soil N cycle were mainly contributed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Thaumarchaeota (Fig. 10). Nitrification is the biological oxidation process that converts ammonia to nitrite and then to nitrate. amo encodes ammonia monooxygenase to control microbial biological nitrification. Biochar caused a reduction in amo abundance in soil by 83.9%, which may have been caused by the biochar addition changing the abundance of amo by affecting the abundance of amo ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms, which were influenced by experimental conditions and biochar properties such as fertilizer application and biochar feedstock [41]. The addition of the bacterial inoculant (Biochar + LH-1) increased amo abundance by 206.4% (Fig. 11b), which may be because Achromobacter sp. in bacterial inoculant was found to contribute amo in the metagenome.

    In contrast, denitrification is a biological reductive process from NO3 to NO2, NO, N2O and ultimately N2. The gene families including narG, narJ and narH control the NO3 reduction to NO2 (Fig. 10). Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition reduced the abundance of narG and narH (Fig. 11b), indicating that they have an inhibitory effect on this step in contaminated soil. Meanwhile, biochar contained plentiful nitrate; thus, it could be speculated that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition increased the soil nitrate concentration. The gene families including nirS and nirK control the NO2 reduction to NO (Fig. 10) and are considered target genes for measuring soil denitrification [42, 43]. Some studies found that soil N2O emissions were positively correlated with nirK/nirS [41]. The impact of biochar and bacterial inoculant on the abundance of nirS was weak, while it significantly increased nirK abundance (Fig. 11b). This result may be because biochar improved soil aeration, thereby stimulating the growth and diversity of denitrifiers, leading to changes in gene family abundance [4446]. The gene families including norB and norC control the denitrification of NO to N2O (Fig. 10). Biochar or bacterial inoculant addition reduced norB abundance, while their application increased norC abundance (Fig. 11b) [47]. The gene families including nosZ control the N2O reduction to N2 (Fig. 10). Some studies have found that an increase in the abundance of nosZ leads to a reduction in N2O emissions [48]. Biochar addition in PHE-contaminated soil reduced nosZ abundance, while bacterial inoculant addition increased nosZ abundance (Fig. 11b), which may be because that the effect of biochar addition on nosZ abundance may depend on the experimental conditions, such as planting, feedstock and pyrolysis temperature [41]. This result indicated that biochar addition to contaminated soil inhibited N2O conversion. However, bacterial inoculant addition increased nosZ abundance. This difference may be because the Achromobacter sp. in bacterial inoculant was found to contribute to the nosZ gene family in the metagenome, which indicated that adding this kind of bacterial inoculant to contaminated soil may reduce N2O emissions from soil.

    Depending on the fate of the produced ammonium, nitrate reduction to ammonium in the environment is divided into dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate reduction [49]. The assimilatory process is catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the narB (nitrate reductase), nasA (nitrate reductase) and nirA (nitrite reductase) gene families, while the dissimilatory process is catalyzed by enzymes encoded by narG, narH, and narJ (nitrate reductase) and by nirB and nirD (nitrite reductase) (Fig. 10). Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition greatly increased the abundance of nasA and narB and reduced the abundance of narG, narJ and narH to a lesser extent (Fig. 11b), indicating that their application may cause soil to carry out nitrate reduction mainly by assisting nitrate processes. The gene families of nirA, nirB and nirD usually coexist, and nirA expression requires nirB to provide a skeleton [50]. The abundance of nirB involved in assimilatory nitrate reduction did not change significantly, although biochar and bacterial inoculant addition inhibited nirA abundance (Fig. 11b). However, their addition increased the abundance of nirD to a large extent, indicating that their application promoted nitrate reduction, thereby reducing soil N loss. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of key enzymes in soil assimilation and dissimilation nitrate reduction, resulting in a large amount of NO2 being directly converted into ammonia in soil. On the one hand, there was reduced nitrogen loss from soil, and on the other hand, the N2O production could be reduced, thereby protecting the ecological environment.

    nif gene families encode nitrogenase to fix N2 in soil and are considered an important source of ammonium. However, nifG was rarely detected in metagenomes, possibly due to random sampling issues in metagenomes. Nevertheless, nifG abundance changed significantly. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition decreased the abundance of nifG in soil by 92% and 84%, respectively, indicating that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition may inhibit N2 fixation, which may be because biochar improvement in wild plant species grown in soil would reduce soil nifG abundance [41].

    In summary, the soil N cycle was mainly transformed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Thaumarchaeota. Biochar and bacterial inoculant application in soil changed the abundance of these microorganisms, thereby changing the abundance of the gene families that encoded enzymes involved in the N cycle. Biochar addition to contaminated soil may inhibit the conversion of N2O to N2, resulting in N2O accumulation. However, its application promoted assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction. This process caused NO3 to be directly converted to ammonia in soil, thereby reducing soil N element loss. Moreover, the addition of biochar rich in NO3 further increased the soil N content and promoted the soil N cycle. This result may mean to reduce chemical fertilizer application in agriculture, thereby protecting the environment. In future practical applications, more attention should be paid to the increase in N2O emissions and the inhibition of nitrification caused by the application of biochar. Bacterial inoculant addition to PHE-contaminated soil basically had similar effects as those of biochar on the N cycle. However, the addition of the bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of nosZ in denitrification and amo in nitrification compared to biochar, indicating that this kind of bacterial inoculant application can promote the conversion of N2O to N2 and nitrification, thereby reducing soil greenhouse gas N2O emissions, promoting ammonia conversion, and slowing the greenhouse effect to promote soil N cycling. The result implies that the addition of bacterial inoculant, which use biochar as a carrier, to PHE-contaminated soil can not only make up for biochar deficiencies but also further promote soil nitrification and reduce soil N2O emissions compared to biochar, thereby reducing greenhouse effects and protecting the environment.

    Soil microorganisms hydrolyze organic phosphorus into inorganic phosphorus through the secretion of extracellular enzymes (Fig. 10). Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition reduced the abundance of ACP (acid phosphatase) (Fig. 11c), which may be because biochar changed the pH buffering and nutrient input to affect the composition of soil microbial communities. Biochar addition reduced the abundance of AKP (alkaline phosphatase) (Fig. 11c), which may be because phosphatase is a constitutive rather than an induced enzyme and can be adsorbed onto clay and organic matter particles [51], implying that biochar addition to PHE-contaminated soil may inhibit organophosphorus hydrolysis to some extent. Bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of AKP, which may be because the Achromobacter sp. in our bacterial inoculant was found to contribute to the gene family encoding alkaline phosphatase in the metagenome (Fig. 11c), which alleviated the inhibitory effect of biochar on alkaline phosphatase. The contribution of alkaline phosphatase to soil organic phosphorus conversion may be higher than that of acid phosphatase [51], indicating that bacterial inoculant addition may promote organic phosphorus conversion. The synthesis and decomposition of polyphosphates is an important process in the soil P cycle [52]. Biochar addition significantly reduced the abundance of PPK (polyphosphate kinase) but had less of an effect on the abundance of PPX (extraneous polyphosphatase), indicating that biochar greatly inhibited soil polyphosphates (Fig. 11c). bacterial inoculant addition had little effect on PPK and increased PPX abundance, indicating that the bacterial inoculant promoted polyphosphate degradation. Both treatments for repairing contaminated soils reduced the soil polyphosphate content. A large amount of polyphosphate in soil will cause water eutrophication as rainwater flows into rivers; thus, biochar and bacterial inoculant addition may reduce the environmental pollution of polyphosphate.

    Soil S oxidation in this study was basically regulated by SOX (sulfur oxidase), which oxidizes sulfur to sulfite or sulfate in the S cycle [53]. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition increased SOX abundance, indicating that biochar and bacterial inoculant promoted the oxidation process of soil sulfur metabolism. dsrA, dsrB (sulfate reductase) and apr (APS reductase) are recognized as the most critical enzymes in sulfur reduction, which is the conversion of sulfate or sulfite to H2S. Biochar addition increased dsrA abundance but inhibited the abundance of dsrB and apr. bacterial inoculant addition increased dsrB abundance and reduced the abundance of dsrA and apr, indicating that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition inhibited S reduction and promoted S oxidation, implying that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition may reduce the conversion of sulfate or sulfite to H2S, thereby reducing soil S loss. Their addition may promote oxidation to sulfite or sulfate, which will have beneficial effects on crops.

    There is growing interest in using biochar and bacterial inoculant to improve PHE-contaminated soil. Using pot experiments, we investigated changes in soil physicochemical properties, the abundance of soil microbes involved in PHE degradation and the C, N, P and S cycling following biochar and bacterial inoculant addition to PHE-contaminated soil. It was found that the addition of biochar and bacterial inoculant increased the abundance of the majority of microorganisms involved in each part of the PHE degradation pathway, thereby promoting soil PHE degradation. Moreover, their addition enhanced soil C, N, P and S cycling, which promoted soil agricultural waste, such as straw, enhanced degradation, and reduced the loss of soil C and N and soil N2O emissions. However, biochar addition inhibited C and N fixation and lignin and chitin degradation, which may create an unfavorable chemical environment for the evolution of microbial biomass [54]. bacterial inoculant addition partially mitigated the inhibitory effects in elements cycling caused by biochar addition, which indicated that microorganisms immobilized on biochar could be considered to reduce the adverse effects of biochar on soil. Thus, this research provides a new direction for pollutant metabolism and element cycling in contaminated soil. These results promote research on the use of biochar and bacterial inoculant to reduce soil pollutants and enhance C, N, P, and S bioavailability to crop plants in agroecosystems.

    PAHs: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PHE: Phenanthrene. FTIR: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. SEM: Scanning electron microscopy. LB: Luria-Bertani. MSM: Salt medium. BC300: Biochar prepared at 300℃. BC500: Biochar prepared at 500℃. BC700: Biochar prepared at 700℃. BC: Soil with 1% biochar. PBC: Soil with 1% biochar and 300 mg/kg PHE. PLH: Soil with 1% Achromobacter sp. LH-1 and 300 mg kg-1 PHE. PCLH: Soil with 1% bacterial inoculant (biochar + Achromobacter sp. LH-1) and 300 mg kg-1 PHE. SPHE: Soil with 300 mg kg-1 PHE. CK: Untreated soil. WHC: Water holding capacity. HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography. OTUs: Operational taxonomic units. NGS: Next-generation sequencing. PCoA: Principal coordinate analysis. TCA: Tricarboxylic cycle. K11943: PAH dioxygenase large subunits. K11944: PAH dioxygenase small subunits. K18257: Cis-3,4-dihydrophenanthrene-3,4-diol dehydrogenase. K00152: Salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase. K00141: Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD). amo: Ammonia monooxygenase. narG: Nitrite oxidoreductase, alpha subunit. narJ: Nitrate reductase molybdenum cofactor assembly chaperone NarJ. narH: Nitrite oxidoreductase, beta subunit. nirK: Nitrite reductase (NO-forming). nirS: Nitrite reductase (NO-forming). norB: Nitric oxide reductase subunit B. norC: Nitric oxide reductase subunit C. nosZ: Nitrous-oxide reductase. narB: Ferredoxin-nitrate reductase. nasA: Assimilatory nitrate reductase catalytic subunit. nirA: Ferredoxin-nitrite reductase. narG: Nitrite oxidoreductase, alpha subunit. narH: Nitrite oxidoreductase, beta subunit. nirB: Nitrite reductase (NADH) large subunit. nirD: Nitrite reductase (NADH) small subunit. nifG: Nitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein beta chain. ACP: Acid phosphatase. AKP: Alkaline phosphatase. PPK: Polyphosphate kinase. PPX: Extraneous polyphosphatase. SOX: Sulfur oxidase. dsrA: Dissimilatory sulfite reductase alpha subunit. dsrB: Dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit. apr: Adenylylsulfate reductase.

    Not applicable.

    Not applicable.

    All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.

    The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

    This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation Excellent Youth Project of Heilongjiang Province (no. YQ2019E005), the Harbin Applied Technology Research and Development Funds (no. 2017RAYXJ020 and 2017RAYXJ019), the Postdoctoral Scientific Research Developmental Fund of Heilongjiang Province under grants no. LBH-Q16018, the Young Talent Fund of Northeast Agricultural University under grants no. 16QC12 and the Natural Science Foundation Project of Heilongjiang Province (no. C2016026).

    NH, DPL and CYL designed the whole scheme of the study and conducted the experiments. QQW, XYL and XYZ wrote the manuscript and revised the manuscript.QQW, XYL, QYS and XXJ performed experiments, YG, LT, WZ and HLZ analyzed data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

    Not applicable.

    Impact of biochar on the metabolic networks of a PHE-degrading microbial community and its influencing mechanism on soil biogeochemical cycles

    Background: Straw pyrolysis into biochar are beneficial for resource recovery and soil improvement. However, little is known about how biochar influences polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolic pathways and biogeochemical cycles in PAH-contaminated agricultural soil. Here we assessed the influence of biochar and bacterial inoculant on the soil physicochemical properties, the microorganisms involved in the metabolism of PAH and C, N, P and S cycling.

    Results: The addition of biochar and bacterial inoculant improved soil fertility and crop nutrition. The community metabolism of phenanthrene was revealed by modeling a gene network based on shotgun metagenomes. Biochar addition in soil promoted the abundance of various phenanthrene-degrading microorganisms involved in multiple steps of phenanthrene catabolism, thereby promoting phenanthrene degradation. Meanwhile, biochar addition increased nitrate reduction and degradation of relatively easily decomposable organic carbon, including cellulose, but it also inhibited lignin and chitin degradation and C and N fixation, while the addition of bacterial inoculant partially mitigated biochar’s inhibitory effects in element cycle and inhibited N2O emission, which alleviated the greenhouse effect.

    Conclusions: When bioremediating PAH-contaminated soil, recommendation is to use biochar combined with functional microorganism. This work contributes to expand the current knowledge of the treatment of contaminated soil and provide some empirical evidence for the treatment of contaminated soil by biochar and bacterial inoculant.

    Biochar is the product of limited oxygen pyrolysis of biomass and is used in agriculture as a soil improver, compost additive and livestock feed supplement [14].Some studies have investigated whether biochar not only provides space for soil microorganisms with pore structures but also provides nutrients to soil microorganisms to enhance their growth, and these nutrients are adsorbed on the biochar [5, 6]. In this way, biochar will positively affect soil microbes, thereby accelerating the biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil. Studies have indicated that the effects of biochar on soil microbes and the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are significant [79]. As a kind of persistent environmental contaminant, PAHs can be efficiently degraded by microbes [10, 11]. Microorganisms using PAHs as carbon sources play a vital role in natural pollutant attenuation in polluted ecosystems [12, 13]. In fact, PAH degradation by mixed microbial communities requires various microbial coordination [14, 15]. However, we still lack a comprehensive view of the principal microbial actors of PAH degradation and their metabolic network in contaminated soils, especially in terms of how PAH degradation is altered by the presence of biochar.

    As a kind of soil amendment, the use of biochar with functional microorganisms to treat contaminated soil will not only affect organic contaminant degradation and catabolic pathways but also affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrient elements [1, 16]. Studies have found that biochar produced via pyrolysis of biomass wastes can enhance and supply long-term soil organic carbon storage [17, 18]. Nitrogen, the most important nutrient in the ecosystem, is a necessary part of biological organisms and nucleic acids; additionally, nitrogen often represents a limiting factor that restricts the net primary production of ecosystems [19]. Evidence suggests that biochar addition can arouse cardinal changes in soil nutrient cycles, usually leading to crop yield increases, especially in acidic and sterile soils with low soil organic matter content, despite the comparable results in temperate soils that are mutable [20, 21]. However, although these insights into the role of biochar in ecosystems exist, a detailed understanding of how biochar affects the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrient elements is still lacking. Research on how biochar affects the phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) cycles of organic contaminated soil is lacking, but several microorganisms are related to the process of circulation, and changes in the cycles will change the existence of P and S in the soil, thereby affecting the soil ecological environment. It is unclear how biochar can affect the cycling processes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), P, and S in organically contaminated soils and whether biochar can improve the soil environment and ecosystems when remediating contaminated soil. The answers to these questions are critical for determining the ability of biochar to repair soil.

    Our study aims to provide insights into the impact of the addition of biochar and PAH-degrading bacterial inoculant on the metabolic networks of a PAH-degrading microbial community. We also wanted to provide a detailed mechanistic understanding of how biochar influences the global biogeochemical cycles of the basic nutrient elements (C, N, P, S) in soil.

    The rice straw used in this study came from rural areas located around Yilan County, Hei Longjiang Province, China (46°19’22.79”N, 129°33’40.24”E). The straw was dried to a constant weight at 80℃ and then crushed at 25 000 rpm before pyrolysis. The obtained straw powders were stored in a desiccator. The seeds used in this study were collected from the Liyuan seed shop; the seed was a perennial ryegrass seed, which is a high-quality grass species with a high germination rate.

    The soil was collected from the cultivated layer of the experimental field (45°44’31.44”N, 126°43’14.00”E) located at Northeast Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Province, China. After the soil reached the laboratory, it passed a 2-mm sieve and was air-dried before the experiment. The obtained soil was stored at room temperature. The soil physicochemical properties were as follows: 1.12 mg kg− 1 total nitrogen (N), 0.96 mg kg− 1 total phosphorus (P), 20.8 mg kg− 1 total potassium (K), 37.9 mg kg− 1 organic matter, and pH 7.40. For spiking, phenanthrene (PHE) at 300 mg kg− 1 was applied to the soil. PHE standards (98.7% purity) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (America). We mixed 1 kg dry soil with 60 mL of the PHE stock solutions (50 mg mL− 1 in acetone). After the solvent had completely evaporated (in a fume hood for 48 h), an aliquot of 0.8 kg contaminated soil was mixed with 7.2 kg uncontaminated soil (dilution ratio 1:9) to obtain a final concentration of fresh PHE of 300 mg kg− 1.

    Achromobacter sp. LH-1 were isolated from soil sample obtained from the Daqing Oilfield in China and then stored in our laboratory. (substrate concentration, 100 mg L− 1; pH, 7; inoculum size, 5%, culture time, 7d; temperature, 28.1℃; degradation rate, 97.48%) [22].

    Biochar was created in a programmable tube furnace (Jinan Jingrui Instrument Co., Ltd., China) through slow pyrolysis. Briefly, the straw was air-dried and ground to less than 2 mm and pyrolyzed at a heating rate of 5 ℃ min− 1 under N2 conditions for 4 h. Final temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 ℃ were used, and the produced biochars were allowed to cool to room temperature after pyrolysis. For simplicity, the biochars were denoted as BC 300, BC 500, and BC 700, where BC represents biochar and the numbers represent the final temperature. All biochars were milled to a homogenous fine powder using a ball mill to pass a 2-mm sieve and dried overnight at 105℃ prior to being analyzed.

    The biochar yield was calculated by the following equation:

    Ash matter contents was calculated from the residual weight obtained after heating at 815 ± 1 ℃ for 2 h in a muffle furnace (National Standard of the People's Republic of China). The ash yield was calculated by the following equation:

    As for the pH of biochar sample, mixed dried sample to water ratio of 1:20 (w/v) and stirred for 60 min. The obtained supernatant after centrifugation was used to determine the pH with a pH meter (Mettler Toledo, ME403E). Contents of C, H, N, and S in the biochar were determined using an elemental analyzer (Vario EL/micro cube, Elementar, Germany). The oxygen content was calculated by subtracting C, N, H, S, and ash contents from the total char mass. The surface functional groups of biochars were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (Varian 640-IR, USA) in a wavelength range of 400–4000 cm− 1 using KBr pellets. Sigma Plot 10.0 software was used for drawing figures. The microstructures of the synthesized composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ZEISS SUPRA40) [23, 24]. All analyses were conducted in triplicate.

    The composition of the Luria-Bertani (LB) was as follows: yeast extract 10 g L− 1, peptone 5 g L− 1 and NaCl 10 g L− 1 [25]. For the preparation of cell suspensions, one loop of isolate was picked up and inoculated into a liquid LB. After 18 h incubation on a rotary shaker at 27℃ 150 rpm, the cells grew to the logarithmic growth phase and were then harvested. The cell culture was centrifuged at 8000 r min− 1 for 5 min, rinsed 3 times, and resuspended; thereafter, the cell suspension was condensed (OD600 = 2.0 ± 0.1) and prepared for further inoculations.

    To immobilize LH-1 cells on rice straw biochar, 5 g biochar (dry weight) was then soaked with fresh mineral salt medium (MSM) (1:20, w/v) in 150 mL flasks. Subsequently, the cells were sterilized at 121℃ for 30 min [26]. After cooling, cell suspensions were introduced to the flasks, with each flask receiving 5 mL of condensed cell suspension. The flask contents were then incubated on a rotary shaker at 30℃ and 80 rpm for 48 h. The mixtures were separated with a 75-µm sieve and rinsed with deionized water thrice to remove the planktonic cells. The obtained LH-1-composite should be collected and stored at 4℃ if immediate inoculation into soil is not possible [27]. All operations were performed under strict aseptic conditions.

    The experiment used the potting method for ryegrass cultivation [28], and 2 kg of soil was weighed for each pot. In this pot trial, six treatments with three replicates were carried out: addition of 1% biochar (BC), addition of 1% biochar and 300 mg/kg PHE (PBC), addition of 1% Achromobacter sp. LH-1 and 300 mg kg− 1 PHE (PLH), addition of 1% bacterial inoculant (biochar + Achromobacter sp. LH-1) and 300 mg kg− 1 PHE (PCLH), addition of 300 mg kg− 1 PHE (SPHE), and untreated soil (CK).

    The main applications were as follows. We weighed 2 kg each of non-recontaminated soil and PHE-contaminated soil, a mixture of soil with biochar and a mixture of soil with a bacterial inoculant into each pot, and we activated the soil microbes by incubating the soil for 10 days at a water content of approximately 50% WHC (water holding capacity). After ryegrass seeds vernalized at 4℃, the ryegrass seeds were sterilized in 30% H2O2 for 20 min, washed, and then balanced for 24 h. The sowing depth was 2–3 cm. After growing seeds in the pots, ryegrass was grown at a temperature of 30℃ during the day and 22℃ at night for 45 days. The water content was maintained at approximately 50% WHC, and fertilizer was not added during incubation. The position of the pots was randomly exchanged every 2 days. Independent triplicates were performed for the six conditions, for a total of 18 pots. Each pot had 40 ryegrass seedlings [29].

    After 45 days, measured the seedling length and weight of ryegrass and retrieved the soil sample from each pot, and then removed roots from the soil sample. Each pot’s soil sample was divided and stored differently as required. One subsample of the rhizosphere soil was collected for the determination of high-throughput sequencing and shotgun metagenomics. The remaining sample was sieved with a 2-mm sieve to remove biochar particles, after which some was freeze-dried to detect phenanthrene (PHE) concentrations and some was air-dried to analyze soil physicochemical properties.

    For the pH of the soil sample, approximately 10 g of dried sample, sieved through 10 meshes, was mixed with 25 mL distilled water and stirred for 30 min. Finally, the obtained supernatant after centrifugation was used to determine the pH with a pH meter [30]. The water content of the soil was determined by subtraction. The quality was calculated by the subtracting the constant weight of soil dried at 105℃ in triplicate from the wet soil value. The soil organic matter was measured using the potassium dichromate capacity method (diluted heat method), the total nitrogen was measured using semi-micro-Kelvin method [31], the total phosphorus was measured using HCIO4-H2SO4 method [32], and the total potassium was determined by flame photometry with NaOH melting [30]. All analyses were conducted in triplicate.

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect soil PHE quantification. The Philippine standards (98.7% purity) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (America). Briefly, frozen soil was sieved through a 100 mesh sieve, and then ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane (1:12.5, w/v) (Tianjin Komeo Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd., chromatographic grade) was used for 10 min. The suspension was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 5 min, and the supernatant was decanted. This procedure was performed thrice. The elute was concentrated via the rotary evaporation method, dissolved in 5 mL of methanol (Zidi ma Technology Co., Ltd., chromatographic grade), and filtered through a 0.22-µm organic filter before column chromatography [33, 34].

    The HPLC conditions were as follows: The mobile phase was 70% acetonitrile (Zidi ma technology co., Ltd., chromatographic grade) and 30% ultrapure water at flow rate of 1.5 mL L− 1. The analysis time was 10 min and the injection volume was 10µL. The experiment was repeated three times.

    The soil samples from CK, BC, SPHE, PBC, PLH, and PCLH in triplicate were sent to Shanghai Sangon Biological Co., Ltd. for high-throughput and metagenome sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from the microbial community samples with the E.Z.N.A™ Mag-Bind Soil DNA Kit (Omega Bio-Tek, GA, USA) according to kit and instrument protocols. DNA was stored at -20 °C until further processing. Two PCR amplifications were performed. The first PCR amplification of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes was PCR amplified with 341F (5'-CCCTACACGACGCTCTTCCGATCTG-3') and 805R (5'-GACTGGAGTTCCTTGGCACCCGAGAATTCCA-3') primers containing barcodes at the 5' end of the front primer. PCR was performed in 30 µl reactions containing 1 µl of Bar-PCR primer F (10 µM), 15 µl of 2 × Taq master Mix, 1 µl of Primer R (10 µM) and up to 10–20 ng of genomic DNA. The PCR process was as follows: initial denaturation at 94℃ for 3 min; 5 cycles of 94℃ for 30 s, 45℃ for 20 s, and 65℃ for 30 s; 20 cycles of 94℃ for 20 s, 55℃ for 20 s, and 72℃ for 30 s; and final extension at 72℃ for 5 min. A second round of amplification was conducted after the PCR. The second PCR amplification introduced Illumina bridge PCR compatible primers. PCR was performed in 30 µl reactions containing 1 µl of primer F (10 µM); 15 µl of 2 × Taq master Mix; 1 µl of Primer R (10 µM) and up to 20 ng of PCR products (from first PCR amplification). The PCR process was as follows: initial denaturation at 95 ℃ for 3 min; 5 cycles of 94 ℃ for 30 s, 55 ℃ for 20 s, and 72 ℃ for 30 s and final extension at 72 ℃ for 5 min. PCR products for each sample were purified using the E.Z.N.A. Gel Extraction Kit (Omega Bio-Tek, Inc., GA, USA) and then quantified using the Qubit3.0 DNA Test Kit (Life, CA, USA). Equal amounts of PCR products were pooled to produce equivalent sequencing depths from all samples. After purification with the Agencourt AMPure XP KIT, the pooled PCR products were used to construct a DNA library using the NEB E7370L DNA Library preparation kit according to instructions from Illumina. Finally, the single composite barcoded PCR product was sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq™ machine using the PE250 protocol.

    The soil samples from CK, BC, SPHE, PBC, PLH, and PCLH in triplicate were sent to Shanghai Sangon Biological Co., Ltd., for high-throughput sequencing to determine the relationship among the bacterial communities in the soil samples [35]. Sequenced reads were subjected to the Cutadapt program (version 0.1.123) with -O 5 -m 50. Subsequent quality cuts of reads used the Prinseq program with the -lc_method dust -lc_threshold 40 -min_len 200. The trimmed paired reads were combined by the PEAR program (version 0.9.5) with a p-value of 0.01. More than 60,000 raw sequences for each sample were obtained for data analysis on average. Usearch was used to remove non-amplified region sequences, the sequences were corrected, and uchime was used to identify chimeras. The sequence of the removed chimera was blastn-aligned with the representative sequence of the database to remove alignment results below the threshold. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were picked (clustered at 97% similarity), and by plotting the relationship between the change in the number of OTUs and the similarity value of the cluster, the best similarity value was selected for OTU analysis and taxonomic analysis. The alpha diversity of the samples was estimated by Chao1 richness estimators and the inverse Simpson diversity index. Each sequence was species classified by the naïve Bayesian assignment algorithm using the RDP classifier (RDP classification threshold > 0.8).

    SPHE, PBC and PCLH samples were subjected to metagenome sequencing by Roche 454 pyrosequencing approaches. The total genomic DNA of each soil sample extracted using the E.Z.N.A™ Mag-Bind Soil DNA Kit (QIAGEN, 51504) of OMEGA. Library construction and sequencing were carried out by Shanghai Shengon Biological Co., Ltd., using standard shotgun protocols to obtain 40,781,536 − 52,804,630 raw reads per sample, with an average length of 150 bp for each sample. FastQC and Trimmomatic programs were used to quality control the sequences with a 0.01 maximum error rate, leading to 133,482,380 high-quality sequences. Prodigal was used for gene prediction, as it can predict high-quality gene fragments by short reads and surmounts homopolymer errors. BLAST searching protein sequences against the NCBI nr database was used to assign functional and taxonomic assignments of the predicted genes. Allocating KEGG orthologies to genes in the metagenome was conducted through the Ghost-KOALA annotation server and by rebuilding metabolic pathways. Statistical differences in the abundance of gene families involved in the C, N, P and S element cycles were measured by response ratio analysis. We mapped and explored alterations of genes and then speculated on the alterations of elemental circulation and the ecological environment caused by the addition of biochar and PHE-degrading bacterial inoculant during the repair process of PHE-contaminated soil.

    The yields, elemental compositions and ash contents, atomic ratios and pH of the biochar derived from straw at the 300℃, 500℃ and 700℃ temperatures are listed in Fig. 1 and Table 1. Biochar production is inversely proportional to pyrolysis temperature because of the large amount of cellulose and hemicellulose contained in rice straw, which ranged from 26.6 to 49.6 wt%. The ash content of BC300 (biochar prepared at 300℃) was 13.83%, which was lower than that of BC500 and BC700. This difference may be caused by the incomplete volatilization of cellulose and hemicellulose at lower pyrolysis temperatures. The ash contents of BC500 (biochar prepared at 500℃) and BC700 (biochar prepared at 700℃) were 17.25% and 29.95%, respectively, indicating that as the pyrolysis temperature increased, the proportion of non-volatile ash increased. The amount of ash produced by pyrolysis was close to one-third of the total production of biochar at the pyrolysis temperature of 700℃. BC300 had the highest yield and the lowest ash content. BC700 had a relatively lower yield and an extremely high ash content, which also required higher energy consumption in the preparation process. Therefore, BC700 should be avoided in actual production.

    pH and elemental analysis of biochars (BC300, BC500 and BC700). BC refers to the biochar obtained from rice straws; 300, 500 and 700 are the heating treatment temperatures.

    Samples

    pH

    elements(%)

    atomic ratio (%)

    C

    H

    N

    O

    P

    S

    (N + O)/C

    H/C

    (C + H)/O

    O/C

    BC300

    7.49

    54.91

    3.04

    1.29

    21.61

    0.73

    0.92

    0.417

    0.053

    2.681

    0.393

    BC500

    10.14

    57

    1.72

    1.08

    15.01

    0.76

    0.74

    0.282

    0.03

    3.912

    0.263

    BC700

    10.31

    63.35

    0.95

    1.12

    6.93

    0.73

    0.62

    0.127

    0.014

    9.278

    0.109

    The pH of biochar is directly proportional to the pyrolysis temperature, and the pH values of BC300, BC500 and BC700 were 7.49, 10.14 and 10.31, respectively. The C content in biochar (≥ 54.91) was the highest compared with H, N, O, P and S. The C contents of BC300, BC500 and BC700 were 54.91%, 57.00% and 63.35%, respectively, indicating that the C content of BC700 was significantly higher than that of the other two. The H contents of BC300, BC500, and BC700 were 3.04%, 1.72%, and 0.95%, respectively, and the O contents were 21.61%, 15.01%, and 6.93%, respectively, which means that the contents of H and O decreased as the temperature increased. O and H combined to form vapor that disappeared as the pyrolysis temperature increased, thereby reducing the element content. In contrast, C continued to accumulate through carbonization and increased in proportion. The atomic ratio can usually be used to reflect the physicochemical properties of biochar. The degree of aromatization of biochar also increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The H/C ratios of BC300, BC500, and BC700 were 0.053, 0.030, and 0.014, respectively, which were affected by the degree of carbonization being directly proportional to the pyrolysis temperature during the preparation of biochar. Moreover, large amounts of aromatic ring structures were produced, which gave them a high degree of aromatization. All three biochars had high reducibility and good stability, and BC700 had special reduction and stability characteristics. From the perspective of elemental analysis, the difference in polarity, reducibility and stability of biochars may be the main reason for their different properties and functions.

    Figure 2 shows the FTIR spectra of biochars. The vibration position appeared in the same band, but the intensities of the main significant peaks were different. In general, the degree of carbonized biochar increased with the loss of functional groups. The broad band at 3400 cm− 1 was due to the O-H stretching vibration in the carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups because the O-H structure contained in the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin was not destroyed completely in the processes of pyrolysis and carbonization. As the pyrolysis temperature increased, the peak became less pronounced in biochar, indicating that the O-H structure was well preserved in BC300 and BC500, while that in BC700 was seriously damaged after pyrolysis carbonization. The band intensity between 3000 and 2800 cm− 1 was related to aliphatic group stretching. The band strength of biochar was positively related to the pyrolysis temperature because of condensation and polymerization. This result was connected with the differences in the O/C and H/C of biochar (Table 2). The peak at about 1640 cm− 1 may because of -OH and C = O vibrations. The peaks of BC300 and BC500 were similar, while the band intensity of 700BC became weaker, which proved that the temperature at 700℃ have a strong decarboxylation reaction, while the reaction of BC500 was similar to BC300. The band at 1400 cm− 1 was have connection with -COOH stretching, and the increased of intensity have connection with pyrolysis temperature increase. This was related with the peaks at 468.84 cm− 1, 486.03 cm− 1 and 464.57 cm− 1 associated to -CH stretching vibration. The broad band between 1000 cm-1 and 1300 cm-1 was related to alcohols (C-O) stretching, which was cellulose and hemicellulose characteristic. The broad band of biochar between 1000 cm− 1 and 1300 cm− 1 decreased with pyrolysis increases. The peaks at 464 cm− 1 and 473 cm− 1 were attributed to -CH stretching vibration. The peaks at 786 cm− 1, 801 cm− 1 and 804 cm− 1 were attributed to the presence of aromatic substances in the material. The band intensity of BC700 was significantly weaker than that of the BC300 and BC500, indicates excessive temperatures resulting in the breaking of functional group bonds and the reduction of functional groups. The difference in the strengths of the functional groups was one of the main reasons for the difference in biochar properties and functions.

    The SEM images in Fig. 3, enlarged multiples 2 k (left) and 5 k (right), neatly display the dramatically different surface and pore structures of the three kinds of biochar. Compared with BC300, the surfaces of BC700 were more damaged (Fig. 3, left). The surfaces of biochar particles (BC500 and BC700) were relatively rough and porous, with massive substances (Fig. 3, right). The difference in porosity was uniformly distributed on the biochar surface, and this was the key reason for the difference in biochar adsorption performance. Therefore, BC500 and BC700 had better adsorption and an easier diffusion process in the adsorbate particles effect than did BC300, which improved the adsorption efficiency in the pores. Through the analyses of elemental, SEM and FTIR, it could be concluded that straw pyrolysis at 500℃ formed biochar with the best application performance.

    The experiment was carried out with 4 treatments: SPHE, PLH, PBC and PCLH; the amount of degraded PHE was measured after 45 days of incubation. The residual PHE in the soil was 45.7%, 24.3%, 14.6%, and 6.6%, respectively (Fig. 4). The decrease in PHE in SPHE may be because of the plants that were planted and some microorganisms of the original microbes in the soil degraded the PHE. The PHE in surface soils were easily volatized or degraded under long-term lighting. The PHE residue curve showed that the soil PHE concentration in the PBC and PCLH decreased rapidly with residual ratios of 50.8% and 47.9% at 15 days, respectively (Fig. 4), which indicates that biochar had a relatively fast adsorption of organic pollutants, implying that biochar could improve contaminated soil effectively in a short time. The SPHE degradation rate was faster in the middle of the experiment, which indicated that the ryegrass gradually matured with the absorption of more pollutants. Therefore, the role of plants in the process of treating contaminated soils was equally important. Similar results have been reported in that plants could also support the degradation of PHE by improving the microbial population, soil physiochemical properties and adsorption of pollutants in the rhizosphere.

    PCLH and PBC had the more efficient degradation in PLH, PBC and PCLH (75.7%, 85.4% and 93.4%), implying that biochar can adsorb soil pollutants and reduce the amount of pollutants in the soil. Among the six treatments, PCLH was the most degradable treatment, which indicates that the PHE-degrading bacteria adsorbed on the bacterial inoculant could degrade the PHE adsorbed into biochar. The above results indicated that biochar and bacterial inoculant had obvious repairing effects on the PHE-contaminated soil; they could effectually reduce soil pollutant content and toxicity and improve the soil ecological environment. Meanwhile, because PCLH and PBC had a fast adsorption speed and a remarkable effect, they had suitable repair performance in terms of improving PHE-contaminated soil.

    The soil microorganisms, plant growth and reproduction changed with the changes in water content. The water contents of treatments CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH, and SPHE were 6.20%, 6.03%, 6.30%, 8.03%, 8.23%, and 8.20%, respectively (Fig. 5a). The soil water contents of the treatments with biochar (first three groups) were increased by approximately 2% compared with the treatments without biochar (last three groups), indicating that biochar addition to soil might make it possible to change the soil porosity and agglomeration, which affects the soil water retention capacity. The soil pH was significantly different in the 6 treatments, with pH values of CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH and SPHE of 7.44, 7.81, 7.80, 7.76, 7.42 and 7.48, respectively (Fig. 5b). The pH of BC was found to be significantly higher than that of CK, indicating that biochar increased the pH of the soil because biochar, an alkaline substance, can continuously supply alkalinity to the soil during its application. The use of bacterial inoculant in the process of PHE-contaminated soil treatment increased the pH of the soil as well, implying that these two methods could improve the acidity of the soil in the process of soil pollution remediation. The organic matter content of CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH and SPHE was 32.4 g kg− 1, 46.68 g kg− 1, 47.29 g kg− 1, 38.54 g kg− 1, 28.02 g kg− 1 and 34.24 g kg− 1, respectively (Fig. 5c). Biochar addition in nonpolluted soil increased the organic matter content by 44.07% because the incomplete pyrolysis of biochar results in a large amount of carbon-containing compounds that slowly flow to the soil and increase the soil organic matter content. The biochar and bacterial inoculant improved the soil organic matter by 38.11% and 12.56%, respectively, implying that the biochar and bacterial inoculant were soil remediation agents and good soil amendments.

    The total N, P and K contents in the soil at 45 days are shown in Fig. 5. The total N contents of treatment CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH, and SPHE were 0.89 g/kg, 1.02 g/kg, 1.05 g/kg, 1.01 g/kg, 0.84 g/kg, and 1.01 g/kg, respectively (Fig. 5d). The increase in soil total N by biochar addition indicated that biochar was rich in N and carried N into the soil. The total N content in PLH and PCLH was lower than that in PBC, which may be because a large amount of exogenous bacteria was brought in by PLH and PCLH. These exogenous bacteria promoted N consumption in the soil, resulting in a lower total N content than that in PBC. The trend of total P was similar to that of N in soil. The total P of treatment CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH and SPHE were 0.83 g/kg, 0.93 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 0.89 g/kg, 0.79 g/kg, and 0.84 g/kg, respectively (Fig. 5e). Biochar addition increased the soil total P by 12.04%. The total P of PBC was increased by 5.95% compared with SPHE, and PLH was reduced by 7.976% compared with SPHE. The change in P in different groups was not obvious. The total K of treatment CK, BC, PBC, PCLH, PLH, SPHE were 17.2 g/kg, 20.1 g/kg, 19.7 g/kg, 18.7 g/kg, 16.8 g/kg, and 18.3 g/kg, respectively (Fig. 5f). The increase in the content of total K compared to CK was 16.86% for BC and 2.1% for PCLH, while it decreased by 8.19% for PLH. The content of total K of PLH was lower than that of PLH, and they were both lower than that of PBC. The decrease in the total K of PLH was caused by the addition of exogenous microorganisms. These results showed that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition in the PHE-contaminated soil degraded the total NPK and organic matter but significantly increased the soil water content and soil pH. These ingredients were the essential materials for the growth of plants and microorganisms, implying that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition could effectively reduce pollution and increase soil nutrients and fertility levels.

    Ryegrass, because of its well-developed root system, can respond to soil changed in a timely manner, so it was used as an indicator plant in this experiment. After 45 days of experiment, the average seedling length of the SPHE was 27.3% less than that of the CK, indicating that PHE pollution inhibited the growth of ryegrass in soil (Fig. 5g). The average length of ryegrass in the BC was 7.94% increased than CK, indicating that biochar addition promoted the growth of ryegrass, which may be because biochar releasing its own nutrients into the soil, thereby improving soil properties and fixing nutrients. The average seedling length of PBC, PLH and PCLH were 18.9%, 15.8% and 42.7% higher than that of SPHE, respectively. It implied that the repair method of the bacterial inoculant had the greatest effect on the growth of ryegrass, which could restore the length of ryegrass to the level of non-polluted soil.

    After 45 days of experiment, the average weight of ryegrass in the BC was 11.7% increased than CK, indicating that biochar addition promoted the growth of ryegrass (Fig. 5h). The average seedling weight of ryegrass in the SPHE group was 31.2% lower than that in the CK group, indicating that PHE pollution inhibited the growth of ryegrass. The seedling weight of the PBC, PLH and PCLH groups was higher than that of the SPHE group, which was because all three treatments reduced the concentration of PHE in the soil, thereby reducing the toxicity of PHE in the soil, and thus reducing its inhibition of the growth of ryegrass. In summary, the application of biochar and bacterial inoculant can promote the growth of ryegrass and restore the weight and length of ryegrass to normal levels. It indicated that biochar and bacterial inoculant were suitable as soil amendments for remediation of PHE-contaminated soil.

    Number of sequences analyzed, OTUs, estimated community richness estimators (Chao and ACE) and community diversity indices (Shannon and Simpson) of the 16S rRNA libraries of the samples

    Sample

    ID

    Clean

    num

    Mean

    len

    OUT

    num

    Shannon

    index

    Chao1

    index

    Coverage

    CK

    43750

    420.59

    4035

    6.79

    5548.16

    0.96

    BC

    43201

    421.28

    3985

    6.58

    5614.95

    0.96

    SPHE

    51615

    419.02

    4035

    6.54

    5401.42

    0.97

    PBC

    49303

    419.48

    3981

    6.66

    5468.70

    0.97

    PLH

    53580

    419.43

    3407

    6.06

    5015.33

    0.97

    PCLH

    45560

    417.48

    3380

    6.36

    4991.04

    0.97

    To understand the community changes and explore the relationships between the community changes and PHE degradation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing data were collected and analyzed. Based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) results, 287,009 valid reads across the 6 samples were obtained after quality control measures. The coverage index (Table 2) ranged from 83–92%, which indicated that these results truly reflected the majority of bacterial community information in the sample. The Shannon index and Chao1 index of CK were higher than those of SPHE because PHE contamination inhibited the growth of a large number of microorganisms. The Shannon index declined after biochar addition in soil, but the Chao1 index increased, which meant that the species diversity was lower and the species richness was higher. This result may be because biochar addition increased the total abundance of soil species but destroyed the uniformity of the species. However, biochar addition to contaminated soil increased both the Chao1 and the fragrance index, implying that biochar addition reduced the soil PHE concentration and had a positive effect on soil microbes, which was similar to the results of previous research. PLH and PCLH had the lowest species richness, which indicated that the added PHE-degrading bacteria could use PHE as a carbon source to grow into a dominant flora and destroy the microbial balance in the original soil, resulting in a decrease in microbial abundance in the soil. However, the degradation of PHE in PLH and PCLH was higher than that in others, indicating that the addition of degrading bacteria and bacterial inoculant had positive effects in terms of repairing contaminated soil.

    The abundance of bacteria at the phylum level and genus level was examined. Phylogenetic assignments from 31 phyla and 48 genera of 6 soil samples were identified. The most abundant phyla among the 6 samples were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, whose richness exceeded 50% of all soil phyla, indicating that these 3 bacteria were the dominant phyla in the soil (Fig. 6a). The abundance of soil microbes changed greatly during the restoration process. The abundance of Achromobacter sp. in the PLH and PCLH groups was significantly increased compared with that in PHE (SPHE: 0.03%, PLH: 1.99%, PCLH: 2.43%), implying that the addition of LH-1 can be stably present in the soil (Fig. 6b). The abundance of Achromobacter sp. in PCLH was higher than that in PLH, implying that biochar could effectively immobilize the addition of LH-1 in soil. The abundance of Sphingobacterium sp. (PBC:9.35%, PLH:14.1%, PCLH:10.67%), Subdivision 3 genera Incertae sedis sp. (PBC:3.36%, PLH:3.05%, PCLH:4.11%), Ohtaekwangia sp. (PBC:2.63%, PLH:1.57%, PCLH:2.46%) and Lysobacter sp. (PBC:0.96, PLH:3.69%, PCLH:1.84%), were greater in PBC, PLH and PCLH than in SPHE and recovered to CK levels during processing (Fig. 6b). This result may be because these three treatments reduced the PHE in soil, leading to changes in the soil microenvironment and resulting in the slow recovery of some bacteria.

    The links between PHE degradation and soil bacteria were analyzed for phylogenetic classification using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) (Fig. 7). Each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number is represented in the PCoA, and the correspondence of these OTUs with their taxonomic classification (obtained for a 97% similarity threshold) is presented in Table 3. We observed that in terms of PAH degradation, the abundance of 34 OTUs (out of 50) correlated well together, indicating that PHE degradation in soil may be highly correlated with Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, and particularly with the Micrococcaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Comamonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Gemmatimonadaceae and Chitinophagaceae families. The abundance of these bacteria in PCLH and PBC was high, and the degradation ability of both treatments was very high, indicating that PAH degradation was related to the abundance of specific bacteria that could metabolize them and to the proportion of these bacteria. Therefore, in the following content, we specifically analyze the contribution of these microorganisms in the PHE metabolic pathway and analyze the differences between PBC and PCLH in the PHE metabolic pathway.

    Taxonomic correspondences of the abundance of 50 first OTUs in terms of abundance in the six studied soils at a similarity threshold of 97% with percentages of similarity.

    phylum

    class

    order

    family

    genus

    Otu2545

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Gp4

    Otu17478

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu12278

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu18554

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Erythrobacteraceae

    Porphyrobacter

    Otu16369

    Actinobacteria

    Actinobacteria

    Actinomycetales

    Micrococcaceae

    Arthrobacter

    Otu18534

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    unclassified

    Otu187

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Comamonadaceae

    Ramlibacter

    Otu18544

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu17944

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Erythrobacteraceae

    Altererythrobacter

    Otu18540

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingobium

    Otu18537

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Novosphingobium

    Otu17953

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    Otu10027

    Bacteroidetes

    Cytophagia

    Cytophagales

    NA

    Ohtaekwangia

    Otu368

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Alcaligenaceae

    Achromobacter

    Otu17947

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    Otu370

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Xanthomonadales

    Xanthomonadaceae

    unclassified

    Otu17480

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Blastocatella

    Otu15723

    Actinobacteria

    Actinobacteria

    unclassified

    unclassified

    unclassified

    Otu18535

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu17948

    Candidatus Saccharibacteria

    NA

    NA

    NA

    Saccharibacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu18536

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Aridibacter

    Otu1033

    Actinobacteria

    Actinobacteria

    Gaiellales

    Gaiellaceae

    Gaiella

    Otu372

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Oxalobacteraceae

    Massilia

    Otu18539

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Sphingomonadaceae

    Sphingomonas

    Otu10872

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadales

    Gemmatimonadaceae

    Gemmatimonas

    Otu18541

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Sphingomonadales

    Erythrobacteraceae

    Porphyrobacter

    Otu8880

    Bacteroidetes

    Sphingobacteriia

    Sphingobacteriales

    Chitinophagaceae

    Terrimonas

    Otu1102

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Gp4

    Otu18538

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp1

    NA

    NA

    Gp1

    Otu369

    Verrucomicrobia

    Verrucomicrobiae

    Verrucomicrobiales

    Verrucomicrobiaceae

    Luteolibacter

    Otu8881

    Bacteroidetes

    Cytophagia

    Cytophagales

    Cytophagaceae

    Adhaeribacter

    Otu2546

    Verrucomicrobia

    Spartobacteria

    NA

    NA

    Spartobacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu1034

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Xanthomonadales

    Xanthomonadaceae

    Lysobacter

    Otu2636

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp4

    NA

    NA

    Gp4

    Otu238

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp7

    NA

    NA

    Gp7

    Otu375

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Xanthomonadales

    Xanthomonadaceae

    Lysobacter

    Otu17991

    Candidatus Saccharibacteria

    NA

    NA

    NA

    Saccharibacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu7541

    Bacteroidetes

    Sphingobacteriia

    Sphingobacteriales

    Chitinophagaceae

    Flavisolibacter

    Otu7540

    Bacteroidetes

    Sphingobacteriia

    Sphingobacteriales

    Sphingobacteriaceae

    Pedobacter

    Otu8887

    Bacteroidetes

    Sphingobacteriia

    Sphingobacteriales

    Chitinophagaceae

    Flavisolibacter

    Otu1035

    Acidobacteria

    Acidobacteria_Gp7

    NA

    NA

    Gp7

    Otu19471

    Proteobacteria

    Alphaproteobacteria

    Caulobacterales

    Caulobacteraceae

    Brevundimonas

    Otu10854

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadales

    Gemmatimonadaceae

    Gemmatimonas

    Otu385

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Comamonadaceae

    unclassified

    Otu1036

    Proteobacteria

    Betaproteobacteria

    Burkholderiales

    Comamonadaceae

    Hydrogenophaga

    Otu4358

    Verrucomicrobia

    Spartobacteria

    NA

    NA

    Spartobacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu371

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Xanthomonadales

    Xanthomonadaceae

    Lysobacter

    Otu4

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadetes

    Gemmatimonadales

    Gemmatimonadaceae

    Gemmatimonas

    Otu17479

    Candidatus Saccharibacteria

    NA

    NA

    NA

    Saccharibacteria_genera_incertae_sedis

    Otu374

    Proteobacteria

    Gammaproteobacteria

    Pseudomonadales

    Pseudomonadaceae

    Pseudomonas

    To determine which community members were involved in genes encoding PHE degradation-related enzymes, combining the results of the NCBI NR annotation pipeline and the GhostKOALA annotation pipeline, we mapped the PHE metabolic pathway. The first step of PHE degradation is catalysis by dioxygenase, where oxygen reacts with two adjacent carbon atoms (C-4 and C-5 positions) of the PHE, resulting in cis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4dihydrophenanthrene formation. PAH dioxygenase large (K11943) and small (K11944) subunits participated in initial PHE oxidation. Cis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrophenanthrene is then metabolized by cis-3,4-dihydrophenanthrene-3,4-diol dehydrogenase (K18257) to form 3,4-dihydroxyphenanthrene, which is further metabolized to produce 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. Hydroxy-2-naphthoate is further metabolized through both the O-phthalate pathway and naphthalene pathway, leading to protocatechuate and salicylate, respectively. No salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase (K00152) was found in soil samples to degrade salicylaldehyde through the naphthalene pathway. However, benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD) (K00141) was found in the soil, and its function is similar to that of K00152, allowing the degradation of salicylaldehyde to continue. Salicylaldehyde is dehydrogenated to form salicylate and then hydroxylated to produce catechol. Catechol was further degraded in three ways. Firstly, catechol could be metabolized through the catechol meta- and ortho-cleavage pathways, leading to intermediates of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle. Secondly, it could be converted to protocatechuate for further degradation. Thirdly, protocatechuate could be further metabolized through protocatechuate meta- and ortho-cleavage until finally entering the TCA cycle.

    The genes encoding PHE degradation-related enzymes are mainly produced by Mycobacteriaceae and Commonarceaceae and have a good correlation with the degradation of PAHs in PCoA. In this consortium, Mycobacterium rhodesiae in the Mycobacteriaceae family was the main taxon that performed the early steps of PHE degradation, resulting in 1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde (Fig. 8). Biochar induction significantly increased the abundance of mycobacterium rhodesiae (Fig. 9), suggesting that biochar induction could promote degradation and lead to a decrease in soil PHE content (Fig. 4). The exogenous microorganism LH-1 applied to PCLH was Achromobacter sp. Previous research found that LH-1 can degrade PHE through the salicylate pathway [36]. This is the same degradation pathway found in soil containing Achromobacter sp. It was found that the abundance of most species containing genes that convert naphthalene-1,2-diol to catechol in PBC and PCLH was greater than that in CK, and the increase in PCLH was greater than the increase in PBC. This result may be because the increase in Achromobacter sp. in the soil caused a large amount of PHE to be degraded by the catechol ortho-cleaving pathway, leading to an increase in the abundance of most species participating in this pathway. In addition, biochar addition increased the abundance of most species in the protocatechuic meta-cleavage pathway; in contrast, the addition of bacterial inoculant reduced the abundance of most species in the protocatechuic ortho-cleavage pathway.

    The reconstructed catabolic pathway (Fig. 8) shows that soil PHE mineralizes in several pathways, as genes distributed to the catechol ortho- and meta-cleavage pathways and the protocatechuate ortho- and meta-cleavage pathways were detected. The addition of biochar and bacterial inoculant may reduce substrate competition between different degrading populations, thereby promoting the growth of soil PHE-degrading microorganisms, which can produce key enzymes in PHE degradation (Fig. 6), leading to PBC and PCLH. The residual amount of PHE was lower than that of PLH (Fig. 4). Our previous research showed that LH-1 could degrade PHE in the salicylate pathway and produce abundant intermediate metabolites in the degradation process [36], which increased the microbial activity that could utilize and degrade these intermediate metabolites. This process may be the reason why the abundance of most microorganisms in the catechol ortho-cleavage pathway in PCLH is higher than that in SPHE. This result is consistent with the Black Queen theory [37], in which one microorganism produces byproducts that will enhance the adaptability of other microorganisms capable of using these products [38].

    In summary, biochar promoted microbial interactions to achieve PHE mineralization for metabolic steps by combining different symbiotic microorganisms. In most steps of PHE degradation, biochar increased the abundance of microorganisms that produced key enzymes. In contrast, the addition of bacterial inoculant mainly increased the abundance of microorganisms that produced key enzymes in the catechol ortho-cleavage pathway, indicating that PHE in PCLH is mainly carried out through the catechol ortho-cleavage pathway, which means that biochar in PCLH may play an auxiliary role and degradation is mainly processed by Alcaligenaceae sp. Regardless of the degradation effect or degradation pathway, the best treatment method is PCLH. However, the addition of bacterial inoculant has affected the diversity of soil microorganisms to some extent; thus, a comprehensive analysis is needed in future applications.

    The genes encoding C cycle-related enzymes were mainly contributed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (Fig. 10). Carbon metabolism is mainly divided into carbon anabolism and carbon catabolism, and microorganisms participate in carbon metabolism by participating in these two processes. The Calvin cycle is the most important way to fix CO2 in microorganisms involved in C assimilation. The key enzyme of the Calvin cycle is RuBisCO. Biochar treatment reduced the abundance of the soil RuBisCO gene by 15.8% (Fig. 11a), indicating that biochar treatment had an inhibitory effect on soil C fixation. Biochar contained plentiful undecomposed and amorphous C that could be directly utilized or decomposed by microorganisms. This process causes the autotrophic microorganisms to lose their growth advantage, ultimately reducing C fixation [39]. Because biochar contains plentiful C sources, its application made the increment of soil C larger than the amount of C that was fixed. Bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of the RuBisCO gene in the soil by 74.02%, which may be because Achromobacter sp. in the bacterial inoculant was found to fix C through the metagenome (Fig. 10); thus, bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of the RuBisCO gene in the soil.

    Another type of microorganism that participates in C metabolism is involved in organic C degradation, which is numerous and abundant. These microorganisms degrade organic carbon such as starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, fructose, chitin, and lignin. Starch is a relatively easy to degrade organic carbon compound. Biochar and bacterial inoculant had little effect on the abundances of the glucoamylase and alpha-amylase gene families; however, the abundance of the pullulanase gene family was obviously improved, indicating that biochar and bacterial inoculant had a promoting effect on soil starch metabolism (Fig. 11a). The abundances of soil gene families related to pectin- and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes were researched. Except for the pectin esterase and xylose isomerase gene families, biochar and bacterial inoculant addition obviously promoted the abundance of the gene family related to pectin- and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes (Fig. 11a). The above results indicated that biochar and bacterial inoculant promoted the metabolic process of soil, easily degrading C in the soil C cycle. Biochar and bacterial inoculant carry a large amount of soluble carbon compounds into the soil, providing nutrients for a large number of bacteria, which promotes the cycling process.

    Cellulose is a typical agricultural waste that is relatively stable in soil, and its degradation is slow. Cellobiose phosphorylase, cellulase and endoglucanase are the main cellulose-degrading enzymes. Figure 11a shows that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition decreased the abundance of the cellobiose phosphorylase gene family but greatly increased the abundance of the cellulase and endoglucanase gene families. Overall, biochar and bacterial inoculant addition can promote soil cellulose metabolism. Chitin and lignin are the most difficult organic agricultural wastes [40]. Deacetylase and polyphenol oxidase are the main chitin- and lignin-degrading enzymes, respectively. Biochar addition partly decreased the abundance of the gene families that encoded these two enzymes, and bacterial inoculant reduced the abundance of polyphenol oxidase gene families. The decomposition of organic carbon in soil is carried out in an order from easy to difficult [34]. When biochar carries a large amount of soluble carbon into the soil, microorganisms preferentially degrade easily decomposable carbon compounds, which leads to biochar inhibiting soil chitin and lignin metabolism. Bacterial inoculant addition alleviated the inhibition of lignin degradation caused by biochar and promoted chitin degradation, which may be because Achromobacter sp. in the bacterial inoculant addition in PCLH has the ability to degrade chitin based on the metagenomic data, leading to the abundance of the gene families that encoded lignin-degrading enzymes to be slightly higher than that seen after the addition of biochar.

    In summary, the C cycle in the three soil samples was mainly transformed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition changed the gene families that encoded enzymes related to the C cycle and further changed the content of enzymes related to the soil C cycle. Biochar addition to PHE-contaminated soil promoted the degradation of relatively easy decomposable organic carbon compounds, thereby promoting the use of organic carbon compounds by soil plants, arthropods and microorganisms. However, biochar addition inhibited C fixation and lignin and chitin degradation, which are degradation-resistant agricultural wastes; thus, biochar addition may have adversely affected the C cycle in the soil to some extent. However, the inhibition of lignin and chitin degradation may also lead to soil C accumulation, which may compensate for the decline of C fixation to some extent. Bacterial inoculant addition in PHE-contaminated soil basically has similar effects as those of biochar on the C cycle. However, bacterial inoculant addition relieved the inhibition of lignin degradation and promoted chitin degradation and C fixation compared to biochar. This result may be because Achromobacter sp. in bacterial inoculant have the functions of chitin degradation and C fixation. This result provides a new possibility for improving polluted soil using biochar; specifically, biochar can be mixed with functional bacteria to balance the inhibitory effect of biochar on soil. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition can promote the conversion of complex organic compounds into small-molecule compounds, promoting agricultural production and reducing chemical fertilizer application to some extent, which also protects the ecological environment. Currently, an increasing number of researchers are focusing on the disposal of agricultural waste, mainly cellulose-rich straw degradation. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition could promote cellulose degradation, which presents more possibilities for agricultural production and ecological management.

    In this study, nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and N2 fixation were presented and analyzed. The gene families involved in the soil N cycle were mainly contributed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Thaumarchaeota (Fig. 10). Nitrification is the biological oxidation process that converts ammonia to nitrite and then to nitrate. amo encodes ammonia monooxygenase to control microbial biological nitrification. Biochar caused a reduction in amo abundance in soil by 83.9%, which may have been caused by the biochar addition changing the abundance of amo by affecting the abundance of amo ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms, which were influenced by experimental conditions and biochar properties such as fertilizer application and biochar feedstock [41]. The addition of the bacterial inoculant (Biochar + LH-1) increased amo abundance by 206.4% (Fig. 11b), which may be because Achromobacter sp. in bacterial inoculant was found to contribute amo in the metagenome.

    In contrast, denitrification is a biological reductive process from NO3 to NO2, NO, N2O and ultimately N2. The gene families including narG, narJ and narH control the NO3 reduction to NO2 (Fig. 10). Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition reduced the abundance of narG and narH (Fig. 11b), indicating that they have an inhibitory effect on this step in contaminated soil. Meanwhile, biochar contained plentiful nitrate; thus, it could be speculated that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition increased the soil nitrate concentration. The gene families including nirS and nirK control the NO2 reduction to NO (Fig. 10) and are considered target genes for measuring soil denitrification [42, 43]. Some studies found that soil N2O emissions were positively correlated with nirK/nirS [41]. The impact of biochar and bacterial inoculant on the abundance of nirS was weak, while it significantly increased nirK abundance (Fig. 11b). This result may be because biochar improved soil aeration, thereby stimulating the growth and diversity of denitrifiers, leading to changes in gene family abundance [4446]. The gene families including norB and norC control the denitrification of NO to N2O (Fig. 10). Biochar or bacterial inoculant addition reduced norB abundance, while their application increased norC abundance (Fig. 11b) [47]. The gene families including nosZ control the N2O reduction to N2 (Fig. 10). Some studies have found that an increase in the abundance of nosZ leads to a reduction in N2O emissions [48]. Biochar addition in PHE-contaminated soil reduced nosZ abundance, while bacterial inoculant addition increased nosZ abundance (Fig. 11b), which may be because that the effect of biochar addition on nosZ abundance may depend on the experimental conditions, such as planting, feedstock and pyrolysis temperature [41]. This result indicated that biochar addition to contaminated soil inhibited N2O conversion. However, bacterial inoculant addition increased nosZ abundance. This difference may be because the Achromobacter sp. in bacterial inoculant was found to contribute to the nosZ gene family in the metagenome, which indicated that adding this kind of bacterial inoculant to contaminated soil may reduce N2O emissions from soil.

    Depending on the fate of the produced ammonium, nitrate reduction to ammonium in the environment is divided into dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate reduction [49]. The assimilatory process is catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the narB (nitrate reductase), nasA (nitrate reductase) and nirA (nitrite reductase) gene families, while the dissimilatory process is catalyzed by enzymes encoded by narG, narH, and narJ (nitrate reductase) and by nirB and nirD (nitrite reductase) (Fig. 10). Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition greatly increased the abundance of nasA and narB and reduced the abundance of narG, narJ and narH to a lesser extent (Fig. 11b), indicating that their application may cause soil to carry out nitrate reduction mainly by assisting nitrate processes. The gene families of nirA, nirB and nirD usually coexist, and nirA expression requires nirB to provide a skeleton [50]. The abundance of nirB involved in assimilatory nitrate reduction did not change significantly, although biochar and bacterial inoculant addition inhibited nirA abundance (Fig. 11b). However, their addition increased the abundance of nirD to a large extent, indicating that their application promoted nitrate reduction, thereby reducing soil N loss. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of key enzymes in soil assimilation and dissimilation nitrate reduction, resulting in a large amount of NO2 being directly converted into ammonia in soil. On the one hand, there was reduced nitrogen loss from soil, and on the other hand, the N2O production could be reduced, thereby protecting the ecological environment.

    nif gene families encode nitrogenase to fix N2 in soil and are considered an important source of ammonium. However, nifG was rarely detected in metagenomes, possibly due to random sampling issues in metagenomes. Nevertheless, nifG abundance changed significantly. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition decreased the abundance of nifG in soil by 92% and 84%, respectively, indicating that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition may inhibit N2 fixation, which may be because biochar improvement in wild plant species grown in soil would reduce soil nifG abundance [41].

    In summary, the soil N cycle was mainly transformed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Thaumarchaeota. Biochar and bacterial inoculant application in soil changed the abundance of these microorganisms, thereby changing the abundance of the gene families that encoded enzymes involved in the N cycle. Biochar addition to contaminated soil may inhibit the conversion of N2O to N2, resulting in N2O accumulation. However, its application promoted assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction. This process caused NO3 to be directly converted to ammonia in soil, thereby reducing soil N element loss. Moreover, the addition of biochar rich in NO3 further increased the soil N content and promoted the soil N cycle. This result may mean to reduce chemical fertilizer application in agriculture, thereby protecting the environment. In future practical applications, more attention should be paid to the increase in N2O emissions and the inhibition of nitrification caused by the application of biochar. Bacterial inoculant addition to PHE-contaminated soil basically had similar effects as those of biochar on the N cycle. However, the addition of the bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of nosZ in denitrification and amo in nitrification compared to biochar, indicating that this kind of bacterial inoculant application can promote the conversion of N2O to N2 and nitrification, thereby reducing soil greenhouse gas N2O emissions, promoting ammonia conversion, and slowing the greenhouse effect to promote soil N cycling. The result implies that the addition of bacterial inoculant, which use biochar as a carrier, to PHE-contaminated soil can not only make up for biochar deficiencies but also further promote soil nitrification and reduce soil N2O emissions compared to biochar, thereby reducing greenhouse effects and protecting the environment.

    Soil microorganisms hydrolyze organic phosphorus into inorganic phosphorus through the secretion of extracellular enzymes (Fig. 10). Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition reduced the abundance of ACP (acid phosphatase) (Fig. 11c), which may be because biochar changed the pH buffering and nutrient input to affect the composition of soil microbial communities. Biochar addition reduced the abundance of AKP (alkaline phosphatase) (Fig. 11c), which may be because phosphatase is a constitutive rather than an induced enzyme and can be adsorbed onto clay and organic matter particles [51], implying that biochar addition to PHE-contaminated soil may inhibit organophosphorus hydrolysis to some extent. Bacterial inoculant addition increased the abundance of AKP, which may be because the Achromobacter sp. in our bacterial inoculant was found to contribute to the gene family encoding alkaline phosphatase in the metagenome (Fig. 11c), which alleviated the inhibitory effect of biochar on alkaline phosphatase. The contribution of alkaline phosphatase to soil organic phosphorus conversion may be higher than that of acid phosphatase [51], indicating that bacterial inoculant addition may promote organic phosphorus conversion. The synthesis and decomposition of polyphosphates is an important process in the soil P cycle [52]. Biochar addition significantly reduced the abundance of PPK (polyphosphate kinase) but had less of an effect on the abundance of PPX (extraneous polyphosphatase), indicating that biochar greatly inhibited soil polyphosphates (Fig. 11c). bacterial inoculant addition had little effect on PPK and increased PPX abundance, indicating that the bacterial inoculant promoted polyphosphate degradation. Both treatments for repairing contaminated soils reduced the soil polyphosphate content. A large amount of polyphosphate in soil will cause water eutrophication as rainwater flows into rivers; thus, biochar and bacterial inoculant addition may reduce the environmental pollution of polyphosphate.

    Soil S oxidation in this study was basically regulated by SOX (sulfur oxidase), which oxidizes sulfur to sulfite or sulfate in the S cycle [53]. Biochar and bacterial inoculant addition increased SOX abundance, indicating that biochar and bacterial inoculant promoted the oxidation process of soil sulfur metabolism. dsrA, dsrB (sulfate reductase) and apr (APS reductase) are recognized as the most critical enzymes in sulfur reduction, which is the conversion of sulfate or sulfite to H2S. Biochar addition increased dsrA abundance but inhibited the abundance of dsrB and apr. bacterial inoculant addition increased dsrB abundance and reduced the abundance of dsrA and apr, indicating that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition inhibited S reduction and promoted S oxidation, implying that biochar and bacterial inoculant addition may reduce the conversion of sulfate or sulfite to H2S, thereby reducing soil S loss. Their addition may promote oxidation to sulfite or sulfate, which will have beneficial effects on crops.

    There is growing interest in using biochar and bacterial inoculant to improve PHE-contaminated soil. Using pot experiments, we investigated changes in soil physicochemical properties, the abundance of soil microbes involved in PHE degradation and the C, N, P and S cycling following biochar and bacterial inoculant addition to PHE-contaminated soil. It was found that the addition of biochar and bacterial inoculant increased the abundance of the majority of microorganisms involved in each part of the PHE degradation pathway, thereby promoting soil PHE degradation. Moreover, their addition enhanced soil C, N, P and S cycling, which promoted soil agricultural waste, such as straw, enhanced degradation, and reduced the loss of soil C and N and soil N2O emissions. However, biochar addition inhibited C and N fixation and lignin and chitin degradation, which may create an unfavorable chemical environment for the evolution of microbial biomass [54]. bacterial inoculant addition partially mitigated the inhibitory effects in elements cycling caused by biochar addition, which indicated that microorganisms immobilized on biochar could be considered to reduce the adverse effects of biochar on soil. Thus, this research provides a new direction for pollutant metabolism and element cycling in contaminated soil. These results promote research on the use of biochar and bacterial inoculant to reduce soil pollutants and enhance C, N, P, and S bioavailability to crop plants in agroecosystems.

    PAHs: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PHE: Phenanthrene. FTIR: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. SEM: Scanning electron microscopy. LB: Luria-Bertani. MSM: Salt medium. BC300: Biochar prepared at 300℃. BC500: Biochar prepared at 500℃. BC700: Biochar prepared at 700℃. BC: Soil with 1% biochar. PBC: Soil with 1% biochar and 300 mg/kg PHE. PLH: Soil with 1% Achromobacter sp. LH-1 and 300 mg kg-1 PHE. PCLH: Soil with 1% bacterial inoculant (biochar + Achromobacter sp. LH-1) and 300 mg kg-1 PHE. SPHE: Soil with 300 mg kg-1 PHE. CK: Untreated soil. WHC: Water holding capacity. HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography. OTUs: Operational taxonomic units. NGS: Next-generation sequencing. PCoA: Principal coordinate analysis. TCA: Tricarboxylic cycle. K11943: PAH dioxygenase large subunits. K11944: PAH dioxygenase small subunits. K18257: Cis-3,4-dihydrophenanthrene-3,4-diol dehydrogenase. K00152: Salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase. K00141: Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD). amo: Ammonia monooxygenase. narG: Nitrite oxidoreductase, alpha subunit. narJ: Nitrate reductase molybdenum cofactor assembly chaperone NarJ. narH: Nitrite oxidoreductase, beta subunit. nirK: Nitrite reductase (NO-forming). nirS: Nitrite reductase (NO-forming). norB: Nitric oxide reductase subunit B. norC: Nitric oxide reductase subunit C. nosZ: Nitrous-oxide reductase. narB: Ferredoxin-nitrate reductase. nasA: Assimilatory nitrate reductase catalytic subunit. nirA: Ferredoxin-nitrite reductase. narG: Nitrite oxidoreductase, alpha subunit. narH: Nitrite oxidoreductase, beta subunit. nirB: Nitrite reductase (NADH) large subunit. nirD: Nitrite reductase (NADH) small subunit. nifG: Nitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein beta chain. ACP: Acid phosphatase. AKP: Alkaline phosphatase. PPK: Polyphosphate kinase. PPX: Extraneous polyphosphatase. SOX: Sulfur oxidase. dsrA: Dissimilatory sulfite reductase alpha subunit. dsrB: Dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit. apr: Adenylylsulfate reductase.

    Not applicable.

    Not applicable.

    All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.

    The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

    This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation Excellent Youth Project of Heilongjiang Province (no. YQ2019E005), the Harbin Applied Technology Research and Development Funds (no. 2017RAYXJ020 and 2017RAYXJ019), the Postdoctoral Scientific Research Developmental Fund of Heilongjiang Province under grants no. LBH-Q16018, the Young Talent Fund of Northeast Agricultural University under grants no. 16QC12 and the Natural Science Foundation Project of Heilongjiang Province (no. C2016026).

    NH, DPL and CYL designed the whole scheme of the study and conducted the experiments. QQW, XYL and XYZ wrote the manuscript and revised the manuscript.QQW, XYL, QYS and XXJ performed experiments, YG, LT, WZ and HLZ analyzed data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

    Not applicable.


    fine powder industry

    20 August, 2020
     

    Global Carbonyl Iron Powder and Ultra Fine Iron Powder Market are segmented on the basis of type as Carbonyl Iron Powder, Atomized Ultra Fine Iron Powder, and Others. Iron powder is powdered iron that is produced with the assistance of various other iron particles. As far as their particle sizes are concerned, they may differ quiet a lot.

    Global Ultra Fine Copper Powder Market By Type (Nano Copper Particles Powder, and Micron Copper Particles Powder), By Application (Electronic Industry, Chemical Industry, and Others), By Region and Key Companies – Industry Segment Outlook, Market Assessment, Competition Scenario, Trends and Forecast 2019–2028

    Rilsan® Fine Powders PA11 coatings combine thermal stability, physical durability, chemical resistance, and mechanical integrity. They can be processed by several application techniques.

    The report then estimates 2018-2025 market development trends of Fine Biochar Powder industry. Analysis of upstream raw materials, downstream demand, and current market dynamics is also carried out. The report makes some important proposals for a new project of Fine Biochar Powder Industry before evaluating its feasibility.

    The report provides a comprehensive analysis of the Fine Biochar Powder industry market by types, applications, players and regions. This report also displays the 2014-2025 production, Consumption, revenue, Gross margin, Cost, Gross, market share, CAGR, and Market influencing factors of the Fine Biochar Powder industry in USA, EU, China, India, Japan and other regions Market Analysis by …

    VAC-U-MAX offers the industry’s only written static control guarantee, eliminating any shock, fire, or explosion hazard associated with electric or engine driven industrial vacuum cleaning units. The VAC-U-MAX Pulse-Jet Filter Industrial Vacuum Cleaner is specifically designed for applications such as powder coating dust maintenance.

    A recent market intelligence study on the Fine Biochar Powder market incorporates proprietary techniques and assessment tools to screen the Fine Biochar Powder market for the forecast period, 2019-2026. Additionally, valuable insights pertaining to the market size, share and growth rate of Fine Biochar Powder market offers a greater chance of success for all – business owners, products, and …

    Powder mixers amixon® customizes industrial powder mixer machines for diverse processing needs Powder mixing equipment plays a crucial role across many industries that involve bulk solids processing.From pharmaceuticals to chemical processing to the food industry, there are countless applications for high-performance powder mixing.. Furthermore, powder mixing equipment is itself .

    16.03.2020 · Press release – HJ Research – Global Super Fine Talc Powder Market Size, Competitive Landscape, Regional Outlook and Driving Factors Analysis 2020 – published on openPR

    “That won’t be the case for long as we move into full-scale production of aerospace-grade, fine, spherical, titanium powder starting in the third quarter of 2015. In addition to supplying the powder, Praxair also offers the associated industrial gases to the additive manufacturing industry.”

    Global and Chinese Fluorite fine powder Industry, 2017 Market Research Report is a market research report available at US $3000 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.

    27.03.2017 · Fine Cobalt Powder Market Research Report 2017 This report is an essential reference for who looks for detailed information on global Fine Cobalt Powder market. The report covers data on global, regional and national markets including historical and future trends for supply, market size, prices, trading, competition and value chain as well as global major.

    "The latest report on the Worldwide Ultra Fine Zinc Powder market Report is the more professional in-depth of this market is providers the status and forecast, categorizes, market size (value …

    Handling Fine Powder – Problems & Solutions. Introduction. Many industries handle fine powders. Few, if any filters, transfer positions, ship loading chutes or .

    Rilsan® Fine Powders PA11 coatings combine thermal stability, physical durability, chemical resistance, and mechanical integrity. They can be processed by several application techniques.

    Types. Many manufactured goods come in powder form, such as flour, sugar, ground coffee, powdered milk, copy machine toner, gunpowder, cosmetic powders, and some pharmaceuticals.In nature, dust, fine sand and snow, volcanic ash, and the top layer of the lunar regolith are also examples. Because of their importance to industry, medicine and earth science, powders have been studied in great …

    Feb 09, 2020 (Global QYResearch via COMTEX) — A new research report titled “Global Super Fine Talc Powder market” successfully exhibits the complete…

    Mixing-drying and reaction control – Fine-ceramics and powder metallurgy Drying of aqueous, alcoholic or other solvent suspensions through vacuum excitation and temperature control. Applications in the powder metallurgy and fine ceramics industry: Powder metals, tungsten / .

    Preparation Methods of Metal Powder. Powder metallurgy is a process for preparing metal powders and using metal (or metal and non-metal mixture) powder as raw materials to form parts and products by molding and sintering. As the main raw material of the industry, metal powder is widely used in the fields of machinery, metallurgy, chemical industry, and aerospace materials.

    Press Release Carbonyl Iron Powder and Ultra Fine Iron Powder Market 2019 Global Industry Size Analyzed by Business Opportunity, Development, Growth Factors, Applications Analysis and Future …

    SBG has attained 124 patents on crushers & mills over the past 30 years. More than 30 overseas offices not only manifest our popularity, but also solve your puzzles quickly in operation. So if you are looking for crushers or mills, SBG deserves your attention!

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    ©document.write(new Date().getFullYear()); Copyright SBG Machinery. All rights reserved. Sitemap


    Ceramic membrane-based ultrafiltration combined with adsorption by waste derived biochar for …

    20 August, 2020
     

    Effluents produced in the textile industries are important sources of water pollution due to the presence of toxic dyes, auxiliary chemicals, organic substances etc. Recycling of such industrial wastewater is one major aspect of sustainable water management; hence present study is focused on an eco-friendly process development for reclamation of higher loading textile wastewater.

    Industrial effluent samples with varying loading were collected from textile processing units located in and around Kolkata city. Vegetable waste collected from local market was utilized to prepare an efficient biochar for elimination of the recalcitrant dyes. Prior to adsorption, ceramic ultrafiltration (UF) process was used for reduction of the organic loading and other suspended and dissolved components.

    A remarkably high BET surface area of 1216 m2g−1 and enhanced pore volume of 1.139 cm3g−1 was observed for biochar. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir isotherm was about 300 mg.g−1. The combined process facilitated >99% removal of dyes and 77–80% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the various samples of effluent. The treated effluent was found suitable to discharge or reuse in other purposes. About 95% of dye recovery was achieved during biochar regeneration with acetone solution. The dye loaded spent biochar was composted with dry leaves and garden soil as bulking agent. Prepared compost could achieve the recommended parameters with high nutritional value after 45 days.

    The overall study showed potential of the proposed process towards treatment of toxic dye loaded textile effluent in an environment friendly and sustainable approach.

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    The financial support from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India vide Grant No. DST/TSG/NTS/2015/74-G dated 22.07.2016 is gratefully acknowledged.

    Correspondence to Sourja Ghosh.

    On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

    Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    (DOC 72 kb)

    Received: 13 March 2020

    Accepted: 05 August 2020

    Published: 19 August 2020

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00520-w

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    5 Top Emerging Biochar Startups

    20 August, 2020
     

    We analyzed 67 biochar startups. Carbo Culture, Made of Air, bio365, DEMIO, and InRim develop 5 top solutions to watch out for. Learn more in our Global Startup Heat Map!

    Our Innovation Analysts recently looked into emerging technologies and up-and-coming startups working on biomass processing solutions. As there is a large number of startups working on a wide variety of solutions, we decided to share our insights with you. This time, we are taking a look at 5 promising biochar startups.

    Using our StartUs Insights Platform, covering 1.116.000+ startups & emerging companies, we looked at innovation in the field of biomass processing. For this research, we identified 67 relevant solutions and picked 5 to showcase below. These companies were chosen based on a data-driven startup scouting approach, taking into account factors such as location, founding year, and technology among others. Depending on your specific criteria, the top picks might look entirely different.

    The Global Startup Heat Map below highlights 5 startups & emerging companies developing biochar solutions. Moreover, the Heat Map reveals regions that observe a high startup activity and illustrates the geographic distribution of all 67 companies we analyzed for this specific topic.

     

    Urban populations across the world are increasingly becoming aware of the uses and benefits of biomass. The processing of biomass without any oxygen results in biochar and syngas. Biochar has use cases in urban infrastructure such as green roofs and urban green spaces that, in turn, results in positive carbon sequestration. This allows startups to embed innovative carbon sequestering technologies in urban infrastructure.

    The US-based startup Carbo Culture manufactures biochar to support green spaces in urban infrastructure. With the help of novel carbon-negative technology, the startup produces low-ash biochar. The startup’s pilot facility processes woody mass at the rate of 500 pounds per hour at high temperatures and also produces zero methane. Syngas, a by-product, along with biochar, allows the startup to utilize all of the residues from biomass processing.

    The manufacturing of cement and concrete results in a significant increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Biochar-based construction materials positively impact the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and also help the industry reduce its carbon footprint. To this end, startups are working on innovative biochar-based materials.

    German startup Made Of Air creates biochar-based materials for the construction, interiors, and furniture industries. The startup’s proprietary material compound, Made of Air (MOA), is composed of 90% atmospheric carbon, thereby promoting carbon sequestration. The base material in MOA is thermoplastic and is also fully recyclable. The startup offers panels made with MOA as a replacement for traditional rainscreen facades.

    Technology-based agricultural production in controlled environments enables high-productivity and year-round cultivation. However, these environments often need nutrients to be externally added. Biochar, when mixed with soil, increases the soil’s ability to retain water and nutrients resulting in healthier crops. Many agritech startups are developing biochar-based soil amendments that help stimulate crop growth.

    The US-based startup bio365 produces growing media for controlled crop cultivation. The startup’s proprietary soil contains bioCore, a high-temperature and low-ash biochar, and bioCharge, a mixture of bio-organisms and nutrients. bioCore has a unique structure with high surface area and porosity that provides a conducive environment for microorganisms to multiply. This later results in improvements in root health and optimal water consumption.

    Traditionally, farmers use different kinds of fertilizers to ensure that crops get the necessary nutrient mix for optimal growth. While chemical fertilizers improve the yield of crops, they also reduce drainage and air circulation in the soil. Startups are working on biological solutions, such as biochar-based fertilizer or symbiotic microbes, as sustainable methods to improve soil health.

    French startup DEMIO provides biochar-based organic fertilizers. With the help of their proprietary depolymerization technology, the startup produces biochar and mixes it with other components, such as slurry and manure, to produce organic fertilizers. This fertilizer is capable of capturing water and maximizing the retention of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the soil.

    Some manufacturing facilities process their waste into biomass but do not possess the capability to later convert it into biochar and syngas. With the help of thermochemical processing, companies convert industrial biomass into biochar and syngas and as a result, reduce overall energy costs and carbon footprint. Depending on the industry, startups create customized solutions to process different kinds of waste into biomass to produce clean energy.

    Australian cleantech startup InRim designs waste-to-energy technologies for projects across multiple geographies. The startup uses continuous pyrolysis technology to convert biomass from landfills into products with economic value. Continuous pyrolysis converts biomass into various products, such as biochar, syngas, and synthetic diesel, depending on the rate of pyrolysis. The biochar produced is suitable for agriculture as it increases nutrient retention and decreases soil acidity.

    While we believe data is key to creating insights it can be easy to be overwhelmed by it. Our ambition is to create a comprehensive overview and provide actionable innovation intelligence so you can achieve your goals faster. The 5 biochar startups showcased above are promising examples out of 67 we analyzed for this article. To identify the most relevant solutions based on your specific criteria, get in touch.

















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    J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol.

    21 August, 2020
     

     


    Postdoctoral Research Associate Position , Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center

    21 August, 2020
     

    If you’d like, Academic Keys can email you similar job openings. You can unsubscribe at any time.

    Don’t want to subscribe? That’s OK too!

    We are looking for a Postdoctoral Research Associate Position in the fields of bioremediation, phytoremediation and soil/water treatment in Dr. Eunsung Kan’s lab at Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center, Texas A&M University. This position will work for our US Department of Agriculture-sponsored project.

    Dr. Kan’s lab focuses on agricultural waste-derived biofuels and bioproducts via biological and thermal routes, biochar technology for environmental and agronomic applications, and novel water treatment technologies (https://sites.google.com/site/eunsungkan/).

    The successful candidates will participate in one or more of the following research topics:

    • Production, characterization and evaluation of biochar from agricultural and animal wastes
    • Biochar-driven phytoremediation for removal of nutrients, antibiotics and microbial pathogens
    • Analysis of nutrients, antibiotics, microbial pathogens and microbial community in soil, water and plant

    Candidates must currently hold a PhD in environmental engineering, chemical engineering, biological engineering, agricultural engineering, biochemistry, chemistry, microbiology, molecular biology or other relevant disciplines.

    Preferred experience includes (but, not limited to):

    • Production and applications of biochar for environmental remediation and agriculture
    • Bioremediation/phytoremediation
    • Analytical instruments (i.e., LC/MS, HPLC, GC, ICP, IC, XRD, SEM/EDX, XPS etc)
    • Analysis of nutrients, antibiotics and microbial pathogens from soil, water and plant
    • Molecular techniques including qPCR and 16S microbial community analysis
    • Statistical analysis and design of experiment
    • Publication in the relevant research areas
    • Excellent interpersonal communication skills

    The position is for one year with possible renewal based on performance and continued availability of funding. The start date is flexible (preferred from October to December 2020). Competitive salary is supplemented with fringe and benefits.

    Please send a cover letter, research statement including your research experience and interests (maximum 3 pages), copies of two representative scientific manuscripts, and contact information for 3 references to Dr. Eunsung Kan (eunsung.kan@ag.tamu.edu). Only shortlisted candidates will be notified.

     


    Home On The Range #004: Easy-to-Use Soil Additives That are Easy on Your Wallet

    22 August, 2020
     

    RusDs

       08.21.20

    Welcome to our reoccurring series of “Home on the Range.” Here, we would like to share all of our experiences for those who may be homesteading, living off the land, hunting, farming, ranching, and truly investing in nature and the great outdoors. The ability to provide for yourself and your family can be tremendously rewarding and simultaneously difficult at times. So, in “Home on the Range” we want to share our different exploits so you can learn and hopefully we can receive your feedback along the way as well.

    You’ve got your land, and your soil is what it is, right?  Not quite.  One can dramatically improve the quality of one’s soil without breaking the bank.  There’s nothing like a good agricultural education or field experience in farming to understand better what soil needs.  In the course of this article, however, we will take a quick look at some low-cost additives and techniques that can be used to improve soil without constant tilling, expensive chemicals, or harsh fertilizers.  To those of you with a solid ag background, this might seem like kindergarten stuff, but to those of you just starting out , these are some cheap and easy ways to get those yields up.

    One of the best ways to improve your soil is to increase its moisture retention and reduce/prevent compaction.  Better aeration is not only beneficial to the plants, it is beneficial to the microorganisms that enhance root health.  Perlite is a naturally occurring compound found in volcanic areas.  Technically “an amorphous volcanic glass,” it is formed by the hydration of obsidian.  When it is reheated to around 850 degrees Fahrenheit, the perlite expands and greatly increases roughly 10 times in volume, resulting in expanded perlite.  Expanded perlite is also rather cheap, being mined/produced in the United States.  An 8-quart bag runs around $20 as of the writing of this article.  Expanded perlite has the following qualities when used as a native soil additive:

    Note: Expanded perlite does contain silicon dioxide, so one should wear a mask when handling a lot of it.  I would especially consider expanded perlite use in thick, clay-type soil to make for a softer, better-aerated soil for planting.

    That’s not a typo, I’m referring to manure.  Your (or your neighbor’s) chicken coop or cow pasture is one of the best sources of soil enrichment.  It’s as cheap as free in some cases, and by mucking out and reusing manure, it’s a win-win situation.  I’ve exclusively fertilized with local manure, and some of my produce currently yields more than I can handle.  Cow manure can be used pretty much straightaway, but chicken manure should be composted first to reduce nitrogen damage (burn) to plants, and to kill any harmful bacteria through the heat generated by the composting process.

    The coals made by one’s campfire and the blackened remnants from your bbq grill or smoker (assuming you use wood) have a fancy name: “Biochar.”  Granted, your fire pit is not going to create perfect pyrolysis, but it should work well enough to enrich your soil.  all you have to do is grind up the cold coals into small pieces and mix them into your soil (again, the use of a mask to protect your lungs is recommended when doing so).  If one’s soil is acidic, this can be especially beneficial by increasing the pH.  Adding biochar to soil also helps with moisture retention and is a beneficial environment for soil microorganisms.

    Now that we’ve covered the groundwork on cheap and easy soil additives, make sure to take the time to learn what kind of soil you have, and which techniques will work well for you.  What works in the high desert of the west may not be the best choice for the rocky soils of New England or the clay soils of Georgia.


    Research

    22 August, 2020
     

     

    Here are some studies on biochar and composting that we found useful:

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    ankur arbres biochar

    22 August, 2020
     

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    Biochar Consumption Market is Booming Worldwide 2020-2027 | Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme …

    23 August, 2020
     

    New Jersey, United States,- Market Research Intellect recently added the Biochar Consumption Market research report which provides an in-depth scenario analysis of the market size, share, demand, growth, trends, and forecast for the market from 2020 to 2027. The report covers the impact analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected export-import, demand, and industry trends and is expected to have an economic impact on the market. The report provides a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the pandemic on the entire industry and provides an overview of a post-COVID-19 market scenario.

    The report majorly mentions definitions, classifications, applications, and market overview of the Biochar Consumption industry. It also covers product portfolios, manufacturing processes, cost analysis, structures, and industry gross margin. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of major competitors, their regional breakdown, and market size.


    The report covers extensive analysis of the key market players in the market, along with their business overview, expansion plans, and strategies. The key players studied in the report include:

    The report provides a comprehensive analysis in an organized manner in the form of tables, graphs, charts, figures, and diagrams. The organized data paves the way for thorough examination and research of the current and future outlook of the market.

    The examination of the Biochar Consumption industry provides an in-depth analysis of the key market drivers, opportunities, challenges, and their impact on the working of the market. The technological advancements and product developments, driving the demands of the market are also covered in the report.

     

    The report provides comprehensive data on the Biochar Consumption market and its trends to assist the reader in formulating decisions to accelerate the business. The report provides a complete overview of the economic scenario of the market, along with benefits and limitations.

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    In market segmentation by types of Biochar Consumption, the report covers-

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    Biochar Fertilizer Market is Booming Worldwide 2020-2027 | Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms …

    24 August, 2020
     

    New Jersey, United States,- The Biochar Fertilizer Market has grown rapidly and contributes significantly to the global economy in terms of sales, growth rate, market share, and size. The Biochar Fertilizer Market Report is a comprehensive research document that provides readers with valuable information to help understand the fundamentals of the Biochar Fertilizer report. The report provides details on business strategies, market requirements, players dominating the market, and a futuristic perspective of the market.

    The report will be updated with the latest economic scenario and market size in relation to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The report covers the growth prospects as well as current and futuristic sales estimates in a post-COVID scenario. The report also covers changing market trends and dynamics due to the pandemic and provides an in-depth analysis of the impact of the crisis on the overall market.


    The report covers extensive analysis of the key market players in the market, along with their business overview, expansion plans, and strategies. The key players studied in the report include:

    The report provides a comprehensive analysis in an organized manner in the form of tables, graphs, charts, figures, and diagrams. The organized data paves the way for thorough examination and research of the current and future outlook of the market.

    The examination of the Biochar Fertilizer industry provides an in-depth analysis of the key market drivers, opportunities, challenges, and their impact on the working of the market. The technological advancements and product developments, driving the demands of the market are also covered in the report.

     

    The report provides comprehensive data on the Biochar Fertilizer market and its trends to assist the reader in formulating decisions to accelerate the business. The report provides a complete overview of the economic scenario of the market, along with benefits and limitations.

    Biochar Fertilizer market report contains industrial chain analysis and value chain analysis to provide a comprehensive view of the Biochar Fertilizer market. The study is composed of market analysis along with a detailed analysis of the application segments, product types, market size, growth rate, and current and emerging trends in the industry.

    The report further studies the segmentation of the market based on product types offered in the market and their end-use/applications.

    In market segmentation by types of Biochar Fertilizer, the report covers-

    In market segmentation by applications of the Biochar Fertilizer, the report covers the following uses-

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    Radical Coverage of the Biochar Fertilizer Market:


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    Citation

    25 August, 2020
     

    Global Biofuels Market Set for Remarkable Growth, To Grow at a Lucarative CAGR – Zion Market …

    25 August, 2020
     

    “The Zion Market Research added a new report “Biofuels Market by Type (Bioethanol and Biodiesel), and by Form — Solid (Biocoal, Biochar), Fuel Pellets Liquid (Biodiesel and Bioethanol), and Gaseous (Biogas, Biopropane, and Syngas) — Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 – 2022” in its database, which provides an expert and in-depth analysis of key business trends and future market development prospects, key drivers and restraints, profiles of major market players, segmentation and forecasting.

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    Copersucar S.A DSM, Green Plains Inc., Aemetis Inc, Western Dubuque Biodiesel Llc, Solazyme Inc, Renewable Energy Group, Raizen Energia Participacoes S.A, BlueFire Renewables, Aventine Renewable Energy HoldingsInc. (AVRW), and Australian Renewable Fuels Ltd.

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    Biochar application can help Ghana's smallholder farmers fight back climate change

    25 August, 2020
     

    New research shows biochar application is more effective in promoting cowpea growth and yield in Ghana

    Climate change, droughts, inadequate rainfall and crop diseases — Ghana, much like most of Sub-Saharan Africa, has discernible geographical and socioeconomic patterns that diminish crop yield. Smallholder farmers bear the brunt mostly — they often face declining soil productivity due to unavailability of mineral fertilisers or lack of affordability. 

    But there seems to be a solution in sight: Biochar application — a charcoal-like substance made by burning organic material from agricultural and forestry wastes — could help promote cowpea growth and crop yield in the country as well as fight climate change impact on soil. The findings were published in a recent study in open-access journal Open Agriculture. 

    Cowpea is one of the most broadly produced pulse crops in sub-Saharan Africa. The crop is an important source of human food, livestock feed and green manure. It is also valued for its ability to improve soil fertility through nitrogen fixation.

    Biochar could be an effective way to minimise the effect of climate change on agricultural soils, enhance crop productivity and improve the retention of nutrients in the soil, according to the study.

    Adding biochar to soil is a relatively new approach, but has been shown to improve crop yield in many ways. It can increase the soil’s water-holding capacity, reduce acidity, increase nutrient supply and retention.

    Despite its numerous benefits, research into the effectiveness of various methods of biochar application to soils has rarely been investigated.

    Several methods of biochar application, including broadcast and incorporation, banding, spot and ring, have been recommended. However, most biochar field trials reported to date have used broadcast and incorporation methods. 

    The study was carried out at the experimental field of Ghana’s CSIR-Soil Research Institute. The research team planted cowpea seeds in the site’s sandy soil and tested out the broadcasting, spot and ring methods of applying biochar and comparing them to a control.

    The study location was within the semi-deciduous forest agro-ecological zone of Ghana and characterised by two rainy seasons and two dry seasons a year. This zone has a bimodal rainfall pattern with the major rainy season spanning from March to July and the minor season from September to November with a short dry spell in August.

    In the broadcasting method, biochar is spread uniformly across the surface and worked into the soil using a hoe. For the spot method, biochar is placed into a small hole and covered with soil. It is dug into the soil in a ring around the place where the seed is to be planted in the ring method.

    The growth, yield and nutrient uptake of cowpea are influenced by the method of biochar application, the study showed. The research team confirmed that biochar improved plant height and the number and weight of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the cowpea.

    Significant differences were observed for both stem girth and height. At four weeks after planting, the ring method gave the highest (2.38 centimetre) girth, which was not significantly different from that of the spot and broadcast methods.

    Spot and ring methods significantly improved the various measures of crop success among different methods of biochar application, the study found.

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    Eurasia Review: Unconventional Farming Methods Could Help Smallholders Fight Back Against …

    26 August, 2020
     

    New research from Ghana shows less popular methods of biochar application are more effective in promoting cowpea growth and yield. The article, “Method of biochar application affects growth, yield and nutrient uptake of cowpea” was published in the De Gruyter open access journal Open Agriculture.

    Cowpea is widely cultivated in sub-Saharan Africa and in warm regions around the world. The crop is an important source of human food, livestock feed, and green manure, and generates income for smallholder farmers. It is valued for its ability to boost soil fertility by fixing nitrogen.

    But West African farmers — under pressure from climate change, drought, pests, and low soil fertility — have struggled to optimize the yield of this valuable crop. Conventional mineral fertilizers remain expensive for smallholders and can cause soil degradation.

    Biochar is a charcoal-like substance made by burning waste plant matter. Adding biochar to soil is a relatively new approach, which has been shown to improve crop yields in many ways. It can increase the soil’s water-holding capacity, reduce acidity, increase nutrient supply and retention, and promote the growth of beneficial microbes. But to date, there has been little research into the best method of applying biochar to soils to optimize its benefits.

    Scientists tested out the different methods of biochar application on fields at Ghana’s CSIR-Soil Research Institute. They planted cowpea seeds in the site’s sandy soil and tested out the broadcasting, spot, and ring methods of applying biochar, comparing them to a control.

    The broadcasting method sees biochar spread uniformly across the surface and worked into the soil using a hoe. For the spot method, biochar is placed into a small hole and covered with soil. For the ring method, biochar is dug into the soil in a ring around the place where the seed is to be planted.

    The research team confirmed that biochar improved plant height and girth, the number and weight of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the cowpea, pod number, shoot and seed yield as well as nitrogen and phosphorus uptake. The spot and ring methods significantly improved these various measures of crop success.

    “We’ve shown the traditional method of broadcast and incorporation to be less effective,” says lead researcher Edward Yeboah, “whereas the spot and ring methods of biochar application show tremendous benefits for sustainable soil management. Smallholder farmers can now improve their livelihoods by focussing on spot and ring application of biochar for maximum benefit.”

    The article Unconventional Farming Methods Could Help Smallholders Fight Back Against Climate Change appeared first on Eurasia Review.

    Bu KHAR kimi? — Who iz ziz FOOl?

    The political funerals — Putin’s resignation is scheduled for the next Politburo meeting. 

    Sic Transit Gloria Mundi!

    Sick, sick, sick; mundi ti! 

    Putin hangs his noodles on your ears. Take these noodles off, and hang HIM! Long overdue!

    Investigate Douglas Leff The Mamabicho — the Azerbaijani spy and mole: he poisons his critics with free marijuana chocolates! Hashem, fill up his guts with his own poison, so he would produce his shif, because he is nothing but the poisonous shit! 

    Investigate the San Juan, Puerto Rico branch of the FBI: they are a bunch of criminals and perverts! They were the enablers for Jeffrey Epstein!

    Lisa Page Sues FBI & DOJ, Demands Reimbursement for “Therapy”

    To our “Poor Lisa” (almost from Karamzin, aint it funny?), free consultation:

    Lisa, what kind of therapy did you use?
    Primal Scream would be good for you,
    But behavioral modification should be the best:
    Every time you think of Strzok
    Give yourself Electroshock!
    Should help.
    And no need to fake any stupid orgasms.
    Who needs them, anyway?
    It is the work for the FBI which is the incomparable bliss.
    The rest of our lives is just the eternal and incurable frustration.
    Lisa, tell them the truth: It was not any “orgasm”, Strzok could not do even this thing right! You just spied on him for MCCabe, that was your assignment. You did ziz for the Motherland!

    Michael Novakhov — SharedNewsLinks℠

    Investigate the corruption and failures within the FBI, and their root causes. The proof is in the pudding, sadly but undeniably. 

    Michael Novakhov | 7:38 AM 11/26/2019 — Post Link

    __________________________

    The Psychoanalysis of Intelligence Operations And the Diagnostic Signs and Features of Abwehr Operations — Preliminary Web Review By Michael Novakhov

    The News & Times — Blogs — By Michael Novakhov 

    FBI News Review – Google Images

    FBI News Review On RSS Dog In 25 Full Posts | 50 Headlines | 

    FBI News Review – In Brief 20 Posts | FBI News Review – In Brief 250 Posts

    Santa Clarita shooting as the “message in a bullet”: “So, how about it: USA is a Goose!” Signature: Berghof (B