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Biochar Market Sales and Revenue by Companies, Regions, Type and Application till 2027 | ARC …

1 June, 2021
 

pune, India, Jun 01, 2021, 01:00 /Comserve / — The Biochar Market is highly competitive, due to a large degree of fragmentation in the market.

The Biochar Market is highly competitive, due to a large degree of fragmentation in the market. The market is largely connected to the regulatory requirements for establishing and operating, despite the fragmentation. The research report of the global Biochar Market provides in-depth insights to ease decision making or to find relevant information. The report comprises various entities inclusive of drivers, restraints & challenges, opportunities and trends, particularly derived from primary and secondary research from various government sources, authorized sites, company websites, annual reports, e-books, encyclopedias, news articles, review articles, interview, and meta-analyses.

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The report allows users to learn about the market, its concept, segmentation, impact trends, business opportunities and market challenges. Deeper study and analysis allow consumers to get a better view of the market. The details and facts in the report are presented in graphs, tables, diagrams and other pictures. This improves comprehension and provides a clear understanding of the situation.

Based on geographical boundaries, the market is classified into: North America (US and Canada), Europe (UK, Germany, France, Spain and Rest of Europe), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, India, Australia, South Korea, and Rest of Asia Pacific), Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, and Rest of Latin America), Middle East and Africa (GCC, South Africa, and Rest of Middle East & Africa).

 

Market Segmentation

 

Market By Application

Market By Feedstock

Market By Technology

Market By Manufacturing Process

Global Biochar Market: Competitive Landscape

Many major market manufacturers are listed in this section of the report. This helps readers to understand the strategies and collaborations that players focus on the market’s struggle against the competition. The full report offers a major microscopic overview of the market. During the projected period 2020-2027 the consumer will define the footprints of manufacturers by the awareness of the manufacturer’s global revenues, and their manufacturer’s profits.
Who are the key players in the market?

The key players operating in Biochar Market such as Agri-Tech Producers LLC, Biochar Products, Diacarbon Energy Inc., Chargrow LLC, Genesis Industries, Green Charcoal International, Vega Biofuels Inc., The Biochar Company, Pacific Pyrolysis Pty. Ltd., Cool Planet Energy Systems, Full Circle Biochar, and among others.

Overview of the Impact of COVID-19 on Biochar Market:

The development of COVID-19 has carried the world to a stop. We comprehend that this health emergency has brought an unprecedented effect on businesses across ventures. However, this also will pass. Rising help from governments and a few organizations can help in the battle against this profoundly infectious sickness. There are a few industries that are battling and some are flourishing. In general, pretty much every segment is foreseen to be affected by the pandemic.
We are making persistent efforts to enable your business to continue and develop during COVID-19 pandemics. Based on our experience and expertise, we will offer you an impact analysis of coronavirus outbreak across ventures to assist you to prepare for the future.

In a nutshell, the global Biochar Market research report encompasses the desired information in terms of both quality and quantity with the respective market. The collection of information is completely based on the authorized sources and compiled by the experts and research analysts with years of experience in the respective industry vertical.

 

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Few Significant Points From Table Of Content:

Chapter 1. Research Scope & Methodology

 

1.1  Market Definition

1.2  Market Scope

     1.2.1 Biochar Market Breakdown By Application

     1.2.2 Biochar Market Breakdown By Feedstock

     1.2.3 Biochar Market Breakdown By Technology

     1.2.4 Biochar Market Breakdown By Manufacturing Process

     1.2.5 Biochar Market Breakdown By Geography

1.3 Research Methodology And Sources

 

Chapter 2. Executive Summary

 

2.1 Key Findings

 

Chapter 3. Market Overview

 

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Opportunities

     3.2.1 Role Of Biochar In Lowering Carbon Food Chain

     3.2.2 Limited Availability Of Arable Land And Degrading Soil Quality

3.3 Market Drivers And Its Impact

     3.3.1 Enhancement In Crop Yield By Improving Soil Fertility

     3.3.2 Natural Carbon Sequestration Property Of Biochar

     3.3.3 Government Initiatives And Strict Environment Regulations

     3.3.4 Production Of Biochar Creating Effective Waste Management Potential

     3.3.5 Impact Analysis Of Drivers

3.4 Market Restraints And Its Impact

     3.4.1 High Cost Of Biochar

     3.4.2 Lack Of Awareness Towards The Benefits Offered By Biochar And Labor Barriers

     3.4.3 Impact Analysis Of Restraints

 

Chapter 4. Global Biochar Market By Application

 

4.1 Global Biochar Market Revenue And Forecast, 2014 – 2023 ($Million)

4.2 Global Biochar Market Volume And Forecast, 2014 – 2023 (Tons)

4.3 Global Biochar Market, By Application

     4.3.1 Global Biochar Market Revenue, By Application, 2014 – 2023 ($Million)

     4.3.2 Global Biochar Market Volume, By Application, 2014 – 2023 (Tons)

     4.3.3 Gardening

     4.3.4 Agriculture

     4.3.5 Household

 

Chapter 5. Global Biochar Market By Feedstock

 

5.1 Global Biochar Market Revenue, By Feedstock, 2014 – 2023 ($Million)

5.2 Global Biochar Market Volume, By Feedstock, 2014 – 2023 (Tons)

5.3 Agriculture Waste

5.4 Forestry Waste

5.5 Animal Manure

5.6 Biomass Plantation

 

Chapter 6. Global Biochar Market By Technology

 

6.1 Global Biochar Market Revenue, By Technology, 2014 – 2023 ($Million)

6.2 Global Biochar Market Volume, By Technology, 2014 – 2023 (Tons)

6.3 Microwave Pyrolysis

6.4 Batch Pyrolysis Kiln

6.5 Continuous Pyrolysis Kiln

6.6 Gasifier And Cookstove

6.7 Others

 

Chapter 7. Global Biochar Market By Manufacturing Process

 

7.1 Global Biochar Market Revenue, By Manufacturing Process, 2014 – 2023 ($Million)

7.2 Global Biochar Market Volume, By Manufacturing Process, 2014 – 2023 (Tons)

7.3 Gasification

7.4 Fast And Intermediate Pyrolysis

7.5 Slow Pyrolysis

7.6 Others

 

Chapter 8. Global Biochar Market Breakdown By Region

 

8.1 Global Biochar Market, By Region

8.1.1 Global Biochar Market Revenue, By Region

     8.1.2 Global Biochar Market Volume, By Region

8.2 North America Biochar Market

     8.2.1 North America Biochar Market, By Application

            8.2.1.1 North America Biochar Market Revenue, By Application

            8.2.1.2 North America Biochar Market Volume, By Application

     8.2.2 North America Biochar Market, By Feedstock

            8.2.2.1 North America Biochar Market Revenue, By Feedstock

            8.2.2.2 North America Biochar Market Volume, By Feedstock

     8.2.3 North America Biochar Market, By Technology

            8.2.3.1 North America Biochar Market Revenue, By Technology

            8.2.3.2 North America Biochar Market Volume, By Technology

     8.2.4 North America Biochar Market, By Manufacturing Process

            8.2.4.1 North America Biochar Market Revenue, By Manufacturing Process

            8.2.4.2 North America Biochar Market Volume, By Manufacturing Process

8.3 Europe Biochar Market

     8.3.1 Europe Biochar Market, By Application

            8.3.1.1 Europe Biochar Market Revenue, By Application

            8.3.1.2 Europe Biochar Market Volume, By Application

     8.3.2 Europe Biochar Market, By Feedstock

            8.3.2.1 Europe Biochar Market Revenue, By Feedstock

            8.3.2.2 Europe Biochar Market Volume, By Feedstock

     8.3.3 Europe Biochar Market, By Technology

            8.3.3.1 Europe Biochar Market Revenue, By Technology

            8.3.3.2 Europe Biochar Market Volume, By Technology

     8.3.4 Europe Biochar Market, By Manufacturing Process

            8.3.4.1 Europe Biochar Market Revenue, By Manufacturing Process

            8.3.4.2 Europe Biochar Market Volume, By Manufacturing Process

8.4 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market

     8.4.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market, By Application

            8.4.1.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Revenue, By Application

            8.4.1.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Volume, By Application

     8.4.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market, By Feedstock

            8.4.2.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Revenue, By Feedstock

            8.4.2.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Volume, By Feedstock

     8.4.3 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market, By Technology

            8.4.3.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Revenue, By Technology

            8.4.3.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Volume, By Technology

     8.4.4 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market, By Manufacturing Process

            8.4.4.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Revenue, By Manufacturing Process

            8.4.4.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Volume, By Manufacturing Process

8.5 Rest Of The World Biochar Market

     8.5.1 Rest Of The World Biochar Market, By Application

            8.5.1.1 Rest Of The World Biochar Market Revenue, By Application

            8.5.1.2 Rest Of The World Biochar Market Volume, By Application

     8.5.2 Rest Of The World Biochar Market, By Feedstock

            8.5.2.1 Rest Of The World Biochar Market Revenue, By Feedstock

            8.5.2.2 Rest Of The World Biochar Market Volume, By Feedstock

     8.5.3 Rest Of The World Biochar Market, By Technology

            8.5.3.1 Rest Of The World Biochar Market Revenue, By Technology

            8.5.3.2 Rest Of The World Biochar Market Volume, By Technology

     8.5.4 Rest Of The World Biochar Market, By Manufacturing Process

            8.5.4.1 Rest Of The World Biochar Market Revenue, By Manufacturing Process

            8.5.4.2 Rest Of The World Biochar Market Volume, By Manufacturing Process

 

Chapter 9. Competitive Landscape

 

9.1 Porter's Five Forces Analysis: Global Biochar Market

     9.1.1 Bargaining Power Of Buyers

     9.1.2 Bargaining Power Of Suppliers

     9.1.3 Threat Of New Entrants

     9.1.4 Degree Of Competition

     9.1.5 Threat Of Substitutes

9.2 Competitive Positioning Of Key Market Segments, By Feedstock (2015)

……….

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Key Questions Answered in the Report

The report addresses key questions concerning the market evolution and overarching trends shaping global market growth. Some of the key questions answered in the report include-

– What is the overall structure of the market?
– What was the historical value and what is the forecasted value of the market?
– What are the key product level trends in the market?
– What are the market level trends in the market?
– Which of the market players are leading and what are their key differential strategies to retain their stronghold?
– Which are the most lucrative regions in the market space?
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A biochar supported magnetic metal organic framework for the removal of trivalent antimony …

1 June, 2021
 

A biochar supported magnetic MOF adsorbent for removal of Sb (III) is proposed.

The adsorbent is highly effective in the removal of Sb (III).

The removal performance relies on the mass ratio of MMOF to biochar.

The main adsorption of Sb (III) onto the adsorbent is chemical sorption.

A biochar supported magnetic MOF adsorbent for removal of Sb (III) is proposed.

The adsorbent is highly effective in the removal of Sb (III).

The removal performance relies on the mass ratio of MMOF to biochar.

The main adsorption of Sb (III) onto the adsorbent is chemical sorption.

Metal organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles are recognized for their effective removal of metal ions from aqueous systems. However, the application of nanoparticles in a powder form as synthesized is not practical and recovery is not easy. We prepared a recyclable magnetic MOF nanoparticle phase and used a widely available waste biomass to generate biochar to support magnetic nanoparticles applied in the treatment of aqueous antimony pollution. A mushroom waste biochar was used to support a magnetic UIO-66-2COOH (denoted as BSMU). Adsorption of trivalent antimony (Sb (III)) onto the BSMU was evaluated. The results showed that optimum conditions for preparation of the BSMU were the mass ratio of MMOF to biochar 4:1, the temperature 70 0C, the time 4 h, and the initiator 4 mM. Under such conditions, sorption capacity reached 56.49 mg/g for treatment of Sb (III) solution at 100 mg/L and pH 9.1. Alkaline conditions (such as pH 9.1) are more favorable for adsorption than acidic conditions, and coexisting ions including NO3, Cl, SO42-, and PO43- had no significant negative effect in adsorption, and with the use of low dose, higher adsorption density achieved. The adsorption followed a pseudo second order kinetics model and Freundlich isotherm model. It resulted in a higher enthalpy changes (ΔHθ) and activation energy (Ea) of 97.56 and 8.772 kJ/mol, respectively, and enhanced the rate pf random contact between antimony and the BSMU, as indicated by a higher entropy change (ΔSθ) up to 360 J/mol·K. As a result, it readily absorbs antimony. These adsorption properties identified in this study would provide a valuable insights into the application of nanoparticles loaded biochar from abundant biomass in environmental remediation.


Search results for Strawberry

1 June, 2021
 

EV ILVO
Burgemeester Van Gansberghelaan 92/1
9820 Merelbeke

IVA ILVO
Havenlaan 88/50
1000 Brussels

+32 9 272 25 00


Biocharmed: is biochar living up to its expectations? | by Hannah Blice | Jun, 2021

1 June, 2021
 


A scientometric review of biochar preparation research from 2006 to 2019 | SpringerLink

1 June, 2021
 

Biochar is the carbon-rich product obtained from the thermochemical conversion of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Preparation methods contribute to biochar properties, which are widely concerned in the agronomic and environmental benefits of agro-ecosystems. This research aims to use bibliometrics methods to comprehensively and objectively analyze the research trends in the global biochar production field from 2006 to 2019 based on the Web of Science Core Collection database. The results showed that 1434 papers related to biochar preparation were published, which gradually increased each year. The research topics were diversified, which were mainly divided into “Environmental Sciences and Ecology,” “Engineering” and “Agriculture”. Moreover, Bioresource Technology was the most published journal contained biochar preparation. Authors from China had the most publications, followed by the US, Australia and the UK. Meanwhile, Yong Sik Ok from Korea University contributed most of the publications and had the highest H-index. Keywords analysis indicated that biochar preparation by pyrolysis was a current hotspot, of which microwave and hydrothermal were a future research trend. Besides, gasification would be used to develop new biomass energy. Biochar has the characteristics of high pH, high specific surface area, high carbon content, and rich functional groups. It is mainly used in soil improvement, water pollutant adsorption, carbon sequestration and emission reduction, and energy storage materials, etc. Furthermore, raw materials, pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis time will also affect its characteristics and applications. It is expected that this study may provide insight into the future research interests regarding biochar preparation.

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This paper is funded by National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2018YFC1900904) and Postgraduate Research Fund of Guizhou Province (No. YJSCXJH(2019)055).

Correspondence to Tianxue Yang.

Received: 26 October 2020

Accepted: 09 February 2021

Published: 01 June 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42773-021-00091-5

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A biochar supported magnetic metal organic framework for the removal of trivalent antimony …

1 June, 2021
 

A biochar supported magnetic MOF adsorbent for removal of Sb (III) is proposed.

The adsorbent is highly effective in the removal of Sb (III).

The removal performance relies on the mass ratio of MMOF to biochar.

The main adsorption of Sb (III) onto the adsorbent is chemical sorption.

A biochar supported magnetic MOF adsorbent for removal of Sb (III) is proposed.

The adsorbent is highly effective in the removal of Sb (III).

The removal performance relies on the mass ratio of MMOF to biochar.

The main adsorption of Sb (III) onto the adsorbent is chemical sorption.

Metal organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles are recognized for their effective removal of metal ions from aqueous systems. However, the application of nanoparticles in a powder form as synthesized is not practical and recovery is not easy. We prepared a recyclable magnetic MOF nanoparticle phase and used a widely available waste biomass to generate biochar to support magnetic nanoparticles applied in the treatment of aqueous antimony pollution. A mushroom waste biochar was used to support a magnetic UIO-66-2COOH (denoted as BSMU). Adsorption of trivalent antimony (Sb (III)) onto the BSMU was evaluated. The results showed that optimum conditions for preparation of the BSMU were the mass ratio of MMOF to biochar 4:1, the temperature 70 0C, the time 4 h, and the initiator 4 mM. Under such conditions, sorption capacity reached 56.49 mg/g for treatment of Sb (III) solution at 100 mg/L and pH 9.1. Alkaline conditions (such as pH 9.1) are more favorable for adsorption than acidic conditions, and coexisting ions including NO3, Cl, SO42-, and PO43- had no significant negative effect in adsorption, and with the use of low dose, higher adsorption density achieved. The adsorption followed a pseudo second order kinetics model and Freundlich isotherm model. It resulted in a higher enthalpy changes (ΔHθ) and activation energy (Ea) of 97.56 and 8.772 kJ/mol, respectively, and enhanced the rate pf random contact between antimony and the BSMU, as indicated by a higher entropy change (ΔSθ) up to 360 J/mol·K. As a result, it readily absorbs antimony. These adsorption properties identified in this study would provide a valuable insights into the application of nanoparticles loaded biochar from abundant biomass in environmental remediation.


Using biochar as container substrate for plant growth – diagram, schematic, and image 19

1 June, 2021
 

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Carbon sequestration bill sails through Senate

1 June, 2021
 

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The state Senate on Friday passed a proposal to set goals for carbon sequestration on natural and working lands. With recent amendments, agriculture is no longer opposing the measure.

The state’s Natural and Working Lands Climate Smart Strategy, currently in development, will guide the process, and the goals must be vetted for cost-effectiveness and technological feasibility, according to the amendments. The plan must also suggest funding mechanisms for implementing the strategy.

The Senate’s only farmer is now supporting the measure. Republican Sen. Brian Dahle of Lassen County explained the climate-smart practices he deploys. As he spoke, a tractor was tilling Australian field peas back into one of his fields to restore nutrients to the soil. Dahle also applies biochar from wood waste, which stores carbon.

“[The bill] is a good tool to educate on how California farmers are leading the way in doing a good job of protecting our soils,” said Dahle.

Brad Hooker
Associate Editor, Agri-Pulse West

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This week’s Open Mic guest is Jamie Johansson, president of the California Farm Bureau Federation. Johansson is a first-generation olive and citrus grower and well versed in the environmental, regulatory and social obstacles of farming on the West Coast. With a push toward climate-smart agriculture from the state and federal government, Johansson says farmers in his state shoulder a tremendous regulatory burden in addition to one of the worst droughts the state has ever experienced. Johansson discusses the ideological disagreement with those who call for land preservation and oppose working lands. Johansson says a shortage of farmworkers is an ongoing issue for California farmers and is impacting the variety of crops grown in his state.

 

Episode one: Running on E

Episode two: LCFS 101

Episode three: Three years away

Episode four: Electric slide

 

It’s been an active few weeks in beef policy, and some top lawmakers this week said a look into the industry’s pricing structure is warranted. Mark Dopp, general counsel and senior vice president of regulatory and scientific affairs for the North American Meat Institute, joins Agri-Pulse to discuss recent calls for reform and where packers stand.

Agri-Pulse and Agri-Pulse West are your comprehensive sources of the latest in agricultural information. We take a holistic approach to covering current ag, food and energy policy news and we never miss a beat. We make it our duty to inform you of the most up-to-date agricultural and food policy decisions being made from Washington, D.C. to the west coast and examine how they will affect you: the farmer, the lobbyist, the government employee, the educator, the consultant, and the concerned citizen. We investigate several aspects of food, fuel, feed, and fiber industries, looking at the economic, statistical, and financial trends and evaluate how these changes will impact your business. We provide insight on the people and players who are making things happen. Agri-Pulse provides you with timely updates of how policy decisions will affect your productivity, your pocketbook, and your livelihood. Whether it be new developments in international trade, organic foods, farm credit and loan policies, or climate change legislation, we keep you abreast of the information you need to stay on the cutting edge.

© 2021 Agri-Pulse Communications, Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Novel nanocomposite of biochar-zerovalent copper for lead adsorption

1 June, 2021
 

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In this study, a composite of zerovalent copper-biochar was investigated for its ability to remove lead from water. The prepared material was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractomter (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The pH effect on adsorption of lead was investigated within the range of 2-8 and the effect of temperature was studied at 303, 308, 313, and 318 K. The kinetics of lead adsorption on biochar composite was evaluated and the equilibrium time of 12 hr was established. To further evaluate the nature of adsorption, Langmuir model was tested and the adsorption capacities were evaluated for lead adsorption on the surface of copper biochar composite. The activation energy, entropy, and enthalpy values indicated the adsorption phenomenon to be chemisorptive and spontaneous in nature. Comparison of adsorption capacities with the reported adsorbents in the literature concluded zerovalent copper-biochar composite to be an efficient adsorbent for the removal of lead in the experimental conditions under study. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Highly efficient composite of zerovalent copper with biochar was synthesized for lead adsorption. XPS and XRD shows the presence of zerovalent copper in the biochar composite. pH and temperature were the main governing factors in the adsorption process. Adsorption capacity for lead is higher than many of the reported adsorbents.

Keywords: Zerovalent copper; adsorption; biochar; lead.

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Biochar Market To Witness Significant Growth | In-Depth Qualitative Insights, Regional Analysis …

1 June, 2021
 

The Global Biochar Market research report studies the key opportunities in the market and the influencing factors that are valuable to the enterprise. The market analysis focuses on the various market segments that are required to witness the fastest business development within the forecasting framework. The report introduces the overall scope of the market, including future supply and demand, the latest market trends, high growth opportunities, and an in-depth analysis of the future prospects of the market. In addition, it provides comprehensive data analysis on risk factors, challenges, and possible new routes in the market.

The research provides a comprehensive knowledge platform for market participants and investors, as well as senior companies and manufacturers active in the global Biochar market. The report includes market share, gross profit margin, revenue, CAGR value, volume and other key market data, which can accurately show the growth of the global Biochar market. All statistical data and numerical data calculated using the most mature tools (such as SWOT analysis, BCG matrix, SCOT analysis and PESTLE analysis) are expressed in the form of graphs and charts to obtain the best user experience and clear understanding .

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Competitive landscape:

The report provides a company-level market share analysis based on the company’s annual sales and departmental revenue in all target end-use industries. The market is predicted based on a constant exchange rate. The report provides detailed competition and company profiles of the major players operating in the global market.

Manufacturers covered in this report are:

BlackCarbon A/S , Biochar Industries, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Carbon Terra GmbH, Biochar Ireland, Sunriver Biochar, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Waste to Energy Solutions Inc., Airex Energy, Carbon Gold, Clean Fuels B.V., 3R ENVIRO TECH Group

*Note: Additional companies can be included on request.

The report provides detailed information about the industrial base, productivity, advantages, manufacturers and the latest trends, which will help the company expand its business and promote financial growth. In addition, the report also shows dynamic factors, including market segments, market segments, regional markets, competition, key major players and market forecasts. In addition, the market also includes recent collaborations, mergers, acquisitions and partnerships, as well as regulatory frameworks in different regions that affect the trajectory of the entire market. The report includes the latest technological advancements and innovations affecting the global Biochar market.

Market Segmentation:

Polaris Market Research has segmented the global Biochar market on the basis of technology, application and region:

Biochar Technology Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion, 2015 – 2026)

Biochar Application Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Billion, 2015 – 2026)

An overview of the market’s regional outlook:

The Biochar report provides information about market regions, which are further broken down into sub-regions and countries. In addition to market share in each country and region, this chapter of this report also contains information about profit opportunities. This chapter of the report mentions the share and market growth rate of each region, country, and sub-region over the estimated time period.

Cumulative impact of COVID-19:

The report provides the impact of COVID-19 on the Biochar market and the impact on the entire industry and the world economy. In addition, since it mainly affects market growth and sales, it increases the changes in consumer buying behavior. The report also adds distributors and traders for marketing strategy analysis, which focuses on regional needs in the covid-19 pandemic. The last part of the COVID-19 impact chapter includes the restoration and major changes selected by the major players in the Biochar market.

The main features of Biochar market report:

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Global Biochar Market Research Report 2021-2025

1 June, 2021
 

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Insights on Biochar Market: Facts, Figures and Trends 2021-2025

1 June, 2021
 

“Summary The report forecast global Biochar market was USD XX Million in 2020 and is expected to grow at the CAGR of XX% during the forecasted period 2021-2025. Biochar Industry Research is an intelligence report with meticulous efforts undertaken to […]

The report forecast global Biochar market was USD XX Million in 2020 and is expected to grow at the CAGR of XX% during the forecasted period 2021-2025.

Biochar Industry Research is an intelligence report with meticulous efforts undertaken to review the proper and valuable information. The data which has been looked upon is completed considering both, the prevailing top players and therefore the upcoming competitors. Business strategies of the key players and therefore the new entering market industries are studied intimately. Well explained SWOT analysis, revenue share and get in touch with information are shared during this report analysis.

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Biochar Industry Research is an insight report with careful endeavors attempted review the proper and valuable information. The information which has been viewed is finished thinking about both, the predominant top players and therefore the upcoming competitors. Business techniques of the central participants and thusly the new entering market enterprises are concentrated personally. Very much clarified SWOT investigation, income share and reach out to data are shared during this report examination.

The Key players in the report includes:

Biochar market report covers the detailed market analysis including the historical and forecast market data for all the segments and subsegments. Different market factors affecting the market growth are studied in the report. The report will cover the competitive landscape, and company share analysis for the Biochar market, helping in identifying the competitiveness of the market and various strategies to be implemented to sustain in the market.

Biochar Market by Type

Biochar Market by Applications

Regional market study for over 25 countries has covered in the report. We have analyzed global Biochar market from 5 geographies which includes-

Segmental analysis by country will provide the detailed understanding of the various segment trends in different countries.

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The report will provide-

Table of Contents:
Table of Contents

Part I Biochar Industry Overview
Chapter One Biochar Industry Overview
1.1 Biochar Definition
1.2 Biochar Classification Analysis
1.2.1 Biochar Main Classification Analysis
1.2.2 Biochar Main Classification Share Analysis
1.3 Biochar Application Analysis
1.3.1 Biochar Main Application Analysis
1.3.2 Biochar Main Application Share Analysis
1.4 Biochar Industry Chain Structure Analysis
1.5 Biochar Industry Development Overview
1.5.1 Biochar Product History Development Overview
1.5.1 Biochar Product Market Development Overview
1.6 Biochar Global Market Comparison Analysis
1.6.1 Biochar Global Import Market Analysis
1.6.2 Biochar Global Export Market Analysis
1.6.3 Biochar Global Main Region Market Analysis
1.6.4 Biochar Global Market Comparison Analysis
1.6.5 Biochar Global Market Development Trend Analysis
Chapter Two Biochar Up and Down Stream Industry Analysis
2.1 Upstream Raw Materials Analysis
2.1.1 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost
2.1.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure of Biochar Analysis
2.2 Down Stream Market Analysis
2.2.1 Down Stream Market Analysis
2.2.2 Down Stream Demand Analysis
2.2.3 Down Stream Market Trend Analysis
Part II Asia Biochar Industry (The Report Company Including the Below Listed But Not All)
Chapter Three Asia Biochar Market Analysis
3.1 Asia Biochar Product Development History
3.2 Asia Biochar Competitive Landscape Analysis
3.3 Asia Biochar Market Development Trend
Chapter Four 2016-2021 Asia Biochar Productions Supply Sales Demand Market Status and Forecast
4.1 2016-2021 Biochar Production Overview
4.2 2016-2021 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis
4.3 2016-2021 Biochar Demand Overview
4.4 2016-2021 Biochar Supply Demand and Shortage
4.5 2016-2021 Biochar Import Export Consumption
4.6 2016-2021 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin
Chapter Five Asia Biochar Key Manufacturers Analysis
5.1 Company A
5.1.1 Company Profile
5.1.2 Product Picture and Specification
5.1.3 Product Application Analysis
5.1.4 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value
5.1.5 Contact Information
5.2 Company B
5.2.1 Company Profile
5.2.2 Product Picture and Specification
5.2.3 Product Application Analysis
5.2.4 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value
5.2.5 Contact Information
5.3 Company C
5.3.1 Company Profile
5.3.2 Product Picture and Specification
5.3.3 Product Application Analysis
5.3.4 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value
5.3.5 Contact Information
5.4 Company D
5.4.1 Company Profile
5.4.2 Product Picture and Specification
5.4.3 Product Application Analysis
5.4.4 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value
5.4.5 Contact Information


Chapter Six Asia Biochar Industry Development Trend
6.1 2021-2025 Biochar Production Overview
6.2 2021-2025 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis
6.3 2021-2025 Biochar Demand Overview
6.4 2021-2025 Biochar Supply Demand and Shortage
6.5 2021-2025 Biochar Import Export Consumption
6.6 2021-2025 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin
Part III North American Biochar Industry (The Report Company Including the Below Listed But Not All)
Chapter Seven North American Biochar Market Analysis
7.1 North American Biochar Product Development History
7.2 North American Biochar Competitive Landscape Analysis
7.3 North American Biochar Market Development Trend
Chapter Eight 2016-2021 North American Biochar Productions Supply Sales Demand Market Status and Forecast
8.1 2016-2021 Biochar Production Overview
8.2 2016-2021 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis
8.3 2016-2021 Biochar Demand Overview
8.4 2016-2021 Biochar Supply Demand and Shortage
8.5 2016-2021 Biochar Import Export Consumption
8.6 2016-2021 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin
Chapter Nine North American Biochar Key Manufacturers Analysis
9.1 Company A
9.1.1 Company Profile
9.1.2 Product Picture and Specification
9.1.3 Product Application Analysis
9.1.4 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value
9.1.5 Contact Information
9.2 Company B
9.2.1 Company Profile
9.2.2 Product Picture and Specification
9.2.3 Product Application Analysis
9.2.4 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value
9.2.5 Contact Information


Chapter Ten North American Biochar Industry Development Trend
10.1 2021-2025 Biochar Production Overview
10.2 2021-2025 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis
10.3 2021-2025 Biochar Demand Overview
10.4 2021-2025 Biochar Supply Demand and Shortage
10.5 2021-2025 Biochar Import Export Consumption
10.6 2021-2025 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin
Part IV Europe Biochar Industry Analysis (The Report Company Including the Below Listed But Not All)
Chapter Eleven Europe Biochar Market Analysis
11.1 Europe Biochar Product Development History
11.2 Europe Biochar Competitive Landscape Analysis
11.3 Europe Biochar Market Development Trend
Chapter Twelve 2016-2021 Europe Biochar Productions Supply Sales Demand Market Status and Forecast
12.1 2016-2021 Biochar Production Overview
12.2 2016-2021 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis
12.3 2016-2021 Biochar Demand Overview
12.4 2016-2021 Biochar Supply Demand and Shortage
12.5 2016-2021 Biochar Import Export Consumption
12.6 2016-2021 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin
Chapter Thirteen Europe Biochar Key Manufacturers Analysis
13.1 Company A
13.1.1 Company Profile
13.1.2 Product Picture and Specification
13.1.3 Product Application Analysis
13.1.4 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value
13.1.5 Contact Information
13.2 Company B
13.2.1 Company Profile
13.2.2 Product Picture and Specification
13.2.3 Product Application Analysis
13.2.4 Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value
13.2.5 Contact Information


Chapter Fourteen Europe Biochar Industry Development Trend
14.1 2021-2025 Biochar Production Overview
14.2 2021-2025 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis
14.3 2021-2025 Biochar Demand Overview
14.4 2021-2025 Biochar Supply Demand and Shortage
14.5 2021-2025 Biochar Import Export Consumption
14.6 2021-2025 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin
Part V Biochar Marketing Channels and Investment Feasibility
Chapter Fifteen Biochar Marketing Channels Development Proposals Analysis
15.1 Biochar Marketing Channels Status
15.2 Biochar Marketing Channels Characteristic
15.3 Biochar Marketing Channels Development Trend
15.2 New Firms Enter Market Strategy
15.3 New Project Investment Proposals
Chapter Sixteen Development Environmental Analysis
16.1 China Macroeconomic Environment Analysis
16.2 European Economic Environmental Analysis
16.3 United States Economic Environmental Analysis
16.4 Japan Economic Environmental Analysis
16.5 Global Economic Environmental Analysis
Chapter Seventeen Biochar New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis
17.1 Biochar Market Analysis
17.2 Biochar Project SWOT Analysis
17.3 Biochar New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis
Part VI Global Biochar Industry Conclusions
Chapter Eighteen 2016-2021 Global Biochar Productions Supply Sales Demand Market Status and Forecast
18.1 2016-2021 Biochar Production Overview
18.2 2016-2021 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis
18.3 2016-2021 Biochar Demand Overview
18.4 2016-2021 Biochar Supply Demand and Shortage
18.5 2016-2021 Biochar Import Export Consumption
18.6 2016-2021 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin
Chapter Nineteen Global Biochar Industry Development Trend
19.1 2021-2025 Biochar Production Overview
19.2 2021-2025 Biochar Production Market Share Analysis
19.3 2021-2025 Biochar Demand Overview
19.4 2021-2025 Biochar Supply Demand and Shortage
19.5 2021-2025 Biochar Import Export Consumption
19.6 2021-2025 Biochar Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin
Chapter Twenty Global Biochar Industry Research Conclusions

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Global Biochar Market SWOT Analysis, Key Indicators, Forecast 2027 : Airex Energy, BSEI …

1 June, 2021
 

The business report released by Zion Market Research on Global Biochar Market Research Report Covers, Present Data and Deep Analysis, And Forecast, 2021-2027 market is focused to facilitate a deep understanding of the market definition, potential, and scope. The report is curated […]

The business report released by Zion Market Research on Global Biochar Market Research Report Covers, Present Data and Deep Analysis, And Forecast, 2021-2027 market is focused to facilitate a deep understanding of the market definition, potential, and scope. The report is curated after deep research and analysis by experts. It consists of an organized and methodical explanation of current market trends to assist the users to entail in-depth market analysis. The report encompasses a comprehensive assessment of different strategies like mergers & acquisitions, product developments, and research & developments adopted by prominent market leaders to stay at the forefront in the global market.

FREE : Request Sample is Available @ https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/sample/biochar-market

The top Major Competitive Players are :

Airex Energy, BSEI, Diacarbon Energy, Pacific Pyrolysis, Phoenix Energy, 3R ENVIRO TECH Group, Biochar Supreme, Cool Planet Energy Systems.

Along with contributing significant value to the users, the report by Zion Market Research has focused on Porter’s Five Forces analysis to put forward the wide scope of the market in terms of opportunities, threats, and challenges. The information extracted through different business models like SWOT and PESTEL is represented in the form of pie charts, diagrams, and other pictorial representations for a better and faster understanding of facts. The report can be divided into following main parts.

Growth drivers:

The report provides an accurate and professional study of global market business scenarios. The complex analysis of opportunities, growth drivers, and the future forecast is presented in simple and easily understandable formats. The report comprehends the Biochar market by elaborating the technology dynamics, financial position, growth strategy, product portfolio during the forecast period.

Segmentation:

The report is curated on the basis of segmentation and sub-segmentation that are aggregated from primary and secondary research. Segmentation and sub-segmentation is a consolidation of industry segment, type segment, channel segment, and many more. Further, the report is expanded to provide thorough insights on each segment.

Download Free PDF Report Brochure @ https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/requestbrochure/biochar-market

Promising Regions & Countries Mentioned In The Biochar Market Report:

Regional analysis:

The report covers all the regions in the world showing regional developmental status, the market volume, size, and value. It facilitates users’ valuable regional insights that will provide a complete competitive landscape of the regional market. Further, different regional markets along with their size and value are illustrated thoroughly in the report for precise insights.

Competitive analysis:

The report is curated after a SWOT analysis of major market leaders. It contains detailed and strategic inputs from global leaders to help users understand the strength and weaknesses of the key leaders. Expert analysts in the field are following players who are profiled as prominent leaders in the Biochar market. The report also contains the competitive strategy adopted by these market leaders to the market value. Their research and development process was explained well enough by experts in the global Biochar market to help users understand their working process.

Key Details & USPs of the Existing Report Study:    

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Also, Research Report Examines:

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Collapsible Tanks Market Top Manufacturers, Growth Analysis, Revenue, Gross Margin And …

1 June, 2021
 

LOS ANGELES, United States: The report is an all-inclusive research study of the global Collapsible Tanks market taking into account the growth factors, recent trends, developments, opportunities, and competitive landscape. The market analysts and researchers have done extensive analysis of […]

LOS ANGELES, United States: The report is an all-inclusive research study of the global Collapsible Tanks market taking into account the growth factors, recent trends, developments, opportunities, and competitive landscape. The market analysts and researchers have done extensive analysis of the global Collapsible Tanks market with the help of research methodologies such as PESTLE and Porter’s Five Forces analysis. They have provided accurate and reliable market data and useful recommendations with an aim to help the players gain an insight into the overall present and future market scenario. The Collapsible Tanks report comprises in-depth study of the potential segments including product type, application, and end user and their contribution to the overall market size.

Get Full PDF Sample Copy of Report: (Including Full TOC, List of Tables & Figures, Chart) https://www.qyresearch.com/sample-form/form/3112323/global-collapsible-tanks-market

Competitive landscape is a critical aspect every key player needs to be familiar with. The report throws light on the competitive scenario of the global Collapsible Tanks market to know the competition at both the domestic and global levels. Market experts have also offered the outline of every leading player of the global Collapsible Tanks market, considering the key aspects such as areas of operation, production, and product portfolio. Additionally, companies in the report are studied based on the key factors such as company size, market share, market growth, revenue, production volume, and profits.

Key Players Mentioned in the Global Collapsible Tanks Market Research Report: ContiTech, Meggitt, Zodiac, ATL, IMTRA, GEI Works, Plastimo, Turtle-Pac, Musthane, Lamor

Global Collapsible Tanks Market Segmentation by Product: Rubber Collapsible Tanks, Synthetic Fiber Collapsible Tanks, Other

Global Collapsible Tanks Market Segmentation by Application: Water, Chemicals, Fuel, Other

The Collapsible Tanks Market report has been segregated based on distinct categories, such as product type, application, end user, and region. Each and every segment is evaluated on the basis of CAGR, share, and growth potential. In the regional analysis, the report highlights the prospective region, which is estimated to generate opportunities in the global Collapsible Tanks market in the forthcoming years. This segmental analysis will surely turn out to be a useful tool for the readers, stakeholders, and market participants to get a complete picture of the global Collapsible Tanks market and its potential to grow in the years to come.

Key questions answered in the report:

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Table od Content

1 Collapsible Tanks Market Overview
1.1 Collapsible Tanks Product Overview
1.2 Collapsible Tanks Market Segment by Type
1.2.1 Rubber Collapsible Tanks
1.2.2 Synthetic Fiber Collapsible Tanks
1.2.3 Other
1.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Market Size by Type
1.3.1 Global Collapsible Tanks Market Size Overview by Type (2016-2027)
1.3.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Historic Market Size Review by Type (2016-2021)
1.3.2.1 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2016-2021)
1.3.2.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2016-2021)
1.3.2.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2016-2021)
1.3.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Forecasted Market Size by Type (2022-2027)
1.3.3.1 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2022-2027)
1.3.3.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2022-2027)
1.3.3.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2022-2027)
1.4 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Type
1.4.1 North America Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.2 Europe Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.3 Asia-Pacific Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.4 Latin America Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.5 Middle East and Africa Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)

2 Global Collapsible Tanks Market Competition by Company
2.1 Global Top Players by Collapsible Tanks Sales (2016-2021)
2.2 Global Top Players by Collapsible Tanks Revenue (2016-2021)
2.3 Global Top Players Collapsible Tanks Price (2016-2021)
2.4 Global Top Manufacturers Collapsible Tanks Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type
2.5 Collapsible Tanks Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 Collapsible Tanks Market Concentration Rate (2016-2021)
2.5.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Manufacturers by Collapsible Tanks Sales and Revenue in 2020
2.6 Global Top Manufacturers by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) & (based on the Revenue in Collapsible Tanks as of 2020)
2.7 Date of Key Manufacturers Enter into Collapsible Tanks Market
2.8 Key Manufacturers Collapsible Tanks Product Offered
2.9 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Collapsible Tanks Status and Outlook by Region
3.1 Global Collapsible Tanks Market Size and CAGR by Region: 2016 VS 2021 VS 2026
3.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Historic Market Size by Region
3.2.1 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Region (2016-2021)
3.2.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Region (2016-2021)
3.2.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales (Volume & Value) Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Forecasted Market Size by Region
3.3.1 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Region (2022-2027)
3.3.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Region (2022-2027)
3.3.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales (Volume & Value), Price and Gross Margin (2022-2027)

4 Global Collapsible Tanks by Application
4.1 Collapsible Tanks Market Segment by Application
4.1.1 Water
4.1.2 Chemicals
4.1.3 Fuel
4.1.4 Other
4.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Market Size by Application
4.2.1 Global Collapsible Tanks Market Size Overview by Application (2016-2027)
4.2.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Historic Market Size Review by Application (2016-2021)
4.2.2.1 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2016-2021)
4.2.2.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2016-2021)
4.2.2.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2016-2021)
4.2.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Forecasted Market Size by Application (2022-2027)
4.2.3.1 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2022-2027)
4.2.3.2 Global Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2022-2027)
4.2.3.3 Global Collapsible Tanks Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2022-2027)
4.3 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Application
4.3.1 North America Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.2 Europe Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.3 Asia-Pacific Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.4 Latin America Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.5 Middle East and Africa Collapsible Tanks Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)

5 North America Collapsible Tanks by Country
5.1 North America Collapsible Tanks Historic Market Size by Country
5.1.1 North America Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
5.1.2 North America Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
5.2 North America Collapsible Tanks Forecasted Market Size by Country
5.2.1 North America Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
5.2.2 North America Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

6 Europe Collapsible Tanks by Country
6.1 Europe Collapsible Tanks Historic Market Size by Country
6.1.1 Europe Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
6.1.2 Europe Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
6.2 Europe Collapsible Tanks Forecasted Market Size by Country
6.2.1 Europe Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
6.2.2 Europe Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

7 Asia-Pacific Collapsible Tanks by Region
7.1 Asia-Pacific Collapsible Tanks Historic Market Size by Region
7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Region (2016-2021)
7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Region (2016-2021)
7.2 Asia-Pacific Collapsible Tanks Forecasted Market Size by Region
7.2.1 Asia-Pacific Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Region (2022-2027)
7.2.2 Asia-Pacific Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Region (2022-2027)

8 Latin America Collapsible Tanks by Country
8.1 Latin America Collapsible Tanks Historic Market Size by Country
8.1.1 Latin America Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
8.1.2 Latin America Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
8.2 Latin America Collapsible Tanks Forecasted Market Size by Country
8.2.1 Latin America Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
8.2.2 Latin America Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

9 Middle East and Africa Collapsible Tanks by Country
9.1 Middle East and Africa Collapsible Tanks Historic Market Size by Country
9.1.1 Middle East and Africa Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
9.1.2 Middle East and Africa Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
9.2 Middle East and Africa Collapsible Tanks Forecasted Market Size by Country
9.2.1 Middle East and Africa Collapsible Tanks Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
9.2.2 Middle East and Africa Collapsible Tanks Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

10 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Collapsible Tanks Business
10.1 ContiTech
10.1.1 ContiTech Corporation Information
10.1.2 ContiTech Introduction and Business Overview
10.1.3 ContiTech Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.1.4 ContiTech Collapsible Tanks Products Offered
10.1.5 ContiTech Recent Development
10.2 Meggitt
10.2.1 Meggitt Corporation Information
10.2.2 Meggitt Introduction and Business Overview
10.2.3 Meggitt Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.2.4 ContiTech Collapsible Tanks Products Offered
10.2.5 Meggitt Recent Development
10.3 Zodiac
10.3.1 Zodiac Corporation Information
10.3.2 Zodiac Introduction and Business Overview
10.3.3 Zodiac Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.3.4 Zodiac Collapsible Tanks Products Offered
10.3.5 Zodiac Recent Development
10.4 ATL
10.4.1 ATL Corporation Information
10.4.2 ATL Introduction and Business Overview
10.4.3 ATL Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.4.4 ATL Collapsible Tanks Products Offered
10.4.5 ATL Recent Development
10.5 IMTRA
10.5.1 IMTRA Corporation Information
10.5.2 IMTRA Introduction and Business Overview
10.5.3 IMTRA Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.5.4 IMTRA Collapsible Tanks Products Offered
10.5.5 IMTRA Recent Development
10.6 GEI Works
10.6.1 GEI Works Corporation Information
10.6.2 GEI Works Introduction and Business Overview
10.6.3 GEI Works Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.6.4 GEI Works Collapsible Tanks Products Offered
10.6.5 GEI Works Recent Development
10.7 Plastimo
10.7.1 Plastimo Corporation Information
10.7.2 Plastimo Introduction and Business Overview
10.7.3 Plastimo Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.7.4 Plastimo Collapsible Tanks Products Offered
10.7.5 Plastimo Recent Development
10.8 Turtle-Pac
10.8.1 Turtle-Pac Corporation Information
10.8.2 Turtle-Pac Introduction and Business Overview
10.8.3 Turtle-Pac Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.8.4 Turtle-Pac Collapsible Tanks Products Offered
10.8.5 Turtle-Pac Recent Development
10.9 Musthane
10.9.1 Musthane Corporation Information
10.9.2 Musthane Introduction and Business Overview
10.9.3 Musthane Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.9.4 Musthane Collapsible Tanks Products Offered
10.9.5 Musthane Recent Development
10.10 Lamor
10.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
10.10.2 Collapsible Tanks Product Category, Application and Specification
10.10.3 Lamor Collapsible Tanks Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.10.4 Main Business Overview
10.10.5 Lamor Recent Development

11 Upstream, Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis
11.1 Collapsible Tanks Key Raw Materials
11.1.1 Key Raw Materials
11.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price
11.1.3 Raw Materials Key Suppliers
11.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure
11.2.1 Raw Materials
11.2.2 Labor Cost
11.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
11.3 Collapsible Tanks Industrial Chain Analysis
11.4 Collapsible Tanks Market Dynamics
11.4.1 Industry Trends
11.4.2 Market Drivers
11.4.3 Market Challenges
11.4.4 Market Restraints

12 Market Strategy Analysis, Distributors
12.1 Sales Channel
12.2 Collapsible Tanks Distributors
12.3 Collapsible Tanks Downstream Customers

13 Research Findings and Conclusion

14 Appendix
14.1 Research Methodology
14.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
14.1.1.1 Research Programs/Design
14.1.1.2 Market Size Estimation
14.1.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
14.1.2 Data Source
14.1.2.1 Secondary Sources
14.1.2.2 Primary Sources
14.2 Author Details
14.3 Disclaimer

About Us:

QY Research established in 2007, focus on custom research, management consulting, IPO consulting, industry chain research, data base and seminar services. The company owned a large basic data base (such as National Bureau of statistics database, Customs import and export database, Industry Association Database etc), expert’s resources (included energy automotive chemical medical ICT consumer goods etc.


Granular Biochar Market Upcoming Trends and Opportunities Analyzed for Coming Years 2021 …

1 June, 2021
 

LOS ANGELES, United States: The report is an all-inclusive research study of the global Granular Biochar market taking into account the growth factors, recent trends, developments, opportunities, and competitive landscape. The market analysts and researchers have done extensive analysis of […]

LOS ANGELES, United States: The report is an all-inclusive research study of the global Granular Biochar market taking into account the growth factors, recent trends, developments, opportunities, and competitive landscape. The market analysts and researchers have done extensive analysis of the global Granular Biochar market with the help of research methodologies such as PESTLE and Porter’s Five Forces analysis. They have provided accurate and reliable market data and useful recommendations with an aim to help the players gain an insight into the overall present and future market scenario. The Granular Biochar report comprises in-depth study of the potential segments including product type, application, and end user and their contribution to the overall market size.

Get Full PDF Sample Copy of Report: (Including Full TOC, List of Tables & Figures, Chart) https://www.qyresearch.com/sample-form/form/3115321/global-granular-biochar-market

Competitive landscape is a critical aspect every key player needs to be familiar with. The report throws light on the competitive scenario of the global Granular Biochar market to know the competition at both the domestic and global levels. Market experts have also offered the outline of every leading player of the global Granular Biochar market, considering the key aspects such as areas of operation, production, and product portfolio. Additionally, companies in the report are studied based on the key factors such as company size, market share, market growth, revenue, production volume, and profits.

Key Players Mentioned in the Global Granular Biochar Market Research Report: Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra

Global Granular Biochar Market Segmentation by Product: Wood Source Biochar, Corn Source Biochar, Wheat Source Biochar, Others

Global Granular Biochar Market Segmentation by Application: Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

The Granular Biochar Market report has been segregated based on distinct categories, such as product type, application, end user, and region. Each and every segment is evaluated on the basis of CAGR, share, and growth potential. In the regional analysis, the report highlights the prospective region, which is estimated to generate opportunities in the global Granular Biochar market in the forthcoming years. This segmental analysis will surely turn out to be a useful tool for the readers, stakeholders, and market participants to get a complete picture of the global Granular Biochar market and its potential to grow in the years to come.

Key questions answered in the report:

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Table od Content

1 Granular Biochar Market Overview
1.1 Granular Biochar Product Overview
1.2 Granular Biochar Market Segment by Type
1.2.1 Wood Source Biochar
1.2.2 Corn Source Biochar
1.2.3 Wheat Source Biochar
1.2.4 Others
1.3 Global Granular Biochar Market Size by Type
1.3.1 Global Granular Biochar Market Size Overview by Type (2016-2027)
1.3.2 Global Granular Biochar Historic Market Size Review by Type (2016-2021)
1.3.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2016-2021)
1.3.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2016-2021)
1.3.2.3 Global Granular Biochar Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2016-2021)
1.3.3 Global Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Type (2022-2027)
1.3.3.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2022-2027)
1.3.3.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2022-2027)
1.3.3.3 Global Granular Biochar Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2022-2027)
1.4 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Type
1.4.1 North America Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.2 Europe Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.3 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.4 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.5 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)

2 Global Granular Biochar Market Competition by Company
2.1 Global Top Players by Granular Biochar Sales (2016-2021)
2.2 Global Top Players by Granular Biochar Revenue (2016-2021)
2.3 Global Top Players Granular Biochar Price (2016-2021)
2.4 Global Top Manufacturers Granular Biochar Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type
2.5 Granular Biochar Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 Granular Biochar Market Concentration Rate (2016-2021)
2.5.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Manufacturers by Granular Biochar Sales and Revenue in 2020
2.6 Global Top Manufacturers by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) & (based on the Revenue in Granular Biochar as of 2020)
2.7 Date of Key Manufacturers Enter into Granular Biochar Market
2.8 Key Manufacturers Granular Biochar Product Offered
2.9 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Granular Biochar Status and Outlook by Region
3.1 Global Granular Biochar Market Size and CAGR by Region: 2016 VS 2021 VS 2026
3.2 Global Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Region
3.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Region (2016-2021)
3.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Region (2016-2021)
3.2.3 Global Granular Biochar Sales (Volume & Value) Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.3 Global Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Region
3.3.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Region (2022-2027)
3.3.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Region (2022-2027)
3.3.3 Global Granular Biochar Sales (Volume & Value), Price and Gross Margin (2022-2027)

4 Global Granular Biochar by Application
4.1 Granular Biochar Market Segment by Application
4.1.1 Soil Conditioner
4.1.2 Fertilizer
4.1.3 Others
4.2 Global Granular Biochar Market Size by Application
4.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Market Size Overview by Application (2016-2027)
4.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Historic Market Size Review by Application (2016-2021)
4.2.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2016-2021)
4.2.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2016-2021)
4.2.2.3 Global Granular Biochar Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2016-2021)
4.2.3 Global Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Application (2022-2027)
4.2.3.1 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2022-2027)
4.2.3.2 Global Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2022-2027)
4.2.3.3 Global Granular Biochar Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2022-2027)
4.3 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Application
4.3.1 North America Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.2 Europe Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.3 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.4 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.5 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)

5 North America Granular Biochar by Country
5.1 North America Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Country
5.1.1 North America Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
5.1.2 North America Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
5.2 North America Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Country
5.2.1 North America Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
5.2.2 North America Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

6 Europe Granular Biochar by Country
6.1 Europe Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Country
6.1.1 Europe Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
6.1.2 Europe Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
6.2 Europe Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Country
6.2.1 Europe Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
6.2.2 Europe Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

7 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar by Region
7.1 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Region
7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Region (2016-2021)
7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Region (2016-2021)
7.2 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Region
7.2.1 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Region (2022-2027)
7.2.2 Asia-Pacific Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Region (2022-2027)

8 Latin America Granular Biochar by Country
8.1 Latin America Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Country
8.1.1 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
8.1.2 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
8.2 Latin America Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Country
8.2.1 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
8.2.2 Latin America Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

9 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar by Country
9.1 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Historic Market Size by Country
9.1.1 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
9.1.2 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
9.2 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Forecasted Market Size by Country
9.2.1 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
9.2.2 Middle East and Africa Granular Biochar Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

10 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Granular Biochar Business
10.1 Diacarbon Energy
10.1.1 Diacarbon Energy Corporation Information
10.1.2 Diacarbon Energy Introduction and Business Overview
10.1.3 Diacarbon Energy Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.1.4 Diacarbon Energy Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.1.5 Diacarbon Energy Recent Development
10.2 Agri-Tech Producers
10.2.1 Agri-Tech Producers Corporation Information
10.2.2 Agri-Tech Producers Introduction and Business Overview
10.2.3 Agri-Tech Producers Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.2.4 Diacarbon Energy Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.2.5 Agri-Tech Producers Recent Development
10.3 Biochar Now
10.3.1 Biochar Now Corporation Information
10.3.2 Biochar Now Introduction and Business Overview
10.3.3 Biochar Now Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.3.4 Biochar Now Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.3.5 Biochar Now Recent Development
10.4 Carbon Gold
10.4.1 Carbon Gold Corporation Information
10.4.2 Carbon Gold Introduction and Business Overview
10.4.3 Carbon Gold Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.4.4 Carbon Gold Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.4.5 Carbon Gold Recent Development
10.5 Kina
10.5.1 Kina Corporation Information
10.5.2 Kina Introduction and Business Overview
10.5.3 Kina Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.5.4 Kina Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.5.5 Kina Recent Development
10.6 The Biochar Company
10.6.1 The Biochar Company Corporation Information
10.6.2 The Biochar Company Introduction and Business Overview
10.6.3 The Biochar Company Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.6.4 The Biochar Company Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.6.5 The Biochar Company Recent Development
10.7 Swiss Biochar GmbH
10.7.1 Swiss Biochar GmbH Corporation Information
10.7.2 Swiss Biochar GmbH Introduction and Business Overview
10.7.3 Swiss Biochar GmbH Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.7.4 Swiss Biochar GmbH Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.7.5 Swiss Biochar GmbH Recent Development
10.8 ElementC6
10.8.1 ElementC6 Corporation Information
10.8.2 ElementC6 Introduction and Business Overview
10.8.3 ElementC6 Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.8.4 ElementC6 Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.8.5 ElementC6 Recent Development
10.9 BioChar Products
10.9.1 BioChar Products Corporation Information
10.9.2 BioChar Products Introduction and Business Overview
10.9.3 BioChar Products Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.9.4 BioChar Products Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.9.5 BioChar Products Recent Development
10.10 BlackCarbon
10.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
10.10.2 Granular Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
10.10.3 BlackCarbon Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.10.4 Main Business Overview
10.10.5 BlackCarbon Recent Development
10.11 Cool Planet
10.11.1 Cool Planet Corporation Information
10.11.2 Cool Planet Introduction and Business Overview
10.11.3 Cool Planet Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.11.4 Cool Planet Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.11.5 Cool Planet Recent Development
10.12 Carbon Terra
10.12.1 Carbon Terra Corporation Information
10.12.2 Carbon Terra Introduction and Business Overview
10.12.3 Carbon Terra Granular Biochar Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.12.4 Carbon Terra Granular Biochar Products Offered
10.12.5 Carbon Terra Recent Development

11 Upstream, Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis
11.1 Granular Biochar Key Raw Materials
11.1.1 Key Raw Materials
11.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price
11.1.3 Raw Materials Key Suppliers
11.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure
11.2.1 Raw Materials
11.2.2 Labor Cost
11.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
11.3 Granular Biochar Industrial Chain Analysis
11.4 Granular Biochar Market Dynamics
11.4.1 Industry Trends
11.4.2 Market Drivers
11.4.3 Market Challenges
11.4.4 Market Restraints

12 Market Strategy Analysis, Distributors
12.1 Sales Channel
12.2 Granular Biochar Distributors
12.3 Granular Biochar Downstream Customers

13 Research Findings and Conclusion

14 Appendix
14.1 Research Methodology
14.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
14.1.1.1 Research Programs/Design
14.1.1.2 Market Size Estimation
14.1.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
14.1.2 Data Source
14.1.2.1 Secondary Sources
14.1.2.2 Primary Sources
14.2 Author Details
14.3 Disclaimer

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Biochar Market -2021 Industry Trends, Size, Growth Insight, Share, Emerging Technologies, Share …

1 June, 2021
 

Market Report Overview The report on the Biochar market contains a comprehensive study of the overall market based on the latest data. The concise industry overview presents the market with the definition of the products and services with the major […]

Market Report Overview
The report on the Biochar market contains a comprehensive study of the overall market based on the latest data. The concise industry overview presents the market with the definition of the products and services with the major application that they hold. The future prospects of the market are also covered in the forecast provided with the study covering the period 2021-2025. The report gives an in-depth study regarding the key trends that may determine the market prospects in the coming years. The study conducted covers industry trends along with the competitive and regional analysis.

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Market Dynamics
The major factors influencing the Biochar Market have been studied to identify the major market drivers that could help provide a forecast for the market. The major Biochar market drivers and risks have been presented in order to identify the key growth and high-risk segments of the market. The existent competitive status and the impact that government policies and regulations have on the Biochar market are also covered. The analysis also includes the infrastructural and technological advancements in this industry that may drive the market in the coming years.

Market Segmentation
The segmentation of the Biochar market into the important submarkets has been done to help study the market structure. The individual performance of these submarkets have been studied to identify the key growth segments. The investment opportunities regarding the different sections of the market have also been presented. The geographical segments have been considered for the regional analysis. The major regions of the world classified as Main regions (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific) and the Main countries (United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and China). This section aims to give a detailed study of all the major components of the Biochar market and provide a forecast for each market segment.

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Market Research Methodology
The research conducted as a part of the extensive study carried out on the Biochar market has been done by adopting Porter’s Five Forces model among other methodologies. The assessment for the period 2021-2025 has been provided along with the research covering all the segments of the market. Regarding the company segments and competitive landscape, the report presents an in-depth SWOT analysis to help give a better understanding of the market status and prospects.

Key Manufacturers and Companies
All the key players in the Biochar market have been covered in this report to present an overview of the competitive landscape. The various market strategies adopted by the top market players have also been studied in the company segment analysis. The product portfolios presented include complete product specifications along with the allied services and applications. The business data covering the sales, revenue, and market shares has also been presented as a part of the company profiles. The market competitive status covering the key players and the government initiatives that have an influence on the Biochar market are also included in this section of the report.

Key players in the Global Biochar Market are: Pacific Biochar, Cool Planet Energy System, Airex Energy, Arsta Eco, Agri Tech Producers

Key Benefits for Biochar Market:
1. The study provides an in-depth analysis of the global market share with the current Biochar market trends and future estimations to clarify the imminent investment pockets.
2. Comprehensive analysis of the causes that drive and restrict the Biochar Market growth is provided in the report.
3. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of the industry from 2020 to 2025 is provided to enable stakeholders to capitalize on the main market opportunities.
4. General analysis of the key segments of the global Biochar industry helps understand the content and operating system across the globe.
5. Key players and their strategies are provided to understand the competitive outlook of the market.

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Market Analysis By Type: General Type

Market Analysis By Applications: Agriculture and livestock, Horticulture

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Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Report, History and Forecast 2016-2027, Breakdown Data by …

1 June, 2021
 

Market Analysis and Insights: Global Biochar Fertilizer Market

The global Biochar Fertilizer market size is projected to reach US$ XX million by 2027, from US$ XX million in 2020, at a CAGR of XX% during 2021-2027.

Global Biochar Fertilizer Scope and Segment

The global Biochar Fertilizer market is segmented by company, region (country), by Type, and by Application. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global Biochar Fertilizer market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on revenue and forecast by region (country), by Type, and by Application for the period 2016-2027.

The major regions covered in the report are North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East & Africa, etc. The report has specifically covered major countries including U.S., Canada, Germany, France, U.K., Italy, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Brazil, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, UAE, etc. It includes revenue and volume analysis of each region and their respective countries for the forecast years. It also contains country-wise volume and revenue from the year 2016 to 2021. Additionally, it provides the reader with accurate data on volume sales according to the consumption for the same years.

By the product type, the market is primarily split into

Organic Fertilizer

Inorganic Fertilizer

Compound Fertilizer

By the end users/application, this report covers the following segments

Cereals

Oil Crops

Fruits and Vegetables

Others

Competitive Landscape:

The report provides a list of all the key players in the Biochar Fertilizer market along with a detailed analysis of the strategies, which the companies are adopting. The strategies mainly include new product Developments, research, and Developments, and also provides revenue shares, company overview, and recent company Developments to remain competitive in the market.

The Biochar Fertilizer key manufacturers in this market include:

Biogrow Limited

Biochar Farms

Anulekh

GreenBack

Airex Energy

Biochar Supreme

NextChar

Terra Char

Genesis Industries

Interra Energy

CharGrow

Pacific Biochar

Biochar Now

The Biochar Company (TBC)

ElementC6

Carbon Gold

Kina

Swiss Biochar GmbH

BlackCarbon

Carbon Terra

Sonnenerde

Biokol

Verora GmbH

Biochar Products

Diacarbon Energy

Agri-Tech Producers

Green Charcoal International

Vega Biofuels

Full Circle Biochar

Pacific Pyrolysis

 

This research study involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources. The research process involved the study of various factors affecting the industry, including the government policy, market environment, competitive landscape, historical data, present trends in the market, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, opportunities, market barriers and challenges. The following illustrative figure shows the market research methodology applied in this report.

Top-down and bottom-up approaches are used to estimate and validate the global market size for company, regional division, product type and application (end users).

The market estimations in this report are based on the selling price (excluding any discounts provided by the manufacturer, distributor, wholesaler or traders). Market share analysis, assigned to each of the segments and regions are achieved through product utilization rate and average selling price.

Major manufacturers & their revenues, percentage splits, market shares, growth rates and breakdowns of the product markets are determined through secondary sources and verified through the primary sources.

All possible factors that influence the markets included in this research study have been accounted for, viewed in extensive detail, verified through primary research, and analyzed to get the final quantitative and qualitative data. The market size for top-level markets and sub-segments is normalized, and the effect of inflation, economic downturns, and regulatory & policy changes or others factors are accounted for in the market forecast. This data is combined and added with detailed inputs and analysis from QYResearch and presented in this report.

After complete market engineering with calculations for market statistics; market size estimations; market forecasting; market breakdown; and data triangulation. Extensive primary research was conducted to gather information and verify and validate the critical numbers arrived at. In the complete market engineering process, both top-down and bottom-up approaches were extensively used, along with several data triangulation methods, to perform market estimation and market forecasting for the overall market segments and sub-segments listed in this report.

Secondary Sources occupies approximately 25% of data sources, such as press releases, annual reports, Non-Profit organizations, industry associations, governmental agencies and customs data, and so on. This research study includes secondary sources; directories; databases such as Bloomberg Business, Wind Info, Hoovers, Factiva (Dow Jones & Company), TRADING ECONOMICS, and avention; Investing News Network; statista; Federal Reserve Economic Data; annual reports; investor presentations; and SEC filings of companies.

In the primary research process, various sources from both the supply and demand sides were interviewed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information for this report. The primary sources from the supply side include product manufacturers (and their competitors), opinion leaders, industry experts, research institutions, distributors, dealer and traders, as well as the raw materials suppliers and producers, etc.

The primary sources from the demand side include industry experts such as business leaders, marketing and sales directors, technology and innovation directors, supply chain executive, end users (product buyers), and related key executives from various key companies and organizations operating in the global market.

    1.1 Biochar Fertilizer Product Overview

    1.2 Biochar Fertilizer Market Segment by Type

        1.2.1 Organic Fertilizer

        1.2.2 Inorganic Fertilizer

        1.2.3 Compound Fertilizer

    1.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size by Type

        1.3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Overview by Type (2016-2027)

        1.3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size Review by Type (2016-2021)

            1.3.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2016-2021)

            1.3.2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2016-2021)

            1.3.2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2016-2021)

        1.3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Type (2022-2027)

            1.3.3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2022-2027)

            1.3.3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2022-2027)

            1.3.3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2022-2027)

    1.4 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Type

        1.4.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)

        1.4.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)

        1.4.3 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)

        1.4.4 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)

        1.4.5 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)

2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Competition by Company

    2.1 Global Top Players by Biochar Fertilizer Sales (2016-2021)

    2.2 Global Top Players by Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (2016-2021)

    2.3 Global Top Players Biochar Fertilizer Price (2016-2021)

    2.4 Global Top Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type

    2.5 Biochar Fertilizer Market Competitive Situation and Trends

        2.5.1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Concentration Rate (2016-2021)

        2.5.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Manufacturers by Biochar Fertilizer Sales and Revenue in 2020

    2.6 Global Top Manufacturers by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) & (based on the Revenue in Biochar Fertilizer as of 2020)

    2.7 Date of Key Manufacturers Enter into Biochar Fertilizer Market

    2.8 Key Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Product Offered

    2.9 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Biochar Fertilizer Status and Outlook by Region

    3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size and CAGR by Region: 2016 VS 2021 VS 2026

    3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Region

        3.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Region (2016-2021)

        3.2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Region (2016-2021)

        3.2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales (Volume & Value) Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

    3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Region

        3.3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Region (2022-2027)

        3.3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Region (2022-2027)

        3.3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales (Volume & Value), Price and Gross Margin (2022-2027)

4 Global Biochar Fertilizer by Application

    4.1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Segment by Application

        4.1.1 Cereals

        4.1.2 Oil Crops

        4.1.3 Fruits and Vegetables

        4.1.4 Others

    4.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size by Application

        4.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Overview by Application (2016-2027)

        4.2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size Review by Application (2016-2021)

            4.2.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2016-2021)

            4.2.2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2016-2021)

            4.2.2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2016-2021)

        4.2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Application (2022-2027)

            4.2.3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2022-2027)

            4.2.3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2022-2027)

            4.2.3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2022-2027)

    4.3 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Application

        4.3.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)

        4.3.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)

        4.3.3 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)

        4.3.4 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)

        4.3.5 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)

5 North America Biochar Fertilizer by Country

    5.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Country

        5.1.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)

        5.1.2 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)

    5.2 North America Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Country

        5.2.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)

        5.2.2 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

6 Europe Biochar Fertilizer by Country

    6.1 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Country

        6.1.1 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)

        6.1.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)

    6.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Country

        6.2.1 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)

        6.2.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

7 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer by Region

    7.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Region

        7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Region (2016-2021)

        7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Region (2016-2021)

    7.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Region

        7.2.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Region (2022-2027)

        7.2.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Region (2022-2027)

8 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer by Country

    8.1 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Country

        8.1.1 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)

        8.1.2 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)

    8.2 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Country

        8.2.1 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)

        8.2.2 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

9 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer by Country

    9.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Country

        9.1.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)

        9.1.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)

    9.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Country

        9.2.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)

        9.2.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027)

10 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Biochar Fertilizer Business

    10.1 Biogrow Limited

        10.1.1 Biogrow Limited Corporation Information

        10.1.2 Biogrow Limited Introduction and Business Overview

        10.1.3 Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.1.4 Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.1.5 Biogrow Limited Recent Development

    10.2 Biochar Farms

        10.2.1 Biochar Farms Corporation Information

        10.2.2 Biochar Farms Introduction and Business Overview

        10.2.3 Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.2.4 Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.2.5 Biochar Farms Recent Development

    10.3 Anulekh

        10.3.1 Anulekh Corporation Information

        10.3.2 Anulekh Introduction and Business Overview

        10.3.3 Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.3.4 Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.3.5 Anulekh Recent Development

    10.4 GreenBack

        10.4.1 GreenBack Corporation Information

        10.4.2 GreenBack Introduction and Business Overview

        10.4.3 GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.4.4 GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.4.5 GreenBack Recent Development

    10.5 Airex Energy

        10.5.1 Airex Energy Corporation Information

        10.5.2 Airex Energy Introduction and Business Overview

        10.5.3 Airex Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.5.4 Airex Energy Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.5.5 Airex Energy Recent Development

    10.6 Biochar Supreme

        10.6.1 Biochar Supreme Corporation Information

        10.6.2 Biochar Supreme Introduction and Business Overview

        10.6.3 Biochar Supreme Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.6.4 Biochar Supreme Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.6.5 Biochar Supreme Recent Development

    10.7 NextChar

        10.7.1 NextChar Corporation Information

        10.7.2 NextChar Introduction and Business Overview

        10.7.3 NextChar Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.7.4 NextChar Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.7.5 NextChar Recent Development

    10.8 Terra Char

        10.8.1 Terra Char Corporation Information

        10.8.2 Terra Char Introduction and Business Overview

        10.8.3 Terra Char Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.8.4 Terra Char Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.8.5 Terra Char Recent Development

    10.9 Genesis Industries

        10.9.1 Genesis Industries Corporation Information

        10.9.2 Genesis Industries Introduction and Business Overview

        10.9.3 Genesis Industries Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.9.4 Genesis Industries Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.9.5 Genesis Industries Recent Development

    10.10 Interra Energy

        10.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors

        10.10.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification

        10.10.3 Interra Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.10.4 Main Business Overview

        10.10.5 Interra Energy Recent Development

    10.11 CharGrow

        10.11.1 CharGrow Corporation Information

        10.11.2 CharGrow Introduction and Business Overview

        10.11.3 CharGrow Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.11.4 CharGrow Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.11.5 CharGrow Recent Development

    10.12 Pacific Biochar

        10.12.1 Pacific Biochar Corporation Information

        10.12.2 Pacific Biochar Introduction and Business Overview

        10.12.3 Pacific Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.12.4 Pacific Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.12.5 Pacific Biochar Recent Development

    10.13 Biochar Now

        10.13.1 Biochar Now Corporation Information

        10.13.2 Biochar Now Introduction and Business Overview

        10.13.3 Biochar Now Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.13.4 Biochar Now Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.13.5 Biochar Now Recent Development

    10.14 The Biochar Company (TBC)

        10.14.1 The Biochar Company (TBC) Corporation Information

        10.14.2 The Biochar Company (TBC) Introduction and Business Overview

        10.14.3 The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.14.4 The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.14.5 The Biochar Company (TBC) Recent Development

    10.15 ElementC6

        10.15.1 ElementC6 Corporation Information

        10.15.2 ElementC6 Introduction and Business Overview

        10.15.3 ElementC6 Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.15.4 ElementC6 Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.15.5 ElementC6 Recent Development

    10.16 Carbon Gold

        10.16.1 Carbon Gold Corporation Information

        10.16.2 Carbon Gold Introduction and Business Overview

        10.16.3 Carbon Gold Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.16.4 Carbon Gold Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.16.5 Carbon Gold Recent Development

    10.17 Kina

        10.17.1 Kina Corporation Information

        10.17.2 Kina Introduction and Business Overview

        10.17.3 Kina Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.17.4 Kina Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.17.5 Kina Recent Development

    10.18 Swiss Biochar GmbH

        10.18.1 Swiss Biochar GmbH Corporation Information

        10.18.2 Swiss Biochar GmbH Introduction and Business Overview

        10.18.3 Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.18.4 Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.18.5 Swiss Biochar GmbH Recent Development

    10.19 BlackCarbon

        10.19.1 BlackCarbon Corporation Information

        10.19.2 BlackCarbon Introduction and Business Overview

        10.19.3 BlackCarbon Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.19.4 BlackCarbon Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.19.5 BlackCarbon Recent Development

    10.20 Carbon Terra

        10.20.1 Carbon Terra Corporation Information

        10.20.2 Carbon Terra Introduction and Business Overview

        10.20.3 Carbon Terra Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.20.4 Carbon Terra Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.20.5 Carbon Terra Recent Development

    10.21 Sonnenerde

        10.21.1 Sonnenerde Corporation Information

        10.21.2 Sonnenerde Introduction and Business Overview

        10.21.3 Sonnenerde Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.21.4 Sonnenerde Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.21.5 Sonnenerde Recent Development

    10.22 Biokol

        10.22.1 Biokol Corporation Information

        10.22.2 Biokol Introduction and Business Overview

        10.22.3 Biokol Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.22.4 Biokol Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.22.5 Biokol Recent Development

    10.23 Verora GmbH

        10.23.1 Verora GmbH Corporation Information

        10.23.2 Verora GmbH Introduction and Business Overview

        10.23.3 Verora GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.23.4 Verora GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.23.5 Verora GmbH Recent Development

    10.24 Biochar Products

        10.24.1 Biochar Products Corporation Information

        10.24.2 Biochar Products Introduction and Business Overview

        10.24.3 Biochar Products Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.24.4 Biochar Products Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.24.5 Biochar Products Recent Development

    10.25 Diacarbon Energy

        10.25.1 Diacarbon Energy Corporation Information

        10.25.2 Diacarbon Energy Introduction and Business Overview

        10.25.3 Diacarbon Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.25.4 Diacarbon Energy Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.25.5 Diacarbon Energy Recent Development

    10.26 Agri-Tech Producers

        10.26.1 Agri-Tech Producers Corporation Information

        10.26.2 Agri-Tech Producers Introduction and Business Overview

        10.26.3 Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.26.4 Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.26.5 Agri-Tech Producers Recent Development

    10.27 Green Charcoal International

        10.27.1 Green Charcoal International Corporation Information

        10.27.2 Green Charcoal International Introduction and Business Overview

        10.27.3 Green Charcoal International Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.27.4 Green Charcoal International Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.27.5 Green Charcoal International Recent Development

    10.28 Vega Biofuels

        10.28.1 Vega Biofuels Corporation Information

        10.28.2 Vega Biofuels Introduction and Business Overview

        10.28.3 Vega Biofuels Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.28.4 Vega Biofuels Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.28.5 Vega Biofuels Recent Development

    10.29 Full Circle Biochar

        10.29.1 Full Circle Biochar Corporation Information

        10.29.2 Full Circle Biochar Introduction and Business Overview

        10.29.3 Full Circle Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.29.4 Full Circle Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.29.5 Full Circle Biochar Recent Development

    10.30 Pacific Pyrolysis

        10.30.1 Pacific Pyrolysis Corporation Information

        10.30.2 Pacific Pyrolysis Introduction and Business Overview

        10.30.3 Pacific Pyrolysis Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

        10.30.4 Pacific Pyrolysis Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered

        10.30.5 Pacific Pyrolysis Recent Development

11 Upstream, Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis

    11.1 Biochar Fertilizer Key Raw Materials

        11.1.1 Key Raw Materials

        11.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price

        11.1.3 Raw Materials Key Suppliers 

    11.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure

        11.2.1 Raw Materials

        11.2.2 Labor Cost

        11.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses

    11.3 Biochar Fertilizer Industrial Chain Analysis

    11.4 Biochar Fertilizer Market Dynamics

        11.4.1 Industry Trends

        11.4.2 Market Drivers

        11.4.3 Market Challenges

        11.4.4 Market Restraints

12 Market Strategy Analysis, Distributors

    12.1 Sales Channel

    12.2 Biochar Fertilizer Distributors

    12.3 Biochar Fertilizer Downstream Customers

13 Research Findings and Conclusion

14 Appendix

    14.1 Research Methodology

        14.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach

            14.1.1.1 Research Programs/Design

            14.1.1.2 Market Size Estimation

            14.1.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation

        14.1.2 Data Source

            14.1.2.1 Secondary Sources

            14.1.2.2 Primary Sources

    14.2 Author Details

    14.3 Disclaimer

Table 1. Major Company of Organic Fertilizer

Table 2. Major Company of Inorganic Fertilizer

Table 3. Major Company of Compound Fertilizer

Table 4. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type 2016 VS 2021 VS 2027 (US$ Million)

Table 5. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 6. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Type (2016-2021)

Table 7. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2016-2021) & (US& Million)

Table 8. Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Share in Value by Type (2016-2021)

Table 9. Global Biochar Fertilizer Price by Type (2016-2021) & (USD/MT)

Table 10. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2022-2027) & (K MT)

Table 11. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Type (2022-2027)

Table 12. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2022-2027) & (US$ Million)

Table 13. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Type (2022-2027)

Table 14. Global Biochar Fertilizer Price by Type (2022-2027) & (USD/MT)

Table 15. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 16. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 17. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT) by Type (2016-2021)

Table 18. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 19. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT) by Type (2016-2021)

Table 20. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 21. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT) by Type (2016-2021)

Table 22. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 23. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT) by Type (2016-2021)

Table 24. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 25. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Company (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 26. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Share by Company (2016-2021)

Table 27. Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue by Company (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 28. Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Company (2016-2021)

Table 29. Global Market Biochar Fertilizer Price by Company (2016-2021) & (USD/MT)

Table 30. Global Biochar Fertilizer Top Manufacturers Manufacturing Base Distribution and Sales Area

Table 31. Global Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturers Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI)

Table 32. Global Top Manufacturers Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) & (based on the Revenue in Biochar Fertilizer as of 2020

Table 33. Date of Key Manufacturers Enter into Biochar Fertilizer Market

Table 34. Key Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Product Type

Table 35. Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

Table 36. Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Comparison by Region (US$ Million): 2016 VS 2021 VS 2027

Table 37. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 38. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Region (2016-2021)

Table 39. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 40. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Region (2016-2021)

Table 41. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (US$ Million), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 42. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region (2022-2027) & (K MT)

Table 43. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Region (2022-2027)

Table 44. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region (2022-2027) & (US$ Million)

Table 45. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Region (2022-2027)

Table 46. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (US$ Million), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2022-2027)

Table 47. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application: 2016 VS 2021 VS 2027 (US$ Million)

Table 48. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 49. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Application (2016-2021)

Table 50. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 51. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application (2016-2021)

Table 52. Global Biochar Fertilizer Price by Application (2016-2021) & (USD/MT)

Table 53. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2022-2027) & (K MT)

Table 54. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Application (2022-2027)

Table 55. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2022-2027) & (US$ Million)

Table 56. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application (2022-2027)

Table 57. Global Biochar Fertilizer Price by Application (2022-2027) & (USD/MT)

Table 58. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) (K MT)

Table 59. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 60. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application in 2020

Table 61. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) (K MT)

Table 62. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 63. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application in 2020

Table 64. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) (K MT)

Table 65. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 66. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application in 2020

Table 67. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) (K MT)

Table 68. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 69. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application in 2020

Table 70. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) (K MT)

Table 71. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 72. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application in 2020

Table 73. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 74. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Country (2016-2021)

Table 75. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 76. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Country (2016-2021)

Table 77. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2022-2027) & (K MT)

Table 78. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Country (2022-2027)

Table 79. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2022-2027) & (US$ Million)

Table 80. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Country (2022-2027)

Table 81. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 82. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Country (2016-2021)

Table 83. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 84. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Country (2016-2021)

Table 85. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2022-2027) & (K MT)

Table 86. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Country (2022-2027)

Table 87. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2022-2027) & (US$ Million)

Table 88. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Country (2022-2027)

Table 89. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 90. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Region (2016-2021)

Table 91. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 92. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Region (2016-2021)

Table 93. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region (2022-2027) & (K MT)

Table 94. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Region (2022-2027)

Table 95. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region (2022-2027) & (US$ Million)

Table 96. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Region (2022-2027)

Table 97. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 98. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Country (2016-2021)

Table 99. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 100. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Country (2016-2021)

Table 101. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2022-2027) & (K MT)

Table 102. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Country (2022-2027)

Table 103. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2022-2027) & (US$ Million)

Table 104. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Country (2022-2027)

Table 105. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Table 106. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Country (2016-2021)

Table 107. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2016-2021) & (US$ Million)

Table 108. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Country (2016-2021)

Table 109. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2022-2027) & (K MT)

Table 110. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Country (2022-2027)

Table 111. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country (2022-2027) & (US$ Million)

Table 112. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Country (2022-2027)

Table 113. Biogrow Limited Corporation Information

Table 114. Biogrow Limited Introduction and Business Overview

Table 115. Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 116. Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 117. Biogrow Limited Recent Development

Table 118. Biochar Farms Corporation Information

Table 119. Biochar Farms Introduction and Business Overview

Table 120. Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 121. Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 122. Biochar Farms Recent Development

Table 123. Anulekh Corporation Information

Table 124. Anulekh Introduction and Business Overview

Table 125. Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 126. Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 127. Anulekh Recent Development

Table 128. GreenBack Corporation Information

Table 129. GreenBack Introduction and Business Overview

Table 130. GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 131. GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 132. GreenBack Recent Development

Table 133. Airex Energy Corporation Information

Table 134. Airex Energy Introduction and Business Overview

Table 135. Airex Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 136. Airex Energy Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 137. Airex Energy Recent Development

Table 138. Biochar Supreme Corporation Information

Table 139. Biochar Supreme Introduction and Business Overview

Table 140. Biochar Supreme Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 141. Biochar Supreme Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 142. Biochar Supreme Recent Development

Table 143. NextChar Corporation Information

Table 144. NextChar Introduction and Business Overview

Table 145. NextChar Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 146. NextChar Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 147. NextChar Recent Development

Table 148. Terra Char Corporation Information

Table 149. Terra Char Introduction and Business Overview

Table 150. Terra Char Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 151. Terra Char Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 152. Terra Char Recent Development

Table 153. Genesis Industries Corporation Information

Table 154. Genesis Industries Introduction and Business Overview

Table 155. Genesis Industries Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 156. Genesis Industries Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 157. Genesis Industries Recent Development

Table 158. Interra Energy Corporation Information

Table 159. Interra Energy Introduction and Business Overview

Table 160. Interra Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 161. Interra Energy Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 162. Interra Energy Recent Development

Table 163. CharGrow Corporation Information

Table 164. CharGrow Introduction and Business Overview

Table 165. CharGrow Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 166. CharGrow Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 167. CharGrow Recent Development

Table 168. Pacific Biochar Corporation Information

Table 169. Pacific Biochar Introduction and Business Overview

Table 170. Pacific Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 171. Pacific Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 172. Pacific Biochar Recent Development

Table 173. Biochar Now Corporation Information

Table 174. Biochar Now Introduction and Business Overview

Table 175. Biochar Now Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 176. Biochar Now Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 177. Biochar Now Recent Development

Table 178. The Biochar Company (TBC) Corporation Information

Table 179. The Biochar Company (TBC) Introduction and Business Overview

Table 180. The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 181. The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 182. The Biochar Company (TBC) Recent Development

Table 183. ElementC6 Corporation Information

Table 184. ElementC6 Introduction and Business Overview

Table 185. ElementC6 Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 186. ElementC6 Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 187. ElementC6 Recent Development

Table 188. Carbon Gold Corporation Information

Table 189. Carbon Gold Introduction and Business Overview

Table 190. Carbon Gold Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 191. Carbon Gold Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 192. Carbon Gold Recent Development

Table 193. Kina Corporation Information

Table 194. Kina Introduction and Business Overview

Table 195. Kina Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 196. Kina Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 197. Kina Recent Development

Table 198. Swiss Biochar GmbH Corporation Information

Table 199. Swiss Biochar GmbH Introduction and Business Overview

Table 200. Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 201. Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 202. Swiss Biochar GmbH Recent Development

Table 203. BlackCarbon Corporation Information

Table 204. BlackCarbon Introduction and Business Overview

Table 205. BlackCarbon Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 206. BlackCarbon Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 207. BlackCarbon Recent Development

Table 208. Carbon Terra Corporation Information

Table 209. Carbon Terra Introduction and Business Overview

Table 210. Carbon Terra Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 211. Carbon Terra Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 212. Carbon Terra Recent Development

Table 213. Sonnenerde Corporation Information

Table 214. Sonnenerde Introduction and Business Overview

Table 215. Sonnenerde Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 216. Sonnenerde Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 217. Sonnenerde Recent Development

Table 218. Biokol Corporation Information

Table 219. Biokol Introduction and Business Overview

Table 220. Biokol Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 221. Biokol Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 222. Biokol Recent Development

Table 223. Verora GmbH Corporation Information

Table 224. Verora GmbH Introduction and Business Overview

Table 225. Verora GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 226. Verora GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 227. Verora GmbH Recent Development

Table 228. Biochar Products Corporation Information

Table 229. Biochar Products Introduction and Business Overview

Table 230. Biochar Products Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 231. Biochar Products Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 232. Biochar Products Recent Development

Table 233. Diacarbon Energy Introduction and Business Overview

Table 234. Diacarbon Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 235. Diacarbon Energy Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 236. Diacarbon Energy Recent Development

Table 237. Diacarbon Energy Corporation Information

Table 238. Agri-Tech Producers Corporation Information

Table 239. Agri-Tech Producers Introduction and Business Overview

Table 240. Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 241. Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 242. Agri-Tech Producers Recent Development

Table 243. Green Charcoal International Corporation Information

Table 244. Green Charcoal International Introduction and Business Overview

Table 245. Green Charcoal International Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 246. Green Charcoal International Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 247. Green Charcoal International Recent Development

Table 248. Vega Biofuels Corporation Information

Table 249. Vega Biofuels Introduction and Business Overview

Table 250. Vega Biofuels Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 251. Vega Biofuels Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 252. Vega Biofuels Recent Development

Table 253. Full Circle Biochar Corporation Information

Table 254. Full Circle Biochar Introduction and Business Overview

Table 255. Full Circle Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 256. Full Circle Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 257. Full Circle Biochar Recent Development

Table 258. Pacific Pyrolysis Corporation Information

Table 259. Pacific Pyrolysis Introduction and Business Overview

Table 260. Pacific Pyrolysis Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2016-2021)

Table 261. Pacific Pyrolysis Biochar Fertilizer Product

Table 262. Pacific Pyrolysis Recent Development

Table 263. Key Raw Materials Lists

Table 264. Raw Materials Key Suppliers Lists

Table 265. Biochar Fertilizer Market Trends

Table 266. Biochar Fertilizer Market Drivers

Table 267. Biochar Fertilizer Market Challenges

Table 268. Biochar Fertilizer Market Restraints

Table 269. Biochar Fertilizer Distributors List

Table 270. Biochar Fertilizer Downstream Customers

Table 271. Research Programs/Design for This Report

Table 272. Key Data Information from Secondary Sources

Table 273. Key Data Information from Primary Sources

List of Figures

Figure 1. Biochar Fertilizer Product Picture

Figure 2. Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size, 2016 VS 2021 VS 2027 (US$ Million)

Figure 3. Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Status and Outlook (2016-2027) & (US$ Million)

Figure 4. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Status and Outlook (2016-2027) & (K MT)

Figure 5. Product Picture of Organic Fertilizer

Figure 6. Global Organic Fertilizer Sales YoY Growth (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Figure 7. Product Picture of Inorganic Fertilizer

Figure 8. Global Inorganic Fertilizer Sales YoY Growth (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Figure 9. Product Picture of Compound Fertilizer

Figure 10. Global Compound Fertilizer Sales YoY Growth (2016-2021) & (K MT)

Figure 11. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Type (2016-2027) & (US$ Million)

Figure 12. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Type (2016-2021)

Figure 13. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Type (2016-2021)

Figure 14. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Type (2022-2027)

Figure 15. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Type (2022-2027)

Figure 16. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Type in 2020

Figure 17. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Type in 2020

Figure 18. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Type in 2020

Figure 19. Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Type in 2020

Figure 20. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Type in 2020

Figure 21. Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Type in 2020

Figure 22. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Type in 2020

Figure 23. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Type in 2020

Figure 24. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Type in 2020

Figure 25. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Type in 2020

Figure 26. The 5 and 10 Largest Manufacturers in the World: Market Share by Biochar Fertilizer Sales in 2020

Figure 27. The 5 and 10 Largest Manufacturers in the World: Market Share by Biochar Fertilizer Revenue in 2020

Figure 28. Biochar Fertilizer Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3): 2016 VS 2020

Figure 29. Product Picture of Cereals

Figure 30. Global Cereals Sales YoY Growth (2016-2027) & (K MT)

Figure 31. Product Picture of Oil Crops

Figure 32. Global Oil Crops Sales YoY Growth (2016-2027) & (K MT)

Figure 33. Product Picture of Fruits and Vegetables

Figure 34. Global Fruits and Vegetables Sales YoY Growth (2016-2027) & (K MT)

Figure 35. Product Picture of Others

Figure 36. Global Others Sales YoY Growth (2016-2027) & (K MT)

Figure 37. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Application (2016-2027) & (US$ Million)

Figure 38. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Application (2016-2021)

Figure 39. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application (2016-2021)

Figure 40. Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Application (2022-2027)

Figure 41. North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Volume by Application in 2020

Figure 42. Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application in 2020

Figure 43. Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in Value by Application in 2020

Figure 44. Key Raw Materials Price

Figure 45. Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Cost Structure

Figure 46. Biochar Fertilizer Industrial Chain Analysis

Figure 47. Channels of Distribution

Figure 48. Distributors Profiles

Figure 49. Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for This Report

Figure 50. Data Triangulation

Figure 51. Key Executives Interviewed

©2007-2026 QY Research All Rights Reserved.


Biochar Fertilizer Market is Thriving Worldwide with Top Growing Companies – Biogrow Limited …

1 June, 2021
 

LOS ANGELES, United States: QY Research offers an overarching research and analysis-based study on, “Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Report, History and Forecast 2016-2027, Breakdown Data by Manufacturers, Key Regions, Types and Application“. This report offers an insightful take on the drivers and restraints present in the market. Biochar Fertilizer data reports also provide a 5 year pre-historic and forecast for the sector and include data on socio-economic data of global. Key stakeholders can consider statistics, tables & figures mentioned in this report for strategic planning which lead to success of the organization. It sheds light on strategic production, revenue, and consumption trends for players to improve sales and growth in the global Biochar Fertilizer Market. Here, it focuses on the recent developments, sales, market value, production, gross margin, and other significant factors of the business of the major players operating in the global Biochar Fertilizer Market. Players can use the accurate market facts and figures and statistical studies provided in the report to understand the current and future growth of the global Biochar Fertilizer market.

This report includes assessment of various drivers, government policies, technological innovations, upcoming technologies, opportunities, market risks, restrains, market barriers, challenges, trends, competitive landscape, and segments which gives an exact picture of the growth of the global Biochar Fertilizer market.

 

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Competitive Landscape

Competitor analysis is one of the best sections of the report that compares the progress of leading players based on crucial parameters, including market share, new developments, global reach, local competition, price, and production. From the nature of competition to future changes in the vendor landscape, the report provides in-depth analysis of the competition in the global Biochar Fertilizer market.

Key questions answered in the report:

Table of Contents

1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Overview
1.1 Biochar Fertilizer Product Overview
1.2 Biochar Fertilizer Market Segment by Type
1.2.1 Organic Fertilizer
1.2.2 Inorganic Fertilizer
1.2.3 Compound Fertilizer
1.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size by Type
1.3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Overview by Type (2016-2027)
1.3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size Review by Type (2016-2021)

1.3.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2016-2021)

1.3.2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2016-2021)

1.3.2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2016-2021)
1.3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Type (2022-2027)

1.3.3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Volume by Type (2022-2027)

1.3.3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Value by Type (2022-2027)

1.3.3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Selling Price (ASP) by Type (2022-2027)
1.4 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Type
1.4.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.3 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.4 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021)
1.4.5 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Type (2016-2021) 2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Competition by Company
2.1 Global Top Players by Biochar Fertilizer Sales (2016-2021)
2.2 Global Top Players by Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (2016-2021)
2.3 Global Top Players Biochar Fertilizer Price (2016-2021)
2.4 Global Top Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type
2.5 Biochar Fertilizer Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Concentration Rate (2016-2021)
2.5.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Manufacturers by Biochar Fertilizer Sales and Revenue in 2020
2.6 Global Top Manufacturers by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) & (based on the Revenue in Biochar Fertilizer as of 2020)
2.7 Date of Key Manufacturers Enter into Biochar Fertilizer Market
2.8 Key Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Product Offered
2.9 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion 3 Biochar Fertilizer Status and Outlook by Region
3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size and CAGR by Region: 2016 VS 2021 VS 2026
3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Region
3.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Region (2016-2021)
3.2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Region (2016-2021)
3.2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales (Volume & Value) Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Region
3.3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Region (2022-2027)
3.3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Region (2022-2027)
3.3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales (Volume & Value), Price and Gross Margin (2022-2027) 4 Global Biochar Fertilizer by Application
4.1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Segment by Application
4.1.1 Cereals
4.1.2 Oil Crops
4.1.3 Fruits and Vegetables
4.1.4 Others
4.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size by Application
4.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Overview by Application (2016-2027)
4.2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size Review by Application (2016-2021)

4.2.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2016-2021)

4.2.2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2016-2021)

4.2.2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2016-2021)
4.2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Application (2022-2027)

4.2.3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Volume, by Application (2022-2027)

4.2.3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown in Value, by Application (2022-2027)

4.2.3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Selling Price (ASP) by Application (2022-2027)
4.3 Key Regions Market Size Segment by Application
4.3.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.3 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.4 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021)
4.3.5 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales Breakdown by Application (2016-2021) 5 North America Biochar Fertilizer by Country
5.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Country
5.1.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
5.1.2 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
5.2 North America Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Country
5.2.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
5.2.2 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027) 6 Europe Biochar Fertilizer by Country
6.1 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Country
6.1.1 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
6.1.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
6.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Country
6.2.1 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
6.2.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027) 7 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer by Region
7.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Region
7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Region (2016-2021)
7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Region (2016-2021)
7.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Region
7.2.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Region (2022-2027)
7.2.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Region (2022-2027) 8 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer by Country
8.1 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Country
8.1.1 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
8.1.2 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
8.2 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Country
8.2.1 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
8.2.2 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027) 9 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer by Country
9.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Size by Country
9.1.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2016-2021)
9.1.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2016-2021)
9.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Forecasted Market Size by Country
9.2.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Volume by Country (2022-2027)
9.2.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales in Value by Country (2022-2027) 10 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Biochar Fertilizer Business
10.1 Biogrow Limited
10.1.1 Biogrow Limited Corporation Information
10.1.2 Biogrow Limited Introduction and Business Overview
10.1.3 Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.1.4 Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.1.5 Biogrow Limited Recent Development
10.2 Biochar Farms
10.2.1 Biochar Farms Corporation Information
10.2.2 Biochar Farms Introduction and Business Overview
10.2.3 Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.2.4 Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.2.5 Biochar Farms Recent Development
10.3 Anulekh
10.3.1 Anulekh Corporation Information
10.3.2 Anulekh Introduction and Business Overview
10.3.3 Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.3.4 Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.3.5 Anulekh Recent Development
10.4 GreenBack
10.4.1 GreenBack Corporation Information
10.4.2 GreenBack Introduction and Business Overview
10.4.3 GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.4.4 GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.4.5 GreenBack Recent Development
10.5 Airex Energy
10.5.1 Airex Energy Corporation Information
10.5.2 Airex Energy Introduction and Business Overview
10.5.3 Airex Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.5.4 Airex Energy Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.5.5 Airex Energy Recent Development
10.6 Biochar Supreme
10.6.1 Biochar Supreme Corporation Information
10.6.2 Biochar Supreme Introduction and Business Overview
10.6.3 Biochar Supreme Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.6.4 Biochar Supreme Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.6.5 Biochar Supreme Recent Development
10.7 NextChar
10.7.1 NextChar Corporation Information
10.7.2 NextChar Introduction and Business Overview
10.7.3 NextChar Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.7.4 NextChar Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.7.5 NextChar Recent Development
10.8 Terra Char
10.8.1 Terra Char Corporation Information
10.8.2 Terra Char Introduction and Business Overview
10.8.3 Terra Char Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.8.4 Terra Char Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.8.5 Terra Char Recent Development
10.9 Genesis Industries
10.9.1 Genesis Industries Corporation Information
10.9.2 Genesis Industries Introduction and Business Overview
10.9.3 Genesis Industries Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.9.4 Genesis Industries Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.9.5 Genesis Industries Recent Development
10.10 Interra Energy
10.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
10.10.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
10.10.3 Interra Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.10.4 Main Business Overview
10.10.5 Interra Energy Recent Development
10.11 CharGrow
10.11.1 CharGrow Corporation Information
10.11.2 CharGrow Introduction and Business Overview
10.11.3 CharGrow Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.11.4 CharGrow Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.11.5 CharGrow Recent Development
10.12 Pacific Biochar
10.12.1 Pacific Biochar Corporation Information
10.12.2 Pacific Biochar Introduction and Business Overview
10.12.3 Pacific Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.12.4 Pacific Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.12.5 Pacific Biochar Recent Development
10.13 Biochar Now
10.13.1 Biochar Now Corporation Information
10.13.2 Biochar Now Introduction and Business Overview
10.13.3 Biochar Now Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.13.4 Biochar Now Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.13.5 Biochar Now Recent Development
10.14 The Biochar Company (TBC)
10.14.1 The Biochar Company (TBC) Corporation Information
10.14.2 The Biochar Company (TBC) Introduction and Business Overview
10.14.3 The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.14.4 The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.14.5 The Biochar Company (TBC) Recent Development
10.15 ElementC6
10.15.1 ElementC6 Corporation Information
10.15.2 ElementC6 Introduction and Business Overview
10.15.3 ElementC6 Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.15.4 ElementC6 Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.15.5 ElementC6 Recent Development
10.16 Carbon Gold
10.16.1 Carbon Gold Corporation Information
10.16.2 Carbon Gold Introduction and Business Overview
10.16.3 Carbon Gold Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.16.4 Carbon Gold Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.16.5 Carbon Gold Recent Development
10.17 Kina
10.17.1 Kina Corporation Information
10.17.2 Kina Introduction and Business Overview
10.17.3 Kina Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.17.4 Kina Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.17.5 Kina Recent Development
10.18 Swiss Biochar GmbH
10.18.1 Swiss Biochar GmbH Corporation Information
10.18.2 Swiss Biochar GmbH Introduction and Business Overview
10.18.3 Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.18.4 Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.18.5 Swiss Biochar GmbH Recent Development
10.19 BlackCarbon
10.19.1 BlackCarbon Corporation Information
10.19.2 BlackCarbon Introduction and Business Overview
10.19.3 BlackCarbon Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.19.4 BlackCarbon Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.19.5 BlackCarbon Recent Development
10.20 Carbon Terra
10.20.1 Carbon Terra Corporation Information
10.20.2 Carbon Terra Introduction and Business Overview
10.20.3 Carbon Terra Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.20.4 Carbon Terra Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.20.5 Carbon Terra Recent Development
10.21 Sonnenerde
10.21.1 Sonnenerde Corporation Information
10.21.2 Sonnenerde Introduction and Business Overview
10.21.3 Sonnenerde Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.21.4 Sonnenerde Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.21.5 Sonnenerde Recent Development
10.22 Biokol
10.22.1 Biokol Corporation Information
10.22.2 Biokol Introduction and Business Overview
10.22.3 Biokol Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.22.4 Biokol Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.22.5 Biokol Recent Development
10.23 Verora GmbH
10.23.1 Verora GmbH Corporation Information
10.23.2 Verora GmbH Introduction and Business Overview
10.23.3 Verora GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.23.4 Verora GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.23.5 Verora GmbH Recent Development
10.24 Biochar Products
10.24.1 Biochar Products Corporation Information
10.24.2 Biochar Products Introduction and Business Overview
10.24.3 Biochar Products Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.24.4 Biochar Products Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.24.5 Biochar Products Recent Development
10.25 Diacarbon Energy
10.25.1 Diacarbon Energy Corporation Information
10.25.2 Diacarbon Energy Introduction and Business Overview
10.25.3 Diacarbon Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.25.4 Diacarbon Energy Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.25.5 Diacarbon Energy Recent Development
10.26 Agri-Tech Producers
10.26.1 Agri-Tech Producers Corporation Information
10.26.2 Agri-Tech Producers Introduction and Business Overview
10.26.3 Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.26.4 Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.26.5 Agri-Tech Producers Recent Development
10.27 Green Charcoal International
10.27.1 Green Charcoal International Corporation Information
10.27.2 Green Charcoal International Introduction and Business Overview
10.27.3 Green Charcoal International Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.27.4 Green Charcoal International Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.27.5 Green Charcoal International Recent Development
10.28 Vega Biofuels
10.28.1 Vega Biofuels Corporation Information
10.28.2 Vega Biofuels Introduction and Business Overview
10.28.3 Vega Biofuels Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.28.4 Vega Biofuels Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.28.5 Vega Biofuels Recent Development
10.29 Full Circle Biochar
10.29.1 Full Circle Biochar Corporation Information
10.29.2 Full Circle Biochar Introduction and Business Overview
10.29.3 Full Circle Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.29.4 Full Circle Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.29.5 Full Circle Biochar Recent Development
10.30 Pacific Pyrolysis
10.30.1 Pacific Pyrolysis Corporation Information
10.30.2 Pacific Pyrolysis Introduction and Business Overview
10.30.3 Pacific Pyrolysis Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2016-2021)
10.30.4 Pacific Pyrolysis Biochar Fertilizer Products Offered
10.30.5 Pacific Pyrolysis Recent Development 11 Upstream, Opportunities, Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis
11.1 Biochar Fertilizer Key Raw Materials
11.1.1 Key Raw Materials
11.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price
11.1.3 Raw Materials Key Suppliers
11.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure
11.2.1 Raw Materials
11.2.2 Labor Cost
11.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
11.3 Biochar Fertilizer Industrial Chain Analysis
11.4 Biochar Fertilizer Market Dynamics
11.4.1 Industry Trends
11.4.2 Market Drivers
11.4.3 Market Challenges
11.4.4 Market Restraints 12 Market Strategy Analysis, Distributors
12.1 Sales Channel
12.2 Biochar Fertilizer Distributors
12.3 Biochar Fertilizer Downstream Customers 13 Research Findings and Conclusion 14 Appendix
14.1 Research Methodology
14.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach

14.1.1.1 Research Programs/Design

14.1.1.2 Market Size Estimation

14.1.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
14.1.2 Data Source

14.1.2.1 Secondary Sources

14.1.2.2 Primary Sources
14.2 Author Details
14.3 Disclaimer

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2 June, 2021
 


Bold idea to solve pollution crisis

2 June, 2021
 

published : 3 Jun 2021 at 04:00

newspaper section: Oped

writer: Ingo Puhl

While 2021's burning season was not quite as disastrous as in recent years, a game-changing solution for Thailand's pollution crisis remains up in the air. Given the complexity of the factors fuelling these fires, a more ambitious systemic approach is required. Neither past regulatory initiatives nor the piecemeal projects and plans of provincial governments and well-meaning NGOs have succeeded. Without a coordinated effort between the major private sector players, innovators and civil society to create viable alternatives for farmers, Thailand will continue to see major damage to its public health, tourism, and environment during the burning season.

To truly eliminate pollution, Thailand requires a solution that uses a monitoring system to measure positive impact and that provides results-based rewards to farmers and their solution providers for “doing the right thing”. Such a set-up is created through a multi-stakeholder coordination process and can ultimately be self-funding, with the government being a partner but not necessarily being the steward of this transformation. Civil society and private sector players can drive the creation of new income sources for farmers that will shift behaviours and practices in the right direction, creating new market opportunities and a win-win for all.

The causes of the pollution upcountry have been well documented by several academics, NGOs and media outlets. In short, the pollution is the result of roadside burning, forest fires and, most of all, agricultural burning, both in Thailand and across its borders. With demand for corn-based animal feed rising dramatically over the past 15 years, corn has become a popular cash crop. In the absence of better alternatives, farmers torch the land to clear it for cultivation or to eliminate the heavy leftover agricultural waste. Sugarcane and rice farming — two other pillars of the agriculture sector — also involve burning, as does the collection of edible wild mushrooms (which are popular in China) from forest floors. I estimate that these practices release about 100 million tonnes of avoidable CO2 emissions into the atmosphere every year.

Identifying the causes of the pollution is one thing: solving the problem is another. Farmers are typically poor, often landless, sometimes stateless, and lack proper equipment. The animal feed supply chain based on corn is now central to the livelihoods of many of them. When companies contract farmers they offer them much needed security in the form of a fixed price for their crops. Thailand cannot choose the path that Singapore has taken when it created a Transboundary Haze Pollution Law which allows regulators to prosecute companies and individuals that cause severe air pollution. Outright burning bans or shaming corporations that provide much needed income and work to the poor are also not realistic solutions.

Instead, let’s create a new, transboundary market to avoid pollution. This market would be comparable to the Voluntary Carbon Market (VCM), which is quickly becoming a key driver of climate action, as governments fail to act boldly. While such a market requires a monitoring system, trading infrastructure and its own rules and regulations, it does not need to be driven or operated by governments. The impact of quantifiable pollution reduction is measured and audited by private companies or NGOs.

A market mainly operated by the private sector that rewards actors for the results they achieve and that does not prescribe specific actions encourages innovation, collaboration and the formation of new partnerships. The strength of this market-based strategy is that it uses a decentralised approach that can solve the coordination challenge and creates new economic opportunities associated with existing value chains. It would be based on verifiable actions and quantifiable results, reducing the contribution to air pollution in measurable quantities. This market would also create a price signal as a means to incentivise action.

The first step is to create a stakeholder engagement process that brings together the key participants within relevant value chains — both those who are part of the problem and the solution. Who would be involved? On the one hand, we have the “problem industries”, whose demand and non-sustainable production practices trigger air pollution downstream. These include companies demanding corn for animal feed production, export and use; sugar and rice producers; and those exporting valuable wild mushrooms to China.

On the other hand, we have the “solution industries”, who may have an appetite to make better use of agricultural waste if there was a reward for doing so. Solution providers include organisations who can help farmers transform leftover crop biomass into biofuel, biofertiliser or even materials for packaging.

For example, Warm Heart Foundation in Chiang Mai has for years lobbied for the creation of a biochar market. Produced from agricultural waste, biochar is a “green” charcoal that is carbon negative. It can be used as a very effective organic fertiliser — replacing harmful synthetic ones — and as a fuel source, replacing toxic charcoal. Michael Shafer, founder of Warm Heart, says, “Farmers should not be preached to or blamed. They need to be paid for their labour and offered a viable alternative to burning. If we create a profitable market for biochar, they will see the benefits of changing their behaviour. Otherwise they will stick with what they are doing, to the detriment of their own health and the environment.” Companies who help farmers make biochar could also claim carbon credits.

While farmers would benefit from the new income streams supplied by such a system, there are other beneficiaries, such as the health, real estate and tourism sectors. The burden of air pollution on these industries is massive, whether measured in premature deaths, increased hospital admissions, lost productivity, reduced tourism, unsold properties or relocated companies. Their representatives should articulate a demand for units of reduced pollution loads (carbon credits), ideally on a quantified, forward basis. This demand would then trigger investment into the actions that reduce pollution loads, thus creating a supply of such units.

What would the market price for avoiding air pollution units be? To assess this, an understanding of the costs of avoiding air pollution and the value of climate-related emission reductions is required, as well as an understanding of the cost of actions that must be taken to reduce air pollution.

Understanding the cost of reducing air pollution seems more problematic as it is forward looking and is strongly related to the proposed actions. A market, however, will quickly discover the price to inform investment decisions. It is clear that the benefits of reducing air pollution will outweigh the cost of doing so. It is also not unrealistic to assume that at a mid-range carbon price of US$10 (about 310 baht) per tonne of avoided CO2 emissions. Solving the pollution crisis could create a billion-dollar opportunity.

How do we get started? The beauty of such a market is that it can be launched as a pilot and evolve based on lessons learnt. There are already several active players in the north such as Warm Heart, the Thailand Clean Air Network, Chiang Mai University and the Breathe Council looking to solve the crisis. In addition, a hackathon-type approach using open innovation and inclusive participation is a great format to kick off the design process. This approach to implementation might also be a blueprint for other “race to zero” transformations in other sectors. If all of this sounds too ambitious, it is because only a bold new consideration of this complicated convergence of business interests, social and economic factors will truly clear the skies in the years to come.

When restaurant owner Chirayu Na Ranong heard the Thai government announce new coronavirus restrictions in Bangkok in April, he burst into tears.

SAMUT PRAKAN: A new Covid-19 cluster of nearly 100 cases was confirmed at an ice plant in the province east of Bangkok and its products were frozen for checks of possible contamination.

A rug seized in a crackdown last week might have come from one of two clouded leopards caught on camera in the wild at the Erawan National Park in Kanchanaburi's Sri Sawat district last December.


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2 June, 2021
 

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2 June, 2021
 


2019 2024 Global And Regional Biochar Industry Production Sales And Consumption Status And …

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2 June, 2021
 


Mitigating Agricultural Impacts from Field to Stream: Optimizing Biochar Field Amendments and …

2 June, 2021
 

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Composting and Biochar Workshop | Park City Library | June 12, 2021

2 June, 2021
 

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Biochar Market Trends, Estimation and Profit Analysis by Types and Applications upto 2026

2 June, 2021
 

“ Get Discount of the Report Request For Sample Copy Chicago, United States:- Report Hive has added a new key research reports covering Biochar market. The study aims to provide global investors with a game-changing decision making tool covering key […]

Chicago, United States:- Report Hive has added a new key research reports covering Biochar market. The study aims to provide global investors with a game-changing decision making tool covering key fundamentals of the Biochar market. The research report will include total global revenues in the market with historical analysis, key figures including total revenues, total sales, key products, instrumental drivers, and challenges. The report data is derived from extensive primary and secondary information sources with a reliable in-depth overview of the Biochar market. The research report relies on global governing bodies as primary sources of data, with independent analysis of the forecast, and objective estimations of the growth.

Competitive analysis has been done to understand the overall market which will be helpful to take decisions. Major players involved in the manufacture of the product have been completely profiled along with their SWOT. The client requirements are ensured by providing a thorough understanding of global Biochar market capacities in the real-time scenario. Here, the report examines the profiles of prominent market players, highlighting ratio, capacity, production, revenue, and consumption in terms of geographical areas. The research study has comprehensively used the numbers and figures with the help of graphical and pictorial representation which represents more clarity on the market.

>>>The study encompasses profiles of major companies operating in the global Biochar Market. Key players profiled in the report include:  Pacific Biochar, Cool Planet Energy System, Airex Energy, Arsta Eco, Agri Tech Producers

The report also covers, the trade scenario, Porter’s AnalysisPESTLE analysis, value chain analysis, company market share, segmental analysis.

Global Biochar Market 2021 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2026 offers a conclusive source of information that encapsulates vital details about the market flow and future status during the mentioned forecast period of 2026. The report investigates a few critical features of the global Biochar market such as industry condition, division examination, and market insights. It offers presents a comprehensive analysis of all the significant factors, including threats, prospects, and industry-specific trends, impacting the market on a global and regional scale. Analysts have analyzed various companies to understand the products and/services relevant to the market.

Market segmentation

Biochar market is split by Type and by Application. For the period 2016-2026, the growth among segments provide accurate calculations and forecasts for sales by Type and by Application in terms of volume and value. This analysis can help you expand your business by targeting qualified niche markets.

⦿ Market segment by Type, covers

General Type

⦿ Market segment by Application can be divided into

Agriculture and livestock
Horticulture

Biochar Market: Regional analysis includes:

 Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)
 Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.)
 North America (the United States, Mexico, and Canada.)
 South America (Brazil etc.)
 The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries and Egypt.)

Biochar Market presents gigantic data on the market size, regional trends, market share and profit projection of this business sphere. The report further enlightens users regarding most of the existing growth challenges and techniques implemented with the help of leading agencies representing the dynamic competitive range of this business.

>> Buy Now, Click Here @ https://www.reporthive.com/checkout?currency=single-user-licence&reportid=2779535

The Biochar research report will also study market share for major stakeholders in their global capacity as transformers of the global scale. This qualitative and quantitative analysis will include key product offerings, key differentiators, revenue share, market size, market status, and strategies. The report will also cover key agreements, collaborations, and global partnership soon to change dynamics of the market on a global scale.


Some Points from TOC

1 Market Overview

2 Company Profiles

3 Market Competition, by Players

4 Market Size Segment by Type

5 Market Size Segment by Application

6 North America by Country, by Type, and by Application

7 Europe by Country, by Type, and by Application

8 Asia-Pacific by Region, by Type, and by Application

9 South America by Country, by Type, and by Application

10 Middle East & Africa by Country, by Type, and by Application

11 Research Findings and Conclusion

12 Appendix

Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry Expert @  https://www.reporthive.com/request_customization/2779535

Report includes Competitor’s Landscape:

➊ Major trends and growth projections by region and country
➋ Key winning strategies followed by the competitors
➌ Who are the key competitors in this industry?
➍ What shall be the potential of this industry over the forecast tenure?
➎ What are the factors propelling the demand for the Biochar ?
➏ What are the opportunities that shall aid in significant proliferation of the market growth?
➐ What are the regional and country wise regulations that shall either hamper or boost the demand for Biochar ?
➑ How has the covid-19 impacted the growth of the market?
➒ Has the supply chain disruption caused changes in the entire value chain?

Top Key players: Pacific Biochar, Cool Planet Energy System, Airex Energy, Arsta Eco, Agri Tech Producers

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gBETA Pitch Night shows "a lot to look forward to" in Wyoming tech industry

2 June, 2021
 

Jun. 2—CHEYENNE — When it comes to access to venture capital funding for startups, Wyoming trails behind every other state, even falling behind Puerto Rico, according to Microsoft Wyoming TechSpark Manager Dennis Ellis.

But while Wyoming is typically seen as a flyover state in the startup world, it isn't due to a lack of entrepreneurs with big ideas.

"That's where gener8tor comes in," Ellis said.

Thanks to a Microsoft sponsorship, gener8tor's gBETA startup pre-accelerator program kicked off in Wyoming last fall, taking a cohort of five businesses on an intensive, seven-week program that teaches founders how to scale their companies, and connects them with investors and resources to help them reach the next level.

gBETA's second Wyoming cohort embarked on that journey seven weeks ago, and all the mentor meetings and lunches spent learning about pitches and business ventures were exemplified Tuesday evening at the gBETA Cheyenne Pitch Night at Array downtown. The five business founders in the spring cohort, from Laramie, Thermopolis, Casper and Jackson, highlighted what their companies do, what funding or support they're looking for, and, ultimately, why their idea can be the next big thing.

Though one goal of the program is to catapult these founders to their full potential, the ultimate hope is that this access will help grow the tech economy and workforce in Wyoming, and help create stable, high-paying jobs that serve residents into the future.

"The idea is to come in and meet the community where it is," Ellis said, adding that his job is to "learn how we can help the community with technology, whether that's broadband deployment or getting computer science into the schools."

The businesses range from tech-based operations to companies pitching their solution to a common problem.

Take Laramie's High Plains Biochar, for example. Founder Randy Yeatts realized that while people could reuse grocery bags or buy a hybrid car to lessen their impact on climate change, there weren't many options for actually removing carbon from the atmosphere.

A process called biocharring converts biomass like wood chips into biochar, a charcoal-like substance, which turns the carbon in the atmosphere into a more stable form. While the process isn't new, Yeatts said most equipment uses too much energy to be carbon neutral, which is where High Plains Biochar comes in.

"This is one of only a few truly carbon-negative biotech technologies available today," he said.

On Tuesday, Yeatts said his company is a few months out from the fundraising phase, but he is looking for a co-founder to really get the company off the ground and provide a method for combating climate change.

The gBETA pre-accelerator was originally started by Wisconsin-based gener8tor to lift up founders with startups that weren't quite ready for a full accelerator program, but had potential to succeed, so each founder has a different objective in the program.

For Teal, the other startup based in Laramie, the goal is to find a venture capital firm with industry connections that can assist them in changing the streaming industry. While the market of influencers is fairly new, it is lucrative, with vloggers and streamers investing in the best technology to build their platforms.

Teal offers the ability to take livestreaming to a whole new level, with sleek, stylish glasses that have integrated cameras and displays that make it easy to capture videos. Founder Mark Poderis said the company also hopes to capitalize on the livestreaming technology that would be applicable if other companies come out with similar smart glasses products.

"It really just opens up the opportunity of catching all that content and sharing it with the world," Poderis said.

After Tuesday, Poderis and Yeatts joined a network of gBETA graduates where the connections run deep. Baylie Evans, the gBETA Cheyenne director, said the gener8tor network will continue to support these companies as they grow and pave the way for the other Wyoming businesses that will follow in their footsteps.

"I'm incredibly proud of and inspired by the hard work and dedication that these startup founders have put in over the last seven weeks of the gBETA Cheyenne program," Evans said. "With entrepreneurs like these representing Wyoming's future, we have a lot to look forward to as a state."

Margaret Austin is the Wyoming Tribune Eagle's local government reporter. She can be reached at maustin@wyomingnews.com or 307-633-3152. Follow her on Twitter at @MargaretMAustin.


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2 June, 2021
 

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biochar – Opera News Kenya

2 June, 2021
 

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Organic potassium nutrition of maize: Impacts on growth and biomass production

2 June, 2021
 

PDF Potassium nutrition of sunflower hybrids: Growth, yield and Effects of Climate Smart Agricultural practices and Planting Dates on Maize Growth and Nutrient Uptake in Semi-Arid Tanzania Biazin B, Sterk G, Temesgen M, Abdulkedir A, Stroosnijder L. 2012. Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa–a review. THE EFFECT OF MAIZE-LEGUME CROPPING SYSTEM AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD, SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND SOIL MOISTURE ERICK SEBETHA M.Sc. Plant production University of Limpopo Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of Doctor of Philosophy Crop Science in the School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences The effect of N fertilizer rates on agronomic parameters, yield Impacts on growth and biomass production Pota ssi um K is a n im port ant nut rient for s ustainable maize prod uctio n. How ever, d ue to h igh cost of fe rtilizer K, f armer s seldom use K f The interactive effects of salinity and potassium K + availability on biomass production, water status, and ionic composition were investigated in Hordeum maritimum, an annual grass growing natively on saline soils. Dynamics of soil fertility and maize growth with lower Biochar is the porous, poly-aromatic product of an incomplete thermochemical conversion of organic biomass, which is increasingly used as a soil amendment to increase crop yields 2,3. However, depending on the chars’ physical and chemical properties their impact on plant productivity remains largely unpredictable due to complex interactions between soil and environment 4 , 5 , 6 . Influences of rice straw biochar and organic manure on forage Organic potassium nutrition of maize: Impacts on growth and Effects of Organic Nutrient Amendments on Weed and Crop Growth Volume 63 Issue 3 Neith G. Little, Charles L. Mohler, Quirine M. Ketterings, Antonio DiTommaso Organic fertilization is also important for providing plant with their nutritional requirements without having an undesirable impact on the environment 14. Addition of different sources of organic manures increases the plant growth characteristics namely plant height, number of leaves 01.07.2008 The effects of HLS were evaluated on maize seed germination, and their impact on growth, development and mineral nutrition was studied on maize plants cultivated under hydroponic conditions. The experimental results showed that HLS do not increase the percentage and rate of germination but enhance the root elongation of seeds thus treated. Impact of potassium deficiency on cotton growth, development and 01.06.2019 Indeed, the maize growth, expressed as leaf dry matter, seen on NH 4 + in the absence of salinity, was nearly double the biomass compared to that with NO 3 − treatment. Irrespective of N form, the presence of NaCl severely reduced leaf and roots growth the presence of ammonium in the nutrient solution diminished these negative effects. Compared to the NH MAIZE PRODUCTION MANUAL VOLUME I CHAPTERS 1-9 APRIL 1982 Published and printed at Intemationallnstitute of Tropical Agriculture Oyo Road, PMB 5320 ~badan, Nigeria Manual Series No. 8 i TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreward Chapter 1. History and Origin of Maize Growth, Yield and Quality of Maize under Ozone The effects of potassium nutrition on water use in field-grown 03.10.2020 The study was conducted at Adi-gebaro farmers association of Tigray region in Ethiopia, from December 2016 to May 2017, to determine the combined effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and yield components of maize varieties under irrigation. The experiment was factorial with six rates of combined fertilizers F1 0+0+0 ha -1 , F2 100 kg N +32.25 kg P +10 t cattle manure ha- 1 , F3 0+0+10 t cattle manure ha 1 , F4 150 kg N +43 kg P +15 t cattle PDF IMPACT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND P-FERTILIZER SOURCE ON THE Effects of humic substances derived from organic waste The soil was heavy in texture 40% clay, alkaline in nature, free from salinity hazards, poorly fertile, low in organic matter and deficient in K. The L-tryptophan blending of organic K fertilizer significantly improved growth, biomass production and K accumulation of maize. Nutrients Supplementation through Organic Manures Influence the Effect of organic and inorganic sources of fertilizer on growth, The experiment was conducted in RCBD. Maize was grown in 4m × 6m sized plots. Soil samples were taken before sowing of crop for determination of soil pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon and texture. The plant parameters were grain yield, plant biomass, macro nutrients and micro nutrients. Wheat straw biochar 10 t ha showed an The effect of high NaCl concentrations on accumulation of biomass and change in content of sodium and potassium ions in 17 accessions of nine species of Aegilops L. is studied. Three salt-tolerant Effects of Manure and Fertilizer on Soil Fertility and Soil Interactive effects of salinity and potassium availability on


Electrochemical behaviors of biochar materials during pollutant removal in wastewater: a review …

2 June, 2021
 

Electrochemical behaviors of BC during wastewater treatment were summarized.

The Electrochemical structure-performance relationship of BC was elucidated.

Factors influencing the BC’s structures and electrochemical behaviors were reviewed.

Critical knowledge gaps were proposed to underpin the practical application of BC.

Electrochemical behaviors of BC during wastewater treatment were summarized.

The Electrochemical structure-performance relationship of BC was elucidated.

Factors influencing the BC’s structures and electrochemical behaviors were reviewed.

Critical knowledge gaps were proposed to underpin the practical application of BC.

Pivotal water decontamination research has pushed carbon materials thriving and flourishing in recent years. Biochar with merit of electrochemical properties has involved in various redox reactions in water. In this review, electrochemical behaviors (e.g., electron donor, electron acceptor, electron shuttle) of biochar in response to the electrochemical structures (e.g., surface moieties, carbon matrix structures) were systematically compiled as well as the influence from biomass sources and fabrication process including carbonization techniques, pretreatment/modified methods. The impact of solution pH and co-existed substances on the electrochemical behaviors were also included. Furthermore, the approaches that quantitatively determined the electron donating/accepting capacity of biochar were thoroughly analyzed. Finally, some future research prospects are proposed to promote knowledge innovation and underpin practical application. This review aims to provide guidance in taking advantage of electrochemical property of biochar during wastewater purification.


Low Tech Biochar Production Could Be a Highly Effective Nature-Based Solution for Climate …

2 June, 2021
 

Aim

To compare the climate change mitigation benefits of nature-based solutions for management of municipal green waste with conventional management. 

Methods

This study analyzed the carbon footprint of managing one ton of municipal green waste (MGW) in Lima Peru under 4 different scenarios: 1) Final disposal in authorized landfill, 2) Final disposal in informal landfill, 3) composting and 4) biochar production using a low-cost low tech Kon-Tiki reactor.  

Results

The results demonstrate the very clear potential for climate change mitigation from biochar production using low tech and therefore accessible technology in a typical developing world context. The carbon footprint of producing biochar was lower than for composting and biochar and compost both had carbon footprints significantly lower than waste management achieved via landfilling. 

Conclusion

We argue that the standards used by nascent platforms for trading carbon removal credits generated by biochar should be expanded to include small scale market participants in the so-called developing world. Waste management in the developing world presents significant challenges but often starts from a very low base which means there is very large potential for reducing emissions as well as sequestering carbon.  

This is a list of supplementary files associated with this preprint. Click to download.

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On 16 May, 2021

On 12 May, 2021

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On 16 May, 2021

On 12 May, 2021

Aim

To compare the climate change mitigation benefits of nature-based solutions for management of municipal green waste with conventional management. 

Methods

This study analyzed the carbon footprint of managing one ton of municipal green waste (MGW) in Lima Peru under 4 different scenarios: 1) Final disposal in authorized landfill, 2) Final disposal in informal landfill, 3) composting and 4) biochar production using a low-cost low tech Kon-Tiki reactor.  

Results

The results demonstrate the very clear potential for climate change mitigation from biochar production using low tech and therefore accessible technology in a typical developing world context. The carbon footprint of producing biochar was lower than for composting and biochar and compost both had carbon footprints significantly lower than waste management achieved via landfilling. 

Conclusion

We argue that the standards used by nascent platforms for trading carbon removal credits generated by biochar should be expanded to include small scale market participants in the so-called developing world. Waste management in the developing world presents significant challenges but often starts from a very low base which means there is very large potential for reducing emissions as well as sequestering carbon.  

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Biochar Market Trending Report with its Size, Key Vendor Analysis and Revenue and Forecast to …

2 June, 2021
 

“Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry”

Biochar Market” report 2021 provides emerging industry trends, manufacturer share, market segmentation, regional outlook and comprehensive analysis on different market segments. The Biochar Market provides detailed analysis of market overview, segmentation by types/potential applications and production analysis.

Get Sample Copy of this Report at: https://www.industryresearch.co/enquiry/request-sample/14325770

Biochar Market report covers the manufacturers’ data, including: COIVD-19 impact analysis, shipment, price, revenue, gross profit, interview record, business distribution etc., these data help the consumer know about current situation the competitors better. This report also covers all the regions and countries of the world, which shows a regional development status, including market size, volume and value, as well as price data.

To Understand How COVID-19 Impact is Covered in this Report: https://www.industryresearch.co/enquiry/request-covid19/14325770

The Biochar report lists the major players in the regions and their respective market share on the basis of global revenue. It also explains their strategic moves in the past few years, investments in product innovation, and changes in leadership to stay ahead in the competition. This will give the reader an edge over others as a well-informed decision can be made looking at the holistic picture of the market.

Biochar Market Segmentaion:

By Market Players:
Phoenix Energy, Pacific Biochar., Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Earth Systems Bioenergy, Diacarbon Energy Inc, Genesis Industries LLC, Full Circle Biochar, Vega Biofuels, Inc, Cool Planet Energy System, CharGrow, LLC, Biochar Supreme LLC, Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd

By Feedstock Type
Woody Biomass, Agricultural Waste, Animal Manure, Others,

By Application
Electricity Generation, Agriculture, Forestry, Others,

Inquire more and share questions if any before the purchase on this report at: https://www.industryresearch.co/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/14325770

Biochar Market Status and Trend Report offers a comprehensive analysis on Biochar industry, standing on the readers’ perspective, delivering detailed market data and penetrating insights. Doesn`t matter the client is industry insider, potential entrant or investor, the report will offer useful data and information. Key questions answered by this report include:

Purchase this Report (Price 3500 USD for a Single-User License)- https://www.industryresearch.co/purchase/14325770

Detailed TOC of 2019-2024 Global and Regional Biochar Industry Production, Sales and Consumption Status and Prospects Professional Market Research Report

Chapter 1 Industry Overview

1.1 Definition

1.2 Brief Introduction by Major Type

1.3 Brief Introduction by Major Application

Chapter 2 Production Market Analysis

2.1 Global Production Market Analysis

2.1.1 2013-2018 Global Capacity, Production, Capacity Utilization Rate, Ex-Factory Price, Revenue, Cost, Gross and Gross Margin Analysis

2.1.2 2013-2018 Major Manufacturers Performance and Market Share

2.2 Regional Production Market Analysis

2.2.1 2013-2018 Regional Market Performance and Market Share

Chapter 3 Sales Market Analysis

3.1 Global Sales Market Analysis

3.1.1 2013-2018 Global Sales Volume, Sales Price and Sales Revenue Analysis

3.1.2 2013-2018 Major Manufacturers Performance and Market Share

3.2 Regional Sales Market Analysis

3.2.1 2013-2018 Regional Market Performance and Market Share

Chapter 4 Consumption Market Analysis

4.1 Global Consumption Market Analysis

4.1.1 2013-2018 Global Consumption Volume Analysis

4.2 Regional Consumption Market Analysis

4.2.1 2013-2018 Regional Market Performance and Market Share

Chapter 5 Production, Sales and Consumption Market Comparison Analysis

5.1 Global Production, Sales and Consumption Market Comparison Analysis

5.2 Regional Production, Sales Volume and Consumption Volume Market Comparison Analysis

Chapter 6 Major Manufacturers Production and Sales Market Comparison Analysis

6.1 Global Major Manufacturers Production and Sales Market Comparison Analysis

6.1.1 2013-2018 Global Major Manufacturers Production and Sales Market Comparison

6.2 Regional Major Manufacturers Production and Sales Market Comparison Analysis

Chapter 7 Major Type Analysis

7.1 2013-2018 Major Type Market Share

Chapter 8 Major Application Analysis

8.1 2013-2018 Major Application Market Share

8.2.1 2013-2018 Sales Analysis

8.11.1 2013-2018 Sales Analysis

Chapter 9 Industry Chain Analysis

9.1 Up Stream Industries Analysis

9.1.1 Raw Material and Suppliers

9.1.2 Equipment and Suppliers

9.2 Manufacturing Analysis

9.2.1 Manufacturing Process

9.2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure

9.2.3 Manufacturing Plants Distribution Analysis

9.3 Industry Chain Structure Analysis

Chapter 10 Global and Regional Market Forecast

10.1 Production Market Forecast

10.1.1 Global Market Forecast

10.1.2 Major Region Forecast

10.2 Sales Market Forecast

10.2.1 Global Market Forecast

10.2.2 Major Classification Forecast

10.3 Consumption Market Forecast

10.3.1 Global Market Forecast

10.3.2 Major Region Forecast

10.3.3 Major Application Forecast

Chapter 11 Major Manufacturers Analysis

11.1 Company 1

11.1.1 Company Introduction

11.1.2 Product Specification and Major Types Analysis

11.1.3 2013-2018 Production Market Performance

11.1.4 2013-2018 Sales Market Performance

11.1.5 Contact Information

11.2 Company 2

11.2.1 Company Introduction

11.2.2 Product Specification and Major Types Analysis

11.2.3 2013-2018 Production Market Performance

11.2.4 2013-2018 Sales Market Performance

11.2.5 Contact Information

Chapter 12 New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis

12.1 New Project SWOT Analysis

12.2 New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis

Chapter 13 Conclusions

Chapter 14 Appendix

Browse Complete TOC here: https://www.industryresearch.co/TOC/14325770#TOC 

 

Contact Us-

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Email: [email protected]

Phone: US +1424 253 0807, UK +44 203 239 8187

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Gardenforum News – Around the Country – The professionals' best kept secret comes to your garden!

2 June, 2021
 

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Impact of Biochar Application to Soil on the Root-Associated Bacterial Community Structure of Fully …

3 June, 2021
 

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Easily fabricated palladium nanocatalyst on magnetic biochar for the Suzuki-Miyaura and aryl …

3 June, 2021
 

Biochar is a carbon-rich solid, the surface of which was covered by a high density of functional carbonyl, hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups. In this work magnetic biochar nanoparticles were produced and a new palladium catalyst was applied to its surface (Pd-Fe3O4-PTB) as a reusable and environmentally-related biocatalyst for the promotion of the Suzuki-Miyaura C-C coupling and the cyanation reactions. The high carbon (77%), low ash content (5.8%) and relatively high surface area (266 m2 g-1) of pine tree biochar suggested that it may be highly suitable as a catalyst substrate. The Fe3O4-Pd-biochar nanocomposite was successfully characterized using SEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR, BET and XRD. Its catalytic role was initially evaluated using p-NO2C6H4I as a model reactant (for both types of reaction) and later for the production of biaryls and benzonitriles from a wide range of aryl halides, under mild reaction conditions. Biaryls and benzonitriles were characterized by GC-MS. In the case of Suzuki-Miyaura reaction, the optimum yield of 98% was obtained at a catalyst concentration of 0.04 mol %, microwave irradiation of 400 W, 5 min residence time, using K2CO3 as the base. With respect to the cyanation reaction, dimethyl formamide, Na2CO3 and 6 h were the optimum solvent, base and reaction duration, respectively. Subsequently, the nanocatalyst showed excellent catalytic activity in both reactions, achieving >88% yields in most cases, regardless of the aryl iodide or bromide used and the type of substitution.

This article has not yet been cited.


USBI May 2021 NewsBriefs | US Biochar Initiative

3 June, 2021
 

https://www.invw.org/2021/05/12/seed-the-north-fighting-climate-change-one-sprout-at-a-time/

Seed The North: Fighting Climate Change, One Sprout At A Time. “We need to take a fundamentally different approach if we are to make a statistically significant difference for the sequestration of carbon,” says Natasha Kuperman. Biochar is a new approach that she is taking to seed germination.

Kuperman aims to encase seeds in biochar, a forest industry byproduct she calls ‘black, shiny gold’ for its ability to foster germination. (Amanda Follett Hosgood photo for The Tyee)

 

https://www.currentargus.com/story/news/local/2021/04/27/yvette-herrells-biochar-bill-clean-up-forests-reduce-emissions/7326758002/

U.S. Rep. Yvette Herrell’s ‘biochar’ bill intended to clean up forests, reduce emissions. U.S. Rep. Yvette Herrell (R-NM) introduced a bill in the U.S. House of Representatives she said she hoped would cut down on greenhouse gas emissions while assisting with agriculture and forest management. The bill known as the Biochar Innovation and Opportunities for Conservation, Health and Advancement in Research Act of 2021 would establish a demonstration project and grant program for the use of biochar in land management activities.

https://yaleclimateconnections.org/2021/04/major-parties-climate-programs-are-miles-apart/

Biochar is Bipartisan. Climate legislation being proposed in Congress reveals that natural climate solutions, like biochar, are enjoying bipartisan support.

http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/17982/us-forest-service-funds-wood-energy-projects

US Forest Service funds wood energy and biochar projects. The USDA has awarded more than $15 million to fund grant proposals to develop and expand the use of wood products, including several biochar projects. 

https://www.producer.com/news/alberta-research-projects-approved/

Alberta research projects funded. Research projects looking at a range of topics from climate change to addressing soil and fertilizer inefficiencies with biochar will receive funding from Alberta’s Results Driven Agriculture Research (RDAR) fund through its Accelerating Agricultural Innovations program.

http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/17953/clean-energy-technologies-enters-mou-for-15m-bioenergy-project

Clean Energy Technologies to develop $15M biomass renewable energy project. A Massachusetts project will convert forest biomass waste products to renewably generated electricity and biochar, using the high temperature ablative fast pyrolysis reactor (HTAP Biomass Reactor).

https://www.producer.com/news/economics-of-unproductive-land-reconsidered/

Economics of unproductive land reconsidered. Sloughs and wetlands don’t grow crops, but they act as “buckets” to capture spring moisture, slowly giving up their contents over the growing season to benefit crops. Their willows can be harvested too, for bioenergy or biochar – or both.

https://www.steamboatpilot.com/news/master-gardener-gardening-in-a-drought-year/

Master Gardener prescribes biochar in a drought year.  Help your plants maintain their current growth without need for excess water by using natural amendments like compost and biochar. These amendments will retain the moisture within the soil. 

https://www.mainepublic.org/environment-and-outdoors/2021-04-28/study-blueberry-barrens-warming-faster-than-the-rest-of-maine

Maine blueberries can’t take the heat. Researchers say that irrigation is not a good solution as water becomes scarcer. Compost, mulch, and biochar can help, but they must be affordable and doable for growers.

https://www.golfcourseindustry.com/article/research-curiosity-hoban-dinelli/

From the Amazon to your golf course. Phytobiomes, biochar and nanotechnology inspire researchers to improve the turf. It’s all about aeration and microbes. “Biochar has some chemical components and the ability to hold nutrients with the water and air,” said Dan Dinelli, supervisor at North Shore Country Club in Glenview, Illinois. 

https://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/why-grape-growers-are-turning-to-biochar-for-vine-growth/

Biochar boosts bottom line on wine. Vineyard expert Doug Beck has been trialing biochar and compost treatments with encouraging results. The total biochar cost was $200 per ton or $2,000 per acre, Beck says. The yield increase in the third leaf, the first year of production, was 1.3 tons per acre. At a grape price of $2,000 per ton, that’s additional revenue of $2,600 per acre.

Monterey Pacific’s Doug Beck (left) and Milt McGiffen of UC Riverside walk the Oasis Vineyard in Salinas Valley. Photo by Raymond Baltar

 

https://grist.org/fix/wlic-indigenous-insights-carbon-capture-rock-dust-climate-solution/

Compost, rock dust and biochar could be recipe for success. UC Davis, farmers and tribal members are testing new combinations based on enhanced weathering of rock dust to absorb and sequester carbon in farmland.

Olivine rock dust is applied at the WLIC site on UC Davis’s campus corn field. Iris Holzer

 

https://www.cdrecycler.com/article/seeing-the-possibilities/

With biochar, what goes in the landfill stays in the landfill. Wood recyclers have begun to explore converting waste wood into biochar. When waste gypsum fines were blended with biochar, H2S levels were uniformly below detection in the field tests. Biochar works on PFAS too, reducing levels found in leachate by 80%.

https://www.tauntongazette.com/story/news/environment/2021/04/27/taunton-aries-gasification-pollution-pfas-scientists/7346043002/

Can sewage sludge be safely pyrolyzed? Engineers say that toxic PFAS in sludge is not a problem for a proposed gasification facility in Massachussetts. Any PFAS not destroyed by high heat will be absorbed by biochar that gets locked up in a concrete product. Testing and monitoring are needed to verify the claims.

https://www.wastetodaymagazine.com/article/rehrig-milwaukee-sustainable-carts/

Pork project. Montauk Renewables plans to convert swine lagoon waste in North Carolina into renewable natural gas (RNG), bio-oil and biochar.

https://www.waterworld.com/technologies/filtration/press-release/14202175/activated-carbon-made-from-corn-stover-filters-98-of-water-pollutants

Activated carbon made from corn stover filters 98% of water pollutants. Engineers at UC Riverside show how corn stover is turned to biochar, then to activated carbon for water filtration.

https://www.kvue.com/article/news/investigations/defenders/austin-blue-green-algae-development-effect-defenders/269-df49fa8a-cb58-4e12-aae4-56407a2402f4

Texas killer algae could be arrested with biochar. Toxic cyanobacteria in Central Texas lakes has been killing doggy swimmers. The City of Austin is considering a biochar solution. 

https://www.itemlive.com/2021/04/14/biochar-socks-placed-in-pillings-pond-to-help-combat-algae-problems/

 “You can think of them almost as a giant Brita filter,” said Emilie Cademartori, the Conservation Commission’s director of planning and conservation. “As the water flows through it, it filters nutrients that allow algae to bloom in the pond. The idea is that you can reduce some of the incoming nutrients. It should help.” 

CONSISTENCY AND FOCUS LEADS TO SUCCESS

Building the Future from the Ground Up

A not-for-profit organization promoting the sustainable production and use of biochar through research, policy, technology and doing it!

© 2020 USBI. All rights reserved.


building a biochar kiln

3 June, 2021
 

“Here is a full tutorial by O. J. Romo on making Charcoal and Biochar using a Brick Chimney Kiln.” The charcoal can be used for numerous things such water filters and building soil in gardens. Loosely fix the lid onto the drum so that the pyrolysing gases can escape and burn in the flame from the pyrolysing wood. Biochar cone kilns. Make the Charcoal. Anyone interested in producing biochar for small, niche markets such as farmers markets; Example: Assuming a biochar recovery rate of 33%, a 55-gallon drum retort kiln would yield ~2.5 cubic feet of biochar per batch. 1.3.2 A summary of pyrolytic production of biochar prior to the RoCC kiln invention. Social Share. We have adopted the “Oregon Kiln”, or flame cap kiln made from 14-gauge steel. One of the main differences with this biochar method to most biochar stoves, is you get to see the fire. Great ideas, though. Biochar is a form of charcoal and is good for the soil, good as an animal feed supplement, has numerous industrial uses and combats climate change by sequestering carbon. See the full range of Biochar products. Wood gas burns in self-sustaining reaction. I wanted one, badly. This opens the door to a wide range of potential research into building soils for a defined purpose. Seal up the lid and roll the drum onto the fire. This method starts by building an open pile in … Don Daniel invited me back to his garden where he proudly showed me the copy of our kiln… The adam retort biochar making kiln was selected for its abillity to make charcoal out of all kinds of wood sizes. Here at Biochar Industries we are going to put it through its paces and write a full report so other biocharians can learn critical information to help them select the … Energy Corps member Michael Daniel explains how to build a Biochar Retort Kiln. How the Biochar Kiln Works The process uses a diesel burner to heat the chamber, we then introduce biomass via a single screw auger. Building a Biochar Retort Kiln. Posted on July 24, 2019. Summary Although biochar can be used in powder form, it is often desirable to agglomerate it, particularly in the case of soil amendments. That said in the context of making biochar kilns are usually open top to allow for more feedstock to be added. FEECO has the expertise and experience to assist you with all of your biochar processing needs. He presents the benefits to using biochar as a soil amendment in a garden as well as various materials you can obtain on a budget. Wae used to be a NASA engineer and designed the kiln by himself from mostly recycled materials using only hand tools. This method starts by building an open pile in … The kiln consists of two kiln bodies (retorts) with a capacity of 6 cubic meters each, and a central combustor or burner that provides heat to both. Keep ’em … The building block of resilient soils. Per batch, a profit between $75 and $150 could be generated. Two-barrel charcoal retort – a safe way to produce charcoal using two small barrels. Sun dry the mixture until the moisture content is less than 20%. We aim to bridge the gap between low tech, simple and cheap systems such as open kilns, and industrial scale highly mechanised systems that come with a hefty price tag. The Umpqua Biochar Education Team developed flame cap kilns for an NRCS Conservation Innovation Grant. We should all be adding it to our gardens and compost as the ancient cultures of the Amazon did. See the full range of Biochar products. The CharCone is a “cone kiln” which seems to have origins in Japan but was recently researched, recreated, and popularized by Kelpie Wilson (Backyard Biochar).Her work has been central in developing different product variations and communicating the ideas and contributions of others. This brief clip demonstrates a biochar kiln simultaneously boiling water and creating biochar. 354 likes. The final product- bio-char, is a kind of green energy. It is placed inside a brick kiln to help hold in the heat. Removing the finished biochar is then a simple matter of using a flat bladed shovel or simply tipping the trough over in the ground. He saw one of our 55-gallon drum biochar kilns demonstrated. The design should be easily replicated to provide adequate heat recovery of kilns located in places without access to critical building materials. We have made it our mission to improve the Portable Kiln charcoal-producing-kiln and investigate ways to turn it into a biochar producing kiln.This system uses a ‘direct combustion’ method, whereby the heat for carbonisation comes from burning a portion of the biomass feedstock in a limited air environment. In this blog I discuss the design, construction, and operating of a Kon-Tiki kiln to produce (7.5cu meters or over 1 ton (oven dried basis) of biochar. Biochar is a type of charcoal, made and used for specific purposes – most often as a soil amendment. With its porous surface structure and chemical properties, biochar has proven to offer a wide range of benefits to soil. -How to Make a Biochar Kiln (TerraPreta.org) “There is a chimney built into the lid. To use this for making charcoal or biochar you just fill the drum with your wood, packing it in as tightly as possible. A biochar retort Biomass (such as wood) will produce gas when heated without access to air. NOTE: Biochar is organically inert solid that is produced by smoldering (low heat) biomass. The researchers describe how to build slash piles, use traditional kilns, small-sized kilns, and a rotary kiln to produce biochar. Build a small fire on the bottom and keep adding sticks, etc. Example: Assuming a biochar recovery rate of 33%, a 55 gallon drum retort kiln would yield ~2.5 cubic feet of biochar per batch. Biochar cone kilns. The project designed and fabricated a variety of kilns used to burn biomass to create biochar. The kiln consists of an inner ring composed of three sheets of mild steel that are bolted together. Jun 11, 2019 – Mobile charcoal making kilns for making charcoal and biochar. The lid does not sit flush on the kiln, but there is a gap between the lid and the kiln. The Umpqua Biochar Education Team developed flame cap kilns for an NRCS Conservation Innovation Grant. Kirsten Bradley, March 11, 2013. We describe how to build slash piles, use traditional kilns, small-sized kilns, and a rotary kiln to produce biochar. Nothing special to buy or build. Permachar is a small business that aims to work towards building a fairer and greener future by producing biochar and biochar appropriate technology that promises to deliver clean carbon sequestration, energy cogeneration, water conservation and improved soil fertility for greater climate, energy, water and food security. Biochar in the vineyard: building a foundation for sustainability While there’s anecdotal evidence that the use of biochar could improve vineyard performance and … designed kiln, and biochar can be returned to the vineyard, sequestering the carbon in the ground. Why should you produce it? Metal Kilns There are infinite varieties of kiln shapes and sizes for making biochar. … Building the Future from the Ground Up. keep in mind ancient Amazonian tribes have been doing this for millennia. (this is easiest to do if the drum is laying on its side, then stood up on top of the blocks and more sticks pushed in to really pack the drum) Biochar is simply charcoal that is best utilized as a soil amendment for both soil health benefits and carbon sequestration. Biochar Equipment. This 30.5″ wide by 11″ deep kiln, made of sturdy 20 gauge steel, is by far the easiest, affordable, and fastest way to make biochar at home. You can use tree prunings, sticks, wood scraps, corn stalks, and other biomass “waste” that is generated around the home and garden. Biochar Kilns and Portable Factories. We currently provide the following services: • Collection site(s) for organic woody waste near Macclesfield. The success of this design is in its simplicity and adaptability to any size. Perfect for making biochar for the garden, super easy. To produce biochar, the Trans-Portable Biochar Kiln can be constructed from either one and a half (Smaller unit) or two (Larger unit) standard (2.350 x 1.225 metres) mild steel sheets. Beginner. Feb 18, 2020 – Explore Seyyed Mojtaba’s board “biochar” on Pinterest. I think that a non-biochar solar kiln would be awesome, too, and if you had a rig that operated as the latter with only the sun, and as the former with a combustion chamber and burn of the woodgas, you would end up with a very versatile system. As the biomass moves along the chamber it heats and the gases bound up in the biomass are released. This could be called the “retort” method of coaling. There are many ways to make biochar. Per batch, a profit be-tween $75 and $150 could be generated. A variety The materials should be of fairly uniform size. as the ash just begins to form. The relative simplicity of the TLUD means this also could be an effective means for providing activated carbon sources to growers to use in agricultural production or water purification. An outer ring of lighter gauge steel bolts onto the brackets that hold the inner ring together. In my research, I discovered low-tech biochar kilns. You can use tree prunings, sticks, wood scraps, corn stalks, and other biomass “waste” that is generated around the home and garden. Energy Corps member Michael Daniel explains how to build a Biochar Retort Kiln. Research institutions like Cornell University use expensive kilns to execute a controlled burn of organic material, measuring emissions figures and other key metrics along the way. “The idea is to treat biochar as a service, not a product,” says Carloni. The Best BioChar Garden Kiln is based on the Japanese cone kiln. This pyrolysis process is carried out in the low oxygen environment of an indirect rotary kiln (aka calciner) at temperatures between 500-800°F. Described here is a simple, affordable kiln we have developed that will produce biochar at low temperatures. The kiln features an insulated firebrick enclosure designed to fit a 200 liter (55 gallon) dry-goods steel barrel with a clamp-on cover as a retort. Negative Emission Technology. When added as an amendment to garden soil, biochar’s porosity helps the soil hold on to nutrients, and moisture so that they are… This kiln is a simplified version of the Anderson TLUD design in that it does not have an outer drum or top aperture to provide heated secondary air. The kiln is built in to a 20 ft container which allows it to be transported anywhere a truck can reach. Use of biochar is a critical tool — one of many — but perhaps the only one with the ability to sequester carbon invasive quantities for hundreds or thousands of years, and the only one that allows elimination of fossil fuels in non-agricultural products such as cement, asphalt, building … Excess biomass can be converted into biochar and used on-site or transported for agricultural uses. • Making biochar at your place. Activation-inoculation. Indirect burn is where the wood that is being reduced to charcoal never actually touches the fire. The re-tort drum is sealed except for the vent. Following the exploration and teaching about cavity kilns like open pyramids, cones and cylinders in BC, Canada (Cavity Kilns in Canada – October 2014), I built similar kilns in California.This is a photo blog on building 4ft (1.2m) pyramid kiln out of metal sheet, and a 1 cubic yard cylinder kiln out of a large propane tank on a rural property in Northern California. Great Plains Biochar Initiative The Great Plains Biochar Initiative is a collaborative effort with the Guideline. We sell organic biochar made from waste wood in a carbon negative process – using our biochar will improve your soil health, crop yields, and plant health all whilst reducing your carbon footprint. To build 3 biochar production kilns based on Greg Marlu’s adaptation of a top lit updraft gasifier kiln. The truncated cone (or pyramid) design with open top is an oxygen limited container that allows for relatively clean biochar production, while still maintaining the primal feeling of working an open fire. DIY charcoal kilns, charcoal kilns South Africa, charcoal ovens, pyrolysis ovens, TLUD, emission reduction charcoal kilns, feedstock, 3-drum biochar retort, trans-portable kiln . See more ideas about soil improvement, making charcoal, types of fungi. Two of biochar’s properties are its extremely low thermal conductivity and its ability to absorb water up to 5 times its weight. This garden scale kiln allows anyone to carbonize biomass quickly and cleanly. Biomass is prepared by the following procedure for a typical kiln run: Soak or coat the bamboo in a mineral mixture consisting of clay, basalt dust, rock phosphate, and manure for at least one month. … Building the Future from the Ground Up. By building a biochar kiln, which uses sawdust and offcuts to produce biochar, while harnessing the heat energy for drying timber. One cubic foot of biochar retails between $30 and $60. Portable Kilns We have made it our mission to improve the Portable Kiln charcoal-producing-kiln and investigate ways to turn it into a biochar producing kiln. The Ring of Fire kiln is a metal container for burning waste wood and brush for the purpose of making biochar. building biochar The process of creating biochar, Overdier says, can be either high-tech or low-tech. Cone kiln. The 500 series batch kiln is a commercial unit that produces up to 750 kg of biochar per burn. The primary air inlet should be closed completely. Biochar still has limited commercial availability, but can be made at home with limited expense using lawn waste and a little ingenuity. Very often, retort kilns will include two main components: a chamber for which pyrolysis will take place, as well as a chamber for which combustion will take place. The steel ones a harder to find than they used to be. Biochar kilns. If someone gifted me one I would not complain, but I also won’t bother buying or building one, as burning in a pit works quite well, as even the creators of the Kon Tiki biochar kiln note in an article posted at the Biochar Journal: “Inspired by Josiah Hunt, we tested the production of biochar in an open earth kiln. The CharCone 24 – not just a charcoal kiln. The kilns described in this process are 5’ by 5’ by 2’ deep, they weigh approximately 200 lbs., and can easily be carried by four strong people. Some biochars may be difficult to pelletize alone and as such, may be included as part of … The kilns described in this process are 5’ by 5’ by 2’ deep, they weigh approximately 200 lbs., and can easily be carried by four strong people. In order to get a charcoal production method that In the case of the larger unit, each sheet is cut in half to produce 2 sheets measuring 1.175 metre (L) x … Excess biomass can be converted into biochar and used on-site or transported for agricultural uses. A common alternative is a rotary kiln, similar to a giant cement mixer, where the entire heated vessel is rotated to evenly heat and mix the feedstock particles. When woody biomass (dried, not green) is pyrolysed, all of the volatile components burn away and leave behind a carbon skeleton in a very stable, hard carbon form. The key to burning is that the flame is on the top of the kiln—which burns particulates in smoke and limits oxygen flow to the char layers below the flame, preventing the char from burning all the way to ash. The topics covered in this video: – How to build the chimney and materials needed – How to use the chimney – Wood stock and cans Keep adding wood until the kiln is full of biochar and the flame from the drum has ceased. Wilson Biochar Associates: Helping Your Biochar Project Reach Its Goals Traditional kiln technology has been used to produce charcoal since ancient times. characteristics of the activated biochar. 1.3.2 A summary of pyrolytic production of biochar prior to the RoCC kiln invention. Welcome to low-tech charcoal production. Using ground charcoal as a soil amendment is proving to increase yeilds and sequester carbon among long lists of other positive benefits. I’m interested in making some biochar for my garden. I’m interested in making some biochar for my garden. A biochar retort Biomass (such as wood) will produce gas when heated without access to air. The re- tort drum is sealed except for the vent. It is placed inside a brick kiln to help hold in the heat. The loaded retort inside the kiln. Wood gas burns in self-sustaining reaction. Bill of Materials for the Backyard Biochar Kiln Kilns … Biochar improves animal health, reduces unplea­sant odors, opti­mises the quality of ferti­liser and reduces losses of nutri­ents that are harmful to the climate and the environment. Bring hotdogs! The walls of the kiln must be very thick, to bear the entire weight of the biomass, steel vessel, and insulation (if it is insulated). To make biochar your main tools are your biomass/organic materials (wood, twigs, manure etc) and fire. The plans given here have been used to construct over 300 kilns nationwide. A BAMBOO plantation at Jiggi is the home of an experimental biochar kiln, the brainchild of soil carbon advocates Dr Paul Taylor and Prof Stephen Joseph. Constructing a solar kiln is relatively straightforward and inexpensive. These properties mean that biochar is just the right material for insulating buildings and regulating humidity. One of the main differences with this biochar method to most biochar stoves, is you get to see the fire. Beginner. The quest for the perfect backyard biochar kiln. Biochar leaving the rotary kiln is in the form of a powder. Some facts about the Adam Retort Biochar Kiln : Capacity 1tonne to 1.5 tonne Biomass Output 300kgs – 500kgs of Biochar Cycle approximately 8 hours Efficiency 50kgs of wood can pyrolyse 1.5 tonne through self heating mechanisms. I don’t really want to pay an metal engineer to make an expensive Kon-Tiki Kiln, or even a much easier Pyramidal Kiln, and I don’t have the energy to dig a 2 m diameter soil pit that are used traditionally in my hard clay.. Kon-Tiki Biochar Kiln … Biochar is made by a process called pyrolysis. Folke Gunther demonstrates how to construct and use a simple biochar kiln made from two metal barrels with sample images and explanations. Share. Load with straw, manure etcwith a moisture content of less than 25%. Biochar kilns. Welcome to our online store! A stable form of soil carbon with a naturally porous structure which improves aeration, water-holding capacity and nutrient retention of soils and acts as a refuge for beneficial soil microbiology. Chapter One: What is Biochar? It includes resources such as prayers, posters and bibliographies for further study. This is the simplest of the process of using the wasted / waste biomass to convert into biochar. Ken Carloni designed a mobile biochar kiln that is constructed onsite using salvaged solar panels. At this point you could spread your wet biochar onto the soil, however I prefer to spend a few minutes breaking up the larger bits first and then compost it with my normal garden waste. Biochar can be made in a lot of different ways. Metal Kilns There are infinite varieties of kiln shapes and sizes for making biochar. If you’ve been following our work in biochar production, then you know that for five years the biochar crew at Living Web Conclusion: The open top flame cap biochar kiln design is quite good and fulfills my “three win” criteria: Cheap, Easy to build, Simple to operate. This video features an Open Deep Cone Kiln which was developed at the Ithaka Institute. Biochar and Carbon Sequestration. Biochar is used in silage, as animal feed, in litter, for manure treat­ment or as a compost addi­tive. … however the versatility of the cone leaves you with a quality soil/ carbon building product everytime. 30:1 ratio Today’s Team Dr Paul Taylor, Steve Graham (Kiln Builder), Chris (Photographer) Charmaster Dolph Cooke. Then quench. The creation of biochar includes the same basic concepts no matter which design you decide to go with. Biochar is a robust and stable solid; it is extremely rich in carbon and can remain productive in the soil for thousands of years. … however the versatility of the cone leaves you with a quality soil/ carbon building product everytime. This article outlines the carbon sequestration potential of biochar as presented at COP 16. Social Share. See more ideas about making charcoal, emissions, kiln. Other Uses for Biochar This is the chemical process which occurs in material which contains carbon (such as wood) when it is heated with minimal oxygen. Biochar TLUD Kiln – Build and Burn. You can make an earthen kiln to produce Bio-Char. We have adopted the “Oregon Kiln”, or flame cap kiln made from 14-gauge steel. Many low-cost designs can be found online and enable the conversion of biomass (wood) into charcoal to amend the soil. This 30.5″ wide by 11″ deep kiln, made of sturdy 20 gauge steel, is by far the easiest, affordable, and fastest way to make biochar at home. I don’t really want to pay an metal engineer to make an expensive Kon-Tiki Kiln, or even a much easier Pyramidal Kiln, and I don’t have the energy to dig a 2 m diameter soil pit that are used traditionally in my hard clay.. Kon-Tiki Biochar Kiln … The Best BioChar Garden Kiln is based on the Japanese cone kiln. A stable form of soil carbon with a naturally porous structure which improves aeration, water-holding capacity and nutrient retention of soils and acts as a refuge for beneficial soil microbiology. Wae has provide a list of supplies you can bring to the workshop that you will use to make your own biochar kiln. To make Biochar, you burn biomass using pyrolysis – a low/no-oxygen burning environment that prevents combustion of the biomass material, and therefore produces charcoal. This guideline gives step-by-step instructions for operating several types of flame cap kilns to produce biochar from woody debris. With the features of higher caloric value, long burning time, no smoke emission, it can be widely applied for industrial smelting, agricultural fertilizer, daily warming and cooking, etc. Print page. This team is working on ways to help farmers in Kenya produce biochar from sugar cane stalks, rather than simply burning them. After waiting for some time water should be sprinkled to extinguish the embers (quench). Wilson Biochar Associates, Cave Junction, Oregon. Activation-inoculation. First, put a little dirt in the bottom of the cone around the edges to seal air leaks. The building block of resilient soils. On-Farm Biochar Production and Use – Practice Guideline: Using a Flame Cap Kiln 2 Flame Cap Kiln Basic 3-Step Method 1. Nothing special to buy or build. So don’t believe the hype that makes you think it has to come from some expensive kiln or machine. One cubic foot of biochar retails between $30 and $60. Pre-packaged biochar can be purchased from retailers today or can be made at home by buying or building a biochar kiln for home use. • Rent-a-kiln for DIY. Since Biochar Kilns are typically used outdoors, the system must also be operable in a range of climate conditions to … Oct 7, 2014 – This site uses writing and art to portray the image of the fetus or embryo as an angel or fairy for healing the abortion experience. I emailed the Ithaka Institute, a group world-renowned for their work and research into biochar.The institute has been pioneering low-tech biochar kiln design for the last decade and its kon-tiki kiln is popular all over the world. BUILDING A SOLAR KILN. Professionally Tested. INSTRUCTIONS FOR BIOCHAR KILN USE Seal air leaks, Start the fire. We have designed a clean, automated and contained process. Now you can cost effectively make your own quality biochar. Our locally made Japanese style cone kilns are available here with the backing of our years of knowledge of the kiln process and use of the stable carbon product. Initially, we will flare the gases however, we plan to utilise the gas to produce electricity during the next phase. Like activated carbon, biochar is produced through the pyrolysis of materials such as wood waste, coconut husks, and other biological materials. Paul Anderson made a PowerPoint presentation at the 1 July 2919 conference of the US Biochar Initiative with an overview of earlier efforts by him and others. Pyrolysis can therefore happen in a heated barrel with the lid on and a couple of holes drilled in the side. The purpose of the outer ring is to serve as a heat shield that holds in heat for better efficiency. Soil experts all over the world are recognizing biochar for its unique soil replenishing characteristics. Take the barrel off the positioned blocks and dig out the soil in the center so you have a pit for building a fire. Downloadable pdf file. Wae requests that you bring: “1) A steel gallon paint can. The loaded retort inside the kiln. Making Biochar: first stove build. Cone kiln. The first is a portable factory project by a team called re:char. It promotes a pro-choice, pro-life and pro-reproductive restraint attitude. The Nexus system focuses on biochar production but also has solar thermal panels to heat water when the kiln is not in use, an efficient storage tank for the heated energy, a root-zone heating system for plants, and a dehydrator for the gas exhausted from the kiln.

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Biochar Market Growth, Trends, Absolute Opportunity and Value Chain 2019-2029

3 June, 2021
 

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Global Fine Biochar Powder Industry Research Report 2021 Segmented By Major Market Players …

3 June, 2021
 

HNY-Research-405-1622628227473

6/2/2021

140

Check our Web story

The global Fine Biochar Powder market is expected to reach US$ XX Million by 2027, with a CAGR of XX% from 2020 to 2027, based on HNY Research newly published report.

The prime objective of this report is to provide the insights on the post COVID-19 impact which will help market players in this field evaluate their business approaches. Also, this report covers market segmentation by major market verdors, types, applications/end users and geography(North America, East Asia, Europe, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Middle East, Africa, Oceania, South America).

By Market Verdors:

Diacarbon Energy

Agri-Tech Producers

Biochar Now

Carbon Gold

Kina

The Biochar Company

Swiss Biochar GmbH

ElementC6

BioChar Products

BlackCarbon

Cool Planet

Carbon Terra

By Types:

Wood Source Biochar

Corn Source Biochar

Wheat Source Biochar

Others

By Applications:

Soil Conditioner

Fertilizer

Others

Key Indicators Analysed

Market Players & Competitor Analysis: The report covers the key players of the industry including Company Profile, Product Specifications, Production Capacity/Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin 2016-2027 & Sales with a thorough analysis of the market’s competitive landscape and detailed information on vendors and comprehensive details of factors that will challenge the growth of major market vendors.

Global and Regional Market Analysis: The report includes Global & Regional market status and outlook 2016-2027. Further the report provides break down details about each region & countries covered in the report. Identifying its sales, sales volume & revenue forecast. With detailed analysis by types and applications.

Market Trends: Market key trends which include Increased Competition and Continuous Innovations.

Opportunities and Drivers: Identifying the Growing Demands and New Technology

Porters Five Force Analysis: The report provides with the state of competition in industry depending on five basic forces: threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, threat of substitute products or services, and existing industry rivalry.

Key Reasons to Purchase

To gain insightful analyses of the market and have comprehensive understanding of the global market and its commercial landscape.

Assess the production processes, major issues, and solutions to mitigate the development risk.

To understand the most affecting driving and restraining forces in the market and its impact in the global market.

Learn about the market strategies that are being adopted by leading respective organizations.

To understand the future outlook and prospects for the market.

Besides the standard structure reports, we also provide custom research according to specific requirements.

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Worldwide Biochar Industry to 2026 – Growing Demand from Agriculture – ResearchAndMarkets.com

3 June, 2021
 

DUBLIN–(BUSINESS WIRE)–The “Biochar Market – Growth, Trends, COVID-19 Impact, and Forecasts (2021 – 2026)” report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com’s offering.

The market for the biochar market is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 7% globally during the forecast period.

Companies Mentioned

Key Market Trends

Growing Demand from Agriculture

Asia Pacific Region to Dominate the Market

Key Topics Covered:

1 INTRODUCTION

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

4 MARKET DYNAMICS

4.1 Drivers

4.1.1 Increasing Applications for Plant Growth and Development

4.1.2 Growing Demand for Organic Foods in Developing Countries

4.2 Restraints

4.2.1 Risk of Contamination and Soil Erosion

4.2.2 Other Restraints

4.3 Industry Value Chain Analysis

4.4 Porters Five Forces Analysis

5 MARKET SEGMENTATION

5.1 Technology

5.2 Application

5.3 Geography

6 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE

7 MARKET OPPORTUNITIES AND FUTURE TRENDS

7.1 Increasing Demand for Indoor Farming

7.2 Other Opportunities

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/x7sves

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Global Wood Vinegar Industry Market Insights into the Competitive Scenario of the Industry by …

3 June, 2021
 

The recently published report titled Wood Vinegar Industry Market by Type (Wood Destructive Distillation, Chemical Synthesis), Application (Agriculture, Food Processing, Healthcare), Region, Global Industry Analysis, Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2020 to 2027 is an information-rich representation of the current market developments that hint upward spike in growing numbers. Our research team found some trending business strategies that increase your business in some time. The report majorly focuses on the current developments, new possibilities, advancements, as well as dormant traps. The report studies the existing as well as the future visions of the global Wood Vinegar Industry market. The report informs the key and distinct factors contributing to the growth of the industry. The report incorporates complete data of the various segments in the market study.

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Some of the key players profiled in the market include: Tagrow, Taiko Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., DaeSeung, VerdiLife LLC, Nettenergy B.V., Applied Gaia, Sigma Aldrich, Agribolics Technology Sdn Bhd, and Byron Biochar.

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The alternative to burning sugar cane is a win-win-win solution | Opinion

3 June, 2021
 

Thank you for supporting our journalism. This article is available exclusively for our subscribers, who help fund our work at the Sun Sentinel.


Global Wood Vinegar Market Future Prospects 2027 | Canada Renewable Bioenergy Corp …

3 June, 2021
 

Zion market research has recently published a research study on Wood Vinegar Market. The Global Wood Vinegar Market Research Report Covers, Future Trends, Size, Share, Past, Present Data and Deep Analysis, And Forecast, 2021-2027. To calculate the market size, the report considers revenue generated from the sales of products under the scope of the report. The report also considers the revenues to be generated from the sales of the product, which is expected to be launched into the market during the forecast period. This well-drafted report involves the current market status, historical data, and prediction outlook.

The top Major Competitive Players are : Canada Renewable Bioenergy Corp., Tagrow Co., Ltd., Byron Biochar, Nettenergy BV, ACE Pte Ltd., Vinegar Australia, Sort Of Coal, VerdiLife LLC, Taiko Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., and others.

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The report is based on the synthesis, analysis, and interpretation of information about the global Wood Vinegar Market collected from specialized sources. The research analyst has derived insights using a mix of primary and secondary research with an aim to provide a holistic picture of the market. The primary research is based on vendor briefings, telephone, and online surveys, along with interviews with industry experts and centers of influence. Whereas, secondary research focused on studying company reports & publications, webinars & podcasts, industry journals & publications, proprietary tools & databases.

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Global Wood Vinegar Market: Regional Analysis

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A detailed study of the global economic conditions and other economic indicators is conducted to assess their impact on the current market conditions and to make informed predictions about future market scenarios. The report also covers a detailed analysis on current COVID-19 pandemic conditions and its future impacts on the growth of overall market.

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mobile biochar machine

3 June, 2021
 

The liquid to be distilled is placed in the vessel and heated. Easy to use and offering the possibility of daily batches, the Exeter enables operators… Under the high-temperature and fully sealing process, the biochar output rate is greatly improved. Biomass pyrolysis plant takes advantage of carbonization technology to process sawdust, rice husk, straw, palm shell, and other biomass waste into charcoal. 1.Product Application of China Competitive Price New Design Biochar Making Machine This machine is used to make the biomass powder into briquettes with different shapes as customers’ requirements.It can produce hollow hexagonal or quadrangular cylinder charcoal stick with different diameters from agro-forestry wastes. … Support Desktop, Tablet and Mobile with responsive design. With biochar equipment for sale, you can get high quality and purified biochar. Biochar is a solid material obtained from the carbonization thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environments. The biochar machine in turkey will bring great profits for our customers. Investing in a biochar production equipment for sale is a wise choice. Labor Time and Machine Hours Machines and machine hours loader to place kilns and move slash, hrs/day 6 water tender for quenching, hrs/day 2 Labor hours crew set up time, hrs 1 biochar burning time per kiln batch, hrs 4 quenching and unloading, hrs 2 Total daily job time, including setup and quench, 7 … A mobile pyrolysis machine is also being tested in Jiangsu, Shanxi and Zhejiang sites, allowing farmer operation for in-situ carbonisation and biochar production in/near fields. Over the years we have travelled to many parts of Australia trialing feedstocks and using biochar in many different applications. Our Biochar journey started many years ago when we developed the Charmaker technology for transforming woody waste to biochar. Biochar making machine can process various biomass wastes, such as sawdust, rice husk, coconut shell, palm shell, wood, bamboo, etc., into charcoal.During these years, we have established many biochar production units in Ghana, Turkey, Spain, Ukraine, etc. Today there is biomass charcoal machine that can provide all the benefits of waste management and energy-producing equipment all rolled into one.. Small Scale Biochar Equipment. Using the rapid kiln technology of the pyrolysis machine, Amaron has demonstrated how to transform woody biomass into a variety of products including biochar and bio-oil. 4.6 Mobile biochar production. by conversion into biochar. NOTE: Biochar is organically inert solid that is produced by smoldering (low heat) biomass. Production of biochar and torrefied woodchips through mobile pyrolysis system was studied by Kim et al. Gasification and pyrolysis production systems can be developed as mobile or stationary units. In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances. Mobile Biochar Machine Key Features Batch processing with 13 m3 internal volume per batch, or 1 tonne biochar Processes all wood feedstock, including logs up to 0.14 m diameter and 2 m length Batch processing takes 4 hours Target processing temperature of 500oC Destruction of all pathogens In general, through the biochar pyrolysis process, we can get charcoal, combustible gas, tar and wood vinegar, all of which are useful resources and have high utilization values.. Biomass charcoal, with features of high caloric value and pollution-free, it is always the first choice to be used as fuel for BBQ in cooking; in industry, the biochar … However, there are few studies regarding the influence of biochar particle size. Highlights of Skid-Mounted Pyrolysis Plant. Biochar as produced from a fine modern biochar making machine can transform all types of biological wastes into a useful fuel sources and soil amendment. [47], respectively but focused on estimating the cost rather than the financial performances of the system. The space size between bamboo pieces has a close relationship to the quality of bamboo biochar. biochar making machine biochar production . Moreover, our charcoal manufacturing equipment is automatic, which makes the whole production plant easy and safe to … Wilson Biochar Associates specializes in biochar technology and market development. New England Biochar. Heat the chamber. Zhengzhou Canmax Machinery & Equipment Co., Ltd., Experts in Manufacturing and Exporting Copper Cable Recycling Machine, Double Shaft Shredder and 7414 more Products. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar size on the physical, chemical and hydrological properties in sandy and loamy tropical soils. The abundance of beetle killed timber in the west makes for plentiful feedstock opportunities. China Biochar Making Machine manufacturers – Select 2021 high quality Biochar Making Machine products in best price from certified Chinese Machine Machinery, Machine Supplies suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com 26/2, New Palasiay,, Chan Singh Ka Bagicha, Indore – 452001, Dist. 2006. mobile pyrolysis technology developed by Amaron Energy of Salt Lake City. Mobile ‘biochar’ machine to work the fields New company aims to commercialize technology that makes charcoal from woody wastes, a method to improve soil and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. When the cargo is arrived your project site, you just need to assemble them. China 1-8 Ton Per Hour Biochar Fertilizer Pellet Making Machine, Find details about China Biochar Pellet Machine, Fertilizer Pellet Machine from 1-8 Ton Per Hour Biochar Fertilizer Pellet Making Machine – Harbin Dadi Biology Organic Fertilizer Co., Ltd. Mobile Adam Retort Charcoal Kiln – Mobile Charcoal Kiln Medium to Large Scale Biochar Production System Two-barrel charcoal retort – a safe way to produce charcoal In a word, palm kernel shell charcoal making machine can convert waste into wealth. You can make a handsome profit by using a bamboo charcoal making machine. Many developing countries are encouraging the use of smaller biochar stoves and pyrolysis ovens to prevent the use of open wood cooking stoves which add … Logs, limbs, brush, stumps, yard waste, pallets and other clean wood debris can be reduced with no pre-processing required. The biochar making machine is a superb device which can help you create charcoal from various different materials. Mobile: 86-18037176272 Email : info@carbonizationmachine.com Address : Manufacture base: Beston Industrial Zone, Xiwang RD, Industry Cluster Area, Shangqiu City-476000, China Beston biochar pyrolysis reactor is made of special materials, which has better wear resistance and corrosion resistance, so that it can extend the service life of the machine and can reduce the cost indirectly. More information on that technology and can be found HERE. It consists of a spherical vessel with a long downward-pointing neck. Mobile: +86-18037176272. Biochar Production Process. And it is easy and safe to operate. Oil is attractive for the variety of industries, including smoked food flavors. 4 • www.farmshow.com • www.bestfarmbuys.com • editor@farmshow.com • 1-800-834-9665 Mobile Biochar Maker Processes On-Site By Jim Ruen, Contributing Editor Char Energy›s mobile gasi fi er makes biochar … Mobile: +86-18037176272. 2. On December 13, 2019, Turkish customers visited Beston biomass pyrolysis equipment (also called charcoal making machine). Carbonator 500 — a behemoth mobile system created by Ragnarsson and his company, Ragnar Original Innovation — is designed to convert the material into biochar, a valuable. Introduction The overall goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive decision making tool to optimize the use of a fleet of mobile pyrolysis units in the North Central U.S. to produce bio-oil from agricultural feedstocks. Standard-quality and Various-option Pyrolysis Reactor 1. * The biochar carbonizing furnace is a major part of the charcoal machine, which has decided the service life of the whole machine. This project, initiated … crew could operate our mobile kilns to process excess fuel from the hazardous fuels being Through high temperature burning in biochar furnace, raw materials can be turned into biochar. into charcoal, wood vinegar and tar.It is eco-friendly and effective so that it becomes popular among investors. Charcoal can be great solid fuel for industrial use or cooking, as well as fertilizer, deodorant, purifier, etc.Besides, we can get wood vinegar, tar, and combustible gas, all of which sell well on the market. • Track mounted to allow for direct re-introduction of high-quality biochar to forest or agricultural land where conversion is taking place. It also must be easy to operate and maintain and portable or mobile with a small footprint, such as to minimize disturbing the forest floor. With advanced biochar production technology, we are looking forward to serving more customers home and abroad. In other words, it is common for the Exeter to produce… Introducing CharBoss: New mobile biochar production machine The team was recently awarded a patent for their mobile biochar production and pelletizer system that has the capability to separate charcoal from the burning biomass using a mobile through-put method, or conveyor belt, that expels the biochar from the burner and quickly cools it. 1.Product Application of China Competitive Price New Design Biochar Making Machine This machine is used to make the biomass powder into briquettes with different shapes as customers’ requirements.It can produce hollow hexagonal or quadrangular cylinder charcoal stick with different diameters from agro-forestry wastes. The raw materials are rich in Turkey, where the charcoal has a good price. Our design goal incorporates these premises. We have used biochar for enhancing plant growth and improving s Modern method: with development of biochar production technology, most of investor begin to choose the biochar machine to make biochar. to reduce waste while making profits. Kelpie Wilson. 34. Firstly, we were engaged by Chandala Poultry to design a system that would recover the energy from chicken litter the farm produces and use it to meet the farms energy requirements. Yes, by CalParks, CAL FIRE, municipalities, growers, and National Parks. The biochar production equipment is suitable for different kinds of raw materials, such as straw, bamboo, rice husk, wood chips, sawdust, palm shell, coconut shell. Carbonator 500, promoting the machine to local government agencies and land … Biochar project is synonymous with forest-based biochar production. Figure 1.—The Biochar Solutions Inc. mobile pyrolysis system field-deployed and evaluated in this study. As the program develops, they hope to bring in additional mobile biochar machines to create a viable and sustainable way for their community to have healthier forests. 2.Three-layers spray paint, 20 years of anti-rust, paint color can be customized, spray paint uniformly, machine polished smooth. -however the fabrication of such a “mobile adam-retort” made from metal should be crafted by a professional metal worker with a well equipped metal workshop. mobile or modular thermal treatment systems for processing biomass materials to charcoal and other wastes. Among the three technology options that provided quotes for the project, the BiGchar 2200 biochar production technology was chosen for it’s continuous feedstock throughput, acceptance of a wide range of feedstock materials, biochar quality, opportunity for heat capture, and capacity vs. price. Nowadays, Due to the reasonable price, unique design and first-rate service, Beston charcoal making equipment has … spectives [44–46]. Aug 25, 2009 The latest company to pursue manmade charcoal, called biochar, is Biochar Systems, which has developed a biochar-making machine that can be pulled by a pickup truck. A … 1.The machine body is made of 6mm thick steel plate, long service life. 3.The flue gas can be recycled, no dust and no smoke. HISTORY: New England Biochar LLC is dedicated to the pursuit of a simple, safe, and reliable way of turning local biomass into charcoal. Biochar production equipment employs carbonization technology to make charcoal from biomass waste. Papers-A Biochar Solution for Climate Change (Awesome Library) “The Biochar Program will demonstrate that carbonizing forest waste and then planting the char, “biochar,” in farming soil is a powerful method to mitigate climate change.” Unlike the aforementioned cost calculations using machine rates and productivity, biochar bagging costs were estimated based on the pyrolysis system owner’s suggestion, which was $52.31 [m.sup.-3] for bagging operation costs and $ 10 for each 0.76 [m.sup.-3] bulk bag. The Exeter is a mobile retort that produces charcoal from solid biomass feedstocks such as wood and bones. Our Biochar journey started many years ago when we developed the Charmaker technology for transforming woody waste to biochar. This team is working on ways to help farmers in Kenya produce biochar from sugar cane stalks, rather than simply burning them. Tigercat’s Carbonator 6050 (Figure 5: 1) is a mobile, carbon negative BC production system designed to cost effectively reduce logging, land clearing, etc., residues by 90% . Labor Time and Machine Hours Machines and machine hours loader to place kilns and move slash, hrs/day 6 water tender for quenching, hrs/day 2 Labor hours crew set up time, hrs 1 biochar burning time per kiln batch, hrs 4 quenching and unloading, hrs 2 Total daily job time, including setup and quench, 7 … As a professional pyrolysis plant manufacturer , Kingtiger will provide you with high-quality products, advanced technology, safety guarantee as well as top-class service . 3. 4. If you’re enthusiastic about buying a biochar machine there are many things you need to consider. Email: sales@carbonationmachine.net. Byron Biochar – Merchant of Australian made biochar, hort char & wood vinegar, provides a mobile service, workshops, is the ANZBC20 Event Coordinator & Public Officer of ANZBI. As a professional manufacturer of biochar making machine, Beston Group has designed the biochar production equipment for sale with various features and advantages. substance with serious potential for improving soil. It can help you dispose of the biomass waste properly and bring you profits at the same time. The Productivity2000 PLC controls all aspects of the filtration process, from opening and closing valves, to metering the biochar, ozone, and the sampling operations. This post provides information on why you need to buy a biochar machine on the market. In more technical terms, biochar is produced by thermal decomposition of organic material (biomass such as wood, manure or leaves) under limited supply of … Ensyn Corp., Ottawa, Canada ; BEK Gasifier, All Power Labs, California, USA The BEK (Biochar Experimenter’s Kit) is a reconfiguration of GEK components to create a multi-mode pyrolysis machine for characterized biochar and bio-oil making. The requirement for bamboo size is no more than 2cm. How to Make Biochar by Beston Biochar Making Machine for Sale? As a leading manufacturer of this machine in China, Beston has a strong ability of producing this machines. The first is a portable factory project by a team called re:char. Being used for a variety of feedstocks. Our machine has been designed to work contentiously. Plus, the charcoal machine is suitable for processing all kinds of … Mobile ‘biochar’ machine to work the fields CNET. Beston charcoal maker machine mainly uses biomass waste as raw materials, such as rice husk, coconut shell, wood, sawdust, etc. The BSI machine (Biochar Solutions, Inc.) is a mobile down-draft gasifier that uses chipped or ground feedstock, loaded into the top of the reactor . The processor is like no other on the market. A stochastic analysis conducted on a biochar production budget of a slow pyrolysis mobile biochar unit reveals fixed and variable cost estimates of $505.14 Mg −1 and $499.13 Mg −1, respectively. • Pre-heated under chamber air for maximum You can use coconut shells, palm kernel shells, waste wood plus more to generate charcoal that you can use in a range of ways. Biochar from Forest Residue Also Try. In October 2019, an electrical service panel was connected to the mobile production unit with 220 and 210 volt receptacles and battery storage. The biochar making machine aims to reduce the volume of biomass waste, so it will never create new solid waste like ashes or slugs. It can be delivered on a lowboy in the same way any other piece of heavy machinery would be moved to a location. MISSION: Empower people to sustainably produce and use biochar as a healing medium for our soils. At this point you learn how to find the best biochar machine on the market online. Contact us … The presence of biochar in soils through natural processes (forest fires, bush burning) or through application to soil (agriculture, carbon storage, remediation, waste management) has received a significant amount of scientific and regulatory attention. • Technology Assessment • Research and Analysis • Project Development. So if you are a farmer, a permaculturalist, biochar user, a NGO staff person, don’t come to me and ask for drawings and my advice how to build this retort. Ragnarsson and his business partner, Matt O’Connor, were on … The application of biochar is promising for improving the physical, chemical and hydrological properties of soil. Chips making machine/ Biochar Making Machine/Charcoal making machine China, US $ 1500 – 2200 / Set, Building Material Shops, Manufacturing Plant, Food & Beverage Factory, Construction works , Energy & Mining, New, New, China.Source from Gongyi Hengchang Metallurgical Building Material Equipments Plant on Alibaba.com. The 6050 carbonator reduces wood debris volume by 90% through an environmentally friendly carbon recycling process. As a way to produce charcoal, the fabric being processed is cut into pieces no longer than 20 mm and is particularly then dried to ensure the … Turkey Customers’ Visiting to Beston Company. Kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) and Kriging models are proposed to predict biochar adsorption efficiency of heavy metals. As the importance of biochar increases day after day, the needs for high-quality biochar production equipment increase as well. transportable mobile machine for high sustainable processing capacity and superior end product. It can effectively reduce waste. Making Machine Soil Improvement Permaculture Making Charcoal Soil Health Agriculture Soil … Biochar can be produced both by stationary carbonizers or mobile machines. Oil is attractive for the variety of industries, including smoked food flavors. 4.The recovered flue gas can be liquefied and ignited for heating, cooking and drying machines 16 • FARM SHOW • vol. Beston biochar production equipment for sale has high automation system which can feed at one side and discharge at the other side. Many wood species yield approximately 50% of initial volume as output. 203, Shivam Appartment, No. 01-16 At the local or regional level, pyrolysis and gasification units can be operated by co-operatives or larger industries, and can process up to 4,000 kg of biomass per hour. How to Make Biochar by Beston Biochar Making Machine for Sale? The reason I like to micronise it is because I’m only making biochar on a small scale (12 litre batches), so micronising it gives me the biggest surface area and therefore the most bang for the small volumes I’m producing. Producing a wide variety of co-products. Pricing (Equipment) $99,000 – $168,000 Pricing (Product) Biochar is sold from approximately $100 to $140 per cubic yard. It is convenient to disassemble and … Financial Performance of a Mobile Pyrolysis System Used to Produce Biochar from Sawmill Residues Dongyeob Kim … removed from the machine by a liquid cooled auger with an air lock. The larger bamboo pieces need crushing by crushing machine. Biochar Production Equipment Sale Continuous Design. Biochar pyrolysis is a waste treatment technology to make artificial charcoal and combustible gas. Background: In 2014 the Utah Biomass Resources Group received a grant from the US Department of Transportation’s SUN Grant program to scale-up the mobile pyrolysis technology developed by Amaron Energy of Salt Lake City. Beston biochar production equipment for sale has high automation system which can feed at one side and discharge at the other side. We have used biochar for enhancing plant growth and improving s The char is made in what looks at first sight like a boiler – a machine about as tall as a person, adorned with pipes, a bucket hanging from one of … biochar making machine manufacturer/supplier, China biochar making machine manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese biochar making machine manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on Made-in-China.com. Biochar Kilns and Portable Factories. “We were told patenting would be expensive and … Article by SeedsBeMe. There may be quite a lot of demand for biochar, which explains why the biochar making machine that can perform producing it may be such a smart buy. Article by The Fallen Quaker. It also ensures that the biochar is fully charged with nitrogen and moisture to kick things off with a bang in the soil. Wilson Biochar Associates. Innovative biochar blends from Carbon Gold are helping commercial propagators to produce outstanding fruit and vegetables in a variety of systems. Originally Bob, a farmer in Massachusetts, was motivated to make as much biochar as he could in order to supercharge the … Kingtiger BST-50 Biochar Pyrolysis Machine in Turkey The biomass pyrolysis plant for sale with advanced carbonization technology has been exported to many countries. Bamboo fiber is fantastic for making clothing mainly because it helps absorb humidity and is also breathable. The primary biochar system under analysis is a mobile pyrolyzer manufactured by Biochar Solutions Incorporated (BSI). Saved by The Fallen Quaker. Casing with Insulation Materials. Why should you produce it? Built mobile machine with 6 hour set up and tear down Increase throughput to 20 TPD Increased throughput by 100x to 16 TPD Test unit at a field site Tested demonstration 16 TPD … – Produced biochar, torrefied wood, and briquettes near the forest operation sites Mar 20, 2012 – A mobile biochar retort — this is Bob Wells of New England Biochar LLC Besides, the machine can be also used for disposing sewage sludge or MSW, which is the so-called one machine with multiple uses. When we install pyrolysis plant, we put three layers of insulation material (aluminum silicate wool, fire-resistant concrete and corrugated sheeting) into … Advanced systems. We did look at other bioenergy technologies including anaerobic digestion but decided, after consultation with the owner, on pyrolysis. Tigercat Industries has recently completed the acquisition of Ragnar Original Innovations (ROI) taking a step into the materials handling and processing sector with products like the ROI Carbonator 500, a mobile, single-step process to convert wood waste and logging residue into biochar (photo courtesy ROI). End products from biochar pyrolysis machine. The system includes a downdraft gasifier with a blower and other electrical loads that use electrical power generated by either a diesel generator or the Power Pallet, a separate downdraft gasifier, that is coupled to a generator. The excess water content will be removed. This report investigates the potential use of a biochar production machine as a mobile unit to process forest residuals during forest harvest operations. Char Energy›s mobile gasifier makes biochar on-site from multiple feedstocks and for multiple uses. Building a Biochar Kiln – Lessons Learnt Drivers. Then, small bamboo pieces enters into drying system. It then creates biochar, a charcoal-like substance that can be used as a soil amendment; bio oil, which can be used in furnaces for heating and steam production and can also be refined and used as a transportation fuel; and bio gas, which can be used to power the mobile pyrolysis machine, thus creating a nearly self-sustaining cycle. Amaron Energy developed the technology to make a unit mobile, by retrofitting a prototype unit with a rotary kiln into a 45-foot shipping container. The plastic to oil pyrolysis machine for sale manufactured by Beston has advanced systems: pyrolysis reactor, discharging system, environmental protection system, as well as exhaust gas recycling system. Download : Download high-res image (281KB) Download : Download full-size image Beston charcoal making machine can turn agricultural waste, MSW waste, etc. Do proper research prior to buying a web-based seller. China Vertical Type Biochar Carbonization Furnace Price in India, Find details about China Wood Charcoal Kiln, Biochar Making Machine from Vertical Type Biochar Carbonization Furnace Price in India – Zhengzhou Jiutian Technology Machinery Co., Ltd. Furthermore, portable systems are considered to produce value-added chemicals [48]. Biochar Production Materials For Sale Today. It is so different that it sailed through the patenting process without a hitch. … 3 Methods to Find Mobile Ready … The latest reactor design can lengthen the life span of the main reactor for extra 2-3 years. Doctor of Philosophy (Chemical Engineering),MonashUniversity, 2003. To make biochar at any commercial-scale you will need pyrolysis equipment, a machine or continuous feed technology that can produce large volumes. Ragnarsson’s answer to this problem is the Carbonator, a mobile technology that can convert 15-20 tons of fiber per hour into biochar on-site because it is easily transportable. Mobile: 541-218-9890. kelpiew@gmail.com Biochar production equipment for sale uses different kinds of biomass to make charcoal. Integral installation: compared with traditional pyrolysis plant, it will greatly save your installation time and installation cost.

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New project to explore using biochar on farms

3 June, 2021
 

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Eight industry groups will test the feasibility of using biochar commercially in agriculture as part of a new sustainability project.

The potential use of biochar to capture carbon has been recognised by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), which has issued funds to kickstart the project.

Biochar is a highly stable form of carbon produced by heating biomass in a low-oxygen environment through pyrolysis.

The process takes the carbon sequestered by the trees and converts it into biochar in a pyrolysis unit, which can then be distributed to farms and stored in the soil for over 500 years.

The consortium, which includes dairy co-op Arla, believes biochar could result in large amounts of carbon being removed from the atmosphere while being stored in farm soils for centuries.

Led by the sustainability consultancy Sofies, the group seeks to transform the greenhouse gas removal market at pace by creating the first integrated biochar network consisting of BSW, one of the UK’s largest forestry and sawmilling firms.

Using co-products arising from the sawmilling industry, BSW can create biochar through pyrolysis which can then be used on farms, either by mixing it with slurry prior to application on fields or through bedding systems.

Estimates suggest that 2.1–3.6 t CO2e could be removed per tonne of biochar used on farms, meaning that if the trial is scaled up across Arla’s farms, the potential for carbon removal could be an estimated 57,150 t CO2 removal by 2030.

Alice Swift, director of agriculture at Arla Foods, said that new technologies must be trialled by farmers to establish them as practical and affordable solutions.

“Our consortium includes farmers, scientists, economists and multiple industries all working together,” she explained.

“This integrated approach to climate solutions will play an essential part in scaling up future working practice that drive circular economies and remove carbon and other greenhouse gases at scale.”

Arla’s 2,400 farmer suppliers will be asked to volunteer in the feasibility trial over the next six months.

Please contact the news editor Daniel Wild by emailing daniel.wild@farminguk.com or ringing 01484 400666 if you have a query regarding the content of this news article.

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Biochar Fertilizer Market Size – Industry Growth Report, 2026|Inorganic Fertilizer, Compound …

3 June, 2021
 

A complete study of the global Biochar Fertilizer market is carried out by the analysts in this report, taking into consideration key factors like drivers, challenges, recent trends, opportunities, advancements, and competitive landscape. This report offers a clear understanding of the present as well as future scenario of the global Biochar Fertilizer industry. Research techniques like PESTLE and Porter’s Five Forces analysis have been deployed by the researchers. They have also provided accurate data on Biochar Fertilizerproduction, capacity, price, cost, margin, and revenue to help the players gain a clear understanding of the overall existing and future market situation.

Key companies operating in the global Biochar Fertilizer market include: Organic Fertilizer, Inorganic Fertilizer, Compound Fertilizer By Application:, Cereals, Oil Crops, Fruits and Vegetables, Others

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 Segmental Analysis

The report has classified the global Biochar Fertilizer industry into segments including product type and application. Every segment is evaluated based on growth rate and share. Besides, the analysts have studied the potential regions that may prove rewarding for the Biochar Fertilizermanufcaturers in the coming years. The regional analysis includes reliable predictions on value and volume, thereby helping market players to gain deep insights into the overall Biochar Fertilizer industry.

Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Segment By Type:

, Organic Fertilizer, Inorganic Fertilizer, Compound Fertilizer By Application:, Cereals, Oil Crops, Fruits and Vegetables, Others

Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Segment By  Application:

, Cereals, Oil Crops, Fruits and Vegetables, Others

Competitive Landscape

It is important for every market participant to be familiar with the competitive scenario in the global Biochar Fertilizer industry. In order to fulfill the requirements, the industry analysts have evaluated the strategic activities of the competitors to help the key players strengthen their foothold in the market and increase their competitiveness.

Key companies operating in the global Biochar Fertilizer market include Organic Fertilizer, Inorganic Fertilizer, Compound Fertilizer By Application:, Cereals, Oil Crops, Fruits and Vegetables, Others .

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 Key questions answered in the report:

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TOC

1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Biochar Fertilizer
1.2 Biochar Fertilizer Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate Comparison by Type (2020-2026)
1.2.2 Organic Fertilizer
1.2.3 Inorganic Fertilizer
1.2.4 Compound Fertilizer
1.3 Biochar Fertilizer Segment by Application
1.3.1 Biochar Fertilizer Sales Comparison by Application: (2020-2026)
1.3.2 Cereals
1.3.3 Oil Crops
1.3.4 Fruits and Vegetables
1.3.5 Others
1.4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Estimates and Forecasts
1.4.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue 2015-2026
1.4.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales 2015-2026
1.4.3 Biochar Fertilizer Market Size by Region: 2020 Versus 2026 2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Price by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
2.4 Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Sites, Area Served, Product Type
2.5 Biochar Fertilizer Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Concentration Rate
2.5.2 Global Top 5 and Top 10 Players Market Share by Revenue
2.5.3 Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3)
2.6 Manufacturers Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
2.7 Primary Interviews with Key Biochar Fertilizer Players (Opinion Leaders) 3 Biochar Fertilizer Retrospective Market Scenario by Region
3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Retrospective Market Scenario in Sales by Region: 2015-2020
3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Retrospective Market Scenario in Revenue by Region: 2015-2020
3.3 North America Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Country
3.3.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country
3.3.2 North America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country
3.3.3 U.S.
3.3.4 Canada
3.4 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Country
3.4.1 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country
3.4.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country
3.4.3 Germany
3.4.4 France
3.4.5 U.K.
3.4.6 Italy
3.4.7 Russia
3.5 Asia Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Region
3.5.1 Asia Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region
3.5.2 Asia Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Region
3.5.3 China
3.5.4 Japan
3.5.5 South Korea
3.5.6 India
3.5.7 Australia
3.5.8 Taiwan
3.5.9 Indonesia
3.5.10 Thailand
3.5.11 Malaysia
3.5.12 Philippines
3.5.13 Vietnam
3.6 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Country
3.6.1 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country
3.6.2 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country
3.6.3 Mexico
3.6.4 Brazil
3.6.5 Argentina
3.7 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Country
3.7.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country
3.7.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Sales by Country
3.7.3 Turkey
3.7.4 Saudi Arabia
3.7.5 UAE 4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Analysis by Type
4.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
4.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
4.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Price Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
4.4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Share by Price Tier (2015-2020): Low-End, Mid-Range and High-End 5 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Analysis by Application
5.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Application (2015-2020)
5.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share by Application (2015-2020)
5.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Price by Application (2015-2020) 6 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Biochar Fertilizer Business
6.1 Biogrow Limited
6.1.1 Corporation Information
6.1.2 Biogrow Limited Description, Business Overview
6.1.3 Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.1.4 Biogrow Limited Products Offered
6.1.5 Biogrow Limited Recent Development
6.2 Biochar Farms
6.2.1 Biochar Farms Corporation Information
6.2.2 Biochar Farms Description, Business Overview
6.2.3 Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.2.4 Biochar Farms Products Offered
6.2.5 Biochar Farms Recent Development
6.3 Anulekh
6.3.1 Anulekh Corporation Information
6.3.2 Anulekh Description, Business Overview
6.3.3 Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.3.4 Anulekh Products Offered
6.3.5 Anulekh Recent Development
6.4 GreenBack
6.4.1 GreenBack Corporation Information
6.4.2 GreenBack Description, Business Overview
6.4.3 GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.4.4 GreenBack Products Offered
6.4.5 GreenBack Recent Development
6.5 Airex Energy
6.5.1 Airex Energy Corporation Information
6.5.2 Airex Energy Description, Business Overview
6.5.3 Airex Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.5.4 Airex Energy Products Offered
6.5.5 Airex Energy Recent Development
6.6 Biochar Supreme
6.6.1 Biochar Supreme Corporation Information
6.6.2 Biochar Supreme Description, Business Overview
6.6.3 Biochar Supreme Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.6.4 Biochar Supreme Products Offered
6.6.5 Biochar Supreme Recent Development
6.7 NextChar
6.6.1 NextChar Corporation Information
6.6.2 NextChar Description, Business Overview
6.6.3 NextChar Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.4.4 NextChar Products Offered
6.7.5 NextChar Recent Development
6.8 Terra Char
6.8.1 Terra Char Corporation Information
6.8.2 Terra Char Description, Business Overview
6.8.3 Terra Char Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.8.4 Terra Char Products Offered
6.8.5 Terra Char Recent Development
6.9 Genesis Industries
6.9.1 Genesis Industries Corporation Information
6.9.2 Genesis Industries Description, Business Overview
6.9.3 Genesis Industries Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.9.4 Genesis Industries Products Offered
6.9.5 Genesis Industries Recent Development
6.10 Interra Energy
6.10.1 Interra Energy Corporation Information
6.10.2 Interra Energy Description, Business Overview
6.10.3 Interra Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.10.4 Interra Energy Products Offered
6.10.5 Interra Energy Recent Development
6.11 CharGrow
6.11.1 CharGrow Corporation Information
6.11.2 CharGrow Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.11.3 CharGrow Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.11.4 CharGrow Products Offered
6.11.5 CharGrow Recent Development
6.12 Pacific Biochar
6.12.1 Pacific Biochar Corporation Information
6.12.2 Pacific Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.12.3 Pacific Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.12.4 Pacific Biochar Products Offered
6.12.5 Pacific Biochar Recent Development
6.13 Biochar Now
6.13.1 Biochar Now Corporation Information
6.13.2 Biochar Now Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.13.3 Biochar Now Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.13.4 Biochar Now Products Offered
6.13.5 Biochar Now Recent Development
6.14 The Biochar Company (TBC)
6.14.1 The Biochar Company (TBC) Corporation Information
6.14.2 The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.14.3 The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.14.4 The Biochar Company (TBC) Products Offered
6.14.5 The Biochar Company (TBC) Recent Development
6.15 ElementC6
6.15.1 ElementC6 Corporation Information
6.15.2 ElementC6 Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.15.3 ElementC6 Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.15.4 ElementC6 Products Offered
6.15.5 ElementC6 Recent Development
6.16 Carbon Gold
6.16.1 Carbon Gold Corporation Information
6.16.2 Carbon Gold Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.16.3 Carbon Gold Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.16.4 Carbon Gold Products Offered
6.16.5 Carbon Gold Recent Development
6.17 Kina
6.17.1 Kina Corporation Information
6.17.2 Kina Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.17.3 Kina Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.17.4 Kina Products Offered
6.17.5 Kina Recent Development
6.18 Swiss Biochar GmbH
6.18.1 Swiss Biochar GmbH Corporation Information
6.18.2 Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.18.3 Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.18.4 Swiss Biochar GmbH Products Offered
6.18.5 Swiss Biochar GmbH Recent Development
6.19 BlackCarbon
6.19.1 BlackCarbon Corporation Information
6.19.2 BlackCarbon Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.19.3 BlackCarbon Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.19.4 BlackCarbon Products Offered
6.19.5 BlackCarbon Recent Development
6.20 Carbon Terra
6.20.1 Carbon Terra Corporation Information
6.20.2 Carbon Terra Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.20.3 Carbon Terra Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.20.4 Carbon Terra Products Offered
6.20.5 Carbon Terra Recent Development
6.21 Sonnenerde
6.21.1 Sonnenerde Corporation Information
6.21.2 Sonnenerde Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.21.3 Sonnenerde Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.21.4 Sonnenerde Products Offered
6.21.5 Sonnenerde Recent Development
6.22 Biokol
6.22.1 Biokol Corporation Information
6.22.2 Biokol Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.22.3 Biokol Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.22.4 Biokol Products Offered
6.22.5 Biokol Recent Development
6.23 Verora GmbH
6.23.1 Verora GmbH Corporation Information
6.23.2 Verora GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.23.3 Verora GmbH Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.23.4 Verora GmbH Products Offered
6.23.5 Verora GmbH Recent Development
6.24 Biochar Products
6.24.1 Biochar Products Corporation Information
6.24.2 Biochar Products Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.24.3 Biochar Products Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.24.4 Biochar Products Products Offered
6.24.5 Biochar Products Recent Development
6.25 Diacarbon Energy
6.25.1 Diacarbon Energy Corporation Information
6.25.2 Diacarbon Energy Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.25.3 Diacarbon Energy Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.25.4 Diacarbon Energy Products Offered
6.25.5 Diacarbon Energy Recent Development
6.26 Agri-Tech Producers
6.26.1 Agri-Tech Producers Corporation Information
6.26.2 Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.26.3 Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.26.4 Agri-Tech Producers Products Offered
6.26.5 Agri-Tech Producers Recent Development
6.27 Green Charcoal International
6.27.1 Green Charcoal International Corporation Information
6.27.2 Green Charcoal International Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.27.3 Green Charcoal International Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.27.4 Green Charcoal International Products Offered
6.27.5 Green Charcoal International Recent Development
6.28 Vega Biofuels
6.28.1 Vega Biofuels Corporation Information
6.28.2 Vega Biofuels Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.28.3 Vega Biofuels Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.28.4 Vega Biofuels Products Offered
6.28.5 Vega Biofuels Recent Development
6.29 Full Circle Biochar
6.29.1 Full Circle Biochar Corporation Information
6.29.2 Full Circle Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.29.3 Full Circle Biochar Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.29.4 Full Circle Biochar Products Offered
6.29.5 Full Circle Biochar Recent Development
6.30 Pacific Pyrolysis
6.30.1 Pacific Pyrolysis Corporation Information
6.30.2 Pacific Pyrolysis Biochar Fertilizer Description, Business Overview
6.30.3 Pacific Pyrolysis Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
6.30.4 Pacific Pyrolysis Products Offered
6.30.5 Pacific Pyrolysis Recent Development 7 Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Cost Analysis
7.1 Biochar Fertilizer Key Raw Materials Analysis

7.1.1 Key Raw Materials

7.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price Trend

7.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
7.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
7.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar Fertilizer
7.4 Biochar Fertilizer Industrial Chain Analysis 8 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
8.1 Marketing Channel
8.2 Biochar Fertilizer Distributors List
8.3 Biochar Fertilizer Customers 9 Market Dynamics
9.1 Market Trends
9.2 Opportunities and Drivers
9.3 Challenges
9.4 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis 10 Global Market Forecast
10.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Estimates and Projections by Type
10.1.1 Global Forecasted Sales of Biochar Fertilizer by Type (2021-2026)
10.1.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Biochar Fertilizer by Type (2021-2026)
10.2 Biochar Fertilizer Market Estimates and Projections by Application
10.2.1 Global Forecasted Sales of Biochar Fertilizer by Application (2021-2026)
10.2.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Biochar Fertilizer by Application (2021-2026)
10.3 Biochar Fertilizer Market Estimates and Projections by Region
10.3.1 Global Forecasted Sales of Biochar Fertilizer by Region (2021-2026)
10.3.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Biochar Fertilizer by Region (2021-2026) 11 Research Finding and Conclusion 12 Methodology and Data Source
12.1 Methodology/Research Approach
12.1.1 Research Programs/Design
12.1.2 Market Size Estimation
12.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
12.2 Data Source
12.2.1 Secondary Sources
12.2.2 Primary Sources
12.3 Author List
12.4 Disclaimer*

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3 June, 2021
 

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3 June, 2021
 

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Biochar-based fertilizers — Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

3 June, 2021
 

To improve global food and nutrition security while staying within planetary boundaries, it is crucial to increase the production of nutrient-rich foods on existing agricultural lands in a sustainable way. Small family farms produce more than half of the world’s food but often have low productivity due to a lack of fertile lands and inputs. They also often do not fully use the potential to provide fresh and varied food for household consumption. Innovative methods that improve soil fertility and water management without requiring expensive and energy-intensive inputs could leverage food production in small farms and improve food and nutrition security.

Biochar is a carbon-rich substance obtained when exposing biomass – such as wood, rice straw, or fallen leaves – to temperatures above 400°C in the near absence of oxygen, a process called pyrolysis. It is not the biomass itself that burns, but the flammable gases that evaporate from the biomass due to the fire’s heat, leaving the carbonaceous backbone of the biomass intact. The resulting biochar is very porous, like a sponge, and has a huge inner surface that can hold nutrients, water, and other substances. Partners at Ithaka Institute have developed a method to produce high-quality biochar in low-cost, farm-scale soil pit kilns called Kon-Tiki.

Biochar improves soil fertility by retaining and exchanging water, nutrients, and air, as well as sustaining the build-up of soil organic matter in soil.  When mixed with organic substances like compost, liquid manure, urine, or fermented kitchen waste, biochar increases the fertilizing effect of these by retaining nutrients so the plants can access them. Urine is an excellent fertilizer but is underused because of odor and the necessity to mix it with nine parts of water. Biochar can soak up urine and transform it into a potent odorless solid fertilizer that can be applied without dissolving the urine in water.

With our partners, we seek to test and scale this technology. Our work began in the Food and Agricultural Approaches to Reducing Malnutrition (FAARM) project that evaluates how far an integrated home gardening, nutrition, and hygiene intervention can reduce undernutrition in women and young children. In our field site in northeastern Bangladesh, we found that urine-biochar fertilizers using cow urine are easy for farmers to produce and use by, virtually free of cost, and well accepted. Compared to usual farmer practice, yield benefits in vegetable gardens were substantial – ranging from 25% to 120% – and consistent across crop types, seasons, and production methods.

To help disseminate this technology to other projects within and outside of Bangladesh, we have produced a manual outlining the biochar-based fertilizer production process.

Project team:

External collaborators:

Hans-Peter Schmidt (Ithaka Institute, Switzerland)
Ipsita Sutradhar (James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Bangladesh)
Sayema Akter (James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Bangladesh)
Abdul Kader (Helen Keller International, Bangladesh)
Abul Kalam (Helen Keller International, Bangladesh)

Funding:

The UK government funded the “Biochar-Urine Nutrient Cycling for Health” (BUNCH) project (2016-2017) through the Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in South Asia (LANSA) research consortium.

The Food and Business Applied Research Fund (ARF) of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs funded the Scaling-up “Biochar-Urine Nutrient Cycling for Health” in Bangladesh (BUNCH2Scale) project (2017-2020).

Publications:

Sutradhar, I., Jackson‑deGraffenried, M., Akter, S., McMahon, S.A., Waid, J.L., Schmidt, H., Wendt, A.S., Gabrysch, S. (2021) Introducing urine‑enriched biochar‑based fertilizer for vegetable production: acceptability and results from rural Bangladesh. Environment, Development and Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01194-y

Sutradhar, I., and Akter, S. (2017). Filthy Fertilizer: How Urine-Biochar Could Potentially Help Farmers in Rural Bangladesh. #VitalSigns. https://jpgsphblog.wordpress.com/2017/06/21/filthy-fertilizer-how-urine-biochar-could-potentially-help-farmers-in-rural-bangladesh/

Consortium publications:

Bird, F.A., Pradhan, A., Bhavani, R.V., Dangour, A.D. (2019) Interventions in agriculture for nutrition outcomes: A systematic review focused on South Asia. Food policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2018.10.015

Glover, D., Poole, N. (2019) Principles of innovation to build nutrition-sensitive food systems in South Asia. Food policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2018.10.010


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Global Biochar Market to Huge Revenue Growth During the Forecast Period 2027

3 June, 2021
 

Posted on    06/3/21 8:11 AM   by

Biochar Market Report by Value Market Research, studies the future perspective of the market. Research Report also includes the size, share, growth, trends, Manufacturers, segments and regional survey in detail for the study year of 2020-2027.

The research report also covers the comprehensive profiles of the key players in the market and an in-depth view of the competitive landscape worldwide. The major players in the Biochar include Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Diacarbon Energy Inc., Biochar Products, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Vega Biofuels, Inc., The Biochar Company, Phoenix Energy, Biochar Supreme, LLC, Pacific Pyrolysis, ArSta Eco, Earth Systems PTY. LTD. And Others. This section includes a holistic view of the competitive landscape that includes various strategic developments such as key mergers & acquisitions, future capacities, partnerships, financial overviews, collaborations, new product developments, new product launches, and other developments.

Request Free sample copy of the report “Global Biochar Market” at: https://www.valuemarketresearch.com/contact/biochar-market/download-sample

Market Segmentation

The broad Biochar has been sub-grouped into the Technology, Application and region. The report studies these subsets with respect to the geographical segmentation. The strategists can gain a detailed insight and devise appropriate strategies to target specific market. This detail will lead to a focused approach leading to identification of better opportunities.

By Technology

  • Pyrolysis
  • Gasification
  • Others

 By Application

  • Agriculture
  • Livestock
  • Farming
  • Others
  • Others

Browse “Global Biochar Report” with in-depth TOC : https://www.valuemarketresearch.com/report/biochar-market

Regional Analysis

Furthermore, the report comprises of the geographical segmentation which mainly focuses on current and forecast demand for Biochar in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. The report further focuses on demand for individual application segments in all the regions.

Table of Content

  1. Preface
  2. Executive Summary
  3. Biochar – Industry Analysis
  4. Value Chain Analysis
  5. Global Biochar Analysis By Technology
  6. Global Biochar Analysis By Application
  7. Global Biochar Analysis By Geography
  8. Competitive Landscape Of The Biochar Companies
  9. Company Profiles Of Biochar Industry

Buy Now Comprehensive Global Biochar Research Report at https://www.valuemarketresearch.com/contact/biochar-market/buy-now

About Us:

Value Market Research was established with the vision to ease decision making and empower the strategists by providing them with holistic market information.

We facilitate clients with syndicate research reports and customized research reports on 25+ industries with global as well as regional coverage.

Contact:

Value Market Research

401/402, TFM, Nagras Road, Aundh, Pune-7.

Maharashtra, INDIA.

Tel: +1-888-294-1147

Email: [email protected]

Website: https://www.valuemarketresearch.com

Biochar Market Report by Value Market Research, studies the future perspective of the market. Research Report also includes the size, share, growth, trends, Manufacturers, segments and regional survey in detail for the study year of 2020-2027.

The research report also covers the comprehensive profiles of the key players in the market and an in-depth view of the competitive landscape worldwide. The major players in the Biochar include Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Diacarbon Energy Inc., Biochar Products, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Vega Biofuels, Inc., The Biochar Company, Phoenix Energy, Biochar Supreme, LLC, Pacific Pyrolysis, ArSta Eco, Earth Systems PTY. LTD. And Others. This section includes a holistic view of the competitive landscape that includes various strategic developments such as key mergers & acquisitions, future capacities, partnerships, financial overviews, collaborations, new product developments, new product launches, and other developments.

Request Free sample copy of the report “Global Biochar Market” at: https://www.valuemarketresearch.com/contact/biochar-market/download-sample

Market Segmentation

The broad Biochar has been sub-grouped into the Technology, Application and region. The report studies these subsets with respect to the geographical segmentation. The strategists can gain a detailed insight and devise appropriate strategies to target specific market. This detail will lead to a focused approach leading to identification of better opportunities.

By Technology

 By Application

Browse “Global Biochar Report” with in-depth TOC : https://www.valuemarketresearch.com/report/biochar-market

Regional Analysis

Furthermore, the report comprises of the geographical segmentation which mainly focuses on current and forecast demand for Biochar in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. The report further focuses on demand for individual application segments in all the regions.

Table of Content

Buy Now Comprehensive Global Biochar Research Report at https://www.valuemarketresearch.com/contact/biochar-market/buy-now

About Us:

Value Market Research was established with the vision to ease decision making and empower the strategists by providing them with holistic market information.

We facilitate clients with syndicate research reports and customized research reports on 25+ industries with global as well as regional coverage.

Contact:

Value Market Research

401/402, TFM, Nagras Road, Aundh, Pune-7.

Maharashtra, INDIA.

Tel: +1-888-294-1147

Email: [email protected]

Website: https://www.valuemarketresearch.com


Global Biochar Bonechar Phosphate Fertilizers Market – Industry Reports

3 June, 2021
 

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SKU ID : Maia-16439619 | Publishing Date : 17-Sep-2020 | No. of pages : 130

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homemade biochar kiln

4 June, 2021
 

It was three-eighths-inch thick and had a hole in one end from rust. The cleaner and more efficient method of producing biochar and barbeque charcoal. To make charcoal the burn must be slow and incomplete so that the wood dries out and its structure and capacity for burning remains. See more ideas about soil improvement, gas blowers, agriculture. “I like fishing up there,” he said, “and I’ve been there when the algae’s so bad it just stinks.” Still, I suspected that his intentions were not strictly altruistic but … This is a huge benefit at a time when various diseases are wiping out forested regions. I have often thought that a rotating soil screener and potato elevator/bagger would make a good combination for doing bags. Making Biochar Charcoal in a Garden. Construct the walls of 2 x 4-inch studs and 3/4-inch plywood. With an even bigger surprise to come this statement by an Australian Biochar Expert. Your tireless inventor: Dale Hodgins . Latest News Committed to keeping an age old tradition alive and fitting it for our times, we’ll have a go at telling you our story and including you in our adventures. Words & images: Ben Elms I first read about the wonders of biochar about 10 years ago, but it was an idea I left smouldering on the back burner while I dug deep into compost-making and waste reduction. Corey Hendrickson. Biochar is form of activated charcoal which provides many additional benefits and can significantly improve soil health and productivity. ” Prof. Charcoal briquettes are charcoal dusts compactly massed by a binder of either cassava flour, corn or sweet potato starch. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar … including homemade, laboratory, and pilot scale pyrolysis equip- … soil kiln methods were biochars that were created in the absence of an engineered unit, such as a soil mound or soil pit. Adding it to soil can help improve fertility and tilth. Biochar is not just carbon neutral; it is “carbon negative”, according to its proponents, because buried biochar is stable for thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of years. “Inspired by Josiah Hunt, we tested the production of biochar in an open earth kiln. Once you have a strong fire, load your branch wood randomly into the kiln leaving air gaps. This guide is designed to assist you in deciding whether you will buy a kiln from a vendor, build a kiln from a published design, or develop your own kiln.. We provide details of some innovative designs that have been tested, organized in a way that will help you evaluate designs and choose a biochar device that suits your needs. Create a hole in the back of the kiln in order to add fuel to the fire and allow air in for combustion. I made our first batch of charcoal in a homemade kiln. 08/06/2015 4. The Best BioChar Garden Kiln is based on the Japanese cone kiln. The UBC Farm is located on the University of British Columbia’s Vancouver campus. The basic design for the kiln came from blacksmith Daniel O’Connor of Twin Oaks Forge. Susan built a top-lit fire in her mini-kiln while Gray explained the process and answered questions. The result is pure carbon. The owners provide sleeping bags and hot water bottles to allow you to stay out longer and really watch the night sky. The design of kiln furniture compo- nents and eventually complete sys- tems requires … »More detailed Owing to the differences between the raw materials, the biochar will be different. The size of the kiln depends on what you plan to fire in it. Here is the raw material. E 54 cfi/Ber. Prior to the discovery of oil, natural gas, and coal as energy sources, wood and charcoal were the only means to heat, cook, blacksmith, distill, and power early steam engines. and found a salt dough recipe. Discount pottery equipment, pottery wheels, electric kilns, pottery glazes, pottery accessories, and pottery tools. FW biochar My 365 Retort Kiln. The equipment: Two metal barrels, the larger about 20 cm (8 in) wider and 10 cm (4in) higher than the smaller vessel. Manufacturer of Bailey Gas Kilns, pottery wheels, and hand-building equipment Ben Elms is an expert compost-maker. If you have access to wood and steel drums, you can make your own charcoal. A handy kiln for making charcoal from urban leaf litter, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI), Pune, India www.arti-india.org; Single Barrel Charcoal Kiln. Two-barrel charcoal retort – a safe way to produce charcoal . Where things get more interesting is in the using this as a soil amendment. Materials range widely in cost. Half the World’s population of nearly six billion people prepare their food and heat their homes with coal and the traditional biomass fuels of dung, crop residues, wood and charcoal (Inheriting the world: The atlas of children’s health and the environment, by Bruce Gordon, Richard Mackay and Eva Rehfuess, WHO 2004). The biochar approach provides a uniquely powerful solution, for it allows us to address food security, the fuel crisis, and the climate problem, and all in an immensely practical manner. Briquetted Charcoal from Sugarcane Trash; Folke Gunther. 3) Low investment costs of about ~900Euro (2014) and a simple construction with locally available materials. there are a few things about this design that make it less efficient for producing charcoal. Biochar from the B-1000 Thermal Conversion System Biochar produced from the B-1000 Thermal Conversion System is NOT a residual ash/carbon co-product. last winter, I read a post that I’m too lazy to search for talking about biochar, so I decided to set up my own little totally unscientific experiment on the concept. Because both commercial or homemade biochar and soils are so variable, the IBI recommends testing several rates of biochar application on … It’s the product of a lot of experimentation by Mr. 5.2 The improved traditional earth kiln- Description: The improved earth kiln, introduces a wire mesh or metal sheet to reduce contamination of the charcoal and chimneys to enhance control of the carbonization process (Nelly et al 2006). The agronomic benefits of biochar are partly derived from the available plant nutrients in biochar. The back wall studs should frame four 1-foot square vent openings, two on top and two on the bottom. Charcoal Retorts – of any size to fit your budget. Ind. While open air seasoning is usually perfectly adequate there are some benefits to using a kiln: The high temperatures in a kiln kill pathogens. In terms of the design of the kiln, … and this one is the cleanest burn homemade TLUD I have constructed and used. Biochar is widely seen as the successor to biofuels on grounds that it will sequester carbon and improve soil fertility while also producing energy. 22 pounds is about how much biochar I can make in one burn with our double barrel retort kiln. Here is a full tutorial on making Charcoal and Biochar using the Brick Chimney Kiln. as a preemptive measure, Bryan recommends the biochar be charged and dried before adding to or under the soil. They built a retort kiln from an oil drum with a … “Biochar may represent the single most important initiative for humanity’s environmental future. Biochar aids soil fertility, keeps carbon in earth … now uses homemade biochar to revive vegetable beds. Having designed this retort I realised that it filled a gap in the market for a small, portable, easy to fire and environmentally friendly way of producing charcoal in reasonable quantities. While this method does introduce carbon emissions into the air, it is a free way to create biochar. Charcoal Production in 200 Liter Drum Kilns . Add straight to your soil or blend with homemade or commercial composts for optimal results. It’s organic, houses a plethora of microbial activity, keeps nutrients in your soil, holds moisture, removes impurities, and has appreciable carbon sequestration value. The principal is the internal chamber houses the biochar feedstock. Charcoal Kilns – made from mild steel of various thicknesses. You can make biochar at home on a micro scale by digging a trench or hole and putting a mixture of dry wood and dried plant materials such as sweetcorn stalks or perennial weeds and roots into it. Monday 16th of May 2011. Discover (and save!) Make Your Own BioChar and Terra Preta: A simple way to make BioChar in a 55 gallon drum. The basic design for the kiln came from blacksmith Daniel O’Connor of Twin Oaks Forge. Four Seasons Fuel manufacture charcoal retorts and kilns for coal and charcoal production. When added as an amendment to garden soil, biochar’s porosity helps the soil hold on to nutrients, and moisture so that they are… We should all be adding it to our gardens and compost as the ancient cultures of the Amazon did. Our biochar for sale is made from wood which was destined for landfill or incineration and is 100% natural, free from chemicals or toxins. Lo and behold researchers in Dublin recently blended graphene, biochar’s more sophisticated and expensive carbon cousin, with homemade silly putty. If you have a biochar kiln you can convert everything to char, even weeds, but it’s hard to do that when you’re raking coals around. May 07 2009 0183 32 We finally had success with our homemade retort kiln The basic design for the kiln came from blacksmith Daniel O Connor of Twin biochar My 365 Retort Kiln … Biochar Industries in Kunghur NSW Australia was the setting for this momentous occasion. It’s organic, houses a plethora of microbial activity, keeps nutrients in your soil, holds moisture, removes impurities, and has appreciable carbon sequestration value. Biochar has definite advantages over DE when it comes to environmental benefits and impacts. You can download plans to make the kiln here: This manual describes how to build our new Biochar kiln called the ‘3-drum Biochar Retort‘. Aug 20, 2018 – The Exeter Charcoal Retort… Alan Waters tries out a more efficient method for making charcoal products. Sustainable Agriculture BIOCHAR – A quick How To on a top-lit updraft (TLUD) kiln design- “Making Biochar For Small Farms”. Four Seasons Fuel, BBQ Charcoal suppliers in Sussex, UK. The biochar approach provides a uniquely powerful solution, for it allows us to address food security, the fuel crisis, and the climate problem, and all in an immensely practical manner. The process: The process is similar to that of the traditional earth Kiln where the wood stack is tightly The first piece of the “cooker” was a 200-gallon butane tank. Medium to Large Scale Biochar Production System . The brick kiln positioned on a cement slab cost $10,000. As you can see, experimenting with biochar will be a learning process. Biochar blends are available from shops or online, but may be hard to find and expensive. Kiln for environmental friendly biochar machine-made charcoal wood retort kiln sale sl support oem. 3E). DKG 85 (2008) No. There’s evidence that the terra preta from which the idea of biochar arose, is pre-columbian in … Biochar production in an open pit > > hello biochar group, > > here are some pictures showing how i have been making biochar. Keep an eye on the development of biochar too. The homemade kiln, located on a property in Greensboro, is about half the size of her home office, Ms. Pion said, perhaps ten by twelve feet. Traditional Biochar Uses. IRRIGATIONMART – Best, cheapest place to order EVERYTHING irrigation! This process – converting wood to charcoal – takes about 14-16 hours and produces ready-to-use lumps of charcoal. The dome school has done some great work on biochar so do check out their resources. I cut the end with the hole from the tank. So don’t believe the hype that makes you think it has to come from some expensive kiln or machine. Here are his instructions: … > Subject: [biochar] My $365 Retort Kiln > > I had a great week! most uses, including gardening, biochar can be made at home in a purchased or homemade burner as explained further in this publication. Aug 20, 2018 – The Exeter Charcoal Retort… Alan Waters tries out a more efficient method for making charcoal products. Easy to use and offering the possibility of daily batches, the Exeter enables operators… Using ground charcoal as a soil amendment is proving to increase yeilds and sequester carbon among long lists of other positive benefits. One soup can I remove the top lid. For a two barrel burn, you need about three barrels worth of scrap. My biochar kiln sits in my back yard, and reportedly looks like a distillery of sorts. The first Kon-Tiki had a diameter of 150 cm, a height of 90 cm and a capacity of 850 liters. It is recommended that up to 10% of your soil can be comprised of biochar. In the larger one you make air intakes some centimetres (about1 in) from the bottom that allow an ample amount of air intake. Medium to Large Scale Biochar Production System The 500 series batch kiln is a commercial unit that produces up to 750 kg of biochar per burn The kiln is built in to a 20 ft container which allows it to be transported anywhere a truck can reach… Our goal is to make biochar out of trees that don’t make it and use the thar in our potting soil. “Biochar may represent the single most important initiative for humanity’s environmental future. Biochar is the term for what is left over after the energy is removed: a charcoal-based soil amendment – this process is called pyrolysis. It’s a very simple and portable design, basically a metal cone that’s open on either end, with the smaller end sitting on the ground. Instead I went small and made myself a home-made TLUD kiln from an old (thoroughly cleaned) paint can and some soup cans. It can actually clean your soil … Prod., 155 (2020), p. 112740, 10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112740. Luke had seen the lake’s troubles firsthand. Start a fire in a bottom of the kiln using paper, cardboard and larger kindling. In the first attempt, we made a few hundred liters of excellent looking biochar in a conically excavated hole in the ground. Jul 29, 2015 – This Pin was discovered by Lon Beers. Crop. Once you’ve got biochar in your soil, add your compost and let it sit for as long as you can before planting. Various gases and oils are driven off the material during the process and then used to generate energy. Oct 1, 2019 – Ben Elms is an expert compost-maker. My biochar kiln sits in my back yard, and reportedly looks like a distillery of sorts. Making Biochar with Peter Hirst of New England Biochar. We have also launched a new manual. Notice how little smoke is being produced with the retort up and running. Compost, potting soil and other garden amendments can harbor seeds from unwanted grasses and broadleaf weeds. Similarly, Pandit et al. The biochar materials produced from … Kelpie Wilson adapted this kiln design from a design at Twin Oaks Forge. Coconut husk charcoal making furnace machine bamboo charcoal carbonization kiln. The Biochar Solutions Thermal Conversion System is designed to manufacture a consistent, clean, and high quality biochar as the MAIN product. Dec 22, 2016 – Explore J Caz’s board “Biochar” on Pinterest. Notice how little smoke is being produced with the retort up and running. If you plan to fire multiple pieces at once, write down the combined width and length of … My working definition for biochar is simply charcoal that has been infused with a combination of nutrients, microbes, and moisture. Jan 3, 2017 – Welcome to low-tech charcoal production. Get Price. The other two soup cans I removed both the tops and bottoms with a can opener. The first Kon-Tiki had a diameter of 150 cm, a height of 90 cm and a capacity of 850 liters. Here’s a great video on biochar by Wae Nelson at TEDxOrlando that shows what a difference biochar makes to plants, people and the planet! Why Primitive Charcoal Making? (See photos). The 3-drum Biochar Retort is more clean burning (with the added lid and chimney) and the burn is more controlled, and the user has an option to create either Biochar or conventional charcoal. Kon-Tiki Cone Kiln. Earlier this year I had the chance to make biochar using a japanese cone kiln. The farm offers a LINKS & RESOURCES QUICK REFERENCES *EVERYTHING ON THIS PAGE IS A LINK OR RESOURCE THAT WE PERSONALLY USE OR FIND VALUEABLE. Charcoal briquettes can be made of sawdust or coal in processed forms. 04/06/2015 1. Construct the walls of 2 x 4-inch studs and 3/4-inch plywood. I did this one with some creative stacking. Now he publishes… We were very lucky to have Richard Self, an experienced biochar producer and author of biochar papers, leading the workshop. It was built by Markus Koller. I’ll probably get back to this in the future when we get our kon tiki kiln up and running. 1. This manual describes how to build our new Biochar kiln called the ‘3-drum Biochar Retort‘. … Paracetamol removal by Kon-Tiki kiln-derived biochar and activated carbons. Words & images: Ben Elms I first read about the wonders of biochar about 10 years ago, but it was an idea I left smouldering on the back burner while I dug deep into compost-making and waste… Charge your homemade biochar by blending it 50/50 with compost and you’re ready to introduce all the benefits of biochar to your own home garden. While that was ticking along merrily we had a crash-course on soil science, and how biochar contributes to soil health. pH testing at our facility indicates that biochar made in a TLUD may be more alkaline than biochar made in the retort method. Biochar is essentially charcoal that is inoculated with microbial life and or nutrients. Normally, the feedstock in the biochar kiln was burned layer by layer [24]. A 15N tracing pot experiment was conducted using two types of wood-based biochars: a regular biochar and a Kon-Tiki-produced nutrient-enriched biochar, at two application rates (1% and 5% (w/w)), in addition to a fertilizer only and a control treatment. You can make an earthen kiln to produce Bio-Char. Benefits of kiln drying. 11/14/2017 2:54:14 PM Subject: Cheap, easy, mini homemade biochar kiln : Hi Laurie, The “construction” is really simple. This is enough for one barrel. GREENHOUSE MEGA STORE – Great […] And while you’re at it, you can also make biochar, which is incredible at improving garden soil. The satisfactory results achieved for the homemade eucalyptus-derived composite indicate that it is a promising material to be used in simple technological systems for water treatment. We finally had success with our homemade retort kiln. Making biochar from this waste can reduce pollution, decrease costs of production, and increase C sequestration. Making Biochar and charcoal in a ring kiln. May 8, 2020 – Small scale biochar production resources for my little farm in Quebec Canada, on acid, sandy soil that could use some improvement in nutrient retention, pH, and post-corn/soya production remedy. Mixing the biochar and vermacompost creates the most ideal soil additive available. The biochar with the highest sorbed content of VOCs was the biochar produced at the lowest temperature (BC44; 200 °C; Fig. It’s easier than you think. the most critical one is that the rocket stove is designed to produce maximum heat out of the top of the stack pipe not the side of the pipe.this is why you got an incomplete burn for biochar. Order) CN Zhengzhou Shuliy Machinery Co., Ltd. 10 YRS. Chapter One: What is Biochar? We finally had success with our homemade retort kiln. The Biochar Solutions Thermal Conversion System is designed to manufacture a consistent, clean, and high quality biochar as the MAIN product. But his latest way to create better soil is by adding biochar, made in his new bespoke kiln. Biochar from the B-1000 Thermal Conversion System Biochar produced from the B-1000 Thermal Conversion System is NOT a residual ash/carbon co-product. And improving the air as well.When you bury the car… (2015) found that biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln and enriched with cattle urine increased pumpkin yield by 300% compared to urine only treatment, and by 85% com-pared to same amount of biochar without urine in a silt loam soil. The kiln is then sealed with a large lid. Article by SeedsBeMe. This biochar was characterized by high proportions of short-chain aldehydes and furans, with the three most dominant compounds being 2-propanal (9.2 min), ethyl acetate (12.5 min), and 2-hexenal (26.5 min). 96.1%. Freshly made biochar can be very caustic (pH12+) and if this is substantially ash by mass, this type of biochar can have a huge impact on soil pH. 2. I used a single 1 gallon paint can and 3 soup cans. Jul 18, 2016 – Charcoal/Bio-char Production – Utilizing the volatile gasses, reducing pollution and fire risk . Jun 6, 2018 – How to make charcoal briquettes. Why Not Make Something Fancy? Homemade Biochar: The Sticky Ball Project • In order to assess the process of making your own biochar, an experiment was conducted using a modified fire pit and the ubiquitous fruit of the Liquidambar styraciflua, Sweet Gum, “sticky balls”. WHAT IS BIOCHAR? Except for biochar, there are also byproducts like combustible gas, wood vinegar and tar generated in the process. Lonnie built a 4’x4′ biochar kiln last year for ISF and offers to make more on request. The crusher is just an old grape crusher. Biochar Projects at Heritage High School, Washington, USA. Bioenergy is a byproduct of our biochar manufacturing process. To do this I tend to douse the whole thing with some water from a hosepipe then, wearing a big heavy fireproof glove, I drag the drum away from the remaining pile of biochar. It goes further than a rocket stove because it is nearly smoke free.

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Effects of phytolithic rice-straw biochar, soil buffering capacity and pH on silicon bioavailability

4 June, 2021
 

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Effects of phytolithic rice-straw biochar, soil buffering

capacity and pH on silicon bioavailability

Zimin Li &Dácil Unzué-Belmonte&

Jean-Thomas Cornelis&Charles Vander Linden&

Eric Struyf&Frederik Ronsse&Bruno Delvaux

Received: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 # Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Abstract

Aims Supplying phytolith-rich biochar in agrosystems increases soil pH, CEC and nutrient availability, adding to the impact of Si uptake on plant growth. Here we studied this specific impact as influenced by soil properties, and assessed the role of phytoliths to provide plant available Si. Methods We used a young Cambisol and a highly weathered, poorly buffered, desilicated Nitisol. The bio-chars were produced from rice plants respectively enriched (Si+) and depleted (Si-) in Si. They had identical pH and

nutrient contents, but largely differed in Si content (51.3 g Si kg−1in Si + vs 0.3 g Si kg−1in Si-). We compared their effects to that of wollastonite (CaSiO3) on the biomass and mineralomass of wheat plants in a soil:solution:plant de-vice. The contents of soil bioavailable Si and biogenic Si were assessed through an original CaCl2kinetic extraction and the DeMaster Na2CO3 alkaline dissolution, respectively.

Results The DeMaster technique dissolved Si from phytolith as well as from wollastonite. The soil buffering capacity (cmolckg−1) was 31 in the Cambisol and 0.2 in the Nitisol. An identical supply of phytolithic biochar increased pH from 4.5 to 4.8 in the Cambisol, and from 4.8 to 7.4 in NI. It further increased the content of bioavailable Si (from 55 to 97 mg kg−1in the Cambisol, and 36 to 209 mg kg−1in the Nitisol), as well as plant Si uptake, biomass and Si mineralomass. That increase was largest in the Nitisol.

Conclusions The DeMaster technique did not specifi-cally quantify the phytolith pool. This pool was the main source of plant available Si in both the Cambisol and Nitisol amended with phytolithic biochar. At identical phytolithic Si supply, however, soil pH and soil buffer-ing capacity controlled the transfer of Si in the soil-plant system, which was largest in the poorly buffered Nitisol. The effect of phytolithic biochar on Si bioavailability was depending on soil constituents and properties, and thus on soil type.

Keywords Biochar . Phytolith . Si bioavailability . pH . Soil buffering capacity

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-019-04013-0

Responsible Editor: Honghua He.

Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-019-04013-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Z. Li (*)

:

C. V. Linden

:

B. Delvaux

Earth and Life Institute, Soil Science, Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Croix du Sud 2 / L7.05.10,

1348 Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium e-mail: zimin.li@uclouvain.be e-mail: zimin.li@hotmail.com D. Unzué-Belmonte

:

E. Struyf

Ecosystem Management Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1C, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium

J.<T. Cornelis

BIOSE department, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium

F. Ronsse

Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653,

Introduction

Natural soil desilication and crop harvesting contribute to the long-term removal of bioavailable silicon (Si) (Guntzer et al.2012) that can be challenged through Si fertilization. The primary source of Si for plant uptake is the reserve of weatherable lithogenic silicates (Alexandre et al. 1997; Henriet et al. 2008b; McKeague and Cline1963). Their dissolution delivers aqueous H4SiO40(dissolved Si: DSi), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe) and other solutes, which may form pedogenic silicates, Al and Fe oxides. These alumino-silicates can in turn dissolve depending on H4SiO40 activity (Garrels and Christ1965; Kittrick1977). With advanced desilication and Si depletion, Al and Fe oxides accumulate in highly weathered soils. DSi can be taken up by plant roots, translocated to transpiration sites in plant shoots (Jones and Handreck1965) where it poly-merizes as amorphous biogenic Si (BSi), called phyto-lith, which returns to soil within plant residues (Smithson1956). BSi minerals readily dissolve at com-mon soil solution pH (Fraysse et al.2006,2009; Koning et al.2002), and replenish the DSi pool. The biological pumping of Si thus alleviates soil desilication in highly weathered soils (Lucas2001; Lucas et al.1993; Meunier et al.1999; Riotte et al.2018).

Under natural or semi-natural vegetation, the BSi pool may progressively become the most important source of DSi along a global soil weathering gradient with increasing depletion of lithogenic and pedogenic silicates (Lucas et al.1993; Cornelis and Delvaux2016). In agrosystems, however, crop harvesting disrupts Si biocycling because of Si exportation through phytomass removal and water flows (Guntzer et al.2012; Haynes 2017; Keller et al. 2012; Meunier et al. 2008; Vandevenne et al.2012). Thus, soil weathering and crop harvesting contribute to soil desilication that may reduce crop yield since Si increases plant photosynthetic activ-ity and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses (Belanger1995; Epstein1994; Exley1998). Enhancing Si biocycling through Si fertilization thus presents a major agronomic interest in croplands established on highly weathered soils. Silicate slag and minerals can be used, but they are expensive, limited worldwide and poor in DSi, and they may contain toxic elements (Berthelsen et al. 2001; Datnoff and Heckman 2014; Haynes 2014; Haynes et al. 2013). Over 250 million farmers in the tropics commonly use burnt phytomass to challenge the infertility of highly weathered soils. The

supply of pyrolyzed biomass increases pH, CEC and the contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients (Glaser et al. 2002; Laird et al. 2010; Lehmann and Joseph 2015; Liang et al. 2006; Sohi et al. 2010). Plant-derived phytoliths concentrate in biochar particles (Wang et al.2018; Xiao et al.2014). Biochar is thus a potential Si fertilizer (Glaser et al.2002; Houben et al. 2014) able to deliver DSi (Li et al.2018) because of the increase in phytolith solubility after pyrolysis (Unzué-Belmonte et al.2016; Xiao et al.2014). Furthermore, biochar has a liming effect (Glaser et al.2002) promot-ing phytolith dissolution the rate of which increases by 2 orders of magnitude from pH 4 to 8 (Fraysse et al. 2009). The increase in Si bioavailability due to liming (Keeping et al.2017; Klotzbücher et al.2018; Haynes 2019) must depend, however, on pH increase and thus soil buffering capacity, hence on soil constituents and weathering stage. This is unknown, despite that these soil properties can control the ability of phytolithic biochar to increase Si bioavailability, and enhance Si biocycling. Here we study the specific effects of phytolithic biochar to supply bioavailable Si in soil:solution:plant systems involving a Cambisol and a Nitisol differing in weathering stage, soil constituents and buffering capacity.

Materials and methods Soils and external Si sources

The two selected soils differ in weathering stage. They key out as a Dystric Cambisol (CA) and a Rhodic Nitisol (NI) in the WRB system (IUSS2014). Under a climax beech forest (Fagus sylvatica), the Cambisol CA (Grand Han, Belgium) is moderately weathered; it de-rives from Famenian schist under humid temperate con-ditions, and contains weatherable Mg, K and Na sili-cates (Mg-chlorite, feldspar, oxidized biotite, albite) as well as quartz, vermiculite, smectite and kaolinite (Titeux and Delvaux 2009). Without any vegetation cover, NI is a buried paleosol from the quarry of Transinne (Belgium) formed from Early Devonian bed-rock under humid tropical paleo-conditions. The Nitisol (NI) is highly weathered; it contains kaolinite, Fe ox-ides, muscovite and quartz (Thiry et al.2006). In both soils CA and NI, we sampled the topsoil (00-20 cm depth). Soil samples were air-dried and sieved at

2 mm. Further experiments and analyses were all carried out on the fine earth fraction (f≤ 2 mm).

Si sources

The wollastonite (Wo) (CaSiO3) was used as a reference non-biochar silicon source, which was provided by R.T Vanderbilt Company, Inc., Norwalk, CT, USA. We used powdered VANSIL® W-10 that contains wollastonite (≤99%) and quartz (0.8–1.3%).

The Si-enriched and Si-depleted biochars (Si + and Si-) were produced from rice straws. Rice seeds (Oryza sativa subsp. indica IR64 from IRRI, Philippines) were germinated on a polystyrene plate floating on a Yoshida nutrient solution (Yoshida1981) in 10 plastic tanks each of 25 L. Three seeds were placed in each of the 30 holes perforating the plate. Si + and Si- rice plants were each produced in 5 respective tanks. After one week, the solutions for Si + plants were enriched with aqueous H4SiO40 at a concentration of 40 mg L−1. H4SiO40 was prepared through dissolving Na2SiO3·5H2O, and further leaching on an H+ cation exchanger (Amberlite®IR-120) to fix Na+ions until the threshold level of Na+ was below 10−2 mM Na (Henriet et al. 2006). Si + and Si- nutrient solutions were renewed every week. After two weeks, the seedlings were thinned to one plant per hole. pH was adjusted daily to 5.0–5.3 by using 2 M KOH or HCl. Si + and Si-plants grew in greenhouse controlled conditions: 80% relative humidity, 28/25 °C day/night, 12 h photope-riod with 360 μmol m−2 s−1 light intensity. After 12 weeks, the plants were harvested. The above-ground biomass was measured fresh, then dry after 7 days at 55 °C. The biochars were obtained from, respectively, Si + and Si-rice straws according to a slow pyrolysis procedure as described by Ronsse et al. (2013). Dried straws (2 cm fragments) were placed in a vertical, tubular, stainless steel reactor (d × L = 3.8 × 30 cm), and further pyrolyzed at a heating rate of 17 °C min−1up to 500 °C. The reactor was maintained at 500 °C for 60 min, and then progressively cooled. Nitrogen was continuously sup-plied to remove gases and tars produced during the pyrolysis process. Biochar yields were calculated as the mass ratio of biochar to the dried RS used for the pyrolysis process. The enriched (Si+) and Si-depleted (Si-) biochars were passed through a 0.154 mm sieve prior to experimental use.

Soil:Amendment mixtures

Soil:Wollastonite (Cambisol:Wollastonite CA:Wo and nitisol:Wollastonite NI:Wo)

Wollastonite (Wo) was added in triplicates at the rate of 3.2 g Wo kg−1soil to CA and NI, resulting in supplying 810 mg Si kg−1of soil.

Soil:Biochar (Cambisol:Biochar CA:Si+, CA:Si-; nitisol:Biochar NI:Si+, NI:Si-)

Biochar materials were added to soils in triplicates at the rate of 15 g biochar per kg of soil resulting in supplying 810 mg Si per kg of soil for both CA:Si + and Ni:Si+, and 3 mg Si per kg of soil for both CA:Si- and NI:Si-. These application rates fall within the range of field applications (Liu et al.2013; Ma and Takahashi2002). Basic analyses of soils, amendments

and soil:Amendment mixtures

Elemental contents (Si, Al, Fe, K, Ca, Na and Mg) in soils, amendments and soil:amendment mixtures were determined by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emis-sion spectrometry (ICP–AES, Jarrell Ash Iris Advan-tage) after alkaline fusion using metaborate + Li-tetraborate at 1000 °C, followed by ash dissolution with concentrated HNO3(Chao and Sanzolone1992). The contents of major alkaline and alkaline-earth cations in soils were summed up to compute the total reserve in bases (TRB) (Herbillon1986). The contents of C and N (and H for rice straw and biochar) were measured using a Flash 2000 Elemental Analyzer (Thermo Fisher Sci-entific, Waltham, MA, USA). pH was measured in H2O and 1 M KCl using 5 g:25 mL suspensions respectively for soils but only in water for biochar materials. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) and content of ex-changeable cations were determined on soil and soil:amendment using 1 M CH3COONH4buffered at pH 7 (Chapman 1965). The buffering capacity was measured by supplying metered additions of OH−ions in the form of CaCO3 equivalent doses using a solid:liquid ratio of 1:5. Suspensions were shaken over-night, then opened to ambient air. They were stirred intermittently, and the pH was measured after equilibra-tion with atmospheric CO2. The identificaequilibra-tion of crys-talline soil minerals was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) on powder soil samples using CuKα radiation in

a Bruker Advance diffractometer. Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) were performed on rice straw and biochar without any chemical pretreatment using a field emission gun SEM (FEG-SEM; Zeiss Ultra55) equipped with an EDX system (Jeol JSM2300 with a resolution <129 eV), and operating at 15 keV with a working distance of 8 mm. The acquisition time of the EDX spectra lasted 100 s with a probe current of 1 nA. Specific Si extractions

The contents of alkaline- and CaCl2-extractable Si were determined through kinetic extractions in triplicate. (I) Alkaline extractable Si content (Sialk) was determined to assess biogenic silica (BSi) minerals in soils (DeMaster 1981; Koning et al.2002; Saccone et al.2006). Thirty mg of dried soil (< 2 mm) was mixed in 40 ml of Na2CO3 0.1 M, pH = 11.2, and digested for 5 h at 85 °C. One ml of extraction solution was taken at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h, then neutralized and acidified by adding 100μl of HNO37 M to analyze dissolved Si using ICP-AES. The extracted Si (mg g−1) was plotted against time (DeMaster1981). Corrections for the simultaneous al-kaline dissolution of amorphous and crystalline Si using time course extractions (DeMaster1981; Koning et al. 2002), assume that (a) most of the amorphous pool is dissolved within the first 2 h of extraction, and (b) the clay minerals release Si at a much slower and constant rate during the whole extraction. The concentration of Sialkis determined by the intercept of the linear part of the plot, using the lm function of the R programming language to fit a first-order kinetic model (Cornelis et al. 2011). (II) CaCl2-extractable Si content (CaCl2-Si) is considered to assess the bioavailable Si pool in soils (Haysom and Chapman1975; Sauer et al.2006). It was measured through an original kinetic extraction using a solid:liquid ratio 5 g:50 mL (0.01 M CaCl2) in 100 mL polyethylene cups shaken at 25 °C. The 1:10 solid:liquid ratio was kept constant using replicates for both the extraction and analysis. At each time step (6 h, 12 h, 1 day, 2 days, 4 days, 8 days, 16 days, 32 days, 64 days and 128 days), the collected suspension (50 mL) was centrifuged at 3000 g for 20 min. The supernatant (40 mL) was filtered and separated in two aliquots of 20 mL to measure, respectively, pH and solutes concen-trations. The latter extract was acidified by adding 100μl of HNO37 M, then stored in darkness at 4 °C prior to further analyses.

Experimental system

Wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L.) were sterilized with NaOCl for 10 min and washed three times using deion-ized water. They germinated on a polystyrene plate floating in a 700 mL polypropylene beaker in a soil:solution system including 500 mL deionized water and 10 g of, respectively, soil (CA, NI) and soil:amendment mixtures (CA:Wo, CA:Si+, CA:Si-; NI:Wo, NI:Si+, NI:Si-). After one week, both the pH and DSi content were measured in the liquid phase of the solid:liquid device, before planting (solid = soil or soil:amendment mixture). Wheat seedlings and further plantlets grew under greenhouse conditions: 25/ 20 °C day/night, 70% relative humidity, and 12 h pho-toperiod with 360 μmol m−2 s−1 light intensity. Ten seedlings after germination were kept for growing in greenhouse till harvest. The ten seedlings with approx-imately 5 cm roots were randomly planted in each treatment. After 4 days, 5 out of these 10 were selected. After 32 days, wheat shoots were collected and washed using deionized water, 1 M HCl, 70% ethanol, and further rinsed with Milli-Q water to avoid any contam-ination (Kelly 1990). Shoots were dried at 55 °C for 7 days to weigh the dry matter (DM). The dried plant materials were further analyzed following the proce-dures described above for rice straw.

Data analyses

Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 24.0 software. The effects of the various treatments in all Tables and Figures were analyzed through a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis) test at the level of p < 0.05.

Efficiency of Si release (RSi) The efficiency of Si release (RSi) from the soil:amendment mixture was assessed using the time release of CaCl2extractable Si content following Eq1:

RSi¼

CaCl2−Si in soil : amendment

½ − CaCl2−Si in soil½

Total Si input from amendment 100 ð1Þ where CaCl2-Si was the amount (mg) of Si released after 128d respectively in each pot; total Si input from amendment was the amount (mg) of Si brought by biochar (Si- and Si+) and Wo in each pot.

Results

Properties of rice-straws, biochars and wollastonite (wo) The Si- and Si + rice-straws differed in their re-spective biomasses, O contents, ash percentages and Si contents (Table 1). The biochar yield, as defined in Table 1, was significantly lower for Si than for Si+. The contents of K, Ca, Na, Mg and Si differed signifi-cantly between Wo and biochars (Table1). The Si- and Si + biochars also differed in their respective O concen-trations, ash percentages and Si contents. Following pyrolysis, the O:C ratio markedly decreased by 5- and 9-fold in Si- and Si + biochars, respectively. The SEM micrographs and related EDX spectra further illustrated that Si-depleted rice-straw (Fig.1a, e) and Si- biochar (Fig. 1c, g) were free of phytoliths. In contrast, rice-straw enriched in Si contained dumbbell-shaped, fine silt-sized phytoliths (Fig. 1b, f) whereas Si + biochar contained phytoliths in abundance (Fig.1d, h).

P r o p e r t i e s o f s o i l s a n d s o i l : A m e n d m e n t mixtures Table2showed that the Total Reserve in Bases (TRB) amounted to 144 cmolckg−1in the Cambisol CA and 107 cmolc kg−1 in the Nitisol NI. X-ray dif-fraction (XRD) data (not shown) confirmed previ-ous identifications. In CA, XRD data showed that primary silicates were quartz, oxidized biotite, feld-spar, chlorite and albite. CA clay minerals consisted of kaolinite and an assemblage of 2:1:1 and 2:1 clay minerals involving chlorite, illite, ver-miculite and smectite. The Nitisol (NI) contained muscovite and kaolinite phyllosilicates as well as quartz, rutile (not shown), and Fe oxide. In NI, K was by far the largest dominant cation in TRB (Table 2). Biochar application did not result in a significant increase of TRB (p < 0.05). However, Wo application generated a marked increase of total Ca content (cmolc kg−1): from 2.7 to 8.1 in CA and from 1 to 8.4 in NI.

Table 1 Selected properties of Si-depleted, Si-enriched rice-straws and their respective biochars (Si-, Si+), and wollastonite (Wo): average values of their respective elemental contents; H:C, O:C, C:N atomic ratios, biochar ash content and yield†, and pH-H2O

Properties Rice straw Biochar Wo ANOVA p

Si depleted Si enriched Si- Si+

C g kg−1 396.1 384.6 520.0 486.5 nd nd H 55.0 54.6 22.6 20.6 nd nd O 391.8* 350.6* 106.2*** 57.5*** nd nd N 39.0 37.1 41.1 37.1 nd nd H:C 0.1 0.1 0.04 0.0 nd nd O:C 1.0 0.9 0.2 0.1 nd nd C:N 10.2 10.4 12.6 13.2 nd nd K g kg−1 40.7 40.7 84.9 95.2 A 1.1 B <0.001 Ca 5.9 3.7 13.7 B 11.6 B 313.5 A <0.001 Na 0.6 0.5 1.1 A 1.3 A 0.4 B <0.001 Mg 5.9 4.9 16.5 A 14.1 A 11.0 B 0.003 Si 0.9*** 16.3*** 0.3 C 51.3 B 235.4 A <0.001 Ash % 11.8** 17.3** 31.0* 39.6* nd nd Yield† % nd nd 31.0* 36.4* nd nd

Biomass (Dry weight) g plant−1(n = 300) 3.5** 6.7** nd nd nd nd

pHH2O nd nd 10.6 A 10.7 A 9.1 B 0.02

The average values (n = 3) of pH-H2O and contents of K, Ca, Na, Mg and Si are presented with different uppercase letters (A, B, C) between amendments (Si-, Si + and Wo) at the p < 0.05 level of confidence according to Tukey’s mean separation test. p values within the various amendments are given through a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

nd: not determined

†: The biochar yield is the ratio of the mass of biochar to the initial dry mass of rice straw expressed as a percentage

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 keV 0 2 4 6 8 10 cps/eV C O 1.00 * 8 1.00 * 9 1 2 3 4 5 keV 0 1 2 3 4 5 cps/eV C O Si 1.00 * 5-09 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 keV 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 cps/eV C O Mg P K 1.00 * 10 1.00 * 11 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 keV 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 cps/eV C O Si K 1.00 * 4 1.00 * 5 1.00 * 6 1.00 * 7

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

Fig. 1 SEM images of (a-b) rice straw materials Si-depleted (a), and Si-enriched (b), (c-d) biochar particles Si- (c) and Si + (d). Corresponding EDX spectra performed on (e-f) rice straw

materials Si-depleted (e) and Si-enriched (f), (g-h) biochar parti-cles Si- (g) and Si + (h), demonstrating the presence of phytoliths in Si +

As inferred from Table3, the contents of C, N, and exchangeable cations were significantly higher in CA than in NI. As computed from C content, the content of organic matter was 5.7% in CA and .0.2% in NI. Both the Cambisol CA and the Nitisol NI were acid, desaturated soils characterized by low pH and base saturation. How-ever, they markedly differed in their respective soil

buffering capacity that amounted to 31 and 0.2 cmolc kg−1in CA and NI, respectively (Fig.2). Biochar appli-cation resulted in a significant increase of C and N contents in both soils while Wo did not. All amendments led to a significant pH increase. That increase was below 0.65 pH unit for Wo whatever the soil type, and for CA:Biochar mixtures. Yet in NI, the pH increase was Table 2 Total average contents (n = 3) of selected major elements; Total Reserve in Bases (TRB), and Si/(Al + Fe) atomic ratio in CA and NI, CA:Si-, CA:Si+, CA:Wo; NI, NI:Si-, NI:Si+, NI:Wo

Soils Treatments Total elements *TRB Total elements Si/(Al + Fe)

Ca K Na Mg Si Al Fe cmolckg−1 g kg−1 Cambisol Soil CA 2.7 d 59.6 c 21.6 a 60.2 a 144 a 270.8 b 87.4 b 55.2 a 2.3 b CA:Si- 4.2 b 61.9 c 21.5 a 60.2 a 148 a 269.8 b 84.1 b 53.4 a 2.3 b CA:Si+ 3.8 c 61.2 c 21.0 a 59.6 a 146 a 272.5 b 84.5 b 54.9 a 2.3 b CA:Wo 8.1 a 58.8 c 21.6 a 59.2 a 148 a 274.2 b 85.6 b 54.9 a 2.3 b Nitisol Soil NI 1.7 e 82.9 a 8.4 b 14.6 b 108 b 317.2 a 97.7 a 28.7 b 2.7 a NI:Si- 2.9 d 75.3 b 7.1 b 14.9 b 100 b 317.2 a 96.2 a 27.0 b 2.8 a NI:Si+ 4.7 b 75.9 b 7.3 b 15.1 b 103 b 317.0 a 95.8 a 26.2 b 2.8 a NI:Wo 8.4 a 69.1 b 6.9 b 13.6 b 98 c 310.7 a 95.7 a 26.2 b 2.7 a ANOVA p <0.001 0.002 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 Within columns, content values followed by the same letter (a, b, c) are not significantly different (p = 0.05, Tukey’s mean separation test). p values within the various amendments are given through a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

*

TRB is the sum of total contents (cmolckg−1) of Ca, Mg, Na and K (Herbillon1986)

Table 3 Selected properties of soils (CA, NI) and soil:amendment mixtures: pH, total contents of C and N, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and contents of exchangeable cations

Soils Treatments pH C N CEC Exchangeable cations BSa

(cmolckg−1) H2O KCl g kg−1 (cmolckg−1) Ca2+ K+ Na+ Mg2+ (%) Cambisol Soil CA 4.5 e 3.7 f 33.5 b 2.4 b 18.4 b 0.4 c 0.3 d 0.05 b 0.3 b 5 CA:Si- 4.7 c 4.2 d 44.1 a 3.2 a 19.3 a 0.9 b 3.3 b 0.09 a 1.2 a 28 CA:Si+ 4.8 c 4.2 d 41.1 a 3.0 a 19.6 a 0.7 b 3.4 ab 0.10 a 1.1 a 27 CA:Wo 4.7 c 4.0 e 35.3 b 2.6 b 18.5 b 2.1 a 0.3 d 0.04 b 0.3 b 14 Nitisol Soil NI 4.8 d 4.2 e 1.0 d 0.4 d 2.2 d 0.2 d 0.04 e 0.01 d 0.3 b 26 NI:Si- 6.5 b 5.5 b 7.9 c 1.0 c 2.8 c 0.6 c 2.7 c 0.02 c 1.1 a >100 NI:Si+ 7.4 a 6.4 a 7.9 c 1.2 c 2.6 c 0.7 c 3.5 a 0.02 c 1.2 a >100 NI:Wo 5.4 b 4.9 c 0.9 d 0.5 d 2.0 d 0.7 c 0.04 e 0.01 d 0.3 b 54 ANOVA p <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.002 <0.001 nd Within columns, mean values (n = 3) followed by the same letter (a, b, c) are not significantly different (p = 0.05, Tukey’s mean separation test). p values within the various treatments are given through a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

a

Base Saturation: sum of the exchangeable cations as a percentage of CEC. The values above 100% are due to the release of K from biochar nd: not determined

particularly high after biochar application (>1.7 pH units). Both biochars Si- and Si + exhibited similar con-tents of ash, C, N, and other mineral elements (Table1). Therefore, their respective applications on CA and NI had similar impacts on the properties of soil:biochar mixtures such as elemental contents (Table2), pH, C and N con-tent, and CEC (Table 3). Furthermore, the contents of

exchangeable K+, Na+, Ca2+and Mg2+as well as base saturation increased in CA:Si+, CA:Si-, NI:Si + and NI:-Si-, with respect to untreated soils CA and NI.

Na2CO3extractable Si (Sialk) As shown in Fig.3a, Sialk decreased in the order Si+ > Wo > > Si-. In the Cambisol CA and CA:amendment mixtures (Fig.3b), Sialkdid not significantly differ between CA, CA:Si- and CA:Wo; these contents were all below the one measured in CA:Si+. In the Nitisol NI and NI:amendment mixtures (Fig. 3c), the same trend was observed: Sialk did not significantly differ between NI, NI:Si- and NI:Wo, but was much higher in NI:Si + .

CaCl2 extractable Si (CaCl2-Si) CaCl2-Si is usually measured in one extract after stirring for 16 h (Haysom and Chapman1975; Sauer et al.2006), 5 h (Henriet et al. 2008a; Houben et al.2014) or 1 h (Korndörfer et al.1999). In this study, we develop a novel kinetic methodology. The kinetic CaCl2extraction of Si from amendments, soils and soil:amendment mixtures were performed for 128 days (Fig.4). The H4SiO4concentration of the CaCl2extracts

4 5 6 7 8 0 10 20 30 40 pH OH-1(cmolc kg-1soil) CA NI

Fig. 2 pH buffering capacity of the Cambisol (CA) and Nitisol (NI), as expressed by plotting pH against OH−addition. Error bars show ± standard deviation (n = 4)

0 5 10 15 20 Si-Si+ Wo Sialk(g kg-1)

a

0.20 a b *** c 0 1 2 3 4 CA CA:Si-CA:Si+ CA:Wo

b

a b b b 0 1 2 3 4 NI NI:Si-NI:Si+ NI:Wo

c

b b b a * Fig. 3 Contents of Na2CO3 extractable Si (Sialk, g kg−1) of (a) the three amendments (Si-, Si+, and Wo), (b-c) the soils and soil amendment mixtures: (b) CA, CA:Si-, CA:Si+, and CA:Wo; (c) NI, NI:Si-, NI:Si+, and NI:Wo. Error bars show ± standard deviation (n = 3). Lower case letters hold for each subgraph separately: amendments, Cambisol CA and CA: amendment mixtures, Nitisol NI and NI:amendment mixtures. Within each subgraph, values with the same lower case are not significantly different (p = 0.05, Tukey’s mean separation test), while different lower case letters indicate a significant (p < 0.05) difference. p values are: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001

(Table S1) progressively increased with increasing time, from 10to 3.3to 10–2.9M for Si- biochar, 10–1.3to 10–0.97 M for Si + biochar, 10–2.2to 10–1.3M for wollastonite. It increased with time from 10to 4.6to 10–3.7M for both CA and CA:Si-, 10–4.2to 10–3.8M for CA:Si+, and 10–4.4to 10–3.4M in CA:Wo. It also increased with time from 10to 4.8

to 10–3.9M in both NI and NI:Si-, 10–3.9to 10–3.1M in NI:Si+, and 10–4.8to 10–3.5M in NI:Wo. The strong and positive correlation (r = 0.96) between CaCl2-Si at 128d and CaCl2-Si at 16 h further illustrates the increase of CaCl2-Si with increasing time since the regression pre-dicts that CaCl2-Si at 128d is 2.6 times larger than that at 16 h. As shown in Fig. 4, the Si release exhibited a classical parabolic shape followed by steady state, except for the Si- biochar. The slope of the Si release varied in sharpness according to the material tested. The release rate of CaCl2-Si was particularly sharp for Si + and Wo. After 128 days, the cumulative CaCl2-Si was two-fold higher in Si + than in Wo (Table4; Fig.4a). In contrast, Si- showed a negligible release of CaCl2-Si. As illustrat-ed in Fig.4b and3c, the release of CaCl2-Si from CA and NI showed a similar trend: a slow release up to day 32

followed by a plateau. Yet, Si release at day 128 was much larger in CA than in NI (Table4). The application of Si + biochar and Wo significantly increased the con-tent of CaCl2-Si in both CA and NI. The cumulative content of CaCl2-Si at day 128 did not significantly differ between CA:Si + and CA:Wo. However, this content was much larger in NI:Si + than in NI:Wo.

The contents of total Si, biogenic Na2CO3extractable Si (Sialk), and CaCl2-Si at day 128 in amendments and soil:amendment mixtures were compared in Table4to the efficiency of Si release RSi, as computed using [Eq.3]. RSi of biochar Si- was negative in both soils. RSiof biochar Si + was lower in CA than in NI. How-ever, RSiof Wo did not differ between CA and NI.

The pH dynamic during CaCl2extraction did not differ between biochars and wollastonite (Fig. 5a). CaCl2-pH increased during the first 5 days, and further decreased to CaCl2-pH values ranging between 7.6 and 8.1 at day 128. This pH evolution was also observed in soils and soil:amendment mixtures (Fig. 5b, c). However, the CaCl2-pH values were smaller than the ones measured for the amendments (Fig. 5a). They were below 4.8 in

-1 5 11 17 23 29 35 -5 20 45 70 95 120 145 CaCl 2 -S i ( g k g -1) Si+ Wo

Si-a

0 50 100 150 200 250 -5 20 45 70 95 120 145 CaCl 2 -S i ( m g kg -1)

CA:Si- CA:Si+ CA:Wo CA

b

0 50 100 150 200 250 -5 20 45 70 95 120 145 CaCl 2 -S i ( m g k g -1) Days

NI:Si- NI:Si+ NI:Wo NI

c

Fig. 4 CaCl2extractable Si content (CaCl2-Si) as plotted against time (6 h, 12 h, 24 h (1 day), 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 days. a: amendments Si-, Si + and Wo; b: CA, CA:Si-, CA:Si + and CA:Wo; c. NI, NI:Si-, NI:Si + and NI:Wo. Note that the units of CaCl2-Si are g kg−1in (a) and mg kg−1in (b-c). Error bars show ± standard devi-ation (n = 3)

both soils CA and NI. Biochar and Wo applications increased CaCl2-pH values in CA and NI. In CA:amendment mixtures, CaCl2-pH slightly increased to 4.9–5.2 at day 5, and further decreased to 4.5–4.8 at day 128. In NI:Si- and NI:Si+, CaCl2-pH increased to 7.0–7.3 at day 5, then decreased to 6.8–7.0 at day 128. In NI:Wo, CaCl2-pH raised to 7.2, and further slightly in-creased to 7.4 at day 128. Noteworthy was the large difference of CaCl2-pH values between, on the one hand, CA:Wo, CA:Si- and CA:Si + (pH = 4.5–4.8 at day 128), and, on the other hand, NI:Wo, NI:Si- and NI:Si+, despite the fact that CaCl2-pH values were low and similar in both untreated soils at day 128.

Biomass and Si mineralomass of wheat plants The values of the dry weight of wheat shoots at 32 days (DMS) are presented in Table4. DMSwas lower in NI than in CA. Wo significantly increased DMS in CA. Biochar applications significantly increased DMSin both CA and NI. Yet this effect was much larger for biochar Si + than for biochar Si-. As shown in Table4, Si-, Si + and Wo increased the Si mineralomass of wheat shoots in both CA and NI. Shoot Si mineralomass increased in the

following orders for the respective soils: CA = CA:Si- < CA:Si + < CA:Wo; NI < NI:Si- < NI:Si + = NI:Wo.

Discussion

Soil constituents and weathering stage The organic matter content was nearly 30 times larger in the Cambisol CA (5.7%) than in the Nitisol NI (0.2%). The soil mineralogical assemblage of CA was typical for a moderately weathered soil since it contains Ca-, Mg-, K- and Na-bearing primary minerals as well as 2:1 and 2:1:1 clay minerals. In contrast, that of NI was typical for a highly weathered soil as it contained kao-linite, Fe and Ti oxides, muscovite and quartz. The Total Reserve in Bases (TRB), which estimates the content of weatherable minerals (Herbillon 1986), amounted to 144 and 107 cmolc kg−1 in CA and NI, respectively (Table2). In the Nitisol NI, K was by far the dominant cation in TRB (Table 2), confirming the presence of muscovite, a dioctahedral mica resistant to weathering in soils. Thus, the large amount of total K hadBhidden^ Table 4 Total contents of Si, Na2CO3extractable Si (Sialk), and

CaCl2extractable Si (CaCl2-Si) contents (after 128 days) in the amendments, soils, and soil:amendment mixtures, as well as wheat

shoot Si content, wheat shoot dry matter (DMs) and Si mineralomass in soil:amendment mixtures

Materials Total Si Sialk CaCl2-Si† Efficiency of Si release RSi††

Shoot Si content DMs Si mineralomass

g kg−1 g kg−1 mg kg−1 % g kg−1 mg pot−1 Amendements Si- 0.31 c 0.20 c 0.31 × 103c Si+ 51.28 b 15.81 a 34.65 × 103a Wo 235.44 a 10.27 b 13.69 × 103b Cambisol Soil CA 270.8 b 1.9 b 55.1 d 0 c 1.3 e 139.6 c 0.2 d CA:Si- 269.8 b 1.7 b 54.2 d ††† 2.2 d 149.3 bc 0.3 d CA:Si+ 272.5 b 2.5 a 97.8 b 5.3 b 3.9 c 178.7 ab 0.7 c CA:Wo 274.2 b 1.8 b 104.2 b 6.1 b 10.5 a 210.2 a 2.2 a Nitisol Soil NI 317.2 a 0.8 d 36.3 e 0 c 0.9 f 89.9 d 0.08 e NI:Si- 317.2 a 0.7 d 35.3 e ††† 1.9 d 160.2 bc 0.3 d NI:Si+ 317.0 a 1.0 c 208.8 a 20.2 a 6.9 b 198.7 a 1.4 b NI:Wo 310.7 a 0.7 d 99.7 c 6.1 b 12.0 a 134.9 bc 1.6 b ANOVA p <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001

Within‘amendments’ and ‘soils and soil:amendment mixtures’, means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (p = 0.05, Tukey’s mean separation test). p values within the various treatments are given through a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) †Si amounts after 128-days of kinetic extractions (see Fig.3)

††R

Sicomputed from [Eq 1] †††The computed value of R

Siis negative because the amount of Si released from soil:Si- is below the one of Si released in untreated soils CA and NI

the advanced weathering stage of NI since muscovite does not weather in soils. The reserve of weatherable Ca, Mg, and Na minerals were estimated by the differ-ence between TRB and the content of non-exchangeable K [total K – exchangeable K] (Tables 2 and 3), thus excluding micaceous K. In the Nitisol NI, [TRB – non exchangeable K] amounted to 24 cmolckg−1which was far below the upper TRB limit of 40 cmolc kg−1for highly weathered ferrallitic soils (Herbillon1986). The Cambisol and the Nitisol thus largely differed in consti-tutive properties that explain the marked difference be-tween their respective soil buffering capacity (Fig. 2) and CEC (Table3). Assuming a CEC of 1.97 cmolckg−1 per 1% C (Fig.5b in Hardy et al.2016), the contribution of organic matter amounted to 6.5 and 0.2 cmolckg−1in CA and NI respectively. In other words, clay minerals contributed to 65% and 78% of soil CEC in CA and NI respectively, and CEC majorly rules the soil buffering capacity. The wheat plantlets, which were grown in a soil:deionized water system, clearly responded to soil type and weathering stage since their biomass, Si con-tent and mineralomass (Table 4) were all lower in NI

than in CA. This observation accords with previous results showing that increasing soil weathering stage decreases Si plant content and mineralomass (Henriet et al. 2008b; Klotzbücher et al. 2016), as well as soil bioavailable Si content and BSi stock (Table4) (Henriet et al. 2008a; Klotzbücher et al. 2015; Meunier et al. 2018).

Biogenic Si The higher BSi content in CA than in NI suggests that phytoliths are much less abundant in NI than in CA. The advanced weathering stage of the Nitisol and the absence of vegetation above that soil contribute to a low BSi content. Indeed, BSi particles return to soil through litterfall containing phytoliths in forest soils (Alexandre et al.1997; Cornelis et al.2011; Gérard et al.2008; Meunier et al.2008; Meunier et al. 1999; Sommer et al.2013), in which phytoliths make the reactive BSi pool that contributes substantially to the DSi pool (Cornelis and Delvaux 2016). Adding Si + biochar significantly increased Sialkin NI and CA com-pared to Si- biochar and Wo, because of the abundance of phytoliths in Si + biochar, and their absence in Wo 7 8 9 10 -5 20 45 70 95 120 145 pH Days a Si- Si+ Wo 3 4 5 6 7 8 -5 20 45 70 95 120 145 pH Days

b CA CA:Si- CA:Si+ CA:Wo

3 4 5 6 7 8 -5 20 45 70 95 120 145 pH Days

c NI NI:Si- NI:Si+ NI:Wo

Fig. 5 pH of the CaCl2extract as plotted against time (6 h, 12 h, 24 h (1 day), 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 days.). a: Si-, Si + and Wo; b: CA, CA:Si-, CA:Si + and CA:Wo; c. NI, NI:Si-, NI:Si + and NI:Wo. Error bars show ± standard deviation (n = 3)

and Si- biochar. Since the linear dissolution of Wo during the first 120 min (Sialk= 0.63*time + 10.08; time = 1–5 h; not illustrated) was similar to that de-scribed for primary lithogenic silicates (DeMaster 1981), Sialk was not amorphous in Wo. In soils and soil:Wo mixtures, Sialk, as determined by the intercept on the Y axis at time zero (DeMaster 1981), did not differ between, respectively, CA:Wo and CA, and NI:Wo and NI (Fig. 2). These findings support the non-amorphous Si origin of Sialk in Wo. They further show that the DeMaster technique, though widely used to quantify amorphous silica, was not specific to amor-phous silica, and thus to phytoliths, because it dissolved wollastonite. In contrast, Sialk(g kg−1) was fully amor-phous (of course biogenic), but negligible in Si- biochar (0.2), and abundant in Si + biochar (15.8). The applica-tion of the two biochars on both soils resulted in distinct effects on Sialk. Si- biochar did not increase the BSi pool in any soil, confirming the absence of phytoliths in Si-biochar. The Si + biochar thus consisted of a major BSi supplier. Sialkindeed increased by 1.3 in NI and 1.4 in CA, supporting the argument that Sialkin Si + biochar was fully amorphous and biogenic, and that phytolith particles present in biochar contributed to the BSi pool in soils. The addition of phytolithic biochar thus in-creased Sialk that is assumed to quantify the soil BSi pool.

Bioavailable Si Given the solubility of phytoliths (Fraysse et al.2009), supplying BSi through phytolith-rich biochar should increase the pool of bioavailable Si, as measured through CaCl2extraction in soil (Sauer et al.2006). As inferred from Fig.4, the rate of Si release decreased after 1–2 days, and became rather constant up to 128 days. The addition of biochar Si- did not increase CaCl2-Si in both soils (Table4, Fig.4). In contrast, the addition of Si + biochar largely increased the pool of bioavailable Si, as previously shown for biochars de-rived from Miscanthus (Houben et al. 2014; Li et al. 2018), wheat (Liu et al. 2014), rice and switchgrass (Wang et al. 2018), likely because phytolith solubility increased after pyrolysis performed at 500 °C. Xiao et al. (2014) have indeed shown that DSi release from rice-straw biochar was largely enhanced with increasing pyrolysis temperature in the range of 150–700 °C, above which phytolith solubility decreased. However, soil type also affected Si bioavailability. Although CaCl2-Si (mg kg−1) content was much higher in Si + (34.7 × 103) than in Wo (13.7 × 103), it was lower in CA:Si +

(97.8) than in CA:Wo (104.2) (Table 4, Fig. 4). In contrast, CaCl2-Si (mg kg−1) content was higher in NI:Si + (208.8) than in NI:Wo (99.7). Furthermore, the positive impact of Si + biochar on CaCl2-Si was much larger in NI (208.8) than in CA (97.8). Thus, the effect of Si-rich biochar on Si bioavailability was soil-depen-dent. Phytolith solubility varies according to soil type (Bartoli and Wilding1980) since soil constituents con-trol the concentration of H4SiO40 in given climatic conditions. Taking into account the fixed concentration of Ca2+ at 10−2 M, and concentrations of aqueous H4SiO40and H+ (Table S1), our data suggest that the H4SiO40 concentration at 128d is controlled by clay minerals in non-amended soils (CA, NI), and by amor-phous silica (phytolith) in the Nitisol NI amended with Si + biochar.

Phytolith solubility also largely depends on pH (Fraysse et al. 2006; Fraysse et al.2009) and, conse-quently, on soil buffering capacity. Supporting this view, the efficiency of Si release RSi(Table4) was 4 times larger in NI (20%) than in CA (5%). Four factors could have enhanced RSi in the Nitisol NI relatively to the Cambisol CA. Firstly, BSi minerals were present in the untreated Cambisol, but absent in the untreated Nitisol. In the former, native BSi minerals could have contributed to release Si during CaCl2extraction, and therefore affected the dissolution rate of biochar-phytolith or Wo. Secondly, Si could have been retrieved from the liquid phase through (i) the likely recombina-tion of Si and Al, and further formarecombina-tion of allophanic substances in the Cambisol CA (Farmer 1982), (ii) H4SiO40 adsorption on Fe oxides (McKeague and Cline 1963; Delstanche et al. 2009; Meunier et al. 2018), which is enhanced in acidic conditions. The former process seems more likely given the availability of Al in the acidic Cambisol and its low Fe oxide content. The latter process is not favored in the Nitisol amended by Si + biochar because of high pH. Thirdly, phytolith solubility in the Cambisol CA was limited by strong acidity (Fraysse et al. 2006). Indeed, pH only increased by 0.4 unit from 4.4 to 4.7–4.8 after Wo and biochar addition in CA, whereas it increased from 4.8 in NI to 5.4 in NI:Wo, 6.5 in NI:Si-, and 7.4 in NI:Si + (Table3). Indeed, at identical phytolith supply, pH con-trolled Si bioavailability and DSi as illustrated in Fig. 6a-b and (Fig.6c), respectively. Our data corroborate the results of previous field studies (Miles et al. 2014; Li et al.2018; Meunier et al.2018; Klotzbücher et al.2018; Haynes2019), which highlight the positive relationship

between pH and CaCl2extractable Si content after 5 or 16 h of extraction. Fourthly, the soil buffering capacity had alleviated the pH increase induced by amendments. In the Nitisol NI, a very small addition of 0.20 OH− cmolckg−1is enough to increase pH from 4.8 to 7.0. As discussed above, the large difference between NI and CA (Fig.2) was directly linked to soil constituents. The Cambisol CA contained relatively large amounts of organic matter (OM) and high activity clays whereas the Nitisol NI was particularly poor in OM, and contained low activity clays. Therefore, the pH-effect of wollastonite and biochars was much smaller in the highly buffered Cambisol than in the low buffered, highly weathered Nitisol.

The efficiency of Si release (RSi) followed the se-quence: NI:Si + (20%) > NI:Wo (6%) = CA:Wo (6%) = CA:Si + (5%) (Table 4). Thus, biochar Si + was much more efficient in releasing bioavailable Si in NI than in CA, and more than Wo whatever the soil type. Phytoliths present in phytolith-enriched biochar were thus largely soluble. Phytoliths supplied bioavailable Si in quantities equivalent to those released by the inorganic fertilizer Wo in the moderately weathered Cambisol. In the highly weathered Nitisol, however, they supplied bioavailable Si in quantities four times larger than those released by Wo, since phytolith dissolution was strongly enhanced by the pH increase induced by biochar application. The release of bioavailable Si markedly increased above pH 7, illustrating the major effects of pH and soil buffer-ing capacity on phytolith dissolution. In particular, Figs.2 and6highlight the potential to use Si-enriched biochar in highly weathered soils to boost Si biocycling, particularly if these soils have a small buffering capacity. The large liming effect of biochar due to the small soil buffering capacity of NI enhanced phytolith dissolution since in-creasing pH by 4 units, from 4.5 to 8.5, increases the dissolution rate of phytoliths by two orders of magnitude (Fraysse et al.2006; Fraysse et al.2009).

Plant responses to wollastonite and biochar As expect-ed, wheat shoot biomass was larger in the young Cambisol than in the highly weathered Nitisol, following a natural soil fertility gradient linked to weathering stage (Fig. 7). Applying amendments increased wheat shoot biomass in the following orders of increasing phytomass in the respective soils: CA≤ CA:Si- < CA:Si + ≤ CA:Wo; NI≤ NI:Wo < NI:Si- ≤ NI:Si + (Fig.7). The inorganic sil-icate fertilizer Wo had little significant effect in NI, but the largest one in CA. In the moderately weathered Cambisol CA, Wo addition alleviated mineral toxicities, as it does in other acid soils (Corrales et al. 1997; Keeping 2017; Liang et al. 2007) and increased plant biomass (Liang et al.2015; Liang et al.1994; Ma et al. 2006; Neu et al. 2017; Song et al. 2014). In contrast, biochar had a marked effect on biomass in NI. We attribute this difference to the overall increase of soil fertility after biochar application in the Nitisol. Biochar addition is known to increase soil pH, plant nutrient availability and water retention (Biederman and Harpole 2013; Jeffery et al. 2011; Laird et al.2010; Lehmann et al.2003; Liang et al. 2006; Rondon et al. 2007; Yamato et al. 2006). As shown in this study, the application of Si- and Si +

0 50 100 150 200 250 4 5 6 7 8 CaCl 2 -S i ( mg k g -1) pH-CaCl2

CA CA:Si- CA:Si+ CA:Wo

NI NI:Si- NI:Si+ NI:Wo

a

0 50 100 150 200 250 4 5 6 7 8 CaCl 2 -S i ( m g kg -1) pH-CaCl2

b

0 50 100 150 200 250 4 5 6 7 8 DSi ( m g k g -1) pH

c

Fig. 6 Mobility of Si in the soil:solution system from three distinct experimental designs. (a) Plot of CaCl2-Si contents against pH-CaCl2of the extract, reporting all experimental points obtained at the 10 different extraction times (6 h, 12 h, 1d, 2d, 4d, 8d, 16d, 32d, 64d, 128d) for the 8 Bsamples^ (samples = soil; soil:Si-; soil:Si+; soil:Wo). (b) Plot of CaCl2-Si contents against pH-CaCl2 of the extract, reporting experimental points obtained at the 16 h extraction time as computed from the curves shown in Fig.4. (c) Plot of DSi against pH in the soil:solution:plant device before planting (1 week solid:solution equilibration)

biochar significantly increased the soil contents of plant-available Ca, Mg and K as well as of C and N (Table 3), and further increased the plant con-tents of Ca, Mg and K (data not shown). The addition of biochar (Si- and Si+) increased the contents of exchangeable K and Mg. Enhanced plant growth induced an increase of plant Si con-tent and mineralomass even after biochar Si- addi-tion in both soils, suggesting that the alkalinity of biochar partly led to elevate Si solubility. In addi-tion, improved plant growth can induce rhizospheric mineral weathering through silicate dissolution (Hinsinger1998). Noteworthy is the fact that, for both soils, biochar Si + largely increased wheat shoot bio-mass, Si content and mineralomass (Table 4). Thus, our data confirm the positive effects of biochar on soil fertility, on the one hand, and Si bioavailability on the other hand, promoting plant biomass. Furthermore, the

relative impact of Si-enriched biochar on plant biomass, Si content and mineralomass was largest in the most weathered soil (NI). At identical supply of the two biochars (Si + and Si-), which exhibit identical physico-chemical characteristics, wheat biomass was 1.2 fold larger in CA:Si + and NI:Si + than that in CA:Si- and NI:Si-. As illustrated in Fig. 7, shoot bio-mass, Si content and mineralomass positively responded to the size of the bioavailable Si pool in soils. It further suggests that supplying phytolithic biochar substantially increases shoot biomass, and promotes the biocycling of Si accu-mulated in crop straw residues. The latter may thus act as a sustainable Si source by reducing the loss of BSi out of croplands. Furthermore, the BSi pool was strongly impacted by the pH increase mediated by biochar addition in the poor-ly buffered Nitisol. In this respect, we further

0 50 100 150 200 250 0 20 40 60 80 t o p g m( ss a m oi b t o o h S -1)

CaCl2-Si at 16hours (mg kg-1)

a

CA CA:Si-CA:Si+ CA:Wo NI NI:Si-NI:Si+ NI:Wo 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 100 200 300 Shoot biom ass (m g pot -1)

CaCl2-Si at 128days (mg kg-1)

b

0 1 2 3 0 20 40 60 80 t o p g m( ss a m ol ar e ni m i S t o o h S -1)

CaCl2-Si at 16 hours (mg kg-1)

c

0 1 2 3 0 100 200 300 Shoot Si m ineralom ass (m g pot -1)

CaCl2-Si at 128days (mg kg-1)

d

0 50 100 150 200 250 0 5 10 15 t o p g m( ss a m oi b t o o h S -1) Shoot Si content (g kg-1)

e

0 1 2 3 0 5 10 15 Shoot Si m enralom ass (m g pot -1) Shoot Si content ( g kg-1)

f

Fig. 7 Wheat shoot biomass as plotted against (a) soil CaCl2-Si at 16 h (b) CaCl2-Si at 128 days; Wheat shoot Si mineralomass as plotted against (c) soil CaCl2-Si at 16 h (d) CaCl2-Si at 128 days; Wheat shoot biomass (e) and its Si mineralomass (f) as plotted against its shoot Si

point out that the effect of liming on Si bioavail-ability depends on soil buffering capacity, which in turn depends on soil constituents, hence on soil development and weathering stage.

Conclusion

From the kinetic CaCl2-extraction carried out for 128 days, we conclude that the CaCl2-Si content at 128d quantified the pool of bioavailable Si where-as the one performed at 16 h predicted it. This confirms the validity of CaCl20.01 M to extract plant available Si as a routine procedure at 16 h. Though routinely used to quantify amorphous silica, notably phytolith, the DeMaster technique is not specific to amorphous silica since it dissolved wollastonite. Our data thus strengthen the role of phytoliths as a source of plant available Si, but question the DeMaster tech-nique to quantify their pool.

Supplying Si through the addition of phytolithic biochar to soil increases plant available Si if pH condi-tions enhance phytolith solubility. Indeed, at identical phytolithic Si supply, soil pH and soil buffering capac-ity control the transfer of Si from soil to plant because the liming effect of biochar depended on soil buffering capacity. The Si soil-to-plant transfer is indeed largest in the poorly buffered, highly weathered Nitisol, in which phytolithic biochar performed better than wol-lastonite in terms of increased soil BSi and bioavailable Si contents, as well as increased Si uptake, plant shoot biomass and mineralomass.

The effect of phytolithic biochar on Si bioavail-ability is depending on soil constituents and prop-erties, and consequently on soil type. The efficien-cy of Si fertilization is thus expected to be largely soil-dependent.

Acknowledgements We thank A. Iserentant and C. Givron for laboratory assistance (UCL), and M. Capelle for technical advice (UCL), as well as M. Pala for biochar preparation (Ghent Univer-sity). Z. Li is supported by the‘Fonds Spécial de Recherche’ of the UCL in 2014-2015 and the‘Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique’ (FNRS) of Belgium in 2015-2019. D.U.B would like to thank BELSPO for funding the project SOGLO (The soil system under global change, P7/24). We thank the reviewers for their helpful comments to improve the manuscript, and the Editor-in-Chief for his pertinent advices. All authors contributed to paper writing and revision.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest The authors declare that there are no con-flicts of interest.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Saccone L, Conley D, Sauer D (2006) Methodologies for amor-phous silica analysis. J Geochem Explor 88:235–238 Sauer D, Saccone L, Conley DJ, Herrmann L, Sommer M (2006)

Review of methodologies for extracting plant-available and amorphous Si from soils and aquatic sediments. Biogeochemistry 80:89–108

Smithson F (1956) Plant opal in soil. Nature 178:107

Sohi S, Krull E, Lopez-Capel E, Bol R (2010) A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. Adv Agron 105:47–82 Sommer M, Jochheim H, Höhn A, Breuer J, Zagorski Z, Busse J,

Barkusky D, Meier K, Puppe D, Wanner M (2013) Si cycling in a forest biogeosystem–the importance of transient state biogenic Si pools. Biogeosciences 10:4991–5007

Song Z, Wang H, Strong PJ, Shan S (2014) Increase of available soil silicon by Si-rich manure for sustainable rice production. Agron Sustain Dev 34:813–819

Thiry M, Quesnel F, Yans J, Wyns R, Vergari A, Theveniaut H, Simon-Coinçon R, Ricordel C, Moreau M-G, Giot D (2006) Continental France and Belgium during the early cretaceous: paleoweatherings and paleolandforms. Bull Soc Geol Fr 177: 155–175

Titeux H, Delvaux B (2009) Experimental study of DOC, nutrients and metals release from forest floors developed under beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) on a Cambisol and a Podzol. Geoderma 148:291–298

Unzué-Belmonte D, Struyf E, Clymans W, Tischer A, Potthast K, Bremer M, Meire P, Schaller J (2016) Fire enhances solubil-ity of biogenic silica. Sci Total Environ 572:1289–1296 Vandevenne F, Struyf E, Clymans W, Meire P (2012) Agricultural

silica harvest: have humans created a new loop in the global silica cycle? Front Ecol Environ 10:243–248

Wang M, Wang JJ, Wang X (2018) Effect of KOH-enhanced biochar on increasing soil plant-available silicon. Geoderma 321:22–31

Xiao X, Chen B, Zhu L (2014) Transformation, morphology, and dissolution of silicon and carbon in rice straw-derived bio-chars under different pyrolytic temperatures. Environ Sci Technol 48:3411–3419

Yamato M, Okimori Y, Wibowo IF, Anshori S, Ogawa M (2006) Effects of the application of charred bark of Acacia mangium on the yield of maize, cowpea and peanut, and soil chemical properties in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 52:489–495

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“Natural climate solutions are relatively cost-effective ways to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions …

4 June, 2021
 

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Canada could reach one-third of its greenhouse gas reduction targets by making better use of its vast forests, prairies and wetlands, says a report by more than three dozen scientists.

The researchers from universities, governments and environmental groups say a good portion of those emissions cuts could be made for under $50 a tonne, less than next year’s carbon tax.

“Natural climate solutions are relatively cost-effective ways to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions,” said Amanda Reed, who co-ordinated the research for Nature United, the Canadian affiliate of The Nature Conservancy.

Grassland soils, peat-rich wetlands and old-growth forests store large amounts of carbon, said Reed. But they could store even more if Canadians farmed, logged and developed differently. 

The report says agriculture offers the biggest chance for carbon savings. 

At current rates, about 2.5 million hectares of native grassland are expected to be converted to crops by 2030. Cultivation releases carbon from the soil into the air.

Preventing that would keep almost 13 million tonnes of carbon in the ground, the report says. About 13 per cent of those savings could be accomplished for less than $50 a tonne.

Halting the conversion of wetlands, which store vast amounts of carbon in peat and other plant material, could cut emissions by another 15 million tonnes — one-fifth of which could be done for less than $50. 

Planting cover crops could sequester another 10 megatonnes without reducing cash crop cultivation, the report suggests. 

Forestry would offer another eight megatonnes in annual savings through conservation of old-growth forests, improving regrowth and ensuring wood waste was turned into usable products such as biochar, a high-carbon wood residue that can be used to improve soil. 

Those savings could be made while still producing 90 per cent of Canada’s current forest cut, says the report, and almost half would come under the $50 threshold. 

In all, the report lists 24 nature-based ways for Canada to cut carbon emissions by 78 million tonnes a year by 2030 — more than one-third of the federal government’s goal of 219 million tonnes.

“Natural climate solutions are available now,” said Reed. “We don’t have to wait for new technology to come along.”

She emphasized that nature can’t do all the work. Other approaches to cutting greenhouse gases, from carbon taxes to clean fuel standards, will still be needed.

“We have a really big crisis. We need to do all of those things. We need to have a broad policy that decreases fossil fuel use.”

But using nature to reduce emissions also has other benefits, she said. It can boost biodiversity, reduce flood risk and ensure clean water supplies.

“Natural climate solutions not only mitigate greenhouse gases, but they also advance all of these other things.” 

The most recent federal budget included $4 billion for nature-based climate measures. The Forest Products Association of Canada has pledged to cut its emissions by 30 million tonnes by 2030. 

Reed said interest has grown since a 2017 global report concluded that such measures could help reach about one-third of the carbon cuts the world needs to meet its reduction targets. The current report is modelled on that research, she said.

Researchers from nine universities, the Canadian government and environmental groups including the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in the United States all contributed to the report.

 This report by The Canadian Press was first published June 4, 2021. 

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Bob Weber, The Canadian Press

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Readworks developing possible solutions and biochar answer key

4 June, 2021
 

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Find more questions on Homework Help on Yahoo Answers. Not quite the right use of "offset." It's not going to help with the cost of hospitalization so much as it may reduce the incidents of hospitalization.

Solution: I happened after II and thus I cannot be a cause. This eliminates options A and C. The events are inter-related, which eliminates D. The answer can be either B or E. Now, it seems that the reduction in procurement price of crops must have instigated the farmers not to sell their produce to Government agencies. So, the correct answer …

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Here’s list of Questions & Answers on Python Subject covering 100+ topics: 1. Questions & Answers on Variable Names, Operators, Data Types & Numeric Types . The section contains questions and answers on variables, basic operators, core data and numeric types.

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Biochar Biochar by ReadWorks When researchers at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute Agriculture Program, also known as Virginia Tech, started work on a soil enhancement research project, they kept their minds open. The project was focused on the possible uses of biochar, charcoal used specifically for agricultural and other environmental …

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Aug 13, 2016 · More resources on – Reading comprehension examples in this resource page Q.37) B By observing the given fonts Q.38) B Q.39) B Star symbol at the bottom right corner is at the same location. So, we assume it remains in the same position. The inverted triangle at the center is also at the same position. So, we have to mind the three symbols left.

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Scholastic Question and Answer Series (various science titles) Bill Nye the Science Guy’s Consider the Following: A Way Cool Set of Science Questions, Answers, and Ideas to Ponder by Bill Nye. Hyperion Books for Children, 2000. Why? The Best Ever Question and Answer Book About Nature, Science and the World Around You by Catherine Ripley …

Fill in the Blank / Cloze Sentence Worksheets. Welcome to the Fill in the Blank and Cloze Sentence Worksheet Generator!

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Most single-passage reading comprehension sets include a question that asks about the passage’s main point or central topic, or the author’s main purpose in writing. The same is true of most comparative reading sets, but in comparative reading sets the questions may ask about the main point, primary purpose, or central issue of both …

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1. Write each word from the chapter vocabulary list in the first column. 2. Read each word as it is used in the above novel before you look it up.

This item is currently on backorder until 8/18. Foster your sixth grader’s critical thinking skills and see confidence soar! Children are naturally inquisitive from infancy, yet creative and problem-solving skills need to be nurtured as children grow.

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X Your answer: For webquest or practice, print a copy of this quiz at the Industrial Revolution – Inventions and Technology webquest print page. About this quiz: All the questions on this quiz are based on information that can be found on the page at Industrial Revolution – Inventions and Technology .

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Developing Possible Solutions. Thank you for your interest in ReadWorks. For any given problem, there is often more than one solution . In some cases, there are very few solutions . In others, a countless array of perfectly good solutions can be introduced.

Oct 04, 2019 · Dichotomous Key Definition. A dichotomous key is a tool created by scientists to help scientists and laypeople identify objects and organisms. Typically, a dichotomous key for identifying a particular type of object consists of a specific series of questions. When one question is answered, the key directs the user as to what question to ask next.

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Examining how answer choices differ from one another can also be a good way to determine what errors might be present in the underlined text. This technique can also help you fight the tendency to read so carefully for meaning that you overlook grammatical mistakes. begin developing critical thinking competencies at a very young age. Although adults often exhibit deficient reasoning, in theory all people can be taught to think critically. Instructors are urged to provide explicit instruction in critical thinking, to teach how to transfer to new contexts,

Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) is a system designed to teach students how to locate and formulate answers based on specific types of questions often asked about a piece of text (Raphael, 1982, 1984). This system, which has been shown to positively affect student test scores (Raphael & Au, 2005), consists of four types of questions.

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Custom Tank | Stormwater BIOCHAR

4 June, 2021
 

 

When it comes to custom tanks, we build not only what works but also what fits on your site and needs.  The large end of pipe treatment tanks too smaller hard to fit places that need treatment.

 

 

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(PDF) Overview on Synthesis of Magnetic Bio Char from Discarded Agricultural Biomass | Manoj …

4 June, 2021
 

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european biochar certificate

4 June, 2021
 

In Switzerland, however, it is obligatory for all biochar sold for use in agriculture. Unsere Pflanzenkohlen werden daher auch nach den strengen Richtlinien des EBC (European Biochar Certificate) zertifiziert. Several other countries aligned their biochar related regulations with the EBC. Seit 2009 entwickelte die International Biochar Initiative ihre IBI Guidelines for Biochar, und unabhängig davon entwickelte das Ithaka Institut seit 2010 das Europäische Pflanzenkohle Zertifikat (European Certificate for Biochar, EBC). Mehr Infos zur Pflanzenkohle It is made on “flute lamination machines” or “corrugators” and is used for making cardboard boxes. Watch CNN streaming channels featuring Anderson Cooper, classic Larry King interviews, and feature shows covering travel, culture and global news. Vogel empfiehlt Produkte, die den Anforderungen des European Biochar Certificate (EBC) entsprechen. Pentecostal United Holy Church, located at 2300 Gavintown Road in Lumberton, will celebrate its 119th Church Anniversary on Sunday at 11 a.m. … Published Date: May 2021 The global beauty devices market was valued at $50,814.4 million in 2020, and it is expected to reach $311,039.3 million in 2030, witnessing a CAGR of 20.6% during the forecast period (2021–2030). The corrugated medium sheet and the linerboard(s) are made of kraft containerboard, a paperboard material usually over 0.01 inches (0.25 mm) thick. Biochar can be used as a part of the growing medium in vertical farming. Our choice for carbon removal marketplace. When biochar is a part of the growing medium, it promotes the growth of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Beauty Devices Market To Generate Revenue Worth $311,039.3 Million by 2030. Beide wurden im März 2012 erstmals veröffentlicht. Download previous year Environment and Ecology prelims questions for last-minute revision. … Carbofex biochar has large surface area of +550 m2/g, high carbon content 95% and pyrolysis temperature of 1000C. When biochar is a part of the growing medium, it enables the growing medium to retain water for a longer time. A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the equivalent amount of a different greenhouse gas (tCO 2 e).. Advanced technologies represent a great opportunity for the European bio-based industrial sector to sustainably transform renewable natural resources into bio-based May 19, 2021 Read Full Article Paraguay Will Have Its Biofuel Plant Operational in 2024 Environment and Ecology Questions of UPSC Prelims General Studies-I: Get Year-Wise [2013-2020] Environment and Ecology Questions for UPSC 2021 preparation. Our Biochar is made form the natural charcoal we produce, it is the smaller particles of charcoal that are removed during our bagging process. Follow BYJU’S for more. Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards. Download free books in PDF format. Carbon credits and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). IBI and the EBC (European Biochar Certificate) set 0.7 as the maximum H/C org ratio for a carbonised product to be considered as biochar. Read online books for free new release and bestseller Un libro è un insieme di fogli, stampati oppure manoscritti, delle stesse dimensioni, rilegati insieme in un certo ordine e racchiusi da una copertina.. Il libro è il veicolo più diffuso del sapere. For certain recovered wastes, such as struvite, biochar and ash-based products, within the meaning of Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (8), a market demand for their use as fertilising products has been identified. We recommend using a 10% mix of biochar … O is obtained by difference. European biochar certification body. 1137 Projects 1137 incoming 1137 knowledgeable 1137 meanings 1137 σ 1136 demonstrations 1136 escaped 1136 notification 1136 FAIR 1136 Hmm 1136 CrossRef 1135 arrange 1135 LP 1135 forty 1135 suburban 1135 GW 1135 herein 1135 intriguing 1134 Move 1134 Reynolds 1134 positioned 1134 didnt 1134 int 1133 Chamber 1133 termination 1133 overlapping 1132 newborn 1132 Publishers 1132 jazz … The certificate was designed to serve this goal. H, C, N (and sometimes S) are measured in ultimate analyses as percentage by weight. Carbofex pyrolysis technology. … EBC-certificate. This product is great for adding to your soil and compost to create better plants, stronger root formation and healthier soil. Currently, the European Biochar Certificate is a voluntary industry standard in Europe. Nur natürliche, nachwachsende Rohstoffe wie Holz, Bio Dinkel-Getreidespelzen und Zellulosefasern führen auch zu einem entsprechend qualitativ hochwertigen Endprodukt. ). Watch breaking news videos, viral videos and original video clips on CNN.com. 9 talking about this. H/C ratio – examples.

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Glide Elementary School latest school garden to receive donation, lesson on biochar

4 June, 2021
 

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A few passing clouds, otherwise generally clear. Low 49F. Winds light and variable..

A few passing clouds, otherwise generally clear. Low 49F. Winds light and variable.

Umpqua Biochar Education Team member Scott McKain, right, hands a bucket of biochar to Glide Elementary School sixth grader Brix Madsen to be transported to a garden at the school on Tuesday.

From left, John Brown, Glide Elementary School sixth grader Sydni Sprague and Caroline Brown collect donated biochar at a garden at the Glide school on Tuesday.

Glide Elementary School sixth grader Brix Madsen spreads a bucket of biochar onto a compost heap at a garden at the school on Tuesday.

Glide Elementary School fourth grader Connor Massingale carries a bucket of biochar to a garden at the Glide school on Tuesday.

Glide Elementary School sixth grader Brix Madsen carries a bucket of biochar to a garden at the school on Tuesday.

Glide Elementary School sixth grader Sydni Sprague carries a bucket of biochar to a garden at the Glide school on Tuesday.

Umpqua Biochar Education Team member Scott McKain, right, hands a bucket of biochar to Glide Elementary School sixth grader Brix Madsen to be transported to a garden at the school on Tuesday.

From left, John Brown, Glide Elementary School sixth grader Sydni Sprague and Caroline Brown collect donated biochar at a garden at the Glide school on Tuesday.

Glide Elementary School sixth grader Brix Madsen spreads a bucket of biochar onto a compost heap at a garden at the school on Tuesday.

Glide Elementary School fourth grader Connor Massingale carries a bucket of biochar to a garden at the Glide school on Tuesday.

Glide Elementary School sixth grader Brix Madsen carries a bucket of biochar to a garden at the school on Tuesday.

Glide Elementary School sixth grader Sydni Sprague carries a bucket of biochar to a garden at the Glide school on Tuesday.

GLIDE — Scott McKain of the Umpqua Biochar Education Team filled 28 five-gallon buckets with biochar on the sweltering Tuesday afternoon. The buckets were then hauled into the school garden by Glide Elementary School students.

Sixth grader Brix Madsen hauled most of the buckets to the garden, putting some biochar in the compost. Most of it went into storage.

Brix is one of several students who help in the garden at the school, which is open to students two lunch recesses a week.

“It’s where I get away and release stress,” Brix said.

In addition to hauling the buckets of biochar, he’d gotten a lot of experience in plumbing when fixing the water lines in the garden.

Mary Brown, who runs the Glide Elementary School Paw Patch said most of the students who help in the garden are younger, and when they get older they start realizing how much work is involved.

Brown tries to teach the students about gardening, soils, plants, composting and more. And recently the lessons have revolved around biochar.

A sign as students walked into the garden taught them about the four Ms of biochar: minerals, microbes, moisture, and micronize.

“Biochar is basically charcoal, and when you plant it in the ground it has a lot of chemicals in it that are beneficial to the environment,” sixth grader Rebecca Layton said. “It helps it grow faster, and not only that it also helps so that you don’t have to replant as much so you save more money.”

Don Morrison with the Umpqua Biochar Education Team said biochar is a byproduct of places like sawmills that take wood waste to make electricity.

Biochar will be mixed into the school’s compost to absorb nutrients, enhance fungal networks, raise the soil’s pH, store water and loosen heavy clay soil.

Morrison had been donating some of his private reserves of biochar to the school district, according to Brown.

“It’s super cool for us to have groups like UBET around who spread the information,” Brown said.

In total, the school received 150 gallons of biochar. No more than 10% of the school’s compost will be biochar to optimize the results.

Umpqua Biochar Education Team and Douglas County Global Warming Coalition bought a large amount of biochar to deliver to local schools. They received support from Douglas County Farmers Co-Op and Rogue Biochar.

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biochar for sale home depot

4 June, 2021
 

ARTi Biochar | ARTi was founded by students in 2013 composed of multiple disciplines and nationalities. 20% Off Your Lowe’s Advantage Card Purchase: Accounts Opened in Store: One-time 20% off discount is not automatic; you must ask cashier to apply discount (bar code) at time of in-store purchase.Accounts opened online, via Text-to-Apply or QR code: You will receive one-time 20% off coupon/promotional code, which may be used in store or online. Just add a 4stovepipe and youre ready to go! Contact: Ralph Barela viga@newmexico.com 699 Harlan Dr. Las Vegas, NM 87701 Phone: 505-617-1966, 505-425-9479, 505-454-4311 sorry . The biochar used is … Once I found the original lifestraw, it became my go-to—period. FREE $6.49. Vegetable and flower gardens, lawns and landscaping, raised-bed and container gardens (both inside . APPLICATION RATES: Mix 1/2 gallon in a minimum 15 gallons of water per acre. In 2013 AirTerra pivoted to make SoilMatrix Biochar available for the Canadian farming, gardening, horticulture, silviculture, reclamation, and compost market. … Office Depot sells a … BioChar Resources and Remineralized Inoculated Char (RICHMIX) RICHMix™ acreage covered/ton: 28.5 in the row – 2.8 acres broadcast; 70 lbs-700 lbs. . However, one very important point, SoilMatrix Biochar needs a friend… compost! Always conduct soil test to determine nutrient levels and make needed amendments to assure good fertility levels in your soil. Enhance potting mix with one part biochar to ten parts soil, soil blend or potting mix. This finely textured blend is ideal for use in self-watering and regular seed-starting trays. Landscapers Compost Blend conditions the soil and improves aeration, drainage, water and nutrient-holding capacity. Unit price / per . You can use tree prunings, sticks, wood scraps, corn stalks, and other biomass “waste” that is generated around the home and garden. Biochar is “a multi-faceted strategy,” and it produces bio-oil during pyrolysis (decomposition caused by high temperatures) that could replace fossil fuels. Alternative Products. The biochar used is created via pyrolysis at temps between 500 & 600 degrees. Super Soil is the industry leader of engineered landscape soil products serving both commercial and residential customers for over 40 years. As your “grow medium” (the material that your plants grow in), the balance of nutrients your soil contains shapes how your plants grow, how fast and abundantly they flower and how many buds they yield.. Cannabis plants spring up like a literal weed. Join the carbon-farming revolution. G&B Organics Organic Soils. They are a worthwhile investment. Thanks to Joanna Gaines, there’s a short list of interior design elements that have become wildly popular: Fixer Upper fans know the designer loves to use subway tile, sliding barn doors, shiplap, and concrete countertops in her renovations. Biochar … In his view, the benefits of biochar were as follows: 1. Bermuda Lawn Guide Important Notes #1 There are 2 ways to read this guide. A group of volunteers at the Rainforest Information Centre in Lismore, NSW, Australia have formed a village-scale biochar work group that has won a grant to produce small farm and village-scale non-polluting biochar kilns. Biochar is charcoal that is produced by pyrolysis of biomass in the absence of oxygen; it is used as a soil ameliorant for both carbon sequestration and soil health benefits. but we are dogs! Landscape Compost is a good addition for heavy clay soils particularly at new home sites and good pre-plant conditioner for new lawns and gardens. HUMICHAR ® The Next Generation of Soil Health. Get outdoors for some landscaping or spruce up your garden! See more ideas about propane generator, propane, generator house. The Oakland, Calif-based company — which specializes in indoor and at-home gardening kits — first launched a pilot version of its organic seed packet program this past spring, during which the company’s wide variety of vegetable and herb seeds became available at 100 Home Depot stores. Sale on PV Brand Veggie & Herb Seeds-Buy 4 Get the 5th Pack Free-Use Code buy4get1 There are some liquid inoculants available, but the majority are powders. Loam, Compost, Top Soil Massachusetts MA – Landscape Depot. BIOCHAR: There is a lot of excitement regarding biochar, and there are many ways of making it, but first let me tell you what it is. An inoculant is generally a powdered form of bacteria or fungus that is added to the soil by means of coating the pea or bean seed with the powder prior to planting. The Grateful Garden. Nature’s Care. This organic fertilizer is also high in nitrogen, usually around 12-0-0. I would think just putting in the biochar, throwing in some rocks or bricks, then letting it churn for awhile would work. The Andersons Humate Products – Humic DG, Black Gypsum DG, UltraMate LQ and K-Mate SG – represent the next generation of soil health. Gifts & Registry Health Home Home Improvement Household Essentials Jewelry Movies Music Office. Really not a good idea to buy charcoal that is meant for burning and use it as a soil amendment. 4516 Clearview Pkwy Metairie, LA 70006 (504) 887-4336 LEARN MORE > AUTO SERVICE & GARDEN CENTRES ARE OPEN; PLEASE CHECK HOURS BY STORE. It holds water, acts like a fertilizer and grows bigger plants. See more ideas about soil improvement, improve energy efficiency, carbon sequestration. William Dow. Humic acid is a natural soil conditioner that acts as an organic chelator and microbial stimulator. Our SuperRoot Booster creates the living soil mix that plants need to thrive. have local providers of top soil and composted manure.These can usually be found in 50lb or .75-2 cubic feet bags. If growing cannabis is an art, then the soil is the canvas, paint and even a little bit of the brush. Mountain Meadow Bone Broth creates collagen-rich bone broths that are the perfect marriage of taste and nutrition. Through The Home Depot, you can get 2.5 litres of potted plants from the Southern Living Plant collection. Nature’s Care Nature’s Care® Organic Garden Soil with Water Conserve 0.12-0.08-0.12 28.3 L . If Cellulose is C6H10O5 then biochar is cellulose that has had the H’s and the O’s driven off by heat. Azomite is a finely ground, natural trace mineral powder made from montmorillonite clay mined from an ancient sea bed. They are unwanted guests in every home. . 5 Gallon Bucket Gardening: Seven Ways to Reuse Plastic Buckets for Growing Food. Rated 4.8 out of 5. How biochar fits into the nz climate change response bill friday, 17 may 2019, 5:29 pm press release: It offers excellent habitat for soil life. Organic soils, mulches, and fertilizers made in Maine with marine based blends (lobster shells, kelp, seaweed) Organically approved, compost-based soils, enriching mulches, soil supplements and liquid fertilizers. Yes it is a rash with itchy (very) bumps. He is based in Middlesex, Vt., and can be reached at pwhite@meadowridgemedia.com. For him, the presence of biochar in the soil meant an improvement in its microbiological properties and a better supply of chlorophyll for the plants. Biochar is a stable solid that is rich in carbon and can endure in soil for thousands of years. This is a big subject and there is no easy answer, but for our sake please consider a more natural and less toxic plan for your lawn. How to make biochar at home. Founded in 2014 by the late Dr.Thomas R. Marrero and his twin sons, Tom and Tony, Wakefield BioChar is a pioneer in the circular economy via their specialized production of a clean, sustainable carbon called biochar. Author: Jeff McIntire-Strasburg // Last updated on October 29, 2020 15 Comments Get outdoors for some landscaping or spruce up your garden! Read on for all of the best deals on www.landscapedepotsupply.com Landscape Depot Supply offers Loam, Compost and Top Soil at our locations in Shrewsbury, Framingham, and Milford Massachusetts ( MA ). It’s then charged with wide-spectrum microbial inoculants. . Most of the fertilizers we use are cheap, organic and available for purchase at either Home Depot or on Amazon. C. Its just C. C is the elemental symbol for Carbon. . Small scale DIY retort. Home Gardeners Start with a nitrogen fertilizer like PVFS Liquid Fish. Preemergent Weed Control 0-0-7 Prodiamine .38%. This 30.5″ wide by 11″ deep kiln, made of sturdy 20 gauge steel, is by far the easiest, affordable, and fastest way to make biochar at home. Biochar Kilns Soil improvement, Carbon sequestration . Combine this with a kelp extract (PVFS Kelp or Maxicrop). Heats our 2025 sq ft home all winter at 72 degrees on just 3 tons of rice coal which equates to about $100.00 per month. Unit price / per . Ancient oyster shells are carefully harvested and then ground into … Curbside pick up. For perennials or standing annuals, make a hole (with a dibble) around the drip zone of the plant and pour biochar into the hole and cover. Apply directly to soil in fall or early spring. We work hard to bring extra quality and productivity to the grower’s enterprise—and we do it with an eye towards long-term sustainability. Landscape Compost is produced from 70 percent compost and 30 percent Nitrified Sawdust. The nutrient ratio of Biochar Fertilizer is 18-5-12 making it a great source of nitrogen for bamboo plants. Barela Timber Management Co. Weight: 45 lbs Coverage: 15,000 sq ft (3lb/1,000 rate). 201 kalayaan village (6,792.26 mi) Pasay City, Philippines This has specific effects on the plant and/or soil (see below). Product of Chem trails ? . Max discount is $100 with this offer. Blood meal is another great amendment to add to your growing medium. Find bulk biochar options with volume discounts on trailer loads. Once a home owner has succumbed and bought his or her first orchid, or received one as a gift, meeting a few cultural requirements will coax the plant to flower again. The perfect temp for biochar production. Biochar is a stable solid that is rich in carbon and can endure in soil for thousands of years. 965 Washington St. Hanover MA 02339 (617) 212-9223 Website. ALL Power Labs began in 2008 by selling small-scale gasifier kits for DIY enthusiasts and university researchers. Luxeve® Fire Pit – Earth Rust. 1 Part Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss: Available in 2.2 Cubic Foot Bales, 3.0 Cubic Foot Bales and 3.8 Cubic Foot Bales at Home Depot and most gardening stores. preventing / fixing urine scald in your lawn . Creepy ways your company can spy on you while you work from home. Expanded Shale – A new Possibility for Amending Clay Soils. However, we will soon have all our Biochar sieved and graded by size — from a half-inch and down, a half-inch to 1.5 inches, and 1.5 inches and over. Shop today to find Lawn & Garden at incredible prices. Shop soil & soil amendments and a variety of lawn & garden products online at Lowes.com. Growstone Gnat Nix! Growing for Market is the magazine for local food and flower producers. Most major retailers like Lowe’s, Home Depot, etc. preventing / fixing urine scald in your lawn . . In his view, the benefits of biochar were as follows: 1. Best to apply to a dry lawn and water in the fertilizer with ½” of water or rain. Oct 7, 2019 – Explore Hugo Verhagen’s board “biochar” on Pinterest. This evergreen crop grows to a … Blood Meal. Apr 14, 2017 – Explore Craig Cherlet’s board “Propane Generators” on Pinterest. Veuer; Major companies suspend social media advertising over online hate speech. BioSoil Organic Mixes are “Certified 100% Organic” and professionally formulated to provide the best grower grade soil mixes for their purpose with a higher nutrient and water retention capacity. Read away. . Shop great deals on Soil & Soil Amendments. Plants love it. Buying pellet fuel in bulk costs $250 per ton on average.

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Full article: Performance of wild plants-derived biochar in the remediation of water contaminated …

4 June, 2021
 

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publicly traded biochar companies

4 June, 2021
 

(Photo: AP) 2 … Top Biochar Companies Top ranked companies for keyword search: Biochar. Biochar-based organic farming and agricultural practices that capture and store carbon under the Agro-Ecology and Carbon Farming schemes. HEARST: What do they do? Use the Securities and Exchange Commission EDGAR online Forms and Filings database. The Canadian engineering firm Stantec has agreed to buy Maple Plain-based Wenck. Founded by mycologist and author Paul Stamets in 1980, we are leaders in a new wave of technologies harnessing the inherent power of mushrooms and mycelium worldwide. Steelcase is a global, industry-leading and publicly traded company with fiscal 2019 revenue of $3.4 billion. Tigercat builds a full range of tree-length and cut-to-length timber harvesting systems designed to extract wood at the lowest cost per tonne. Model MK1 – Tidal Turbine. OTC Markets Group offer entrepreneurial and development stage U.S. and international companies the benefits of being publicly traded in the U.S. with lower costs and complexity than a U.S. exchange listing. The NACD North Texas Chapter, the advocate for the profession of directorship, today announced the election of new officers and board members for 2021–2022. NRG Energy (“NRG” on the NYSE), which may be your best bet for big companies with a green vision. Dubbed the Global Vegan Impact and Innovation Index, or VegTech, the Dow Jones-type index includes 21 global, publicly traded companies actively innovating to remove animals from the supply chain. We’ve discovered the inexpensive transformation of the greenhouse carbon dioxide into a widely useful and highly valued product. Inclusion criteria is strict. HARRISON: … I’m still on the board of one of these biochar companies. In keeping with Leeb Capital Management’s focus on resources, Dr. DeSouza is also Executive Chairman of Water Intelligence plc, a publicly traded London-based company that provides metering and leak detection solutions for the water industry. Pro, you can access unlimited search results, save to custom lists or to Salesforce, and get notified when new companies, people, or deals meet your search criteria. The “Biochar Market Research Report by Row Material (Biochar Source Material and Soil/Substrate), by Feedstock (Agricultural Waste, Animal Manure, and Woody Biomass), by … … I’ve been looking to invest in publicly traded sustainable agriculture companies, since this is the future. 37. This regular feature tracks 2011 executive compensation at publicly traded companies in Northeast Ohio. Aquarion is one of the 10 largest publicly traded water treatment service companies in the United States, serving … Are there ways for stock market investors to benefit? Buying or selling a security on the basis of material nonpublic material information is prohibited under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rules 10b-5 and 10b5-1 thereunder. WHITE PLAINS, NY, Jan. 12, 2011 — ITT Corporation (NYSE: ITT) today announced that its board of directors has unanimously approved a plan to separate the company’s businesses into three distinct, publicly traded companies. Eco Allies Director/BioChar Now CEO James Gaspard’s career in start-ups, mid-size and Fortune 1000 companies gives him a unique perspective on all aspects on a company’s life-cycle from birth, through growth and harvest. The Company serves a diverse customer base that includes oil and gas refineries, regional landfills, medical waste destruction operations, and food and beverage companies In total, around 60% of the world’s merchant fleet is a BIMCO member, measured by tonnage (weight of the unloaded ships).The organisation has NGO status and is based in Copenhagen, Denmark, with offices in Athens, Singapore and Shanghai. CDI is one of the technologies that originated in USA but will likely benefit developing countries primarily, since their water problems are more severe than in the developed world. UNR Cooperative Extension Will Test Large-Scale Biochar Production and Use. Dr. DeSouza has twenty years of experience in investment banking and practicing securities law. The company also allows buyers to place their bids online. She is passionate about solving problems that include environmental, technical, economic, and policy These provisions (and other … Over all subsidies are 600 billion dollars per year for fossils in the USA. OTC Markets Group offer entrepreneurial and development stage U.S. and international companies the benefits of being publicly traded in the U.S. with lower costs and complexity than a U.S. exchange listing. Fungi Perfecti® is a family-owned, environmentally friendly company specializing in using mushrooms to improve the health of the planet and its people. Beyond Meat became a publicly traded company … Also sells grass, fertilizers, soil, gardening tools and gift cards. This company may not be making material information publicly available. Archer Daniels Midland is one of the largest agriculture companies in the world. The deal, which will close later this month, will give the publicly-traded … The Glenview, Illinois-based company constructed its first onsite, 12,000-square-foot recycling center in 2008. served as an account executive for Root, Inc. to develop and implement strategic learning tools for use at all employee levels in Fortune 500 companies. Deals with special purpose acquisition companies (SPAC) seem to be the favourite route these days for bio-based chemical start-ups to shorten the timeframe of the cumbersome IPO (initial public offering) process. It also offers collision-damaged rentals, dealer trade-ins, and fleet lease automobiles. SEER is a publicly traded holding company that provides a wide range of environmental, renewable fuels and industrial waste stream management services. companies will likely increase in years to come. The … REQUEST QUOTE HARRISON: They were making kilns in order to make biochar. And honestly, there’s not that many publicly traded black-owned companies out there. IAA holds live auctions for licensed business buyers and brokers, among others. Currently, he serves on the board of Northern Michigan Angels. List of Biochar companies. […] Their BuildZoom score of 0 does not rank in the top 50% of Washington contractors. Why do oil companies need federal funding? The marketplace has been beta-tested by 22 companies, with a further 69 companies, including insurer Swiss Re, buying CORCs in the pre-commercial phase. As CEO of Hemp Inc., Perlowin is continuing to work to advocate for cannabis and its many uses, including as a carbon sink, a replacement for plastics and fuels, and more. Terms were not disclosed. Finland. At Aljadix we are developing carbon negative biofuel from microalgae feedstock.Carbon negative biofuel is a novel negative emissions technology which not only replaces liquid fossil fuel but also permanently removes carbon from the atmosphere. These provisions (and other … ExxonMobil holds an industry-leading inventory of resources, is one of the largest refiners and marketers of petroleum products, and its chemical company is one of the largest in the world. BERTHOUD — Biochar Now LLC, the latest venture of Loveland serial entrepreneur Bill Beierwaltes, has raised $500,000 in new equity funding as the company works toward beginning large-scale production over the coming months.The company disclosed the funding in a recent filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission. These assets are currently available to be exploited to produce income. On March 16, 2015, the day Ovations issued the press release, over 76 million Ovations shares traded in the market. ExxonMobil is one of the largest publicly traded international oil and gas companies and Exxon Mobil in the UK has nearly 130 years long history in the industry. But I did find 4 that I added to my watch list and will be buying shares within the next few weeks. ExxonMobil, one of the largest publicly traded international energy companies, uses technology and innovation to help meet the world’s growing energy needs. Renewable energy is one of the sectors in which the company is working and currently they are working on research and innovation to deliver advanced biofuels with environmental benefits. … from backyard garden experiments to commercial farms and from small start up companies to large established companies. For the second year in a row, PG&E tops the nation’s utility sector on Newsweek’s annual list of the greenest U.S. companies. High Tide Inc. , a retail-focused cannabis corporation enhanced by the manufacturing and distribution of smoking accessories: Is pleased to announce that it has submitted an initial application to list on The Nasdaq Stock Market (“Nasdaq”), and has retained Pryor Cashman LLP as legal counsel.. WeedMD Inc. is the publicly-traded parent company of WeedMD Rx Inc., a federally-licensed producer and distributor of medical cannabis and oils under the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations (ACMPR). The synthetic options can be carbon-intensive and poisonous. Sierra Pacific Industries is a third-generation, family owned and operated forest products company. Sunnova Energy – The first solar IPO in many years that debuted in July 2019. You can sell dried poles for fences and crafts, and kiln-dried poles to small companies … We are globally accessible through a network of channels, including over 800 Steelcase dealer locations. In today’s nuclear (fission) reactors neutrons cause a nucleus to fission, releasing energy as well as additional neutrons that sustain the reaction. Archer Daniels Midland’s businesses include the processing of cereal grains and oilseeds, as well as agricultural storage and transportation. Publicly traded corporations may now hold Colorado cannabis business licenses. Wrangell agreed to fully disgorge his ill-gotten gains of $42,521.55 plus prejudgment interest. SoftBank founder Masayoshi Son has been expanding his investments in publicly traded companies in recent months, including in Amazon.com Inc., … It is intended for directors with for-profit governance experience or those directors and professionals with near-term opportunity to serve on for-profit boards. That’s up from #66 in last year’s ranking. We expect to have 1,000 portfolio companies with a combined value of $100 billion and $50 billion in private capital. Biochar Commercialisation. I’ve been looking to invest in publicly traded sustainable agriculture companies, since this is the future. His career has been highlighted to date … Qualified private funds based elsewhere in the U.S. may now invest in Colorado cannabis businesses and hold more than 10% equity. It is a 1500kW tidal turbine, capable of working in a depth of 35-100 meters operating on a nominal speed of 5-15 rpm.The turbine height is 35 meters with a rotor diameter of 18-26 meters. Application of biochar-based soil enhancers to restore degraded soils. The majority of publicly traded companies have a Filings page. The funds will be primarily used to expand the production capacity for our biochar product. We focus entirely on making an excellent, pure carbon (~85% fixed carbon content). The Carbon Quarterly is a newsletter covering developments in carbon Policy, law, and innovation. Henrietta has wide management experience, having founded an education startup and launched and scaled several high profile global initiatives in technology. ; Matrica is a joint venture between Novamont (IT) and Versalis (IT) Yield10 Bioscience (bought Metabolix) produces PHA. Davis also agreed to be barred from serving as an officer or director of a publicly-traded company. Carbon Trade Exchange (CTX) is the World’s First Electronic Exchange for Carbon Credits. Dublin, Nov. 25, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — The “Biochar Market, Size, Share, Outlook and COVID-19 Strategies, Global Forecasts from 2019 to 2026” report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com’s offering. Biiofuel stocks are publicly traded companies whose business involves transportation fuels or any other form of liquid fuel made from plant or animal feedstocks (also called biomass).). The next day, Ovations’ trading volume doubled to more than 155 million shares traded. If you are thinking of hiring Sudds Inc, we recommend double-checking their license status with the license board and using our bidding system to get competitive quotes. Use this thread to recommend any you know. According to sawmilldatabase, the world top producers of sawn wood in 2007 were: Company Production or Capacity in m 3 … Among other notable recent hemp investments in Kentucky: Atalo Holdings Inc. and GenCanna Global partnered to align the two companies’ cultivation operations with an investment from GenCanna. The Growtainer is a high density farm built inside an insulated, recycled shipping container. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment for both soil health benefits and carbon sequestration. Beyond its purpose as an energy source, charcoal helps families out of abject poverty as a publicly traded commodity in local and export markets [6,15,21,33,45,46,47,48]. Most are small businesses. Renewable energy stocks are delivering for investors again in 2020. As a small grower, you can sell green poles for events such as weddings. Renewable energy is one of the sectors in which the company is working and currently they are working on research and innovation to deliver advanced biofuels with environmental benefits. publicly-traded bottled water and fresh juice company prior to its successful sale to a private equity firm. The Top 50 companies were selected in three categories from more than 2,000 eligible companies, including several publicly traded companies with thousands of employees. Larry and Jeremy are mostly talking about publicly traded investments – stocks and bonds. Read the full story at The Hill. Along with Marylou, his high school sweetheart, he acquired and operated Americana Gallery in downtown Traverse City for 15 years. 11. Mr. Perkins served as a unit leader for 21 years in the US Navy, followed by department and regional roles in Fortune 100 companies, and culminating in vice president, plant manager, and senior director positions with other publicly traded companies. Biochar Now, Inc () Stock Market info Recommendations: Buy or sell Biochar Now stock? SVSN’s 9-time Emmy Here’s a look at publicly-traded solar companies we’ve covered over the years. Invest Kentucky. Young operated the alleged Ponzi scheme through an investment partnership Acorn II L.P., which he established in 2001 to invest in publicly traded securities, authorities said. … researchers found that biochar … The Company operates a 26,000 sq. Highlights: EarthRenew has entered into a definitive supply agreement to acquire biochar from BiocharNow EarthRenew has entered into a definitive reseller agreement to distribute finished EarthRenew pellets in the United States through BiocharNow TORONTO, June 16, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — EarthRenew Inc. (CSE:ERTH) (“EarthRenew” or the “Company”) is pleased to announce … The combined company, which will be listed on the New York Stock Exchange, will have a valuation of $1.9 billion. Pauli Overdorff. Canadian electric truck and bus manufacturer The Lion Electric Co. (Lion) announced Nov. 30 that it plans to become a publicly traded company via a merger with special purpose acquisition company Northern Genesis Acquisition Corp., Kansas City, Missouri.. The company has about 190 sites in the US and Canada. Our globally scalable format provides a breakthrough in biofuel technology and takes direct action against climate change. The Global Biochar Market is expected to grow from USD 1,594.47 Million in 2020 to USD 3,305.51 Million by the end of 2025.. … Sunley House Capital Management is an investment manager focused primarily on publicly traded securities. Many respondents are scientists and students working in … is a small but dynamic publicly-traded Canadian company led by former oil trader Andrew Kingston. He holds an MBA from St. Leo University and a BBA from Excelsior. Amyris became publicly traded the following year. Novamont is one of the leaders and is known for its Mater-Bi starch based resins and the Matrica project; Arkema (France) produces PA11 and PA10. A global provider of services, including: Carbon Neutral certification, Climate Neutral certification, Carbon Footprint, Carbon Offsetting and Carbon Trading. We’re acquiring 100% of Climate Cure Capital Corporation’s stock for five million shares of StereoVision’s publicly traded restricted stock in a stock for stock swap. There are also timber-oriented real-estate investment trusts. The blog reported last month Danimer Scientific’s debut at the New York Stock Exchange after going through a similar process with Live Oak Acquisition Corp. That eliminates rivals like publicly traded Weyerhaeuser and Rayonier as well as big Canadian firms. Thayer Tomlinson at info@biochar-international.org. … financing due to market barriers such as federal policy uncertainty, insufficient performance data, and the lack of publicly traded capital markets for clean energy. As stewards of the forests, our goal is to maintain and improve the forest ecosystem for future generations. It is mobile, agile and its open framework design means that each unit can be continually improved as technology advances. Here is what CNN Business says about the publicly traded company (SHAK): ‘Shake Shack, Inc. is a holding company, which engages in operating fast food hamburger restaurants. This research report categorizes the Biochar to … Jim Skinner will serve as … Origin Materials … About Hancock Askew & Co. Hancock Askew is a professional services firm tracing its origins back to 1910. Read the full story at The Hill. Biochar is a stable solid, is rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Soil Health and Food Missions Board. XPRIZE. Forests in the Southeast continue to grow and expand, with the total forest land in the Enviva area as a major supply increased by 320,842 hectares from 2011 to 2015, according to the US Forest Service. … BIOCHAR MARKETS. Private Company. Carbo Culture. List of carbon capture companies, manufacturers and suppliers . Table 1. It’s in England and was started by VenEarth [an investment company in which Harrison is a partner].

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Readworks developing possible solutions and biochar answer key

4 June, 2021
 

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biochar how to make it on a small scale

4 June, 2021
 

biochar how to make it on a small scale 2021


Answered: Azlina wanted to maximize the bio-char… | bartleby

4 June, 2021
 


New project to explore using biochar on farms – Farming & Agriculture news – NewsLocker

4 June, 2021
 

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Effect of phosphorus-loaded biochar and nitrogen-fertilization on release kinetic of toxic heavy …

4 June, 2021
 

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In this study, we investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer application rates with and without phosphorus-loaded biochar (BCP) on the productivity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv GS) planted on a contaminated soil based on pot and incubation experiments. The release kinetic of toxic metals as affected by BCP was also investigated. BCP at rate of 2% (w/w) and nitrogen levels (250 and 500 mg N kg-1) were added to sandy loam soil polluted with Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The experiment consisted of five treatments including: Control (C), nitrogen a rate of 250 (N250), or 500 mg kg (N500), BCP + N250, and BCP + N500. Maximum tomato growth was achieved in the soil that was treated with BCP + N500, followed by BCP + N250, while lowest one was observed in the control. Tomato yield as affected by the BCP and N-fertilization was in the descending order: BCP + N500 > BCP + N250 > N500 = N250 > C. The addition of N250, N500, BCP + N250, and BCP + N500 increased the fruit yield by 24, 31, 35, 58% in comparison with the control. Levels of Zn, Cu, and Pb in tomato fruit was in the descending order: N500> N250 > C > BCP + N500 > BCP + N250. The combined application of BCP and N-fertilization augmented the availability and uptake of essential nutrients and effectively reduced those of toxic ones. The addition of BCP + N250 decreased Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb content in fruit of tomato by 16, 10, 54, 54, and 58%, respectively, compared to the control soil, while these decreases were 13, 16, 60, 60, and 72% in the case of BCP + N500. BCP succeeded significantly in reducing the release of toxic chemicals, which ultimately may restrict the transfer of toxic chemical to the food chain solution. Novelty statement Tomato grown on metal-contaminated soils contains high levels of toxic metals. Phosphorus-loaded biochar (BCP) reduced the negative effects of high inorganic-N rates by reducing the release of toxic metals to the soil solution. BCP enhanced the soil quality indicators and increased the soil microbe’s activity.

Keywords: Corn stalks; P-loaded biochar; metal uptake; nitrogen fertilization; tomato.

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New study offers Canada natural solutions to combat climate change

4 June, 2021
 

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Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature of biochar on promoting hydrogen production of …

4 June, 2021
 

Factors affecting biochar's promotion on ethanol-type fermentation were studied.

Sugarcane bagasse biochar showed the best promotion effect on H2 production.

Pyrolysis temperature did not change the promotion capability of biochar.

A promotion mechanism was proposed for biochars of different temperatures.

Factors affecting biochar's promotion on ethanol-type fermentation were studied.

Sugarcane bagasse biochar showed the best promotion effect on H2 production.

Pyrolysis temperature did not change the promotion capability of biochar.

A promotion mechanism was proposed for biochars of different temperatures.

Biochar has been shown to benefit fermentative hydrogen production. However, the influencing factors and key characteristics of its promoting function remained to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of two crucial factors, feedstock and pyrolysis temperature, on the hydrogen production-promoting function of biochar in ethanol-type fermentation. The physicochemical characteristics and promoting effects of biochars prepared with five biomass wastes (coffee ground, corn stalk, Ginkgo biloba leaf, mealworm frass, and sugarcane bagasse) were determined. Sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar (SBBC) showed the best hydrogen production-promoting effect in ethanol-type fermentation. The physicochemical properties of biochar, such as pH, element composition and surface features, were significantly affected by pyrolysis temperature, but the promoting effects were not significantly changed. The hydrogen production-promoting effect of biochar in ethanol-type fermentation was mainly affected by feedstock instead of pyrolysis temperature. A potential promoting mechanism was proposed that biochar prepared at low temperature boosted the hydrogen production with redox activity, while that at high temperature achieved the promotion via cell growth enhancement. This study revealed the key promoting factor of biochar in ethanol-type fermentative hydrogen production, and provided novel insights for the promoting mechanism of biochar.


biochar conference 2020

4 June, 2021
 

Obituary Prof. Dr. S.H. ANZBIG will focus and streamline Biochar education, research, collaboration and commercialisation activities to provide better outcomes for the societies of Australia and New Zealand. CiteScore: 2020: 9.6 CiteScore measures the average citations received per peer-reviewed document published in this title. Note that 2020 Impact Factor are reported in 2021; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2020 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. Journal Ranking … (2018-2019). 600. The global biochar market size is estimated to reach USD 3.1 billion by 2025, … Conference location Virtually from Quebec City, Canada. This carpet, made from recycled content and bio-based materials, stores more carbon than it releases and proves businesses in every sector can push their goals beyond do no harm. Country Ranking. In 2020, the company went a step further with the release of a carbon negative carpet tile, a manifestation of their “climate fit for life” initiative in product form. : +1 418 522 8182 Toll free (Canada and U.S.): +1 800 618 8182 Iqbal Firdaus-e-Bareen and Abdul Nasir Khalid 53(4): 1157-1157,2021 : Download The Sustainability Impact Factor IF measures the average number of citations received in a particular year (2020) by papers published in the Sustainability during the two preceding years (2018-2019). Conference Ranking. Institution Ranking. Chair Stéphane Godbout, ing., agr., Ph.D. info@cigr2020.ca 418-643-2380 ext. CIGR 2020. Virtual conference management Conférium Monday to Friday – 09:00 to 16:00, Eastern Time cigr2021@conferium.com Tel. Watch breaking news videos, viral videos and original video clips on CNN.com. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g.

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biochar compost ratio

4 June, 2021
 

In addition, biochar has also been shown to enhance soil phys- rough compost from 12 year wood pile. … Add Biochar to your compost. IBI and the EBC (European Biochar Certificate) set 0.7 as the maximum H/C org ratio for a carbonised product to be considered as biochar. Agronomy is an international, scientific, peer-reviewed, open access journal published monthly online by MDPI.The Spanish Society of Plant Physiology (SEFV) is affiliated with Agronomy and their members receive a discount on the article processing charges.. Open Access — free for readers, with article processing charges (APC) paid by authors or their institutions. A lecture on biochar and the building industry by Kathleen Draper, director of the U.S. branch of the Ithaka Institute. Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. IBI and the EBC (European Biochar Certificate) set 0.7 as the maximum H/C org ratio for a carbonised product to be considered as biochar. biochar but also how this recovered phosphate can be effectively released (desorption) will improve phosphate management in soils as well as its bioavailability for plants and crops in the future. biochar. If you don’t have time to wait for the compost to finish, biochar can be charged by soaking it in manure tea, comfrey tea, liquid fish fertilizer or liquid kelp fertilizer for 24 hours. This makes them useful for making compost where additional carbon rich ‘browns’ are needed to balance the nitrogen rich ‘greens’ Using Paper in Compost. rough compost from 12 year wood pile. Fruitwood, dried chicken, and wheat straw manure were to be produced at 450 °C, 550 °C, and 350 °C, respectively, for biochar production with a proportion of 5% of chicken manure in each test furnace. Thank you! This paper provides an updated review on the subjects, the available alternative to produce biochar from biomass, quantification and characterization of biochar, the adsorptive capacity for the adsorption of contaminants, and the effect of biochar addition to agricultural soils on contaminant bioavailability. finished compost. SOIL is a not-for-profit international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and discussion of high-quality research in the field of soil system sciences. The carbon nitrogen ration of cardboard and paper is 200:1. With H/C org ratio of 0.4, 80% of the carbon will remain. SOIL is a not-for-profit international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and discussion of high-quality research in the field of soil system sciences. salt march hay. With H/C org ratio of 0.7, approximately 65% of the carbon in the biochar will remain after 100 years. Environments 2021, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 21 as compost and manure [8]. Use a 50/50 ratio by volume of liquid fertilizer to biochar. Compost is added as a mulch or used to top-dress growing areas in a no-dig … to make biochar, which can be a very useful soil amender in some areas. Compost is added as a mulch or used to top-dress growing areas in a no-dig … to make biochar, which can be a very useful soil amender in some areas. For example, daily use through irrigation systems is often done at very diluted ratios. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. The Land Gardeners — aka Bridget Elworthy and Henrietta Courtauld — share their tips on how to make compost without a compost heap. The larvae will be fed cafeteria food waste, coffee grounds, and compost from other areas of the farm. Compost is easy to make in your backyard: get enough fencing to create a minimum 1 cubic meter area on the ground (not a paved driveway or something) that you fill with organic material such as leaves and other yard scraps, kitchen scraps, manure, cardboard, dead animals, biochar, etc. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. biochar. This should ensure that the ratio is fairly approximate and … The ratio of biochar and chitosan would affect the adsorption of copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium and other heavy metals in industrial wastewater (Hussain et al., 2017). finer compost from above. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. Shredded paper helps soak up excess water. Fruitwood, dried chicken, and wheat straw manure were to be produced at 450 °C, 550 °C, and 350 °C, respectively, for biochar production with a proportion of 5% of chicken manure in each test furnace. Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Dilution – EM and activated EM can be diluted with water for application with ratios from 1:50 water to 1:10000 water. finished compost. This paper provides an updated review on the subjects, the available alternative to produce biochar from biomass, quantification and characterization of biochar, the adsorptive capacity for the adsorption of contaminants, and the effect of biochar addition to agricultural soils on contaminant bioavailability. finer compost from above. salt march hay. The biochar will absorb most of the liquid at this time. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical, and physical processes. Thank you! Water Air Soil Pollut 225:1820. biochar but also how this recovered phosphate can be effectively released (desorption) will improve phosphate management in soils as well as its bioavailability for plants and crops in the future. Water Air Soil Pollut 225:1820. biochar but also how this recovered phosphate can be effectively released (desorption) will improve phosphate management in soils as well as its bioavailability for plants and crops in the future. Landzie Lawn & Garden Spreaders – 24 Inch Metal Mesh Basket – Compost Spreader – Peat Moss Spreader for Garden and Lawn Care Durable Lightweight Lawn Care Equipment – … Landzie Lawn & Garden Spreaders – 24 Inch Metal Mesh Basket – Compost Spreader – Peat Moss Spreader for Garden and Lawn Care Durable Lightweight Lawn Care Equipment – … Water Air Soil Pollut 225:1820. during the months of April to November. Shredded paper helps soak up excess water. … Add Biochar to your compost. While this ratio can be hard to measure for homemade fertilizer, you can use 65-75% grass clippings, leaves, and other high nitrogen ingredients, and 25-35% phosphorus and potassium (like bonemeal and banana peels). Use a 50/50 ratio by volume of liquid fertilizer to biochar. A lecture on biochar and the building industry by Kathleen Draper, director of the U.S. branch of the Ithaka Institute. In the British climate, you should construct the cake during the growing season, i.e. Le biochar est un amendement du sol issu de la pyrolyse de biomasse.Il est utilisé en agriculture pour augmenter la qualité des sols, et donc leur productivité. If you don’t have time to wait for the compost to finish, biochar can be charged by soaking it in manure tea, comfrey tea, liquid fish fertilizer or liquid kelp fertilizer for 24 hours. Biochar may also be used in building construction modules such as brick and tile. The ratio of biochar and chitosan would affect the adsorption of copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium and other heavy metals in industrial wastewater (Hussain et al., 2017). The biochar will absorb most of the liquid at this time. Compost is easy to make in your backyard: get enough fencing to create a minimum 1 cubic meter area on the ground (not a paved driveway or something) that you fill with organic material such as leaves and other yard scraps, kitchen scraps, manure, cardboard, dead animals, biochar, etc. Biochar is charcoal that is produced by pyrolysis of biomass in the absence of oxygen; it is used as a soil ameliorant for both carbon sequestration and soil health benefits. Gliricidia biochar is a promising material for crystal violet (CV) removal from an aqueous environment in dye-based industries. biochar (4) Apply biochar filter ; cultivation (4) Apply cultivation filter ; … We plan to raise and breed BSFL in a heated green house year-round to find the ratio of pounds of larvae to pounds of food waste can be produced in a given month. Research by lM.Sánchez-García found that adding 3% biochar to compost materials could increase composting speed by 20%. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Homemade liquid fertilizers made from free, natural ingredients — such as grass clippings, seaweed, chicken manure and human urine — can … biochar (4) Apply biochar filter ; cultivation (4) Apply cultivation filter ; … We plan to raise and breed BSFL in a heated green house year-round to find the ratio of pounds of larvae to pounds of food waste can be produced in a given month. Biochar is a charcoal which is sometimes used as a soil amendment. Biochar is a charcoal which is sometimes used as a soil amendment. With H/C org ratio of 0.7, approximately 65% of the carbon in the biochar will remain after 100 years. SOIL is a not-for-profit international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and discussion of high-quality research in the field of soil system sciences. Unlike a standard compost heap, The Land Gardeners‘ compost cake is constructed all in one go. leaf mold mostly rotted maple leaves. In addition, biochar has also been shown to enhance soil phys- Hello John, I believe biochar is best used in combination with organic matter such as vermicompost or other high quality compost and mixed into the soil itself at a ratio of 1-10% of total soil volume (a little goes along way). Environments 2021, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 21 as compost and manure [8]. When the mass ratio was 3, the high-performance biochar was produced obtained. Biochar may also be used in building construction modules such as brick and tile. rough compost from 12 year wood pile. I really would appreciate any help as I plan to construct the beds asap. The carbon nitrogen ration of cardboard and paper is 200:1. leaf mold mostly rotted maple leaves. researched the effect of various kinds of biochar on group AD of chicken compost directed at 35 ± 1 °C. Terra preta owes its characteristic black color to its weathered charcoal content, and was made by adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, broken pottery, compost and manure to the low fertility Amazonian soil. In addition, biochar has also been shown to enhance soil phys- I have a lot of experience with biochar. The carbon nitrogen ration of cardboard and paper is 200:1. Thank you! Carbon sequestration is the long-term removal, capture or sequestration of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to slow or reverse atmospheric CO2 pollution and to mitigate or reverse global warming.. Fruitwood, dried chicken, and wheat straw manure were to be produced at 450 °C, 550 °C, and 350 °C, respectively, for biochar production with a proportion of 5% of chicken manure in each test furnace. This ratio depends on the frequency of application and the area you are trying to cover. Getting the moisture ratio right. Shredded paper helps soak up excess water. Biochar may also be used in building construction modules such as brick and tile. Therefore no nitrogen is required to keep a C:N ratio. This should ensure that the ratio is fairly approximate and … Shen and Zhang (2019) reported that the properties of biochar was obviously influenced by the mass ratio of KOH and biochar. Carbon sequestration is the long-term removal, capture or sequestration of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to slow or reverse atmospheric CO2 pollution and to mitigate or reverse global warming.. This makes them useful for making compost where additional carbon rich ‘browns’ are needed to balance the nitrogen rich ‘greens’ Using Paper in Compost. finer compost from above. Korean Natural Farming (KNF) takes advantage of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) (bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoa) to produce fertile soils that yield high output without the use of herbicides or pesticides. With H/C org ratio of 0.7, approximately 65% of the carbon in the biochar will remain after 100 years. While this ratio can be hard to measure for homemade fertilizer, you can use 65-75% grass clippings, leaves, and other high nitrogen ingredients, and 25-35% phosphorus and potassium (like bonemeal and banana peels). Compost is added into the soil to improve nutrients and water-holding capacity … Cow dung slurry maintained in the ratio of 1:10 or 1:25 is able to degrade the rural, … Xie D (2014) Effects of cow dung biochar amendment on adsorption and leaching of nutrient from an acid yellow soil irrigated with biogas slurry. Use on turf and in gardens would be lower. With H/C org ratio of 0.4, 80% of the carbon will remain. Compost is easy to make in your backyard: get enough fencing to create a minimum 1 cubic meter area on the ground (not a paved driveway or something) that you fill with organic material such as leaves and other yard scraps, kitchen scraps, manure, cardboard, dead animals, biochar, etc. Environments 2021, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 21 as compost and manure [8]. A product of indigenous soil management and slash-and-char agriculture, the charcoal is stable and remains in the soil for thousands of years, binding and retaining minerals and nutrients. researched the effect of various kinds of biochar on group AD of chicken compost directed at 35 ± 1 °C. … Add Biochar to your compost. I really would appreciate any help as I plan to construct the beds asap. Research by lM.Sánchez-García found that adding 3% biochar to compost materials could increase composting speed by 20%. Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. leaf mold mostly rotted maple leaves. Biochar is a charcoal which is sometimes used as a soil amendment. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Jonas Léchot says: April 30, 2019 at 5:40 am. Compost is added into the soil to improve nutrients and water-holding capacity … Cow dung slurry maintained in the ratio of 1:10 or 1:25 is able to degrade the rural, … Xie D (2014) Effects of cow dung biochar amendment on adsorption and leaching of nutrient from an acid yellow soil irrigated with biogas slurry. Reply. IBI and the EBC (European Biochar Certificate) set 0.7 as the maximum H/C org ratio for a carbonised product to be considered as biochar. biochar (4) Apply biochar filter ; cultivation (4) Apply cultivation filter ; … We plan to raise and breed BSFL in a heated green house year-round to find the ratio of pounds of larvae to pounds of food waste can be produced in a given month. Biochar is a stable solid that is rich in carbon and can endure in soil for thousands of years. This can be done by mixing the biochar with compost, or just adding it right into a compost pile and composting the whole thing. With H/C org ratio of 0.4, 80% of the carbon will remain. Compost is added into the soil to improve nutrients and water-holding capacity … Cow dung slurry maintained in the ratio of 1:10 or 1:25 is able to degrade the rural, … Xie D (2014) Effects of cow dung biochar amendment on adsorption and leaching of nutrient from an acid yellow soil irrigated with biogas slurry. researched the effect of various kinds of biochar on group AD of chicken compost directed at 35 ± 1 °C. Research by lM.Sánchez-García found that adding 3% biochar to compost materials could increase composting speed by 20%. If you don’t have time to wait for the compost to finish, biochar can be charged by soaking it in manure tea, comfrey tea, liquid fish fertilizer or liquid kelp fertilizer for 24 hours. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. The biochar will absorb most of the liquid at this time. While this ratio can be hard to measure for homemade fertilizer, you can use 65-75% grass clippings, leaves, and other high nitrogen ingredients, and 25-35% phosphorus and potassium (like bonemeal and banana peels). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical, and physical processes. Gliricidia biochar is a promising material for crystal violet (CV) removal from an aqueous environment in dye-based industries.

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homemade biochar kiln

4 June, 2021
 

The biochar materials produced from … 2.8 (4) Contact Supplier. While open air seasoning is usually perfectly adequate there are some benefits to using a kiln: The high temperatures in a kiln kill pathogens. The Exeter Retort is designed to be mobile so it could be shared between a number of woodland enterprises or sites. The Exeter Retort is designed to be mobile so it could be shared between a number of woodland enterprises or sites. Why Primitive Charcoal Making? In the first attempt, we made a few hundred liters of excellent looking biochar in a conically excavated hole in the ground. You can download plans to make the kiln here: Let’s go back to food for a moment though and see where else biochar just might be used as a substitute. See more ideas about soil improvement, permaculture, charcoal uses. Pacific Biochar has access to far more advanced production facilities now, but this technique is still used for home production on my own farm and has been taught to many others for production on their farms. 1.) DIY charcoal kilns, charcoal kilns South Africa, charcoal ovens, pyrolysis ovens, TLUD, emission reduction charcoal kilns, feedstock, 3-drum biochar retort, trans-portable kiln . We finally had success with our homemade retort kiln. 5. Making Biochar and charcoal in a ring kiln. This is how I built my top-lit up draught(TLUD) biochar kiln to make biochar for my water filter. Get Price. WHAT IS BIOCHAR? Making Biochar with Peter Hirst of New England Biochar. The 3-drum Biochar Retort is more clean burning (with the added lid and chimney) and the burn is more controlled, and the user has an option to create either Biochar or conventional charcoal. Biochar blends are available from shops or online, but may be hard to find and expensive. Innovation in Design and Materials for Complete Kiln – Imerys Kiln …. Susan built a top-lit fire in her mini-kiln while Gray explained the process and answered questions. You can make an earthen kiln to produce Bio-Char. … Paracetamol removal by Kon-Tiki kiln-derived biochar and activated carbons. I even failed at tower gardening. Biochar has definite advantages over DE when it comes to environmental benefits and impacts. We have also launched a new manual. Is it better to burn wood or charcoal? Instead I went small and made myself a home-made TLUD kiln from an old (thoroughly cleaned) paint can and some soup cans. Some biochar gurus will even add mineral amendments, such as SEA-90 or Azomite to the quenching water to help encourage microbes to move in. Discover (and save!) DKG 85 (2008) No. Because both commercial or homemade biochar and soils are so variable, the IBI recommends testing several rates of biochar application on … The biochar approach provides a uniquely powerful solution, for it allows us to address food security, the fuel crisis, and the climate problem, and all in an immensely practical manner. Jun 11, 2019 – Mobile charcoal making kilns for making charcoal and biochar. Solar kiln Design. WHAT IS BIOCHAR? (2015) found that biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln and enriched with cattle urine increased pumpkin yield by 300% compared to urine only treatment, and by 85% com-pared to same amount of biochar without urine in a silt loam soil. One soup can I remove the top lid. You can make biochar at home on a micro scale by digging a trench or hole and putting a mixture of dry wood and dried plant materials such as sweetcorn stalks or perennial weeds and roots into it. When the fire is burning really well, restrict the air intake by banking earth around the base but leave a small (4 inch) gap. I cut the end with the hole from the tank. Construct the walls of 2 x 4-inch studs and 3/4-inch plywood. “It was a lot harder to make than I thought,” he admits. May 07 2009 0183 32 We finally had success with our homemade retort kiln The basic design for the kiln came from blacksmith Daniel O Connor of Twin biochar My 365 Retort Kiln … 3E). units such as the Missouri-type charcoal kiln (Figure 10.7-1) are small manually-loaded and -unloaded kilns producing typically 16 megagrams (Mg) (17.6 tons) of charcoal during a 3-week cycle. The tinkerer with his homemade biochar kiln. Corey Hendrickson. Charcoal Production in 200 Liter Drum Kilns . The basic design for the kiln came from blacksmith Daniel O’Connor of Twin Oaks Forge. The first piece of the “cooker” was a 200-gallon butane tank. The third way is in a kiln, where the charcoal wood was put in a separate container, surrounded by fire, and the volatile gases were directed into the outer fire to improve the burn. Benefits of kiln drying. The farm offers a Making Biochar Charcoal in a Garden. there are a few things about this design that make it less efficient for producing charcoal. At this point the wood has essentially finished charring and you are ready to put the fire out and collect your fresh homemade biochar. Dec 22, 2016 – Explore J Caz’s board “Biochar” on Pinterest. DIY charcoal kilns, charcoal kilns South Africa, charcoal ovens, pyrolysis ovens, TLUD, emission reduction charcoal kilns, feedstock, 3-drum biochar retort, trans-portable kiln . This manual describes how to build our new Biochar kiln called the ‘3-drum Biochar Retort‘. Kiln drying makes firewood safe to … Biochar can be made in a lot of different ways. With an upper diameter of 1.50 m, a height of 0.90 m and a wall inclination of 63°, a steep cone shape was chosen so that the resulting biochar was well compacted and would make a consistent fire front at the surface for a reliable barrier to oxygen. I have often thought that a rotating soil screener and potato elevator/bagger would make a good combination for doing bags. Add straight to your soil or blend with homemade or commercial composts for optimal results. After the burn, shovel the soil back onto the biochar in the pit. Four Seasons Fuel manufacture charcoal retorts and kilns for coal and charcoal production. eHow may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. This is enough for one barrel. The first Kon-Tiki had a diameter of 150 cm, a height of 90 cm and a capacity of 850 liters. The satisfactory results achieved for the homemade eucalyptus-derived composite indicate that it is a promising material to be used in simple technological systems for water treatment. Shortly after I first heard about biochar I knew I had to at least experiment with making some. Wae Nelson was employed as a mechanical engineer in the aerospace and defense industries for many years, working both as a designer and as a manager in manufacturing. The design of kiln furniture compo- nents and eventually complete sys- tems requires … »More detailed warmheartworldwide.comIn this video we show you how to make a basic Top Lit Up Draft Biochar Machine. Make the kiln 1.5 times larger than the biggest piece you want to fire. in the bottom of an earthen pit, start a fire. My working definition for biochar is simply charcoal that has been infused with a combination of nutrients, microbes, and moisture. 3. Why Not Make Something Fancy? Once you’ve got biochar in your soil, add your compost and let it sit for as long as you can before planting. Tools Needed to Make Your Own Charcoal • Rake – A heavy duty garden rake with a metal head. It was built by Markus Koller. Prod., 155 (2020), p. 112740, 10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112740. We were very lucky to have Richard Self, an experienced biochar producer and author of biochar papers, leading the workshop. Posted by 2B at 20:05 No comments: … Homemade biochar. It goes further than a rocket stove because it is nearly smoke free. Temperature to Kill Seeds. The result is pure carbon. We finally had success with our homemade retort kiln. the most critical one is that the rocket stove is designed to produce maximum heat out of the top of the stack pipe not the side of the pipe.this is why you got an incomplete burn for biochar. I’ll probably get back to this in the future when we get our kon tiki kiln up and running. It was three-eighths-inch thick and had a hole in one end from rust. Normally, the feedstock in the biochar kiln was burned layer by layer [24]. Aug 20, 2018 – The Exeter Charcoal Retort… Alan Waters tries out a more efficient method for making charcoal products. Biochar is not just carbon neutral; it is “carbon negative”, according to its proponents, because buried biochar is stable for thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of years. ” Prof. Jan 3, 2017 – Welcome to low-tech charcoal production. Kiln for environmental friendly biochar machine-made charcoal wood retort kiln sale sl support oem. pH testing at our facility indicates that biochar made in a TLUD may be more alkaline than biochar made in the retort method. The biochar kiln was designed to have several holes at two different layer. Unfortunately I do not have an easy access to big barrels, metalworking skills or a place to store a big kiln. 96.1%. Biochar Costa Rica has designed a system of kilns using recycled 55 gallon drums called the “hornito”, Spanish for “small oven”.

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Biochar offers farmers a new way to invest their land – Opera News

5 June, 2021
 

We all know. More trees means more carbon dioxide2 removed from the atmosphere. Even airlines are trying to make flying more environmentally friendly in this way. For example, in 2018, KLM started the “One Ticket = One Tree” campaign. British airlines have also pledged to cut carbon emissions by 70% by…

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Readworks developing possible solutions and biochar answer key

5 June, 2021
 

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biochar to make a significant improvement to the soil conditions across the site. The research project had a practical constraint. The team was looking for a solution to the problem of post rmining land. If the biochar was going to cost a small fortune, it would not

Aug 08, 2017 · Essay. Essay questions require students to write answers to statements or questions. To complete a successful essay exam, you need to be able to recall relevant information and to organize it in a clear way, generating a thesis and building to a conclusion.

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Wheeldon . Answer key 86. Phonetic symbols 96. New Headway Upper-Intermediate Workbook wit … Solutions Upper-Intermediate Workbook Key you think how many stars there are in our galaxy …

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Jul 09, 2018 · It is quite possible that most of the exercises in this book will get you prepared for a “real” certification exam. Cell Growth and Division – Anatomy and Physiology from 3 3 cycles of matter worksheet answers , source:opentextbc.ca

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Jan 15, 2013 · A comprehensive database of more than 297 lesson quizzes online, test your knowledge with lesson quiz questions. Our online lesson trivia quizzes can be adapted to suit your requirements for taking some of the top lesson quizzes.

Possible language objectives: Students will record ideas in a graphic organizer showing the steps in the process. Students will write a summary of the process followed to solve the problem. Students will define and use key math vocabulary (list key vocabulary). Students will read a story problem, identify key information, and solve the problem.

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Test another possible solution. Identify other possible causes for the problem. Once the cause of the problem is determined, a technician should research possible solutions, sometimes by visiting Develop and install forensic tracking software. Perform an audit of all software that is installed.

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9 hours ago · CLOSE READING PASSAGES Each passage falls within the Lexile level of 480-830, which is great for Full Answer Key 20 pages of Close Reading Tools such as Anchor Charts for Close Reading Close Reading -FIFTY original 2nd grade leveled close reading passages and activities perfectly.

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May 23, 2020 · Intermixed with the development of a number sense is the development of an ability to count. Counting is not directly related to the formation of a number concept because it is possible to count by matching the items being counted. against a group of pebbles, grains of corn, or the counter's fingers.

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Groups discuss the answers quietly and record an answer on a whiteboard. I ask to see all whiteboards at the same time so groups can't copy down what others have recorded. I check answers using the Unit 4 Review Game Questions – Answer Key , and any group that gets it correct gets to draw a stick from the canister.

Biochar Biochar by ReadWorks When researchers at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute Agriculture Program, also known as Virginia Tech, started work on a soil enhancement research project, they kept their minds open. The project was focused on the possible uses of biochar, charcoal used specifically for agricultural and other environmental …

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Write your answers to these questions in a continuous paragraph. Use your own words as far as possible, You will need to look again at paragraphs 1,3 and 7 in order to select the appropriate material for your answer. 6.. Why was the first National park founded in America and not elsewhere ? Use the material from paragraphs 4,5 and 6. 5. Design a solution to mitigate the identified threat, including identifying appropriate real world constraints of that solution 6. Develop a model to demonstrate the threat and a possible solution to solve the problem 7. Evaluate the pros and cons to identified solution, using data and evidence to support your assertions

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The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the characteristics of biochar, pyroligneous acids, and gas …

5 June, 2021
 

Biochar, pyroligneous acids, and gas were obtained from the integrated process.

The utilization of byproducts enhanced the economic feasibility.

The valine was the main amino acid composition in CS pyroligneous acids.

The maximum inhibitory effect of pyroligneous acids achieved at 450 °C.

The CO and CH4 content exhibited an increasing trend as temperature rise.

Biochar, pyroligneous acids, and gas were obtained from the integrated process.

The utilization of byproducts enhanced the economic feasibility.

The valine was the main amino acid composition in CS pyroligneous acids.

The maximum inhibitory effect of pyroligneous acids achieved at 450 °C.

The CO and CH4 content exhibited an increasing trend as temperature rise.

The biochar (BC), pyroligneous acid (PA), and gas were collected from cotton stalks based on a polygeneration process, and this study was systematically focused to develop and process biochar and its byproducts obtained with various pyrolysis temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450, 500, and 550 °C). The results showed that the yield of biochar decreased from 46.71 % to 30.26 % as the pyrolysis temperature was increased from 300 to 550 °C, and this was accompanied by an increase in carbon content from 71.32–78.02%. Heatmap analysis on the correlation among pyrolysis temperature of biochar and elements illustrated that the content of C, H, and O were highly correlated with pyrolysis temperature of biochar. The ketones, phenols, alcohols, acids, and alkyl phenyl ethers were the major chemical constituents. The maximum total content of amino acids reached 647.1 mg/kg when the pyroligneous acids were collected at 450 °C. Moreover, the volume fractions of gas (CO and CH4) content increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, leading to an increase in the gas heating value. Overall, the outcomes presented above indicated that the polygeneration system would be environmentally benign and effective in producing biochar, pyroligneous acids, and gas, which provides economic benefits and suggests a potential industrial application for cotton stalk.


Start-up of anammox systems with different biochar amendment: Process characteristics and …

5 June, 2021
 

Different biochar additions significantly influenced the reaction processes albeit to varying degrees.

5% coconut biochar amendment resulted in the quickest start-up (46 days) of the Anammox process.

Candidatus Brocadia was preferentially selected and its growth fostered by biochar addition.

RDA results showed that biochar addition significantly caused a shift in microbial community composition at genus level (p < 0.05).

Different biochar additions significantly influenced the reaction processes albeit to varying degrees.

5% coconut biochar amendment resulted in the quickest start-up (46 days) of the Anammox process.

Candidatus Brocadia was preferentially selected and its growth fostered by biochar addition.

RDA results showed that biochar addition significantly caused a shift in microbial community composition at genus level (p < 0.05).

As the ‘go-to’ process when it comes to biological nitrogen removal from wastewaters in recent years, the Anammox process has undergone lots of investigations in order to optimize its performance. In evaluating the effect of distinct biochar types at different concentrations on the Anammox startup process, as well as analyze their corresponding influence on the microbial community structure, three additives (coconut, peach, and bamboo) at either 5%, 10%, or 15% respectively were amended in various Anammox EGSB setups. (i). The 5% coconut biochar amendment resulted in the fastest startup of 46 days with an average ammonium removal efficiency of 96% whereas the control setup took 69 days. Thus, a more robust and cost effective anammox process could be realized on an industrial scale. (ii) The Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the collected sludge samples indicated that the amendment with distinct biochar resulted in varied prevailing microbial communities in the respective setups. (iii) Proteobacteria was the dominant microbial community. (iv) However, two Anammox bacteria species, Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Jettenia were identified, with relative abundances of 0–4.72% and 0–6.23% respectively. The results from this study illustrate the correlation between Anammox reactor performance (startup and nitrogen removal efficiency), type and concentration of biochar amendment employed, as well as microbial community succession.

Mabruk Adams and Junxiang Xie contributed equally to this paper.


Agronomy | Free Full-Text | Utilization of Inorganic Nanoparticles and Biochar as Additives of …

5 June, 2021
 

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Round 1

Reviewer 1 Report

This article, which deals with the influence of different combinations of compost on soil properties, nutrient management and Lolium perenne production in greenhouse conditions, is written at a good level. In terms of structure, the article meets all the criteria set out in the guidelines for authors. Despite the fact that enough attention has been paid to this issue in the past, the credibility of this article is increased mainly by the number of observed and evaluated variants with different residues, resp. additives.

Appropriate statistical methods as well as graphical representation were used to present the results. From the citations used in Article (67), it is clear that the authors have studied this issue in detail.

I have only a few formal comments on the article.

There are a few typos in the text that need to be corrected (f.e. line 172; 307; 311; 512). Also in Table 1, the term ammendments is grammatically incorrect.

In the results (3.1 Influence of factors in soil and plant growth), the authors refer to Table 1 when evaluating the results, in which, however, the given values ​​and conclusions do not occur (line 259).

I also believe that the tables should be listed as close as possible to the first link in the text. Therefore, I recommend moving Table 2. and Table 3. respectively, according to this methodology.

Author Response

Comments and Suggestions for Authors

This article, which deals with the influence of different combinations of compost on soil properties, nutrient management and Lolium perenne production in greenhouse conditions, is written at a good level. In terms of structure, the article meets all the criteria set out in the guidelines for authors. Despite the fact that enough attention has been paid to this issue in the past, the credibility of this article is increased mainly by the number of observed and evaluated variants with different residues, resp. additives.

Appropriate statistical methods as well as graphical representation were used to present the results. From the citations used in Article (67), it is clear that the authors have studied this issue in detail.

I have only a few formal comments on the article.

R: We appreciate your observation. The proposed changes were performed.

R: Thanks for your valuable suggestion. This section was defined just to explain the results obtained by ANOVA and how every factor contributes to the variance. Changes were done to provide the results in an understandably way.

R: Thank you again for your suggestion. Tables were moved as you suggested in order to be listed as close possible to the first link in the text. Now you can find the table in lines 343 and 344 below the corresponding section.

Reviewer 2 Report

The manuscript entitled “Utilization of inorganic nanoparticles and biochar as additives of agricultural waste composting: Effects of end-products on plant growth, C and nutrient stock in soils from a Mediterranean region” is a well-crafted manuscript, however before further perusal I suggest working on the below-appended comments and suggestions for the overall improvement of the manuscript–

Author Response

Comments and Suggestions for Authors

The manuscript entitled “Utilization of inorganic nanoparticles and biochar as additives of agricultural waste composting: Effects of end-products on plant growth, C and nutrient stock in soils from a Mediterranean region” is a well-crafted manuscript, however before further perusal I suggest working on the below-appended comments and suggestions for the overall improvement of the manuscript

R: The modification as you suggested was done. Please see line 114.

R: Thank you for your valuable comment. We agree with you, actually under the experimental conditions (both in composting and greenhouse experiment) it could not be necessary. In a composting experiment as the developed previously, in order to provide the favorable conditions for the microbial community and all the metabolic pathways, the reactors or experimental units were adjusted at 65% which is a value widely described on literature for a regular composting system (justification and details are explained in other manuscript which is in progress). Both experiments were performed under laboratory scale and the initial experimental design for composting considered the inoculation of some microorganisms in order to improve the process and analyze several microbiologic parameters as well. Therefore, initially we used semi sterile conditions, however, as the experiment progress we finally declined with this objective and replicate the experiment for analyzing microbiological parameters in sterile conditions. We modified it in the final proof in order to avoid confusion for the readers, you can see at line 161.

R: As we previously commented, we firstly performed a composting study, and all the related results of this composting characterization and monitoring were included in other independent manuscript. On this composting study, promptly to be submitted, we analyzed several parameters that include Temp, pH, EC, OM%, C/N, water holding capacity, CIC, NH4/NO3, and also some microscopic and spectroscopic properties of the organic matter that include molecular structure by NMR among others. Biochar was also characterized. Nevertheless, considering that the mentioned parameters are included in the other independent manuscript, we decided to avoid presenting or given major details related to these parameters in this article. Under the same context, we can mention that we performed the analysis of GHG by the utilization of static closed chambers (Sánchez-Monedero et al., 2010) where the collected gas samples were analyzed by gas chromatography according to the methods described by the authors. In conclusion, we did not show these properties on the present manuscript because the extension of the section and the draft, and also because the results were not analyzed for this article. Therefore, we appreciate your comment, but the results just include some limited details in the text. However, we mentioned the evaluated parameters in the corrected proof (lines 168-169) and we are available if some of these properties are considered and asked to be included in this draft.

R: According to several scientific articles (e.g., Chodwhury et al., 2016) and technical reports (INN, 2004) there are different levels of compost and organic C to be applied into the soils according to the type of soils, conservation and crops. In this sense, for extensive crops and pastures, some of these reports suggest the utilization between 10 to 30 tons or Mg per Ha of C. Therefore, and taking into consideration these values we stablish the dose of compost addition to soil. We appreciate your observation.

R: We agree with your observation. New details were included in order to improve the final manuscript where the content of soil, compost and grass seeds are now detailed as well as the volume of pots and design. All the new details are included in the same section in lines from 178 to 184. Thank you for your comment.

R: Thank you for your observation, the values represented on this figure are gram per pot. It was modified and included in the corrected figure (line 380).

  R: It was also revised; we appreciate your comment. We include some extra description in figure 4 (lines 413 and 414).

    R: It was corrected, thank you for your observation.

Sánchez-Monedero, M.A., Serramiá, N., Civantos, C.G.O., Fernández-Hernández, A., Roig, A., 2010. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of two-phase olive mill wastes with different agroindustrial by-products. Chemosphere 81, 18–25.

Chowdhury, S.; Bolan, N.S.; Seshadri, B.; Kunhikrishnan, A.; Wijesekara, H.; Xu, Y.; Yang, J.; Kim, G.H.; Sparks, D.; Rumpel, C. Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2016, 23, 7099–7110, doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5411-9.

SAG, 2017. Pauta técnica para la aplicación de compost. Programa SIRSD-S. Servicio Agrícola Ganadero, Región de Atacama. Chile.

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Renewable Biochar, LLC.

5 June, 2021
 

Building the Future from the Ground Up

A not-for-profit organization promoting the sustainable production and use of biochar through research, policy, technology and doing it!

© 2020 USBI. All rights reserved.


Arsenic and cadmium load in rice tissues cultivated in calcium enriched biochar amended paddy …

5 June, 2021
 

Charred eggshell (EB), corncob (CB) and eggshell-corncob biochar (ECB) were used.

ECB at 2% amendment rate decreased grain Cd load by 89%.

ECB increased grain yield compared with EB and CB at 2% amendment application.

Grain As accumulation was mainly controlled by rhizosphere soil Eh and pH.

Porewater Cd was vital influencing factor to regulate grain cadmium content.

Charred eggshell (EB), corncob (CB) and eggshell-corncob biochar (ECB) were used.

ECB at 2% amendment rate decreased grain Cd load by 89%.

ECB increased grain yield compared with EB and CB at 2% amendment application.

Grain As accumulation was mainly controlled by rhizosphere soil Eh and pH.

Porewater Cd was vital influencing factor to regulate grain cadmium content.

Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are unnecessary metal(loids) toxic at high concentration to plants and humans, hence lessening their rice grain accumulation is crucial for food security and human healthiness. Charred eggshell (EB), corncob biochar (CB), and eggshell-corncob biochar (ECB) were produced and amended to As and Cd co-polluted paddy soil at 1% and 2% application rates to alleviate the metal(loids) contents in rice grains using pot experiments. All the amendments increased paddy yields at 1%, while EB at 2% significantly reduced the yields compared to untreated control. The resulting yield loss in 2%EB was from the combined effects of its high CaCO3 supplementation, and the increment of rhizosphere soil pH which could insolubilize plant nutrients. The amendments were inefficient in decreasing rice grain As (AsGrain), but all the treatments significantly reduced the rice grain Cd (CdGrain) at both 1% (44.4 to 77.1%) and 2% (79.8 to 91.5%) application rates compared to that of control. Regression analysis for contribution weights of control factors revealed that rhizosphere soil Eh and pH were vital influential factors regulating the AsGrain, whereas porewater Cd was main factor controlling CdGrain accumulation. These investigations indicated that the Ca-enriched eggshell-corncob biochar even at high application rate (i.e., 2%ECB) could be a potential tactic for grain accumulation remediation of the cationic pollutant (i.e., Cd) from the paddy soil to rice grain scheme with concurrent increase in rice yields.


biochar making process

5 June, 2021
 

Biochar Production Process of Biochar Production Equipment. Biochar can be used to increase the ability of soils to sequester carbon and simultaneously improve soil health. Michael: I am trying to get biochar making into the design for a nearby community garden. Biochar Production Process The process of making biochar has the potential to sequester millions of tons of carbon annually. biochar, more cheaply than the pyrolysis process the main emphasis in the latter is on the production of biochar. For this reason simple carbonization methods, similar to the original biochar piles but in improved form are likely to be more economical than more complicated plants that place emphasis The superheated process of making biochar kills pathogens, weed seeds, insects, and other organisms harmful to plants. The heaviest hitter making a bet on biochar, Cool Planet called its marketing strategy “the ultimate contrarian solution” at the 2013 North American Biochar Symposium attended by DeSmog in Amherst, Massachusetts. In a modern biochar making machine this is done in an eco-friendly and cost effective way. 1. Biochar is the result of a natural order of the life cycle process, of decomposition and reproduction, that when effectively applied can help repair our atmosphere … This new mobile biochar technology provides forest managers with opportunities not only to remove unwanted biomass, but to benefit from the biochar created in the process. Biochar is neither good nor bad, it is incapable of having intent, it has only characteristics, and characteristics evolve. Then feeder will evenly deliver materials into biochar furnace. If you live in the developing world, smoke from … I think you would need a very big bonfire to make 100 litres of usable char. (2011) conducted an experiment on the production of biochar … Traditional charcoal operations can create huge amounts of potentially polluting smoke, but Wells’ device recycles that smoke to fuel the biochar-making process. Biochar Now biochar filtration process is used to purify producer water from wells. Owing to the differences between the raw materials, the biochar will be different. Further Information on Biochar. Making Nutrient-Rich Biochar the Easy and (Almost Free) Way … After doing so and creating multiple batches in a short time, I turned the process over to my children to do and now I hire them to make biochar for our gardens. The process of making biochar is a nice one.At the end the colour has been changed.Is there any other method for making it? Making biochar is clearly not allowed by my city. Beston sawdust charcoal making machine, as a popular device to make sawdust charcoal, has large demand in recent years.It owns exclusive patent – One Fire Two Step which no other companies possess in the domestic market.It makes the whole process more cost-efficient. Making good biochar can be as easy as adding a tin of wood to your winter fire. 3. It is widely used to process coconut shells, palm fiber, jute stick, wood chips, bamboo, rice hull, etc. Our engineers were on site to help their installation and commissioning. The group … Biochar removed from pyrolysis kiln 6. In general, the charcoal production line mainly contains three systems, namely biomass pyrolysis system , dedusting system and discharging system. While the basic principles of making biochar haven’t changed over the centuries, the methods certainly have. A wide variety of biochar kiln options are available to you, such as none, canada, and indonesia. In addition to use in the soil, newer uses for biochar are now competing with traditional uses for activated carbon, carbon black, and graphite. Biomass dried 2. Pyrolysis allows carbon from biomass sources to be “locked up” into biochar, making that carbon unable to return to the atmosphere. Interestingly, Sohi et al. With the energy-saving system, the fuel consumption is small compared with traditional biomass pyrolysis reactor.The fuel for heating reactor is flexible, like charcoal, wood, diesel, natural gas, LPG, biomass, etc. Wood or other biomass is burned in a low-oxygen environment causing pyrolysis, changing its chemical and physical composition. Another lesson Metzler learned from this project is that the quantity of soil and materials needed is not always easy to estimate. Now, the quick shipment and installation are available. Pyrolysis process can also be of two types, namely fast and slow pyrolysis. Michael, I have also tried the bonfire method. The effects of amending sand soil columns with hybrid poplar biochar made by a slow pyrolysis process at 450°C at va. Field drainage. Pyrolysis creates a very stable, solid form of carbon that can endure in soil for thousands of years, making it an ideal technology for scalable carbon removal. Financing new biochar equipment acquisitions is a difficult process, as lots of lenders might be unaware of the investment potential behind these products. Biochar is charred biomass, which is added to soil to improve soil health and soil quality. The biochar materials produced from … The basic process is called pyrolysis. Part I of the biochar training discusses what smoke is, provides analogies for kilograms and tons of smoke, shows how smoke kills, explains why fires smoke and introduces pyrolysis and biochar production. Pyrolysis is the breaking down (lysis) of a material by heat (pyro). Making Biochar. In the fast process, the pyrolysis process takes only a few seconds and it yields around 60% bio oil, 20% bio-char and 20% gases. This Supr Activ Biochar is manufactured by using bamboo in the absence of oxygen by the pyrolysis process under the temperature of 520°C. The Process . Our biochar removes pollutants allowing for the discharge of clean water. Biochar production equipment is used to produce biochar by pyrolysis with limited oxygen. It will also reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the process. In addition, gases released in the charcoal-making process … Simple Description of Biochar Production Process. Biochar Now is a pioneer in the biochar industry with strong engineering, manufacturing, sales and administrative personnel focused on making and selling quality biochar on a very large scale. Biochar. The Organic Carbon powder called also “Biochar” is produced from carbonized wood using the pyrolysis process at 500 0C. Charcoal: the solid, carbon-rich residue left when biomass is heated in an environment with limited oxygen. Although biochar can remediate soil Cd pollution well, aging is an inevitable process when it used in soil. Biochar is produced as a charred material with high surface area and abundant functional groups by pyrolysis, which refers to the process of thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. Plus, zero adulteration means you are confident about using pure carbon biochar for your lawn or garden. Biochar is made through a process called “thermochemical conversion.” It ranges from low-temperature, slight charring of the feedstock biomass to full combustion. plant material including grain stalks, wood, grass, bamboo, nut shells) combusts above ground with adequate oxygen supply 3. Cooking with fire is allowed. Part II of the biochar training explains biochar making not as a burden, but a business opportunity and biochar as a valuable product. And that this maturing process was a very significant factor in the resulting “success” or “failure”. biochar to soil can have multiple benefits, such as the carbon sinks and soil additives to … reversing the climate change process (6). Many biochar systems can use the oil and gases produced by the combustion of the organic matter to fuel the whole process, thus relying on no other external energy source. Created in a process known as pyrolysis, biochar is … Sourcing Guide for Biochar Making Machine: China manufacturing industries are full of strong and consistent exporters. The production of biochar is an undertaking that is usually much more complex than people realize. Making biochar is either a technical highly elaborate and capital-intensive process or a low-tech, slow and labor-intensive process; both paths are rather expensive. Purchase biochar equipment to produce reliable charcoal efficiently. When the charcoal making process starts, the combustible gas is produced. Thermo Use biochar equipment from Alibaba.com and easily transform wood into cheap charcoal. The carbon component in biochar is relatively stable, and, hence, biochar was originally proposed as a soil Most are aimed at making BBQ charcoal but the process is much the same. Large-Scale Biochar Production from Crop Residue: A New Idea and the Biogas-Energy Pyrolysis System Shenqiang Wang, Xu Zhao,* Guangxi Xing,* and Linzhang Yang Biochar is an effective means to withdraw carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere and consequently influence the … Some of these benefits are listed below. The potential biochar applications include: (1) pollution remediation due to high CEC and specific surface area; (2) soil fertility improvement on the way of liming effect, enrichment in volatile matter and increase of pore volume, (3) carbon sequestration due to carbon and … Different feedstocks, including grape vines, produce different biochar with varying properties. Phil Stevens has spent many years working to combat climate change. Biochar is produced from biomass or biowaste, through pyrolysis (heating in high temperatures in the absence of oxygen). (2009) have suggested the concept of using syngas from the pyrolysis process to replace natural gas (CH4, methane) to produce nitrogen which could be then be applied to biochar that is produced in the same process to create a powerful carbon and nitrogen rich fertilizer based on the research done by Day et al. As the material is broken down, it releases gas. The BEK (Biochar Experimenter’s Kit) is a reconfiguration of GEK components to create a multi-mode pyrolysis machine for characterized biochar and bio-oil making. Biochar Now is a pioneer in the biochar industry with strong engineering, manufacturing, sales and administrative personnel focused on making and selling quality biochar on a very large scale. On the other hand, slow process takes several hours to complete. The following content is the simple description of biomass production process: Pretreatment. That process does two things; first, it reduces the wood to be almost pure carbon (around twice as carbon-dense as wood in its pure form), second, it increases the space between particles, giving the biochar a sponge like form. A closer review showed that biochar materials seem to undergo a maturing process, often measured in years. The whole process of charcoal production equipment is energy-saving and eco-friendly. Crop residues, manures, and wood are all potential feedstocks. 2. We have adopted the “Oregon Kiln”, or flame cap kiln made from 14-gauge steel. Fire at a social gathering is allowed. Stoves built with two chambers, one for burning to make heat and one for making the charcoal in low oxygen conditions might work. In the other hand, some biomass needs drying. First, this process produces ash, not biochar. Besides biochar, bio-oil and gas can be collected from modern pyrolysers. We added biochar to barns, pens, coops, and manure piles, and monitored the compost process and results. Biochar is a form of black carbon (BC) that has been documented to be resistant to both microbial and chemical degradation pathways as well as simultaneously sequestering atmospheric carbon (C) and postulated to act as a soil fertility agent by providing critical inorganic plant nutrients. Ancient Process Charcoal is created both naturally as a result of vegetation fires and intentionally by humans in burn pits and hand-made structures. The lack of a one-size-fits-all process means that it can be more art than science. Whichever method is used, the process is the same, biomass is burned with a lack of oxygen, turning the biomass in biochar, smoke free. With advanced biochar production technology, we are looking forward to serving more customers home and abroad. As one of the top charcoal making machine manufacturers, Beston Machinery tries to make the charcoal manufacturing process simple, safe and energy-saving. The adsorption capacity of 62.89 mg/g for phenol and 67.41 mg/g for tannic acid were obtained using 3 g/L biochar dosage after 8 h of treatment at solution pH of 6.5 and temperature of 45 °C. I only made 1 soup can of biochar per batch, but the process was super simple. The thought that biochar would be produced from biomass specifically made for that purpose and that there is a risk of this process becoming the dominant way in which biochar is produced globally, is a wild assumption. You will make great profits from making biochar. Biomass: living or once-living material, which is the feedstock (starting material) for making biochar. In the modern biochar making machine this is achieved inside an eco-friendly and expense effective way. The Biochar Kiln is a top-lit updraft (TLUD) design. The benefits of biochar date back to indigenous times when tribes used it create artificial soil (or, terra preta) in the Amazon Basin; a process later displaced by industrially produced synthetic fertilizers. Biochar in making. Biochar is charcoal that is used for gardening, horticultural and agricultural purposes. Biochar can also raise soil pH levels. After being transformed, biochar becomes equipped to deliver a wide number of benefits. Biochar can store this carbon in the ground, potentially making a significant reduction in atmospheric Greenhouse gas (GHG) levels; at the same time its presence in the earth can improve water quality, increase soil fertility, raise agricultural productivity and reduce pressure on old growth forests. The ash and the carbon left in the partially burned biomass elements will benefit the soil, but that is a different discussion. In the fire, the most flammable parts of the wood burn away first And improving the air as well.When you bury the car… At present, we offer three batch models and four continuous models for customers. At Watauga County’s Against the Grain Farm and at nearby Springhouse Farm, the Nexus team worked with farmers to integrate the existing farm infrastructure into a daily system that allows them to create multiple benefits from the biochar-making process. In theory, biochar might remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for extended periods of time, as well as offer other potential environmental benefits. When the charcoal making process starts, the combustible gas is produced. Biochar production equipment employs carbonization technology to make charcoal from biomass waste. Therefore, biochar production is becoming the trend. Depending on the thermal environment and the final temperature, pyrolysis will yield mainly biochar at low temperatures, less than 450 0 C, when the heating rate is quite slow, and mainly gases at high temperatures, greater than 800 0 C, with rapid heating rates. With the paper industry seeing record demand for packaging products because of the pandemic-fueled increase in e-commerce and shipping, paper mills are producing more wood ash, also called biochar, a high-carbon and mineral rich by-product of the paper making process. Biochar enhances the natural process: the biosphere captures CO 2 , especially through plant production, but only a small portion is stably sequestered for a relatively long time (soil, wood, etc.). There is a possible risk of contamination of Biochar exists (dioxins, PAHs, heavy metals,) when contaminated feedstocks are used, or the process conditions used in making the Biochar are such that temperatures >500 C are used. So far the plant has run very well. 1. How does Biochar Making Machine Work? This is a good time to state RULE #1 of charcoal making. The gas or oil produced from heating feedstock can be used as clean energy. The majority of bio charcoal produced in biochar making machine is sold as solid, carbon-rich fuel, but it can also be used to formulate a high-quality soil fertilizer that is sought-after by the agriculture industry. Biochar and anaerobic digestion are not simply complementary, but, when biochar is included in the AD process in a combined process which also includes heat transfer, the effects are synergistic. Carbon is absorbed within the growing organic material during photosynthesis, and then it is converted into a stable, solid form during pyrolysis, making biochar. Pyrolysis kiln heats biomass without oxygen 4. Making Nutrient-Rich Biochar the Easy and (Almost Free) Way … After doing so and creating multiple batches in a short time, I turned the process over to my children to do and now I hire them to make biochar for our gardens. If you want to impart some smoke flavor to your steak, add slivers of hickory or apple wood to the hot coals while the steak is cooking. Pelletizing biomass can be challenging. Sr.No. Additionally, it acts as a carbon sink, which helps reduce greenhouse emissions. Making biochar is one way to remove carbon from the atmosphere and lock it away for a … Pyrolysis, by definition, is the “decomposition of material by heat.” It occurs in processes as simple as a campfire and as complex as a state-of-the-art biorefinery. Biochar can be made from a much broader range of materials than charcoal can. This is a good time to state RULE #1 of charcoal making. Biochar is made using a process called pyrolysis. Recent projects include a 5-year study with the University of Minnesota to test biochar’s impact on tree growth and biochar compost in a road median landscaping project on Highway 55. mike wolford, harlingen, texas. Biochar is basically charcoal produced at a temperature above 660 degrees Fahrenheit with little or no oxygen. With the paper industry seeing record demand for packaging products because of the pandemic-fueled increase in e-commerce and shipping, paper mills are producing more wood ash, also called biochar, a high-carbon and mineral rich by-product of the paper making process. The process of producing biochar is called pyrolysis. Make Your Own BioChar and Terra Preta: A simple way to make BioChar in a 55 gallon drum. Charcoal Enrichment. Beston Machinery has rich experience in manufacturing and exporting biochar making machines to many countries, such as Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, Spain, etc. If you want to impart some smoke flavor to your steak, add slivers of hickory or apple wood to the hot coals while the steak is cooking. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants convert carbon dioxide from the air into organic material, or biomass. Word cloud showing biochar feedstock choice (Adapted from: Scholz et al., 2014) Duku et al. Others have designed special DIY stoves that seem to make reasonable biochar, although the process is not tightly controlled. Make sure that the size of the material is smaller than 2cm and the water content is less than 20%. Reference 2 lists a number of potential benefits of including biochar in the composting process that are currently the subject of considerable research. Biochar, on the other hand is charcoal produced from agricultural residues. Biochar, Naturally. It is convenient to operate. form of biochar. We did greenhouse trials and field trials. Next, biochar has been implemented as a carbon neutral energy source, but was proven to be an expensive process due to the pyrolysis process of certain biomass [6]. LESSONS FROM A BIOCHAR-MAKER. Reply. Hoping to promote simple, scalable, environmentally sound methods for making biochar for improving the soil on small farms and in backyard gardens. Biochar refers to the biomass-derived black carbon that is generally produced by the burning of biomass in a limited amount of oxygen that turns it into char (Lehmann et al. Biochar making furnace is a significant part in biochar production plant. The Biochar Solutions Thermal Conversion System is designed to manufacture a consistent, clean, and high quality biochar as the MAIN product. We designed and manufactured kilns that could turn slash piles into biochar black gold without making smoke. Its agricultural virtues. Beston biochar making machine for sale has high automation system which can feed at one side and discharge at the other side. Red Mountain Makers shows you how to make charcoal for biochar using a 55 gal drum and 30 gal drum retort as originally designed by Living Web Farms. With a large emission of carbon dioxide there is an increase in the threat to the natural environment and its inhabitants. The whole system runs on wood gas, Wells said. Although biochar can remediate soil Cd pollution well, aging is an inevitable process when it used in soil. It is also possible to configure 3 units in a round-robin fashion so that the excess heat from one is used to start the pyrolysis process in another. So, if they could use these mobile units and they can make a biochar product on-site, they wouldn’t have to have the trucks to haul the wood away, and they wouldn’t have to pay to dispose of it. You need to make sure that the size and the water content of raw materials are suitable. Beston biochar making machine has continuous working process. The chunks of charred wood left over from a campfire is a . Biochar is made through a process called pyrolysis, which is a thermal conversion in the absence of oxygen. Using biochar as an enhancement in infiltration basins and taking the steps of each process into account can allow the company to decrease waste and possibly generate a future profit as well. Although biochar looks like common charcoal, it is produced using a process that minimises contaminants and is built upon a sustainability framework. Adverage prices of biochar $1000 a ton, the $5,000 to amend an acre of cropland with 5 tons of biochar would in … Metal Kilns There are infinite varieties of kiln shapes and sizes for making biochar. But if none of that is deterring you, I highly encourage you to watch the following video on making biochar. “We call this carbon-cycling, and it’s a universal process. It has a fully sealed working method which can efficiently carbonize waste materials. The price of biochar differs depending on where you are and if you are certified, so you will have to calculate that yourselves. The tilting mechanism allows for easy loading and unloading of the unit. Bioenergy is a byproduct of our biochar manufacturing process. Beston biochar making machine mainly utilizes the higher temperature pyrolysis process for heating the raw materials. The process of making biochar is called “pyrolysis.” Pyrolysis offers an efficient and sustainable means of generating energy from biomass while simultaneously sequestering carbon from the atmosphere in the form of biochar. Nearly all organic materials, such as bark, nutshells, crop residues, and manurescan be used as feedstock in appropriate devices. In the one hand, before entering into furnace, some biomass need crushing, such as palm kernel shell. It’s like a sponge and will absorb nutrients, microbes and fungi. Biomass converts into Biocharin a period of 4-6 hours 5. Scientists and scholars have predicted impacts on health, Simple Description of Biochar Production Process. The production of biochar also produces clean and renewable energy as a byproduct. Biochar making machine can process various biomass wastes, such as sawdust, rice husk, coconut shell, palm shell, wood, bamboo, etc., into charcoal.During these years, we have established many biochar production units in Ghana, Turkey, Spain, Ukraine, etc. ET In the process of researching biochar, ACON also has found a way to target an aquatic pest while easing resource strain on forests. “This is very important,” Beck says. We are here to bring together China factories that supply manufacturing systems and machinery that are used by processing industries including but not limited to: carbonization furnace, carbonization stove, charcoal making furnace. The detailed biochar production process of our biochar equipment for sale is as follow, Feed the raw materials by a constant weight feeder into the carbonization host, or you can also call the biochar … Spread on soil, biochar can keep CO 2 out of the atmosphere while improving soil fertility and boosting productivity. Biochar Now biochar filtration process is used to purify producer water from wells. When charcoal is made for the purpose of adding it to soil as an amendment, it’s called biochar. Biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon are all made using a process called pyrolysis, in which a source material – in this case, a carbon-containing substance – is subject to elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen so that it thermally decomposes into char, or carbon-rich solids. Biochar. Biochar, like charcoal and char is produced from pyrolysis, the process of heating carbon rich material (animal or vegetable matter) in oxygen deprived conditions. Campfires can reach 1,100 °C, so a properly built system could reach the temperatures needed. Biochar is a pyrogenous, organic material synthesized through pyrolysis of different biomass (plant or animal waste). Biochar stored for soil applications. I basically made the TLUD out of a 1gal paint can and 3 soup cans. The important part is to burn from the top down.

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oregon biochar solutions

5 June, 2021
 

Clearcutting, clearfelling or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down. … be picked up directly from our Arcata yard. CarbonizPN™ is a soil amendment blend of proprietary carbon-rich biochar and premium organics. The E4C Fellowship is a distinctive workforce development program in engineering for global development serving to activate and empower engineering students and early-career engineers worldwide to solve local and global challenges. Global Biochar Market: Snapshot The global biochar market is observing a significantly high rise in its valuation, thanks to the increasing preference for … Microbial Solutions Gypsum – Solution Grade $ 1.00 Add to cart. … demand for carbon removal solutions … Microbial Solutions Granulated Biochar $ 2.00 Add to cart. Shop for Garden Chemicals & Treatments in Lawn Care. 50 yard truck and transfers are only available for California and Southern Oregon. Digital Journal is a digital media news network with thousands of Digital Journalists in 200 countries around the world. Last year, Oregon’s governor signed an executive order directing state agencies, including the Department of Forestry, to act to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Quick View. Alternatively, biochar as a cooking fuel could provide affordable energy to some of the 3 billion people referred to in the U.N. SDG-7. The company’s carbon-negative materials use the carbon capture and sequestration strategy of biochar, according to Dring. For effective stormwater treatment, Storm Clean® filtration systems help municipal, industrial and commercial customers comply with NPDES regulations. This makes his proposed solutions, again in my humble opinion, farfetched. Filtrar por; Categorias; Tags; Autores; Exibir tudo; Todos; AgroTalento; AgroTalento Mulheres; Artigos técnicos; Atacado de carne bovina In fact, biochar has been shown to increase agriculture yields up to 25%. Quick View. The optimum mass ratio of biochar, triple superphosphate was 3:1. This biochar is made from wood biochar, worm castings, and rice hulls. “This is the amount you may get from one cord of firewood,” he said. Obviously not everyone can make enough biochar in their backyard, so we need to think about other ways to start sequestering carbon. Oregon State University, School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering … Panasonic Corporation, Industrial Solutions Company, Industrial Device Solution Business Unit : … Biochar Now LLC : 0x000008D9: Varian Medical Systems Inc. 0x000008DA: DAMEDICS GmbH : 0x000008DB: EnergopromAvtomatizaciya LLC Big Foot Mycorrhizae Big Foot Mycorrhizae Granular Root Inoculum $ 12.00 Add to cart. The area that we are considering running a pyrolysis ‘plastics to fuel’ pilot, are simply unable to deal with the amount of waste plastics, and thus, causing huge problems in countless communities. CarbonizPN™ creates the perfect home for root establishment by improving soil structure and biology. Lawns needing lime and potassium benefit from wood ash — 10 to 15 pounds per 1,000 square feet, Perry said. The idea of biochar comes from the Amazonian rain forests of Brazil, where a civilization thrived for 2,000 years, from about 500 B.C. Along with shelterwood and seed tree harvests, it is used by foresters to create certain types of forest ecosystems and to promote select species that require an abundance of sunlight or grow in large, even-age stands. CleanWay® Environmental Partners manufactures stormwater filtration solutions for drop inlets, catch basin inserts, curb inlet and downspout filters as well as variants and absorption booms. Here, the carbon storage properties would be lost, however, community-based e-currencies could boost local economies and quality of life. Buy products such as Roundup Ready-To-Use Weed & Grass Killer III with Pump ‘N Go 2 Sprayer, 1.33 gal at Walmart and save. Quick View. Join us! Quick View. Microbial Solutions Aloe, Coconut Water, Nopal Maintence Spray $ 18.00 Add to cart. The use of biochar, triple superphosphate mixture at the same dose as biochar, and triple superphosphate produced the greatest reduction in the available heavy metal concentration.

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Youtube biochar inoculation

5 June, 2021
 

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Biochar-based inoculants and pyrolysis cookstoves for human and soil health: Biofuels and biochar production for energy self-sufficiency and agricultural sustainability: This NSF-BREAD project combines soil science, engineering, and epidemiology to advance the health of smallholder farmers and the productivity of their farms.

Biochar will be charged with nutrients and microbes through a range of different methods and the resulting materials used to establish pot trials using crops such as beans, sunflowers, etc. Assessments will include plant growth and available nutrients. Inoculation is a set of methods of artificially inducing immunity against various infectious diseases. The practice originated in the East before being imported to the Western world. The terms inoculation, vaccination, and immunization are often used synonymously…Biochar-inoculation-part-2. Biochar Inoculation Part 2 Подробнее. Biochar Inoculation with Dan Hettinger Подробнее. PROCESSING BIOCHAR PART TWO Подробнее.


how much biochar per square foot

5 June, 2021
 

In the 500 m dam-height model, the area of the upper reservoir is 12.5 square kilometers. Recycling a bottle can save 10 – 15 per cent of the energy it takes to create a new bottle. Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. The sailing ship is a textbook example of sustainability. LUMBERTON — Which areas of Robeson County got hit by Tuesday night’s strong winds was a result of the luck of the meteorological draw. On board the ship `Garthsnaid’ at sea. Plywood and OSB typically have a density of 550 – 650 kg/m 3 (35 to 40 pounds per cubic foot). Super fine particles which give you TWICE the number of particles per square foot. The pre-emergent will stop weeds before they emerge. Then apply the HUMICHAR™ at the bag rate. Vulnerability and shading by the sails make for further problems. The decision was made not because the byproducts are contaminated with neonicotinoid pesticides like clothianidin and thiamethoxam, found at concentrations of 427,000 parts-per … News / Sports / Entertainment / Business / Health / Food / Life / Opinion / Archives / Special Reports; About Us. Please provide as much detail as possible with your request. Full-time eligible students are guaranteed to receive from $700 to $2,800 per year, for a total of two years. You only need one teaspoon of inoculant per linear foot of garden space, and this half-pound jar contains approximately 70 teaspoons. I think on an 8×4 (32 square feet) foot bed when amending between seasons I would add about 1.5-2 cups kelp meal, 2-3 … 2016/06/09 18:11 Male/40 years old level/Self-employed people/Very/ Purpose of use Working out weight of concrete silo cone base 2016/06/09 06:40 The University of Vermont recommends about 5 gallons of wood ash per 1,000 square feet of garden. This is even more the case today, because our standards for safety, health, hygiene, comfort, and convenience have changed profoundly since the Age of Sail. Hi Alyssa, we usually determine the amount by the square footage of the raised bed and we usually apply less than what it says on the package. A little goes a long way. The rooftop will provide a mesocosm — space for … News & Info. Please provide as much detail as possible with your request. About The Philadelphia Inquirer / Advertise / Contact Us / Licensing & Permissions / Photo Reprints / Newspapers in Education / And move that biochar onto millions of square miles of land where it will sequester that carbon just as well as if it were sunk to the bottom of the sea. While it doesn’t contain carbon or nitrogen, those are in ready supply from compost. Roderick McMillan called the Hub essential in setting up MG3 Farms, his hydroponic farming business that grows a variety of produce from a 10,500-square-foot greenhouse beside his home in … But reusing a bottle saves almost 100 per cent of the energy. This chapter builds on findings of AR5 and assesses new scientific evidence of changes in the climate system and the associated impacts on natural and human systems, with a specific focus on the magnitude and pattern of risks linked for global warming of 1.5°C above temperatures in the pre-industrial period. Buy the cheap garden version at any big box store. Sold by The Andersons PN and ships from Amazon Fulfillment. In the 250 m model, we have 3 square kilometers per reservoir, or 8500 km² for the whole set. Less than full-time students may receive a partial award. News / Sports / Entertainment / Business / Health / Food / Life / Opinion / Archives / Special Reports; About Us. Given the gas production rate of the Penn State digester, a net daily biogas output of 40 cubic feet (1.2 m 3) per cow, Pennsylvania diary farmers could produce 5 billion cubic feet (143 trillion m 3) of biogas per year. The reuse “R” is the one they try to focus on at the Goodwill Impact and Edmonton’s ReUse Centres. The HUMICHAR will improve your soil health, add carbon, and increase the CEC. Many other engineered woods have densities much higher than OSB. Engineered wood flooring manufacturing The decision was made not because the byproducts are contaminated with neonicotinoid pesticides like clothianidin and thiamethoxam, found at concentrations of 427,000 parts-per … It is expected each unit will be capable of processing up to 15 tons per day of animal and agricultural feedstock into varying amounts of renewable natural gas (RNG), bio-oil and biochar. About The Philadelphia Inquirer / Advertise / Contact Us / Licensing & Permissions / Photo Reprints / Newspapers in Education / The pre-emergent will stop weeds before they emerge. I looked for cheaper coco coir, worm castings, and vermiculite options and was able to bring that down to about $17 per square foot. It is surprisingly difficult to build a carbon neutral sailing ship. To calculate the weight of a log of green oak, which is a truncated cone, I first need to know it’s volume in feet, then multiply that by the weight per cubic foot of green oak. That is enough “manure power” to provide about 20 percent of all energy used on Pennsylvania diary farms. as much product as for Dimension. Buy the cheap garden version at any big box store. News & Info. So the total necessary area scales like the inverse square of the characteristic dam height. A view from high up in the rigging. How to produce this power? India attained 63% overall energy self-sufficiency in 2017. More particles, better and more even distribution. twitter facebook instagram. It is expected each unit will be capable of processing up to 15 tons per day of animal and agricultural feedstock into varying amounts of renewable natural gas (RNG), bio-oil and biochar. (5 pounds of fert per 1000 sq feet) So if you have a 10,000 sq foot lawn… put down 50 lbs of 10-10-10. Recipe #3—Seaweed Fertilizer Another fertilizer with a thousand-year pedigree. Then apply the HUMICHAR™ at the bag rate. The HUMICHAR will improve your soil health, add carbon, and increase the CEC. I think on an 8×4 (32 square feet) foot bed when amending between seasons I would add about 1.5-2 cups kelp meal, 2-3 … (2*$20) + $14 + ($26 * 2/5) = $65 per wheelbarrow load, or $26 per cubic foot. A wildfire, bushfire, wildland fire or rural fire is an unplanned, unwanted, uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation starting in rural areas and urban areas. The Andersons HumiChar Organic Soil Amendment with Humic Acid and Biochar – Covers up to 40,000 sq ft (40 lb) $84.88. Turn it into biochar! • To use, apply the fish emulsion fertilizer to the soil around your plants at a rate of 3 gallons of liquid for every 100 square feet of yard or garden. But once a roof is added over top, it will create a 3,000-square-foot workspace with an enclosed lab. For example, 1 cm (3/8″) plywood sheathing or OSB sheathing typically has a weight of 1 – 1.2 kg/m 2 (1.0 to 1.2 pounds per square foot.). Many residential herbicides require roughly 6 ounces of product per 1000 square feet; roughly 16 times (at 0.37 oz.) Producing 50 kWh of energy per day would require at least 100 square metres of solar panels, for which there is little space on a 60 m long sailing ship. (5 pounds of fert per 1000 sq feet) So if you have a 10,000 sq foot lawn… put down 50 lbs of 10-10-10. All “R”s are not created equal. At 0.37 ounce per gallon of water per 1000 square feet, there are 173 applications to a 1000 square foot space in a half gallon bottle of product. I am relying on the assumption that you could find similar prices near you. In Stock. twitter facebook instagram. Hi Alyssa, we usually determine the amount by the square footage of the raised bed and we usually apply less than what it says on the package. What will this do? Activated is sometimes replaced by active.. Due to its high degree of microporosity, one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 3,000 m 2 (32,000 sq ft) as determined by gas adsorption. Solar panels and wind turbines are only a small part of the solution. Image by Allan C. Green, circa 1920. As an example, for a 1 hour event on a B (SM) soil with an infiltration rate of 0.45 inches per hour, 1 acre of contributing impervious area, and a 1.5 foot ponding depth, A s is 2361 square feet, compared to 2420 square feet considering only an instantaneous volume, or a decrease of 2.4 percent in the size of the basin. This chapter builds on findings of AR5 and assesses new scientific evidence of changes in the climate system and the associated impacts on natural and human systems, with a specific focus on the magnitude and pattern of risks linked for global warming of 1.5°C above temperatures in the pre-industrial period.

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Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market 2021 : Global Demand, Research and Top …

6 June, 2021
 

[101 Pages Report] This report elaborates the market size, market characteristics, and market growth of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers industry, and breaks down according to the type, application, and consumption area of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers. The report also conducted a PESTEL analysis of the industry to study the main influencing factors and entry barriers of the industry.

In Chapter 3.4 of the report, the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the industry was fully assessed. Fully risk assessment and industry recommendations were made for Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers in a special period. This chapter also compares the markets of Pre COVID-19 and Post COVID-19.

In addition, chapters 8-12 consider the impact of COVID-19 on the regional economy.

Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market” Analysis to 2025 is a specialized and in-depth study of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers industry with a focus on the global market trend. The report aims to provide an overview of global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market with detailed market segmentation by product/application and geography. Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market report covers the present and past market scenarios, market development patterns, and is likely to proceed with a continuing development over the forecast period.

In COVID-19 outbreak, Chapter 2.2 of this report provides an analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on the global economy and the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers industry.

Chapter 3.7 covers the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 from the perspective of the industry chain. In addition, chapters 7-11 consider the impact of COVID-19 on the regional economy.

Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.

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Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market research report aids in achieving a sustainable growth in the market, by providing a well-versed, specific and most relevant product and market information. The market drivers and restraints have been explained using SWOT analysis. Business intelligence has been applied to generate this market report which is a vital aspect when it comes to accomplish thorough and wide-ranging market insights. This market report will also surely help in the journey to achieve the business growth and success. The global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers report also provides an insightful overview of product specification, technology, applications, product type and production analysis considering major factors such as revenue, cost, and gross margin.

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Key players in the global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market covered in Chapter 13:

Short Description About Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market: 

The Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2021 and 2026. In 2021, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players; the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

The market in North America is expected to grow considerably during the forecast period. The high adoption of advanced technology and the presence of large players in this region are likely to create ample growth opportunities for the market.

Despite the presence of intense competition, due to the global recovery trend is clear, investors are still optimistic about this area, and it will still be more new investments entering the field in the future.

This report focuses on the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

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Report further studies the market development status and future Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market trend across the world. Also, it splits Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market Segmentation by Type and by Applications to fully and deeply research and reveal market profile and prospects.

In Chapter 6, on the basis of types, the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market from 2015 to 2025 is primarily split into:

In Chapter 7, on the basis of applications, the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market from 2015 to 2025 covers:

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share and growth Rate of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers in these regions, from 2015 to 2026, covering

This Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Research/Analysis Report Contains Answers to your following Questions

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Major Points from Table of Contents:

Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Research Report 2021-2026, by Manufacturers, Regions, Types and Applications

1 Introduction
1.1 Objective of the Study
1.2 Definition of the Market
1.3 Market Scope
1.3.1 Market Segment by Type, Application and Marketing Channel
1.3.2 Major Regions Covered (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Mid East & Africa)
1.4 Years Considered for the Study (2015-2026)
1.5 Currency Considered (U.S. Dollar)
1.6 Stakeholders

2 Key Findings of the Study

3 Market Dynamics
3.1 Driving Factors for this Market
3.2 Factors Challenging the Market
3.3 Opportunities of the Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market (Regions, Growing/Emerging Downstream Market Analysis)
3.4 Technological and Market Developments in the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market
3.5 Industry News by Region
3.6 Regulatory Scenario by Region/Country
3.7 Market Investment Scenario Strategic Recommendations Analysis

4 Value Chain of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market

4.1 Value Chain Status
4.2 Upstream Raw Material Analysis
4.3 Midstream Major Company Analysis (by Manufacturing Base, by Product Type)
4.4 Distributors/Traders
4.5 Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)

Get a Sample Copy of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Report 2021

5 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market-Segmentation by Type
6 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market-Segmentation by Application

7 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market-Segmentation by Marketing Channel
7.1 Traditional Marketing Channel (Offline)
7.2 Online Channel

8 Competitive Intelligence – Company Profiles

9 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market-Segmentation by Geography

9.1 North America
9.2 Europe
9.3 Asia-Pacific
9.4 Latin America

9.5 Middle East & Africa

10 Future Forecast of the Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market from 2021-2026

10.1 Future Forecast of the Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market from 2019-2026 Segment by Region
10.2 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Production and Growth Rate Forecast by Type (2019-2026)
10.3 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Consumption and Growth Rate Forecast by Application (2019-2026)

11 Appendix
11.1 Methodology
12.2 Research Data Source

Continued….

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THE ULTIMATE GUIDE TO BIOCHAR how to make it how – YTread

6 June, 2021
 


Advances on the application of biochar in radioactive wastewater treatment | E3S Web of …

6 June, 2021
 

The domestic and foreign scholars found that biochar prepared from waste crops, animal manure, and tissues has a good adsorption effect on radioactive pollutants. Biochar is an ideal material for the adsorbent. This article summarizes the preparation methods and modification methods of biochar, and the adsorption characteristics of biochar to heavy metals and radioactive elements. This article also points out the problems and development trends in the current research of biochar.

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021

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Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

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eISSN: 2267-1242


Table 4 | Characteristics and Applications of Sewage Sludge Biochar Modified by Ferrous Sulfate …

6 June, 2021
 


Biochar Fertilizer Market Outlook and Opportunities in Grooming Regions

6 June, 2021
 

Reporthive’s Research Study on Global Biochar Fertilizer Market 2021 By manufacturer, region, type and application, forecast up to 2026 highlights excellent market overview research. The report offers a primary focus on influencing factors in the global Biochar Fertilizer industry. The report includes in-depth information on prices, costs, value, capacity, gross revenue and profit margins regarding historical analysis and forecast estimation for the time period from 2021 to 2026. It presents a close overview of the main drivers, restraints, current market challenges, opportunities and trends, supply chain and stock market and strategies impacting the global market along with revenue estimates and forecasts and share analysis.

The report first contains a broad introduction of the global Biochar Fertilizer market and then analyzes specific segments such as applications, regional markets, end users, value chain structure, and emerging trends. It offers a complete analysis of the global Biochar Fertilizer market inclusive of product portfolio, categories, applications and a complete analysis of the value chain structure. The report studies the dynamics of the market, the changing landscape of competition and the flow of global supply and consumption.

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Trend factors affecting market shares:

There are various dynamic characteristics of the business, such as customer needs and customer feedback. The report explored all the dynamic aspects such as industrial structure, application, classification and definition. The report offers an in-depth insight to the readers, in this study a detailed geographic segmentation within the global Biochar Fertilizer market has been covered. The Market Research Report predicts the global Biochar Fertilizer market size covering key merchant revenue information, upstream and downstream industry development, industry progress, key companies, along with market segments and all ‘application.

The competitive scenario of the global market and the detailed profiles of the participants: Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics LLC

The report provides:

– An aspect of the market.
– Wide-ranging investigation of the market.
– Research for improvements in progress.
– Occasions in the market situation in recent years.
– Develop fragments of the business sector and local economic sectors.
– Divisions up to the second and third level.
– Verifiable, current and estimated market size by value and volume.
– The serious investigation, with organizational scheme, items, income and systems.
– Impartial evaluation of the market.
– Vital proposals to help organizations increase their market presence.

The report provides a brief overview of how the Biochar Fertilizer market will perform over the projected time period. In addition, details have been provided on the drivers influencing market dynamics, as well as the growth rate the industry is expected to experience over the expected duration. Additionally, the Biochar Fertilizer market report also provides an overview of the challenges by which this vertical is defined, along with the growth opportunities that this business space is a holdover from.

By type of product:
Organic Fertilizer, Inorganic Fertilizer, Compound Fertilizer

By end use / application:
Cereals, Oil Crops, Fruits and Vegetables

Regions Global Biochar Fertilizer Market:

– The Middle East and Africa (GCC countries and Egypt)
– North America (United States, Mexico and Canada)
– South America (Brazil, etc.)
– Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia, UK, Italy, France, etc.)
– Asia-Pacific area (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia and Australia)

Main features of the report:

1) The report provides granular level information on market size, regional market share, historical market (2016-2020) and forecast (2021-2026)
2) The report covers detailed insights into the competitor overview, company share analysis, key market developments and key strategies
3) The report outlines drivers, restrictions, unmet needs and trends that are currently affecting the Biochar Fertilizer market
4) The report tracks recent innovations, key developments and startup details that are actively working in the Biochar Fertilizer market
5) The report provides a wealth of information on market entry strategies, regulatory framework and repayment scenario
6) The report analyzes the impact of the socio-political environment through PESTLE analysis and competition through Porter’s five forces analysis as well as recent technological advances and innovations in the market.

Some of the key questions answered in this report:

– What are the key elements of using the global Biochar Fertilizer market?
– What are the sales, revenues and pricing of producers in this market?
– Who are the distributors, traders and sellers of the market?
– Who are the main carriers of this space?
– What are the market opportunities, industry opportunities and industry valuation of the Global Biochar Fertilizer industry?

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Table of Contents

Market Overview: This is the first section of the report that includes an overview of the scope of products offered in the global Biochar Fertilizer market, segments by product and application, and market size.

Market Competition by Player: Here, the report shows how the competition in the global Biochar Fertilizer market is growing or decreasing based on deep analysis of market concentrate rate, competitive situations and trends, expansions, merger and acquisition deals, and other subjects. It also shows how different companies are progressing in the global Biochar Fertilizer market in terms of revenue, production, sales, and market share.

Company Profiles and Sales Data: This part of the report is very important as it gives statistical as well as other types of analysis of leading manufacturers in the global Biochar Fertilizer market. It assesses each and every player studied in the report on the basis of main business, gross margin, revenue, sales, price, competitors, manufacturing base, product specification, product application, and product category.

Market Status and Outlook by Region: The report studies the status and outlook of different regional markets such as Europe, North America, the MEA, Asia Pacific, and South America. All of the regional markets researched about in the report are examined based on price, gross margin, revenue, production, and sales. Here, the size and CAGR of the regional markets are also provided.

Market by Product: This section carefully analyzes all product segments of the global Biochar Fertilizer market.

Market by Application: Here, various application segments of the global Biochar Fertilizer market are taken into account for research study.

Market Forecast: It starts with revenue forecast and then continues with sales, sales growth rate, and revenue growth rate forecasts of the global Biochar Fertilizer market. The forecasts are also provided taking into consideration product, application, and regional segments of the global Biochar Fertilizer market.

Upstream Raw Materials: This section includes industrial chain analysis, manufacturing cost structure analysis, and key raw materials analysis of the global Biochar Fertilizer market.

Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors: Here, the research study digs deep into behavior and other factors of downstream customers, distributors, development trends of marketing channels, and marketing channels such as indirect marketing and direct marketing.

Research Findings and Conclusion: This section is solely dedicated to the conclusion and findings of the research study on the global Biochar Fertilizer market.

Appendix: This is the last section of the report that focuses on data sources, viz. primary and secondary sources, market breakdown and data triangulation, market size estimation, research programs and design, research approach and methodology, and the publisher’s disclaimer.

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The Work To Convert Hawaii's Cesspools Continues

6 June, 2021
 

Last July, in my IDEAS Essay about how Hawaii has the highest number of cesspools per capita in the country, I advocated that the pandemic should motivate the state and counties to diversify our economy and develop the wastewater workforce that is needed to convert all of these cesspools.

If there’s one thing most Americans should be able to agree on, it’s the need to repair our nation’s deteriorating infrastructure. Despite partisan politics, the U.S. Congress passed the Biden administration’s American Rescue Plan Act and its members are currently arguing over the proposed budget for the American Jobs Plan.

The new AJP bill would invest $1.7 trillion to get people back to work restoring our aging roads, bridges, water and wastewater treatment systems.

As co-founder of the nonprofit WAI: Wastewater Alternatives & Innovations, I’m focused on the last issue. Hawaii has some 88,000 cesspools across the state that discharge 53 million gallons of untreated sewage into our groundwaters each day. This sewage pollution poses harmful threats to public health, drinking water, the near-shore environment and coral reefs, along with Hawaii’s reputation as a world-class destination.

WAI helped to create the Work-4-Water Initiative by bringing together leaders from Hawaii Community College, the University of Hawaii Sea Grant College, the Water Resources Research Center and the Hawaii Department of Health’s wastewater branch. Over the last year, our W4W group has been meeting weekly, focused on four long-term goals: workforce development, infrastructure investment, cesspool replacement and water protection.

Thankfully, Hawaii’s congressional delegation is increasingly aware of the severity of the problem.

“Wastewater has really been disregarded for years and years and years and it’s something we have to address as a state,” Rep. Kai Kahele wrote recently. “This is a great time to do that with the American Rescue Plan because it can provide millions of dollars for jobs and investment into Hawaii’s wastewater infrastructure.”

“We have a cesspool problem on our neighbor islands where they’re really not going to be complying with the Clean Water Act unless we provide them the infrastructure,” Sen. Brian Schatz said in a recent Civil Beat interview, “either for big sewer systems or small distributed sewage management systems or something even more distributed like the Gates toilet.”

Half of the state’s cesspools — 49,300 — are on Rep. Kahele’s home island, Hawaii island. Kauai has 13,700, Maui County has 13,640 and Oahu has 11,300.

As Kahele notes, “The county of Hawaii has been in violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and EPA federal rules and regulations since 2010 when the county took over responsibility of the large capacity cesspools at Pahala and Naalehu.” In the face of these federal regulations, what should the counties do — go with the old, expensive sewer systems or find a new and cheaper technology?

These systems served a purpose once, but now they are the definition of a vicious cycle: We use clean drinking water to flush our toilets, then expend massive amounts of energy and miles of sewer lines to pump that waste across the Island to municipal wastewater treatment plants, which require even more energy to separate the liquids from the solids; and in the end, we pump the clean water out to sea and truck the sludge waste to landfills that are already full.

In her new book “Pipe Dreams,” Chelsea Wald writes, “Every day, according to one estimate, people worldwide use almost 40 billion gallons of freshwater — nearly six times the daily water consumption of the entire continent of Africa — to flush toilets.  We can do better.” Yes, we can.

There are basically three different scenarios for dealing with our cesspools and sewage issues.

On one end of the spectrum are the big sewer systems. While it may be possible to extend sewer lines into certain communities in Hawaii near existing facilities, it would be financially impossible to create this kind of massive, centralized and outmoded infrastructure in more remote areas of the islands. Building wastewater treatment plants and installing traditional sewer lines and pump stations would be prohibitively expensive and disruptive for small, rural areas.

On the other end of the spectrum, each individual cesspool is going to cost tens of thousands of dollars to be converted into a more environmentally sound septic system. Many homeowners don’t have the money, which is why the Work-4-Water Initiative is seeking federal funding to help homeowners with the costs of conversion.

We are also now collaborating with community colleges on each island to develop training programs to certify more workers in the wastewater sector and developing hands-on internships with local companies to create enough jobs to help convert 88,000 cesspools.

As I noted last year, there is gold to be mined from these dark, underground rivers of waste. By training thousands of workers for long-term, well-paid jobs, we can install new wastewater systems across the state.

In 2017 the Legislature mandated the conversion of all cesspools by 2050 by passing Act 125. To convert all cesspools in the state within the next 30 years, the state will have to increase its current rate of cesspool conversions from some 200 per year to 3,000 per year.

Instead of big sewer plants or individual cesspool conversions, the best option for at least a third of the households in Hawaii currently on cesspools may be to connect to smaller “distributed sewage management systems,” as Sen. Schatz outlined.

There is promising new technology for decentralized, more efficient, less expensive wastewater treatment systems. The central message of the Gates Foundation’s Reinvented Toilet program and “Pipe Dreams” is that we need to not only reinvent the toilet but to reimagine the whole sanitation system.

With the federal government’s commitment to rebuilding our decaying infrastructure, now is the time to develop mobile, community-scale sanitation systems that recycle the valuable resources and nutrients in our liquid and solid waste. Instead of pumping nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium out to sea, we can recycle them on land to enrich our soils (instead of expensive, synthetic fertilizers).

These systems can be financed by federal funds, county bonds and in some cases by the wastewater companies themselves.

How do we recycle our wastes safely and affordably? WAI is collaborating with Elemental Excelerator to introduce innovative technology and financing models to Hawaii. One of Elemental’s new cohort companies is Cambrian, whose small-scale modular treatment systems are designed for approximately 30 to 300 households.

Cambrian has created a Water Energy Purchase Agreement that allows the company to build these systems with a service agreement instead of large upfront capital costs.

This “sanitation as a service” approach can save millions of dollars for the counties and provide state-of-the-art facilities to rural communities like Pahala and Naalehu on Hawaii island or coastal areas like Maalaea on Maui.

As Rep. Kahele notes, right now in Maalaea, “Wastewater is treated at each individual condo and then that wastewater gets put right back into the ground (via injection wells), and that has had major effects on the Maalaea coral, as well as the nearshore fisheries.”

Counties like Maui could focus on installing conveyance lines to connect Maalaea’s 10 condo complexes and nearby businesses to these smaller treatment systems.

Cambrian’s systems are capable of transforming liquid wastewater to clean R1 water that can be used for irrigation and farming. Other companies can recycle the solid waste sludge.

Biomass Controls, which was originally funded by the Gates Foundation, uses a process called pyrolysis, which employs high heat and low oxygen to burn the waste and transform it into 100% pathogen-free biochar. This thermodynamic heating process can reduce the sludge volume by 90% and remove more than 95% of pharmaceuticals, plastics, PFOS and other toxic contaminants.

The resulting odorless biochar can be used as a soil amendment or a medium for water and air filtration. It can also be used for carbon sequestration to help the state reach its goals for carbon neutrality by 2045.

Jim Mothersbaugh, CEO of WaterTectonics, operates a wastewater treatment plant in Makena on Maui. He is working to integrate Biomass’ technology into his treatment system. By avoiding trucking 90 loads of sludge to the landfill each year, he will reduce his carbon footprint and save hundreds of thousands of dollars in trucking costs and tipping fees. Using the biochar as a soil amendment for agroforestry, he hopes to turn his facility into a model for the future of waste recycling.

These two treatment systems are examples of mobile, scalable and affordable solutions that can help transform our problematic wastes into valuable products. Hawaii could become a national leader by recycling 100% of its liquid and solid waste.

As we emerge from the cocoons of our quarantine, let’s make sure we don’t drift back to outmoded ideas and technologies. Instead, we should work together to repair our aging infrastructure and build a better foundation for the future.

Civil Beat is a small nonprofit newsroom that provides free content with no paywall. That means readership growth alone can’t sustain our journalism. The truth is that less than 1% of our monthly readers are financial supporters. To remain a viable business model for local news, we need a higher percentage of readers-turned-donors.

Will you consider becoming a new donor today?

There are still cesspools in parts of Kahala, Diamond Head, Tantalus, Round Top, Windward & North Shore.  It is ridiculous that they still exist. 

I like to follow the money. Where is WEI in all of this?  Which company(s) do they own that would take in BILLIONS of dollars of federal money?  

Very disingenuous. That sign was because of a sewage spill from a sewer pipeline, not ground water from a cesspool. I’d be very interested in contamination results attributed to cesspools. I don’t think mthere has been a contamination reported attributed to cesspools as long as I can remember.

IDEAS is the place you’ll find essays, analysis and opinion on every aspect of life and public affairs in Hawaii. We want to showcase smart ideas about the future of Hawaii, from the state’s sharpest thinkers, to stretch our collective thinking about a problem or an issue. Email news@civilbeat.org to submit an idea.

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Common applications of biochar

6 June, 2021
 

Learn more about why and how to use biochar for beneficial impact.

Find beneficial ways to manage everything from tree prunings to forestry slash, plus municipal waste…

Learn about benefits, risks, and costs. Engage in policy development and proposed policy changes.

Connect with other researchers, find industry partners, trial applications, and advocate for…

Learn about and access biochar for home, garden, pet care, and other personal uses.

Access expertise, technology, funding, partners, and researchers to support product and byproduct…

Connect with biochar producers and byproduct developers who seek inputs, equipment, and services.

Learn from others, share market research, and access support to reach, maintain, and retain…

Learn more about how to use biochar for greater impact within business and industry.

© 2021 Biochar Network NZ

BNNZ acknowledges the generous support of Soil Conditioner Products Ltd


Biochar and its application in Bioremediation | Riti Thapar Kapoor | Springer

6 June, 2021
 

It seems that you’re in USA. We have a dedicated site for USA

40% off Popular Science books & eBooks—Save on general interest titles now!

Editors: Kapoor, Riti Thapar, Treichel, Helen, Shah, Maulin P. (Eds.)

Biochar prepared from agricultural biomass has received considerable attention because of the huge availability of ago-waste at zero cost, flexibility, high efficiency, renewability, faster contaminant removal rate, ability to treat concentrated effluent and reduction of sludge production after the treatment. This book on biochar is a comprehensive account of preparation of biochar from agricultural waste. It provides a roadmap in development of future strategy for pollution abatement and sustainable waste management. This book contains up-to-date information on biochar and its role in environment protection. The book covers useful information and applications of biochar to research scholars, academicians, agronomists, scientists and environmentalist working in the field of environment protection, bioremediation, waste management and climate change mitigation.

Dr. Riti Thapar Kapoor is Assistant Professor in Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. Dr. Kapoor received her Ph.D from University of Allahabad and worked as post – doctoral fellow in ICAR project at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Dr. Kapoor has thirteen years of teaching and research experience and her area of specialization is environmental biotechnology. Dr. Kapoor has published seventy research papers in various journals of national and international repute. She has been awarded with Fellow of Indian Botanical Society (FBS) for her significant contribution to research in the field of life-sciences. Dr. Kapoor has visited seven countries for the participation in different academic programmes. Dr. Kapoor has received prestigious travel award from Bill & Melinda Gates Research Foundation (CGIAR project) for participation in International training programme held at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Manila, Philippines in 2010. She is also recipient of DST travel grant for participation in International Conference held at Sri Lanka in 2013. Dr. Kapoor has been awarded with Teacher’s Research Fellowship from Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru in 2019. Being a dynamic personality, Dr. Kapoor contributed several popular science articles in reputed magazines as a science communicator.

Graduated in Food Engineering from the Federal University of Rio Grande (1999), master’s degree from the State University of Campinas (2001), and Ph.D. in Food Engineering at the State University of Campinas (2004). She is currently a Professor and Researcher at the Federal University of Fronteira Sul (UFFS) – Campus Erechim. She operates in undergraduate courses in Environmental Engineering and Agronomy is a Permanent Professor in the Graduate Program in Environmental Science and Technology (UFFS-Campus Erechim) and Food Science and Technology (UFFS-Campus Laranjeiras do Sul). She has 250 articles published in periodicals of international prestige, h-factor 31, 5 books, 35 book chapters, more than 400 papers presented and published in Annals of events, and three patents. Acts as a leader of the Agro-energy research group. It has experience in the bioprocess and Microbiology area, acting on the following topics: Biochemical Engineering, Biochemical Processes, Design of Experiments and Process Optimization, Production, Purification, Immobilization and Enzymes Application of Pretreatment and Use of Agro-Industrial Waste Fermentation Process, Biomass, Bioenergy, and Biofuels.

Maulin P. Shah, currently Chief Scientist & Head – Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied and Environmental Microbiology Lab at Enviro Technology Ltd., Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. His major work involves isolation, screening, identification and Genetic Engineering of high impact of Microbes for the degradation of hazardous materials. He has more than 380 research publication in highly reputed national and international journals. He has edited 75 books with Elsevier, Springer, RSC, Wiley, DeGruyter, Nova Sciences.

 

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2020 2025 Global Biochar Bonechar Phosphate Fertilizers Market – Industry Reports

6 June, 2021
 

Reports available on 360 Research Reports incorporate a comprehensive research statistics of all aspects of the market that offer you a thorough business intelligence. Gaining an in-depth predicative and competitive analysis of the market aids your business in dominating the market and that is what we aspire towards. Industry Reports provide you various industry-centric reports that aid your business in augmenting its growth. The reports we sell are integrated with market analysis data of the key players, leading market segments and latest market trends across the globe.

SKU ID : Maia-16996636 | Publishing Date : 17-Dec-2020 | No. of pages : 101

COPD burden in the 7MM to increase by 13.3% over the next decade   The total prevalent cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the seven major markets (7MM*) is expected to increase from 59.3 million cases in 2018 to 67.2 million in 2028, at an annual growth rate (AGR) of 1.33%, according to Re…

North America and Asia set to contribute 55% of global new-build trunk pipeline length additions by 2023   North America and Asia are set to drive the global oil and gas new-build pipeline length additions, contributing around 55% of the global planned and announced pipeline length additions between 2019 and 20…

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The inhibiting effects of biochar-derived organic materials on rice production – ScienceDirect

6 June, 2021
 

Both PBC and HBC tended to promote NUE and rice yield at lower rate.

Higher HBC application (3%, w/w) significantly reduced NUE and rice yield.

Rice yield loss under 3% HBC application was attributed to BDOM.

ESI-FT-ICR-MS analysis showed BDOM of HBC contained undesirable chemicals.

Both PBC and HBC tended to promote NUE and rice yield at lower rate.

Higher HBC application (3%, w/w) significantly reduced NUE and rice yield.

Rice yield loss under 3% HBC application was attributed to BDOM.

ESI-FT-ICR-MS analysis showed BDOM of HBC contained undesirable chemicals.

The effects of PBC and HBC on rice production, NUE and corresponding mechanisms were examined. Six treatments, P05, P30, H05, H30 (P: PBC; H: HBC; 05 and 30 represented the application rate of 0.5 and 3.0% w/w), CKU (urea application without char) and CK (no application of char and urea), were set up. Results showed that P05, P30 and H05 increased grain yield by 1.8–7.3% (P > 0.05), whereas H30 reduced grain yield by 60.4% (P < 0.05), compared to CKU. Meanwhile, HI under P05, P30 and H05 increased by 3.4–3.6%, while H30 decreased by 9.1% (P < 0.05). NUE and NAE showed similar trends with rice yield. By investigation, the excessive introduction of BDOM plays a crucial role in the reduction of rice production and NUE under higher HBC application. GC-MS/MS analysis showed that the soluble BDOM of HBC and PBC was quite different, and compounds such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol might stress rice growth. ESI-FT-ICR-MS analysis showed that the BDOM of HBC contained a certain quantity of aromatic compounds, which may also stress rice growth. Overall, HBC pretreatment should be conducted, and the application rate should be strictly controlled before its agricultural application.


Krishikosh: Carbon sequestration and soil health under different organic sources in wetland rice

6 June, 2021
 


A novel eco-friendly recycling of food waste for preparing biofilm-attached biochar to remove Cd …

6 June, 2021
 

High-efficiency adsorbent is prepared from multiple reuses of food waste.

Electrostatic attraction and complexation dominate the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+.

Prioritize adsorption of Pb2+ but more functional groups participate in removing Cd2+.

BAB is easily reused by re-growth of biofilm cultured by food waste.

High-efficiency adsorbent is prepared from multiple reuses of food waste.

Electrostatic attraction and complexation dominate the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+.

Prioritize adsorption of Pb2+ but more functional groups participate in removing Cd2+.

BAB is easily reused by re-growth of biofilm cultured by food waste.

The development of green and sustainable cleaning technologies to properly reuse food waste and remove heavy metals in wastewater can avoid secondary damage to the environment. Our study proposes an innovative way to prepare an efficient adsorbent by growing bacterial biofilm in food waste and attaching them to biochar also prepared from food waste. Modification of the biochar by bacterial biofilm reduced the specific surface area but increased the average pore and the adsorption performance of Cd and Pb. Electrostatic adsorption and complexation by oxygen-containing functional groups were the main adsorption mechanisms for Cd and Pb by biofilm-attached biochar, and it was also easily recyclable by re-growth of the biofilm cultured by food waste. In wastewater containing both Cd and Pb, competitive adsorption between the two metal ions were observed on biofilm-attached biochar, while more functional groups were involved in removing Cd. This study proposes a new idea to reuse food waste as bio-modified biochar adsorbent and provides a promising strategy to remove heavy metals in wastewater by applying biofilm-attached biochar.


Jardin Jasmin: Biochar

6 June, 2021
 


Peat-free compost alternatives – the best options | Carbon Gold

6 June, 2021
 

Long-time Carbon Gold fans won’t be surprised to hear that we are over the moon at this week’s announcement that the sale of peat-based composts will be banned by 2024. But has it left you scratching your head asking what are the best peat-free compost alternatives?

Peat composts might be cheap, but the environmental costs are astronomical, as we’ve been banging on about for years. As the recent news states, peat bogs naturally sequester thousands upon thousands of years’-worth of CO2. Mining these bogs to make fertile compost products releases that carbon back into the atmosphere.

What’s less known is peat bogs are also a natural sink of NOX, a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent and harmful than CO2. For the sake of quickly establishing a few plants in the greenhouse, it really isn’t worth it!

So, now that peat is finally going to be banned, what should you switch to?  What are the best peat-free compost alternatives on the market?

Well, we’re biased but, our biochar products are used by both conventional and organic commercial crop growers, tree care specialists and pro greenkeepers at racecourses, golf courses and elite sports pitches all over the world.

Why? Because our biochar products actually perform better than peat, having been proven to prevent all manor of pests and diseases, while actively boosting plant health and vitality and helping the environment.

Biochar is a pure, high-carbon form of charcoal that can be added to soil for a number of benefits.

As it is high in carbon, biochar’s presence in soil improves a plant’s roots’ ability to get hold of the naturally occurring chemical nutrients they need from the soil. Its microscopic sponge-like structure also helps to aerate soil and improve its water-holding capacity. Plus, it acts as a housing for plant-friendly microbes and fungi that fight off pests, which we pre-mix into all of our products.

Not only are our products peat-free, but biochar is also so high in carbon that it doesn’t break down over time. That means you are permanently taking carbon out of the atmosphere and burying it in your garden every time you use it, helping you to improve your own person carbon footprint!

And that permanence doesn’t just translate to environmental cost savings. While you can’t buy biochar-based composts, like Biochar All Purpose Compost, as cheaply as you can buy peat composts, they offer a cost saving in the long run because you don’t need to keep buying more.

Here’s hoping the peat ban extends to horticultural use too in the near future!

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Biochar Market Archives – Elive PR

7 June, 2021
 


Insight into the synergistic effects of conductive biochar for accelerating maturation during electric …

7 June, 2021
 

Compost matrix resistance significantly declined with conductive biochar addition.

Conductive biochar boosted the abundance of electroactive bacteria during b-EAC.

The bacterial O2 utilization was highly increased with conductive biochar addition.

Conductive biochar synergistically accelerated compost maturation during b-EAC.

Compost matrix resistance significantly declined with conductive biochar addition.

Conductive biochar boosted the abundance of electroactive bacteria during b-EAC.

The bacterial O2 utilization was highly increased with conductive biochar addition.

Conductive biochar synergistically accelerated compost maturation during b-EAC.

Electric field-assisted aerobic composting (EAC) has been considered as a novel and effective process for enhancing compost maturation. However, the poor conductivity of compost piles affects the efficiency and applicability of EAC. Thus, this study aims to examine how conductive biochar affects compost maturation in biochar-added electric field-assisted aerobic composting (b-EAC). Our results demonstrated that the germination index and humus index significantly increased, and the compost maturation time was shortened by nearly 25% during b-EAC compared to EAC. The total oxygen utilization rate and total relative abundance of electroactive bacteria during b-EAC increased by approximately two and three times those in EAC, respectively. These findings indicated that the addition of conductive biochar has a synergistic effect which facilitated oxygen utilization by reducing resistance and accelerating electron transfer. Therefore, the addition of conductive biochar is proved to be an effective and applicable strategy for optimizing the efficiency of EAC.


VICTORIAN FIRST FOR WASTE

7 June, 2021
 

Mount Alexander Sustainability Group has secured DON Smallgoods in Castlemaine as the development site of a proposed multi-million dollar bioenergy facility.

The planned project represents the first community led integrated waste-to-clean-energy initiative of its kind in Victoria.
Confirming support, DON Smallgoods signed a term sheet covering energy off-take, waste supply and land to the north of the existing factory.

MASG Bioenergy Subcommittee chair Mick Lewin said the project embraced circular economy and zero waste – a dictum the sustainability group strives for.
“We hope it will be a great example for other communities,” he said.

Bioenergy waste plants divert organic waste from landfill, capturing potentially harmful emissions to generate zero waste and clean energy, while reducing reliance on traditional fossil fuels.
The proposed facility will feature two technologies: a Biodigester to break down wet organic waste, producing methane, heat and a digestate co-product; and a Biomass thermal heat plant for dry woody waste to supply steam to the Don KRC plant and result in co-products such as biochar for agricultural use.

DON Smallgoods will purchase energy generated from the plant and provide 20 per cent of the waste to process. In total, the facility is expected to drive an emissions reduction of 88,500 tonne of CO2 e per annum, and divert over 30,000 tonnes of organic waste from landfill annually (over 20 per cent of which is from DON Smallgoods).

DON Smallgoods managing director Will Ursell said the company was excited to be part of the smart initiative.
“The plant will significantly reduce landfill waste from our Castlemaine facility, leading to a 20 per cent emissions reduction alone,” he said.

Mr Ursell said the new plant would also divert a huge amount of waste away from DON Smallgoods’ existing onsite wastewater treatment plant.
To date, the planned facility has received backing from state and federal governments, Mount Alexander Shire Council, Coliban Water, DON Smallgoods and the McKinnon Family Foundation. In total, required funding is about $20-25 million.

MASG renewable energy consultant and project director Deane Belfield said the facility would also benefit the agricultural community, as it would be equipped to create a carbon neutral soil product from waste streams, replacing emission intensive synthetic fertilisers.
MASG would receive a dividend from ongoing operation, therefore enabling other sustainability projects in the community.

MASG has developed a design for the plant and aims to submit project plans to the EPA, Biosecurity Australia and the council for approval later this year.
If it can secure the remaining necessary funding from investors it hopes to begin construction of the facility in early 2022 with a view to it being online and fully operational by early 2023.

Mount Alexander Shire Council CEO Darren Fuzzard said the council would explore the opportunity for part or all of the community’s organic waste to be processed at the proposed bioenergy facility.
Engagement with the community and stakeholders will be ongoing.
For details on the project visit: bioenergy.net.au


Potential of organic and inorganic amendments for stabilizing nickel in acidic soil, and improving …

7 June, 2021
 

Contamination of soils by nickel (Ni) has become a serious environmental problem throughout the world, and this substance wields dangerous effects on the ecosystem and food chain. A pot experiment was conducted to examine the effect of rice straw (RS), rice straw biochar (BI), and calcite (CC) at 1% and 2% application rates in a Ni-contaminated soil. The objective was to potentially stabilize Ni and reduce its bioavailability to spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.). Spinach plants were grown in a Ni-contaminated Ultisol (commonly known as a red clay soil). Plant growth parameter results indicated that a BI 2% application rate significantly increased the root and shoots dry biomass increased by 1.7- and 6.3-fold, respectively, while essential nutrients were enhanced in the spinach plant compared to those in the untreated soil (CK). Moreover, adding amendments significantly decreased CaCl2 extractable Ni by 62.5% 94.1%, and 87.2%, while the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) fell by 26.7%, 47.8%, and 41.7% when using RS, BI, and CC, respectively, at 2% compared to CK. The Ni concentrations in the spinach roots declined by 51.6%, 73.3%, and 68.9%, and in the shoots reduced by 54.1%, 76.7%, and 70.8% for RS, BI, and CC, at a 2% application rate, respectively. Bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) dropped significantly by as much as 72.7% and 20%, respectively, for BI 2% application rate. Results of the present study clearly indicated that biochar potential soil amendments for Ni stabilization, thereby reducing its bioavailability in the Ni-contaminated soil. This process enhanced the safety of food to be consumed and mitigated security risks.

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All data are included within the manuscript.

This work received financial support from the National Sci-Tech Support Plan of China (2015BAD05B02).

The authors would like to thank National Science and Technology Support Program of China (2015BAD05B02) for financially supporting this work.

Conceptualization, UA and HH; formal analysis, SB and MS; investigation, UA and MSR; methodology, UA, LQ, QF, JZ; software, UA and SB; writing original draft, UA; writing—review and editing, UA, HH, and MAC; funding acquisition, resources, HH. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Correspondence to Hongqing Hu.

Not applicable.

Not applicable.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Responsible Editor: Kitae Baek

Received: 16 February 2021

Accepted: 25 May 2021

Published: 07 June 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14611-0

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Readworks developing possible solutions and biochar answer key

8 June, 2021
 

What You Need: Worksheet and answer key What to Do: How often do your students think about their own thinking? Distribute the Brain Freezers worksheet. Have students work individually or in small groups to answer all of the riddles as quickly as possible. (You might set a time limit, such as 10 or 15 minutes.)

Sep 01, 2020 · One Nation federal senator Malcolm Roberts wants a simple answer from the Aussie CSIRO: what is the evidence that anthropogenic CO2 emissions are causing dangerous climate change? So far, the answer appears to be CO2 is a problem, because other people think other people think CO2 is a problem.

Topic: Chapter 7 – Reading Comprehension – Tonight we did a review quiz of the main points in chapter 7 related to reading comprehension. Game: Paper Puzzle – The game tonight was a puzzle. How can one person fit through one piece of paper? Here's a copy of the solution, based on using a business card – SOLUTION. In class we used a regular A4 … Aug 08, 2017 · Essay. Essay questions require students to write answers to statements or questions. To complete a successful essay exam, you need to be able to recall relevant information and to organize it in a clear way, generating a thesis and building to a conclusion.

Gradeup (Gradestack) – Exam preparation for GATE, BANK, SSC/Govt jobs, CTET, and Defence. Get daily GK updates, notifications, previous years's papers, free mock tests and exam-specific study material here. Scholastic Question and Answer Series (various science titles) Bill Nye the Science Guy’s Consider the Following: A Way Cool Set of Science Questions, Answers, and Ideas to Ponder by Bill Nye. Hyperion Books for Children, 2000. Why? The Best Ever Question and Answer Book About Nature, Science and the World Around You by Catherine Ripley … Multiple choice questions are a staple of education. They may be less ubiquitous (<–SAT vocab word) than they once were. Still, we all have to take multiple choice tests. Students, it's vital that you have a good strategy for answering multiple choice questions. Use this 4 step process to answer any multiple choice question like you're getting paid to do it. 1. Know what each multiple choice …

Try our second free ACCUPLACER Reading Comprehension practice test. The Accuplacer reading test includes a series of passages along with 20 multiple-choice questions. Passages on the test cover a range of content areas including literature, literary nonfiction, social studies, humanities, and science. Both single and paired passages are included.

Difference between k03 and k04 turbo!иPThe project helps incarcerated parents develop the literacy of their children through enhancing their own literacy-building and parenting abilities. Parents learn new ideas in child development and family literacy — such as reading to children, storytelling, expressive arts and crafts, and put them into practice during special family visits. Download NCERT Solutions Class 11 Physics Chapter 1 PDF:-Download Here. NCERT solutions provided here present you with answers to the textbook questions along with extra questions, NCERT exemplar problems with solutions, worksheets, MCQs and short answer questions. Solving these questions will help you to prepare notes and to understand the …


Citation – PubAg – USDA

8 June, 2021
 

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Co-benefits of biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron in simultaneously stabilizing soil …

8 June, 2021
 

nZVI-BC exhibited high applicability and time stability for soil remediation.

Leaching toxicity of soil As, Cd and Pb were suppressed by nZVI-BC.

nZVI-BC decreased bioaccessibility and human exposure risk of heavy metals.

nZVI-BC exhibited high applicability and time stability for soil remediation.

Leaching toxicity of soil As, Cd and Pb were suppressed by nZVI-BC.

nZVI-BC decreased bioaccessibility and human exposure risk of heavy metals.

We investigated the performance and encapsulation mechanisms of novel biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI-BC) used for the remediation of soil co-contaminated with arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) via incubation and column experiments. Compared with the control, 0.50% of nZVI-BC significantly decreased the leakage of As, Cd, and Pb by 97.94–98.45%, 42.86–81.12%, and 82.14–92.49%, respectively. In addition, 0.50% of nZVI-BC could transform the fraction of unstable heavy metals into a stable form, which substantially decreased the availability, leachability, and bioaccessibility of the heavy metals and hence greatly reduced the human health exposure risk. Column experiments showed that 0.50% of nZVI-BC effectively restrained the leaching of As, Cd, and Pb by 95.60–99.84%, 70.82–84.18%, and 91.68–99.81%, respectively. The predominant encapsulation mechanisms of nZVI-BC included complexation, precipitation/co-precipitation, reduction, and the formation of ternary surface complexes. Based on these insights, we can devise new strategies for the remediation of soil co-contaminated with As, Cd, and Pb.


Trace metals and dissolved organic carbon in biochar varying with feedstock type and pyrolysis …

8 June, 2021
 

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Università Politecnica delle Marche

Scuola di Dottorato di Ricerca in Scienze dell’Ingegneria Corso di Dottorato in Ingegneria Industriale

Trace Metals and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Biochar

Varying with Feedstock Type and Pyrolysis Temperature

Ph.D. Dissertation of:

Enrico Mancinelli

Supervisor:

Prof. Giorgio Passerini

Assistant Supervisor:

Prof. Edita Baltrėnaitė

Ph.D. Course coordinator:

Prof. Ferruccio Mandorli

XVI edition – new series

Acknowledgements

To Prof. Edita Baltrenaite and Prof. Giorgio Passerini, for shedding light on the PhD march. To the contributions of the Professors, Researchers and PhD students of the Institute of Environmental Protection and the Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The support provided by the Institute of Environmental Protection and the Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University is greatly acknowledged.

Dedication

This one, with gratitude, is for Franca, Patrizia, Franco, Lola, Olga

Abstract

The content of carbon in labile forms (e.g. dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and potentially hazardous inorganic substances (e.g. trace metals) in biochar (BC) may limit or prevent the utilization of BC for environmental remediation purposes. BCs were produced from slow pyrolysis at different temperatures (i.e. 300, 450 and 700 °C) from different types of feedstock (i.e. wood chips (WC), lignin (LG), digested sewage sludge (DSS), and pine bark (PB)). Total trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentration, leachability, and bioavailability were investigated in BCs from WC (BCWC), LG (BCLG), and DSS (BCDSS). DOC leachability from BCs was investigated via up-flow percolation test method. The most suitable pyrolysis temperature (450 or 700 °C) for reducing trace metal leachability and bioavailability depends on the trace metal considered. The temperature of 450 °C was effective in stabilizing Cr and Ni in the analyzed BCs as these trace metals were not prone to leaching or present in bioavailable forms. In the tested BCs, an increase in pyrolysis temperature made trace metals such as Zn and Cu more stable in the char matrix, decreasing in the bioavailable fractions, hindering leachability of Zn, and decreasing leachability of Cu to <1 % of the total Cu concentration. Trace metals such as Cd and Pb did not show a clear temperature trend, increasing or decreasing in the bioavailable or leachable fractions depending on the feedstock. Analysis of the up-flow percolation test showed the same temperature related trend in DOC leachability from BCWC and BCLG, with high temperature (700 C) BCs releasing lower cumulative amounts of DOC compared with low

temperature (450 C) BCs, which were in the range 0.02–0.07 % and 0.06–0.09 % of total carbon (TC) content, respectively. DOC leaching from BCPB varied with pyrolysis temperatures and types of leachant (i.e. urban storm-water runoff (USWR)). For all the adopted pyrolysis temperature, BCPB released cumulative amount of DOC up to 0.01 % of the TC content with pathway USWR. High temperature (i.e. 700 °C) BCPB released lower cumulative amount of DOC (up to 0.02 % of the TC content) with roof USWR. It is likely that the leachant (i.e. pathway USWR) with relatively higher pH and DOC concentration limited the release of DOC from the BC matrix, whereas the types of leachant (i.e. deionized water, and roof USWR) with relatively lower pH and DOC concentrations enhanced the release of DOC from the BC matrix.

Notations

Symbols

C – carbon; Cd – cadmium; Cr – chromium; Cu – copper; H – hydrogen; M – molarity; N – nitrogen; Ni – nichel; O – oxygen; Pb – lead; S – sulfur; Zn – zinc.

Abbreviations

BC – biochar;

BCDSS – biochar from digested sewage sludge;

BCDSS450 – biochar from digested sewage sludge at the pyrolysis temperature of 450 ºC; BCDSS700 – biochar from digested sewage sludge at the pyrolysis temperature of 700 ºC; BCLG – biochar from lignin;

BCLG450 – biochar from lignin at the pyrolysis temperature of 450 ºC; BCLG700 – biochar from lignin at the pyrolysis temperature of 700 ºC; BCPB – biochar from pine bark;

BCPB300 – biochar from pine bark at the pyrolysis temperature of 300 ºC; BCPB450 – biochar from pine bark at the pyrolysis temperature of 450 ºC; BCPB700 – biochar from pine bark at the pyrolysis temperature of 700 ºC; BCWC – biochar from wood chips;

BCWC450 – biochar from wood chips at the pyrolysis temperature of 450 ºC; BCWC700 – biochar from wood chips at the pyrolysis temperature of 700 ºC; DOC – dissolved organic carbon;

DSS – digested sewage sludge; DW – dry weight;

EBC – European Biochar Certificate; EC – electrical conductivity;

EU – European Union;

FAAS – flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry;

GFAAS – graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry; LG – lignin;

PB – pine bark; TC – total carbon;

WC – wood chips;

WWTP – wastewater treatment plant.

Chemical compounds

CaCl2 – calcium chloride;

CH4 – methane;

CO – carbon monoxide; CO2 – carbon dioxide;

HCl – hydrochloric acid; HCN – hydrogen cyanide; HNO3 – nitric acid;

Content

INTRODUCTION …….……….….….…..1 Problem formulation …….…….…….……….…..1 Topicality of work…….……….……….……..….1 Research object…….…….……………….….……1 Aim of work ……..…….…….…….…….…….………………….1 Tasks of work……..…….…….…….…………….1

Methodology of the research ………….…….……….…………2

Scientific novelty of the research ………….…..….……….….….……2

Practical value of the results………….…….………..………2

1 TRACE METALS AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON IN BIOCHAR REVIEW……….………3

1.1 Biochar from slow pyrolysis………3

1.2 European policies and regulations related to biochar………..…….4

1.3 Types of feedstock for biochar production………..…….4

1.4 Trace metals in biochar ………..……….…….5

1.5 Dissolved organic carbon in biochar …………6

1.6 Environmental implications related to trace metals and dissolved organic carbon in biochar……….…………10

2 MATERIALS AND METHODS……….…..12

2.1 Feedstock and biochar production……….…….12

2.2 Physical analysis of the feedstock………..……14

2.3 Physical analysis of the biochars……….…..….15

2.4 Chemical analysis of the biochars and the feedstock….……….……15

2.5 Trace metal and dissolved organic carbon leachability via up-flow percolation test …..……………17

2.6 Quality assurance……………….…20

2.7 Calculation and statistical analysis of experimental data…………21

3 RESULTS……………25

3.1 Biochar production……….…25

3.2 Physico-chemical properties of biochars..………..…26

3.3 Carbon loss resulting from pyrolysis of pine bark…….………33

3.4 Elemental analysis of pine bark and biochars from pine bark………….34

3.5 Trace elements in biochars and feedstock………..…37

3.7 Citric acid extractable trace metals in biochars………..……….46

3.8 Electrical conductivity and pH of eluates………….48

3.9 Dissolved organic carbon leaching from biochars……………52

CONCLUSIONS………………58

RECOMMENDATIONS ……….………61

REFERENCES ……….………62

List of figures

Fig. 1 Scatter plot and box-and-whisker plot for dissolved organic carbon content of biochar

from slow pyrolysis…………9

Fig. 2 Mean dissolved organic carbon content of biochar from slow pyrolysis of

cellulose-rich feedstock, of lignin-cellulose-rich feedstock, and of manure and waste……….………10

Fig. 3 The setup of the up-flow percolation test……….………..………18 Fig. 4 Mean values of yield of biochars from wood chips, lignin, digested sewage sludge,

and pine bark…25

Fig. 5 Mean values of ash content of biochars from wood chips, lignin, digested sewage

sludge, and pine bark………27

Fig. 6 Mean values of electrical conductivity of biochars from wood chips, lignin, digested

sewage sludge, and pine bark ……….……….…28

Fig. 7 Mean values of pH of biochars from wood chips, lignin, digested sewage sludge, and

pine bark……….……….…29

Fig. 8 Mean values of total carbon of biochars from wood chips, lignin, digested sewage

sludge, and pine bark………..30

Fig. 9 Dissolved organic carbon content in biochars from wood chips, lignin, digested sewage

sludge, and pine bark determined via batch method……….……… 31

Fig. 10 Dissolved organic carbon content expressed as a percentage of total carbon content

of biochars from wood chips, lignin, digested sewage sludge, and pine bark…………32

Fig. 11 Carbon loss resulting from pyrolysis of pine bark ……….……….34 Fig. 12 The van Krevelen plot of the elemental data calculated for pine bark (PB) and biochar

from PB at 300, 450, and 700 °C……… 36

Fig. 13 Cumulative quantity of Cu released by biochars (BCs) from wood chips, BCs from

lignin, and BCs from digested sewage sludge at various cumulative liquid to solid ratios, expressed as percentages of the respective total trace metal concentration………..…..42

Fig. 14 Cumulative quantity of Zn released by biochar from digested sewage sludge at 450

°C at various cumulative liquid to solid ratios, expressed as percentages of the respective total trace metal concentration……….………43

Fig. 15 Cumulative quantity of Cd released by biochars (BCs) from wood chips, BCs from

lignin, and BCs from digested sewage sludge at various cumulative liquid to solid ratios, expressed as percentages of the respective total trace metal concentration..…..………44

Fig.16 Cumulative quantity of Pd released by biochars (BCs) from wood chips, BCs from

lignin, and BCs from digested sewage sludge at various cumulative liquid to solid ratios, expressed as percentages of the respective total trace metal concentration..………45

Fig. 19 Mean values of pH of the eluates collected at various liquid to solid ratios from roof

and pathway urban storm-water runoff up-flow percolation tests with pine bark (PB), and biochar from PB at 300, 450, and 700 °C ……….……….……….49

Fig.20 Mean values of electrical conductivity of biochar eluates collected at various liquid

to solid ratios ….………….……….….……….……….……….…50

Fig. 21 Mean values of electrical conductivity of the eluates collected at various liquid to

solid ratios from roof and pathway urban storm-water runoff up-flow percolation tests with pine bark (PB), and biochar from PB at 300, 450, and 700 °C………51

Fig. 22 Mean values of dissolved organic carbon of biochar eluates collected at various liquid

to solid ratios………… 53

Fig. 23 Mean values of dissolved organic carbon released by pine bark (PB), and biochar

from PB at 300, 450, and 700 °C in the eluates collected at various liquid to solid ratios from roof and pathway urban storm-water runoff up-flow percolation tests….……….55

List of tables

Table 1 Electrical conductivity, pH, ash and moisture content of the feedstock……..……13 Table 2 Rainfall conditions, flow-rate and chemical parameters measured in the urban

storm-water runoff samples collected during two storm events on 29 May and 7 June 2017…20

Table 3 Elemental analysis of pine bark (PB) and biochar from PB at 300, 450, and 700 °C

………..…………35

Table 4 Order of trace metal concentration dry weight as detected in the feedstock and in the

produced biochars………37

Table 5 Total trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in feedstock and in

biochars………..………..38

Table 6 Retention rate of the trace metals detected in biochars from wood chips, lignin, and

digested sewage sludge……….……….….……41

Table 7 Dissolved organic carbon content in biochars from wood chips and lignin determined

via up-flow percolation test expressed as a percentage of the respective total carbon content………..…………54

Table 8 Dissolved organic carbon content in pine bark (PB) and biochars from PB

determined via up-flow percolation test with urban storm-water runoff expressed as a percentage of the respective total carbon content………..….56

Supplemental material

Table S1 Cumulative quantity of trace metals released per kg biochar at the cumulative liquid

to solid ratio equal to 10 compared to the Lithuanian standards for the limitation of hazardous trace metals discharge to surface water ……….………..75

Table S2 Mean values of moisture content of biochars from wood chips, lignin, digested

Mutter, ich bin dumm

Introduction

Problem formulation

Biochar may contain potentially hazardous inorganic substances that may limit or prevent the utilization of biochar for environmental remediation purposes. Biochar contains carbon in labile forms that are prone to be leached as dissolved organic carbon. Physical and chemical characteristics of biochar vary over a wide range depending on the types of feedstock and the production conditions (e.g. pyrolysis temperature). To avoid potential drawbacks when utilizing biochar both in soil and water system application, it is necessary to evaluate biochar trace metal and dissolved organic carbon content and leachability.

Topicality of work

Biochar technology embraces several environmental issues (e.g. soil improvement, waste management, climate change mitigation, energy production, and remediation of contaminated sites) that are at the forefront of the scientific community. Biochar, as a novel technique, is neither regulated nor standardized. Before testing biochar for environmental remediation purposes, physical and chemical characteristics are to be assessed. The content and the extent to which trace metal and dissolved organic carbon are released from biochar limit or prevent the application of biochar for environmental management.

Research object

Trace metal and dissolved organic carbon content and leachability from biochar varying with types of feedstock and pyrolysis temperatures.

Aim of work

The aim of the work was to investigate variability of trace metal and dissolved organic carbon content and leachability of biochars produced for environmental application in soil or water systems.

Tasks of work

1. To assess the influence of feedstock selection and changes in pyrolysis conditions (i.e. pyrolysis temperature) on total trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentration,

2. To investigate the influence of the type of feedstock and the production temperature on dissolved organic carbon content of biochar from slow pyrolysis, based on data gathered from the literature;

3. To investigate the influence of the type of feedstock and production temperature on the dissolved organic carbon content and leachability of biochar from slow pyrolysis.

Methodology of the research

A metadata analysis was performed for collecting data related to dissolved organic carbon content of biochar from the literature. Biochar was produced from slow pyrolysis at different temperatures from different types of feedstock. Based on methodologies reported in the literature, physical and chemical properties of biochars were investigated. Up-flow percolation tests were performed based on standard or specific methodology for analyzing trace metal and dissolved organic carbon leachability of biochars.

Scientific novelty of the research

Based on data gathered from the literature, a linear regression of the values of dissolved organic carbon content of biochar from slow pyrolysis was calculated. Physical and chemical characteristics of biochar from different types of feedstock at different pyrolysis temperatures were evaluated. Dissolved organic carbon content and leachability of biochar from several types of feedstock at different pyrolysis temperatures were investigated. Trace metal content, leachability, and bioavailability in biochar from several types of feedstock at different pyrolysis temperatures were assessed. Potential environmental applications were considered for the tested biochars.

Practical value of the results

Understanding the parameters (i.e. feedstock type and pyrolysis temperature) that affect the amount of dissolved organic carbon released by biochar could be an effective tool for designing ad hoc biochar production and application. If pyrolysis can reduce trace metal leachability and availability in biochars from potentially contaminated feedstock, it may also reduce some of the environmental concerns associated with biochar water system application or land application.

1 Trace metals and dissolved organic carbon in biochar

review

1.1 Biochar from slow pyrolysis

Biochar (BC) as a filtering media has been reported to be a promising remediating tool for a variety of potential hazardous organic and inorganic substances both in soil and water systems.

The European Biochar Certificate (EBC European Biochar Certificate 2015) specifies that ‘‘Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of sustainably obtained biomass under controlled conditions with clean technology and is used for any purpose that does not involve its rapid mineralization to CO2 and may eventually become a soil amendment’’.

BC used for environmental remediation (Zheng et al. 2015) purposes has received considerable attention in recent years both as a filtering media (Chen et al. 2011; Baltrėnas et al. 2015; Komkienė and Baltrėnaitė 2015) and as a soil amendment for releasing nutrients (Mukherjee and Zimmerman 2013), sequestering carbon, enhancing soil quality and sequestering a variety of contaminants, such as trace metals (Karami et al. 2011; Park et al. 2011). As a low-cost sorbent (Ahmad et al. 2014), BC has attracted increasing attention for applications in treating multi-element polluted water such as landfill leachate (Chemerys and Baltrėnaitė 2017) and urban storm-water runoff (USWR) (Beck et al. 2011; Reddy et al. 2014; Tian et al. 2014; Shimabuku et al. 2016; Kuoppamäki et al. 2016).

BC from slow pyrolysis encompasses BC produced in the range of 350–1000 °C in a low-oxygen thermal process (EBC European Biochar Certificate 2015) characterized by a low heating rate (up to 100 °C/s) and a residence time of hours (Spokas et al. 2011).

Feedstock for BC production is subjected to physical and chemical alterations during the pyrolysis process, thereby affecting the properties of the resulting BC matrix (Rehrah et al. 2014). At temperatures below 450 °C, cellulose and hemicellulose decompose into light molecular weight compounds, tending to form pyrolytic vapors (Lee et al. 2013). In the work by Yang et al. (2007), hemicellulose and cellulose were quickly pyrolyzed, with the main weight loss occurring in the range of 220–315 and 315–400 °C, respectively. According to Zhao et al. (2014), a part of the cellulose content of the feedstock does not volatize and contribute to the lignin pool of the biochar produced through pyrolysis process. Lignin decomposes over a wide range of temperature (150–900 °C) (Yang et al. 2007), being the main responsible for BC formation (Lee et al. 2013). Furthermore, the higher is the

(Gani and Naruse 2007). However, researches based on comparisons between thermochemical behavior of single biomass components (i.e. cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses) may overlook complex interactions occurring during pyrolysis of raw biomass (Liu et al. 2017).

As far as the influence of pyrolysis temperature on the physico-chemical properties of BC is concerned, several authors have reported a shift to higher pH (Jindo et al. 2014; Yuan et al. 2015), higher electrical conductivity (EC) (Al- Wabel et al. 2013; Rehraha et al. 2014), higher ash and total carbon (TC) content (Gundale and De Luca 2006; Cross and Sohi 2011; Aller 2016) with the increase in pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, increases in pyrolysis temperature result in biochars with higher C content and lower N, H and O contents due to losses of H-and O-containing functional groups and volatile compounds (Novak et al. 2009; Wu et al. 2011; Crombie et al. 2012) and concurrent formation of aromatic C (Rutherford et al. 2012).

1.2 European policies and regulations related to biochar

BC production is a cross-cutting technology addressing issues covered by several European Union (EU) policy areas such as waste management, agricultural policy, climate change, and energy policy (Montanarella and Lugato 2013). At present, no EU regulation or directive expressly refers to BC (Hammond 2016). As regards the use of BC for soil amendment purposes, it is likely that the regulation of BC application to soil could resemble soil amendment guidance relating to sewage sludge and composts (Freddo et al. 2012). The Circular Economy Package (EC 2016) listed BC, as an inorganic soil improver, among the products to be included in the annexes to the new EU fertilizer regulation that is currently under revision. These annexes are expected to set the end-of-waste criteria regarding BC adoption for soil amendment purposes. According to Meyer et al. (2017), once the carbonaceous material obtained through thermochemical treatments (e.g. pyrolysis) of waste biomass ceases to be considered waste because of achieved safety and quality levels and labelled as BC, it might be registered under the REACH directive (EC 2006).

As to meeting feedstock sustainability criteria (EBC European Biochar Certificate 2015), biomass waste with minor or no use are generally selected for BC production. To this respect, BC technology is intimately linked to policy drivers such as sustainable and smart use of resources (EC 2016) that are at the forefront of the European Union.

1.3 Types of feedstock for biochar production

A large variety of feedstock types has been utilized for BC production (Aller 2016). Both pristine feedstock (e.g. forestry residue), that is produced in large quantities with minor or no

use, and potentially contaminated feedstock (e.g. phytoremediation biomass, wood processing waste, and sewage sludge) are of particular interest to meet sustainability criteria and add value to biochar production. Although, the European Biochar Certificate (EBC European Biochar Certificate 2015) set a list of materials that are suitable for producing BC with minor or no risks of unintended contamination resulting from BC application to soil or water.

In the present dissertation, forestry residue and biodegradable by-products of industrial processes were considered as feedstocks suitable for biochar production in Lithuania. From the waste management point of view, the pyrolysis of sewage sludge is an interesting technique since it leads to both a reduction in the waste volume and the stabilization of the organic matter (Hossain et al. 2011). In Lithuania, in 2012 the production and disposal of sewage sludge from urban wastewater accounted for 45 thousand tons in dry substance with about 14 % used for agricultural purposes and 26 % utilized for composting and other applications (Eurostat 2015). Between 2001 and 2009 a 78 % decrease in sludge landfilling and a 23 % increase in the agricultural use of sludge was recorded in Lithuania (Kelessidis et al. 2012). Lignin is a massive by-product of biorefinery industries (Li et al. 2014). Almost all of the bagasse obtained from sugar processing is utilized as fuel for boilers by the sugar mill itself. Other processes and products that traditionally rely on it as a raw material are electricity generation, pulp and paper production, and products based on fermentation (Pandey et al. 2000). BCs produced from lignin at moderate temperature are seldom reported even though lignin is used for producing activated carbon through a pyrolysis process (Li et al. 2014). According to Katinas et al. (2007), the total amount of wood and wood waste for bioenergy production is estimated as 4.55 million m3 solid volume, per year in Lithuania.

Pine bark is a biomass waste produced with a great amount per year with minor use (e.g. bark mulch, and energy production), thus it has been investigated for application in bio-filters as a low-cost bio-sorbent (Luo and Lindsey 2006; Dalahmeh et al. 2012). Lithuania produces about 2.5 million m3 of forest cutting waste per year for potential use in BC production

(Baltrėnaitė et al. 2016).

1.4 Trace metals in biochar

BC itself may contain potentially hazardous inorganic substances (Hilber et al. 2017) that may limit or prevent the utilization of BC for environmental remediation purposes. The presence of metals is likely to depend on contaminated feedstock or on the use of processing conditions that may favor their accumulation in BC (Hossain et al. 2011; Lu et al. 2011; Bernardo et al. 2014).

and the chemical composition of the feedstock (Buss et al. 2016; Huang et al. 2017). Except for some trace metals (e.g. Cd) that easily volatilize during pyrolysis, trace metals which are initially present in the parent material generally remain and become concentrated in the BCs (Lievens et al. 2008; Yuan et al. 2015; Liu et al. 2017; Roberts et al. 2017). Applying low heating rates and low temperatures (<450 °C) enhances the extent to which Ni is retained in BC during pyrolysis of biomass (Liu et al. 2017). Lu et al. (2015), analyzing the behavior of trace metals in BC produced from sewage sludge at pyrolysis temperatures in the range of 300–700 °C, found that BC retained 90.4–98.3 % of Pb, 96.4–99.5 % of Zn, 92.5–99.3 % of Ni, 85.8–98.5 % of Cd, 81.5–94.5 % of Cu and 70.0–87.5 % of Cr. The thermo-stable behavior of the trace metals during pyrolysis was explained as the result of the transformation of the studied trace metals from mineral salts and hydroxide into oxide and sulphide forms. In the work by Méndez et al. (2012), BC from sewage sludge pyrolyzed at 500 °C had a higher content of Cu (31 %), and Pb (30 %), as well as about 28 % more Ni, Cd and Zn than the feedstock.

Several studies have reported a decrease in metal availability and leachability from BC as a result of physical and chemical alterations occurring during pyrolysis of waste biomass (Lin et al. 2012; Devi and Saroha 2014; Yargicoglu et al. 2015; Roberts et al. 2017). An investigation of plant available trace element concentrations in BC from digested waste water sludge pyrolyzed over a range of temperatures from 300 up to 700 °C, demonstrated that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid extract of BC were lower than those in the feedstock (Hossain et al. 2011). In the study by Lu et al. (2011), sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was pyrolyzed for 2 h at 550 °C. The amount of trace metals such as Zn (1400 mg/kg), Cu (536 mg/kg), Pb (107 mg/kg) and Ni (76.5 mg/kg) detected in the resulting BC posed negligible concern for metal leaching because of their undetectable level (<0.01 mg/l) in the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extract.

Although the concentration, the leachability, and the bioavailability of trace metals in BC have been becoming one of the main focuses of research on the production and characterization of BC, it is still unclear which factors (e.g. pyrolysis temperature and type of feedstock) determine trace metal behavior during pyrolysis process (Evangelou et al. 2014), trace metal concentration and composition in BC (Tan et al. 2015), and leachability from BC (Wu et al. 2016).

1.5 Dissolved organic carbon in biochar

The content and the forms of C in BC varies depending on the types of feedstock (e.g. lignin-or cellulose-rich feedstocks) and the processing conditions (e.g. pyrolysis temperature) (Aller 2016). BC contains C in labile forms that are prone to be leached as DOC. Several studies

have reported an influence of feedstock selection and pyrolysis conditions (i.e. heating rate, residence time and temperature) on the content and the extent to which DOC is released from BC (Lin et al. 2012; Mukherjee and Zimmerman 2013; Alburquerque et al. 2014; Graber et al. 2014).

To investigate the influence of the type of feedstock and the production temperature on the DOC content of BC from slow pyrolysis, data were collected from the literature to conduct a metadata analysis. However, when comparing results of DOC analysis it should be considered that the amount of DOC released from BCs assessed via batch tests has been reported to depend on various parameters such as the ratio of the solvent to solute (Mukherjee and Zimmerman 2013), temperature and pH of the extraction solution (Li et al. 2017). BC has been produced from a large variety of types of feedstock. BC classification depending on the feedstock was adapted from Aller (2016), as follow:

BC from lignin-rich feedstock (e.g. lignin, tree part, wood, sawdust, almond and cacao shells, and olive stones);

BC from cellulose-rich feedstock (e.g. cellulose, grasses, straws, grains, stalks, peanut hulls and shells, sugarcane leaves and bagasse, and maize silage);

– BC from manure and waste (e.g. manures, bio-solids, green waste (e.g. mushroom residue, greenhouse waste, and olive pomace)).

With the aim of collecting data related to the present review, the search platform Engineering VillageTM (Elsevier, Netherlands) was used. The search criteria were adopted following

Gurwick et al. (2013):

– articles published in peer reviewed journals in the period from 2007 to 2016, including relevant articles cited by recent studies or published in the afore mentioned time span; – articles published in languages other than English were discarded;

– if either the pyrolysis parameters (e.g. temperature, heating rate or residence time) or the type of thermochemical process (e.g. slow pyrolysis) for producing BC were not clearly reported, data were not considered for calculations;

– for the search query the following terms were entered: “biochar”, “dissolved organic carbon”, “water soluble organic carbon”, “water extractable organic carbon”;

– for determining DOC content of BC, we considered only data referring to samples obtained through one-step extraction or stirring methods filtered through a filter with pore size ≤ 0.45-m.

As for DOC analysis of BC via batch test method, if the measured concentration of DOC in the samples were reported as mg/l, the DOC content (g/kg) of BC was calculated considering the mass of BC and the volume of extractant (Jamieson et al. 2014). To evaluate the temperature-related trend of DOC content of BC, DOC contents of BC were plotted versus

the respective pyrolysis temperatures and a relation was determined by step-wise linear regression with slope and intercept considered significant at p ≤ 0.05.

Figure 1a shows a linear relation between DOC content of BC from slow pyrolysis and the temperatures in the range of 350–790 °C. Lower temperatures (< 350 °C) were not considered as it would have resulted in a strong degree of scatter (data not shown).

The linear relation in Figure 1a does not fit for temperatures higher than 790 °C, as the BC produced at these temperatures would be associated to negative DOC content. There was a weak correlation (r2 = 0.1) of the data with the linear model with intercept (4.1) and slope

(0.005) significant at p < 0.001, with a sufficient degree of scatter at temperatures in the range of 350–450 °C (Fig. 1b). The observed weak correlation suggests that not only the peak temperature but also other parameters (e.g. heating rate, residence time, and pressure) of the thermochemical process concur in determining the DOC content of BC. Jamieson et al. (2014) suggested that pyrolysis conditions such as fast heating rates and low residence times may lead to produce BCs that are more prone to leaching DOC. Increasing pyrolysis temperature has been generally reported to result in a decrease in DOC content of BC (Zhang et al. 2015; Smith et al. 2016). However, rising pyrolysis temperatures in the range 350–450 C have resulted in BC with higher DOC content in the works by Graber et al. (2014) and Luo et al. (2015).

As for the influence of the type of feedstock on DOC content as well as the extent to which it is prone to leaching from BC, several authors have reported that BCs from wood and woody biomass generally release less DOC compared to non-wood biomass (e.g., agricultural residue and animal wastes) (Mukherjee and Zimmerman 2013; Graber et al. 2014).

Alburquerque et al. (2014) observed that the influence of feedstock selection for BC production on the measured DOC concentrations was highest for BC at lower temperatures (i.e. 350 and 450 C) compared with higher temperature (i.e. 600 C). According to data retrieved from the literature grouped depending on the type of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature (Fig. 2), mean DOC content of BC from manure and waste (Fig. 2c) was the highest (2.24–5.35 g/kg) in the temperature range of 350–450 °C.

Mean DOC content of BC from cellulose-rich feedstock (Fig. 2a) was the highest (0.69–1.31 g/kg) in the temperature range of 500–650 °C. Mean DOC content of BC from lignin-rich feedstock (Fig. 2b) was the lowest in the temperature range of 350–550 °C (0.12–2.50 g/kg) as well as at 700 °C (0.520.35 g/kg).

The extent of DOC leaching from BC and the parent feedstock likely depends on factors such as chemical forms, physical association, and location (bulk or surface) of C (Wu et al. 2011; Mukherjee and Zimmerman 2013).

As for the mechanism that leads to the release of DOC from BC, Jones et al. (2011) suggested that DOC is released at first from the surface and later from the BC matrix following a

Fig. 1 Scatter plot (a) and box-and-whisker plot (b) for dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

content of biochar (BC) from slow pyrolysis. n = 102

Linear regression (a) for the values of DOC content of BC in the temperature range 350–790 °C. Box-and-whisker plots (b) show median (i.e. central line), upper (25%) and lower (75%) quantile (i.e. lower and upper bounds of the box, respectively) of the data, maximum and minimum values outside the central box that are not outliers (vertical lines), and outliers (cross symbols). Adapted from Mancinelli et al (2017a)

diffusion-limited mechanism. Micropores carry the portion of DOC in BC that is more prone to leaching with increasing temperature and pH of the leachant (Li et al. 2017). In column leaching tests performed by Beesley and Marmiroli (2011) and Iqbal et al. (2015), DOC was observed to be rapidly released from biochar with no substantial amount of DOC recorded after a few eluate samples.

1.6 Environmental implications related to trace metals and dissolved

organic carbon in biochar

Trace metals in a water-soluble form may represent an environmental issue when they are bioavailable or when they mobilize through soil or water media. In water systems, DOC interacts with dissolved trace metal affecting their mobility and bioavailability through the formation of DOC–metal complexes.

As regards environmental risk caused by metal species within BC, the safe level of BC application to soil depends on the metal content of the biomass feedstock and the pyrolysis conditions (McHenry 2009; Shackley et al. 2010). Trace metals such as Cd and Pb are non-essential elements, having no definite biological function in organism and plant (Bolan et al. 2013). Therefore, introducing trace amount of bioavailable Cd and Pb in soil through BC land application is highly undesirable (Wu et al. 2016).

BC-borne DOC may represent a source of impairment of aquatic environment containing organic species producing an inhibitory effect on the growth of aquatic micro-organisms (Smith et al. 2012), increasing metal mobility through complexation, and altering redox

Fig. 2 Mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of biochar (BC) from slow

pyrolysis of cellulose-rich feedstock (a), of lignin-rich feedstock (b), and of manure and waste (c). Error bars show standard deviation. n = 33 (a). n = 42 (b). n = 22 (c). Retrieved from Mancinelli et al. (2017a)

reactions and speciation of metals (Qu et al. 2016). Uchimiya et al. (2013) observed that DOC released by BCs in the temperature ranging 350–500 C was enriched with carboxyl and poly(phenolic) functionalities that are able to affect metal mobilization via complexation with metal ions.

Formation of DOC metal complexes competing with the adsorption capacity of BC (Iqbal et al. 2015) and fouling of BC surface (Ulrich et al. 2015) have been reported as potential negative effect of DOC on the BC effectiveness in filtering polluted water.

Furthermore, BC-borne DOC may reduce BC effectiveness in carbon sequestration (Wu et al. 2011; Liu et al. 2016). Having lower aromaticity and less fused aromatic structures than bulk biochar, DOC is expected to have lower environmental recalcitrance (Qu et al. 2016). Regarding the recalcitrance of BC-borne DOC in water media (i.e. river water), Norwood et al. (2013) has reported a half-life of 30–40 days for DOC from biochar at 250 °C.

BC may be subject to post production treatment (e.g. rinsing) to limit the release of DOC (Ngueleu et al. 2014). Although, from a sustainable point of view, producing BC with no need for treatments that may be water demanding or energy consuming should be the first choice. Hence, to limit the content of DOC in BC, Smith et al. (2016) has suggested to adopt pyrolysis temperatures above 400 C.

However, the environmental implications of biochar-derived DOC have not been well elucidated, and further studies are on demand (Luo et al. 2015).

2 Materials and methods

2.1 Feedstock and biochar production

Four types of biodegradable materials were selected as feedstock for BC production. As to be representative of widely available types of feedstock in Lithuania, materials for producing biochar were selected as follow:

– as potentially contaminated feedstock, three types of bio-degradable by-products of industrial processes were chosen (i.e. wood chips (WC), lignin (LG), and digested sewage sludge (DSS);

– as pristine feedstock, pine bark (PB).

DSS was collected from an urban waste water treatment plant in Klaipėda which is the third largest city in Lithuania, with a population of about 159 thousand people in 2013. Sewage sludge production in Klaipėda county has been calculated as 47 thousand tonnes per year (Havukainen et al. 2011). Sewage sludge was subjected to digestion, dewatering and low-temperature drying treatment.

WC were provided by a sawmill in Kaliningrad, Russian Federation. In 2006, 21 % (362 thousand tonnes) of the total wood waste imported to the European Union came from Russia (Villanueva et al. 2010).

LG was produced as a by-product of a sugar refining industry based in Lithuania.

PB was collected from the stem of Scots pines (Pinus silvestris L.) in the forest stands located in the premises of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in Vilnius, Lithuania. Samples were collected from the external surface of stem bark at a height of about 1.5 m above ground. The bark samples were considered representative of a relatively clean suburban area as the sampling area was subjected to no point neither linear (distance from roads >100 m) sources of air pollution. Scots pine was selected as it is a widespread tree species in several European areas and it is abundant in Lithuania. Of the total area covered by forests (about 2 million ha) in Lithuania, about 35.5 % (721 thousand ha) consists of Scots pine forests (Krakau et al. 2013). Of the 8.97 million m3 trees that are annually felled in Lithuania, Scots pine represents

the most felled (29.3 %) tree species with about 2.6 million m3 (Kuliešis et al. 2016).

The physico-chemical properties of the four types of feedstock are listed in Table 1. The quantity of air-dried feedstock used for pyrolysis at 450 °C was 1070 g WC, 430 g LG, 1750 g PB, and 830 g DSS whereas the amount used at the pyrolysis temperature of 700 °C was 1400 g WC, 1050 g LG, 2750 g PB, and 1330 g DSS.

The pyrolysis of the raw materials was carried out according to the procedure described elsewhere (Komkiene and Baltrenaite 2016). Air dried feedstock was weighed and wrapped in aluminium foil in order to create an oxygen-limited environment. Slow pyrolysis was

performed in a E5CK-T muffle furnace with a heating rate of about 10 °C/min, under oxygen-limited conditions, and under atmospheric pressure. Pyrolysis was performed at the peak temperatures of 300, 450 and 700 ± 5 ºC.

The peak temperatures were chosen to be representative of charring stages occurring during biochar formation (i.e. the temperature of 300 °C for amorphous char (200–350 °C), temperature of 450 °C for composite char (350–500 °C), and the temperature of 700 °C for turbostratic char (>500 °C)) (Keiluweit et al. 2010; Zhao et al. 2014). Biochar is produced at temperatures 350 °C (EBC European Biochar Certificate 2015). However, different studies labelled as biochar the carbonaceous solid product of pyrolysis process at temperatures in the range 250–300 °C (Liu et al. 2016; Zhang et al. 2015; Smith et al. 2016; Yue et al. 2016). The holding time at the desired peak temperatures was of 2 h. Each of the production combinations (the four types of feedstock at two different pyrolysis temperatures) was repeated three times. At the end of the production process, the samples were left to cool in the muffle furnace overnight. In order to determine the yield of BC, the obtained BC samples were weighed at the end of the production process.

The obtained BCs were assigned the following codes:

– BCWC450 and BCWC700 for BC from wood chips (BCWC) at the pyrolysis temperatures of 450 and 700 °C, respectively;

– BCLG450 and BCLG700 for BC from lignin (BCLG) at the pyrolysis temperatures of 450

Table 1 Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, ash and moisture content of the feedstock

pH EC (μS/cm) Moisture content, % Ash content, % WC N. D. 124.3 15.08 1.31 LG 5.40 928.4 7.70 23.34 PB 3.45 ±0.02 66.4 ±4.8 15.23 ±0.05 1.75 ±0.05 DSS 6.92 5487.3 6.54 33.03

Values are shown as the mean value of two observations (n = 2) for the samples from WC, LG, and DSS. Values are shown as the mean value of three observations (n = 3) ± standard deviation for the samples from PB. N. D. – not determined

– BCPB300, BCPB450 and BCPB700 for BC from pine bark (BCPB) at the pyrolysis temperatures of 300, 450 and 700 °C, respectively;

– BCDSS450 and BCDSS700 for BC from digested sewage sludge (BCDSS) at the pyrolysis temperatures of 450 and 700 °C, respectively.

2.2 Physical analysis of the feedstock

The present dissertation is based on the results of research activities performed at the laboratories of the Institute of Environmental Protection and the Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University during two visits under the Erasmus Programme. Therefore, the methods followed slightly differed depending on the aims of the performed researches as well as on time and resource constraints.

Feedstock for BC production is subjected to physical and chemical alterations (e.g. attrition, cracking, micro-structural rearrangement) during the pyrolysis process, thereby affecting the properties of the resulting BC matrix (Rehrah et al. 2014). Therefore, the methods adopted to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the BC and the feedstock are often dissimilar. Whenever possible, in the present dissertation, the same methods were adopted for the analysis of both the BCs and the feedstock in order to facilitate the comparison of the results.

As regards the moisture content of the feedstock, samples were put in crucibles, weighed and heated in an oven to a temperature of 105 °C for 2 h according to ISO 18134-2:2015 – Solid

biofuels – Determination of moisture content – Oven dry method – Part 2: Total moisture – Simplified method. The crucibles were allowed to cool down at room temperature in a

desiccator, then weighed again. This process was repeated, heating the samples for 1 h until the weight was stabilised.

In order to determine the ash content of WC, LG, and DSS, the samples were put in crucibles, weighed and heated to a temperature of 450 °C for 150 min in an E5CK-T muffle furnace (Pundytė et al. 2011). The samples were left to cool in the muffle furnace overnight then weighed in order to determine the mass loss. This process was repeated until the weight of the residue was stabilised. To determine the ash content of PB, the samples were put in crucibles, weighed, and heated to a temperature of 550 °C for 1 h in an E5CK-T muffle furnace according to the guidelines of EBC (EBC European Biochar Certificate 2015). An analytical balance (Kern 770, Germany) with a sensitivity of 0.0001 g was used.

The EC of PB was measured with a conductivity metre (inoLab Cond 740 WTW) using a water extract with a mass ratio of 1:10 (weight/volume) after shaking (RS12 Rotoshake, Gerhardt, Germany) for 1 h at 20 rpm and filtering through high-quality filter paper (KA2, pore size 10–25 μm, Czech Republic) according to the guidelines of EBC (EBC European Biochar Certificate 2015). The EC of WC, DSS and LG was measured with a conductivity

meter (inoLab Cond 740 WTW) using a water extract with a mass ratio of 1:5 (water/dry solid) after shaking (RS12 Rotoshake, Gerhardt) for 20 minutes at 20 rpm and filtering through high quality filter paper (KA2, pore size 10–25 m) (Thompson et al. 2002 cited in Johnsson et al. 2005).

2.3 Physical analysis of the biochars

The moisture content of the BCs was measured according to the method mentioned in ASTM

D1762 ̶ 84: The Standard Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Wood Charcoal. In order to

determine the moisture content, 1g BC samples were weighed and then heated at 105 °C in an open crucible until the weight was stabilised. An analytical balance (Kern 770) was used. The ash content of BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS were measured according to the method mentioned in ASTM D1762 ̶ 84: The Standard Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Wood

Charcoal. The samples were heated in an E5CK-T muffle furnace to a temperature of 750

°C for 6 h. To determine the ash content of BCPB, the samples were put in crucibles, weighed, and heated to a temperature of 550 °C for 1 h in an E5CK-T muffle furnace according to the guidelines of EBC (EBC European Biochar Certificate 2015). For weighting the samples, an analytical balance (Kern 770) was used.

EC measurements of BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS were performed in 1% (w/w) solution of BC in deionised water with a conductivity meter (inoLab Cond 740 WTW) after stirring for 20 min at laboratory temperature (Ahmedna et al. 1997 cited in Reharaha et al. 2014). The EC of BCPB was measured with a conductivity meter (inoLab Cond 740 WTW) using a water extract with a mass ratio of 1:10 (weight/volume) after shaking (RS12 Rotoshake, Gerhardt) for 1 h at 20 rpm and filtering through high-quality filter paper (KA2, pore size 10–25 μm) according to the guidelines of EBC (EBC European Biochar Certificate 2015).

2.4 Chemical analysis of the biochars and the feedstock

The pH value of DSS and LG was determined in a 1:5 volume ratio 1 M KCl (Merck, Germany) according to the method mentioned in ISO 10390 2005: Soil quality Determination

of pH. Ten ml of LG or DSS were added to 50 ml of potassium chlorate, then shaken (RS12

Rotoshake, Gerhardt) for 60 min at 20 rpm. The suspension was allowed to stand for 60 min before measuring the pH with an electronic glass electrode (SevenMulti ion/pH/ORP module Mettler Toledo, Switzerland). The pH value of PB was determined in a 1:5 volume ratio 0.01 M CaCl2 according to the method mentioned in the guidelines of EBC (EBC European

Biochar Certificate 2015).

The pH value of BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS was measured in 1:20 w/v ratio 1 M KCl (Merck) solution, according to a method described in Carrier et al. (2012). Three grams of BC were added to 60 ml of potassium chlorate, then shaken (RS12 Rotoshake, Gerhardt) for 30 minutes at 20 rpm. The pH value of BCPB was determined in a 1:5 volume ratio 0.01 M CaCl2 according to the method mentioned in the guidelines of EBC (EBC European Biochar

Certificate 2015). Before measuring the pH, the pH-meter was calibrated as described above for the pH determination of the feedstock.

Aliquots of about 1–3 mg dried (105 °C) ground PB and BCPB were tested for C, H, N, S, and O with a CHNS-O elemental analyser (EuroVector EuroEA3000 series, Italy). For C, H, N, and S determination, samples were placed in tin capsules and the elemental analyser was run in combustion mode. Analysis of oxygen was performed separately from CHNS analysis. Samples were placed in silver capsules and the elemental analyser was run in pyrolysis mode. DOC concentration in the BCs was determined via a batch test method. Water extracts were prepared using a 1:20 (w:v) suspension after shaking (RS12 Rotoshake, Gerhardt) for 180 min according to a method described in Dias et al. (2010). Samples of BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS were filtered through a syringe (pore size 0.45 μm, Pall Corporation, USA). Samples of BCPB were filtered through cellulose acetate 0.45 μm pore size filter paper (Prat-Dumas, France). DOC was determined by a Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyser (Shimadzu-V CSN, Japan). Samples were stored at 4 ºC in the dark till DOC analysis was accomplished. Total carbon (TC) in the BCs was determined according to Vaitkutė et al. (2010), with slight modifications. The fraction of BC samples passing through a 900 μm sieve (Retsch) was selected for TC determinations, and no further grinding was done. TC content was measured on aliquots of 0.025–0.028 mg using a Total Organic Carbon Analyzer TOC-V Shimadzu equipped with a solid sample module SSM-5000 (Shimadzu) via dry combustion at 900 °C. Total trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn) content was determined for both the potentially contaminated feedstocks (i.e. WC, LG, and DSS) and the resulting BCs (i.e. BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS). Prior to digestion, the samples of the feedstock and the BCs were reduced to ash following the steps described in Pundytė et al. (2011). Prior to FAAS or GFAAS analysis, a 0.5-g ash sample was mixed with an aqua regia solution (3 ml HNO3 (65 %) and 9 ml of

HCl (37 %)) then heated in an Ethos 900 Milestone Microwave digestion system for 52 min. In order to eliminate any solids remaining after the digestion process, samples were filtered through high-quality filter paper (KA2, pore size 10–25 μm). The resulting sample was poured into a 50-ml flask, and the volume was made up to 50 ml with deionised water (Butkus and Baltrenaitė 2007). The concentration in solution was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) (210VGP atomic absorption spectrophotometer Buck Scientific, USA). When the concentration of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, and Pb was too low to be accurately detected by FAAS, a graphite furnace (GFAAS) was used. The detection

limits of Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn were 0.1, 0.2, 0.2, and 0.04 mg/l using FAAS. The GFAAS detection limits of Cd, Cu, and Pb were 0.0001, 0.001, and 0.002 mg/l, respectively. All the procedures were carried out in accordance with the methods mentioned in CEN/TS

16188:2012: Sludge, treated biowaste and soil—Determination of elements in aqua regia and nitric acid digests—Flame atomic absorption spectrometry method (FAAS).

Bioavailable trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in BCs (i.e. BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS) were determined according to Carrier et al. (2012). A wet digestion in 1 % citric acid (>99.5 % purity, AVSISTA, Lithuania) was carried out by adding warmed (80 °C) 1% citric acid (50 ml) to weighed BC samples (2.5 g) in 250-ml test tubes. The solutions were heated (DK 20 Heating Digester VELP SCIENTIFICA, Italy) to 80 °C for 10 min and shaken. This procedure was repeated three times. The resulting sample was filtered through high-quality filter paper (KA2, pore size 10–25 μm) and poured into a 50-ml flask. The concentration in solution was measured using the FAAS method. When the concentration of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, and Pb was too low to be accurately detected by FAAS, the GFAAS method was adopted.

2.5 Trace metal and dissolved organic carbon leachability via up-flow

percolation test

Up-flow percolation tests were performed in order to assess trace metal and DOC leachability from biochars. Figure 3 shows the apparatus that was employed for the up-flow percolation test.

Leaching behavior of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS was investigated according to the methodology described in CSN P CEN/TS 14405:

Characterisation of waste—Leaching behavior tests—Up-flow percolation test (under specified conditions). Each column with a diameter of 5.5 cm was packed with BCWC,

BCLG, and BCDSS to a height of 27.4±0.5 cm. The leachant (i.e. deionized water) was forced through each column from the bottom to the top at approximately 12 ml/h, and the eluate was collected in glass bottles by means of plastic tubes. The leachant was circulated upward in order to displace air from pores and to minimize preferential flow in the packed material (Mohanty and Boehm 2015).

For FAAS or GFAAS analysis, about 50 ml of the eluate from the collected sample was filtered through sterile Acrodisc syringe filters with a Supor (hydrophilic polyethersulfone) membrane and pore size 0.45 μm (Pall Corporation). Trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined by FAAS or GFAAS analysis. All the procedures were carried out in accordance with the methods mentioned in ISO 8288: Water quality—Determination of

methods; ISO 9174: Water quality—Determination of chromium—Atomic absorption spectrometric methods.

The eluate collected during the up-flow percolation test of BCWC and BCLG at liquid to solid (L/S) ratios equal to 1, 3, and 5 l/kg dry weight (DW) was analyzed for EC, pH and DOC measurements. DOC measurements were taken only in the eluates collected from the up-flow percolation test performed on BCWC450, BCWC700, BCLG450, and BCLG700. These BCs were selected for testing DOC leaching behaviour because of the TC analysis results that are discussed in the results section.

The first volume of eluate equal to a cumulative L/S ratio of 1 l/kg DW (i.e. 0.137, 0.131, 0.210, 0.317 litres of eluate from BCWC450, BCWC700, BCLG450, and BCLG700, respectively) was not analysed for DOC. At the beginning of the column leaching test (i.e. until L/S ratios of 0.1 or 0.5 l/kg DW), labile species may be rapidly released by the tested material with the resulting elution curve showing a first flush behaviour (Van der Sloot and Dijkstra 2004). DOC measurements were taken for the eluate collected at L/S ratios equal to 1, 3, and 5 l/kg DW, thus not considering the fraction of DOC in BCLG and BCWC that is subject to rapid washout.

For DOC analysis, samples of about 40 ml volume were taken from the eluate collected during the up-flow percolation test. After filtering the samples through a syringe (pore size

Fig. 3 The setup of the up-flow percolation test. 1—column containing the leachant; 2—

material to test; 3—column; 4—leachant inlet; 5—top layer of material to test; 6— leachate outflow; 7—bottles for collecting the eluate. Retrieved from Mancinelli et al. (2016)

0.45 μm, Pall Corporation), DOC was determined by employing a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer (Shimadzu–V CSN).

EC and pH were measured immediately after sampling on the whole water sample. EC was measured with a conductivity meter (inoLab Cond 740 WTW) in accordance with the methodology of ISO 7888: Water quality – Determination of electrical conductivity. pH was measured with an electronic glass electrode (SevenMulti ion/pH/ORP module Mettler Toledo) after calibrating the pH-meter as described above for the pH determination of the feedstock. pH measurements were carried out in accordance with the methodology described in ISO 10523: Water quality – Determination of pH.

Changes in DOC levels of USWR after up-flow percolation tests with PB and BCPB were investigated by the means of the apparatus shown in Figure 3.

Two impervious surfaces were selected to represent an urban environment and to deliver USWR samples supposed to be characterized by different chemical parameters because of differences in material composition and usage (Göbel et al. 2007). The two impervious surfaces were in the premises of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, in Saulėtekio Street, Vilnius, Lithuania. USWR samples were collected from the downspouts of a roof of a building located along Saulėtekio Street (54° 43′ 27.70′′ N, 25° 20′ 03.70′′ E). The gutters, the downspouts, and the roofing material are all made of galvanized metal. USWR samples were collected from a ditch along a pathway in a pedestrian zone (54° 43′ 15.56′′ N, 25° 20′ 15.35′′ E). The ditch drains the USWR coming from a meadow and a pathway surface. Both the ditch and the pathway are made of concrete.

USWR samples were collected during two storm events on 29 May and 7 June 2017. The characteristics of the monitored rainfall events, the flow-rate measured during the sampling of USWR, and the measured chemical parameters are shown in Table 2.

The meteorological data were provided by the meteorological station of Vilnius University located in Vilnius (54° 40′ 58.39′′ N, 25° 15′ 38.23′′ E), being about 6 km far from the sampling sites. USWR samples were collected manually by taking grab samples directly from the drainage flow. Sequential sampling was performed collecting multiple samples (about 5 l each) in pre-cleaned polyethylene bottles till the cumulative volume of 25 l was reached for each site. Measurements of the flow-rate of the runoff water were done at the time of sampling according to Spurlock (1999).

Each column was packed with 100 g DW of PB, BCPB300, BCPB450, and BCPB700 (Fig. 3). The whole water samples (i.e. USWR samples from the roof and pathway surface) were utilized as leachant for up-flow percolation tests. Up-flow percolation tests were performed in duplicate for each type of leachant for each type of material. Eluates were collected at L/S ratios equal to 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 l/kg DW equivalent to the volume of 50, 100, 200, 300, and

500 ml, respectively. The leachant was circulated upward to assure thorough contact between the DOC in the leachant and the surface of BC (Iqbal et al. 2015).

The USWR samples and the eluates from PB and BCPB were characterized for water chemical parameters (i.e. pH, EC, and DOC concentrations). EC and pH were determined immediately after sampling on the whole water sample (i.e. samples of USWR and the eluates). For determination of EC and pH in USWR samples, an aliquot of 100 ml was retrieved from each sub sample of about 5 l each. EC was measured with a conductivity meter (inoLab Cond 740 WTW) in accordance with the methodology of ISO 7888: Water

quality – Determination of electrical conductivity. pH was measured with an electronic

glass electrode (SevenMulti ion/pH/ORP module Mettler Toledo) after calibrating the pH-meter with buffer solutions as previously described for pH analysis of the feedstock. pH measurements were carried out in accordance with the methodology described in ISO

10523: Water quality – Determination of pH. After EC and pH determinations, the USWR

and the eluate samples were vacuum filtered, 0.45-m pore size cellulose acetate filter (Prat-Dumas), and stored in the dark at 4 °C till DOC analysis. DOC was determined by employing a TOC analyzer (Shimadzu–V CSN).

2.6 Quality assurance

For quality assurance, measurements were repeated three times. If not specified, samples from BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS were prepared in duplicate. If not specified, samples from

Table 2 Rainfall conditions, flow-rate and chemical parameters measured in the urban

storm-water (USWR) runoff samples collected during two storm events on 29 May and 7 June 2017 Type of surface Date Antecedent dry period (days) Daily precipitation (mm) Flow-rate of USWR (l/s) Chemical parameters of USWR pH EC, S/cm DOC, mg/l Roof 295 2 0.25 0.04 0.01 6.76 0.19 41.8 13.0 19.1 5.9 Pathway 76 1 7.87 0.07 0.01 8.07 0.1 81.7 14.4 25.7 4.4 Flow-rates and chemical parameters are shown as the mean value (n = 5)  standard deviation. EC – electrical conductivity; DOC – dissolved organic carbon

BCPB were prepared in triplicate. Standard solutions of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (1000 ppm) (Buck Scientific, USA) were used for FAAS or GFAAS calibration. All the chemicals used in this study were of analytical grade and the solutions were prepared with deionised water. Concentrated nitric (65 %) and hydrochloric (35 %) acid was employed for the digestion of the samples. For GFAAS and FAAS analysis, in order to monitor for possible contaminations deriving from the sample preparation procedure, for every three samples a reagent blank was prepared following the entire sequence of steps as described above for total trace metal determination in DW. For citric acid extractable trace metal determination using the FAAS and GFAAS methods, a reagent blank was prepared following the entire sequence of steps as previously described for trace metal analysis in citric acid extraction. For pH analysis in KCl extract, a blank sample was prepared following the entire sequence of steps as described for pH analysis. For the up-flow percolation test, two blanks were collected from a column filled with the leachant (i.e. deionised water) following the steps described in CSN P CEN/TS 14405.

For DOC determination in BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS, two blank samples were prepared following the entire sequence of steps, as described for DOC analysis.

To check for any possible DOC contamination during field sampling and travel to the laboratory, on each sampling site a container for collecting USWR was filled with deionized water and transferred to the laboratories for DOC analysis. Aliquots of field blanks were subsequently utilized for testing possible additional contamination of DOC from laboratory equipment, filling an empty column of the up-flow percolation test apparatus with aliquots of field blanks and preparing two blank samples following the entire sequence of steps as described for the up-flow percolation test. In each sample the coefficient of variance of the measurements of DOC was under 2 %.

2.7 Calculation and statistical analysis of experimental data

Statistical analysis was carried out using Excel (Microsoft, USA) and MATLAB R2016b (Mathworks, USA). The descriptive statistics of the data were defined by calculating the mean and standard deviation (St. Dev.) values for the observations with n ≥ 3.

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test differences between the data obtained in the present research study. Two-way ANOVA was performed to evaluate significant differences between the physical and chemical parameters (i.e. measurement value) grouped depending on the types of feedstock (i.e. WC, LG, and DSS) or the pyrolysis temperatures (i.e. 450, and 700 °C). Comparisons between the physical and chemical parameters and the types of material (i.e. PB, BCPB300, BCPB450, and BCPB700) were carried out suing two-way ANOVA. Differences were reported as significant (p < 0.05) or non-significant (p > 0.05).

When the Bartlett test rejected the null hypothesis that the data come from normal distribution with equal variance, Welch’s t-tests were evaluated for the null hypothesis that two groups have equal means at 5 % significance level.

To evaluate possible relations among the water chemical parameters (i.e. pH, EC, and DOC concentrations) measured in the eluate samples of the up-flow percolation tests with USWR, relations were determined by step-wise linear regression with slope and intercept considered significant at p ≤ 0.05.

The analysis of the blank samples showed that elements such as Cd (0.0003 mg/l), Cr (0.2 mg/l), and Pb (0.0317 mg/l) had a mean concentration above the detection limit. Therefore, for the computation of the concentration C (mg/kg DW) of metals in DW, a correction was applied by subtracting the mean concentration detected in the blank analysis B (mg/l) from that obtained in the analysis of the digested ashes A (mg/l), as follows:

= − × ×

(1)

where D is the dilution factor equal to 10 applied for the determination of Zn using the FAAS method and Cd using the GFAAS method both for the analyzed types of feedstock and for the biochar; V is the final volume, ml; m is the dry weight mass of the sample, g.

BC yield (Y) was calculated according to Lu et al. (2015), as follows: , % = ×

(2)

where W1 is the dry weight mass of the feedstock (g); and W2 is the dry weight mass of biochar (g).

In order to assess the ability of the pyrolysis process to concentrate the trace metals in the produced BCs (i.e. BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS), the retention rate (RR) of trace metals in BCs was calculated as the ratio of trace metal concentration in BCs (C2, mg/kg DW) and the respective feedstock (C1, mg/kg DW) (Lu et al. 2015), according to the following equation:

�� = � � � , % = × ×

(3)

As far as the up-flow leaching test is concerned, for each set L/S ratio, the cumulatively released quantity (∑Ui) of an element, mg/kg DW, were calculated for analysis in the eluate fraction as described below:

∑ �=∑ �× �

(4) where: Vi– volume of the eluate fraction, l; i – index of the eluate fraction from 1 to 7; Ci concentration of the analysed element in the eluate fraction mg/l; mo – dry mass of the test portion in the column, kg.

When the concentration of a studied element in an eluate fraction was below the detection limit the values were displayed as the upper limit (i.e. Ui is calculated considering Ci equal to the detection limit) and the lower limit (i.e. Ui is calculated considering Ci equal to zero) (CSN P CEN/TS 14405).

Carbon loss (Closs, %) (i.e. the content of carbon of the feedstock that is not retained in the

biochar during pyrolysis) resulting from pyrolysis of PB at different peak temperatures was calculated using the equation adapted from Zhao et al. (2014), as follow:

����= [ − ( × ×× )] ×

(5) where W1 is the dry weight mass of the feedstock, g; TC1 and TC2 is the total carbon content

of the feedstock and the biochar, respectively, %; Y is the BC yield defined in equation (2), %.

The dissolved organic carbon (DOC; g/kg) contents of BCs and PB were calculated using the following equation adapted from Jamieson et al. (2014):

= ×

(6)

where V – volume of deionized water utilized as extractant, l; M – dry mass of biochar, g; C – measured concentration of DOC in the sample, mg/l. DOC concentrations measured in the samples prepared from BCWC, BCLG, and BCDSS were corrected by subtracting the mean concentration (20.4 mg/l), as measured in the blank samples.

The cumulative released quantity (∑ ) of DOC expressed as a percentage of total carbon content of BCWC and BCLG was calculated as follows:

Updating…


Biochar Market Facts, Component, Investment Trend, Finanacial Planning 2021 (Agri-Tech …

10 June, 2021
 

The research report on the global Biochar market provides the micro-and macroscopic analysis of the market that is likely to have a huge influence on the business expansion over the years. The report offers a complete, detailed outline of the Biochar market in order to gain better insights into the market drivers and strategies to survive on the global platform. The report covers a wide-scope market analysis for a better explanation of the business performance and both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Biochar industry.

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• Overview and analysis of market drivers, opportunities, restraints, threats, and challenges
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In addition, the regional segmentation provides the demographic status, supply & demand chain, and consumer preference details. The provision of pricing details, technological developments, and economic growth of the Biochar market in this research report help better comprehend the market development. Additionally, the various research methodologies provide well-defined market scope for gaining more knowledge about industry analysis and forecast estimation of the Biochar market.

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The pictorial and informative representation of the market drivers and opportunities for the Biochar market has been well explained through the different segmentation including product, application, competitive landscape, and geography. In addition to this, the comprehensive detailing of industrial strategies and government policies provides a clear view of the market dynamics. The explanation regarding competitive players (Agri-Tech Producers LLC, ArSta Eco, Sonnenerde, Carbon Terra GmbH, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc, Carbon Gold Ltd, Biochar Supreme LLC, Pacific Pyrolysis, Phoenix Energy, BlackCarbon A/S, The Biochar Company, PYREG GmbH, Diacarbon Energy Inc, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Biochar Products Inc, Vega Biofuels Inc.) offers information including recent developments, market growth strategies, new product launches, and several customized solutions that will profit the global Biochar market. The research report provides a complete overview and research of the Biochar market.

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From Black Forest to Logan

10 June, 2021
 

Two sewage sludge dryers, weighing 34 tonnes each, are on their way to be installed in Australia’s first biosolids gasification facility being built at the Loganholme Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP).

The industrial-strength dryers are an integral component of the gasifier that will turn human waste into a marketable biochar suitable for a variety of uses.

City of Logan commissioned Dutch company ELIQUO to build the dryers in their German factory after being unable to find an Australian company with the expertise to produce the appliances.

It took nearly five months to build the dryers, which are larger than a shipping container at 18 metres long and 3.5 metres wide.

They were then trucked through the narrow streets of Bonndorf in the state of Baden-Wurttemberg to port.

They are currently being shipped to Australia and should arrive in City of Logan in August for assembly.

Infrastructure Chair Councillor Teresa Lane said the dryers are another mind-boggling component of the Loganholme WWTP Biosolids Gasification Project.

“Council has been looking at emerging technology as part of the project since officers first drew up plans to build the gasifier,” Cr Lane said.

“I think it’s great they are pushing the boundaries on emerging environmental and innovative ideas that save residents money in the long run.

“The dryers are an engineering feat given their size and the challenges posed by testing and transporting them during COVID-19.

“Once they arrive in our city, they will be assembled along with the many other components required to bring the gasifier online.

“This is an Australian-first and I’m confident we will achieve great outcomes for all the hard work put in.”

Last year Council, along with project partners Pyrocal and Downer, successfully trialled a process of thermally treating sewage sludge (biosolids) to produce biogas.

The biogas is then used as a renewable energy source as heat drying the remaining biosolids, turning it into a ‘biochar’, suitable for agricultural purposes.

The Loganholme Gasification Project is expected to come online mid-2022 later this year and is designed to reduce CO2 output by about 4800 tonnes annually and prevent organic pollutants from entering the soil.

The $17m project was made possible by a $6 million grant from the Australian Government’s renewable energy agency ARENA.


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Optimal Planning of Biomass Co-Firing Networks with Biochar-Based Carbon Sequestration …

11 June, 2021
 

Chapter

Chapter

DOI link for Optimal Planning of Biomass Co-Firing Networks with Biochar-Based Carbon Sequestration

Optimal Planning of Biomass Co-Firing Networks with Biochar-Based Carbon Sequestration book

DOI link for Optimal Planning of Biomass Co-Firing Networks with Biochar-Based Carbon Sequestration

Optimal Planning of Biomass Co-Firing Networks with Biochar-Based Carbon Sequestration book

Planning of integrated, biochar-based carbon management networks can be facilitated through the use of computer-aided process engineering or process systems engineering tools. Biochar-based systems offer an alternative means to achieve negative emissions. In such systems, biochar is applied to soil to achieve the net removal of carbon from the atmosphere. The amount of biochar generated from each power plant will depend on the type of co-firing technique selected, and becomes zero in the case of direct co-firing. The residual solid biochar is available for carbon sequestration. The model is able to take into account biomass supply, power plant capacities and biochar application limits to enable rational system-level planning, which will be essential to enable full-scale implementation of such systems. The model can easily be scaled up so as to enable systematic planning of large-scale systems for commercial implementation.

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Youtube biochar inoculation

11 June, 2021
 

Graduate Opportunities. titles marked (MS) are for students seeking a master's degree, (PhD) are for students seeking a doctoral degree, not marked are open to students seeking either master's or doctoral degrees Inoculation of Brassica napus L. (canola) with Pseudomonas fluorescens DUS1-27 leads to inhibition of plant growth due to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. L Hudek, A Enez, W Webster, D Premachandra, L Bräu (2018), Vol. 430, pp. 361-379, Plant and soil, Cham, Switzerland, C1

Biochar is a type of charcoal produced by the conversion of biomass or feedstock to a charred product under oxygen-limited conditions in a reactor, a process known as pyrolysis, says biogeochemist … Mar 30, 2009 · biochar i lb per cubic ft of soil to be created a bit of humic acid to jump start the carbon cycle for the first couple of years microsomal inoculation (what ever is your favorite brand most good potting mixes are sterile) manure (preferably chicken) blood meal bone meal

Nov 23, 2012 · Biochar is the solid, carbon-rich product of heating biomass with the exclusion of air (pyrolysis or “charring”). If added to soil on a large scale, biochar has the potential to both benefit global agriculture and mitigate climate change. It could also provide an income stream from carbon abatement for farmers worldwide. However, biochar properties are far from uniform, and biochar … A spruce biochar and a poplar biochar, obtained by high temperature pyro-gasification, and a natural zeolite (chabazite) were loaded with ammonium by soaking in 0.5M ammonium sulphate. An incubation test and a plant growth trial were performed on the ammonium-enriched materials added to a peat based growing media, compared with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 .

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Biochars and peat were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 532C and storage time was assessed. A seed coating system was developed using biochar, bacteria liquid culture, water, and…

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and biochar amendment on maize growth, cadmium uptake and soil cadmium speciation in Cd-contaminated soil.

2010-02-02T21:16:59-05:00 2010-02-02T21:16:59-05:00 https://oia.osu.edu/application-and-policies/201-uncategorised/1577-safety-information-for-students-traveling … Nov 30, 2018 · The first experiment was inoculation of four isolates of phosphate solubilizing fungi isolated from of oil palm empty fruit bunches, i.e. Acremonium (TB1), Aspergillus (TM7), Hymenella (TM1) and Neosartorya (TM8) to 'biocom' media (mixture of biochar and compost generated from oil palm empty fruit bunches) to obtain phosphate solubilizing fungi …

The flasks were fed either HF or HF with BC at 2%. Data were analyzed utilizing PROC MIXED (v. 9.4, SAS Institute 2015) with the fixed effects of Trt, CO, Inc, and their interactions. The random effects were run and order of inoculation. BC did not decrease NDFD and with 2% – CO and 1% + CO NDFD increased.

Billabong font in css!иPJan 04, 2019 · This site has been created to facilitate the establishment of a South East Asian biochar interest group. BIG-SEA could provide communication and linkage between biochar researchers, farmers, related industry and supporting organisations, interested in tropically focused biochar industry development. Effect of controlled inoculation with specific mycorrhizal fungi from the urban environment on growth and physiology of containerized shade tree species growing under different water regimes. Mycorrhiza 21: 703-719. Article: I. Czerniawska-Kusza and G. Kusza and M. Duzynski I. Czerniawska-Kusza and G. Kusza and M. Duzynski. 2004.

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Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market to Incur Rapid Extension During 2020-2025

12 June, 2021
 

The “Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Research Report” reviews product details, market trends, product types, and product analysis considering key factors such as professional and in-depth assessment of current and future market coverage and facts and figures, market share and growth rate of each type and application, gross margin, key factors leading to the market. The Porter’s Five Forces, SWOT analysis also provides an in-depth assessment of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the industry.

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MARKET SEGMENTATION
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Biochar
Bonechar
Phosphate Fertilizers

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Agriculture
Industrial

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The report primarly enlists the basic details of industry based on the fundamental overview of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market chain structure, and describes industry surroundings, the development of the market through upstream & downstream, industry overall, investment analysis, manufacturing cost structure, industry policies, plans and development, key players will drive key business decisions and makes a scientific prediction for the development industry prospects on the basis of past, present and forecast data related to the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market from 2021-2025.

The firstly global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market describes the market overview, upstream, technology, pricing structure. the second part describes the global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market by major players, by application and type. it also includes an analysis of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizersx industry competition structure analysis from the province’s market yields and an analysis of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market of key players. it also includes global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers industry application status, industry SWOT analysis and market demand estimation and regional market product and sales analysis and future forecast analysis. finally, it includes an analysis of Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers market investments, market characteristics, opportunities and calculations.

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The Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Worldwide Market Report presents a cautious and even recent market experience in the form of diagrams, foot-outlines, tables to show a clear picture of XX’s business. In the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers written release of the Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers report from around the world, different Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers applications, key topographical regions, Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers piece of the overall industry of each player, supply demand proportion, and their production volume.

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2 Manufacturers Profiles
3 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Competition, by Players
4 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Size by Regions
5 North America Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Revenue by Countries
6 Europe Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Revenue by Countries
7 Asia-Pacific Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Revenue by Countries
8 South America Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Revenue by Countries
9 Middle East and Africa Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Revenue by Countries
10 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Segment by Type
11 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Segment by Application
12 Global Biochar, Bonechar, Phosphate Fertilizers Market Size Forecast (2021-2025)
13 Research Findings and Conclusion
14 Appendix

View Full Description, Table of Content, Table of Figures: https://www.reportspedia.com/report/chemicals-and-materials/2020-2025-global-biochar,-bonechar,-phosphate-fertilizers-market-report—production-and-consumption-professional-analysis-(impact-of-covid-19)/80897#table_of_contents


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Sustainable biochar: agroforestry and its application | World Agroforestry | Transforming Lives and …

14 June, 2021
 

World Agroforestry (ICRAF) is a centre of science and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. Leveraging the world’s largest repository of agroforestry science and information, we develop knowledge practices, from farmers’ fields to the global sphere, to ensure food security and environmental sustainability.

 

ICRAF publishes content on a regular basis. Subscribe and stay up-to-date on the latest news and trends on agroforestry

Driven by our vision of a world where all people have viable livelihoods supported by healthy and productive landscapes, our global team of science, research, development, institutional and resource professionals seeks to better combine the science of discovery with the science of delivery. To realize this vision, we focus on four key interacting themes: By combining more productive trees with more resilient and profitable agricultural systems and a sounder understanding of the health of the soil, land and people that is part of ‘greener’, better governed landscapes, we offer valuable and timely knowledge products and services to the global community as it tackles the major challenges of the Anthropocene. These include dealing with climate change; low soil carbon; widespread forest, tree and soil loss leading to degradation; poverty; demographic upheavals and conflict; and securing equitable futures for all with a special focus on women and children.

The database contains information on the composition of selected tree foods and crops w

The goal of the African Orphan Crops Consortiu

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World Agroforestry (ICRAF) is a centre of science and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. Leveraging the world’s largest repository of agroforestry science and information, we develop knowledge practices, from farmers’ fields to the global sphere, to ensure food security and environmental sustainability.

 

ICRAF publishes content on a regular basis. Subscribe and stay up-to-date on the latest news and trends on agroforestry

Driven by our vision of a world where all people have viable livelihoods supported by healthy and productive landscapes, our global team of science, research, development, institutional and resource professionals seeks to better combine the science of discovery with the science of delivery. To realize this vision, we focus on four key interacting themes: By combining more productive trees with more resilient and profitable agricultural systems and a sounder understanding of the health of the soil, land and people that is part of ‘greener’, better governed landscapes, we offer valuable and timely knowledge products and services to the global community as it tackles the major challenges of the Anthropocene. These include dealing with climate change; low soil carbon; widespread forest, tree and soil loss leading to degradation; poverty; demographic upheavals and conflict; and securing equitable futures for all with a special focus on women and children.

The database contains information on the composition of selected tree foods and crops w

The goal of the African Orphan Crops Consortiu

This easy-to-use App shows you data on the distribution of indigenous tree species in d

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World Agroforestry works throughout the Global South with footprints in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Our activities span over 44 countries in six regions. Each office oversees, plans, coordinates and supports initiatives within their region, and maintains liaisons and partnerships with governments, development partners, learning institutions and civil society

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This looks like climate-resilient soil management in response to the climate crisis, say scientists in India.

 

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit has provided funding to World Agroforestry (ICRAF) to implement the Sustainable Biochar Production through Agroforestry Systems and its Application: a Climate-resilient Soil Management Approach project in India.

Biochar is a carbon-rich, solid material derived from a wide range of biomass or organic waste through a thermochemical method. It is an organic charcoal material that is the final product of pyrolysis, or high-temperature burning, of agricultural biomass without the presence of oxygen.

The use of biochar is a simple yet powerful tool to combat the climate crisis by sequestering atmospheric carbon into soil as well as processing agricultural and other waste into useful clean energy.

After mixing in soil, biochar significantly changes the soil’s properties — such as texture, porosity, bulk density, particle density, surface area, pore size distribution, cation exchange capacity, pH, water-holding capacity — which directly influence plant growth.

High porosity and a large surface area of biochar provide space for micro-organisms that are beneficial for the soil and help in binding important anions and cations. The improved soil properties are the main reason behind enhanced crop productivity.

Besides enhanced crop productivity and potential for carbon sequestration, there are reduced nitrous oxide and methane emissions among the other environmental benefits when biochar is applied to soil.

ICRAF, in collaboration with, and funding from, the Government of the State of Odisha, is already implementing a four-year agroforestry project in Balangir and Nuapada districts. The biochar project is implemented in the same districts and the ongoing agroforestry project extending launching support to the new project with respect to offices, staffing, links and convergence with government and communities.

 

 

The biochar project is implemented by a group of partners, including various departments of the Government of Odisha, the Indian Institute of Soil Science of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, and the India Program of CIFOR-ICRAF.

Lead by CIFOR-ICRAF, the project is collaborating with ProSoil Program of GIZ; the BoDen project of the International Biochar Initiative; members of the private sector and non-governmental organizations. The group is working with individual farmers, and farmers’ groups (producer organisations, associations, cooperatives, self-help groups) involving women and entrepreneurial youth.

The project has organized farmers’ participatory trials in the two districts while the fundamental research experiments are executed at the Indian Institute of Soil Science in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Additionally, the project extends technical support to partner NGOs of ProSoil (Foundation for Ecological Security, BAIF Development Research Foundation, and Watershed Organization Trust) working in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

The principal objective of the project is to evaluate production, application and effects of biochar on soil health and food production; develop models for sustainable production of biochar using diverse feedstocks obtained from agroforestry systems that can be expanded in scale; develop market links to mainstream use of biochar for climate-resilient and productive soil management, which can also be expanded in scale; and develop links between producers and other value-chain groups for sustainable expansion of scale of the use of biochar in agriculture.

The project began on 1 April 2021 and will run until 31 March 2023, implemented in two modules: 1) Pilot projects on best practices to produce biochar using diverse feedstock and its application; and 2) Value-chain development and strategies to expand scale.

Module 1 is the core of the project. It focuses on two elements of biochar as a soil amendment: 1) Evaluation of technologies for biochar production at household level, including women and entrepreneurial youth, farmers’ groups and communities. Surplus crop residues, agricultural waste and wood from sustainable sources will be used as feedstock. Activities will link with the ongoing agroforestry plantations for sustainable availability of feedstock; and 2) Evaluation of the protocol for biochar application and its effects on crop yields and soil organic carbon during the project’s lifetime.

Module 2 focuses on the economics of biochar production and application; development of upgrading strategies for the biochar value chain and associated business cases; and co-development of strategies for expanding scale.

ICRAF and the Indian Institute of Soil Science will use mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic soil health analytical methodologies, which have been newly introduced in India, in close collaboration with the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

The outcomes are expected to provide answers to broader issues like understanding biochar’s opportunities, risks and roles in soil–crop interactions, competing use of feedstock, and impact on agriculture production, socio-economics and the environment.

Specifically, the results are expected to provide a protocol to improve soil organic carbon, yields of crops and reduce input costs, mainly, fertilizers.

This approach in the long term will provide a model that can improve the livelihoods of smallholders, including women, youth and returning migrant labourers, which has become an ever-more urgent need owing to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The pilot is expected to establish a model for climate-resilient soil management, improving livelihoods of smallholders, and possibly reduce air pollution currently caused due to the annual burning of crop residues, which can be expanded in scale.

 

Read more

In Odisha, agroforestry and ‘handholding’ help farming families break out of the poverty–migration trap

A Road Less Travelled by Migratory Farmers of Odisha: Innovative Agroforestry Practices

Proceedings of the International Webinar on Soil Spectroscopy: An Emerging Technique for Rapid Soil Health Assessment

App set to revolutionise agroforestry in India

Automated crop type mapping using time-weighted dynamic time warping-A basis to derive inputs for enhanced food and Nutritional Security

Status of perennial tree germplasm resources in India and their utilization in the context of global genome sequencing efforts

Amid multiple global crises, global forestry and agroforestry centres “reset” with engagement landscapes

The national agroforestry policy of India: experiential learning in development and delivery phases

Spatial analysis of area and carbon stocks under Populus deltoides based agroforestry systems in Punjab and Haryana states of Indo-Gangetic Plains (Link 2)

 

 

 

World Agroforestry (ICRAF) is a centre of scientific and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. Knowledge produced by ICRAF enables governments, development agencies and farmers to utilize the power of trees to make farming and livelihoods more environmentally, socially and economically sustainable at multiple scales. ICRAF is one of the 15 members of the CGIAR, a global research partnership for a food-secure future. We thank all donors who support research in development through their contributions to the CGIAR Fund.

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Biochar Ze Ściólki Kurzej I Npk [Polish] by Guilherme de Freitas Furtado | eBay

14 June, 2021
 


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Attend any 2 Days of ANZBIG’s 5th Conference 2021, featuring workshops, exhibits and presentations from experts from around the world. Topics covered include Food, Fibre & Recreation, Energy, Infrastructure, Drawdown Markets, Biosphere and All of the Above.  View Full Conference programme in Mid August here: https://anzbc.org.au/conference/

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SciELO Google SciELO Google Permalink Journal of soil science and plant nutrition ISSN 0718 …

16 June, 2021
 

 

Can biochar increase the bioavailability of phosphorus?

 

Q. Shen1*, M. Hedley1, M. Camps Arbestain1, M.U.F. Kirschbaum2

 

1New Zealand Biochar Research Centre, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. *Corresponding author: Q.shen@massey.ac.nz

2Landcare Research, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

 

Abstract

A large proportion of phosphate (P) fertilizer applied to Andosols reacts with reactive aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) to become unavailable for plant uptake. We investigated whether biochar could enhance plant growth by (i) mobilizing soil P through changing soil pH or facilitating the growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and/or (ii) introducing additional P.

We grew Lotus pedunculatus cv barsille in two Andosols of contrasting P status amended with three biochars (with distinct porosity, nutrient and liming properties) at a dose of 10 t ha–1 for 32 weeks. The growth medium was divided into a root and a hyphal zone through a nylon mesh and a tephra layer that allowed the P in the hyphal zone to be transferred only by AMF hyphae.

The addition of a relative nutrient–rich biochar (e.g. made from willow woodchips) with liming properties to the root zone of the P–deficient soil increased plant growth by 59% and P uptake by 73%. Pine–based biochar provided no extra nutrient acquisition and no plant–growth stimulation when added to the root zone of the P–deficient soil. However,when hyphae of those plants had access to a P–rich soil patch, the presence of pine biochar in the soil patch greatly enhanced P uptake and plant growth (e.g., by 76% and 40% when using biochar produced at 450oC compared to the absence of it). None of the tested biochars conferred advantages in the root zone of a high–P soil.

We concluded that the benefits from biochar addition to nutrient uptake and plant growth are biochar– and soil–specific. Thus, biochars need to be tailored–made for certain soils by optimizing feedstock and pyrolysis conditions before application.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Andosols, Biochar, Lotus, Phosphorus bioavailability, Rhizosphere

 

1. Introduction

Andosols are generally formed from volcanic parent materials at early stages of weathering, although they have also been identified in young soils developed from basic and meta basic rocks under humid and per–humid climates (IUSS Working Group 2006). These soils are characterized by having high content of short–range ordered constituents (e.g., allophane, imogolite, ferrihydrite), high organic matter content, low bulk density, good aeration, and adequate moisture retention (Dahlgren et al. 2004). Even though these distinctive properties make them suitable for agricultural use, the considerable presence of reactive Al (and to a lesser extent Fe) surfaces generates a high affinity for P, which commonly leads to low agronomic P use efficiency (IUSS Working Group 2006).

Two major reactions − adsorption and precipitation − are involved in the process of P fixation on these surfaces (Parfitt 1989). The former occurs mainly through ligand–exchange reactions (i.e., formation of inner–sphere complexes) of P-OH groups with exposed –OH/OH2 groups in Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides and short–range ordered aluminosilicates. Over time, after this initial adsorption, local solutes may become concentrated causing the precipitation of Al/Fe phosphate, with some phosphate becoming occluded and isolated from solution. These reactions depend on soil pH and the saturation of surface binding sites with P (Goldberg and Sposito 1985)

In sil-andic Andosols – those with reactive Al being predominantly inorganic Al constituents (i.e. allophane) rather than organo-Al complexes − most of the non-available P is locked up with allophane (Parfitt 1989). This has led to anaccumulation of up to almost 4 t P ha-1 in intensively farmed sil-andic Andosols top–soils in New Zealand (Perrott and Sarathchandra 1987). Moreover, many sil-andic Andosols in New Zealand have been under (mainly legume–based) permanent pasture for a long time, which has led to soil acidification (Bolan and Hedley 2003; and references therein), which is likely to cause an increase in the positive charge of variable–charge constituents (e.g., reactive Al surfaces) and thus P sorption (Bolan et al. 1999).

Consequently, a relatively high input of P fertilizer is essential for maintaining pasture production in these soils. We used the nutrient budget model OVERSEER(R) version 6.1.2 to estimate fertilizer requirements for a typical dairy farm of sil-andic Andosols with a stocking rate of 2.8 cows ha-1 and a milk solids production of 980 kg ha-1 in the Taranaki region (New Zealand). We found that the farm required P fertilization rates of up to 59 kg P ha-1 year-1 to maintain a soil Olsen P value of 35 mg kg-1 and sustain ongoing milk production at the set rate. Given that ongoing agricultural demand and diminishing mineable resources are expected to lead to a shortage of P (Cordell et al. 2009), it is necessary to consider management practices that can make the large pool of unavailable P in Andosols more available.

Biochar technology has thus been proposed as a C sequestration approach to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions (Lehmann et al 2006). Additionally, purpose–made biochars hold promises in improving soil physical properties (Herath et al. 2013), reducing soil fertility constraints (Mia et al 2014) and stimulating soil biological processes (Wang et al. 2015), and thereby enhance crop performance. Several studies have been undertaken to understand how P availability to plants can be directly or indirectly influenced by biochar addition and these are described below.

Certain biochars have liming properties and are thus likely to modify the soil pH (Curaqueo et al 2014), the extent of this effect being dependent on the pH-buffering capacity of both biochar and the soil (Yuan and Xu 2011). An increase in pH can reduce P adsorption and precipitation on reactive Al surfaces and also help overcome Al toxicity in acid soils (Haynes 1982). This, together with potential soil physical improvements following biochar incorporation, may provide plant roots with a better environment to grow and take up nutrients (Varela Milla et al 2013). The effect of biochar on P availability will also be influenced by the available P content of biochar (Wang et al 2013).

Furthermore, the addition of biochar may stimulate the activity of AMF (Warnock et al. 2007) by facilitating their abundance and functionality with the provision of a suitable environment through modifications of (i) soil pH (Solaiman et al. 2010), (ii) soil micro-porosity (Hammer et al. 2014), (iii) mineral nutrient availability (Hammer et al. 2014), and/or (iv) root–fungi signalling path [as suggested by Warnock et al. (2007) and Vanek and Lehmann (2014)]. Nonetheless, the magnitude of these effects will also depend on (i) biochar characteristics, (ii) biochar placement (e.g., distance from plant root), (iii) soil type, and (iv) soil P status [i.e., in a case study where biochar raised the soluble P supply in the soil, there was lower root AMF colonization than in non-amended soils (Vanek and Lehmann 2014)].

Although Vanek and Lehmann (2014) indicated that biochar enhanced the access of AMF to sparingly–soluble P in the rhizosphere, neither their study nor previous ones (to our knowledge), attempted to distinguish between the contribution of the roots and that of the AMF mycelium to P uptake, as influenced by the presence of biochar. Hence, the specific objectives of this study were to (i) investigate the effect of different biochars (all derived from wood, but with different nutrient contents, porosity, and liming properties) on soil P bioavailability when added to the root zone of two soils with contrasting P status; and (ii) examine whether the effect of biochar on AMF growth, if any, was dependent on its placement (e.g., in a P–rich soil patch within a low P soil). We hypothesize that: (i) a soil of high P status, either inherent of the soil or resulting from biochar addition, would discourage AMF mycelium branching; (ii) in a soil with low P availability, AMP hyphal growth would be stimulated to explore the soil at a further distance from the plant root in order to increase P supply; (iii) plant roots would play a more prominent role in P uptake over that of AMF hyphae when sufficient P was available in the system.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Soil sampling and characterization

Two Egmont black loam top soils (0–10 cm depth) − sil-andic Andosols (IUSS Working Group 2006)– were collected from two sites 250 m apart in Mokoia, Taranaki, New Zealand. Both soils were characterized by having a high content of allophane [> 7%, as estimated following the method of Mizota and Van Reeuwijk (1989)] derived from andesitic tephra. The two soils had strongly contrasting Olsen P levels; however, the high Olsen P soil (33.3 mg kg–1, referred to as ‘ HP’) was sampled in an area of grazed permanent ryegrass/clover pasture (39°37’11.30″S, 174°21’41.94″E), while the low Olsen P soil (4.3 mg kg–1, referred to as ‘ LP’) was taken from an undisturbed area under rough pasture that had not received any fertilizer for the last 20 years (39°37’18.02″S, 174°21’38.73″E). After removing roots and plant debris, fresh soil samples were sieved through a 2-mm sieve and stored in a cold room (< 4°C) for further use. Due to the typical micro–aggregation of allophonic soils, most of the soil passed through the sieve. Subsamples were taken, air–dried and characterized for chemical and physical properties (Table 1) using standard methods.

aAll concentrations are expressed on an oven dry weight basis

bCation exchangeable capacity

cSubscript py referred to sodium pyrophosphate–extractable

dSubscript ox referred to acid (pH=3) ammonium oxalate–extractable

The soil pH1:2.5 was determined using a glass electrode in a 1:2.5 soil:water suspension. The pHNaF at t = 2 min was measured in a 1:50 soil:saturated NaF suspension, a pHNaF> 9.5 indicates the presence of reactive Al (allophane and/or organo-Al complexes) (Fieldes and Perrott 1966). The CEC was determined by 1 M ammonium acetate (pH=7) (Blakemore et al. 1987). Aluminium, Fe and Si from short–range ordered materials were extracted by acid ammonium oxalate (pH=3) (Alox, Feox and Siox) (Blakemore et al. 1987). Aluminium and Fe from organic complexes were extracted by sodium pyrophosphate (Alpy and Fepy), although this reagent can also extract relatively small amounts from short–range ordered inorganic constituents (Blakemore et al. 1987).The exchangeable Al was extracted by 1 M KCl solution (Alex) (Blakemore et al. 1987). The concentrations of Al, Fe and Si in all extractants were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, GBC 904 AvantaVer 1.33, Australia).

Total P was determined using a Technicon Auto-Analyzer after Kjeldahl digestion. Olsen P was extracted by shaking 1 g of air–dried soil with 20 mL of 0.5 M NaHCO3 solution (pH = 8.5) for exactly 30 min (Olsen et al. 1954). The suspension was then centrifuged at 25,155 × g for 10 min and filtrated through Whatman No. 42 filter paper. Resin-P was extracted by adding 30 mL of deionized water and anion (HCO3saturated) and cation (Na+ saturated) exchange resin strips (6.25*2.5 cm; BDH Chemicals Ltd., England (Saggar et al. 1990)) toca. 0.5 g soil sample; the suspension was shaken for 16 h. Then the resin strips were transferred to a 0.5 M NaCl solution and shaken for 30 min (Wang et al. 2012a). The P in NaHCO3 (Olsen P) and NaCl (Resin-P) solutions were then determined according to the ammonium molybdate (blue) method. Phosphorous retention capacity was determined by shaking 5 g of air–dried soil with 25 mL of 1000 mg L1P solution as KH2PO4 (pre-dry at 105 oC for 1.5 h) for 16 h (Saunders 1959); suspensions were centrifuged and filtrated as described above, and concentration of P in solution was then determined according to the vanado molybdate (yellow) method.

2.2. Biochar production and characterization

Two types of feedstock were used for biochar production: (a) chipped pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) branches and (b) chipped weeping willow (Salix matsudana L.) branches. Pine wood chips were pyrolysed at 450°C or 550°C and willow wood chips only at 550°C in a 27-L gas–fired rotating drum kiln with an average heating rate of 10°C min1. The resultant solid pyrolytic products were referred to as BP450, BP550 and BW550, respectively. Biochars were ground to pass through a 2-mm sieve before mixing with soil for the bioassay trial. Subsamples were further ground to a particle size < 0.3 mm using a ring mill for characterization (Table 2).

Table 2. Selected properties of biocharsa

aAll concentrations are expressed on an oven dry weight basis

bElectrical conductivity

c< Detection limit

d6 M HClhydrolysable N

e2% formic acid extractable P

f, g, h 1 N HCl–extractable K, Mg, S

The pH and EC were measured in a suspension of biochar in deionized water (ratio of 1:20; w/w), as suggested by the IBI (2012). Calcium carbonate equivalence (liming equivalence, % CaCO3-eq) was determined following a modified version of the method proposed by Rayment and Higginson (1992). For this, 10 mL of 1 M HCl solution (standardized) was added to 0.5 g of biochar. The suspension was then shaken on an end-to-end shaker for 2 h and stood overnight. The excess HCl in the suspension without any separation was then titrated against 1 M NaOH solution (standardized) under vigorous stirring using an autotitrator (TIM 865 Titration Manager, Radiometer Analytical).

Aavailable P (2% formic acid extractable P) and N (6 M HCl hydrolysable N) were measured according to the methodologies of Wang et al. (2012a, b), respectively. Available K, S and Mg were determined following the method recommended by Camps-Arbestain et al. (2015). In brief,10 mL of 1 M HCl solution was added to 0.5 g of biochar. The suspension was then shaken on an end-to-end shaker for 2 h and stood overnight. The suspension was thereafter filtered through Whatman No 42 filter paper. Potassium and Mg, and S in the extractants were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, GBC 904 Avanta Ver 1.33, Australia) and a SO4–S Technicon Auto-Analyzer, respectively. Total C, H, N and S contents were determined using a TruSpec CHNS analyzer (LECO Corp. St. Joseph, MI). The ash content was determined by thermal analysis using a TG analyzer (SDT Q600, TA Instruments, Melbourne, Australia).

2.3. Bioassay experiment setup

Lotus pedunculatus cv barsille was grown in a root study container that separated the soil into root and hyphalzones. This allowed a distinction to be made between direct P uptake by plant roots and uptake through transfer by AMF hyphae (Figure 1a). Plant roots could access only the upper soil compartment (the root zone). It was separated from the lower compartment by a 30-µm root exclusion nylon mesh that prevented root penetration but allowed unhindered penetration by thinner hyphae. A thin layer (3-mm) of high P sorbing tephra was placed below the root exclusion mesh to provide a ‘P-diffusion break’ to ensure that P could not enter the root zone by passive diffusion, either. The two different soil compartments could then be filled with soil with different P concentrations, and with or without adding biochar to observe P uptake and plant growth under differing P status, and the influence of biochar on either root or hyphal P uptake.

Figure 1. Schematic representation of the root study containers (a) and experimental treatments (b)

2.4. Plant growth and harvesting

Thirty seeds of Lotus pedunculatus cv barsille (inoculated with Rhizobium) were sown per root study container after 2 weeks of pre-incubation. Visual inspection identified abundant indigenous AMF so that no external inoculum needed to be introduced. Two weeks after germination, the seedlings were thinned to five plants per pot. All pots were arranged in a completely–randomized design and kept in a glasshouse. Natural light was supplemented by four growth lights (F58W-GRO-LUX, 1500 mm*26 mm) to provide 16 h of light per day. An N– and P–free nutrient solution was applied regularly to maintain plant growth. Visual inspection showed that Rhizobium nodules had developed adequately and maintained adequate N supply to plants. This ensured that P was the principal element limiting plant growth. Water content was maintained at 70% of field water holding capacity throughout the trial period by weighing the pots daily and adding water to reach the corresponding weight.

Plants were harvested on four occasions when the height of most plants reached 15 cm. For this, the aboveground biomass was cut down to 2–3 cm above the soil surface, then dried at 75°C to constant weight and weighed to determine the aboveground DM. Subsamples were ground using a ball mill and analyzed for shoot P concentration on a Technicon Auto–Analyzer after Kjeldahl digestion.

After 32 weeks, a final harvest was carried out and the root study containers were destructively separated. The rhizosphere soil (directly under the mesh) was sliced using a piston microtome starting at a 0.5 mm thickness to sample pure tephra from the 3-mm tephra layer for P analysis to test the success of using tephra as a P diffusion barrier. Another set of six slices of the hyphal zone soil (Figure 1a) were taken each at 1 mm thickness. All slices were kept separately and stored in a chilled room (< 4oC) for further analysis. The root zone soil was carefully removed from the upper compartment and sliced into eight wedges; four of those were randomly selected, then crushed and passed thought a 2-mm sieve. Big roots remaining in the sieves were separated and the soil was air–dried for further analysis.

2.5. Measurement of hyphal length

Hyphae present in the hyphal zone soil (a 1 mm thick soil right below the tephra) were extracted, stained and measured using a photomicrography – image processing using the Image J software (1.47 bundled with 64-bit Java, http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/) following the method described and tested by Shen et al. (2016).

2.6. Statistical analysis

Unless otherwise stated, results are expressed as means of four replicates with their standard errors. One–way ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test was used to evaluate statistical differences (P= 0.05) in plant dry matter (DM) and P uptake between treatments by SPSS software (IBM SPSS Statistics 20). Linear regression models were used to test for correlation among plant yield and soil pH responses.

3. Results

3.1. Biochar characteristics

The chemical characterization of the investigated biochars showed that, under the conditions studied, the types of feedstock had a greater effect on their properties than pyrolysis temperature (Table 2). The ash content of the willow woodchip–derived biochar (BW550) was more than six times as high as that of the two pine–based biochars (> 10 vs. < 2%). This, along with its composition, played an important role in several properties of biochar. The BW550 biochar had values of pH, EC and liming equivalence of 9.4, 1165 µS cm–1 and 18.2% CaCO3-eq, respectively. The corresponding pH and EC values for the BP450 and BP550 biochars were < 9 and < 300 µS cm–1, respectively, with no detectable CaCO3-eqin either of them. Total P and available P in the BW550 biochar was > 8 and > 17 times higher than the corresponding values in the BP450 and BP550 biochars. The available K, Mg and S in the BW550 biochar were >3,> 8 and >38 times higher than the corresponding values in the biochar derived from pine woodchips.

3.2. P status and biochar effects in the root zone

Figure 2. Effect of the P status in the root zone soil and biochar on plant growth (shoot DM) (A) and P uptake (B). The data present was the sum of four harvests. The error bars denote 1 SE. Different letters indicate significant differences (P< 0.05, n = 4) as determined by one-way ANOVA

3.3. P status and biochar effects in the hyphal zone

Figure 3. Effect of the presence of the HP soil (to which only hyphae had access) below the root zone of LP soil − with and without biochar − on plant growth (shoot DM) (A) and P uptake (B). The data present was the sum of four harvests. The error bars denote 1 SE. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05, n = 4) as determined by one-way ANOVA

In general, P uptake by plants was more sensitive to the types and the placements (to either root zone or hyphal zone soil) of biochar than biomass growth (Figure 4). Phosphate uptake differed almost five–fold between plants grown with low–P and high–P soils in their root zones, whereas growth differed less than three-fold. Plant P uptake and growth could be increased by about 50% when BW550 was added to the root zone, presumably as an alternative means of supplying the required P directly to roots. Alternatively, a similar enhancement of P uptake and growth was possible through hyphal P uptake when hyphae could grow in the hyphal zone of a high–P, and that benefit could be even further enhanced when biochar was added to high–P soils within the hyphal zone, with similar benefits for the three different biochar types. In contrast, there was little effect when any of the biochars was added to high–P root zones (Figure 4)

3.4. Effects of biochar on available P and pH of the root zone soil

The presence of BW550 biochar increased (P< 0.01) the Resin–P in both the HP and the LP soils at time 0 (after 2 weeks pre-incubation but before sowing) (Figure 5A). BW550 biochar had a higher available P than the BP450 and BP550 biochars (Table 2), and thus made a greater contribution to available P in both soils (Figure 5A). Conversely, neither BP450 nor BP550 had any discernible effects on the plant available P fraction in the LP soil, as expected, but their application resulted in a reduction (P< 0.05) in plant available P when applied to the HP soil. It is likely that this was simply due to the dilution of available P when pine biochars with very low available P (Resin–P) concentrations (59 and 69 mg kg-1; Table 2) was added to the HP soil with a very high available P concentration).

Figure 5. Effect of biochar on Resin - P (A) and pH (B) of the root zone soil after plant growth

After 8 months of plant growth, the Resin–P in the root zone (Figure 5A) decreased (P < 0.05) in all treatments over the period of plant growth, except for the LP soil amended with BW550. Generally, this decrease was greater in the HP soil than in LP soil (> 80 vs.> 10 mg kg-1, respectively) due to greater plant P uptake in the former. However, the Resin–P in soils amended with the BW550 biochar was still higher (P< 0.05) (in general ca. 10 mg kg-1) than those of the non-amended and pine biochar–amended counterparts (Figure 5A).

Over the course of the experiment, soil pH in the root zone of non-amended pots also decreased by 0.3–0.5 units in the LP soil and 0.6 units in HP soil, respectively (Figure 5B). A similar pattern of pH change was observed when pine wood biochars were added to these soils, but the soil amended with BW550 biochar when compared to the soil without any amendments, had less of a decrease in pH. However, when compared to the soil amended with BW550 at time 0, the decrease pH was actually more pronounced (0.6–0.8). Overall, the decrease of soil pH in the root zone was correlated (R2 = 0.68) with the above–ground biomass growth (Figure 6).

Figure 6. Correlation between plant growth and decrease of soil pH

3.5. Effects of soil type and biochar type on AMF abundance in the hyphal zone

Table 3. AMF hyphal lengths in the hyphal zone soil below the tephra layer (a 1 mm thick soil right below the tephra) in response to biochar addition (m hyphae g1 soil g1 DM)

*Different letters within each row indicate significant differences (P< 0.05, n = 4) as determined by one-way ANOVA

4. Discussion

4.1. Biochar classification

According to the biochar classification system of Camps-Arbestain et al. (2015) the BP450, BP550 and BW550 biochars were classified as follows: (i) fertilizer values based on an ’average’ corn grain crop with a yield of 13 t DM ha–1 y–1 (classes 0; 0; 3, K5t S6t Mg7t, respectively) and (ii) liming equivalence value (classes 0; 0; 2, respectively). The results thus indicate BW550 biochar would provide an adequate supply of K, S and Mg to an ’average’ corn crop at doses of 5, 6 and 7 t ha–1, respectively. The nutrient requirement of an ’average’ lotus crop yield of 11.5 t DM ha–1 y–1 (Suckling 1960) would need a biochar application of 7 t ha–1 to supply sufficient S and Mg, and 20 t ha–1 to meet the requirements for P and K. Moreover, the relatively high liming equivalence of the BW550 biochar (18.2% CaCO3-eq) means that this biochar would also alleviate soil acidity and Al toxicity.

4.2. P status of soil and biochar in the root zone affects plant growth and P uptake

The plants grown in the LP root zone soil (without biochar amendment) suffered from P deficiency as inferred from the inferior growth and lower P uptake by plant shoots compared to those grown in the HP root zone soil. Shoot P concentrations of plants grown in the LP (0.06%) and HP soils (0.10%) were below those commonly reported for lotus (0.15–0.25%) (Trolove et al. 1996). However, this comparison is misled by the fact that plant growth under glasshouse conditions (9.5 g pot–1 in a growth period of 8 months would be equivalent to 27 t DM ha–1 y–1) was more than 2.5-fold that under field conditions (11.5 t DM ha–1 y–1; Suckling 1960), which caused a dilution effect in shoot P concentration.

The incorporation of BW550 biochar into the LP root zone soil caused a considerable increase in P uptake and a concomitant increase in plant yield compared to the non-amended soil. A similar growth enhancement was not observed in the corresponding treatments amended with the pine–based biochars. This difference in response to biochar types was attributed to the additional nutrients provided by the BW550 that was rich in ash and, particularly, its input of available P to this P-deficient soil. The addition of BW550 biochar to the LP soil increased Resin–P by 12 mg kg–1 (Figure 5A). Assuming that the difference in P taken up by plants with and without BW550 biochar came from the P contained in the biochar, we estimated that ca. 20% of the additional available P introduced by BW550 biochar was taken up by plants. Resin-P has been proposed as a potentially useful test for characterizing P bioavailability in soils amended with P-rich biochars (Wang et al. 2012a).

BW550 biochar also increased the pH-buffering capacity of these soils and helped mitigate the decrease in pH experienced over time which may have also favoured P uptake. The decrease in pH was always greater in the HP soil than in the LP soil, and this could be attributed to the greater root growth and DM accumulation observed in the HP soil, although there may have also been differences in soil pH-buffering capacities between the two soils. Plant-P availability is affected by several pH–dependent reactions such as P speciation, precipitation–dissolution and adsorption–desorption. An increase in soil pH generally favours P mobilization and could also stimulate the mineralization of organic P (Haynes 1982).

In contrast, biochar addition (regardless of the types used) to the root zone of the HP soils did not enhance either plant yield or P uptake, and this was attributed to the adequate P supply for plant growth in this soil, as indicated by an Olsen P value of 33.3 mg kg-1 and a relatively high yield of 27 t DM ha-1 yr-1. Usually, an Olsen P value > 32 mg kg-1 for a soil with high P retention is considered adequate for pasture growth (Cornforth 1998). Other studies have also shown that applying biochar to either a soil with a high P status or along with P fertilizer has no additive or synergistic agronomic effects (Solaiman et al. 2010).

4.3. P status and biochar in the hyphal zone affects plant growth and P uptake

5. Conclusion

Plant growth in our experiment was primarily determined by P bioavailability in the soil of the root zone. When insufficient P was available for direct root uptake, this could be partly over come through hyphal P uptake from the hyphal zone if that contained a high P soil, but plant growth could not be maintained at the same level to that obtained when there was direct root P uptake from a high P soil.

Amongst the tested biochars, biochar produced from willow woodchips achieved the best results in terms of plant growth and P uptake in a P deficient soil. This was attributed to its high liming equivalence and provision of additional P which made it a useful soil amendment in Andosols with low P fertility, by improving P bioavailability and thus plant productivity. Biochars derived from pine woodchips conferred no advantages through nutrient addition but stimulated AMF abundance and hyphal function and thereby increased P accessibility and uptake from high–P soil patches rendering an enhanced plant growth. We concluded that biochar addition had little effect when plants were growing in a soil with sufficient P supply, but biochar derived from pine woodchips facilitated mycorrhizal P uptake when plants were dependent on mycorrhizae to meet their P requirements.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge financial support for Qinhua Shen from the New Zealand Biochar Research Centre. The authors are also deeply grateful to Dr James Hanly for providing the tephra and for helping with the OVERSEER® nutrient budget analysis and Dr C Matthew for personal communication on Lotus yield and nutrient managements. We are also grateful for the technical support from Mr Ian Furkert, Mr Bob Toes, and Ms Glenys Wallace, and would like to thank Drs Tao Wang and Roberto Calvelo Pereira for inspiring discussions of the experimental results,and Prof. Surrinder Saggar, Prof. Eduardo Garcia-Rodeja and Associate Prof. Brett Robinson for their proof reading and suggestions.

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