## Assessing the Fallout From the Coronavirus Pandemic – Granular Biochar to Expand Substantially …

1 June, 2020

The report on the Granular Biochar market provides a bird’s eye view of the current proceeding within the Granular Biochar market. Further, the report also takes into account the impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Granular Biochar market and offers a clear assessment of the projected market fluctuations during the forecast period. The different factors that are likely to impact the overall dynamics of the Granular Biochar market over the forecast period (2019-2029) including the current trends, growth opportunities, restraining factors, and more are discussed in detail in the market study.

As per the presented market report, the global Granular Biochar market is projected to attain a CAGR growth of ~XX% during the assessment period and surpass a value of ~US$XX by the end of 20XX. Further, the report suggests that the growth of the Granular Biochar market hinges its hope on a range of factors including, emphasis on innovation by market players, surge in the investments pertaining to R&D activities, and favorable regulatory policies among others. Get Free Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Market Report @ https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2559621&source=atm Competition Landscape The report provides critical insights related to the business operations of prominent companies operating in the Granular Biochar market. The revenue generated, market presence of different companies, product range, and the financials of each company is included in the report. Regional Landscape The regional landscape section of the report provides resourceful insights related to the scenario of the Granular Biochar market in the key regions. Further, the market attractiveness of each region provides players a clear understanding of the overall growth potential of the Granular Biochar market in each region. End-User Analysis The report provides a detailed analysis of the various end-users of the Granular Biochar along with the market share, size, and revenue generated by each end-user. The following manufacturers are covered: Diacarbon Energy Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra Segment by Regions North America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Segment by Type Wood Source Biochar Corn Source Biochar Wheat Source Biochar Others Segment by Application Soil Conditioner Fertilizer Others Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [email protected] https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2559621&source=atm Key Market Related Questions Addressed in the Report: Important Information that can be extracted from the Report: You can Buy This Report from Here @ https://www.researchmoz.com/checkout?rep_id=2559621&licType=S&source=atm ## Coronavirus' business impact: Forecast On Waterbased Coatings Market Global Industry Analysis … 1 June, 2020 Analysis of the Global Waterbased Coatings Market The recent market study suggests that the global Waterbased Coatings market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~XX% between 2019 and 2029 and reach a value of ~US$XX by the end of 2029.

The study offers a microscopic view of the various segments and sub-segments of the Waterbased Coatings market and accurately represents the data using informative tables, graphs, and figures. The objective of the report is to assist readers to make informed business decisions and improve their position in the global Waterbased Coatings market landscape post the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Vital data enclosed in the report:

Segmentation Analysis of the Waterbased Coatings Market

The Waterbased Coatings market study offers a detailed understanding of the consumption, demand, and pricing structure of each product.

The Waterbased Coatings market report evaluates how the Waterbased Coatings is being utilized by various end-users.

By Region

The report offers valuable insights related to the growth prospects of the Waterbased Coatings market in different regions including:

competitive landscape. Leading players in the waterbased coatings market are mentioned and are profiled for product portfolio, product innovation, business outlook, and SWOTs. Insights into market positioning of top players and the changing competitive hierarchy over the 2017-2024 forecast period are provided herein.

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Questions Related to the Waterbased Coatings Market Catered to in the Report:

## Colloidal interactions of micro-sized biochar and a kaolinitic soil clay

1 June, 2020

Biochar and kaolinitic soil clay of micro size might co-present in many circumstances

Both materials carry a negative surface charge and favour electrostatic interactions.

Biochar drives solution chemistry, thereby altering the colloidal dynamics of soil clay.

The application of biochars will need to be customised for specific cultivation regions.

Biochar and kaolinitic soil clay of micro size might co-present in many circumstances

Both materials carry a negative surface charge and favour electrostatic interactions.

Biochar drives solution chemistry, thereby altering the colloidal dynamics of soil clay.

The application of biochars will need to be customised for specific cultivation regions.

Fine-sized biochars and clay minerals co-present in various circumstances, e.g., agricultural land and water treatment. Because both of these materials are scavengers for nutrients, agrochemicals and other toxicants, their dispersibility and transportability have received much attention. However, little is documented about their colloidal interactions and to what extent biochar particles can stimulate the dispersion of clay minerals. Here, the effect of engineered micro-sized biochar amendment on the surface charge (SC) and colloidal dynamics of the clay fraction of a kaolinite-rich soil was determined. The engineered biochars showed distinctive SC and colloidal properties depending on their pyrolysis conditions (e.g., oxygen level and temperature) and solution chemistry (i.e., pH and cation type). Two types of biochars prepared under non-biochar-oriented pyrolysis (open heating, ‘O-biochar’) and biochar-oriented pyrolysis (N2-supported heating, ‘N2-biochar’) showed contrasting effects on the colloidal dynamics of clay. The O-biochars provoked aggregation due to their higher content of soluble salts, which increased ionic strength and provided multivalent cations, inducing bridging between negatively charged colloids. In contrast, the N2 biochars low in soluble salts and rich in negatively charged burned organic matter compounds favoured the dispersion of clay. The adjustment of biochar production methods can therefore be highlighted as the way to customize biochar for specific uses or to reduce the risk of clay loss from soils in the short term. In the long term, when soluble salts are removed by leaching, it is likely that dispersion is facilitated and the risk for erosion increases.

## A comprehensive review of engineered biochar: production, characteristics, and environmental …

1 June, 2020

Detailed physical and chemical properties of biochar have been discussed.

Engineering biochar production techniques improve biochar’s properties and efficiency.

Biomass composition and pyrolysis conditions mainly control biochar properties.

Active sites and functional groups could be enriched in engineered biochar.

Inappropriate biochar applications may lead to negative effects on the environment.

Detailed physical and chemical properties of biochar have been discussed.

Engineering biochar production techniques improve biochar’s properties and efficiency.

Biomass composition and pyrolysis conditions mainly control biochar properties.

Active sites and functional groups could be enriched in engineered biochar.

Inappropriate biochar applications may lead to negative effects on the environment.

A sustainable management of environment and agriculture is crucial to protect soil, water, and air during intensified agriculture practices as well as huge industrial and transportation activities. A promising tool to address these challenges could be the application of biochar, a carbonaceous product of biomass pyrolysis. The efficiency of biochar could be improved through physical, chemical and microbial procedures. Engineered biochar could then be applied for various applications ranging from sustainable agriculture to pollution remediation and catalytic reactions. Biochar engineering allows achieving biochar properties which are optimum for specific applications and/or under specific conditions. This would lead to harnessing the favorable features of biochar and to enhance its efficiency while simultaneously minimizing the existing tradeoffs. This review covers the production and applications of engineered biochar by summarizing great deals of research and knowledge on the field. Unlike previous reviews, herein biochar physical and chemical properties and the factors affecting them (i.e., biomass nature and pyrolysis conditions) have been discussed in detail. Moreover, the contributions of each physical and chemical activation/modification methods to improving biochar characteristics with respect to environmental applications have been specifically scrutinized. By providing the state-of-the-art knowledge about engineered biochar production, properties, and applications, this review aims to help research in this field for identification of the culprits that must be addressed in future experiments.

1 June, 2020

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1 June, 2020

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1 June, 2020

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## Global Wood Vinegar Industry Market Growth Set to Rise Significantly during 2020 and 2027

1 June, 2020

As per the research conducted by Fior Markets, the report titled Global Wood Vinegar Industry Market presents current and future analysis of the market by evaluating the major applications, advantages, trends, and challenges. In this report participants and principals of the industry are analyzed. The report aims to produce useful insights into the global Wood Vinegar Industry market. There is no doubt that this report would provide the futuristic growth of the market based on the past data and the present state of the industry. The report studies various segments, end-users, regions, and players on the basis of demand patterns, and prospect for 2020 to 2027 time-period.

NOTE: Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explains that the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers post COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry.

The report focuses on top manufacturers in the global Wood Vinegar Industry market: Tagrow, Taiko Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., DaeSeung, VerdiLife LLC, Nettenergy B.V., Applied Gaia, Sigma Aldrich, Agribolics Technology Sdn Bhd, and Byron Biochar.

The report covers prominent attributes related to the global Wood Vinegar Industry market such as important industry trends, market size, market share predictions, and profiles of the top industry players. The report contains a discussion on production, regional market share, price, supply and demand, product profit, value, capacity, and market growth rate. The authors state that an increase in competition from regional players and regulatory framework across different areas of the world could restrain the market growth in the future.

From investors to private equity firms as well as suppliers, distributors, venture investors, and new entrants, this report will help everyone. The study then highlights drivers, difficulties, cost structure, barriers, issues, and opportunities available in the global Wood Vinegar Industry market. An overview of product/service consumption, demand, supply, import, and export is provided. It delivers a growth outlook of the global market scenario, including production, consumption, history, and forecast. Recent R&D projects performed by each market player are assessed in the report.

Regional Growth Analysis:

The regional analysis assist help market players to tap into unexplored regional markets, prepare specific strategies for target regions, and compare the growth of all regional markets. Additionally, analysis of the market concentration rate, as well as the concentration ratio over the estimated period, is presented. All major regions and countries have been covered in the global Wood Vinegar Industry market report. On the basis of geography, the global market has been segmented into: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, and the Middle East and Africa.

Using primary and secondary processes, research analyst of this report have collected and compared the previous and present data to achieve the future outlook of the market growth. The report highlights a detailed investigation of the global Wood Vinegar Industry market chain structure, downstream buyers, market positioning, and upstream raw material data.

Customization of the Report:This report can be customized to meet the client’s requirements. Please connect with our sales team (sales@fiormarkets.com), who will ensure that you get a report that suits your needs.

## Biochar Market 2020 Analysis by Segments, Share, Application, Development, Growing Demand …

1 June, 2020

The Global Biochar Market 2019-2025 report is based on comprehensive analysis conducted by experienced and professional experts. The report mentions, factors that are influencing growth such as drivers, restrains of the market. The report offers in-depth analysis of trends and opportunities in the Biochar Market. The report offers figurative estimations and predicts future for upcoming years on the basis of the recent developments and historic data. For the gathering information and estimating revenue for all segments, researchers have used top-down and bottom-up approach. On the basis of data collected from primary and secondary research and trusted data sources the report offers future predictions of revenue and market share.

Top Key Players of Biochar Market are covered in this report are:

Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House, Anaerob Systems, Algae AquaCulture Technologies, CECEP Golden Mountain Agricultural Science And Technology, EarthSpring Biochar/Biochar Central, Energy Management Concept, 3R Environmental Technology Group and Renargi

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The Biochar Market research Report is a valuable supply of perceptive information for business strategists. This Biochar Market study provides comprehensive data which enhances the understanding, scope and application of this report. The key market segments along with its subtypes are provided in the report. This report especially focuses on the dynamic view of the market, which can help to manage the outline of the industries. Several analysis tools and standard procedures help to demonstrate the role of different domains in market. The study estimates the factors that are boosting the development of Biochar companies.

A wide-ranging analysis of the Biochar Market is presented in this report, along with a brief overview of the segments in the Biochar Industry. The study presents a feasible estimate of the current market scenario, including the Biochar market size with regards to the volume and renumeration. The report is a collection of significant data related to the competitive landscape of the industry. It also contains data regards to several regions that have successfully established its position in the Biochar Market.

Global Biochar Market is segmented based by type, application and region.

Based on Type, the market has been segmented into:

by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification and Others)

Based on application, the market has been segmented into:

by Application (Agriculture and Others)

The Biochar Market report has been prepared based on the synthesis, analysis, and clarification of information about the global Biochar Market from specialized sources. The competitive landscape section of the Biochar Market report provides a clear insight into the market share analysis of key industry players. Company and financial overview, product portfolio, new project launched, recent development analysis are the parameters included with this report.

Key Insights that Study is going to provide:
1. The 360-degree Biochar Market overview based on a global and regional level
2. Market Share & Sales Revenue by Key Players & Emerging Regional Players
3. Competitors â€“ In this section, various Biochar industry leading players are studied with respect to their company profile, product portfolio, capacity, price, cost, and revenue.
4. A separate chapter on Biochar Market Entropy to gain insights on Leaders aggressiveness towards market [Merger & Acquisition / Recent Investment and Key Developments]
5. Patent Analysis** No of patents / Trademark filed in recent years.

Table of Content:
Global Biochar Market Size, Status and Forecast 2025
1. Report Overview
2. Market Analysis by Types
3. Product Application Market
4. Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis
5. Market Performance for Manufacturers
6. Regions Market Performance for Manufacturers
7. Global Biochar Market Performance (Sales Point)
8. Development Trend for Regions (Sales Point)
9. Upstream Source, Technology and Cost
10. Channel Analysis
11. Consumer Analysis
12. Market Forecast 2020-2025
13. Conclusion

## Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Market 2020-2026 | Comprehensive Study COVID19 …

1 June, 2020

A perfect mix of quantitative & qualitative Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) market information highlighting developments, industry challenges that competitors are facing along with gaps and opportunities available and would trend in Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) market. The study bridges the historical data from 2014 to 2019 and estimated until 2025.

The Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Market report also provides the market impact and new opportunities created due to the COVID19/CORONA Virus Catastrophe The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/types for the competitive landscape analysis. The report then estimates 2020-2025 market development trends of Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Industry.

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The Top players are Merck Millipore, TCI Chemicals, TRC, AOPHARM, Santa Cruz Biotech, Capot Chemical, Apollo Scientific.

Market Segmentation:

Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Market is analyzed by types like Purity: >99%, Purity: 98%-99%, Purity: <98%

On the basis of the end users/applications, Chemical Reagents, Fine Chemicals, Pharmaceutical Intermediates, Material Intermediates

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A major chunk of this Global Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Market research report is talking about some significant approaches for enhancing the performance of the companies. Marketing strategies and different channels have been listed here. Collectively, it gives more focus on changing rules, regulations, and policies of governments. It will help to both established and new startups of the market.

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze global Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market, and key players.
To present the Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) development in the United States, Europe, and China.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their development plan and strategies.
To define, describe and forecast the market by product type, market, and key regions.

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1 Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Market Overview
2  Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Market Competition by Manufacturers
3 Production Capacity by Region
4 Global Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Market by Regions
5 Production, Revenue, Price Trend by Type
6 Global Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Market Analysis by Application
7 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Business
8 Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid (CAS 98-89-5) Manufacturing Cost Analysis
9 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
10 Market Dynamics
11 Production and Supply Forecast
12 Consumption and Demand Forecast
13 Forecast by Type and by Application (2021-2026)
14 Research Finding and Conclusion
15 Methodology and Data Source.

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1 June, 2020

## Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on Biochar Fertilizer, Global Market Research Report 2020

1 June, 2020

The research report encourages the readers to comprehend the importance of quality, shortcomings if any and deep investigation for every member independently by giving the global data of great importance about the market. The Global Biochar Fertilizer market showcase study report presents a top to bottom investigation about the market based on key sections, for example, item type, application, key organizations and key locales, end clients and others. Consequently, the research report presents the organization profiles and deals investigation of the considerable number of vendors which can assist the customers with taking better choice of the products and services as per their requirements.

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Additionally, the report offers a top to bottom research based on the market size, income, deals research and key drivers. Study reports gives the data about the innovative progression, new item dispatches, new players and late advancements in the global Biochar Fertilizer showcase. There are some specific strategies which are being used in the industry to safeguard their space in spite of huge barriers and competition in the market and enduring the growth of business are the factors covered in the global Biochar Fertilizer market report. The research report presents evaluation of the development at different phases and different qualities of the global Biochar Fertilizer market based on key geological regions and nations. By using the report consumer can recognize the several dynamics that impact and govern the market through various perspectives. The report of global Biochar Fertilizer report offers the extensive information about the top most makers and sellers who are doing great and are directly working right in the market now and which have great market area according to the country and region and other aspects that affect the growth of any company or industry.

The investigation report gives the examination about the significant reasons or drivers that are liable for the development the Biochar Fertilizer advertise. It additionally offers plans of action which can be taken and market conjectures that would be required. This market investigation permits industry producers with future market patterns according to various aspects and upcoming other markets. Besides, study report presents a far reaching learn about the market based on different fragments, for example, item type, application, key organizations and key areas, top end clients and others. Besides, study offers the development estimation of the market based on figuring by different divisions and segments and past and current information of the market. Along these lines inquire about report can assist the customers with taking the vital decisions for their development in the Biochar Fertilizer business.

Moreover, the market study also provides in depth analysis of the regions, which is one of the major aspects for the growth of the market. In addition, some of the tools such as SWOT and PESTEL analysis is also one of the aspects which are likely to affect the global Biochar Fertilizer market for the estimated forecast period. The report additionally covers the development parts and practices of the market alongside the difficulties faced by the emerging companies. The research of the global Biochar Fertilizer market gives the data about the top most investors which are planning to invest now which have great market value and are functioning smoothly in the industry. Moreover, report gives some key reasons which can hamper the development of the market during the estimate time frame. The end clients of the global Biochar Fertilizer market can be sorted based on size of the endeavour. report presents the open doors for the players of the global Biochar Fertilizer market.

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## Granular Biochar Market – Global Industry Outlook, Share, Growth Analysis, Trends and top …

1 June, 2020

Due to the pandemic, we have included a special section on the Impact of COVID 19 on the Granular Biochar Market which would mention How the Covid-19 is Affecting the Industry, Market Trends and Potential Opportunities in the COVID-19 Landscape, Key Regions and Proposal for Granular Biochar Market Players to battle Covid-19 Impact.

The Granular Biochar Market report is one of the most comprehensive and important data about business strategies, qualitative and quantitative analysis of Global Market. It offers detailed research and analysis of key aspects of the Granular Biochar market. The market analysts authoring this report have provided in-depth information on leading growth drivers, restraints, challenges, trends, and opportunities to offer a complete analysis of the Granular Biochar market.

Top Leading players covered in the Granular Biochar market report: Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra and More…

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The report offers clear guidelines for players to cement a position of strength in the global Granular Biochar market. It prepares them to face future challenges and take advantage of lucrative opportunities by providing a broad analysis of market conditions. the global Granular Biochar market will showcase a steady CAGR in the forecast year 2020 to 2026.

Market Segment by Type covers:
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Source Biochar
Wheat Source Biochar
Others

Market Segment by Application covers:
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Our Complimentary Sample Granular Biochar market Report Accommodate a Brief Introduction of the research report, TOC, List of Tables and Figures, Competitive Landscape and Geographic Segmentation, Innovation and Future Developments Based on Research Methodology.

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Regions Covered in the Global Granular Biochar Market:
The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries and Egypt)
North America (the United States, Mexico, and Canada)
South America (Brazil etc.)
Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.)
Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

Years Considered to Estimate the Granular Biochar Market Size:
History Year: 2015-2019
Base Year: 2019
Estimated Year: 2020
Forecast Year: 2020-2026

Highlights of the Report:
• Accurate market size and CAGR forecasts for the period 2019-2026
• Identification and in-depth assessment of growth opportunities in key segments and regions
• Detailed company profiling of top players of the global Granular Biochar market
• Exhaustive research on innovation and other trends of the global Granular Biochar market
• Reliable industry value chain and supply chain analysis
• Comprehensive analysis of important growth drivers, restraints, challenges, and growth prospects

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## Wood Vinegar Market Provides in-depth analysis of the Wood Vinegar Industry, with current trends …

1 June, 2020

Wood Vinegar Market Forecast to 2027 – Global Analysis and Forecasts by Deployment Type, End-User, Region, and Market Players.

In this report, the market has been segmented on the basis of technology, deployment, organization size, end-user industry, and region. The report provides an extensive overview of the global Wood Vinegar market and analyzes the current market trends. The report provides the estimated market data for the forecast period, i.e., 2016-2027.

The report covers the Wood Vinegar market in terms of application sectors in various geographic regions. It also focuses on the major trends and challenges that affect and control the market and competitive landscape. The report predicts the global market share for the Wood Vinegar market in the forecast period.

Get the updated Sample of this Report @ https://www.marketexpertz.com/sample-enquiry-form/19506

The report also emphasizes the initiatives undertaken by the companies operating in the market including product innovation, product launches, and technological development to help their organization offer more effective products in the market. It also studies notable business events, including corporate deals, mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, partnerships, product launches, and brand promotions.

Key players operating in the market are profiled in the report with extensive details such as product pictures and specifications, production and capacity figures, costs, and revenue, among others. Their dominance is studied by considering their geographical reach. A feasibility study of the new investments by entrants is also mentioned in the report by our analysts. The market share of each key player, product, and application have been discussed in the report.

The report presents profiles of some prominent players operating and encouraging the growth of the global market. Also, the market’s weaknesses and strengths are analyzed using the SWOT Analysis.

By Market Players:
ACE (Singapore) Pte Ltd, Canada Renewable Bioenergy Corp., Nettenergy Bv, Tagrow Co., Ltd., Byron Biochar, New Life Agro, Verdi Life, Nakashima Trading Co. Ltd., Penta Manufacturer, Doi & Co., Ltd
By Pyrolysis Method
Slow Pyrolysis, Fast Pyrolysis, Intermediate Pyrolysis
By Application
Agriculture, Animal Feed, Food, Medicinal, and Consumer Products, Others,

The report also inspects the financial standing of the leading companies, which includes gross profit, revenue generation, sales volume, sales revenue, manufacturing cost, individual growth rate, and other financial ratios.

To get in-depth insights into the global Wood Vinegar market, reach out to us @ https://www.marketexpertz.com/customization-form/19506

The region-based bifurcation of the market includes the regions of North America, Europe, South America, Middle East & Africa, and Asia, which have been assessed in detail to outline the overall market scenario.

The research report for the Global Wood Vinegar Market includes primary research alongside the comprehensive analysis of the qualitative as well as quantitative perspectives by different industry specialists that will help the readers to gain an in-depth understanding of the market and industry execution. The report gives a clear picture of the current market scenario, which includes accurate market estimates in terms of volume, technological advancement, macroeconomic, and governing factors in the market.

The segmentation included in the report is beneficial for readers to capitalize on the selection of appropriate segments for the Wood Vinegar sector and can help companies in deciphering the optimum business move to reach their desired business goals.

This report provides an extensive analysis of the changing competitive dynamics in the industry. It gives the readers a forward-looking perspective on the several driving forces or factors hindering the market growth. It provides a forecast report based on how the market is predicted to grow. It helps in understanding the key product segments of the industry. It provides insights that will help the readers make informed business decisions.

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Global Wood Vinegar Market Research Report

Chapter 1 Wood Vinegar Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry

Chapter 3 Global competitive landscape

Chapter 4 Global Production, market share analysis by leading Regions

Chapter 5 Global Supply, Consumption, Export and Import study by Regions

Chapter 6 Global Productions, Revenue, Price Trends by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Global Market Forecast…Continued

Browse Complete Report Description and Full [email protected] https://www.marketexpertz.com/industry-overview/wood-vinegar-market

To summarize, the global Wood Vinegar market report studies the contemporary market to forecast the growth prospects, challenges, opportunities, risks, threats, and the trends observed in the market that can either propel or curtail the growth rate of the industry. The market factors impacting the global sector also include provincial trade policies, international trade disputes, entry barriers, and other regulatory restrictions.

## Global Biochar Fertilizer Market: Top Player Analysis with Sales, Revenue, Gross Margin (2015 …

2 June, 2020

Biochar Fertilizer is an ecologically-friendly fertilizer prepared by adding organic matter and inorganic substances according to the characteristics of different regions, the growth characteristics of different crops and the principle of scientific fertilizatio.

The global Biochar Fertilizer market is valued at US$xx million in 2020 is expected to reach US$ xx million by the end of 2026, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2021-2026.

(This is our latest offering and this report also analyzes the impact of COVID-19 on Biochar Fertilizer market and updated by the current situation, especially the forecast)

This report focuses on Biochar Fertilizer volume and value at the global level, regional level and company level. From a global perspective, this report represents overall Biochar Fertilizer market size by analysing historical data and future prospect. Regionally, this report focuses on several key regions: North America, Europe, China and Japan etc.

Market Segment Analysis

The research report includes specific segments by Type and by Application. This study provides information about the sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of 2015 to 2026. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.

Global Biochar Fertilizer Market: Competitive Analysis

This section of the report identifies various key manufacturers of the market. It helps the reader understand the strategies and collaborations that players are focusing on combat competition in the market. The comprehensive report provides a significant microscopic look at the market. The reader can identify the footprints of the manufacturers by knowing about the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and sales by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2015 to 2019. Key companies profiled in this report are Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics, etc.

Global Biochar Fertilizer Market: Regional Analysis

The Biochar Fertilizer market is analysed and market size information is provided by regions (countries). The report includes country-wise and region-wise market size for the period 2015-2026. It also includes market size and forecast by Type and by Application segment in terms of sales and revenue for the period 2015-2026.

The key regions covered in the Biochar Fertilizer market report are:

1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Overview

1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Biochar Fertilizer

1.2 Biochar Fertilizer Segment by Type

1.3 Biochar Fertilizer Segment by Application

1.4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size Estimates and Forecasts

2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Competitions by Manufacturers

2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)

2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)

2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Price by Manufacturers (2015-2020)

2.4 Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Sites, Area Served, Product Type

2.5 Biochar Fertilizer Market Competitive Situation and Trends

2.6 Manufacturers Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

2.7 Primary Interviews with Key Biochar Fertilizer Players (Opinion Leaders)

3 Biochar Fertilizer Retrospective Market Scenario by Region

3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Retrospective Market Scenario in Sales by Region: 2015-2020

3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Retrospective Market Scenario in Revenue by Region: 2015-2020

3.3 North America Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Country

3.4 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Country

3.5 Asia Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Region

3.6 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Country

3.7 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Market Facts & Figures by Country

4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Analysis by Type

4.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

4.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

4.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Price Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

4.4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Share by Price Tier (2015-2020): Low-End, Mid-Range and High-End

5 Global Biochar Fertilizer Historic Market Analysis by Application

5.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Application (2015-2020)

5.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share by Application (2015-2020)

5.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Price by Application (2015-2020)

6 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Biochar Fertilizer Business

6.1 Company 1

6.1.1 Corporation Information

6.1.2 Company 1Description, Business Overview and Total Revenue

6.1.3 Company 1Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue and Gross Margin (2015-2020)

6.1.4 Company 1Products Offered

6.1.5 Company 1Recent Development

6.2 Company B

6.3 Company C….and so on

7 Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Cost Analysis

7.1 Biochar Fertilizer Key Raw Materials Analysis

7.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure

7.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar Fertilizer

7.4 Biochar Fertilizer Industrial Chain Analysis

8 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers

8.1 Marketing Channel

8.2 Biochar Fertilizer Distributors List

8.3 Biochar Fertilizer Customers

9 Market Dynamics

9.1 Market Trends

9.2 Opportunities and Drivers

9.3 Challenges

9.4 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

10 Global Market Forecast

10.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Estimates and Projections by Type

10.2 Biochar Fertilizer Market Estimates and Projections by Application

10.3 Biochar Fertilizer Market Estimates and Projections by Region

10.4 North America Biochar Fertilizer Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

10.5 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

10.6 Asia Pacific Biochar Fertilizer Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

10.7 Latin America Biochar Fertilizer Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

10.8 Middle East and Africa Biochar Fertilizer Estimates and Projections (2021-2026)

11 Research Finding and Conclusion

12 Methodology and Data Source

12.1 Methodology/Research Approach

12.2 Data Source

12.3 Author List

12.4 Disclaimer

## Evaluation of nickel stabilization in a calcareous soil amended with biochars using mathematical …

2 June, 2020

Registered in England & Wales No. 3099067
5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG

2 June, 2020

The Saskatoon synchrotron had a hand in testing the feasibility of making fertilizer out of human waste.

Cornell University professor of soil and crop sciences, Johannes Lehmann, and his research team wanted to see if urine could benefit farmers in Kenya.

“We were interested in figuring out how to bring nitrogen out of the liquid waste streams, bring it onto a solid material so it has a fertilizer quality and can be used in this idea of a circular economy,” he said in a press release.

While other high-tech adsorbers like carbon nanotubes have been engineered to capture and hold nitrogen gas, Lehmann’s team took a closer look at the toilet bowl.

The scientists heated human feces to make pathogen-free charcoal called “biochar.” Next, they primed it with carbon dioxide which enabled the biochar to soak up nitrogen-rich ammonia gas given off by urine.

The high-resolution spherical grating monochromator beamline at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) enabled them to examine the chemical process and also provided an indication of just how well their material could make nitrogen available to plants.

“It was really our workhorse to understand what kind of chemical bonds are appearing between the nitrogen gas and our adsorber.”

Officials said the discovery has the potential to increase agriculture yields in developing countries and reduce contamination of groundwater caused by nitrogen runoff.

“I do think it is as important for a Saskatchewan wastewater treatment plant, or a dairy farm in upstate New York, as it is for a resident in Nairobi,” Lehmann said in a press release.

“It’s a basic principle that has utility anywhere.”

The research team is still looking into how their material compares to existing commercial fertilizers and if a cost-effective machine can be built to perform the process automatically.

Located at the University of Saskatchewan, CLS annually hosts over 1,000 scientists from around the world who use it to conduct health, agricultural, environmental and advanced materials research.

## Biochar, manure, compost free

2 June, 2020

Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.

2 June, 2020

## Biochar Potential in Improving Agricultural Production in East Africa

2 June, 2020

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Home > Books > Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety [Working Title]

Biochar is among the environmentally friendly bio-products possible of enhancing agricultural productivity due to inherent properties. Despite the increased biochar research output, the sustainability of biochar production and its applicability in developing countries is mostly uncertain. This chapter underscores the biochar production process, its environmental usefulness, and the prediction of its potential impact on agricultural productivity in East African countries. Currently, pyrolysis technology is the most effective means of biochar production. Predominantly, biochar is useful in carbon sequestration, soil amendment, and as a solid fuel source. In-depth analysis of crop residues production in East African countries vis-à-vis the potential for biochar production and the total planted areas strongly indicate that biochar could be sustainably produced and applied in agriculture without compromising the forests and the environment. This knowledge is vital in guarantying the feasibility of biochar technology among policymakers as a sustainable alternative to the exorbitant mineral fertilizers.

One of the most significant bottlenecks to increased agricultural productivity in developing economies is continuous soil degradation due to land use change and erosion [1, 2]. Human activities have primarily destabilized the distribution of carbon in the universe that has released too much carbon to the atmosphere than what plants can utilize via the photosynthesis process (Figure 1). As a consequence, climate-change-related risks such as erratic rainfalls, floods, and fluctuating temperatures have ensued, causing soils to lose their nutrients through erosion and leaching. This has further led to the depletion of soil productivity, increased soil acidity, and a heightened need for mineral fertilizer application [4]. Acidity in soils is caused by factors ranging from nature of the soil, agroecological condition, and fertilization systems. For instance, the non-calcareous parent materials that are intrinsically acidic naturally undergo bleaching, especially in humid climates like East Africa and in high rainfall conditions. Further, reclaimed swampy soils (peats) and soils that have been highly treated with nitrogenous fertilizers tend to be acidic over time [5, 6].

Carbon cycle representing the global natural and anthropogenic contributions. Source: Brewer [3].

As a consequence, the production of biochar from various biomass sources has attracted immense attention among scientists and agricultural practitioners. This is because of its potential in revitalizing the fertility of degraded soils by sequestering carbon and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change [7].

Biochar is a black carbonaceous solid product that results from thermochemical decompositions of various biomass feedstocks at elevated temperatures under oxygen-deficient conditions [3, 8, 9]. Pyrolysis is the most common thermochemical process that yields biochar depending on the type of feedstock used and the variations in temperature regimes and the rate of heat application. Biochar from various types of biomass has been used predominantly as a soil amendment, carbon sequestrating tool, an agent for nutrient recycling, waste management tool [10, 11, 12], and as a solid fuel source [13]. Charcoal, one of the ancient products used for cooking, has also been investigated on its influence on agricultural productivity. In general, unlike biochar, charcoal has not been effective in fixing carbon into the soil except when it is mixed with mineral fertilizers or other organic manures. This is because mixing charcoal with organic fertilizers has the potential of enhancing nutrient accumulations at the crops root zone. Further, this mixture can minimize nutrient leaching in the vastly weathered tropical soils besides boosting crop productivity in acidic soils [14, 15].

According to Obi [16], more than 998 million tons of agricultural wastes result from crops, livestock, and aquaculture productions annually across entire Africa. Most of these wastes are reused as fuel sources, and others are left to decompose on the farms as organic manures or as feedstock for anaerobic digestions like biogas generation. From crop production alone, enormous amounts of plant-based biomasses are generated annually across East African countries. However, a clear focus toward their use as precursors of value-added products as biochar is mostly missing. The primary reason is the lack of appropriate technology to employ and limited informed strategies to spur biochar production in the region. Prudent implementation of sustainable biochar production is a potent stimulant to spanning agricultural productivity, better economic growth while minimizing negative environmental impacts in the area. Notably, the steady population increase in the region is exerting much pressure on the exponentially shrinking arable land besides other implications as climate change and land use change. Thus, ardent efforts to restore the degraded soils through the use of biochar are a potential remedy. This must be done while ensuring that the present and future regional agricultural production standards, food security, and renewable energy sources are uncompromised. This is a fundamental element in the biochar bio-economy discourse, which is aimed at revolutionizing agronomic operations in East Africa while underscoring the spectrum of its usefulness and viability [11].

In this chapter, we highlight the overview of the biochar production process, its usefulness, and potentials in improving agricultural productivity in East Africa.

In principle, biochar can be produced from a range of carbonaceous feedstocks subjected to various thermochemical processes. The feedstocks can include agricultural wastes, municipal solid wastes, residues from forests, used building materials, and hydrocarbon substances like used tires, among others. Important to note is that the suitability of various feedstocks principally depends on their availability, biosafety regulations, and the targeted market conditions. Depending on the desired end use, biochar production for agricultural production should take into considerations the environmental aspects and an understanding of soil condition as well as its properties. Discrete processes employed in biochar production are outlined in Table 1. The methods span from slow pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, flash pyrolysis, intermediate pyrolysis, vacuum pyrolysis, hydropyrolysis, torrefaction, and gasification, receiving varied treatments according to the quality and quantity of the desired final product [17]. Generally, temperature, pressure, heating rate, residence time, reactive or inactive environment, type of the purifying gas, and its flow rate are engineered to yield the targeted products. In all the pyrolysis processes, three main products are generated: solid biochar or ash, bio-oil or tar liquid, and non-condensable gases or syngas [1, 3].

Thermochemical processes, their representative reaction conditions, particle residence times, and primary products.

Source: Omulo [17].

The principle behind pyrolysis and volatilization is combustion reaction of biomass in an inert atmosphere. The inert atmosphere is ensured by flushing through the reactors with argon or nitrogen gases [9]. The application of heat to biomass feedstock causes disintegration of chemical bonds leading to smaller molecules vaporizing into gas oxidation state [18]. Due to the oxygen-deficient condition, the products formed are water, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, otherwise, in the presence of excess oxygen, heat and light results. Thus, the lack of oxygen causes the volatiles to form into dense gases or liquid tar and soot. Consequently, once all the volatile components are eliminated or oxidized, the remaining slow-burning residue undergoes the final stage of combustion called solid-phase oxidation to yield radiant coal. Therefore, each thermochemical decomposition process is dependent on the heat energy applied, pressure, the quantity of oxygen supplied, type of precursor, and the residence time [9].

Slow pyrolysis takes place at low heating temperatures of 400°C and a long solids residence time, causing secondary cracking of the primary products. In a slow pyrolysis process, biochar yields are higher (up to 45%) compared to bio-oil (30%). The lower heating rates and longer retention time enable vapor formed from complete secondary reactions to be eliminated, thus forming the solid carbonaceous biochar [10, 11, 19, 20, 21].

Charcoal has been used as a perennial fuel for domestic heating. In practice, charcoal is made by slow burning of wood in the absence of oxygen at mild to high temperatures [22]. Even though the charcoal making process can be referred as slow pyrolysis, the initial heat required to ignite the reaction is generated by burning part of the wood or the feedstock making it hard to achieve inert environment. For a typical slow pyrolysis process, the heat needed to decompose the feedstock thermally is supplied externally via an indirect heating medium. In contrast to the charcoal making process, the feedstock remains in airtight vessels or reactors [8]. Thus, the goal of slow pyrolysis is to yield a biochar product with high energy and carbon content. This is besides other by-products like pyroligneous acid or wood tar and non-combustible or syngas.

The use of biochar from plant biomass as a soil fertilizer or conditioner has received significant attention in the recent past [12]. Formerly, extractions from the fermentation of bioethanol and flavonoids as well as recoveries from chemicals have also been applied as organic soil fertilizers [22]. However, the residues from fermentation processes have short lifespans. They are uneconomical to use as fertilizer because of their high moisture content. Thus, the need to develop alternative products from sustainable thermal conversion ways has put the use of biochar into perspective [23]. This is key since the conventional method of leaving raw biomass wastes on the soil to degrade naturally has remarkable risks primarily due to high bulk density, high moisture content, and the hygroscopic nature. Further, the biomasses contribute to air and water pollution and greenhouse effects via smoke resulting from burning. On the other hand, the use of biochar has been cited as a viable way of stabilizing soil organic carbon while minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [2].

Biochar has been identified as a carbon-neutral bioenergy resource capable of enhancing soil conditions for better agriculture. It can also aid in curbing greenhouse emission effects and global warming [24]. Biochar as a carbon sequester can significantly contribute to agricultural productivity through the improvement of soil fertility and controlled pollution of rivers and groundwater, which are threatened by continued unsustainable agrarian practices [25]. Besides influencing carbon content in the soil, fresh biochar is instrumental in immobilization of nitrogen, improvement of soil pH and soil structure [1]. Further, soils affected by continuous leaching due to herbicides application, research has shown that biochar can curb the leaching process and assist in reigniting microbial activity in the soil [24, 26]. The following biomass feedstocks have been used for biochar production to utilize it as a fertilizer: microalgae [24], eucalyptus crop residues, castor meal, coconut pericarp, sugarcane bagasse [27], water hyacinth [28], and banana wastes [29]. Table 2 illustrates the biochar nutrient contents of various biomass feedstocks.

Biochar nutrients proportion from various biomass feedstocks (in g kg−1) [27, 30, 31].

The potential of biochar as a viable tool to carbon sequestration has recently been centered on the common discourse of climate change. Biochar has been pointed out to enhance carbon sinks, especially in dry regions [32]. However, the degree with which biochar achieves carbon sequestration depends on various factors. Most importantly, it depends on the desired soil carbon content and the rate of carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere [3]. There are considerable large sizes of arable lands (estimated at 6% of the earth’s surface); thus, they require relatively high amounts of biochar to be incorporated therein. Ideally, up to 90 tons of biochar per hectare should be incorporated into the farms compared to the current recommendations of 50 tons of biochar in a hectare [1] to help in reducing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Since it takes long to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the predisposition asserted by industrial activities makes the process even longer. This means that even though biochar has the potential to sequester carbon, sustainable land use change and pollution control are indispensable. With improved and cheaper innovations like pyrolysis techniques, biochar productions potentially depend on biomass availability [3, 17, 27]. Table 3 highlights the average agricultural wastes across East African countries generated from the major food crops [33].

Comparison of crop residues among East African countries (×1000MT) nitrogen content.

Source: FAOSTAT [33].

The continued awareness of the benefits of biochar as a carbon sequester and soil conditioner has propelled its demand and use in the agricultural sector worldwide [34]. Research institutions and organizations have championed evidence-based research as incentives to upscale biochar acceptability and salability to farmers. One such organization is the International Biochar Initiative (IBI), which is a non-profit organization founded in 2006. Even though it is the biggest biochar promoter, several other establishments exist in different countries and regions of the world [25, 35, 36]. These biochar promoter organizations have been at the forefront in organizing scientific conferences to share insights on the latest research on biochar. Most importantly, they have been instrumental in proposing policies regarding biochar legislation. One such milestone is the Post-Kyoto Climate Agreements under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), where biochar was unilaterally accepted a viable mitigation strategy [30, 32]. The Kyoto protocol was further intended to aid small economy countries to achieve sustainable development goals and to secure compliance with GHG emission minimization targets [37].

The historical background about the use of biochar as soil amendment tool can be traced back to as earlier as 1929 when John Morley working with the US National Greenkeeper realized that addition of traces of charcoal enhanced soil porosity [3]. Different kinds of biochar porosity exist depending on pore size. Pores can be categorized into micropores (diameter < 2 nm), mesopores (diameter 2–50 nm), and macropores (diameter > 200 nm) [3]. Mostly, macropores are susceptible to water, plant roots, and fungal hyphae penetration. Thus, the large pores influence the soil’s hydrology and microbial ecosystem. It is easy to see the biochar pore size distributions using the scanning electron micrographs depending on the parent plant structure, see Figure 2. Therefore, it is the high porosity property of biochar that makes it contributes to the susceptibility of soil to water infiltration and increased micropore network in the soil [1, 30]. Thus, water retention in both sandy and silty soils can be significantly improved with the incorporation of biochar [1, 30].

Scanning electron micrographs of biochar particles showing porosity. Source: Brewer [3].

Biochar’s larger surface area to volume ratio also plays a significant role in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the extent to which biochar can be integrated into the soil. The bigger the biochars’ surface area, the greater the chemical exchanges; it can accommodate per unit gram [38]. Thus, it potentially curbs any form of nutrient leaching while boosting nutrients uptake [7, 31]. Biochar’s bulk density is relatively low compared to soil bulk density; this encourages ease of nutrient release to plants and also lowering the effects of soil compatibility [3, 4].

Biochar is alkaline; this may influence the type of soil upon which it can be applied [39]. Depending on the type of feedstock pyrolyzed, biochar contains both primary and trace mineral elements useful for plants development [4]. Nonetheless, it has been noted that the presence of various functional hydrocarbon groups in biochar limits its release of water to plant roots especially in water stress conditions [36].

East Africa is among the countries with the highest nutrient loss across sub-Saharan Africa with annual nutrient depletion rate of 41 kg N, 4 kg P and 31 kg K per hectare [40]. Even though soil fertility is quite dynamic, its inherent chemical, biological, physical, and anthropogenic characteristics play a significant role too [40]. Most soils in East Africa are acidic without enough nutrients to support sustainable crop production. This is because a bigger portion of the soils are extremely weathered, making them nutrient-deficient, especially with a limited stock of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur [41]. Similarly, soil acidity is influenced by the robust soluble aluminum, which is poisonous to most crops. Therefore, to ensure sustained crop productivity, improved soil fertility management is inevitable. This calls for sustainable and cheaper soil fertilization ventures like the use of biochar in these resource-constrained countries [40].

However, despite the known benefits of biochar to the scientific world, other stakeholders have concerns that are yet to be addressed. One of the significant issues is the uncertainty regarding the sustainable supply of feedstock for biochar production. Policymakers argue that mass production of biochar would need vast land for the feedstock required [1]. On the other hand, farmers still seem not to acknowledge that the crop residues within their farms can serve as biochar feedstock. The lack of reliable evidence in the literature regarding the sufficiency of crop residues as feedstock for biochar production in the context of East Africa is a gap. This section reiterates the fact that every field, farm, or region has the potential of generating enough biomass feedstock for biochar production. The analyses were carried out with a focus on the East African region. A few recent field and pot trials on the effectiveness of biochar on soil fertility enhancement have yielded very positive results [41]. Thus, the empirical evidence illustrated in this chapter reinforces the feasibility and sufficiency of biochar technology to impact the agricultural performance of smallholder farmers in East Africa amidst the effects of climate change.

According to the United Nations (UN) regional boundary delineation, East African region spans from the Red Sea coast in Eritrea, through to the Horn of Africa (Somalia) transcending the Indian Ocean coast line up to Mozambique. It further stretches inwards to Zimbabwe on the south, Zambia on the southwest and along the western rift valley encompassing Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, South Sudan, and Sudan [4]. It also includes Indo-Oceanian Islands like Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius, and Comoros [42]. However, based on this chapter, a close focus will be given to the six countries forming the East African Community block. These countries include Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and South-Sudan (although scarce information is available) (Figure 3). Agriculture still contributes substantially to the economic growth of East African, and it offers job opportunities to more than 70% of the region’s population [44]. Figure 4 illustrates the percentage of contributions of agriculture to the GDP of the countries in comparison with other sectors.

Map of East African countries. Source: United Nations [43].

Percentage contribution of agriculture to countries GDP compared to other sectors based on 2017 estimates. Source: The Centre of Intelligence, CIA [44].

Despite this immense reliance on agriculture, agricultural production in East African countries is predominantly under subsistence basis. The bulging population, perennial low productivity recorded, alarming food insecurity and high demand for rich nutrient grains compound the desperate state of the agricultural sector in the region. Notwithstanding, the region is still estimated to harbor excellent agricultural potential. However, to harness this potential, sustainable and increased agricultural extensification via appropriate mechanization, improved land use management, and climate-adapted farming methods are inevitable [45].

The soils in East Africa have been affected by unsustainable continuous land use, non-conservation tillage methods employed, and native volcanic soils that are prone to degradation [4]. Consequently, the antidote to this menace is embracing sustainable and climate-friendly farming methods capable of increasing and preserving soil fertility. Biochar technology is one such viable means to achieve this noble vision [3].

The scalability of pyrolysis technologies in East African countries is yet at a very dismal stage. The primary reason is the low level of industrialization and little appreciation of such technologies. This, however, does not disannul pyrolysis’ potential to foster sustainable agricultural production through biochar production and use [7]. To underscore this hypothetical biochar usefulness in the region, critical scenario-based analysis seeking to disentangle the uncertainty on the availability and sustainability of biomass feedstock is paramount. The revelation will further contribute to changing the perception of both policymakers and farmers about biochar potential in the region [1]. As earlier stated, the feedstock can be generated from a range of biomass residues; the author, however, explore the potential in crops specifically on maize [46].

Maize is the most popular crop grown in East Africa because it is the staple food. Despite this, its productivity per hectare is below the estimated regional average (2.5 tons per hectare). Maize is a very high nutrient feeder crop; thus, its production requires extensive fertilizer use [47]. Other crops grown in the region include cash crops such as tea, coffee, sugarcane, pyrethrum, and cotton; and food crops such as rice, wheat, beans, groundnuts, millet, sorghum, bananas, and potatoes, among others [48]. Taking maize as the most common crop, an illustration of its residues adequacy for biochar production is highlighted. Table 4 outlines the estimates of maize production in the year 2019 versus the area planted across the selected East African countries.

Maize production, area planted and yield estimates in East Africa as of 2019.

South Sudan data are based on 2016 statistics. Source: McKee [26].

Source: The US Department of Agriculture, USDA [27].

The greatest challenge has been the inability to estimate the quantity of residues resulting from maize farming accurately. Even though proper records and monitoring of maize grains and other crops exists, very little has been done to quantify crop residues [49]. Nevertheless, in this section, the residues-to-product ratios (RPRs) estimation method is used. It is one of the most reliable ways to compute residue mass of any crop [49, 50]. Generally, maize crop generates 12% husks, 27% leaves, 49% stem, and 12% cob residues of the total plant mass [50]. Thus, the RPRs for maize residue are as follows: 2 for the stalk, 0.273 for cob, and 0.2 for husks. These factors are systematically used to quantify the possible maize residue that can be generated based on the current maize production rates in the East African countries (Table 4). Since the recorded crop masses are weighed in N kg, the respective residue masses are as follows: 76% representing stalk residue (leaves 27% and stem 49%) is 2.0 N kg at 15% moisture content, 12% representing cob residue is 0.273 N kg at 7.53% moisture content, and 12% representing husk residue is 0.2 N kg at 11.11% moisture content. When summed up, the expected total residue mass from the maize crop is approximately 2.47 N kg. Thus, expected total residue mass is 2.47 N kg [4, 50].

Consequently, a total of 13.5 million tons of maize is produced in East Africa under the total planted area of 8.1 million hectares. This implies that 33.3 million tons (13,471,000 × 2.47) of residues are generated annually. These residues are potential feedstock for pyrolysis for biochar production. To further estimate the possible amount of biochar that can be generated from these residues, pyrolysis parameters like residence time and heating temperature are paramount. Omulo et al. [29], Cantrell et al. [39] and Djurić et al. [51] noted that subjecting residues to temperature regimes of 300–650°C can lead to a biochar yield of between 40 and 28%. Thus, supposing that maize residues are pyrolyzed at a low temperature of 300°C, it is possible to generate up to 40% biochar as by-products. Thus, the rate of conversion of residues to biochar is taken as 0.4. This means that from the total mass of residues generated, about 13.3 million tons of biochar can be produced.

However, what percentage of the planted area in the region can be sustained by the produced biochar? In principle, biochar application can be made in two ways: a one-time application where biochar is applied at the required rate or an intermittent application where biochar is progressively applied until the acceptable threshold is achieved. Assuming that one-time biochar application is employed, Major [35] recommends the rate of 5 tons of biochar per hectare. Thus, based on the probable biochar yield in East Africa, a total of 2.7 million hectares (approximately 30% of the total planted area) can be adequately fertilized by biochar every season. Moreover, noting that biochar has a long decay life, even a one-time application is estimated to have long time effects on the soil [3].

A plethora of evidence has shown that biochar use has the potential to improve agricultural productivity, especially among the acidic weathered soils [46]. Further proofs indicate that biochar application can double maize yield by application of only 4 tons per hectare [52]. Because soil degradation in East Africa has not escalated to irredeemable limits, proper biochar application is projected to have more profound impacts on crops productivity. Consequently, utilizing biochar to fertilize the staple maize farms can minimize the cost of fertilizers in the region while the saved revenue is used to extensify farming operations. Based on the estimations by Berazneva [41, 53], the mean shadow value of maize residues for farm soil fertility amendment is 0.07 USD/kg.

In comparison, an estimated cost of 0.04 USD/kg of fertilizer is conserved when the same residues are left on the field as mulch [53]. These values may differ slightly when pyrolysis costs are factored. Nevertheless, biochar production and utilization will potentially maximize the residue used to improve soil quality.

Hypothetically, considering the current low maize yield potential of the East African region, 1.7 tons per hectare, every hectare of maize would generate a total of 4199 kg of residues (Table 5). If these residues were to be utilized in biochar generation via pyrolysis process, then approximately $67.18 cost of fertilizer can be saved in 1 hectare of land. This implies that with the current price of$29.75 per 50 kg bag of diammonium phosphate (DAP), $24.05 per 50 kg bag of urea, and$29.15 per 50 kg bag of NPK fertilizers [54], the saved cost can enable farmers to buy two more bags of fertilizers respectively. Ideally, this will reduce the amount of chemical fertilizers applied to the farm by two bags but with the same prospect of crop yield.

Possible area under biochar application as a percentage of the planted area at country level.

Estimates are based on 2017 statistics except for South Sudan it is 2016.

Source: USDA [48].

The basis of biochar production and use adoption in East Africa hangs on the current practices and use of crop residues in the region, especially the principal food crop, maize. According to Berazneva [41], most of the residues are burnt in situ on the farms to clean the land for the subsequent season and also to sterilize traces of pests and diseases. On the other hand, most farmers leave the residues on the farms for soil amendment even though their farms are susceptible to open grazing. Still, other farmers use the residues as a fuel source besides feeding their animals. Therefore, adoption of biochar technology to sustainably manage the generation of residues for fertilization can empower an Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) system.

This model of quantifying maize residues for biochar production underscores the potential of every country to achieve biochar application rate of 5 tons per hectare. The percentage areas that can be sustained by biochar in comparison to the planted areas depict that potential crop yield increment of the region (Table 5). Even the smallholder farmers have the opportunity to boost their productivity due to biochar application [55].

Promotion and adoption of biochar technology in East Africa and across entire sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is hampered by several obstacles ranging from policy and legal frameworks, institutional, socio-economic, fiscal, ecological, health, and technical issues [1]. This is majorly due to the lack of workable local policies and legal frameworks highlighting the rationale, the terms and conditions of biochar production as well as the associated technological aspects [41]. As a consequence, necessary measures to fast-track these impediments are deemed paramount and thus demands urgent actions as illustrated in Figure 5.

Barriers to biochar and co-products production and use in SSA and viable interventions actions. Source: Gwenzi [1].

Borrowing a leaf from promotion and adoption of other renewable energy technologies, it is paramount that biochar technology is adapted to the local conditions and realities and should be affordable as possible. Deliberate capacity building on biochar technology through research and innovations channeled through various social strata can also break these constraints. Thus, for biochar technology to be feasible in East Africa, smallholder farmers should be able to understand the technology and afford the production and investment costs involved [1].

Another bottleneck to upscaling of biochar technology is the negative attitudes and perception surrounding it, especially by the majority risk-averse smallholder farmers. Discourses compound these cynicisms on nature conservation, competing interests, and deprivation of the scarce animal feeds [53]. The general belief that biochar production leads to deforestation besides being a complicated technology is quite difficult to disentangle. Nevertheless, proper knowledge sharing, supported by evidenced-based research, can serve as the most persuasive argument against such antagonistic ideologies. Further, the real potential and benefits of sustainable production and use of biochar for crop production can be underscored based on the perceived usefulness. Improved crop production implies better food security, poverty reduction, and reduced mortality rates. These challenges are faced by a majority of resource-constrained smallholder families across entire sub-Saharan Africa.

Biochar technology continues to offer numerous opportunities for developing economies. Apart from its suitability in agricultural production, biochar is highly an efficient and safe source of heat energy for small households compared to the current conventional use of charcoal [3]. Charcoal fires are usually operated openly, exposing then to inefficient heat transfer and air pollution, which can cause health complications too. Therefore, harnessing biochar production from crop residues offers excellent prospects for both energy and income generation even among smallholder families across the region. Government-led compensation schemes based on carbon credits on the amount of carbon sequestered and participation in climate change mitigation would highly incentivize biochar use.

With proper organization, biochar producers can significantly benefit from the improved market where they can sell their products and even via cooperatives to get better bargaining power. Access to the improved energy source for domestic use like biochar can create time for women to be involved in other more income-generating activities. Consequently, increased income will lead to improved quality of life among their households [3]. Biochar use can be diversified without interfering with the necessary amounts needed for soil amendments and increased crop productivity [4].

Critics have pointed out that sufficient biochar production may potentially lead to deforestation and that the use of inappropriate production methods may also result in air pollution [1]. Nevertheless, as earlier stated, sustainable biochar generation might not be dependent on a single biomass source. Instead, sourcing biomass residues from a wide range as forest products, crop wastes, animal wastes, biodegradable landfills, urban, and construction bio-wastes are more viable [17, 29]. This means that in future, pyrolysis techniques employing efficient bio-reactors for biochar production will potentially minimize any heat loss and pollution [3] while maximizing the yields. A more informed decision among users and action-oriented policy frameworks, as well as research development, can reinforce the desired production and use of biochar in the region.

The problems of land degradation and climate change effects are spread uniformly across East African countries. Farmers desire amicable solutions to these challenges. Biochar technology has proven to be such a feasible solution that doubles as a soil conditioner and a climate-friendly product. Based on the current maize production trends in the region, it is possible to generate enough biomass residues for biochar production. This has the potential of reducing fertilizer use by farmers in the region by up to 30% cushioning them from the exorbitant mineral fertilizers while still getting the desired yield. Thus, with proper uptake and implementation, driven by sound policies and good governance, biochar production has a great potential to boost farmers production and improve their quality of life. Nevertheless, it is paramount that the technology is adapted to the local conditions, be backed up with current research evidence, proper capacity building, and concerted efforts among the stakeholders.

The author would like to appreciate the auditors for their time and input throughout the review process of this chapter.

No conflict of interest to declare.

2 June, 2020

2 June, 2020

2 June, 2020

## Human waste could help combat global food insecurity

2 June, 2020

The researchers used the SGM beamline at the CLS to see how the chemistry in the nitrogen changed as it adsorbed ammonia and how well their material could make nitrogen available to plants if it was used as a fertilizer. (Photo: Canadian Light Source)

## Vancouver Island startup wins grant to work on carbon sequestration project

2 June, 2020

Nyoka Design Labs has received a government grant that will further develop the company’s findings regarding a novel use for biochar.

New Vancouver Island startup, Nyoka Design Labs, has received a grant from the ​National Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Assistance Program to partner with the UBC Materials and Manufacturing Research Institute’s Circular Economy Seed Funding Initiative. The $9,500 grant covers the salary of a research technician to continue research initiatives led by Nyoka Design Labs. “Thanks to this grant, we will be able to further develop our initial findings regarding a novel use for biochar, a carbon-negative material that is most commonly used to increase soil health, by increasing water retention, decreasing nutrient loss, and increasing microbial abundance and diversity,” said Nyoka founder/CEO Paige Whitehead, a Comox resident. “Our goal as a company is to continue to develop material innovations which are better for the health of our communities and our planet. It is an honour to be working together with the UBC Materials and Manufacturing Research Institute, who have worked with similar innovative companies such as the popular Eco-poxy Resins, Performance Biofilaments, and Advanced BioCarbon 3D.” The research project is supported by Dr. Seethaler, engineering professor at the UBC School of Engineering, Kathleen Draper of the Ithaka Institute for Carbon Intelligence, and BC company Core Landscape Products. The seed funding is to boost the research capacity of innovative BC companies working to create a sustainable world. Rather than using new materials, a circular economy solution aims to take a ‘waste’ material and give it value. Biochar, the material Nyoka Design Labs is studying, is often made from agricultural waste that would be burned or left to rot, contributing to excess atmospheric carbon. B.C. in particular with its logging industry could be transitioning to a circular economy model and turning this waste into a valuable resource that helps support carbon sequestration and ecosystem restoration initiatives. Nyoka Design Labs is best known for their Light Wand project — a glow stick that is non-toxic and powered with biodegradable bioluminescent enzymes. Their research interests are focused on creating materials that are non-toxic and better for the environment, with a special emphasis on supporting the soil microbiome. Follow Nyoka Design Labs online at @lightbynyoka.com, and sign up for updates at www.lightbynyoka.com. Comox Valley Record ## Global Granular Biochar Market 2020- Impact of COVID-19, Future Growth Analysis and … 2 June, 2020 Global Granular Biochar Market research report offers the important insights regarding the Granular Biochar Market in the current scenario. In addition, report consists the future prospects of the Granular Biochar by analyzing the various market elements including the current trends, opportunities, restraints, and market drivers. The COVID-19 examination area inside the report offers convenient bits of knowledge with respect to the effect of the worldwide pandemic available. The introduced investigation additionally offers information with respect to the business and supply chain congruity techniques that are probably going to help partners over the long haul. Leading companies reviewed in the Granular Biochar Market report are: Diacarbon Energy Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra Request for a Sample Report of Granular Biochar Market: https://www.glamresearch.com/report/global-granular-biochar-market-by-product-type-wood-316756/#sample Global Granular Biochar Market Split by Product Type and Applications: On the basis of Types: Wood Source Biochar Corn Source Biochar Wheat Source Biochar Others On the basis of Application: Soil Conditioner Fertilizer Others According to the report, the Granular Biochar market is set to grow at a CAGR of xx% over the forecast period (2019-2027) and exceed a value of US$ XX by the end of 2027. At the point when a client experiences the Granular Biochar research report at that point experience the detailed and authentic data with respect to the market. The report covers the different significant focuses which are useful to comprehend the global Granular Biochar market, for example, significant drivers for showcase development, different components which make a negative effect on advertise development, present market patterns, advertise review, and furthermore notice the market forecasting for the coming years.

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2 June, 2020

## Global Wood Vinegar Market with (Covid-19) Impact Analysis: Key Opportunities & Forecast, 2020 …

2 June, 2020

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## biochar

3 June, 2020

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## Analise ph biochar manual internacional

3 June, 2020

Progress has been slow and sporadic, yet research from the past decade hints at what could be a very exciting future. Characterizing Biochars prior to Addition to Soils – Version I, Jan by Hugh McLaughlin, PhD, PE, Alterna Biocarbon Inc. Evans,1 Don W. IBI provides a platform for fostering stakeholder collaboration, good industry practices, and environmental and ethical standards to support biochar systems that are safe and economically viable. It participats in the EU-COST biochar ringtrial and participates also in other ringtrials., Brasília, v, n. El “biochar” (biocarbon o carbón vegetal) es un producto que se conoce desde antiguo pero que hoy en día despierta gran interés entre la comunidad cientí[HOST] muchos los investigadores que trabajan con este material, desde como optimizar su fabricación al estudio de sus propiedades para su aplicación en campos tan variados como la agricultura o la generación de energía.

Third, a field trial was conducted in an Illinois agricultural field to demonstrate that using biochar as a soil amendment can improve soil quality and increase crop yields. Complex ongoing research is striving for a more uniform and standard biochar that will limit potential environmental problems associated with biochar analise ph biochar manual internacional production and application to soils. Figure 4. Roc a United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research .5, p, maio and also a probably destruction of protein phosphoryl compounds, as it was verified by the 13C-NMR results. Méndez2, and G.

Biochar often can have an initially high (alkaline) pH, which is desirable when used with acidic, degraded soils; however, if soil pH becomes too alkaline, plants may suffer nutrient deficiencies. Paz-Ferreiro1,2, H. REVISÃO DE LITERATURA BIOCHAR: PYROGENIC CARBON FOR AGRICULTURAL USE – A CRITICAL REVIEW Etelvino Henrique Novotny(1)*, Claudia Maria Branco de Freitas Maia(2), Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho (3) and Beáta Emöke Madari (1) Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Méndez2, and G. The fish helps lower the pH as well as the peat moss but I typically see test results back around Mar 22, · Biochar materials were produced from peanut hulls and pine wood with different pyrolysis conditions, then characterized by cation exchange (CEC) capacity assays, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm measurements, micro/nanostructural imaging, infrared spectra and elemental analyses.

One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. Aug 14, · Este termo “biochar” resulta de “biomass + charcoal” (biomassa + carvão, em inglês). Trata-se. An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil S.

Biochar has the potential to increase conventional agricultural productiv-ity and mitigate GHG emissions from agricultural soils. The analise ph biochar manual internacional EBC and it’s accredited partner labs work continously to improve the performance, reliability analise ph biochar manual internacional and comparitbility of biochar analysis. This has an analise ph biochar manual internacional agronomical importance, since the increase of the mineral maturity towards hydroxyapatite. biochar rate and significance for the two highest analise ph biochar manual internacional biochar rates compared to control analise ph biochar manual internacional was found in Siaya.

esforço conjunto da equipe internacional do PPI/PPIC permitiu a elaboração do Ma-nual Internacional de Fertilidade do Solo, no idioma Inglês, dentro deste novo enfoque. Although analise ph biochar manual internacional many countries have prioritized the use of biocharCited by: 1.g. For plants that require high potash and elevated pH, biochar can be used as a . The results conclude that the biochar produced is of good quality and it was burnt at very high temperature (Figure 6). A. Niandou,2 and Mohamed Ahmedna2 Abstract: BecausethesoutheasternUS Coastal Plain hashightempera- tures and abundant rainfall, its sandy soils have poor physical charac-. This has led to renewed interest of agricultural researchers to produce biochar from bioresidues and its analise ph biochar manual internacional use as a soil amendment.

The pyrolysis rate was kg/min. A Definition of Biochar. under Prior Program Versions. El “biochar” (biocarbon o carbón vegetal) es un producto que se conoce desde antiguo pero que hoy en día despierta gran interés entre la comunidad cientí[HOST] muchos los investigadores que trabajan con este material, desde como optimizar su fabricación al estudio de sus propiedades para su aplicación en campos tan variados como la agricultura o la generación de energía. Camargo b. Stewartd, Keri B.

Progress has been slow and sporadic, yet research from the past decade hints at what could be a very exciting future. Alfredo Scheid Lopes, Professor Emérito. Can any one direct me to a good analysis of this? Oct 12,  · I have a Biochar Soil mix that we produce that uses Black Owl at 10% that we soak in fish hydrolysate for a week prior to using. e. DuSairea, Kyoung S. do we know enough to say how much biochar (of a given pH.

After the water boiling test was completed, the biomass turned into biochar. Bibliography: Pyrogenic organic matter in soil: analise ph biochar manual internacional Its origin and occurrence, . “Mobile matter”. Ash contents were determined according to D biochar into soil can retain nutrients in soil, prevent their runoff or leaching, and thereby retain them so they are available to plants.

Peter Hirst demonstrates New England Biochar’s adaptation of the barrel in a barrel method. For soil moisture at different water tensions, a notable difference between presence and absence of biochar was observed at the two lower water tensions (pF of and 3) in Siaya, but not on a signifi-cant level. It’s a community-based project which helps to repair anything. Rocket stove. The use of biochar as a soil amendment has been investigated since the early ’s [1]. Sep 30, · I have a Biochar Soil mix that we produce that uses Black Owl at 10% that we soak in fish hydrolysate for a week prior to using. Here be dragons.

Aug 14,  · Este termo “biochar” resulta de “biomass + charcoal” analise ph biochar manual internacional (biomassa + carvão, em inglês). Paz-Ferreiro1,2, H. Alfredo Scheid Lopes, Professor Emérito.

For plants that require high potash and elevated pH, biochar can be used as a soil amendment to improve yield. S.e. (low pH of the slurry) BC – Biochar PS – Phosphoric acid.g. biochar are both higher than the content in the soil and feedstock, but the nitrogen content of the SP-biochar was little higher than that of the FP-biochar. The use of biochar as a soil amendment has been investigated since the early ’s [1]. Camps-ArbestainB, Y.

Thanks for taking part, – Josiah Hunt. Table [HOST]y of P value for plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), number of leaves (NL), leaf area (LA), absolute growth rates of plant height (AGR PH), stem diameter (AGR SD), number of leaves (AGR NL) and leaf area (AGR LA) of bell pepper subjected to increasing levels of fertilization with biochar Author: Washington Benevenuto de Lima, Antônio Ramos Cavalcante, Benedito Ferreira Bonifácio, André Alisson., P. Biochar often can have an initially high (alkaline) pH, which is desirable when used with acidic, degraded soils; however, if soil pH becomes too alkaline, plants may suffer nutrient deficiencies. Ciência Rural v n. Potential impacts of using sewage sludge biochar on the growth of plant forest seedlings.

Biochar has high capacity to adsorb cations and anions from solutions, including a variety of polar and nonpolar organic compounds. Abreu,b Aline P. Biochar materials were produced from peanut hulls and pine wood with Cited by: 6., ). In order to determine the point of zero charge (pH pzc), the initial solution pH (pH i) was adjusted in the range 2–12 (with intervals of ‘1’) using M H 2 SO 4 and NaOH; then, g of SOEM-biochar was added to the vessels. Rilligb, Janice Thiesa, Caroline A. Page 1 of 12 [HOST] A simple barrel kiln for household charcoal/biochar production By Josh Kearns, photos by Erica Bush Winter /09 This paper describes a simple and inexpensive method for the production of high-quality charcoal (also called.

Effect of Biochar Application on Soil pH and EC Content: and Available P Content: Application of biochar on The effect of biochar application on pH and EC values of chromium polluted and unpolluted soils significantly chromium analise ph biochar manual internacional polluted and unpolluted soils are given in (P. The European Biochar Certificate (EBC) has been developed by biochar scientists to become the voluntary European industrial analise ph biochar manual internacional standard. After that biochar analise ph biochar manual internacional was ground and sieved through 2 mm sieve and stored in plastic bags. of pH, volatile or mobile matter (MM), and/or nutrient imbalances associated with analise ph biochar manual internacional fresh biochar (McClellan et al.

increased soil pH and water holding capacity, and affinity for micro- and macro-plant nutrients [1][9] [15]. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. Cascading use of biochar Use it seven fold – pay it only once 1.

Characterizing Biochars prior to Addition to Soils – Version I, Jan by Hugh McLaughlin, PhD, PE, Alterna Biocarbon Inc. Novakc, Catherine E. The pyrolysis rate was kg/min. IBI provides a platform for fostering stakeholder collaboration, good industry practices, and environmental and ethical standards to support biochar systems that are safe and economically viable. Third, a field trial was conducted in an Illinois agricultural field to demonstrate that using biochar as a soil amendment can analise ph biochar manual internacional improve soil quality and increase crop yields. A. Basal fertilizer (added to all treatments.5, p, maio and also a probably destruction of protein phosphoryl compounds, as it was verified by the 13C-NMR results.

Lu1,3, S. Biochar has potential as a valuable tool for the agricultural industry with its unique ability to help build soil health, increase physical properties of soil, soil pH, organic carbon content, conserve water and mitigate drought, reduce GHG emission, conserve nutrients, decrease fertilizer requirements, sequester carbon, increase crop productivity and serve as a most preferred Cited by: biochar into soil can retain nutrients in soil, prevent their runoff or leaching, and thereby retain them so they are available to plants. The objective of this paper is to provide a guide for the farmers or peasants and gardeners with an essential information about biochar and what the ability of biochar can be achieved in the soil. the analise ph biochar manual internacional salt content and pH. Biochar is organic matter that analise ph biochar manual internacional has undergone combustion under low to no oxygen conditions (i. increased soil pH and water holding capacity, and affinity for micro- and macro-plant nutrients [1][9] [15]. Stewartd, Keri B.

A. Coscione,b Cleide A. This has an agronomical importance, since the .

According to Hugh McLaughlin, Ph.1 1 Potential impacts of using sewage analise ph biochar manual internacional sludge biochar on the growth of plant forest seedlings Potenciais impactos do uso de biocarvão de lodo de esgoto no crescimento de mudas de especies florestais. A presente publicação é o resultado da excelente tradução do texto original para a língua portuguesa feita pelo Dr. ().1 1 Potential impacts of using sewage sludge biochar on the growth of plant forest seedlings Potenciais impactos do uso de biocarvão de lodo de esgoto no crescimento de mudas de especies florestaisCited by: Search among more than user manuals and view them online [HOST] Search among more than user analise ph biochar manual internacional manuals and view them online [HOST] Manual zz. A new adventure is beginning. A preliminary set of seven key properties for the evaluation of biochar have been defined: pH, content of volatile compounds, content of ash, water-holding capacity, bulk density, pore volume, and specific surface area (Okimori, et al.

Rocket stove. The EBC and it’s accredited partner labs work continously to improve the performance, reliability and comparitbility of biochar analysis. Program Manual or the IBI Biochar 5 Standards are published after registration but prior to application submission, the applicant will 6 be allowed to pay the fee and/or use the version of the Program Manual or IBI Biochar 7 Standards in place at the time of [HOST] Section Grace Period for Registration 8. Biochar use in CA: Soil Texture and pH • Most potenal for beneﬁt in coarse textured soils à potenal to increase porosity, organic C content, and enhance ferlity • Consider soil and biochar pH à use in acidic or neutral soils likely to be most beneﬁcial Maps created with Soil Properes Ap ([HOST]). do we know enough to say how much biochar (of a given pH.

The melting process is performed on the ashes of the biochar. Hockadayd, David Crowleye aDepartment of Crop and Soil Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY , USA b Institute for Biology, Free University of Berlin, analise ph biochar manual internacional Berlin, Germany cDepartment of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX , USA. “Biochar pyrolysis temperature, Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cadmium and Prior to the analysis of the point of zero charge (pH pzc), the ash of biochar samples was removed by washing with M HCl at the proportion of 27 g biochar L−1 by constant stirring for 1 h; then, the material was rinsed three times with distilled. I wonder if his claim that the retort remains around to C is true though, especially if the feedstock is dry. In order to determine the point of zero charge (pH pzc), the initial solution pH (pH i) was adjusted in the range 2–12 (with intervals of ‘1’) using M H 2 SO 4 and NaOH; then, g of SOEM-biochar was added to the [HOST] by: Characterization of phosphate structures Pesq. Effect of Biochar Application on Soil pH and EC Content: and Available P Content: Application of biochar on The effect of biochar application on pH and EC values of chromium polluted and unpolluted soils significantly chromium polluted and unpolluted soils are given in (P. The ash portion of biochar generally determines its pH and liming potential. cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH value, and carbon content, biochar has the potential to improve physical as well as chemical soil properties and thus improve crop productivity and contribute to carbon sequestration.

Cantrella, Minori Uchimiyae, Martin G. Baby & children Manualzz provides technical documentation library and question & answer analise ph biochar manual internacional platform. Figure 5. Physicochemical characterization of Biochar The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of biochar in distilled water (, w/v) was measured by the use of pH and EC meters. The purpose of this project was to help the Environmental Science department at Shanghai Jiao Tong University initiate a biochar research sector and begin the first stages in research. Here be dragons.

TLUD stove. Masielloc, William C. Busscher,1 Jeff M. A number of studies have suggested that terrestrial application of biochar could effectively sequester carbon in soils and thus mitigate. Figure 4. The fish helps lower the pH as well as the peat moss but I analise ph biochar manual internacional typically see test results back around A Review of Biochar’s Applications in the Soil Nitrogen Cycle Zheng Cui Instructor: Dr. Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review J.

Biochar is a vague term that applies to a potentially broad class of charcoal materials intended for addition to soils. Roc a United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Soil and Water Management Unit, Saint Paul, MN, USA., ). ). > A Definition of Biochar. After the water boiling test was completed, the biomass turned into biochar.

, pyrolysis) resulting in a recalcitrant, high carbon material specifically for use as a soil amendment. Program Manual or the IBI Biochar 5 Standards are published after registration but prior to application submission, the applicant will 6 be allowed to pay the fee and/or use the version of the Program Manual or IBI analise ph biochar manual internacional Biochar 7 Standards in place at the time of [HOST] Section Grace Period for Registration 8. Categories. Fu1, A. Biochar has also been shown to reduce leaching of E-coli through sandy soils depending on application rate, feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, soil moisture content, soil texture, and surface properties of the bacteria. bras. Novakc, Catherine E. The char was tested and found to be rich in carbon with a Ph of 8.

Creating a standard-ization of biochars may make it possible for people who buy biochar to depend on analise ph biochar manual internacional uni-form attributes. “Biochar pyrolysis temperature,” BioResources 8(4), Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cadmium and Zinc Sorption Capacity of Sugar Cane Straw–Derived Biochar Leônidas C., ). Gascó2 1Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of analise ph biochar manual internacional Sciences, Guangzhou , China. ). 1 1 Integration of biochar and chemical fertilizer to enhance quality of soil and 2 wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. REVISÃO DE LITERATURA BIOCHAR: PYROGENIC CARBON FOR AGRICULTURAL USE – A CRITICAL REVIEW Etelvino Henrique Novotny(1)*, Claudia Maria Branco de Freitas Maia(2), Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho (3) and Beáta Emöke Madari (1) Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Characterization of phosphate structures Pesq.

TLUD stove. Biochar is a vague term that applies to a potentially broad class of charcoal materials intended for addition to soils. Philippine biochar Association advocates the use of biochar to help. Jun 19,  · The regression analysis between functional groups and biochar properties (pH and electrical conductivity) further demonstrated that the pH and electrical conductivity of rice straw derived biochars were mainly determined by fused-ring aromatic structures and anomeric O-C-O carbons, but the pH of rice bran derived biochars was determined by both Cited by: Philippine Biochar Association, Makati city.

A presente publicação é o resultado da excelente tradução do texto original para a língua portuguesa feita pelo Dr. Fu1, A.I am trying to figure out the relationship between biochar addition and soil pH. Jun 19, · The regression analysis between functional groups and analise ph biochar manual internacional biochar properties (pH and electrical conductivity) further demonstrated that the pH and electrical conductivity of rice straw derived biochars were mainly determined by fused-ring aromatic structures and anomeric O-C-O carbons, analise ph biochar manual internacional but the pH of rice bran derived biochars was determined by both.

; Spokas et al. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two., Biochar: A Game-Changer for Soils. analise ph biochar manual internacional See the video here. Figure 5.

The results conclude that the biochar produced is of good quality and it was burnt at very high temperature (Figure 6). Many raw materials and conversion processes can lay claim to producing Measuring biochar pH and. ), which can decrease soil acidity, creating a more favorable habitat for many plants and microbes. Melo,a,* Aline R.

To realize this potential, it is essential to develop methods that produce biochar with the characteristics needed for effective soil amendment. A brief history of biochar From Conquistadors to soil scientists, the evolution of terra preta into biochar is a bizarre and intriguing story. equivalent) and 3 rates (0, , and 5%) of a finely ground (60 mesh) biochar made of local kiawe wood (pH of the biochar was when measured in char:water solution). Biochar is a carbon-rich by-product produced during the pyrolysis of organic matter [HOST]st, both publicly and academically, in adding biochar to soils, stems from its ability to improve soil quality and plant growth 2, 3, sustainably sequester carbon 4, and sorb harmful contaminants 2, 3, whilst simultaneously offering alternatives for waste management and energy production by pyrolysis. Jan analise ph biochar manual internacional 26, · Many biochar products have alkaline pH (Gaskin et al. This study determined the effects of four different biochar rates on retention of plantAuthor: Helene Puehringer.

of pH, volatile or mobile matter (MM), and/or nutrient imbalances associated with fresh biochar (McClellan et al. bras. e. Novak,1 Dean E.

Biochar use in CA: Soil Texture and pH • Most potenal for beneﬁt in coarse textured soils à potenal to increase porosity, organic C content, and enhance ferlity • Consider soil and biochar pH à use in acidic or neutral soils likely to be most beneﬁcial Maps created with Soil Properes Ap ([HOST]). A. Surgiu da observação da existência da nossa “terra preta dos índios”, solo da Amazônia central. agropec. esforço conjunto da equipe internacional do PPI/PPIC permitiu a elaboração do Ma-nual Internacional de Fertilidade do Solo, no idioma Inglês, analise ph biochar manual internacional dentro deste novo analise ph biochar manual internacional enfoque.

Charging biochar with malolactic bacteria analise ph biochar manual internacional and add 1 % BC to silage Cascading use of biochar 1. A preliminary set of seven key properties for the evaluation of biochar have been defined: pH, content of volatile compounds, content of ash, water-holding capacity, bulk density, pore volume, and specific surface area (Okimori, et al. under Prior Program Versions.E. A brief history of biochar From Conquistadors to soil scientists, the evolution of terra preta into biochar is a bizarre and intriguing story. Peter Hirst demonstrates New England Biochar’s adaptation of the barrel in a barrel method.

Complex ongoing research is striving for a more uniform and standard biochar that will limit potential environmental problems associated with biochar production and application to soils. A Definition of Biochar., a chemical engineer who has been an advisor to the nonprofit International analise ph biochar manual internacional Biochar Initiative and is analise ph biochar manual internacional director of biocarbon research at Alterna Biocarbon Inc.

The pH and electrical conductivity of the biochar depend on both the content and composition of the mineral analise ph biochar manual internacional fraction (also referred to as the ash fraction), and this in turn depends on the type of feedstock and process conditions under which the biochar is produced (Chan and Xu ; Singh et al. A new adventure is beginning., Brasília, v, n. LinA, The pH and electrical conductivity of the biochar depend on pH will tend to decrease as these salts are lost from the system. So why is biochar such a valuable soil amendment? time of 6 hours.

biochar (McLaughlin et al. A number of studies have suggested that terrestrial application of biochar could effectively sequester carbon in soils and thus mitigate. 3 Running title: Effect of biochar and fertilizer on soil 4 Usman Khalid Chaudhry1*, Salman Shahzad1, Muhammad Nadir Naqqash2, Abdul Saboor1, Sana 5 Yaqoob 1, Muhammad Salim2 and Muhammad Khalid1 6 1Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar Kurt A. DuSairea, Kyoung S.

Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review J. biochar to soil can have multiple benefits, such as the carbon sinks and soil additives to increase plant productivity. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar Kurt A.

Mar 22,  · Application of modern biomass pyrolysis methods for production of biofuels and biochar is potentially a significant approach to enable global carbon capture and sequestration. Biochar (BC) application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), but the mechanisms are unclear. The experiment had a factorial design (9 treatments) with 3 replicates per treatment.

Watts,1 M., ). I am trying to figure out the relationship between biochar addition and soil pH. Puga,b and Otávio A. Thus, SP-biochar have more favorable pH, particle size, and surface area characteristics[7].

“Mobile matter”. It is based on the latest scientific data, it’s economically viable and close to technical and agricultural practice. Feedstock is a key factor governing the status of such physicochemical [HOST] by: biochar (McLaughlin et al.

The char was tested and found to be rich in carbon with a Ph of 8. Liming is the conventional remedy, yet lime is analise ph biochar manual internacional costly and may not be available in some. Creating a analise ph biochar manual internacional standard-ization of biochars may make it possible for people who buy biochar to depend on uni-form attributes. Surgiu da observação da existência da nossa “terra preta dos . Gascó2 1Key Laboratory of Vegetation analise ph biochar manual internacional Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou , China. The EBC ensures a sustainable biochar production and low hazard use in agronomic systems. Spokasa,b,⇑, Jeffrey M. Feedstock is a key factor governing the status of such physicochemical properties.

likes · 9 talking about this.D. Can any one direct me to a good analysis of this? ).

Catherine Brewer improved by both surface area and high pH. Potential impacts of using sewage sludge biochar on the growth of plant forest seedlings. Biochar has also been analise ph biochar manual internacional shown to reduce leaching of E-coli through sandy soils depending on application rate, feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, soil moisture content, soil texture, and surface properties of the bacteria. Influence of Pecan Biochar on Physical Properties of a Norfolk Loamy Sand Warren J. Lu1,3, S. Biochar is a carbon-rich by-product produced during the pyrolysis of organic matter [HOST]st, both analise ph biochar manual internacional publicly and academically, in adding biochar to soils, stems from its ability to improve soil quality and plant growth 2, 3, sustainably sequester carbon 4, and sorb harmful contaminants 2, 3, whilst simultaneously offering alternatives for waste management and energy production by [HOST] by: 4.

JosephA,K, M. I wonder if his claim analise ph biochar manual internacional that the retort remains around to C is true though, especially if . D. Philippine biochar Association advocates the use of biochar to help Followers: Review Biochar effects on soil biota e A review Johannes Lehmanna,*, Matthias C. Spokasa,b,⇑, Jeffrey M. Ciência Rural v n.Philippine Biochar Association, Makati city.

Beneficial Use of Biochar To Correct Soil Acidity Arnoldus Klau Berek, Nguyen Hue, and Amjad Ahmad Summary: Soil acidity is a serious constraint for crop production in many regions analise ph biochar manual internacional of the world, Hawaii included. Many raw materials and conversion processes can lay claim to producing. Jan 26,  · Purpose. mg of the fine ash analise ph biochar manual internacional are weighed into a platinum crucible and thoroughly mixed with 2 g of lithium metaborate. Silage Cascading use of biochar reducing mycotoxins and butyric acid, adsorption of pesticides and herbicides Hof Holderstock – Wilhelmine & Bruno Koller.

Biochar (BC) application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), but the mechanisms are unclear. Cantrella, Minori Uchimiyae, Martin G. likes · 9 talking about this. In this article, we will focus on the nitrogen mass balance in both slow and fast pyrolysis Thus, SP-biochar have more favorable pH, particle size, and surface area characteristics[7]. agropec.

Acidification & Charging with nutrients and MO lactic fermentation Rolf Zimmermann Injecting vinasse (rich in sugar, proteins, N, P, K) rock powder (micro nutrients) lactic bacteria Fill it into airtight big bags for anaerobic.

## Biochar mitigates the negative effect of chloropicrin fumigation on beneficial soil microorganisms

3 June, 2020

Biochar reduced the negative impact of chloropicrin (CP) fumigation on soil microorganisms.

Biochar shortened the recovery time of microbial population and diversity in CP-fumigated soil.

Biochar promoted the inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N, NO3-N)) transformation and N2O production potential level.

Biochar's mitigation of CP's effects was more evident at 5% biochar amendment rate.

Biochar reduced the negative impact of chloropicrin (CP) fumigation on soil microorganisms.

Biochar shortened the recovery time of microbial population and diversity in CP-fumigated soil.

Biochar promoted the inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N, NO3-N)) transformation and N2O production potential level.

Biochar's mitigation of CP's effects was more evident at 5% biochar amendment rate.

Chloropicrin (CP) is the most commonly used soil fumigant worldwide. Although CP effectively controls soilborne pathogens, it is also detrimental to beneficial soil microorganisms unless measures can be put in place to protect them from the effects of fumigation. In this study, we evaluated the ability of biochar made from the invasive weed Eupatorium adenophorum to mitigate the effects of CP fumigation on beneficial species. Our results showed that the addition of biochar to the soil effectively reduced the detrimental effects of CP on beneficial species and their ecological functions. Biochar added to CP-fumigated soil shortened the time to 28–84 days for microbial diversity and nitrogen cycle functions to be restored to unfumigated levels. At the same time, the inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N, NO3-N) content and N2O production potential level in CP-fumigated soil returned to unfumigated levels relatively quickly, which showed that nitrogen metabolism improved with the addition of biochar. The mitigation effect of biochar in CP-fumigated soil was more evident at higher biochar amendment rates. Our results suggest that the addition of biochar to CP-fumigated soil significantly reduced the impact of CP on beneficial species and their ecological functions, and significantly shortened the time for beneficial species to recover to pre-fumigation levels. Field research is required to determine biochar's ability to mitigate the impact of CP and other fumigants on beneficial species and to quantify its benefits on crop quality and yield.

3 June, 2020

## Biochar Fertilizer Market Status and Prospect, Forecast 2019 to 2027

3 June, 2020

The latest Biochar Fertilizer Market study offers an all-inclusive analysis of the major strategies, corporate models, and market shares of the most noticeable players in this market. The study offers a thorough analysis of the key persuading factors, market figures in terms of revenues, segmental data, regional data, and country-wise data. This study can be described as most wide-ranging documentation that comprises all the aspects of the evolving Biochar Fertilizer market.

The research report provides deep insights into the global market revenue, parent market trends, macro-economic indicators, and governing factors, along with market attractiveness per market segment. The report provides an overview of the growth rate of Biochar Fertilizer Market during the forecast period, i.e., 2020–2025. Most importantly, the report further identifies the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies. The research segments the market on the basis of product type, application, technology, and region. To offer more clarity regarding the industry, the report takes a closer look at the current status of various factors including but not limited to supply chain management, niche markets, distribution channel, trade, supply, and demand and production capability across different countries.

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The research provides answers to the following key questions:

In addition, the report discusses Biochar Fertilizer business strategies, sales and market channels, market volume and buyer’s information, demand and supply ratio across the globe. The report segments the worldwide Biochar Fertilizer based on the type of product, end users, and regions. It describes the performance of an individual segment in market growth.

In the end, the primary and foremost goal of this Biochar Fertilizer   report is to aid the user check out the market about its definition, distribution, market capability, trends and the obstacles that the market is facing. We have done a knowledgeable and insightful study while developing the research document.

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## Barite Market Growth and Forecast Research 2027 – Ashapura Group, Desku Group, Excalibar …

3 June, 2020

The latest Barite Market study offers an all-inclusive analysis of the major strategies, corporate models, and market shares of the most noticeable players in this market. The study offers a thorough analysis of the key persuading factors, market figures in terms of revenues, segmental data, regional data, and country-wise data. This study can be described as most wide-ranging documentation that comprises all the aspects of the evolving Barite market.

The research report provides deep insights into the global market revenue, parent market trends, macro-economic indicators, and governing factors, along with market attractiveness per market segment. The report provides an overview of the growth rate of Barite Market during the forecast period, i.e., 2020–2025. Most importantly, the report further identifies the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies. The research segments the market on the basis of product type, application, technology, and region. To offer more clarity regarding the industry, the report takes a closer look at the current status of various factors including but not limited to supply chain management, niche markets, distribution channel, trade, supply, and demand and production capability across different countries.

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In addition, the report discusses Barite business strategies, sales and market channels, market volume and buyer’s information, demand and supply ratio across the globe. The report segments the worldwide Barite based on the type of product, end users, and regions. It describes the performance of an individual segment in market growth.

In the end, the primary and foremost goal of this Barite   report is to aid the user check out the market about its definition, distribution, market capability, trends and the obstacles that the market is facing. We have done a knowledgeable and insightful study while developing the research document.

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## Canned Legumes Market expected to register the significant growth over the forecast period 2020 …

3 June, 2020

Canned Legumes Market

The Canned Legumes Market  Report provides customers with insightful information that will improve their leadership skills in the global Market business, including market dynamics, market share, consumption, sales, segmentation, competition and regional growth. Readers are provided with detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis, PESTLE analysis, absolute dollar opportunity analysis, and Porters Five Forces analysis, which focus on various aspects of the global Canned Legumes market. The global market is estimated at millions of dollars in 2020. By the end of 2025, an increase to millions of dollars is expected, which amounts to a CAGR from 2020-2025.

SWOT key Players of the Canned Legumes Market are: General Mills,Co-op Food,Heinz,Kroger,Hain Celestial,Goya Foods,KYKNOS S.A.,Eden Foods,Del Monte Food,ConAgra Foods,Ortega,Bush Brothers & Company & More.

The research report provides a detailed analysis of the current and historical market trends, development patterns, and the correlations between the market dynamics and forecasts, as well as the hard-hitting market facts. The global Canned Legumes market has been segmented on the basis of technology, product type, application, distribution channel, end-user, and industry vertical, along with the geography, delivering valuable insights. The report also takes into account the market drivers, restraints, challenges, threats, and the potential growth opportunities, influencing the growth pattern of the key market segments. The section also focuses on the key micro- and macroeconomic factors impacting the growth of the overall Canned Legumes market.

Major Types of Canned Legumes covered are:

Segmentation by type: breakdown data from 2015 to 2020, in Section 2.3; and forecast to 2025 in section 11.7.
Beans
Peas
Chickpeas
Others

Segmentation by application: breakdown data from 2015 to 2020, in Section 2.4; and forecast to 2024 in section 11.8.
Online Retail
Offline Retail

Global Canned Legumes market by region:
The Canned Legumes market is also broken down geographically. This segmentation enables the reader to have a holistic understanding of the market. It highlights the changing nature of the economies in the regions that affect the global market. Some of the geographic regions examined in the overall market are:

North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)
Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)
South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia etc.)
Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)
Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

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Some of the features of the Global Canned Legumes Market include:

Market size estimates: The Global Canned Legumes Market size has been estimated in terms of value (USD).

Trend and forecast analysis: Market trends (2011-2019) and forecast (2020-2025) by Product Type, Technology, Application, End-User, and Industry Vertical has been mentioned in this report.

Segmentation analysis: An in-depth analysis of the market segments in terms of value and volume has been provided in this report.

Regional analysis: On the basis of geography, the market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa.

Growth opportunities: Market dynamics, including the potential growth opportunities in different applications, has been provided in detail. Besides, drivers, restraints, challenges, and threats are also mentioned in this report.

Strategic analysis: Mergers & Acquisitions, new product launches, key developments, and the competitive landscape of the Global Canned Legumes Market have been provided in this research report. In addition, the report also focuses on the SWOT analysis of the leading players and Porter’s Five Forces model.

This report considers the below mentioned key questions:

Q.1. What are some of the most favorable, high-growth prospects for the global Canned Legumes market?
Q.2. Which products segments will grow at a faster rate throughout the forecast period and why?
Q.3. Which geography will grow at a faster rate and why?
Q.4. What are the major factors impacting market prospects? What are the driving factors, restraints, and challenges in this Canned Legumes market?
Q.5. What are the challenges and competitive threats to the market?
Q.6. What are the evolving trends in this Canned Legumes market and reasons behind their emergence?
Q.7. What are some of the changing customer demands in the Canned Legumes market?
Q.8. What are the new growth prospects in the market and which competitors are showing prominent results in these prospects?
Q.9. Who are the leading pioneers in this market? What tactical initiatives are being taken by major companies for growth?
Q.10. What are some of the competing products in this market and how big of a threat do they pose for loss of market share by product substitution?
Q.11. What M&A activity has taken place in the historical years in this Canned Legumes market?

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## Biochar Fertilizer Market Trends, Analysis and Forecast till 2027: 3R-BioPhosphate Ltd., Adsorb …

3 June, 2020

Biochars are defined as solid, carbon-rich materials which are added in soil to improve soil charaterstics and agronomic performance. It is produced with the help of pyrolysis by using several biomasses. According to various studies, the use of biochar as a fertilizer to boost the crop growth and yield. Biochar-based compound fertilizers (BCF) and amendments also helps to alter soil properties in the form of pH, nutrients, organic matter, structure etc.

The biochar fertilizer market has witnessed a significant growth owing to factors such as rise in adoption of organic farming is expected to promote plant’s growth. Moreover, government intiatives and support which provides a huge market opportunity for the key players operating in the biochar fertilizer market. However, slow economic growth is projected to hamper the overall growth of the biochar fertilizer market.

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The Covid-19 (coronavirus) pandemic is impacting society and the overall economy across the world. The impact of this pandemic is growing day by day as well as affecting the supply chain. The COVID-19 crisis is creating uncertainty in the stock market, massive slowing of supply chain, falling business confidence, and increasing panic among the customer segments. The overall effect of the pandemic is impacting the production process of several industries including Chemicals and Materials, and many more. Trade barriers are further restraining the demand- supply outlook. As government of different regions have already announced total lockdown and temporarily shutdown of industries, the overall production process being adversely affected; thus, hinder the overall Biochar Fertilizer market globally. This report on ‘Biochar Fertilizer market’ provides the analysis on impact on Covid-19 on various business segments and country markets. The report also showcase market trends and forecast to 2027, factoring the impact of Covid -19 Situation.

Competitive scenario:

The study assesses factors such as segmentation, description, and applications of Biochar Fertilizer industries. It derives accurate insights to give a holistic view of the dynamic features of the business, including shares, profit generation, thereby directing focus on the critical aspects of the business.

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Major vendors covered in this report:

Scope of the Report

The research on the Biochar Fertilizer market focuses on mining out valuable data on investment pockets, growth opportunities, and major market vendors to help clients understand their competitor’s methodologies. The research also segments the Biochar Fertilizer market on the basis of end user, product type, application, and demography for the forecast period 2021–2027.  Comprehensive analysis of critical aspects such as impacting factors and competitive landscape are showcased with the help of vital resources, such as charts, tables, and infographics.

The report provides a detailed overview of the industry including both qualitative and quantitative information. It provides an overview and forecast of the global biochar fertilizer market based on various segments. It also provides marketsize and forecast estimates from the year 2018to 2027 with respect to five major regions, namely; North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa (MEA) and South America. The biochar fertilizer market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. The report covers the analysis and forecast of 18 countries globally along with the current trend and opportunities prevailing in the region.

The report analyzes factors affecting the biochar fertilizer market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics affecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. The report also provides exhaustive PEST analysis for all five regions namely; North America, Europe, APAC, MEA, and South America after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors affecting the biochar fertilizer market in these regions.

Biochar Fertilizer Market Segmented by Region/Country: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and Central & South America

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3 June, 2020

## Biochar Market to show Tremendous Growth by 2026 |Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit …

3 June, 2020

“Global Biochar Market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026. “

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Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

Global Biochar Market By Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Microwave Pyrolysis, Cookstove and Others)

Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household, Electricity Generation)

Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Animal Manure, Forestry Waste, Biomass Plantation)

Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa)

Biochar Market Research for a Leading company is an intelligent process of gathering and analyzing the numerical data related to services and products. This Research Give idea to aims at your targeted customer’s understanding, needs and wants. Also, reveals how effectively a company can meet their requirements. The market research collects data about the customers, marketing strategy, competitors. The Biochar Manufacturing industry is becoming increasingly dynamic and innovative, with more number of private players entering the industry.

Competitive Analysis:

The key players are highly focusing innovation in production technologies to improve efficiency and shelf life. The best long-term growth opportunities for this sector can be captured by ensuring ongoing process improvements and financial flexibility to invest in the optimal strategies. Company profile section of players such as Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture, GreenBack Pte Ltd and others.

With the use of various reliable sources such as journals, websites, annual reports of the companies, and mergers, the data and information mentioned in this Biochar Market report has been gathered. A research and analysis on market overview is carried out by considering market drivers, market restraints, opportunities and challenges. This Biochar Market report is an ideal guide to achieve an information or key data about market, emerging trends, product usage, motivating factors for customers and competitors, brand positioning, and customer behaviour. Moreover, Biochar Market research report presents an analytical measurement of the main challenges faced by the business at present and in the upcoming years.

Chapter One Biochar Market Overview:

Overview and Scope of Biochar Market

Sales and Growth Comparison of Biochar Market

Biochar Market Sales Market Share

Biochar Market by product segments

Biochar Market by Regions

Chapter Two Biochar Market segments:

Biochar Competition by Players

Biochar and Revenue by Technology

Biochar and Revenue by Application

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Biochar Market research report also directs the manufacturer about planning of advertising and sales promotion efforts and makes it more effective. This report has been prepared by considering various steps for collecting, recording and analysing market data. Biochar Market report covers strategic profiling of key players in the market, comprehensively analyzing their core competencies, and drawing a competitive landscape for the market.

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## Global Biochar Sale, Insights Market Research Report 2019-2025

3 June, 2020

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## Biochar Market 2020 Overview by Type, Application, Technology, Growth, Demand, End User …

3 June, 2020

Global Biochar Market 2020 by Company, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2025, the research report published by Researchstore.biz consolidates valuable insights related to the market covering different factors that are likely to influence the prospects of the market through the forecast period (2020-2025). The report focuses on the historical and current market trends to predict the course of the global Biochar market in the upcoming years. The report identifies opportunities, drivers, and major challenges faced by market players. The research further provides par excellence futuristic estimations for various vital factors including market size, share, net profit, sales, revenue, and growth rate.

Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House, Anaerob Systems, Algae AquaCulture Technologies, CECEP Golden Mountain Agricultural Science And Technology, EarthSpring Biochar/Biochar Central, Energy Management Concept, 3R Environmental Technology Group and Renargi

Request sample copy of this report at: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/698

The vendor landscape and competitive scenarios of the Biochar Market are broadly analyzed to help market players gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. Readers are provided with a detailed analysis of important competitive trends of the Market. Biochar Market players can use the analysis to prepare themselves for any future challenges well in advance. They will also be able to identify opportunities to attain a position of strength in the global market. Furthermore, the analysis will help them to effectively channelize their strategies, strengths, and resources to gain maximum advantage in the market.

This market was divided into types, applications and regions. The growth of each segment provides an accurate calculation and forecast of sales by type and application in terms of volume and value for the period between 2020 and 2027. This analysis can help you develop your business by targeting niche markets. Market share data are available at global and regional levels. The regions covered by the report are North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East, and Africa and Latin America. Research analysts understand the competitive forces and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

Global Biochar market is segmented based by type, application and region.

Based on Type, the market has been segmented into:

by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification and Others)

Based on application, the market has been segmented into:

by Application (Agriculture and Others)

Additionally, a close look into various research and assessment tools have also been closely monitored and evaluated such as SWOT and PESTEL analytical methods besides PORTER’S five points data analysis methods. The report is meticulously presented in the form of charts and graphs that depict current market growth trends and statistical insights to entice mindful business decisions by market participants in the Biochar market.

Biochar Market Report Structure at a Glance:
— Executive summary, market introduction, Biochar Market definition.
— Macroeconomic factors and forecast factors.
— Biochar Market taxonomy â€“ segmentation on the basis of type, end-use, and region.
— Pricing analysis, regulatory factors analysis, and value chain analysis.
— Biochar Market dynamics including key drivers, key restraints, recent trends, upcoming opportunities.
— In-depth forecast analysis by type, end-use, region.
— Biochar Market structure and competition analysis.

Key Reasons to Purchase:
— To gain insightful analyses of the market and a comprehensive understanding of the impact of COVID-19 is likely to have on the Biochar Market during the forecast period between 2020 and 2026, and its commercial landscape
— To understand the future outlook and prospects of the Biochar Market post COVID-19
— To keep you abreast with the strategies used by other players in the
— To understand the changes in rules and regulations in various countries during COVID-19 and its possible effects on the market in the future.

## Hashtag #circlecarbonlabs Instagram Posts, Photos and Videos

3 June, 2020

Explore the #circlecarbonlabs tag on instagram total 45 medias

## CORN STOVER%E2%80%93DERIVED BIOCHAR FOR EFFICIENT ADSORPTION OF – Biochar …

3 June, 2020

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## National forest experiments with biochar as soil amendment

3 June, 2020

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Scattered thunderstorms. High near 85F. Winds SW at 5 to 10 mph. Chance of rain 50%..

Partly to mostly cloudy skies with scattered thunderstorms before midnight. Low 68F. Winds light and variable. Chance of rain 40%.

Scrap pieces of trees from a timber harvest in Crawford County are burned in a special kiln in May to produce biochar. It was applied to the half-acre area, which was later seeded with native vegetation. (Courtesy photo)

Finished biochar is examined prior to application. (Courtesy photo)

Scrap pieces of trees from a timber harvest in Crawford County are burned in a special kiln in May to produce biochar. It was applied to the half-acre area, which was later seeded with native vegetation. (Courtesy photo)

Finished biochar is examined prior to application. (Courtesy photo)

Looking for ways to improve the soil in the Hoosier National Forest as well as better utilize woody debris left over after timber harvests led Chad Menke, a hydrologist with the U.S. Forest Service, to try something new: making biochar.

It’s something that is done on some Forest Service properties in the West, where there’s more timber harvesting and a need to capture moisture and amend the soil. But the biochar produced by K&K Dirtworks of Evanston was the first that’s been used in the Hoosier National Forest — and the first in the eastern region of the Forest Service.

The first experimental site was a half-acre section within the Uniontown North Restoration Project in Crawford County. The area had a timber harvest that left lots of woody debris, known as slack, on the compacted soil. At most timber harvest sites, the slack is left to decay, which does eventually add nutrients to the soil.

In early May, the slack was burned in a special kiln for eight hours. Five tons of biochar was produced and applied to the half-acre area, which was later seeded with native vegetation. The area was chosen for the experiment because it isn’t likely to get a lot of recreational use that would disturb the soil and plantings.

“I’m hoping we can utilize it in a number of applications,” Menke said.

Those would include other timber harvests but also areas where trees are blown down due to storms and areas that have been disturbed with bare soil needing more nutrients and better filtration so plants and trees can grow. Plans for the first test site are to create early successional habitat — with bushes, shrubs and small trees that provide habitat for many species of wildlife.

“We’re using our own material left behind,” Menke said, adding biochar also increases the growth rate of vegetation.

While holding moisture in the soil isn’t a real problem in the Hoosier National Forest, the biochar can help improve water quality, Menke said. Biochar holds water in soils, helping control erosion. It also holds nutrients within the soil, and since it’s a carbon-based product, it can mitigate climate change by increasing the carbon pool within soils.

The Hoosier National Forest is shipping samples of the biochar to the regional lab to assess how much carbon is in the finished product and the overall quality of the char produced.

Menke plans to determine how cost-effective creating and using biochar will be for the Forest Service and other agencies and landowners in Indiana and beyond.

“We want to make it economically viable, a long-term bang for our buck,” he said. “If when a (timber) harvester is done, he can leave the excess (slack) in one place and we can figure out the cost versus benefit at each site.”

The study will continue for at least two years. The hope is to compare the biochar area with other forest projects to see what treatments for soil are most effective and efficient.

“I would like to see more strategies for harvests,” Menke said, adding that the money needed for the study came from funds from the timber harvest. The harvests also help fund projects including water crossing improvements, invasive plant removal and building and maintaining trails.

Once an area in the national forest is harvested for timber, Menke said it’s left alone for 20 years or more.

“This is to replenish what has been done,” he said. “When you walk away from that replenished site, you won’t touch it for another 20 years.”

Contact Carol Kugler at 812-331-4359, ckugler@heraldt.com or @ckugler on Twitter.

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## Fine Biochar Powder Market 2020: Global Key Players, Trends, Share, Industry Size, Segmentation …

3 June, 2020

The Fine Biochar Powder Market Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis along with Major Segments and Forecast, 2020-2026. The report provides information and the advancing Fine Biochar Powder business series information in the sector to the exchange. The Fine Biochar Powder report provides a notion connected to the progress of this market movement of significant players of this industry. An examination of this Fine Biochar Powder market relies upon aims, which are of coordinated into Fine Biochar Powder analysis, is incorporated into the reports.

The report presents the market competitive landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the major vendor/key players in the market. Top Companies in the Global Fine Biochar Powder Market:
BlackCarbon
Kina
Cool Planet
ElementC6
Agri-Tech Producers
Carbon Terra
Carbon Gold
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
Biochar Now
Diacarbon Energy
BioChar Products

Click Here to Get Sample PDF Copy of Latest Research on Fine Biochar Powder Market 2020: https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/06032063642/global-fine-biochar-powder-market-report-2020-by-key-players-types-applications-countries-market-size-forecast-to-2026-based-on-2020-covid-19-worldwide-spread/inquiry?prnewsregister

The Fine Biochar Powder market can be devided based on product types and It’s sub-type, major applications and Third Party usage area, and important regions.

This report segments the global Fine Biochar Powder Market on the basis of Types are:

Wood Source Biochar
CornÊ Source Biochar
WheatÊ Source Biochar
Others

On The basis Of Application, the Global Fine Biochar Powder Market is Segmented into:

Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

This report studies the global market size of Fine Biochar Powder in key regions like North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Central & South America and Middle East & Africa, focuses on the consumption of Fine Biochar Powder in these regions.

Regions Are covered By Fine Biochar Powder Market Report 2020 To 2026
North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India, North America (USA, Canada and Mexico) Europe(Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy) Asia-Pacific(China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia).

Significant Features that are under Offering and Key Highlights of the Reports:

– Detailed overview of Fine Biochar Powder Market
– Changing market dynamics of the industry
– In-depth market segmentation by Type, Application etc
– Historical, current and projected market size in terms of volume and value
– Recent industry trends and developments
– Competitive landscape of Fine Biochar Powder Market
– Strategies of key players and product offerings
– Potential and niche segments/regions exhibiting promising growth.

About Us:MarketInsightsReports provides syndicated market research on industry verticals including Healthcare, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Technology and Media, Chemicals, Materials, Energy, Heavy Industry, etc. MarketInsightsReports provides global and regional market intelligence coverage, a 360-degree market view which includes statistical forecasts, competitive landscape, detailed segmentation, key trends, and strategic recommendations.

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## Council reviews 'Project B' for managing city's wastewater sludge

3 June, 2020

Thursday, June 4, 2020

For several years, the City of Edmonds has been talking about a replacement system for the aging sludge incinerator at the city’s wastewater treatment plant. The city has been faced with a choice of buying a new incinerator that could meet more stringent federal air quality regulations or turning to a biosolids management system.

Public works staff last year began investigating the feasibility of a pyrolysis system that thermally decomposes organic materials at high heat with little to no oxygen. But during Tuesday night’s city council meeting, Public Works Director Phil Williams shared a new idea that could save money and offer the city greater flexibility when it comes to managing its wastewater solids.

Williams explained that the original pyrolysis proposal, labeled Project A, created a dried pelletized “biochar,” which is sterile and has the appearance of charcoal, and can be sold as a soil conditioner or amendment. Now, the city is looking at another solids management option — Project B — that would produce three different byproducts: biosolids that could be applied directly on the land, biochar through pyrolysis, and a gasification of solids that produces a minimal ash-like residue — about 10% of the incoming volume.

The city determined that Project B would give the city more flexibility, Williams said, and it would also be cheaper and more energy efficient than Project A.

The city would save more than $341,000 by going with Project B, he added. Project A would require the construction of a new building to house the equipment, while Project B “uses our existing footprint,” Williams said. “It’s the most flexible of the technologies we’ve looked at, the most efficient and the most affordable approach to implement, as well as having the lowest operational costs,” he added. The company that would provide the system, Ecoremedy, conducted an initial design effort to determine if the technology could be successfully deployed in Edmonds. The city had already prepared initial regulatory reports, modeling, engineering reports and design work for Project A, and much of that information applied to Project B. The estimated cost for the entire system would be between$25 million and $27 million, but staff plans to come back to the council soon with final cost numbers. Williams said staff is also recommending use of an Energy Savings Performance contract through the state’s Department of Enterprise Services to deliver the project. It’s likely the council will be asked to consider later in 2020 the option of selling revenue bonds to support the project, Williams said. In other action, the council: — adopted an interim flood damage prevention ordinance that will allow the city to remain in the National Flood Insurance Program. Once Open Public Meetings Act restrictions related to COVID-19 are lifted and public hearings can resume, the plan is to bring the matter back to the council for consideration as a permanent ordinance. — agreed to participate in a public service message — proposed by Councilmembers Laura Johnson and Vivian Olson — promoting the use of face coverings. — discussed a contract renewal with the city’s public defender, Snohomish County Public Defender Association, that includes a 12.5% increase in 2020 and an additional 7.5% increase in 2021. The organization noted that its costs have risen due to additional and higher overhead. The contract will come back to the council for approval at a future meeting. — By Teresa Wippel Sign Up for Our Daily Edmonds Newsletter More recent comments Website by Web Publisher PRO © Copyright 2020 | All rights reserved by My Edmonds News ## Chemical Activation of Forage Grass-Derived Biochar for Treatment of Aqueous Antibiotic … 3 June, 2020 ## Cumberland County forest committee unveils plan for industry's future 3 June, 2020 Sorry you must be at least 19 years of age to consume this content. AMHERST, N.S. – Cumberland County’s forest industry has set its path to sustainability. The Future of Forestry committee delivered its strategic plan during a Zoom session on Sunday, a roadmap it hopes will make the industry into a climate champion which utilizes the province’s human and natural resources. “I’m pleasantly surprised and very happy with it,” advisory committee co-chair Kevin Merriam, executive director of the Maritime Lumber Bureau, said. “I have never seen a group of people coming together from different areas and work together so well. We were always on the same page, even if we weren’t always on the same paragraph. We didn't always agree, but we all had the same objective.” Industry representatives and community members first came together in late December following the decision by Premier Stephen McNeil to enforce the Boat Harbour Act – an announcement that led to the closure at the end of January of the Northern Pulp Mill in Pictou County. More than 1,000 volunteer hours by 130 stakeholders have worked during the last four months developing the strategic plan that was unveiled during Sunday’s meeting. From more than 100 recommendations from a series of meetings in January and February, the group began the meeting via Zoom because of restrictions put in place by COVID-19. The plan features six recommendations, or pathways, in two areas including advancing livelihoods and communities and investing in the industry’s future. Pathways include investing in diverse markets and locally produced wood products, developing renewable energy from forestry products and creating innovative products and processes as well as developing high-value healthy forests that support the champion of climate regulation by moving toward a low carbon and biodiverse economy. It also includes solidifying a unified forest industry with public support, education, and public relations and bringing about change in the system, policy, and culture change. Immediate actions include developing diverse markets for woodchips and profitable markets for low-grade wood as well as exploring the production of biochar from wood and establishing long-term stable financial commitments for silviculture treatments. It wants to work with the Cumberland Energy Authority to promote the use of renewable forestry resources, lobbying for government tenders for new construction to allow wood for construction and to have the province establish a Forestry Credit Corporation. Forestry consultant Mac Davis sees potential in the plan. “The shared vision of biodiversity, ecological forestry and being a champion of forestry is important in Cumberland County, across Nova Scotia, Canada and the rest of the world,” said Davis, a member of the advisory committee. “We still have our heads above the water, going upstream and we have a lot of good ideas to develop some markets and go back to selling wood like we did a year ago.” A key component for moving forward is to engage the community by raising awareness and education in the benefits of supporting the forestry industry and using wood products. “We can’t do it by ourselves, it’s not possible,” Merriam said. “As an advisory committee we are an umbrella over a group of actions teams that collected the information and compiled it so we could discuss it. We are also a conduit between the industry, the transition team, and the various levels of government. We can be a hub of putting the information together and making sure it’s disseminated. What we really need to do, though, is get the public’s ideas and assistance in moving forward.” Although the pathways have been delivered, Merriam said the work is far from over. The bare-bones base has been put together so it can start putting things to action and make a difference. The group plans to work with the provincial transition team as well as the provincial government to move the strategy forward while it also hopes to take advantage of some of the COVID funding to support business and innovation. “It doesn't happen overnight,” he said. “What we have done didn’t happen overnight, but we have put together something we’re proud of that you can put before the community and say ‘we need your help and we’re here to help work on your behalf to make some of these things happen.’ That’s our plan.” Cumberland North MLA Elizabeth Smith-McCrossin, who kickstarted the initiative with Cumberland South MLA Tory Rushton as well as the Athol Forestry Co-operative and the Cumberland Business Connector, told the meeting how happy she is with the work completed so far. “Your community is with you and behind you and is committed to continuing this work until we achieve progress and meet some of our goals and objectives,” she said. “Everyone has a part to play.” For more information, go to www.cumberlandbusinessconnector.ca/forestry. ## Addition of softwood biochar to contaminated soils decreases the mobility, leachability and … 3 June, 2020 ## BIOCHAR APPLICATION ON PADDY AND PURPLE SOILS IN SOUTHERN – A scientometric … 3 June, 2020 Are you SPAM robot? Confirm that you are not a robot ## Enhancing phosphorus availability in two variable charge soils by the amendments of crop straw … 4 June, 2020 More recent works implied that biochar enhanced P availability in variable charge soils. However, the involved mechanisms have not been clearly defined. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of peanut and rice straw biochars on improving P availability (Olsen-P) in an Oxisol and an Ultisol. Incubation experiments, with different amendments including peanut straw biochar (PC), rice straw biochar (RC), acid-washed peanut straw biochar (APC), acid-washed rice straw biochar (ARC), and Ca(OH)2, were performed. After 56-day incubation without and with 50 mg P kg–1 loading, Olsen-P, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and exchangeable acidity in the amended soils were analyzed. Results showed that PC greatly increased soil pH, EC, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Olsen-P and decreased exchangeable acidity in biochar-amended soils followed by RC when compared with the control and other treatments. However, APC, ARC, and Ca(OH)2 application did not increase P availability greatly. The results manifested that an adequate amount of functional groups together with high alkalinity in PC and RC was responsible for the increase in Olsen-P in both soils. Thus, application of biochar with higher functional groups and alkali mutually inhibited P adsorption and increased its availability in variable charge soils. The increase in soil pH enhanced the dissociation of acidic functional groups on the biochars and thus increased the ability of these anionic functional groups to compete for adsorption sites on the soils with phosphate and decreased phosphate adsorption by the soils, which was the main mechanism for the increase in Olsen-P content in the soils induced by the biochars. Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41877036). The first author thanks CAS-TWAS President Fellowship for funding his research in China. Correspondence to Ren-Kou Xu. Responsible Editor: Haroun Chenchouni Received: 30 August 2019 Accepted: 16 May 2020 Published: 04 June 2020 Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions ## Growing season 2020 started in our field experiments, including urban biochar park in Helsinki 4 June, 2020 ## Pacific Coast Carbon LLC, a Top Provider of Activated Carbon Services in Ridgefield, WA … 4 June, 2020 Ridgefield, WA – Pacific Coast Carbon LLC boasts of being a locally owned and operated company with over 25 years of experience delivering industry-leading services. As a leader in biochar technologies, the team at Pacific Coast Carbon LLC continues to work on better ways to address the needs of its clients and this has led to the launch of their new website. The newly launched website from their company offers clients all of the information they need to know regarding Pacific Coast Carbon LLC, its services, and products. Having put thoughts and planning into the design and development of their website, visitors can rest easy knowing that they will be greeted with a user-friendly interface, as well as an interactive and responsive webpage. Their online platform also offers all of the information visitors need to know regarding activated carbons and biochar, the uses, and how Pacific Coast Carbon Products have been designed to offer maximum satisfaction to clients. “Activated carbons and biochars are widely used to remove many organic and inorganic compounds from water, vapor, and soils. The key to your success is selecting a quality product that meets your project demands. All carbons are not created equal, in fact, many carbons used for remedial projects are miss applied, thus, costing you more time and money in the long run. We offer a full line of activated carbons for your projects and the knowledge to select the best types of carbons and biochars to meet your specific needs. Pacific Coast Carbon LLC maintains a variety of stock activated carbons and biochars for convenient shipment for your project or for use with our quick and efficient change out and maintenance service programs.” Said Alex Peru, the spokesperson for the company, regarding their stock activated carbons and biochars. Visitors of their company’s website will be treated to an easy to navigate platform that allows them to browse the wide range of product offerings for water, vapor, and agricultural uses. Some of the products offered by their company include virgin and reactivated coconut carbons, virgin & reactivated coal carbons, reactivated coconut, coal and mixed – blended carbon, virgin wood carbons, and biochar with select wood species for individual projects. Their website also details the Pacific Coast Carbon Services to include key offerings like activated carbon consultation, design and project planning, virgin and reactivated carbon sales, biochar sales, water treatment adsorbers, air treatment adsorbers, custom spent carbon reactivation for beneficial use, and on-site carbon change out exchange services. Pacific Coast Carbon LLC is headquartered at 2222 NE 179th St, Ridgefield, WA 98642. Contact their team via phone at (360) 727-3775 or via email at alex@PacificCoastCarbon.com. For additional information regarding their services, visit their company’s newly launched website. ## myrceneCB1 grower profile 4 June, 2020 ## Influence of biochar and compost on activities and genetic structure of rhizosphere microbial … 4 June, 2020 ## Biochar Production Characterization And 4 June, 2020 More than 10 million titles spanning every genre imaginable, at your fingertips. Get the best Books, Magazines & Comics in every genre including Action, Adventure, Anime, Manga, Children & Family, Classics, Comedies, Reference, Manuals, Drama, Foreign, Horror, Music, Romance, Sci-Fi, Fantasy, Sports and many more. Book Description: Title: – Biochar Production Characterization And File Type: PDF EPUB MOBI. MD5 Hash Code: 9a5b92f6455fbeec4937936decfcbb4b More than 10 million titles spanning every genre imaginable, at your fingertips. Get the best Books, Magazines & Comics in every genre including Action, Adventure, Anime, Manga, Children & Family, Classics, Comedies, Reference, Manuals, Drama, Foreign, Horror, Music, Romance, Sci-Fi, Fantasy, Sports and many more. Book Description: Title: – Biochar Production Characterization And File Type: PDF EPUB MOBI. MD5 Hash Code: 9a5b92f6455fbeec4937936decfcbb4b 2020 Read Biochar Production Characterization And Inc. All rights reserved. ## ions from aqueous solutions 4 June, 2020 Cinnamon and cannabis were utilized to produce biochars, which operate as promising adsorbents by pyrolysis in various temperatures using the N2 atmosphere. The novel biochars were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the pH point of zero charges, and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm styles, followed by testing the adsorption attributes of these materials using Cd(II) ions in a water bath. The Cd(II) adsorption onto biochars was satisfied in the neutral pH of 7.0 and a temperature of 65 °C. The equilibrium data in aqueous solutions were fitted to Langmuir (L), Freundlich (F), Tempkin (T), and Redlich–Peterson (R–P) models. Kinetic adsorption data were analyzed using the pseudo-first-order (PFO), pseudo-second order (PSO), Elovich (E), and intraparticle diffusion (ID) models. In addition, the Cd(II) adsorption performance was proficiently narrated through Langmuir and pseudo-second-order models and electrostatic force and chemical reaction were originally responsible for adsorption mechanism. Further, the results demonstrated that the obtained qmax from biochars at the pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C was higher than that noticed at pyrolysis temperatures of 300 and 400 °C. Finally, the adsorbent dose of 0.1 g and temperature of 65 °C, as well as supplying qmax of 147.05, 153.84, 158.73, 133.33, 144.92, and 175.43 mg g−1 were observed for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600, respectively. The pollution of water, sediments, and soils by heavy metal release into the natural environment has become a critical and controversial topic for different industrial factories worldwide [1, 2]. Recent national and international legislation for improving the quality of drinking water are getting tougher due to the variety of pollutant sources. Heavy metals have irreversible damages on the growth of plants and they can lead to the inactivation of numerous enzymes, as well as the destruction of some proteins in the animals and human bodies [3]. Among various metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and vanadium (V), Cd is considered as one of the most perilous metals, which can accumulate by food chain and can be a reason for chronic and acute poisoning [4,5,6]. In addition, the toxicity and non-degradable of this metal cause nausea, diarrhea, bone malformation, kidney damage, and cancer [4,5,6]. The World Health Organization has set a maximum concentration of 0.05 µg L−1 Cd in drinking water [7]. So far, previous studies have utilized various traditional approaches to eliminate Cd ions from water, including reverse osmosis, chemical precipitation, flocculation, and ion exchange [8]. Although these strategies can be executable and beneficial, they have high operation and substructure costs and produce large amounts of toxic intermediate materials. The adsorption is unique due to some marvelous features such as simplicity, effective, and low-energy consumption [9]. Biochars are considered as a group of carbon materials, which are ordinarily fabricated by pyrolysis various biomasses as feedstock (e.g., wood, sawdust, food, and agricultural wastes) under oxygen-limited situations and a high temperature [10, 11]. These materials can be utilized as an adsorbent due to the large surface area, microporosity, functional groups, and hydrophobicity. However, some chemical and physical characteristics of biochars change with pyrolysis temperature and biomass kind. For example, the amount of dissolved organic carbon in biochar obtained from low temperature was higher compared to high temperature [12, 13]. Biochar mainly includes different compounds (e.g., aliphatic and aromatic) and main functional groups (e.g., hydroxyl, carbonyl, and phenolic hydroxyl groups), that lead to their excellent adsorption capacity for adsorption organic and inorganic pollutants as an inexpensive substitute for the activated carbon. Also, the type of biochar depends on the pyrolysis temperature. When the pyrolysis temperature is too high, the microstructure of biochar develops. However, loss of functional group and carbon on the surface is excessive [14, 15]. Different studies focused on the supreme adsorption capacity of biochar toward heave metals. For instance, [16]. Reported the Cr(VI) removal using biochar produced from Eucalyptus plant bark at 500 °C. The results indicated that biochar has enormous potentials for Cr(VI) ion removal from water samples. Further, [17]. Demonstrated the elimination of heavy metals via modified biochar from different wastewater and concluded that prepared biochar is considered as an effective adsorbent for removing heavy metals from water. In the present study, a facile, quick, and economic technique was explained for obtaining biochars with great surface area and porous structure from cinnamon and cannabis seed. Also, the biochars obtained from cinnamon and cannabis seeds is one of the most abundant renewable resources that include carbon, nitrogen, potassium, and calcium. Then, the surface of biochars was activated by hydrogen chloride as the oxidation agent and was utilized as the adsorbent to eliminate Cd(II) ions from water. Furthermore, the adsorption equilibrium test information was modeled using isotherm (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson) and kinetic (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and the intraparticle diffusion) models. Additionally, the adsorption parameters such as the pH of Cd(II) solution, adsorbent dose, reaction time, and temperature were evaluated in detail, followed by discussing the regeneration potential of biochars. The cinnamon and cannabis seeds were used as raw materials for biochar production taken from markets in Iran. In addition, hydrogen chloride (HCl), sodium hydrate (NaOH), nitric acid (HNO3), ethanol (C2H6O), and cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2·4H2O) were supplied from Merck (Germany). Further, the Cd(II) stock solution was provided with Cd(NO3)2·4H2O and deionized water. The contents of Cd(II) were examined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, JY138 ultrace, France). Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM–EDX, XL30, and Philips Netherlands), X-ray powder diffraction (38066 Riva, d/G.Via M. Misone, 11/D (TN), Italy), and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm tests, along with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra (Perkin Elmer, spectrum100) were utilized to explain the significant details about the structure and morphology of biochars. Both samples (cinnamon and cannabis seeds) were rinsed with deionized water several times to eliminate impurities and then dried at 25 °C for 72 h and pyrolyzed at various temperatures (i.e., 300, 400, and 600 °C) through a tube furnace for 2 h under N2 atmosphere. Next, all samples were crushed via a crusher and passed by a 40 mesh sieve to obtain the primary the biochars. Additionally, 5 g of each sample was refluxed with 0.1 M HCl for 12 h, and then cooled, washed with deionized water, and dried in a vacuum oven at 80 °C. Finally, the prepared biochars at different temperatures were marked as cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 and stored in airtight plastic (Scheme 1). Schematic diagram for preparation of biochars The Cd(II) adsorption tests by various samples of biochar were conducted in a series of 50 mL conical flasks. Typically, 0.1 g of each adsorbent (i.e., cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600) was added to 10 mL Cd(II) of various primary concentrations of (i.e., 60, 130, 180, 250, 350, and 500 mg L−1) and were then shaken in a thermostatic water bath shaker at 150 rpm. After 24 h, the adsorbent samples were filtered with 0.45 µm filter and the content of the remaining Cd(II) ions in the volume of the solution was evaluated by an ICP-OES analysis. The adsorption ability (qe) of Cd(II) ions was obtained by Eq. (1) as follows: where C0 and Ce (mg L−1) denote the primary and ultimate contents of Cd(II) ions, respectively. In addition, V (L) and W (g) demonstrates the volume of standard solutions Cd(II) and the mass of each biochar in all tests. The kinetic studies were performed at primary Cd(II) level of 60 mg L−1. Each 10 mL of Cd(II) solution containing 0.1 g of adsorbent (i.e., cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600) were placed in a thermostatic water bath shaker (150 rpm), and at different time intervals, the residual levels of Cd(II), Ct, were determined by an ICP-OES analysis. The amount of Cd(II) ions adsorbed at each time interval per unit mass of the adsorbent qt (mg g−1) was evaluated by using Eq. (2): In this equation, C0 and Ct (mg L−1) are the contents of the liquid phase of Cd(II) at primary and any time t, respectively. The effects of pH in the range of 3.0 to 9.0 with a stirring time of 60 min on the removal of Cd(II) were investigated by using 0.1 mol L−1 HCl or NaOH solutions for the initial pH adjustment, with the primary Cd(II) content fixed at 60 mg L−1. The dependency of the adsorption of Cd(II) ions was studied by 0.04 g to 0.3 g amounts of adsorbent in contact with 10 mL solution of 60 mg L−1 of Cd(II) with agitation time of 60 min. To assess the influence of temperature on prepared biochars, the temperature values at 300–600 °C were synthesized and their structures were characterized by various styles. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, and cinnamon 600 displayed the peaks at 15°, 25°, 29°, and 38° correspond to the planes of (012), (102), (024), and (125) exhibiting the CaC2O4· H2O. For cinnamon 600, three new peaks at around 14°, 25°, and 29° possibly connected with the pattern of the CaCO3 by comparison with Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS Card, File No. 79–0418). Further, the XRD patterns of cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 illustrate the amorphous-crystalline of biochar. As shown, the peaks on the structure of biochars increase due to biochars crystallization by enhancing the temperature (Fig. 1). XRD patterns of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600 (a) and cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 (b) The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy spectra of various biochars are displayed in Fig. 2. Based on the data, the fabricated biochars offer the broad bands at 1300, 1900, and 3400 cm−1, corresponding to the O–H stretching vibration and the adsorption peak at 2900 cm−1, which is related to the aliphatic –CH2 stretching variation. The peaks occurring at 575, 570, and 567 cm−1 indicated the presence of C–Br. Furthermore, the peak at 850 cm−1 was assigned to the C-H bond. Additionally, two bands at 1618 and 1179 cm−1 were related to the N–H and C=O groups, respectively. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results represented that all biochars encompassed different functional groups such as O–H, –CH2, C–H, N–H, and C=O on their surface, which could supply great active positions for eliminating the Cd(II) ions. Finally, the peaks reduced in high pyrolysis temperature due to the breaking bonds of the aliphatic [18, 19]. FT-IR spectrum of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600 (a) and cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 (b) Figure 3 depicts the scanning electron microscopy images of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600. As shown, the biochars derived from cinnamon and cannabis demonstrate a porous structure and various cavities were detected on their surface when cinnamon and cannabis pyrolyzed at 600 °C. SEM images of cinnamon 300 (a), cinnamon 400 (b), cinnamon 600 (c), cannabis 300 (d), cannabis 400 (e), and cannabis 600 (f) The porosity and surface area of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 were tested by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms (Fig. 4). Based on the results, cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 have a specific surface area of 0.64745, 0.66238 m, 0.67918, 1.1516, 1.2330, and 2.8903 m2 g−1, as well as an average pore size diameter of 34.039, 21.501, 22.816, 0.3523, 108.27, and 29.350 nm, respectively. It was also found out that the nitrogen isotherms for all of the adsorbents are belonged to type IV according to the classification of I.U.P.A.C. In the present study, the SBET of prepared adsorbents by the pyrolysis method increased by increasing the temperature from 300 to 600 °C, which supplied different adsorption positions for Cd ions. Eventually, the results revealed that hydrochloric acid cannot destruct the porous structure of the adsorbents. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 The pH of the wastewater solution influences both the presence of Cd(II) ions and the charge attributes of the biochars. The primary pH of Cd(II) solution was selected in the range of 3.0-9.0 in order to evaluate the influence by the pH. Figure 5 indicates that the adsorption percentage of Cd(II) ions gradually enhances as the pH of the primary solution of Cd(II) increases from 3.0 to 7.0. Based on the results, the maximum adsorption efficiency of 95, 96.5, 98.8, 95, 95.5, and 97.3% was obtained for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600, respectively, when the pH level was equal to 7.0. Under acidic pH (pH < 7.0), various groups in the biochars are simply protonated, leading to electrostatic repulsion of Cd(II) ions. On the other hand, adsorption efficiency increases due to the deprotonation of the surface groups of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 under alkaline pH (pH > 7.0). At the pH of 8.0 and 9.0, the Cd(II) adsorption represented no remarkable change due to electrostatic reaction. In addition, the effect of solution pH on Cd(II) adsorption by each biochar can be well described in terms of the pH point of zero charges (pHPZC) of the adsorbents [20]. The pHPZC of the cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 were found 5.0 and were the same for all these adsorbents. In general, the surface charge of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 is positive when pH < 5.0 while that of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 is negative when pH > 5.0, making the situation desirable for Cd(II) ion adsorption. Influence of solution pH on the removal percentage of Cd(II) ions by cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600 (a) and cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 (b) (C0 = 60 mg L−1, adsorbent dose = 0.1 g, contact time = 60 min, and temperature = 65 °C) Further, the pH variation was associated with Cd(II) species that were present in several forms in solutions such as Cd (OH)+, Cd (OH)2, Cd (OH)2−4, and Cd (OH)3− Cd 2+. Therefore, Cd(II) ions were adsorbed in pH = 7.0 due to electrostatic attractions between Cd2+ and the negative charge of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600. In the pH of above 9.0, the elimination of Cd(II) ions occurred due to the precipitation of Cd (OH)2 and Cd (OH)+. A similar behavior has been reported for Cd(II) ion adsorption on SDS-coated magnetite nanoparticles modified with 2,4-DNPH [9]. Figure 6 depicts the effect of different amounts (0.04–0.3 g) of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 on the adsorption of Cd(II) ions for primary Cd(II) concentration of 60 mg L−1. As expected, the Cd(II) ions were gradually eliminated by adding the amount of biochars from 0.04 to 0.1 g and remained constant in 0.1 g with the maximum percent of 95.7, 97.0, 98.9, 95.26, 95.9, and 97.8% for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600, respectively. In the first step, a fast increase was observed in elimination percentage, denoting that this observation can be explained via increase in the surface area and availability of more active sites for adsorption. Afterward (from 0.1 g), it becomes fairly constant for any further increase in the adsorbent dose because of the limitation Cd(II) ions as compared with the biochars sites available for the reaction. These results are in agreement with those reported in the literature [21]. Influence of adsorbent dose on the removal percentage of Cd(II) ions by cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600 (a) and cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 (b) (pH = 7.0, C0 = 60 mg L−1, contact time = 60 min, and temperature = 65 °C) The impact of solution temperature on the adsorption process of Cd(II) ions by the obtained biochars from cinnamon and cannabis was analyzed through altering the reaction temperature in the range of 25–65 °C in the similar testable situation (Fig. 7). Based on the results, the elimination percentage of Cd(II) ions increased from 35 to 95, 37.5 to 96, 45.5 to 97.5, 48.2 to 90.9, 46.4 to 93%, and 52 to 96.8% for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600, respectively, when the process temperature increased from 25 to 65 °C. This demonstrated that the Cd(II) ion adsorption was the endothermic operation and expanding temperature encouraged adsorption procedure and temperature 65 °C was appropriate to the spontaneous reaction. Similar results for the metal ions adsorption at various temperature on Fe2O3@SiO2 thin films have also been reported [8]. Influence of temperature with Standard deviation(s) on the removal percentage of Cd(II) ions by cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600 (a) and cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 (b) (pH = 7.0, C0 = 60 mg L−1, adsorbent dose = 0.1 g, contact time = 60 min) The effect of ionic strength on Cd(II) ions adsorption onto cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 was studied using changing concentrations between 0.0 and 0.5 M..Fig. 7 shows the effect of ionic strength (K+ and Na+) on the adsorption of Cd(II) ions. As shown in Fig. 8, the adsorption percentage of Cd(II) ions decreased with increase of ionic strength at all concentrations. This decrease in the Cd(II) elimination may be due to the competition between Cd(II) ions and K+ and Na+ for adsorption sites. Influence of ionic strength (Na+ (a) and K+ (b)) on the removal percentage of Cd(II) ions by cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600 (a) and cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 The primary Cd(II) concentration on the adsorption operation of Cd(II) ions via cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 was checked for the primary concentrations of 60 to 500 mg L−1 as the amount of each biochar was constant. The results explain that the elimination efficiency of Cd(II) ions reduced from 92 to 54, 93 to 55, 98.5 to 60, 87 to 47, 89 to 51, and 95 to 64% for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600, respectively, by an increase in the primary concentration from 60 to 500 mg L−1. However, the adsorption ability (qe) of Cd(II) ions by cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 regularly increased by adding the primary Cd(II) concentration. These outcomes of adsorption can be interpreted by the surface areas of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600. This is attributed to the presence of great empty positions at the Cd(II) concentration of 60 mgL−1 due to a growth in the concentration slop and rate of Cd(II) diffusion to cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600. By utilizing the adsorption isotherm models, the adsorption ability of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 was studied for Cd(II) ion adsorption in the adsorbent dose of 0.1 g and the pH of 7.0 while the primary Cd(II) ion concentration altered from 60 to 500 mg L−1. Accordingly, the linear shape of Langmuir (L), Freundlich (F), Temkin (T), and Redlich–Peterson (R–P) models was employed and revealed as follows [22,23,24,25]: where qe and qm (mg g−1) describe the amount of adsorbed Cd(II) ions onto cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 in an equilibrium situation and a maximum level, respectively, in a single layer form. Both kf and n are assumed as the unchanging factors of F and heterogeneity of biochar surface, respectively. Furthermore, the Kt (L mg−1) and B are related to the equilibrium binding factor and heat of adsorption, respectively. Finally, the k R–P (L g−1) and β denote the fixed factors of the R-P model. The parameters of the fitting models such as L, F, T, and R-P, as well as their correlation coefficients (R2) are shown in Fig. 9 and Table 1. The correlation coefficients (R2) obtained from the L model for Cd(II) adsorption were 0.9989, 0.9924, 0.9908, 0.9942, 0.9890, and 0.9935 for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600, respectively, which were higher (R2 > 0.98) than those of L, F, and R-P models. Additionally, the values of RL were computed to be 0.245, 0.301, 0.189, 0.364, 0.395, and 0.255 for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600, respectively, representing that the Cd(II) adsorption onto the above-mentioned adsorbents was appropriate and the dependence between Cd(II) ions and biochars was strong. The L model for the adsorption of Cd(II) ions onto cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600 (a) and cannabis 300, cannabis 400, cannabis 600 (b) These results imply that the adsorption of Cd(II) ions onto all biochars follow the L model and adsorption operation led to the homogeneous surface of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 and the monolayer adsorption of Cd(II) ions accomplished on biochars with a finite number of identical sites, that all sites are energetically equivalent, and that there is no interaction between the adsorbed molecules. The obtained qmax values for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 were 147.05, 153.84, 158.73, 133.33, 144.92, and 175.43 mg g−1, respectively. In addition, the qmax quantities were in the order of cannabis 600 > cinnamon 600 > cinnamon 400 > cinnamon 300 > cannabis 400 > cannabis 300, indicating that temperature plays an overcoming role on the structure of biochars. In other words, the produced biochars at a higher temperature (i.e., cinnamon 600 and cannabis 600) had more active sites and specific surface area compared to the other biochars. Further, the obtained qmax values from cinnamon 600 and cannabis 600 for Cd(II) ions were significantly larger than those formerly introduced in the literature for the elimination of Cd(II) ions using different adsorbents (Table 2). The tests were completed at various times of 0-80 min with 0.1 g from each adsorbent and the primary Cd(II) concentration of 60 mg L−1 in order to observe the influence of adsorption activity time on the removal efficiency and ability of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600. The results revealed that the elimination rate of Cd(II) ions via cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 was extraordinary at the outset, probably given that more adsorption positions were present at the primary phase compared to the following phases. Thus, the Cd(II) ions can connect comfortably with these places. However, Cd(II) elimination by all biochars reduced over time and most active positions on the surface of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 were occupied by these ions and the adsorption rate of Cd(II) diminished as well. In general, the quantity of the adsorbed Cd(II) ions enhanced by increasing the reaction time and peaked after 60 min. The reaction time of 60 min was adequate for achieving the adsorption equilibrium for all synthesized biochars at various temperatures. To understand managing adsorption procedure between adsorbents (i.e., cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600) and Cd(II) ions, four kinetic models containing the pseudo-first-order (PFO), pseudo-second-order (PSO), Elovich (E), and the intraparticle diffusion (ID) were utilized to analyze the empirical data. Equations (7)–(10) represent the linear relations of the four models [32, 33]. where qe and qt (mg g−1) indicate the ability of each biochar for Cd(II) ion adsorption at equilibrium time and any time t (min), respectively, and k1 (min−1) and k2 (mg g−1 min−1) denote PFO and PSO rate fixed factors, respectively. In addition, KID and A (mg g−1) are considered as the ID unchanging factors and α and β represent the E constant parameters. The quantities of the kinetic parameters of four linear models (i.e., PFO, PSO, E, and ID) are shown in Table 3 and Fig. 10. Based on the data in Table 2, the PSO model revealed higher correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9980) compared to PFO, E, and ID models for the adsorption action of Cd(II) ions onto cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600. Further, the amount of PSO rate constant (k2) for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 were 0.0031, 0.0035, 0.0042, 0.0088, 0.0048, and 0.0067, respectively, pointing that the Cd(II) adsorption matched with PSO model. Furthermore, the PSO model expressed that the relation between Cd(II) ions in solution phase and cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 was chemisorption and biochars had a heterogeneous surface. The qe derived from the PSO model was more close to the empirical data. Finally, the adsorption action was in agreement with the PSO model when the primary Cd(II) concentration in the solution phase was small. PSO model for the adsorption of Cd(II) ions onto cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600 (a) and cannabis 300, cannabis 400, cannabis 600 (b) Further evaluation of the adsorbent reuse is required from the economic and environmental points of view, particularly in industrial fields. Therefore, desorption estimates were performed in two steps in order to check the reusability of the cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600. Cd(II) adsorption analyses were accomplished by 10.0 mL Cd(II) solution 60 mg L−1 and 0.1 g of each biochar with a pH of 7.0 and the equilibrium time of 60 min at 25 °C. Then, the Cd(II) ion loaded biochars were isolated and conveyed to 5.0 mL desorbing solvent (0.1 mol L−1 HCl and 0.1 mol L−1 NaOH), followed by determining the Cd(II) ion concentration by the ICP-OES after the desorption process. The desorption tests demonstrated that Cd(II) ions were recovered by using the solution of 0.1 mol L−1 HCl from each of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 with the values of 98, 97, 99, 96, 98.8, and 99.5%, respectively (Fig. 11). Also, Cd(II) ions were recovered by using the solution of 0.1 mol L−1 NaOH from each of cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 with the values of 91, 93, 95.5, 92, 93, and 93%, respectively. This confirmed the excellent capacity of the prepared biochars for eliminating the Cd(II) ions from water. Influence of type of eluting agent) with Standard deviation(s) on recovery (%) for Cd(II ions adsorbed onto cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600 (a) and cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 (b) In the present study, cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 were fabricated to evaluate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on adsorption ability and surface properties of biochars derived from cinnamon and cannabis for the Cd(II) ion removal. The ideal condition for Cd(II) adsorption onto the biochars included a pH of 7.0, the adsorbent dose of 0.1 g, and the temperature of 65 °C, supplying the qmax of 147.05, 153.84, 158.73, 133.33, 144.92, and 175.43 mg g−1 for cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600, respectively. The cinnamon 600 and cannabis 600 revealed the highest adsorption of Cd(II) ions due to an increase in the pyrolysis temperature increased surface area of the adsorbents. The data were well modeled by the Langmuir model compared to Freundlich, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson models while the kinetic fitted with the pseudo-second-order model and the quick adsorption of Cd(II) ions occurred in 60 min. Eventually, the alkaline solution of 0.1 mol L−1 NaOH and 0.1 mol L−1 HCl were efficacious for Cd(II) ion desorption, as well as cinnamon 300, cinnamon 400, cinnamon 600, cannabis 300, cannabis 400, and cannabis 600 recycling. The authors are grateful to the Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University for providing facilities to conduct and complete this study. Correspondence to M. Cheraghi. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Received: 06 March 2020 Accepted: 22 May 2020 Published: 04 June 2020 ## Biofuels Market with (Covid-19) Impact Analysis: In-depth Analysis, Global Market Share, Top … 4 June, 2020 Zion Market Research added the latest industry analysis report on “Biofuels Market by Type (Bioethanol and Biodiesel), and by Form — Solid (Biocoal, Biochar), Fuel Pellets Liquid (Biodiesel and Bioethanol), and Gaseous (Biogas, Biopropane, and Syngas) — Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 – 2022” presents the latest industry data and future trends, allowing you to recognize the products and end users driving Revenue growth and profitability of the market. The Biofuels market Market Research Report offers an extensive analysis of key drivers, leading market players, key segments, and regions. 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The Biochar Market report recognizes the requirement to remain informed in this competitive market circumstances and thus offers an wide-ranging information for making decision and strategies in order to augment the market profitability and growth. Further, it also covers the segmentation of the Biochar Market based on [Product, Applications, End-Users, and Major Regions], and regions [ Latin America, North America, Asia Pacific, Middle & East Africa, and Europe]. Download Free PDF Report Brochure @ https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/requestbrochure/biochar-market Note – In order to provide more accurate market forecast, all our reports will be updated before delivery by considering the impact of COVID-19. (*If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.) Moreover, the report entails the estimate and analysis for the Biochar Market on a global as well as regional level. The study provides historical data as well as the trending features and future predictions of the market growth. Further, the report encompasses drivers and restraints for the Biochar Market growth along with its impact on the overall market development. In addition, the report provides an analysis of the accessible avenues in the market on a global level. Furthermore, the report evaluated main market features, comprising capacity utilization rate, revenue, price, capacity, growth rate, import, gross, production, consumption, supply, export, market share, cost, demand, gross margin, and much more. Also, it provides an in-depth evaluation of vital market dynamics and most recent trends, along with relevant market segments. To view TOC of this report is available upon request @ https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/toc/biochar-market Promising Regions & Countries Mentioned In The Biochar Market Report: Global Biochar Market Report Provides Comprehensive Analysis of: Inquire more about this report @ https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/inquiry/biochar-market Following are major Table of Content of Biochar Market Report: 1. Industry Overview of Biochar Market. 2. Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Biochar Market market. 3. Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Biochar Market. 4. Capacity, Production and Revenue Analysis. 5. Price, Cost, Gross and Gross Margin Analysis of Biochar Market by Regions, Types and Manufacturers. 6. Consumption Volume, Consumption Value and Sale Price Analysis of Biochar Market industry by Regions, Types and Applications. 7. Supply, Import, Export and Consumption Analysis of Biochar Market Market. 8. Major Manufacturers Analysis of Biochar Market industry. 9. Marketing Trader or Distributor Analysis of Biochar Market. 10. Industry Chain Analysis of Biochar Market. 11. Development Trend Analysis of Biochar Market Market. 12. New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Biochar Market. 13. Conclusion of the Biochar Market Industry. Request the coronavirus impact analysis across industries and market Request impact analysis on this market @ https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/custom/2594?covid19=true Also, Research Report Examines: Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe or Asia. ## Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria in combination with organic supplements improve phosphorus … 4 June, 2020 Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye*, Ifat Nazir, Muhammad Shakeel Nawaz, Hira Asghar, Muhammad Waqas and Fiza Mahmood Sustainable crops production coupled with environmental safety measures has become a center of attention at current global canvas of science and research. Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are known to solubilize fixed phosphorus. Biochar is not only a nutrients rich organic amendment but also a very relevant input in relation to present climate change trend. Compost has been reported for a long time to improve soil physical properties in addition to having sufficient quantity of essential nutrients to sustain higher crops yield. Therefore, the application of two PSB strains, Achromobactor xylosoxides (S1) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (S3), were tested in combination with and without a mixture of biochar and compost to improve some selective growth parameters of maize. The data obtained depicted that the mixture of biochar and compost significantly improved maize growth parameters as compared PSB strains and the control. Combination of PSB, biochar and compost remained more effective than their separate application. The PSB strain, Achromobactor xylosoxides was observed to be better than the Pseudomonas aeruginosa with and without organic supplements. Conclusively, the efficiency of PSB strains increases when used in conjunction with organic supplements like biochar and compost with respect to phosphorus and chlorophyll content and maize growth indices ## Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Report 2020 Sales Forecast to Grow Negatively in Western Regio … 5 June, 2020 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market analysis 2015-2027, is a research report that has been compiled by studying and understanding all the factors that impact the market in a positive as well as negative manner. Some of the prime factors taken into consideration are: various rudiments driving the market, future opportunities, restraints, regional analysis, various types & applications, Covid-19 impact analysis and key market players of the Biochar Fertilizer market. nicolas.shaw@cognitivemarketresearch.com or call us on +1-312-376-8303. Download Report from: https://www.cognitivemarketresearch.com/chemical-%26-materials/biochar-fertilizer-market-report Global Biochar Fertilizer Market: Product analysis: Organic Fertilizer, Inorganic Fertilizer, Compound Fertilizer Global Biochar Fertilizer Market: Application analysis: Cereals, Oil Crops, Fruits and Vegetables, Others Major Market Players with an in-depth analysis: Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics LLC The research is presented in such a way that it consists of all the graphical representations, pie charts and various other diagrammatic representations of all the factors that are used for the research. Biochar Fertilizer market research report also provides information on how the industry is anticipated to provide a highly competitive analysis globally, revenues generated by the industry and increased competitiveness and expansions among various market players/companies. Get A Free Sample of Biochar Fertilizer Market Report: https://www.cognitivemarketresearch.com/chemical-%26-materials/biochar-fertilizer-market-report#download_report The Biochar Fertilizer industry is projected in assembling information regarding dynamic approximations and also listings of a profitable progression rate annually in the expected duration according to a recent & latest study. The latest Coronavirus pandemic impact along with graphical presentations and recovery analysis is included in the Biochar Fertilizer research report. The research report also consists of all the latest innovations, technologies and systems implemented in the Biochar Fertilizer industries. Various factors with all the necessary limitations, expenditure/cost figures, consumer behaviour, supply chain, government policies and all the information related to the market have been included in the Biochar Fertilizer Market report. The research report also provides light on various companies & their competitors, market size & share, revenue, forecast analysis and all the information regarding the Biochar Fertilizer Market. Checkout Inquiry for Buying or Customization of Report: https://www.cognitivemarketresearch.com/chemical-%26-materials/biochar-fertilizer-market-report#download_report. Biochar Fertilizer Market research report provides an in-depth analysis of the entire market scenario starting from the basics which is the market introduction till the industry functioning and its position in the market as well as all the projects and latest introductions & implementations of various products. The research study has been assembled by understanding and combining various analysis of regions globally & companies and all necessary graphs and tables that bring the theory into an exact representation through numerical values and standard tables. The global estimations of the market value, market information/definition, classifications of all the types & applications, overall threats & dips that can be assumed and many other factors which consist the overall market scenario and it’s happening globally along with the forthcoming years are compiled in the Biochar Fertilizer market research report. Hence this report can serve as a handbook/model for the enterprises/players interested in the Biochar Fertilizer Market as it consists all the information regarding the Biochar Fertilizer market. Any query? Enquire Here For Discount (COVID-19 Impact Analysis Updated Sample): Click Here—> Download Sample Report of Biochar Fertilizer Market Report 2020 (Coronavirus Impact Analysis on Biochar Fertilizer Market) Note – In order to provide more accurate market forecast, all our reports will be updated before delivery by considering the impact of COVID-19. (*If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.) About Us: Cognitive Market Research is one of the finest and most efficient Market Research and Consulting firm. The company strives to provide research studies which include syndicate research, customized research, round the clock assistance service, monthly subscription services, and consulting services to our clients. We focus on making sure that based on our reports, our clients are enabled to make most vital business decisions in easiest and yet effective way. Hence, we are committed to delivering them outcomes from market intelligence studies which are based on relevant and fact-based research across the global market. Contact Us: +1-312-376-8303 Email: nicolas.shaw@cognitivemarketresearch.com Web: https://www.cognitivemarketresearch.com/ **********Download the Entire Report************************************************* https://www.cognitivemarketresearch.com/chemical-%26-materials/biochar-fertilizer-market-report ## Potential Impact of COVID-19 on Fine Biochar Powder Market 5 June, 2020 The report on the Fine Biochar Powder market provides a bird’s eye view of the current proceeding within the Fine Biochar Powder market. Further, the report also takes into account the impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Fine Biochar Powder market and offers a clear assessment of the projected market fluctuations during the forecast period. The different factors that are likely to impact the overall dynamics of the Fine Biochar Powder market over the forecast period (2019-2029) including the current trends, growth opportunities, restraining factors, and more are discussed in detail in the market study. For top companies in United States, European Union and China, this report investigates and analyzes the production, value, price, market share and growth rate for the top manufacturers, key data from 2019 to 2025. The Fine Biochar Powder market report firstly introduced the basics: definitions, classifications, applications and market overview; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures, raw materials and so on. Then it analyzed the world’s main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, supply, demand and market growth rate and forecast etc. In the end, the Fine Biochar Powder market report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis. Get Free Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Market Report @ https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2555692&source=atm The major players profiled in this Fine Biochar Powder market report include: The following manufacturers are covered: Diacarbon Energy Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra Segment by Regions North America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Segment by Type Wood Source Biochar Corn Source Biochar Wheat Source Biochar Others Segment by Application Soil Conditioner Fertilizer Others You can Buy This Report from Here @ https://www.researchmoz.com/checkout?rep_id=2555692&licType=S&source=atm Key Market Related Questions Addressed in the Report: Important Information that can be extracted from the Report: Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [email protected] https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2555692&source=atm ## The potential of biocarbon as CO 2 adsorbent in VPSA unit 5 June, 2020 ## Biochar Fertilizer Market Industry Trends and Forecast Analysis 2027 5 June, 2020 The Insight Partners analysts forecast the latest report on “Biochar Fertilizer Market (Covid-19) Impact and Analysis by 2027”, according to report; Biochar Fertilizer Market report covers the overall and all-inclusive analysis of Market with all its factors that have an impact on market growth. This report is anchored on the thorough qualitative and quantitative assessment of the Biochar Fertilizer Market. Biochars are defined as solid, carbon-rich materials which are added in soil to improve soil charaterstics and agronomic performance. It is produced with the help of pyrolysis by using several biomasses. According to various studies, the use of biochar as a fertilizer to boost the crop growth and yield. Biochar-based compound fertilizers (BCF) and amendments also helps to alter soil properties in the form of pH, nutrients, organic matter, structure etc. Get Sample Copy of Report @ https://www.theinsightpartners.com/sample/TIPRE00011244/ (*If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.) Note – The Covid-19 (coronavirus) pandemic is impacting society and the overall economy across the world. The impact of this pandemic is growing day by day as well as affecting the supply chain. The COVID-19 crisis is creating uncertainty in the stock market, massive slowing of supply chain, falling business confidence, and increasing panic among the customer segments. The overall effect of the pandemic is impacting the production process of several industries. This report on ‘Biochar Fertilizer Market’ provides the analysis on impact on Covid-19 on various business segments and country markets. The reports also showcase market trends and forecast to 2027, factoring the impact of Covid -19 Situation. Our Sample Report Accommodate a Brief Introduction of the research report, TOC, List of Tables and Figures, Competitive Landscape and Geographic Segmentation, Innovation and Future Developments Based on Research Methodology The reports cover key developments in the Biochar Fertilizer Market as organic and inorganic growth strategies. Various companies are focusing on organic growth strategies such as product launches, product approvals and others such as patents and events. Inorganic growth strategies activities witnessed in the market were acquisitions, and partnership & collaborations. These activities have paved way for the expansion of business and customer base of market players. Some of the Major Market Players Are: The report analyses factors affecting the Biochar Fertilizer Market from further evaluates market dynamics affecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. The report also provides exhaustive PEST analysis for all five regions namely; North America, Europe, APAC, MEA, and South America after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors affecting the Biochar Fertilizer Market in these regions. Moreover, the report entails the estimate and analysis for the Biochar Fertilizer Market on a global as well as regional level. The study provides historical data as well as the trending features and future predictions of the market growth. Further, the report encompasses drivers and restraints for the Biochar Fertilizer Market growth along with its impact on the overall market development. In addition, the report provides an analysis of the accessible avenues in the market on a global level. REGIONAL FRAMEWORK The report provides a detailed overview of the industry including both qualitative and quantitative information. It provides an overview and forecast of the Biochar Fertilizer Market based on various segments. It also provides market size and forecast estimates from the year 2020 to 2027 with respect to five major regions. The Biochar Fertilizer Market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. The report covers the analysis and forecast of 18 countries globally along with the current trend and opportunities prevailing in the region. Promising Regions & Countries Mentioned in The Biochar Fertilizer Market Report: Buy Now This Report @ https://www.theinsightpartners.com/buy/TIPRE00011244/ Major Features of Biochar Fertilizer Market Report: About The Insight Partners: The Insight Partners is a one stop industry research provider of actionable intelligence. We help our clients in getting solutions to their research requirements through our syndicated and consulting research services. We specialize in industries such as Semiconductor and Electronics, Aerospace and Defense, Automotive and Transportation, Biotechnology, Healthcare IT, Manufacturing and Construction, Medical Device, Technology, Media and Telecommunications, Chemicals and Materials. Contact Us: Call: +1-646-491-9876 Email: [email protected] 3w Market News Reports by Everestthemes ## Biochar Fertilizer Market Industry Trends and Forecast Analysis 2027 5 June, 2020 The Insight Partners analysts forecast the latest report on “Biochar Fertilizer Market (Covid-19) Impact and Analysis by 2027”, according to report; Biochar Fertilizer Market report covers the overall and all-inclusive analysis of Market with all its factors that have an impact on market growth. This report is anchored on the thorough qualitative and quantitative assessment of the Biochar Fertilizer Market. Biochars are defined as solid, carbon-rich materials which are added in soil to improve soil charaterstics and agronomic performance. It is produced with the help of pyrolysis by using several biomasses. According to various studies, the use of biochar as a fertilizer to boost the crop growth and yield. Biochar-based compound fertilizers (BCF) and amendments also helps to alter soil properties in the form of pH, nutrients, organic matter, structure etc. Get Sample Copy of Report @ https://www.theinsightpartners.com/sample/TIPRE00011244/ (*If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.) Note – The Covid-19 (coronavirus) pandemic is impacting society and the overall economy across the world. The impact of this pandemic is growing day by day as well as affecting the supply chain. The COVID-19 crisis is creating uncertainty in the stock market, massive slowing of supply chain, falling business confidence, and increasing panic among the customer segments. The overall effect of the pandemic is impacting the production process of several industries. This report on ‘Biochar Fertilizer Market’ provides the analysis on impact on Covid-19 on various business segments and country markets. The reports also showcase market trends and forecast to 2027, factoring the impact of Covid -19 Situation. Our Sample Report Accommodate a Brief Introduction of the research report, TOC, List of Tables and Figures, Competitive Landscape and Geographic Segmentation, Innovation and Future Developments Based on Research Methodology The reports cover key developments in the Biochar Fertilizer Market as organic and inorganic growth strategies. Various companies are focusing on organic growth strategies such as product launches, product approvals and others such as patents and events. Inorganic growth strategies activities witnessed in the market were acquisitions, and partnership & collaborations. These activities have paved way for the expansion of business and customer base of market players. Some of the Major Market Players Are: The report analyses factors affecting the Biochar Fertilizer Market from further evaluates market dynamics affecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. The report also provides exhaustive PEST analysis for all five regions namely; North America, Europe, APAC, MEA, and South America after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors affecting the Biochar Fertilizer Market in these regions. Moreover, the report entails the estimate and analysis for the Biochar Fertilizer Market on a global as well as regional level. The study provides historical data as well as the trending features and future predictions of the market growth. Further, the report encompasses drivers and restraints for the Biochar Fertilizer Market growth along with its impact on the overall market development. In addition, the report provides an analysis of the accessible avenues in the market on a global level. REGIONAL FRAMEWORK The report provides a detailed overview of the industry including both qualitative and quantitative information. It provides an overview and forecast of the Biochar Fertilizer Market based on various segments. It also provides market size and forecast estimates from the year 2020 to 2027 with respect to five major regions. The Biochar Fertilizer Market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. The report covers the analysis and forecast of 18 countries globally along with the current trend and opportunities prevailing in the region. Promising Regions & Countries Mentioned in The Biochar Fertilizer Market Report: Buy Now This Report @ https://www.theinsightpartners.com/buy/TIPRE00011244/ Major Features of Biochar Fertilizer Market Report: About The Insight Partners: The Insight Partners is a one stop industry research provider of actionable intelligence. We help our clients in getting solutions to their research requirements through our syndicated and consulting research services. We specialize in industries such as Semiconductor and Electronics, Aerospace and Defense, Automotive and Transportation, Biotechnology, Healthcare IT, Manufacturing and Construction, Medical Device, Technology, Media and Telecommunications, Chemicals and Materials. Contact Us: Call: +1-646-491-9876 Email: [email protected] 3w Market News Reports by Everestthemes ## Biochar Production Technology Webinar 5 June, 2020 The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the US Forest Service, Forest Products Lab is hosting a webinar titled: “Biochar Production Technologies.” This webinar is intended to provide information and discussion around biochar production systems and technological solutions which can help manage wood residues issues in storm damaged areas, municipal wood yards, and at wood using facilities while also generating value- added biochar. This webinar is designed for forest industry representatives, city officials, water and land resource managers, landscape companies, perspective business owners, forest resource managers, and arborists and tree care companies or anyone interested in learning more about biochar production systems. Please click here for more information about the webinar i.e. event date, speakers, time, and registration process. Please register in advance for the event. © 2020 WAA-ISA.org All Rights Reserved Wisconsin Arborist Association, P.O. Box 189, Eagle WI 53119-0189 ## Biochar Market Growth Set to Surge Significantly during 2020 ? 2025 5 June, 2020 A comprehensive research study on Biochar market added by Market Study Report provides insights into the market size and growth trends of this industry over the forecast timeline. The study evaluates key aspects of Biochar market in terms of the demand landscape, driving factors and growth strategies adopted by market players. . The research report on the Biochar market is an in-depth evaluation of this industry space and is inclusive of details pertaining to the growth rate and renumeration attained by the market over the forecast period. The report cites the Biochar market will amass modest returns by the end of study duration. Request a sample Report of Biochar Market at: https://www.marketstudyreport.com/request-a-sample/2415761?utm_source=msf&utm_medium=RV Detailed analysis of the Biochar market sphere is entailed in the report. Thorough insights with respect to projections of industry size, sales pattern, and revenue forecast are depicted. The report further elaborates on important parameters which are slated to drive the market in the upcoming years, alongside the various industry segmentations. Unveiling the topographical landscape of the Biochar market: Ask for Discount on Biochar Market Report at: https://www.marketstudyreport.com/check-for-discount/2415761?utm_source=msf&utm_medium=RV Other takeaways from the Biochar market report are enlisted below: Related Reports: 1. Global Industrial Threads Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2025 Read More: https://www.marketstudyreport.com/reports/global-industrial-threads-market-2020-by-manufacturers-regions-type-and-application-forecast-to-2025 2. Global Selenium Dioxide Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2025 Read More: https://www.marketstudyreport.com/reports/global-selenium-dioxide-market-2020-by-manufacturers-regions-type-and-application-forecast-to-2025 Contact Us: Corporate Sales, Market Study Report LLC Phone: 1-302-273-0910 Toll Free: 1-866-764-2150 Email: [email protected] Ashwin is into digital marketing since the last 2 years and has worked on multiple projects across various industries. He likes posting information and knowledge on multiple topics with an objective to create online visibility as well as share his inputs. 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All Rights Reserved. ## As humans search for higher agricultural yields, their waste may flush a stinky situation 5 June, 2020 It’s a subject none of us care to discuss even though it’s part of our daily lives: human waste. This basic product of human existence has, for thousands of years, been little more than waste to be managed or done away with. Nevertheless, human waste, like its bovine counterpart, may be exceedingly valuable for sustainable agricultural purposes. So says science. Researchers from Cornell University’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the Canadian Light Source at the University of Saskatchewan may have discovered it’s possible to create nitrogen-rich fertilizer by combining the solid and liquid components of human waste. Published in the journal Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, our waste may increase crop yields in developing countries and reduce contamination of groundwater caused by nitrogen runoff. Nitrogen is part of chemical fertilizers. Such “fertilizer” could help farmers produce higher yields with less ground, or the same ground currently used without the need for additional deforestation, for example. The discovery came to fruition when researchers, determined to find a sustainable way to include nitrogen in the human solid waste, recycled the nitrogen in the urine and adding it to the solid waste. Before this, urine was lost to runoff, and the solid waste on its own lack the key nutrient. The researchers heated the solid component of human waste in the absence of oxygen to produce a pathogen-free charcoal called biochar. Next, they manipulated the biochar’s surface by priming it with CO2, enabling it to soak up ammonia, the nitrogen-rich gas given off by urine. By repeating the process, they loaded up the biochar with additional nitrogen, resulting in a solid material rich in nitrogen. Previous research engineered high-tech adsorbers, but the researchers in this case wanted a low-tech approach. Adsorbers are materials whose surfaces can capture and hold gas or liquids. The research team showed it is possible to make fertilizer from human waste, but more must still be done; primarily, how will this human-powered fertilizer compare to existing commercial nitrogen fertilizers for different crops and soils? And can a cost-effective solution be delivered to perform this process automatically in a real-world setting? Such a solution could radically alter the face of farming in developing countries. This is particularly important because, as the world’s population soars, findings by the University of Maryland — released by Global Forest Watch — suggest through satellite and online forest monitoring that 2019 was the third highest year for losses of tropical primary forest since the turn of the century. Among the most significant areas of loss include Brazil, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Bolivia. Agriculture primarily to blame in all three countries. If human waste can reasonably be made into fertilizer fit for agricultural use, the crappy business of clear-cutting forests to increase arable land to increase yields may help turn a stinky situation onto one that’s a little rosier. Scott E. Rupp is a writer and an award-winning journalist focused on healthcare technology. He has worked as a public relations executive for a major electronic health record/practice management vendor, and he currently manages his own agency, millerrupp. In addition to writing for a variety of publications, Scott also offers his insights on healthcare technology and its leaders on his site, Electronic Health Reporter. See your work in future editions Your Industry Needs YOUR Expert Voice & We’ve got the platform you need Severity: Warning Message: Cannot modify header information – headers already sent by (output started at E:DFS_Legacy_ApplicationsExclusive MultiBriefssystemexpressionenginecontrollersee.php:145) Filename: core/Common.php Line Number: 408 Error Number: 1406 Data too long for column ‘ref_to’ at row 1 INSERT INTO exp_referrers (ref_from, ref_to, ref_ip, ref_date, ref_agent, site_id) VALUES (‘1’, ‘http://exclusive.multibriefs.com/content/as-humans-search-for-higher-agricultural-yields-their-waste-may-flush-a-sti/waste-management-environmental’, ‘10.75.75.153’, 1591422911, 0, ‘1’) Filename: E:DFS_Legacy_ApplicationsExclusive MultiBriefssystemcodeignitersystemdatabaseDB_driver.php Line Number: 330 ## The potential of biocarbon as CO 2 adsorbent in VPSA unit 5 June, 2020 The best solution to the main environmental problem seems to be CO2 capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The activated carbons derived from biomass have attracted extensive attention as solid adsorbent for carbon dioxide capture process. In this work, we focus on examining the properties of biochar (non-activated porous carbon) produced from biomass. Physicochemical properties of the biochar were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption–desorption at 77 K. In order to evaluate the possibility of using biocarbons for CO2 adsorption in large-scale VPSA units, investigations of these adsorbents in laboratory are necessary. The paper present the potential of biochar for CO2 capture in VPSA unit. The examination of the CO2 sorptive capability, stability and regeneration performance of biochar was carried out using a Mettler-Toledo TGA/SDTA 851e thermobalance and TG-Vacuum system. The sorption of CO2 was carried out isothermally in a flow of a mixture of gasses: CO2 (100 vol.%) and CO2 (16 vol.%)/N2 (84 vol.%). The commercial biochar showed a sorption performance for CO2 up to 26.4 mg CO2 g−1 adsorbent at 30 °C and 30 bar. Repeated use of the adsorbent in the sorption/desorption cycle did not affect its performance, which indicates high sorption stability. Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activities are now the main cause of adverse changes in the atmosphere. As a result of higher energy demand, the level of carbon dioxide emissions in the world has reached a record level in history—37 billion tonnes in 2018 [1]. From the analysis of the carbon balance in the biosphere, it is clear that there is an incredible variation between carbon dioxide emission in the form of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and its assimilation by sources on Earth [2]. The reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, including CO2, is now becoming the main goal of the European Union. Among the currently available methods, post-combustion CO2 capture plays a leading role due to the possibility of modernization of already existing power plants [3]. The method of post-combustion CO2 capture includes absorption by aqueous solutions, adsorption by solid materials and membrane separation. Among them, the adsorption method is advantageous due to the low energy consumption and easy regeneration of the adsorbent, without producing adverse by-products or contaminated sorbents [4,5,6,7]. Activated carbon, zeolites and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are carbon dioxide capture adsorbents described in the literature [8,9,10,11,12,13,14]. Potential adsorbents for CO2 capture are also porous carbon obtained from biomass, so-called biochar and biocarbon [15]. Although zeolites and MOFs have a high CO2 adsorption capacity, it decreases in the presence of water [16]. In contrast, activated carbon is hydrophobic and has a large surface area and excellent thermal and chemical stability. In addition, it is possible to optimize the pore size of activated carbon materials for high CO2 adsorption. Therefore, they should be considered as potential adsorbents for VPSA CO2 capture systems. Another advantage of using biocarbon as a CO2 adsorbent is its low cost. It is know that the overall cost of CO2 capture could be reduced significantly by using inexpensive carbon precursors and minimizing the number of steps involved in the synthesis procedure [4]. The type of porous carbon precursor used and the preparation method have a significant impact on the structure and porosity of the obtained porous carbon [17, 18]. European standards condition the production of biocarbon only in the process of pyrolysis of biomass (or identical substrate) in a temperature regime from 350 to 1000 °C, in an anaerobic atmosphere (or in the presence of a small amount of oxygen) in the pyrolysis chamber [19, 20]. According to many researchers [21,22,23], biochar needs to be activated to generate high surface area and porosity before being employed for CO2 capture. Scientists are focusing on the modification of biochar, mainly with chemical agents, e.g., KOH, K2CO3, which affect their structure. Most studies focus on biocarbons after activation (chemically modification) [21,22,23]. However, the use of chemicals in the adsorbent activation process contributes to increasing environmental pollution. There is hardly any information in the literature related to uses of biochar (non-activated porous carbon) in VPSA CO2 capture unit. Therefore, in the present article, the CO2 sorption capacity and biochar stability in multiple cycles was determined using thermogravimetric methods. We focused on the possibility of using biochar in VPSA installations, assessing their performance in the simulation process in the TG-Vacuum installation. The biocarbon from company Fluid S.A. was used in this study. Fluid S.A. technology is the most energy-efficient technology of biocarbon production [24]. The slow carbonization technology, which they use, directly leads to biocarbon production, where the products are mainly biocarbon (65–80%) and process gases (15–35%). It consists in thermal processing of plant biomass and other biomass residues through its autothermal roasting at a temperature higher than 260 °C in anaerobic atmosphere. A LECO Truspec CHNS analyzer was used to ascertain the amount of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur in the biocarbon. The Zeiss Merlin scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to record the field emission SEM images. The textural parameters and porosity of the materials were investigated with a N2 sorption analyzer (Micromeritics Gemini 2360). Samples were degassed overnight at a set temperature of 250 °C prior to analysis, which was carried out at − 196 °C. The specific surface area was calculated using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method from the linear part of BET plot according to IUPAC recommendations using the adsorption isotherm (relative pressure (p/po) = 0.05–0.23). The pore size distribution was calculated by the BJH method, and the pore volume was obtained from the maximum amount of adsorption at p/po of 0.99. The FTIR spectra were recorded on a Nicolet 6700 spectrometer. The tablet preparation consisted of mixing 0.01 g of test material and 0.2 g of KBr powder. The thermal stability of sorbents was tested using a thermobalance TGA/SDTA 851e. Argon was used as the furnace medium, which was supplied into the analyzer furnace at a flow rate of 200 mL min−1 within the temperature range. The stand for conducting research on the adsorption/desorption process using a vacuum consists of TGA/SDTA 851e thermobalance (TG) from Mettler-Toledo and a specially selected vacuum set. The physicochemical properties of the commercial biocarbon and their CO2 sorption/desorption capacities were examined using thermogravimetric methods. In the programmed adsorption test, the sample was first dried at 120 °C under a stream of nitrogen (100 mL min−1) for 30 min, and then, the sample was cooled to 25 °C to initiate the CO2 adsorption process. The adsorption process was carried out in a gas atmosphere containing 100 vol.% CO2 and 16 vol.% CO2/84 vol.% N2. The sample was kept under test conditions until it reached the adsorption balance, which lasted 60 min. Figure 1 shows road of carbon dioxide adsorption study. Research of adsorption–desorption cycles using thermobalance TGA/SDTA 851e was also carried out. The CO2 flow rate was set at 100 cm3 min−1, while the desorption process was conducted in an anaerobic atmosphere. Diagram of the road of carbon dioxide adsorption study Low-pressure CO2 adsorption experiments were carried out using a TG-Vacuum instrument fitted. TG-Vacuum system was used to obtain information about the usefulness of adsorbent for testing at the VPSA pressure swing adsorption plant. Prior to CO2 adsorption measurements, the samples were put on overnight degassing under vacuum at 200 °C. Adsorption of CO2 was carried out at atmospheric pressure, while during desorption it was 30 kPa abs. A single-cycle adsorption/desorption endures 15 min. The test conditions are presented in Table 1. As shown in Table 2, the biocarbon used in this study contains a large amount of carbon (91.56% by mass) and a small amount of nitrogen (0.73% by mass) based on CNS elemental analysis. The presence of sulfur in the material was not detected. The carbon content of the biocarbon is a measure of the degree of carbonization. Prior to weighing and analysis, the samples were dried in an oven and stored in a desiccator. Elemental analysis was measured in triplicate. It is known that [4] during carbonization, the C content increased considerably, and the O and N content decreased due to the evaporation of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen in the gas phase. The high elemental carbon content (91.6%) reduces the elasticity of the molecular phase of the material structure, resulting in a simultaneous increase in the degree of cross-linking of the macromolecular phase. Carbon and its derivatives with a high elemental carbon content contain a macromolecular phase with limited stiffness, which means that the porous carbon mass can be expanded when placing molecules in submicropores smaller than the size of sorbate molecules [25]. According to the literature data, efficient CO2 adsorption on carbon materials is closely related to the high content of carbon as well as nitrogen in their composition. Although the nitrogen content naturally found in this type of material is usually low, it can be incorporated into the structure by inter alia with ammonia [26]. The introduction of nitrogen into the material structure is to allow effective development of the porous surface [27, 28]. Research conducted by Madzaki et al. proves that the high nitrogen content does not reflect the adsorption capacity of CO2. Carbon materials enriched in nitrogen and equivalents without the admixture of a nitrogen adsorption values were comparable CO2. Carbon dioxide capture by carbon materials and their counterparts additionally enriched with nitrogen was at the same level [29]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is frequently used to identify functional groups in biocarbon. FTIR analysis requires special sample preparation, because biocarbon is opaque solid. Figure 2 shows FTIR spectra of the used in this study biocarbon. Important and strong extended absorption peak at 3400 cm−1 spectra is the O–H and H–O–H stretch. Poorly visible peaks at 3000–2860 cm−1 are associated with the alphatic C–H stretch, aromatic C–H bond (3060 cm−1) and carboxylic stretch C=O (1700 cm−1). Other stretching bands can be observed in the FTIR spectra of the around 930 cm−1 (C–CO groups) and with similar trend observed in the range 1410 cm−1 due to C–H bending [30,31,32]. FTIR spectra of the commercial biocarbon The SEM technique was used to analyze the surface morphology of the biochar. Figure 3 shows the SEM micrographs of the biocarbon sample. SEM photographs of biocarbon The SEM images of the sample in Fig. 3 reveal the presence of abundant pores. A large morphological diversity of the material is visible. The biocarbon sample shows irregular (non-uniform) structure pores. The recorded axial image of commercial biocarbon on the right in Fig. 3 clearly indicates that it is hardwood [33]. Two types of pores are shown: tracheids and rays. The rays run perpendicular to the tracheids and are vertical elements of the structure. The image on the left shows the transverse walls, where the porous plates that divide the concentrated vessels are visible. Table 3 summarizes the parameters of the biochar structure. The biochar was composed entirely of pores about 4.74 nm (average pore diameter), which presented the surface area only 65 m2 g−1. The char has higher carbon content, the surface area of char is rather low due to the blockage of the pores by tars [4]. Similar values of biochar specific surface area can be found in the literature: 26.3 m2 g−1 [34], 38–92 m2 g−1 [35] and 115 m2 g−1 [4]. The small specific surface area of biocarbon 65 m2 g−1 does not necessarily mean low adsorption. The adsorption itself depends on many factors such as the presence of functional groups, pore structure or surface chemistry [36]. The low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm for biocarbon can be classified according to the IUPAC classification [37] as type IV isotherm Adsorption/desorption isotherms overlap perfectly. As follows from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms (Fig. 4), the biochar is characterized by poorly developed porosity. Insignificant adsorption is observed in the whole range of low relative pressures. The adsorption capacity of biochar is very low, indicating that not very many pores existed. The results are in accordance with pore size distribution and pore volume. Figures 5 and 6 show the shares of pores of specific sizes in the total specific surface area and total pore volume of biocarbon. Pores with a diameter of 2.04 nm have the largest share in the total specific surface area of biocarbon. The pores with a diameter of 22.9 nm have the largest share in the biocarbon pore volume. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms of biocarbon Specific pore surface distribution as a function of the pore diameter for biocarbon Pore volume distribution as a function of the pore diameter for biocarbon Figure 7 shows the TG and DTG curves of the biocarbon in the temperature range of 25 °C÷800 °C. The first loss of mass, caused by dehydration of moisture, existed between 30 °C÷180 °C. The loss was caused by removing moisture from the sample. A net mass loss is 11%. The second mass loss is due to devolatilization. The minimum of this peak for the biocarbon sample took place at 500 °C. During this process, most elements other than carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen are removed in gaseous form, leaving a solid residue enriched in carbon [4]. TG and DTG curves of biocarbon To determine the CO2 sorption capacity of the biocarbon, the first step was the temperature programmed adsorption test. This test was carried out according to the procedure shown in Fig. 1. Figure 8 shows the results of the programmed adsorption test for biocarbon. TG curves of sorption of CO2 (isothermally at 25 °C): a 100 vol.% CO2; b 16 vol.% CO2 and 84 vol.% N2 Carbon dioxide adsorption capacity in the atmosphere of 100 vol.% CO2 was higher and amounted to 26.4 mg CO2 g−1 adsorbent (0.98 mmol g−1). In an atmosphere of 16 vol.% CO2 with N2 doping, it was 17.8 mg CO2 g−1 adsorbent (0.66 mmol g−1). The carbon dioxide capture efficiency of a biocarbon sample can be considered satisfactory given that it is a biocarbon sample without activation. Creamer et al. [38] studied CO2 adsorption on non-activated porous carbons prepared from sugarcane bagasse and hickory wood. According to [38] data, the CO2 sorption capacity of biochar was 73.55 mg g−1 and 35 mg g−1 CO2 (depending on the conditions for obtaining biochar). Research conducted by Cramer et al. [38] proves that physisorption driven by weak van der Waals forces is the main operating mechanism for adsorption and the quadrupole nature of the CO2 molecule was put forward to be a useful attribute in creating a surface interaction with biochar via the process of dispersion and induction. According to the literature data [38], surface area was the main factor controlling the process of physisorption of CO2 onto biochar. The authors emphasized the role of the presence of nitrogen groups on the surface. According to Singh et al. [35], activated porous carbons are superior to biochars as they have higher specific surface areas and a more developed porosity, although biochars have their own advantage when it comes to the presence of abundant functional groups on the surface. The authors also stated that the nature and the quantity of the functional groups on the surface of carbon materials depend on the methods of preparation and the nature of the biomass precursors used [35]. The pressure programmed desorption test on TG-Vacuum was carried out with a view to further testing of the biochar on the VPSA adsorption installation. Figure 9 shows the TG curves obtained as a result of the programmed biocarbon desorption test. TG profiles—multistage cyclic adsorption–desorption process for biocarbon (temperature sorption/desorption: 30 °C; vacuum: 30 mbar) When using pure CO2 the sorption capacity for biocarbon was 26.4 mg CO2 g−1 sorbent. As shown in Fig. 9, repeated use of the same sorbent did not significantly affect its sorption capacity. This confirms the good stability of the adsorbent and the possibility of using it in consecutive cycles. This aspect is very important from the position the practical use of the biocarbon in many CO2 sorption/desorption cycles. The working capacity of adsorbent in each cycle is the same. In the article, we present the results of research carried out on commercial biochar obtained from the cutting of deciduous trees. Considering that the material has not been modified in any way, the test results are satisfactory. This gives hope for the possibility of using non-activated porous carbon obtained from biomass for carbon dioxide adsorption. The conducted analyzes showed that biocarbon can be used at temperatures around 25 °C (yield 0.98 mmol g−1 in 100 vol.% CO2), which is beneficial from the point of view of the future use of this adsorbent in adsorption systems. The conducted studies of biocarbon regeneration under reduced pressure conditions confirmed the possibility of using this type of adsorbent in VPSA adsorption installations. The sorption capacity was 26.4 mg CO2 g−1, additionally without losing its efficiency in repeated sorption/desorption processes. The porous structure of biochar and unique surface properties make it an effective CO2 adsorbent. This article has been supported by the Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange under Grant No. PPI/APM/2019/1/00042. The scientific research was funded by the statute subvention of Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Infrastructure and Environment. Correspondence to Izabela Majchrzak-Kucęba. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received: 14 September 2019 Accepted: 16 May 2020 Published: 05 June 2020 ## Biochar Market Robust pace of Industry during 2017-2025 5 June, 2020 Global Biochar Market: Snapshot The global biochar market is observing a significantly high rise in its valuation, thanks to the increasing preference for organic food among consumers across the world. The ability of biochar to improve the fertility of soil and enhance the growth of plants has surfaced as the main factor behind the growth of this market. Currently, synthetic and several other bio-based fertilizers are dominating the agricultural scenario, globally. However, the awareness about the benefits of biochar is spreading gradually among farmers and agriculturists, thereby, creating massive opportunities for further growth of this market in the coming years. Get Sample Copy of the Report @ https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=B&rep_id=1703 The global market for biochar includes both organized and unorganized manufacturers of biochar. Emerging countries, such as Japan, Brazil, China, and Mexico report of a prominent amount of biochar production from the unorganized sector, primarily manufactured by villagers in association with research institutes and various non-governmental support groups. However, the number of the organized players is anticipated to increase substantially in these countries over the next few years, thanks to the escalating demand for organic food, worldwide. The full potential of biochar is yet to be realized in the agricultural sector and is projected to surface as a particularly important factor in the overall progression of the food sector in the near future. Water treatment is projected to emerge as an important application area of biochar in the years to come, especially in developing economies. Global Biochar Market: Overview Biochar is a time-honored soil amendment practice and also a fine solution to climate change effects. Regions with insufficient supply of chemical fertilizers, organic resources, and water can significantly benefit from this highly porous and fine-grained charcoal. Along with bioenergy, it can displace fossil fuel usage and sequester carbon in well-balanced soil carbon pools to tackle climate change. Biochar has won worldwide appreciation for its unique soil enhancing properties with the widespread prominence of the Amazon’s biochar-rich dark lands. Global Biochar Market: Key Trends With a substantial rise in population size, organic food has drew in a lot of demand, owing to which the biochar market is expected to invite a handsome growth. The credit for this growth could be given to biochar’s propensity for improving plant development and soil fertility. The improving agricultural industry in different nations such as Australia, Germany, Canada, and the U.S. is anticipated to aggravate the demand for biochar. As a result, the global market is predicted to record a healthy growth over the coming years. Request TOC of the Report @ https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=T&rep_id=1703 Large-scale gasification projects receiving support from Europe and North America governments and the increasing performance of organic farming are projected to put the world biochar market is a good position. The rise in meat consumption and growing significance of biochar in livestock farming benefiting with key nutrients are forecasted to set the tone for the market. The growth in the global biochar market could be impeded on account of technological and financial barriers. Besides this, the ignorance of consumers on the part of biochar’s long-term advantages is foretold to delay the market growth. Howbeit, a considerable expansion of the market is expected to occur as organic food and farming open up new opportunities. Global Biochar Market: Market Potential Biochar possesses a massive potential to reduce the proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, in fact, virtually every greenhouse emission. This could be an epic breakthrough in the elimination of climate-warming black carbon. Capable of enduring the test of time for survival, this super charcoal can sequester carbon dioxide many times longer than trees. For producers which operate in areas where labor cost is economical but maintenance expenditure is large, biochar production could be ideal. This is because of the simple and low-priced equipment required to convert soy hay and other wastes into biochar. In a way, the biochar market is deemed to be a great medium to minimize the gap between smart business and smart environmentalism. Global Biochar Market: Regional Outlook The biochar sector is envisaged to be developed at a telling rate on the back of regions such as Europe and North America, registering an elevating rise in the count of small and medium scale manufacturers. A steady progress is foreseen to be witnessed by Australia as the awareness about the advantages and benefits of biochar escalates across the country. Followed by Europe, North America is prognosticated to record a dominant share in the global biochar market. Producers of biochar can also find opportunities in other markets such as Asia Pacific and Rest of the World. Global Biochar Market: Competitive Landscape Players in the biochar market receive support from companies supplying pyrolysis technology and wood pellets and residue. Phoenix Energy, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis, and 3R ENVIRO TECH Group are some of the top firms involved in the pyrolysis technology business. Wood pellets and residue are primarily provided by timber businesses such as West Fraser, Georgia-Pacific, and Weyerhaeuser. Out of the prominent biochar players in the international market, Biochar Supreme, LLC is prophesied to make the cut. The analysts anticipate the market to own a fragmented character. Read Comprehensive Overview of Report @ https://www.tmrresearch.com/biochar-market ## Biochar Market Analysis, Regional Outlook, Forecast and Application Analysis To 2025 5 June, 2020 Latest market study on ‘Global Biochar Market to 2025 -Global Analysis and Forecasts’. The research report provides deep insights into the global market revenue, parent market trends, macro-economic indicators, and governing factors, along with market attractiveness per market segment. The report provides an overview of the growth rate of the Biochar Market during the forecast period, i.e., 2020-2025. Most importantly, the report further identifies the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies. The research segments the market on the basis of product type, application, technology, and region. To offer more clarity regarding the industry, the report takes a closer look at the current status of various factors including but not limited to supply chain management, niche markets, distribution channel, trade, supply, and demand and production capability across different countries. Read complete report at: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/698 The report on the discussed Biochar Market further evaluates the overall import and export prospects, total financial valuation of the same and concomitant influence of these factors on various growth rendering impetus such as production facilities, high end development blueprint, investment synopsis, as well as driver analysis. This recent research compilation on the Biochar Market presents a deep analytical review and a concise presentation of ongoing market trends that collectively inculcate a strong influence on the growth trajectory of the aforementioned Biochar Market. Top Leading Key Players are: Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House, Anaerob Systems, Algae AquaCulture Technologies, CECEP Golden Mountain Agricultural Science And Technology, EarthSpring Biochar/Biochar Central, Energy Management Concept, 3R Environmental Technology Group and Renargi Read complete report with TOC at: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/industry-reports/biochar-market The report in its description sheds veritable light on historic growth trends of the Biochar Market. A bird’s eye view analytical approach has been primary to gauge decisive market trends in the discussed Biochar Market, citing specific input on essential factors such as overall household income and the core factors that mediate reliance on the aforementioned Biochar Market. This Biochar Market based market intelligence research offering is a detailed presentation of the market synopsis covering driving factors that tend to have a steady impact on holistic growth trajectory of Biochar Market. Global Biochar market is segmented based by type, application and region. Based on Type, the market has been segmented into: by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification and Others) Based on application, the market has been segmented into: by Application (Agriculture and Others) Besides encouraging lucrative returns, this specific research offering is also poised to equip report readers with ample understanding about market developments and trends that have a rendering influence on historic growth outcome, future growth prognosis as well as ongoing growth initiators. This highly competitive research offering presents extensive information about market growth prognosis and trajectory, besides also housing detailed overview on competition spectrum and in-depth understanding on dynamic segmentation. The report is meticulously presented in the form of charts and graphs that depict current market growth trends and statistical insights to entice mindful business decisions by market participants in the Biochar Market. This comprehensive research report on Biochar Market further aids readers gauge various growth rendering elements, besides also harping significantly on competition analysis amongst market players comprising both established and aspiring market participants. This intensive Biochar Market research report is a go-to, ready-to use market intelligence document, intended to equip readers with highly versatile and decisive market specific information and data, intended to trigger remunerative business discretion on the part of stakeholders comprising products and service providers, government bodies, as well as regulatory associations and other stakeholders in the Biochar Market. Do you have any query or specific requirement? Ask to our industry expert at: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/enquiry-before-buying/698 About Us : Contact Us : ## Biochar Preparation, Characterization, and Adsorptive 5 June, 2020 Are you SPAM robot? Confirm that you are not a robot ## Methods for Assessing Soil Quality || Measurement and Use of pH and Electrical Conductivity for … 6 June, 2020 Use Wechat scan code to follow the official account directly sign in the Qr Code is useless Waiting for the show Qr Code… Use Wechat scan code to follow the official account directly sign in the Qr Code is useless Waiting for the show Qr Code… toTop If you have any feedback, Please follow the official account to submit feedback. If you wish to continue, please create your membership or download this. Please wait while the file you selected is being converted For ¥0.57 per day, unlimited downloads This function is a member function, members do not limit the number of downloads ## Biochar Facilitated Bioprocessing and Biorefinery for Productions of Biofuel and Chemicals 6 June, 2020 Biochar is traditionally used to improve soil properties in arable land and as adsorbent or precursor of activated carbon in wastewater treatment. Recent advances have shown biochar potentials in enhancing productions of biofuels and chemicals such as bio-ethanol, butanol, methane, hydrogen, bio-diesel, hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids. The properties of biochar such as high levels of porosity, functional groups, cation exchange capacity, pH buffering capacity, electron conductivity, and macro-/micro- nutrients (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, S, Fe, etc.) provide appropriate conditions to relieve physicochemical stresses on microorganisms through pH buffering, detoxification, nutrients supply, serving as electron carrier and supportive microbial habitats. This paper critically reviewed biochar production and characteristics, biochar utilization in anaerobic digestion, composting, microbial fermentation, hydrolysate detoxification, catalysis in biomass refinery and biodiesel synthesis. This review provides novel vision of biochar application, which could guide future research towards cleaner and more economic production of renewable fuels and bio-based chemicals. Keywords: Biochar; Biofuel; Bioprocessing; Low-carbon footprint; Thermochemical conversion. ## Best biochar kiln 6 June, 2020 ## 3kg± Charcoal Chips / Fertilizer / Biochar / 炭块 (Chip type, 3kg± ) 6 June, 2020 ## Effect of wheat straw derived biochar on immobilization of Cd and Pb in single 6 June, 2020 Registered in England & Wales No. 3099067 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG ## Hoosier National forest experiments with wood harvest debris 7 June, 2020 BLOOMINGTON, Ind. (AP) — Looking for ways to improve the soil in the Hoosier National Forest as well as better utilize woody debris left over after timber harvests led Chad Menke, a hydrologist with the U.S. Forest Service, to try something new: making biochar. It’s something that is done on some Forest Service properties in the West, where there’s more timber harvesting and a need to capture moisture and amend the soil. But the biochar produced by K&K Dirtworks of Evanston was the first that’s been used in the Hoosier National Forest — and the first in the eastern region of the Forest Service. The first experimental site was a half-acre section within the Uniontown North Restoration Project in Crawford County. The area had a timber harvest that left lots of woody debris, known as slack, on the compacted soil. At most timber harvest sites, the slack is left to decay, which does eventually add nutrients to the soil. In early May, the slack was burned in a special kiln for eight hours. Five tons of biochar was produced and applied to the half-acre area, which was later seeded with native vegetation. The area was chosen for the experiment because it isn’t likely to get a lot of recreational use that would disturb the soil and plantings. “I’m hoping we can utilize it in a number of applications,” Menke said. Those would include other timber harvests but also areas where trees are blown down due to storms and areas that have been disturbed with bare soil needing more nutrients and better filtration so plants and trees can grow. Plans for the first test site are to create early successional habitat — with bushes, shrubs and small trees that provide habitat for many species of wildlife. “We’re using our own material left behind,” Menke said, adding biochar also increases the growth rate of vegetation. While holding moisture in the soil isn’t a real problem in the Hoosier National Forest, the biochar can help improve water quality, Menke said. Biochar holds water in soils, helping control erosion. It also holds nutrients within the soil, and since it’s a carbon-based product, it can mitigate climate change by increasing the carbon pool within soils. The Hoosier National Forest is shipping samples of the biochar to the regional lab to assess how much carbon is in the finished product and the overall quality of the char produced. Menke plans to determine how cost-effective creating and using biochar will be for the Forest Service and other agencies and landowners in Indiana and beyond. “We want to make it economically viable, a long-term bang for our buck,” he said. “If when a (timber) harvester is done, he can leave the excess (slack) in one place and we can figure out the cost versus benefit at each site.” The study will continue for at least two years. The hope is to compare the biochar area with other forest projects to see what treatments for soil are most effective and efficient. “I would like to see more strategies for harvests,” Menke said, adding that the money needed for the study came from funds from the timber harvest. The harvests also help fund projects including water crossing improvements, invasive plant removal and building and maintaining trails. Once an area in the national forest is harvested for timber, Menke said it’s left alone for 20 years or more. “This is to replenish what has been done,” he said. “When you walk away from that replenished site, you won’t touch it for another 20 years.” __ Source: The Herald-Times ## World coronavirus Dispatch: Biochar Market: Key Players, Growth, Analysis, 2019–2026 7 June, 2020 COVID-19 (Coronavirus) pandemic has forced many companies in the Biochar market to halt their business operations in order comply with the new government rulings. This pause in operations are directly impacting the revenue flow of the Biochar market. Thus, companies in the Biochar market can purchase our reports that showcase a fresh analysis of COVID-19 and its repercussions on the market landscape. This report collated by analysts of marketresearchhub.us on the Biochar market provides a bird’s eye view of the current proceedings within the Biochar market. Further, the report highlights the various factors that are likely to impact the overall dynamics of the Biochar market over the forecast period (20XX-20XX) including the ongoing trends, opportunities, limitations, and more. Get Free Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Market Report @ https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2641183&source=atm As per the report, the global Biochar market is projected to register a CAGR growth of ~XX% during the assessment period and reach a value of ~US$XX by the end of 20XX. Further, the report suggests that the growth of the Biochar market is primarily influenced by a range of factors with key emphasis on innovations done by market players.

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Competition Landscape

The report provides critical insights related to the establised companies operating in the Biochar market. The revenue generated, product range, and financials of each company is included in the report.

Regional Landscape

The regional landscape section of the report provides resourceful insights related to the scenario of the Biochar market in different regions. Further, the market attractiveness assessment of each region provides players a clear understanding of the overall growth potential in each regional market.

End-User Analysis

The report provides an in-depth understanding of the various end-users of the Biochar along with the market share, size, and revenue generated by each end-user.

Competition Analysis
In the competitive analysis section of the report, leading as well as prominent players of the global Biochar market are broadly studied on the basis of key factors. The report offers comprehensive analysis and accurate statistics on sales by the player for the period 2015-2020. It also offers detailed analysis supported by reliable statistics on price and revenue (global level) by player for the period 2015-2020.
On the whole, the report proves to be an effective tool that players can use to gain a competitive edge over their competitors and ensure lasting success in the global Biochar market. All of the findings, data, and information provided in the report are validated and revalidated with the help of trustworthy sources. The analysts who have authored the report took a unique and industry-best research and analysis approach for an in-depth study of the global Biochar market.
The following manufacturers are covered in this report:
Cool Planet
Biochar Supreme
NextChar
Terra Char
Genesis Industries
Interra Energy
CharGrow
Pacific Biochar
Biochar Now
The Biochar Company (TBC)
ElementC6
Vega Biofuels
Biochar Breakdown Data by Type
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar
Other Stove Source Biochar
Biochar Breakdown Data by Application
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

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## Biochar Market to Witness Exponential Growth by 2019 to 2029

7 June, 2020

XploreMR, in its recent market report, suggests that the Biochar Market report is set to exceed US$xx Mn/Bn by 2029. The report finds that the Biochar Market registered ~US$ xx Mn/Bn in 2018 and is spectated to grow at a healthy CAGR over the foreseeable period. This Biochar Market study considers 2018 as the base year, 2019 as the estimated year, and 2019 to 2029 as the forecast timeframe.

The Biochar Market research focuses on the market structure and various factors (positive and negative) affecting the growth of the market. The study encloses a precise evaluation of the Biochar market, including growth rate, current scenario, and volume inflation prospects, on the basis of DROT and Porter’s Five Forces analyses. In addition, the Biochar Market study provides reliable and authentic projections regarding the technical jargon.

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All the players running in the Biochar Market are elaborated thoroughly in the Biochar Market report on the basis of R&D developments, distribution channels, industrial penetration, manufacturing processes, and revenue. In addition, the report examines, legal policies, and comparative analysis between the leading and emerging Biochar Market players.

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7 June, 2020

## The effects of biochar and nitrification inhibitors on reactive nitrogen gas

7 June, 2020

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## Pyrolytic Products Market To Witness The Highest Growth Globally In Coming Years 2020-2026

7 June, 2020

GlobalMarketers.biz presents an updated and Latest Study on Pyrolytic Products Market 2020-2026. The report comprises market predictions related to market size, revenue, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factors. While focusing on the key driving and restraining forces for this market, the report also offers a complete study of the future trends and developments of the market.

It also examines the role of the leading market players involved in the industry including their corporate overview, financial summary, and SWOT analysis.

Key market Players of Pyrolytic Products:

Ace (Singapore) PTE Ltd
Agri-Tech Producers LLC
Verdi Life
Nettenergy BV
Vega Bioguels Inc
DOI & Co., Ltd
New Life Agro
Tagrow Co., Ltd.
Tolero Energy
Cool Planet Energy System
Penta Manufacturer
Diacarbon Energy Inc
Byron Biochar

Ace (Singapore) PTE Ltd
Agri-Tech Producers LLC
Verdi Life
Nettenergy BV
Vega Bioguels Inc
DOI & Co., Ltd
New Life Agro
Tagrow Co., Ltd.
Tolero Energy
Cool Planet Energy System
Penta Manufacturer
Diacarbon Energy Inc
Byron Biochar

Global Pyrolytic Products Market is the title of an upcoming market research report at Globalmarketers. The market has been studied in depth to present vital data and information, including revenue share of each segment, region, and country, revenue growth driving factors, and restraints. In addition, potential revenue opportunities in untapped regions and economies, and threats are included. Key players and their details are presented in the company profile section of the report. The section comprises revenue and financial information and details, recent developments, strategies, acquisitions and mergers, and geographic reach and footprint. The global Pyrolytic Products market is segmented by product type, distribution channel, and regions and countries.

Global Pyrolytic Products Market Segmentation:

By Product Type:

Bio-Oil
Biochar
Syngas
Wood Vinegar
Others

By End-User

Industrial
Agriculture and Livestock
Air, Soil and Water Treatment
Horticulture
Others

Any query? Enquire Here For Discount :https://www.globalmarketers.biz/discount_inquiry/discount/137681

The Questions Answered by Pyrolytic Products Market Report:

– What are the Key Manufacturers, raw material suppliers, equipment suppliers, end users, traders and distributors in the Pyrolytic Products Market?

– What are Growth factors influencing Pyrolytic Products Market Growth?

– What are production processes, major issues, and solutions to mitigate the development risk?

– What is the Contribution from Regional Manufacturers?

– What are the Market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Pyrolytic Products Industry?

– What are the Key Market segments, market potential, influential trends, and the challenges that the market is facing?

Global Pyrolytic Products Market Regional Analysis:

The Europe market is expected to account for majority revenue share over the forecast period owing to increasing demand for premium products in countries such as the Scotland, Italy, and Germany. The Asia Pacific market is expected to register a steady growth rate in the foreseeable future. China accounts for major production and exports of Pyrolytic Products. Domestic consumption is also highest in the country. Chinas improving and rapidly growing economy in recent years and rising standard of living is projected to further support market growth.

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## Can Biochar Save Lives? The Impact of Surficial Biochar Treatment on Acute H2S and NH3 …

7 June, 2020

How to cite: Chen, B.; Koziel, J.A.; Lee, M.; Ma, H.; Meiirkhanuly, Z.; Li, P.; Białowiec, A.; Brown, R.C. Can Biochar Save Lives? The Impact of Surficial Biochar Treatment on Acute H2S and NH3 Emissions During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-out. Preprints 2020, 2020060104 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0104.v1). Chen, B.; Koziel, J.A.; Lee, M.; Ma, H.; Meiirkhanuly, Z.; Li, P.; Białowiec, A.; Brown, R.C. Can Biochar Save Lives? The Impact of Surficial Biochar Treatment on Acute H2S and NH3 Emissions During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-out. Preprints 2020, 2020060104 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0104.v1).

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7 June, 2020

## Global Biochar Market – Premium Insight, Competitive News Feed Analysis, Company Usability …

7 June, 2020

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## Trending Report on Biochar Market Outlook 2020-2026, Covers Impact of Covid-19 on Global …

7 June, 2020

Global Biochar Market Report 2020 may be a skilled and in-depth analysis report on the world’s major regional market conditions of the Biochar trade, specializing in the most regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and also the main countries (United States, Germany, Japan and China).

Maket Dynamics-

The report clearly shows that the Biochar Industry has achieved remarkable progress since 2026 with numerous significant developments boosting the growth of the market. This report is prepared based on a detailed assessment of the industry by experts. To conclude, stakeholders, investors, product managers, marketing executives, and other experts in search of factual data on supply, demand, and future predictions would find the report valuable.

Prominent Players Covered in Research Report are— Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Aries Clean Energy, Biochar Products, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc., Vega Biofuels, Inc., 3R ENVIRO TECH Group, Airex Energy, ArSta Eco, Biochar Supreme, LLC, Carbon Gold, Clean Fuels B.V., Earth Systems PTY. LTD., Pacific Pyrolysis, Phoenix Energy, and The Biochar Company.

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze global Biochar status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players.
To present the Biochar development in United States, Europe and China.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their development plan and strategies.
To define, describe and forecast the market by product type, market and key regions.

The Questions Answered By Market Report:

What are the key manufacturers, raw material suppliers, equipment suppliers, end-users, traders and distributors in the market?

What are the growths factors influencing market growth?

What are production processes, major issues, and solutions to mitigate the development risk?

What is the contribution from regional manufacturers?

What are the key market segment, market potential, influential trends, and the challenges that the market is facing?

For the study of the Biochar market it is very important the past statistics. The report uses past data in the prediction of future data. The ’Biochar’ market has its impact all over the globe. On global level Biochar industry is segmented on the basis of product type, applications, and regions. It also focuses on market dynamics, Biochar growth drivers, developing market segments and the market growth curve is offered based on past, present and future market data. The industry plans, news, and policies are presented at a global and regional level.

Chapter 1: Global Biochar Market Overview

Chapter 2: Biochar Market Data Analysis

Chapter 3: Biochar Technical Data Analysis

Chapter 4: Biochar Government Policy and News

Chapter 5: Global Biochar Market Manufacturing Process and Cost Structure

Chapter 6: Biochar Productions Supply Sales Demand Market Status and Forecast

Chapter 7: Biochar Key Manufacturers

Chapter 8: Up and Down Stream Industry Analysis

Chapter 9: Marketing Strategy -Biochar Analysis

Chapter 10: Biochar Development Trend Analysis

Chapter 11: Global Biochar Market New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis

Market research is the new buzzword in the market, which helps in understanding the market potential of any product in the market. This helps in understanding the market players and the growth forecast of the products and so the company. This is where market research companies come into the picture. Reports And Markets is not just another company in this domain but is a part of a veteran group called Algoro Research Consultants Pvt. Ltd. It offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for a wide range of sectors both for the government and private agencies all across the world.

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7 June, 2020

## Continuous Rotary Wood Sawdust Carbonization Stove For Biochar

7 June, 2020

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## Environmental Innovation Practices: How Can We Reduce Carbon Emissions?

7 June, 2020

Scientists believe that life on Earth started nearly three billion years ago. At first, humans were the foster child of nature. They looked at the massive forest around him in awe, fear and respect. Unlike other animals, humans didn’t have any claws or sharp teeth. We were not strong enough to fight the wild, but had been gifted with a brilliant mind. With time, we created new things that gave us immense power to control everything. We were not afraid of the wilderness, rather, it became a mere source for profit. Profit took the centre stage and in this quest for wealth and power, we destroyed nature.

As a result of our exploitation of natural resources, the Earth’s climate is changing. We are now at a critical juncture with respect to the issue of climate change. One of the major reasons for all these environmental issues is the emission of excess of carbon dioxide.

When we hear the words ‘environmental innovation’, we usually think of the efforts and steps we take to protect greenery, renewable energy, and other natural resources. Even though all these initiatives share some characteristics, like minimising waste, the term ‘environmental innovation’ stands for something more than this. Through this, businesses and nature are made equal benefactors.

We can say that practices under environmental innovation are financially-sound, eco-friendly and provide an enormous boost to a company’s net profit. Environmental innovation methods lower costs, increase revenues, and ensure a steady supply chain by embracing plausible sustainability practices like using energy-efficient facilities and constructions, investing in low-carbon tech, supply chain practices, etc. These innovations can increase business value.

Now, many of the innovators and businesses are paving the way to build a green future. For instance, Xerox has adopted environmental innovation and has been successful in substantially reducing water and emission of greenhouse gases. The company invested in technologies that reduced the carbon footprint of their operation, and thus, were able to reduce energy usage, cost and production of waste.

They worked on a sustainable paper cycle with the help of their costumers and suppliers. They followed paper-sourcing guidelines and also offered environmentally-sound paper, thus, paving way for a green and healthier future. Also, they shed emphasis on methods that would eliminate the release of dangerous air emissions for their products, and produced waste-free products and services for their costumers.

Using Biochar, also known as green coal, is a good way to reduce carbon emission. It is made by burning organic material from biomass, through a process called pyrolysis. It can store carbon safely and for a longer duration, as compared to other processes such as through a plant or tree. It is a good way to control the problems created by greenhouse gas emissions.

Another method to reduce carbon is by depositing iron dust in the ocean. Depositing iron dust in the ocean water triggers the formation of algae called plankton, which absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. When the algae die, the whole of carbon sinks to the bottom of the ocean.

Using an electric or hybrid car can reduce the production of carbon dioxide to a significant level. Also, the use of hydrogen cargo ships can help in a zero-emission journey across the ocean.

Do you care about the environment? Wish to make a change? Have an idea to resolve issues? ELP is your chance.

We are excited to launch our first edition of the Ecochirp Launchpad Program 2020 (ELP2020). ELP is the game-changer for all the budding enviropreneurs. It is a 12 weeks launchpad programme for youth-led environmental solutions. This virtual launchpad programme has weekly learning modules that include webinars, mentoring sessions and weekly tasks, which will support you to launch your idea into a validated business plan.

Apply at: https://lnkd.in/g_GUPCx

About the author: Radhika R is a student of Christ University, Bangalore. She is pursuing her Masters in English with Cultural Studies. She completed her UG in English Literature from Kerala. Her areas of interest are mythology and arts.

We promise not to spam or send irrelevant information.

A former Assistant Secretary with the Ministry of Women and Child Development in West Bengal for three months, Lakshmi Bhavya has been championing the cause of menstrual hygiene in her district. By associating herself with the Lalana Campaign, a holistic menstrual hygiene awareness campaign which is conducted by the Anahat NGO, Lakshmi has been slowly breaking taboos when it comes to periods and menstrual hygiene.

A Gender Rights Activist working with the tribal and marginalized communities in india, Srilekha is a PhD scholar working on understanding body and sexuality among tribal girls, to fill the gaps in research around indigenous women and their stories. Srilekha has worked extensively at the grassroots level with community based organisations, through several advocacy initiatives around Gender, Mental Health, Menstrual Hygiene and Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) for the indigenous in Jharkhand, over the last 6 years.

Srilekha has also contributed to sustainable livelihood projects and legal aid programs for survivors of sex trafficking. She has been conducting research based programs on maternal health, mental health, gender based violence, sex and sexuality. Her interest lies in conducting workshops for young people on life skills, feminism, gender and sexuality, trauma, resilience and interpersonal relationships.

A Guwahati-based college student pursuing her Masters in Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bidisha started the #BleedwithDignity campaign on the technology platform Change.org, demanding that the Government of Assam install
biodegradable sanitary pad vending machines in all government schools across the state. Her petition on Change.org has already gathered support from over 90000 people and continues to grow.

Bidisha was selected in Change.org’s flagship program ‘She Creates Change’ having run successful online advocacy
campaigns, which were widely recognised. Through the #BleedwithDignity campaign; she organised and celebrated World Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2019 in Guwahati, Assam by hosting a wall mural by collaborating with local organisations. The initiative was widely covered by national and local media, and the mural was later inaugurated by the event’s chief guest Commissioner of Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) Debeswar Malakar, IAS.

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fbq(‘track’, ‘CompleteRegistration’);

7 June, 2020

## FeCu-biochar enhances the removal of antibacterial sulfapyridine from groundwater by activation …

8 June, 2020

Waters are often polluted by antibacterial drugs such as sulfonamides, which are widely used in animal husbandry, aquaculture and other sectors. Actual decontamination methods are limited, thus requiring the development of alternative treatments. Here, we hypothesized that a composite of biochar-supported Fe/Cu (FeCu-biochar) would activate persulfate to remove the antibiotic sulfapyridine from aqueous solutions using batch experiments. FeCu-biochar was characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We tested the effect of catalyst type, initial pH and reusability runs. Results show that, compared to Fe-biochar, 1 g/L FeCu-biochar activated 4 mM persulfate better, removing 97.6% of 20 mg/L sulfapyridine in 5 min at pH 8.2. Such enhancement is attributed to the strong oxidization of ·SO4, the high catalytic ability of CuO and synergistic effects between Fe and Cu. The removal of sulfapyridine by FeCu-biochar was pH-dependent, and the best catalytic performance occurred in alkaline conditions. FeCu-biochar also displayed excellent stability, easy separation and good recyclability.

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41731282, 41472232), National Innovation Experiment Program for University Students (2020-86) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2652018156).

Correspondence to Jiawei Chen.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Accepted: 01 June 2020

Published: 08 June 2020

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

## A novel porous biochar-supported Fe-Mn composite as a persulfate activator for the removal of …

8 June, 2020

Porous biochar-supported Fe-Mn composite ([email protected]) was synthesized from waste biomass.

[email protected] is an effective persulfate (PS) activator with high stability.

The contribution of catalysis and adsorption in [email protected]+PS system was 65.14% and 33.70%.

[email protected] showed a synergistic effect among Fe-Mn and biochar in PS activation.

Possible degradation pathway of acid red 88 in the [email protected]+PS system was proposed.

Porous biochar-supported Fe-Mn composite ([email protected]) was synthesized from waste biomass.

[email protected] is an effective persulfate (PS) activator with high stability.

The contribution of catalysis and adsorption in [email protected]+PS system was 65.14% and 33.70%.

[email protected] showed a synergistic effect among Fe-Mn and biochar in PS activation.

Possible degradation pathway of acid red 88 in the [email protected]+PS system was proposed.

In this study, a novel porous biochar-supported Fe-Mn composite ([email protected]) was prepared as an effective persulfate (PS) activator for the removal of acid red 88 (AR88). Bimetallic Fe-Mn oxides was supported by biochar to prevent agglomeration of metal oxides nanoparticles and provide more active sites for PS activation. The results showed that bimetallic Fe-Mn oxides were evenly dispersed on the surface of biochar (BC), due to its high specific surface area (1570 m2/g) and hierarchical porous structure. [email protected]+PS showed a high removal rate of 98.84% for AR88, compared with that of Fe-Mn+PS (80.4%) and BC+PS (78.6%). The synergistic mechanism in [email protected] for the enhanced PS activation was studied. Moreover, the reaction rate constant of [email protected]+PS for the removal of AR88 was 0.03814 min−1, indicating a fast reaction rate for AR88 removal. The optimal dosages of [email protected] and PS were 1 g/L and 2 g/L, respectively. The possible degradation pathways of AR88 were also proposed under the optimal conditions in the [email protected]+PS system. The results demonstrate that [email protected] is a promising catalyst for PS activation to remove AR88 with high stability and reusability.

## Freezing-accelerated removal of chromate by biochar synthesized from waste rice husk

8 June, 2020

Reduction of Cr(VI) by biochar was significantly accelerated by freezing.

Dissolved organic matter, Cr(VI), and protons concentrated in ice grain boundaries.

Freeze concentration effect was responsible for the accelerated reduction of Cr(VI) in ice.

Adsorptive removal of chromium by biochar was also enhanced by freezing.

Freezing-enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) by biochar was observed in polluted water.

Reduction of Cr(VI) by biochar was significantly accelerated by freezing.

Dissolved organic matter, Cr(VI), and protons concentrated in ice grain boundaries.

Freeze concentration effect was responsible for the accelerated reduction of Cr(VI) in ice.

Adsorptive removal of chromium by biochar was also enhanced by freezing.

Freezing-enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) by biochar was observed in polluted water.

The application of biochar has been considered a promising method for remediating contaminated water, as biochar exhibits a redox activity for environmentally relevant redox reactions. Although the mechanisms of various redox reactions by biochar in water have been widely investigated, investigations of reaction in ice have not been attempted. In this study, the freezing-accelerated removal of chromate (Cr(VI)) by biochar synthesized from waste rice husks (RH-BC) was investigated in water (25 °C) and ice (-20 °C). The reduction of Cr(VI) with RH-BC was insignificant in water, whereas an enhanced reduction efficiency of Cr(VI) was observed in ice due to the freeze concentration phenomenon. The enhanced redox reaction between Cr(VI) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) is primarily responsible for the accelerated Cr(VI) reduction in ice, wherein DOM is a primary component of RH-BC. Experiments on various conditions of pH and RH-BC concentrations reveal that Cr(VI) is heavily reduced at low pH values and an aggregation of RH-BC in ice can inhibit the reduction efficiency of Cr(VI) due to a decrease in active sites. The removal of Cr(VI) by RH-BC was successfully achieved with real Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewater in ice; this elucidated the environmental relevance of freezing-assisted Cr(VI) removal in cold regions.

## Resource utilization conditions as biochar of an invasive plant Spartina alterniflora in coastal …

8 June, 2020

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## Global Biochar Market 2020 Industry Size, Growth Analysis, Share, Demand by Regions, Types …

8 June, 2020

Adroit Market Research presents an updated and latest study on Biochar Market 2019-2025. The report comprises market predictions related to market size, revenue, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factors. A thorough evaluation of the restrains included in the report portrays the contrast to drivers and gives room for strategic planning. Factors that overshadow the market growth are pivotal as they can be understood to devise different bends for getting hold of the lucrative opportunities that are present in the ever-growing market. Additionally, insights into market expert’s opinions have been taken to understand the market better.

Top Key Players are profiled with global positioning:

Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House, Anaerob Systems, Algae AquaCulture Technologies, CECEP Golden Mountain Agricultural Science And Technology, EarthSpring Biochar/Biochar Central, Energy Management Concept, 3R Environmental Technology Group and Renargi

Get Sample Copy of this Report: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/698

The report has been curated after observing and studying various factors that determine regional growth such as economic, environmental, social, technological, and political status of the particular region. Analysts have studied the data of revenue, production, and manufacturers of each region. This section analyses region-wise revenue and volume for the forecast period of 2019 to 2025. These analyses will help the reader to understand the potential worth of investment in a particular region.

The report contains a thorough summary of Biochar Market that includes several well-known organizations, key market players who are leading in terms of sales, variable market change, revenue, end-user demands, conformity through trustworthy services, restricted elements, products and other processes. Technical advancements, surplus capacity in developing markets, market bifurcation, globalization, regulations and environmental guidelines, production and packaging are some trends that are explained in the market report.

Global Biochar market is segmented based by type, application and region.

Based on Type, the market has been segmented into:

by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification and Others)

Based on application, the market has been segmented into:

by Application (Agriculture and Others)

The given information in the newly issued Biochar Market report has been studied widely and also evaluated to offer statistical insights about the leading industry players and meanwhile, their contribution in the Biochar Market. The report utilizes a series of analytical tools including Porter’s five forces analysis, Biochar Market SWOT analysis, feasibility study as well as the survey of the investment return that is accountable to inspect the Biochar Market growth of the major manufacturers operating in the certain industry.

What pointers are covered in the Biochar Market research study?
1. The Biochar Market report — Elucidated with regards to the regional landscape of the industry:
2. The geographical reach of the Biochar Market has been meticulously segmented into United States, China, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia & India, according to the report.
3. The research enumerates the consumption market share of every region in minute detail, in conjunction with the production market share and revenue.
4. Also, the report is inclusive of the growth rate that each region is projected to register over the estimated period.
5. The Biochar Market report — Elucidated with regards to the competitive landscape of the industry.

## Laboratories

8 June, 2020

Currently, we accredited two laboratories for EBC-analyses. The EBC basic biochar package contains all analyses necessary for the EBC-batch-certification and basic characterization of biochar. Additional packages like EBC-Feed or complementary parameters can be booked.

All EBC accredited laboratories participate annually in the interlaboratory trial organized by DCC Delta Coal Control

It is intended to establish a European biochar analytical network of laboratories that use the same analytical methods and participate in regular ring trials.

The web site with information about the biochar analysis packages of: Eurofins Labs

Ruhr Lab GmbH
Labor im KW Scholven
Glückaufstrasse 56
D-45896 Gelsenkirchen
Germany

Tel.: +49-152 268 760 15
E-Mail: service(at)ruhr-lab.de

The website with information about the biochar analysis packages of:

### EnergieWerk Ilg Gmbh

6850 Dornbirn
Austria

A-7422 Riedlingsdorf
Austria

office(at)sonnenerde.at
www.sonnenerde.at

Bitte überprüfen Sie ihre Eingaben

Developed and ensured by the Ithaka Institute

Arbaz (Valais), Switzerland

## Wood Vinegar Market Size |Incredible Possibilities and Growth Analysis and Forecast To 2027 …

8 June, 2020

Reports and Data have recently published a report on the global Wood Vinegar market. The study was backed by data that had been derived either from primary sources or from company databases. The study is made using tools like SWOT analysis and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis. The study highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of each Wood Vinegar market player comprehensively. Further, the Wood Vinegar market report emphasizes the adoption of Wood Vinegar across various industries.

The research study includes the latest updates about the COVID-19 impact on the Wood Vinegar sector. The outbreak has broadly influenced the global economic landscape. The report contains a complete breakdown of the current situation in the ever-evolving business sector and estimates the aftereffects of the outbreak on the overall economy.

Request a sample copy of the report @ https://www.reportsanddata.com/sample-enquiry-form/2838

The key players of the market include ACE (Singapore) Pte Ltd, Canada Renewable Bioenergy Corp., Nettenergy BV (Netherlands), TAGROW CO., LTD. (China), and Byron Biochar (Australia).

This report forecasts revenue growth at a global, regional & country level, and provides an analysis of the market trends in each of the sub-segments from 2016 to 2026. For the purpose of this study, Reports and Data have segmented wood vinegar on the basis of type, application and region:

Based on Pyrolysis Method, the wood vinegar market has been segmented as follows: (Revenue, USD Million; 2020-2027)

Based on Application, the wood vinegar market has been segmented as follows: (Revenue, USD Million; 2020-2027)

Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD Million; 2020-2027)

To get a discount on your copy of the report @ https://www.reportsanddata.com/discount-enquiry-form/2838

The Wood Vinegar market report offers a plethora of insights which include:

The Wood Vinegar market report answers key questions which include:

The Wood Vinegar market report considers the following timeline to predict market growth:

Brose Complete Report @ https://www.reportsanddata.com/report-detail/wood-vinegar-market

The report provides accurate market estimations and how these forecasts are made. It is also available for customization according to individual requirements for enhanced comprehensibility and usefulness.

David is an Experience Business writer who regularly contribute to the blog, He specializes in manufacturing news

For PR Enquiries contact[email protected]

## Distinct Player in a Unique Game – ERTH & Organic Fertilizer

8 June, 2020

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## Growth Dynamics on Biochar Fertilizer Market 2020-2027 Key Players 3R-BioPhosphate Ltd …

8 June, 2020

The biochar fertilizer market has witnessed a significant growth owing to factors such as rise in adoption of organic farming is expected to promote plant’s growth. Moreover, government intiatives and support which provides a huge market opportunity for the key players operating in the biochar fertilizer market. However, slow economic growth is projected to hamper the overall growth of the biochar fertilizer market.

3R-BioPhosphate Ltd., Adsorb, Anulekh, ArSta Eco Pvt Ltd, Biochar Farms, Biogrow Limited, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics LLC, GreenBack, Kingeta Group Co., Ltd.

Get Sample Copy of this Report at: https://www.reportsweb.com/inquiry&RW00013402621/sample

Biochars are defined as solid, carbon-rich materials which are added in soil to improve soil charaterstics and agronomic performance. It is produced with the help of pyrolysis by using several biomasses. According to various studies, the use of biochar as a fertilizer to boost the crop growth and yield. Biochar-based compound fertilizers (BCF) and amendments also helps to alter soil properties in the form of pH, nutrients, organic matter, structure etc.

The “Global Biochar fertilizer Market Analysis to 2027” is a specialized and in-depth study of the chemical and materials industry with a special focus on the global markettrend analysis. The report aims to provide an overview of the biochar fertilizer market with detailed market segmentation by application and geography. The global biochar fertilizer market is expected to witness high growth during the forecast period. The report provides key statistics on the marketstatus of the leading biochar fertilizer market players and offers key trends and opportunities in the market.

Get Discount for This Report @ https://www.reportsweb.com/inquiry&RW00013402621/discount

The reports cover key developments in the biochar fertilizer market as organic and inorganic growth strategies. Various companies are focusing on organic growth strategies such as product launches, product approvals and others such as patents and events. Inorganic growth strategies activities witnessed in the marketwere acquisitions, and partnership & collaborations. These activities have paved way for the expansion of business and customer base of marketplayers. The marketpayers fromBiochar fertilizer market is anticipated to lucrative growth opportunities in the future with the rising demand for biochar fertilizer in the global market. Below mentioned is the list of few companies engaged in the biochar fertilizer market.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Executive Summary

Chapter 3: Market Overview

Chapter 4: Biochar Fertilizer Market, By Component

Chapter 5: Biochar Fertilizer Market, By Deployment

Chapter 6: Biochar Fertilizer Market, By Organization Size

Chapter 7: Biochar Fertilizer Market, By Application

Chapter 8: Biochar Fertilizer Market, By Region

Chapter 9: Competitive Landscape

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8 June, 2020

8 June, 2020

## Effects of biochar and straw on greenhouse gas emission and its response mechanism in …

8 June, 2020

Straw inhibites the reduction of soil water, heat, carbon and nitrogen content.

Biochar promotes the absorption of CH4 in soil during freezing period.

Biochar reduces the emission flux of CH4 and N2O during thawing period.

Combined of biochar and straw weakens the global warming potential.

Straw inhibites the reduction of soil water, heat, carbon and nitrogen content.

Biochar promotes the absorption of CH4 in soil during freezing period.

Biochar reduces the emission flux of CH4 and N2O during thawing period.

Combined of biochar and straw weakens the global warming potential.

Freeze-thaw cycle promotes the decomposition of soil organic matter in cold regions, causing carbon and nitrogen to be emitted in the forms of CO2, CH4 and N2O, resulting in positive feedback to climate warming. To effectively regulate greenhouse gas emissions, four different regulation modes, namely, biochar addition (BA), straw addition (SA), combined biochar and straw (CBS) and a natural control (BL), were established. The characteristics of soil greenhouse gas emissions under different treatments and their response relationships to soil water, heat, carbon and nitrogen were explored. The results revealed that the SA and CBS treatments effectively inhibited the substantial reduction in soil temperature, moisture content, inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon during the freezing period; among them, the average soil inorganic nitrogen under the SA and CBS treatments increased by 15.36 and 11.62 mg·kg−1 compared to that in the BL treatment, respectively. Simultaneously, both N2O and CO2 emission fluxes were low, and the difference was small under the various treatments. However, the soil showed an absorption trend with respect to CH4, and the BA and CBS treatments promoted this effect; furthermore, the response relationships between CH4 and soil water, heat and carbon were enhanced. During the thawing period, the CBS treatment most effectively promoted the increase in soil water, heat, carbon and nitrogen, while it inhibited the flux of CH4 and N2O in soils, and the average CH4 emission flux under the CBS treatment decreased by 8.25 ~ 30.75 μg∙kg−1 relative to that under the other treatments. Concurrently, the responses of CH4 and N2O emission fluxes to soil water, heat, carbon and nitrogen were weakened under this treatment. Although the CBS treatment increased the CO2 emissions flux during this period, in view of the overall effect of the entire freeze–thaw period, the CBS treatment most effectively reduced the global warming potential (GWP) of the soil. Therefore, it is suggested that the joint application of biochar and straw is the most effective strategy for greenhouse gas budget management and soil nutrient restoration in seasonally frozen areas.

These authors contributed to the work equally and should be regarded as co-first authors.

8 June, 2020

## Biochar Market 2019 Global Share, Trend, Segmentation and Forecast to 2025

8 June, 2020

A new market report by Adroit Market Research on the Biochar Market has been released with reliable information and accurate forecasts for a better understanding of the current and future market scenarios. The report offers an in-depth analysis of the global market, including qualitative and quantitative insights, historical data, and estimated projections about the market size and share in the forecast period.

Some of Top Market Players Analysis Included in this Report:

Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House, Anaerob Systems, Algae AquaCulture Technologies, CECEP Golden Mountain Agricultural Science And Technology, EarthSpring Biochar/Biochar Central, Energy Management Concept, 3R Environmental Technology Group and Renargi

Get Sample Copy of this Report: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/698

The forecasts mentioned in the report have been acquired by using proven research assumptions and methodologies. Hence, this research study serves as an important depository of the information for every market landscape. The report is segmented on the basis of types, end-users, applications, and regional markets.

The introduced study elucidates the crucial indicators of market growth which comes with a thorough analysis of this value chain, CAGR development, and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis. This data may enable readers to understand the quantitative growth parameters of this international industry that is Biochar Market.

The Biochar Market Report aims to enumerate market size and trends, which is accompanied and put in plain words with qualitative data. The Biochar Market industry segmentation is carefully analyzed with an observation stage analyzing and the present and past situations. Considering the facts, the likely future situations and estimates for the future are developed. The cultural diversity has always been the main concern for any business. So, we have illustrated this through geographical analysis which makes it easy to understand the revenue flow through each region.

Global Biochar market is segmented based by type, application and region.

Based on Type, the market has been segmented into:

by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification and Others)

Based on application, the market has been segmented into:

by Application (Agriculture and Others)

Global Biochar Market Dynamics
1. Market Drivers
2. Market Restraints
3. Market Opportunities
4. Market Growth
5. Key Manufacturers with Market Status
6. Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
7. Topics such as sales and sales revenue overview, production market share by product type, capacity and production overview, import, export, and consumption are covered under the development trend section of the Biochar Market report.

Biochar Market assembled with 100+ market data in a graphical frame like (Tables, Pie Chat, Column, Line, Area & Scatter, Graphs & Figures) spread through Pages and easy to understand detailed analysis. The information is gathered based on modern floats and requests identified with the administrations and items. The Biochar Market report exhibits the working of the fundamental market players, providers, and merchants in detail. The report likewise features the limitations and drivers affecting the Biochar Market.

To summarize, the Biochar Market report studies the contemporary market to forecast the growth prospects, challenges, opportunities, risks, threats, and the trends observed in the market that can either propel or curtail the growth rate of the industry. The market factors impacting the global sector also include provincial trade policies, international trade disputes, entry barriers, and other regulatory restrictions.

9 June, 2020

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9 June, 2020

## GCB Bioenergy

9 June, 2020

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## Biochar Market Trends, Top Manufactures, Share, Industry Growth Analysis & Forecast 2026

9 June, 2020

A detailed research study titled Global Biochar Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application; Forecast to 2026 was recently published by GlobalMarketers.biz. Approximations associated with the market values over the forecast period (2020-2026) are based on empirical research and data. The authentic processes followed to exhibit various aspects of the market make the data reliable in context to a particular period and industry.

Prominent players profiled in the study:

Cool Planet
Biochar Supreme
NextChar
Terra Char
Genesis Industries
Interra Energy
CharGrow
Pacific Biochar
Biochar Now
The Biochar Company (TBC)
ElementC6
Vega Biofuels

The report gives significant information associated with the global Biochar industry analysis size, share, application, and statistics that are summed in the report to present a market prediction. An accurate competitive analysis of major market players and their strategies during the projection timeline is mentioned in the report.

This highly informative document helps trades and decision-makers to address the challenges and to gain benefits from a highly competitive market. The report incorporates valuable differentiating data regarding each of the global Biochar market segments. Key segments are studied further on various fronts including past performance, market size contributions, market share, expected rate of growth, and more. The report demonstrates a noteworthy data and insights associated with factors driving or preventing the growth of the Biochar market. It brings a five-year forecast evaluated on the basis of how the market is expected to perform.

Inquire Here For More Details Or Custom Content @ https://www.reportspedia.com/report/chemicals-and-materials/global-biochar-market-2019-by-manufacturers,-regions,-type-and-application,-forecast-to-2024/12511 #inquiry_before_buying

The Biochar market segmentation by types,

Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar
Other Stove Source Biochar

The Biochar market segmentation by application,

Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

The Biochar market segmentation by Geographies:

The Objective of This Report:

The global Biochar market report is a all-inclusive research that emphases on the overall consumption structure, development trends, sales models and sales of top countries in the global market. The report sheds light on well-known providers in the global industry, market segments, competition, and the macro environment. Further, the Biochar report considers considering a variety of factors, from demographics conditions and business cycles in a particular country to market-specific microeconomic effects.

The market report moreover covers information such as company profiles, product picture, and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue, and contact information. Additionally, upstream raw materials and downstream demand analysis are provided. The global Biochar market development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. In the end, the feasibility of the latest investment projects is assessed.

Report Allows You To:

Customization of the Report:

Please get in touch with our sales squad, who will ensure that you get a report that suits your needs. You can also get in touch with our executives on below contact information to share your research requirements.

## Fin biokull Powder Market 2020 Segmentert etter applikasjoner og geografi, globale trender, vekst …

9 June, 2020

June 10, 2020

Global Fin biokull Powder markedsundersøkelsesrapport er en omfattende undersøkelse som gir informasjon om Fin biokull Powder markedsstørrelse, trender, vekst, kostnadsstruktur, kapasitet, omsetning og prognose 2025. Denne rapporten inkluderer også den samlede studien av Fin biokull Powder markedsandel med alle dens aspekter som påvirker veksten av markedet. Global Fin biokull Powder markedsrapport er gitt for de internasjonale markedene så vel som utviklingstrender, konkurransedyktig landskapsanalyse og utviklingsstatus for viktige regioner. Utviklingspolitikk og planer blir diskutert, i tillegg til at produksjonsprosesser og kostnadsstrukturer blir analysert. Denne rapporten er uttømmende kvantitative analyser av Fin biokull Powder-bransjen og inneholder data for å lage strategier for å øke Fin biokull Powder-markedsveksten og effektiviteten.

Få en prøve PDF av rapporten — www.precisionreports.co/enquiry/request-sample/15630405

Global Fin biokull Powder-markedet 2020-forskningen gir en grunnleggende oversikt over bransjen inkludert definisjoner, klassifiseringer, applikasjoner og næringskjedestruktur. Global Fin biokull Powder markedsrapport er gitt for de internasjonale markedene så vel som utviklingstrender, konkurransedyktig landskapsanalyse og utviklingsstatus for viktige regioner. Utviklingspolitikk og planer blir diskutert, i tillegg til at produksjonsprosesser og kostnadsstrukturer blir analysert. Denne rapporten angir i tillegg import / eksportforbruk, tilbud og etterspørsel Tall, kostnader, pris, inntekt og bruttomarginer.

Endelig rapport vil legge til analysen av virkningen av COVID-19 på denne industrien.

— I COVID-19-utbruddet gir denne rapporten en analyse av virkningen av COVID-19 på den globale økonomien og Fin biokull Powder-industrien.

— Det dekker analysen av virkningen av COVID-19 fra næringskjeden.

— I tillegg vurderer effekten av COVID-19 på den regionale økonomien.

For å forstå hvordan COVID-19-virkningen dekkes i denne rapporten — Få eksempler på rapporten på — www.precisionreports.co/enquiry/request-covid19/15630405

Global Fin biokull Powder markedskonkurranse av TOPPRODUKTER, med produksjon, pris, inntekt (verdi) og hver produsent inkludert:

Carbon Terra
Biochar Now
Agri-Tech Producers
Kina
Diacarbon Energy
ElementC6
Cool Planet
BlackCarbon
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
Carbon Gold
BioChar Products

Målet med denne rapporten:

Under COVID-19-utbruddet globalt gir denne rapporten 360 grader av analyse fra forsyningskjede, import og eksportkontroll til regional regjeringspolitikk og fremtidig innflytelse på industrien. Detaljert analyse av markedsstatus (2015-2020), bedriftens konkurransemønster, fordeler og ulemper med bedriftsprodukter, industriutviklingstrender (2020-2025), regionale industriledningskarakteristikker og makroøkonomiske politikker, har også industripolitikk blitt inkludert. Fra råvarer til sluttbrukere av denne industrien blir analysert vitenskapelig, trendene for produktsirkulasjon og salgskanal vil også bli presentert. Tatt i betraktning COVID-19, gir denne rapporten omfattende og grundig analyse av hvordan epidemien presser denne industrien transformasjon og reform.

Spør før du kjøper denne rapporten — www.precisionreports.co/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/15630405

Globalt Fin biokull Powder Marked som gir informasjon som firmaprofiler, produktbilde og spesifikasjon, kapasitet, produksjon, pris, pris, omsetning og kontaktinformasjon. Oppstrøms råvarer og instrumentering og nedstrøms etterspørselsanalyse blir i tillegg dispensert. De globale Fin biokull Powder markedsutviklingstrendene og markedsføringskanalene blir analysert. Til slutt vurderes muligheten for de nyeste investeringsprosjektene og de samlede analysekonklusjonene blir tilbudt.

På bakgrunn av produkt viser denne rapporten produksjon, inntekt, pris og markedsandel og vekstrate for hver type, hovedsakelig delt inn i:

Wood Kilde biokull
Corn Kilde biokull
Hvete Kilde biokull
andre

På bakgrunn av sluttbrukere / applikasjoner, fokuserer denne rapporten på status og utsikter for store applikasjoner / sluttbrukere, forbruk (salg), markedsandel og vekstrate for hver applikasjon, inkludert:

Jordforbedringsmiddel
Gjødsel
andre

Geografisk dekkes den detaljerte analysen av forbruk, omsetning, markedsandel og vekstrate, historisk og prognose (2015-2025) for følgende regioner.

— Nord Amerika
— Europa
— Asia-Stillehavet
— Midtøsten og Afrika
— Sør Amerika

Some of the key questions answered in this report:

— What will the market growth rate, growth momentum or acceleration market carries during the forecast period?

— Which are the key factors driving the Fin biokull Powder market?

— What was the size of the emerging Fin biokull Powder market by value in 2020?

— What will be the size of the emerging Fin biokull Powder market in 2025?

— Which region is expected to hold the highest market share in the Fin biokull Powder market?

— What trends, challenges and barriers will impact the development and sizing of the Global Fin biokull Powder market?

— What are sales volume, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Fin biokull Powder market?

— What are the Fin biokull Powder market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Fin biokull Powder Industry?

Years considered for this report:

Historical Years: 2015-2019
Base Year: 2019
Estimated Year: 2020
Fin biokull Powder Market Forecast Period: 2020-2025

1 Fin biokull Powder Introduction and Market Overview
1.1 Objectives of the Study
1.2 Overview of Fin biokull Powder
1.3 Scope of The Study
1.3.1 Key Market Segments
1.3.2 Players Covered
1.3.3 COVID-19’s impact on the Fin biokull Powder industry
1.4 Methodology of The Study
1.5 Research Data Source

2 Executive Summary

2.1 Market Overview
2.1.1 Global Fin biokull Powder Market Size, 2015 — 2020
2.1.2 Global Fin biokull Powder Market Size by Type, 2015 — 2020
2.1.3 Global Fin biokull Powder Market Size by Application, 2015 — 2020
2.1.4 Global Fin biokull Powder Market Size by Region, 2015 — 2025
2.2.1 Global COVID-19 Status and Economic Overview
2.2.2 Influence of COVID-19 Outbreak on Fin biokull Powder Industry Development

3 Industry Chain Analysis

3.1 Upstream Raw Material Suppliers of Fin biokull Powder Analysis
3.2 Major Players of Fin biokull Powder
3.3 Fin biokull Powder Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis
3.3.1 Production Process Analysis
3.3.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure of Fin biokull Powder
3.3.3 Labour Cost of Fin biokull Powder
3.4 Market Distributors of Fin biokull Powder
3.5 Major Downstream Buyers of Fin biokull Powder Analysis
3.6 The Impact of Covid-19 From the Perspective of Industry Chain
3.7 Regional Import and Export Controls Will Exist for a Long Time
3.8 Continued downward PMI Spreads Globally

4 Global Fin biokull Powder Market, by Type

4.1 Global Fin biokull Powder Value and Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
4.2 Global Fin biokull Powder Production and Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
4.3 Global Fin biokull Powder Value and Growth Rate by Type (2015-2020)
4.3.1 Global Fin biokull Powder Value and Growth Rate of Type 1
4.3.2 Global Fin biokull Powder Value and Growth Rate of Type 2
4.3.3 Global Fin biokull Powder Value and Growth Rate of Type 3
4.3.4 Global Fin biokull Powder Value and Growth Rate of Others
4.4 Global Fin biokull Powder Price Analysis by Type (2015-2020)

5 Fin biokull Powder Market, by Application

5.1 Downstream Market Overview
5.2 Global Fin biokull Powder Consumption and Market Share by Application (2015-2020)
5.3 Global Fin biokull Powder Consumption and Growth Rate by Application (2015-2020)
5.3.1 Global Fin biokull Powder Consumption and Growth Rate of Application 1 (2015-2020)
5.3.2 Global Fin biokull Powder Consumption and Growth Rate of Application 2 (2015-2020)
5.3.3 Global Fin biokull Powder Consumption and Growth Rate of Application 3 (2015-2020)
5.3.4 Global Fin biokull Powder Consumption and Growth Rate of Others (2015-2020)

6 Global Fin biokull Powder Market Analysis by Regions

6.1 Global Fin biokull Powder Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Regions
6.1.1 Global Fin biokull Powder Sales by Regions (2015-2020)
6.1.2 Global Fin biokull Powder Revenue by Regions (2015-2020)
6.2 North America Fin biokull Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
6.3 Europe Fin biokull Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
6.4 Asia-Pacific Fin biokull Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
6.5 Middle East and Africa Fin biokull Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
6.6 South America Fin biokull Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
..
12 Competitive Landscape

12.1 Manufacturer 1
12.1.1 Manufacturer 1 Basic Information
12.1.2 Fin biokull Powder Product Introduction
12.1.3 Manufacturer 1 Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020

12.2 Manufacturer 2
12.2.1 Manufacturer 2 Basic Information
12.2.2 Fin biokull Powder Product Introduction
12.2.3 Manufacturer 2 Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020

12.3 Manufacturer 3
12.3.1 Manufacturer 3 Basic Information
12.3.2 Fin biokull Powder Product Introduction
12.3.3 Manufacturer 3 Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020

12.4 Manufacturer 4
12.4.1 Manufacturer 4 Basic Information
12.4.2 Fin biokull Powder Product Introduction
12.4.3 Manufacturer 4 Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020

12.5 Manufacturer 5
12.5.1 Manufacturer 5 Basic Information
12.5.2 Fin biokull Powder Product Introduction
12.5.3 Manufacturer 5 Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020

At last, the report gives the inside and out examination of Fin biokull Powder Market took after by above components, which are useful for organizations or individual for development of their present business or the individuals who are hoping to enter in Fin biokull Powder industry.

Get a Sample PDF of the Report — www.precisionreports.co/enquiry/request-sample/15630405

## Biochar addition alleviate the negative effects of drought and salinity stress on soybean productivity …

9 June, 2020

Biochar addition alleviate the negative effects of drought and salinity stress on soybean productivity and water use efficiency

Background: Environmental stress is a crucial factor restricting plant growth as well as crop productivity, thus influencing the agricultural sustainability. Biochar addition is proposed as an effective management to improve crop performance. However, there were few studies focused on the effect of biochar addition on crop growth and productivity under interactive effect of abiotic stress (e.g., drought and salinity). This study was conducted with a pot experiment to investigate the interaction effects of drought and salinity stress on soybean yield, leaf gaseous exchange and water use efficiency (WUE) under biochar addition.

Results: Drought and salinity stress significantly depressed soybean phenology (e.g. flowering time) and all the leaf gas exchange parameters, but had inconsistent effects on soybean root growth and WUE at leaf and yield levels. Salinity stress significantly decreased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate by 20.7%, 26.3%, 10.5% and 27.2%, respectively. Lower biomass production and grain yield were probably due to the restrained photosynthesis under drought and salinity stress. Biochar addition significantly enhanced soybean grain yield by 3.1-14.8%. Drought stress and biochar addition significantly increased WUE-yield by 27.5% and 15.6%, respectively, while salinity stress significantly decreased WUE-yield by 24.2%. Drought and salinity stress showed some negative interactions on soybean productivity and leaf gaseous exchange. But biochar addition alleviate the negative effects on soybean productivity and water use efficiency under drought and salinity stress.

Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that drought and salinity stress could significantly depress soybean growth and productivity. There exist interactive effects of drought and salinity stress on soybean productivity and water use efficiency, while we could employ biochar to alleviate the negative effects. We should consider the interactive effects of different abiotic restriction factors on crop growth thus for sustainable agriculture in the future.

Drought induced by water scarcity is a major limitation to the sustainability of global crop production [1,2]. High frequency and severity of droughts have been predicted throughout the world in the future, including most parts of China, due to global warming and expected frequency of extreme climatic events [3,4,5]. Crop yield could be restrained by drought stress has been well documented in previous studies [6,7,8,9,10]. For instance, drought stress could significantly decrease soybean grain yield by 24–50% but gain higher water use efficiency (WUE) [11]. Meanwhile, WUE is an important trait for indicating plant resistance under drought stress [12].

Drought stress could alter physiological characteristics of plant leaves, such as lowering leaf photosynthetic and transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, thus restraining crop productivity [13,14,15]. In addition, drought stress could also affect plant phenology (e.g., advance or delay flowering time) and then influence crop productivity [16]. It has been reported that water shortage at flowering stage negatively affected chickpea (Cicer arietinum Linn.) yield [17], but soybean (Glycine max L.) flowering time was observed no response under drought stress [11]. Besides, root is always playing an important role in regulating crop productivity under drought stress, especially for the legume crop with nodules can fix N2 from atmosphere used as N nutrition [2,18,19]. For instance, plant always has deeper roots being able to assimilate more water and nutrition from deeper soil under drought stress [20].

Salinity is another one vital limiting factor for sustainable agriculture with depressing crop growth and production worldwide [21,22,23]. Globally, more than 70 countries have been characterized as existing large areas of salinity-affected lands and over 6% of the world’s total land is affected by salinity stress [24,25]. Salinity stress could not only reduce crop yield through affecting leaf physiological growth [26], but also could reduce the ability of plant roots to take up water and nutrition (e.g., N) from soil [27,28]. While other studies showed that salinity could increase transgenic barley growth and yield in both glasshouse and field conditions, but the mechanisms were unclear [29].

Biochar, a stable C-rich byproduct obtained from biomass, application to low fertility soils is a promising approach to improve soil quality and thus crop productivity [30,31, 32]. Generally, biochar application could increase crop productivity mainly occurred in acidic and neutral pH soils [31,33], but there were less studies on alkaline soil under drought stress.

Soybean, as one of the world’s most widely grown legume crops with a total production of more than 346 million tons in 2016 (FAO stat, http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC), provides large amounts of protein and edible oil for human consumption [34]. This important legume crop, however, is affected by several abiotic stressors, such as drought and salinity, which could significantly restrict soybean growth and productivity [8,11,34,35]. Previous studies have gained widely insight into the soybean productivity affected by drought and salinity, however, the physiological basis underlying the yield reduction is still not clear. In addition, whether biochar addition could be used as an effective management to infertile soil under the combination stress of drought and salinity is scarce. Thus, a better understanding of biochar addition on physiological basis and root traits for soybean growth under drought and salinity stress will be beneficial for sustainable agriculture.

Here, this study was carried out to examine biochar addition on soybean leaf physiological parameters, crop productivity and WUE at leaf and yield levels under the combination of drought and salinity stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the single and interactive effect of these treatments on soybean productivity. This study have tested three main hypotheses: 1) drought stress could decrease soybean leaf physiological parameters and thus crop productivity, 2) salinity stress could aggravate the negative effects of drought stress, and 3) biochar addition could alleviate the constrain effects of drought and salinity stress.

Soybean phenology (e.g. flowering time) and all leaf gas exchange parameters were significantly affected by drought and salinity stress, while no significant effect was observed as consequence of biochar addition, except for photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance (Table 1). Drought stress at low and high intensity significantly decreased leaf photosynthetic rate by 26.3% and 37.9%, stomatal conductance by 38.9% and 55.0%, intercellular CO2 concentration by 15.8% and 17.1% and transpiration rate by 49.6% and 71.2%. On the contrary, drought stress significantly increased WUE-leaf by 45.4% and 102.4% at D-L and D-H treatments, respectively. Soybean flowering time was delayed by almost one day under salinity stress. In addition, salinity stress significantly decreased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate (–20.7%, –26.3%, –10.5% and –27.2%, respectively) relative to the non-salinity treatment.

The present study showed few interactive effects of treatments on leaf gas exchange parameters and no effect on soybean flowering time (Table 1, Figure 1). Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were significantly influenced by interactions both drought × salinity and drought × salinity × biochar. Intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly affected only by salinity × biochar addition interaction. WUE-leaf showed significant changes considering drought × salinity and salinity × biochar addition interaction.

Drought and salinity stress significantly affected soybean biomass productivity and root growth (Table 2). With drought stress increasing, shoot biomass (–28.9% and –48.3% at D-L and D-H, respectively), root biomass (–4.7% and –34.3% at D-L and D-H, respectively) and total biomass (–25.5% and –46.3% at D-L and D-H, respectively) were depressed significantly compared with the control. On the contrary, drought stress significantly increased root length (21.7% and 10.6% at D-L and D-H, respectively) compared with the control and the longest root length occurred in D-L treatment.

Salinity stress significantly decreased root biomass (–24.5%) and total biomass (–13.2%) relative to control treatment. In accordance with root biomass, salinity stress significantly decreased root length by 21.7% compared with control.

Biochar addition showed significantly effects on shoot biomass, root biomass and total biomass, but had no effect on the ratio of shoot/root and root length (Table 2). With biochar addition rate increasing, higher shoot biomass (14.3% and 43.6% at B1 and B2, respectively), root biomass (15.8% and 31.5% at B1 and B2, respectively) and total biomass (14.6% and 41.6% at B1 and B2, respectively) than control were observed.

Generally, biomass production was partially affected by the interactive effects of drought stress, salinity stress and biochar addition (Table 2). Specifically, drought × salinity stress interaction significantly affected root length, root biomass and the total biomass production (Figure 2). It is worth mentioning that root length showed no difference among drought stress when salinity was added, but without salinity addition root length was enhanced by 35.5% under D-L and 28.1% under D-H compared to D-C treatment (Figure 2j). In addition, the drought stress × biochar addition interaction significantly affected shoot biomass, total biomass, and root length but not root biomass. With biochar addition increasing, drought stress depressed shoot biomass (averaged from –19.0% to –53.8%) and total biomass (averaged from –14.8% to –51.7%) stronger compared with control. Particularly, drought stress significantly increased root length (55.2% and 50.6% at low and high drought stress, respectively) only in B1 treatment.

Soybean gained the highest grain yield (10.46 g pot–1) at the D-C treatment with well irrigation. Drought stress significantly reduced the grain yield of soybean by 17.7% and 42.6% under low and high drought, respectively (Table 2). Similarly, salinity stress significantly lowered the grain yield by 21.1% compared with the treatment with no salinity addition. While, biochar addition significantly enhanced grain yield by 3.1–14.8% compared with the control.

Soybean grain yield was partially affected by the interactive effects of studied treatments (Table 2). As expected, drought × salinity stress interaction significantly affected grain yield with worse performance when salinity was added together with drought stress (Figure 3). Besides, drought stress interaction with biochar addition also significantly affected soybean grain yield. No significant effect on soybean yield was observed considering the interaction of drought stress × salinity stress × biochar addition.

Drought stress showed a positive effects on WUE-yield while salinity stress showed a negative effects on WUE-yield in this study (Table 2). Under water deficit, WUE-yield was increased by 27.5% and 25.5% under low and high drought stress, respectively. On the contrary, salinity stress significantly decreased WUE-yield by 24.2% compared with the non-salinity addition soils. Biochar addition significantly enhanced WUE-yield 15.6% at high addition rate while showed no effect at low addition rate.

WUE-yield was significantly affected by the studied treatments interaction (Table 2, Figure 3). Drought stress significantly increased WUE-yield but salinity addition significantly decreased WUE-yield under control treatment, however, biochar addition relieved the effects.

Flowering stage is an important transition period for soybean vegetative and reproductive growth, and sensitive to drought and salinity stress [36]. Both drought and salinity stress delayed soybean flowering time in this study, which should be an underlying mechanism for soybean adapting to the rigorous habitat. Previous studies have shown that drought and salinity stress could delay crop flowering time thereby making a negative effect on crop productivity [11,21,37,38]. The present study is in consistent with the above reported literature findings, which might be attributed to the greater water consumption with later flowering time [11].

Leaf photosynthetic efficiency plays an important role in regulating crop yield [15,35,39]. The present study showed that leaf photosynthetic rate was inhibited by drought and salinity stress, which could cause reduction of soybean yield [15,16]. The decrease of photosynthetic rate due to drought stress has been also reported in legume crops [15,40], and has been ascribed to stomatal closure under drought stress [14,15]. As reported by Hussain et al. [15], stomatal closure mediated restricted CO2 diffusion in the leaves is more dominating compared to CO2 assimilation, thus could decline leaf photosynthetic rate and crop productivity. In accordance with previous studies, the reduction of photosynthetic rate in the present study can be ascribed to two distinct mechanisms: 1) through decreased CO2 diffusion within the leaf due to stomatal closure (decreased by 56.7% and 80.3% under low and high drought stress, respectively). 2) through decreased the enzyme at the acceptor site of ribulose–1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase or inhibit photosynthetic enzymes due to lower intercellular CO2 concentration [16,40,42]. Similarly, the intercellular CO2 concentration is also considered as a key factor assessing the effects of salinity on photosynthetic efficiency [21,43]. Soil salinity stress could lead to enhance leaf cellular Na+ and Cl concentrations, then depress cell expansion and photosynthetic activity and thereafter accelerate leaf senescence, thus resulting in crop yield reduction [21,44]. Otherwise, salinity tolerant plant showed a better intercellular CO2 concentration in the leaf for the photosynthetic rate [23].

Root, the first organ to adapt and respond sensitively to abiotic stressors in soil (e.g., drought and salinity), plays an important role in regulating plant growth [45,46,47]. To our knowledge, however, few work has been done on root and nodule growth of soybean responding to the interaction of drought and salinity stress. Root architecture, particularly those that can entrench deeper with longer root length in the soil, plays an important role in maximizing the ability of plants to gain soil water and nutrients for plant growth [45,48]. Accompanied with strategies that reduce water loss, such as stomatal closure and leaf transpiration rate weaken, the augment in root length could increase soil water and nutrients obtain that is necessary to support biomass production and grain yield of soybean [45]. As shown in this study, root length was longer under drought condition than the control for acquiring more water and nutrition easier. On the contrary, root nodules were decreased sharply accompanied with soybean grain yield under drought and salinity stress. These findings suggest that in addition to root performance, the ability to develop and maintain root nodules may also be a crucial trait regulating the grain productivity of soybean. Although salinity addition showed no effect on root length and nodule weight, the interaction of drought and salinity suggests that we should consider the comprehensive influence of salinity on soybean productivity under drought stress, because root growth and nodule performance are crucial parameters associated with soybean productivity.

Biochar application to low fertility or pollutant soils as a promising approach to improve soil quality and thus enhance crop yield has been well reported in previous studies [30,31,32,49]. Actually, biochar application in field could enhance crop yield mainly ascribed to the regulation in soil pH [50], increase soil C storage [51], and retain soil water and nutrient [52]. In the present study, biochar addition significantly enhanced shoot biomass, root biomass and grain yield. These phenomenon could also be attributed to the alternation in leaf physiological variables (e.g. the rate of photosynthesis). Biochar addition led to a significant improvement of leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance (Table 1). This could increase leaf and soil available N content and thus partially contribute to yield improvement [53]. Physiological parameters are key traits to assess plant fitness and general performance, especially under environmental stress (e.g., drought and salinity). However, few studies have addressed the physiological responses of plants on biochar amendment under drought and salinity stress [24]. Thus, understanding the influence of biochar on plant physiological properties will provide another insight into the underlying mechanisms responsible for the reported agronomic benefits of biochar employment.

In rain-fed and semiarid regions, WUE has been regarded as an important trait indicating crop productivity, which links water and nutrient cycling in agroecosystems [39]. However, few studies have focused on how the WUE responded to drought and salinity stress at different scales, such as at leaf and yield levels. Drought and salinity stress showed the same effect on enhancing WUE at leaf scale in the present study (Table 1). The positive effect of drought and salinity on WUE-leaf is largely due to leaf stomatal closure and transpiration rate reduction under the external stress [54,55], thus leads to water evaporation less and water use more efficiency for the leaf. However, at the yield scale, WUE-yield was enhanced significantly by drought stress but decreased significantly by salinity stress. The inversed results were probability caused by root growth responded differently to drought and salinity stress, which is sensitively to obtain water from soil [56]. Furthermore, the interactive of drought and salinity stress significantly affected WUE at both leaf and yield levels, which means we should consider the comprehensive influence of drought and salinity on WUE in the future for sustainable agriculture.

This study shows that both drought and salinity stress delayed soybean flowering time and depressed leaf gas exchange parameters (e.g., photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate) with negative effect on grain yield. Biochar addition significantly increased plant biomass and grain yield. Drought stress showed an increase of WUE-leaf and WUE-yield while salinity stress showed a reduction of WUE-yield. Effective use of water implies maximal soil moisture capture for transpiration, which may be use to replace WUE in the future with drought stress. The results of this study indicate that drought and salinity stress effect on soybean productivity and WUE are highly conspicuous, while biochar amendment could alleviate the negative effects. We should take into account the employment of biochar and interactive effects of abiotic stressors for sustainable agriculture in the future.

Soil samples (0–20 cm depth cores) were collected from a sandy-loam vertisol (USDA soil classification system) managed with maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop rotation at the Research and Education Farm of Henan University, China (34° 49′ N, 114° 17′ E, 73 m a.s.l). The mean annual temperature is 14.5 °C, with monthly mean temperature ranging from −0.16 °C in January to 27.1 °C in July (China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System). Mean annual precipitation is 627 mm, with 87.8% distributing from April to October. The soil parent material is mainly formed from Yellow River sediment, consisting of 65.6% sand, 14.1% silt and 20.3% clay with an initial pH of 8.6 (1:2.5, water/soil, w/w) and an average bulk density of 1.35 g cm–3. Total N and organic C contents were 0.47 g kg–1 and 11.04 g kg–1, respectively. The electrical conductivity of saturated soil-paste extract (ECe) is 10.6 dS m–1.

Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw under pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C at the Sanli New Energy Company in Henan, China. The main properties of biochar were reported in our previous study [57]: total organic C 467.2 g kg–1, total N 6 g kg–1, pH 10.9 and ash content 20.8%.

A 3 × 2 × 3 factorial design pot experiment was conducted with the following main factors: 1) drought stress (main factor): soil moisture was kept at 75–80% WHC as control (D-C), 40–45% WHC as low drought stress (D-L), 20–25% WHC as high drought stress (D-H); 2) salinity stress (secondary factor): background soil as control and salinity addition at 1 g kg–1 dry soil as the salinity stress treatment; 3) biochar addition (thirdly factor): biochar applied at 0, 5, and 10 g kg–1 soil as control (B0), low (B1) and high (B2) biochar addition rate, respectively. In total, there were eighteen treatment combinations replicated four times for a total of 72 pots. In each plastic pot (with a circle radius of 20 cm and height of 25 cm), 5.6 kg soil (air dried weight basis) was added and soil surface was subsequently levelled before soybean sowing. The pot experiment was carried out in a rain shelter covered with glass.

Drought stress was controlled based on soil moisture with an electronic balance after thinning seedlings. Every 1 or 2 days, experiment pots were weighted and distilled water was used to replenish water loss if it was necessary. Salinity stress was adjusted by mixing NaCl into soil. Na+ content was 0.03 g kg–1 in the background soil, but we refer to the background soil as the control treatment as none Na+. NaCl and biochar was mixed thoroughly with soil prior to experiment start according to pre-determined amount.

The pot experiment was lasted 107 days, it began on June 30 and ended on October 15 in 2018. The soybean variety (Named Zhonghuang 35, produced by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) used in this experiment was one of the most widely planted variety in this region. Six well-selected soybean seeds were sowing in each pot. Thinning seedlings occurred after 20 days of sowing when the soybean plants have 3 or 4 cotyledons and two soybean plants were remained in each pot. Drought stress started after thinning seedlings.

The third leaf from the top plant was used to determine the leaf photosynthetic physiology, including photosynthetic rate (P-max),, stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) at soybean flowering stage by using an open gas-exchange system (Li–6400; Li-Cor Inc.) with a 6 cm2 clamp-on leaf cuvette on clear days (two times on August 4, 2018 and August 11, 2018). Leaf gas exchange was measured in the sunny morning between 08:00 to 11:00 (local time). During the measurement, leaves were illuminated at 1500 μmol m–2 s–1 using the LED light system. We did not control leaf temperature, water vapor or CO2 concentrations. Leaf level WUE (WUE-leaf) was calculated as: WUE-leaf = P-max Tr.

Grain yield from each pot was collected in mesh bags and air-dried for weighing. At the same time, soybean shoot samples were taken from each pot and oven-dried at 70°C to constant weight for calculating the shoot biomass. For the soybean root, we have washed the root cleanly and measured root length.

WUE at the yield level was calculated by dividing the soybean grain yield by water usage [58]:

WUE-yield (g L−1) = grain yield / water usage.

Leaf gas exchange parameters, soybean grain yield, biomass, root length and WUE were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and significant differences were checked through Fisher LSD test. All the parameters as affected by the interactive of drought stress, salinity stress and biochar addition were addressed in the figures. Statistical analysis of data was performed using SPSS version 21.0 (SPSS Inc.), and statistical significance was determined at the 0.05 probability level. The data are presented as means ± SE (n = 4).

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Funding

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41701283, U1804101), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019T120621, 2018M632760), Kaifeng Science and Technology Planning Project (1902007).

Authors’ contributions

YZ and CZ conceived and designed the experiment. JD and HW handled the experiment and measured physiological indicators. YZ, JD and LS analyzed the data and wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

Not applicable

Table 1. Flowering time, P-max, Cond, Ci, Tr and WUE-leaf of soybean at the flowering stage. Different letters within each treatment indicate significant differences for Fisher LSD test.

Flowering time

P-max

Cond

Ci

Tr

WUE-leaf

days

μmol CO2 m-2 s-1

mol H2O m-2 s-1

μmol CO2 mol-1

mmol H2O m-2 s-1

μmol mmol-1

Drought stress (D)

D-C

41.75±0.32 c

10.20±0.68 a

0.49±0.03 a

325.29±7.27 a

11.69±0.85 a

0.95±0.09 c

D-L

42.92±0.41 b

7.51±0.47 b

0.30±0.01 b

273.83±4.90 b

5.89±0.55 b

1.38±0.08 b

D-H

44.54±0.26 a

6.34±0.21 b

0.22±0.01 c

269.69±6.16 b

3.37±0.16 c

1.93±0.06 a

Salinity stress (S)

Control

42.58±0.33 b

8.94±0.56 a

0.38±0.03 a

305.58±7.17 a

8.08±0.83 a

1.36±0.09 a

Salinity

43.56±0.32 a

7.09±0.33 b

0.28±0.02 b

273.62±4.57 b

5.88±0.63 b

1.48±0.09 a

Biochar (B)

B0

43.17±0.40 a

7.02±0.45 b

0.31±0.03 b

289.18±7.70 a

6.13±0.76 a

1.38±0.11 a

B1

42.96±0.41 a

8.47±0.75 a

0.35±0.04 a

285.04±7.67 a

7.42±1.00 a

1.39±0.11 a

B2

43.08±0.42 a

8.55±0.48 a

0.34±0.03 ab

294.58±7.85 a

7.40±1.01 a

1.50±0.12 a

ANOVA

D

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

S

<0.01

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.01

0.055

B

0.896

<0.01

<0.05

0.369

0.156

0.274

D × S

0.057

<0.01

<0.001

0.079

0.141

<0.001

D × B

0.550

0.562

0.174

0.146

0.164

0.070

S × B

0.469

<0.05

0.094

<0.05

0.401

<0.001

D × S × B

0.328

<0.05

<0.05

0.156

0.717

0.339

Note: P-max, leaf maximum photosynthetic rate; Cond, stomatal conductance; Ci, intercellular CO2 concentration; Tr, transpiration rate; WUE-leaf, leaf water use efficiency

Table 2. Shoot biomass, root biomass, shoot/root, total biomass, root length, grain yield and WUE-yield of the soybean plant when harvesting. Different letters within each treatment indicate significant differences for Fisher LSD test.

Shoot biomass

Root biomass

Shoot/root

Total biomass

Root length

Grain yield

WUE-yield

g pot-1

g pot-1

g pot-1

cm

g pot-1

g L-1

Drought stress (D)

D-C

19.80±1.21 a

3.24±0.25 a

6.35±0.30 a

23.04±1.40 a

28.08±1.72 b

10.46±0.64 a

0.51±0.03 b

D-L

14.08±0.85 b

3.08±0.18 a

4.66±0.21 b

17.17±0.98 b

34.17±1.74 a

8.61±0.61 b

0.65±0.05 a

D-H

10.23±0.74 c

2.13±0.15 b

4.96±0.29 b

12.36±0.86 c

31.04±2.37 ab

6.00±0.29 c

0.64±0.03 a

Salinity stress (S)

Control

15.56±0.74 a

3.21±0.12 a

4.90±0.18 b

18.76±0.82 a

34.88±1.83 a

9.34±0.46 a

0.69±0.03 a

Salinity

13.86±1.22 a

2.42±0.21 b

5.75±0.29 a

16.28±1.39 b

27.31±1.12 b

7.37±0.55 b

0.52±0.03 b

Biochar (B)

B0

12.33±0.82 b

2.43±0.17 b

5.20±0.27 a

14.76±0.96 b

31.80±2.01 a

7.89±0.48 b

0.57±0.04 b

B1

14.09±1.03 b

2.82±0.19 ab

5.09±0.29 a

16.91±1.16 b

33.17±2.29 a

8.13±0.65 ab

0.59±0.04 b

B2

17.70±1.53 a

3.20±0.28 a

5.68±0.35 a

20.90±1.74 a

28.31±1.60 a

9.05±0.78 a

0.66±0.03 a

ANOVA

D

<0.001

<0.001

<0.01

<0.001

<0.05

<0.001

<0.001

S

0.051

<0.001

<0.01

<0.05

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

B

<0.001

<0.01

0.438

<0.001

0.090

<0.05

<0.05

D × S

0.059

<0.05

0.820

<0.05

<0.05

<0.001

<0.001

D × B

<0.05

0.401

0.534

<0.05

<0.05

<0.001

<0.001

S × B

<0.05

<0.05

0.853

<0.05

0.714

<0.01

<0.01

D × S × B

0.682

0.499

0.716

0.633

<0.05

0.160

0.160

On 08 Jun, 2020

On 05 May, 2020

Invitations sent on 05 May, 2020

On 05 May, 2020

On 28 Apr, 2020

On 28 Apr, 2020

On 28 Apr, 2020

Biochar addition alleviate the negative effects of drought and salinity stress on soybean productivity and water use efficiency

On 08 Jun, 2020

On 05 May, 2020

Invitations sent on 05 May, 2020

On 05 May, 2020

On 28 Apr, 2020

On 28 Apr, 2020

On 28 Apr, 2020

Background: Environmental stress is a crucial factor restricting plant growth as well as crop productivity, thus influencing the agricultural sustainability. Biochar addition is proposed as an effective management to improve crop performance. However, there were few studies focused on the effect of biochar addition on crop growth and productivity under interactive effect of abiotic stress (e.g., drought and salinity). This study was conducted with a pot experiment to investigate the interaction effects of drought and salinity stress on soybean yield, leaf gaseous exchange and water use efficiency (WUE) under biochar addition.

Results: Drought and salinity stress significantly depressed soybean phenology (e.g. flowering time) and all the leaf gas exchange parameters, but had inconsistent effects on soybean root growth and WUE at leaf and yield levels. Salinity stress significantly decreased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate by 20.7%, 26.3%, 10.5% and 27.2%, respectively. Lower biomass production and grain yield were probably due to the restrained photosynthesis under drought and salinity stress. Biochar addition significantly enhanced soybean grain yield by 3.1-14.8%. Drought stress and biochar addition significantly increased WUE-yield by 27.5% and 15.6%, respectively, while salinity stress significantly decreased WUE-yield by 24.2%. Drought and salinity stress showed some negative interactions on soybean productivity and leaf gaseous exchange. But biochar addition alleviate the negative effects on soybean productivity and water use efficiency under drought and salinity stress.

Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that drought and salinity stress could significantly depress soybean growth and productivity. There exist interactive effects of drought and salinity stress on soybean productivity and water use efficiency, while we could employ biochar to alleviate the negative effects. We should consider the interactive effects of different abiotic restriction factors on crop growth thus for sustainable agriculture in the future.

Drought induced by water scarcity is a major limitation to the sustainability of global crop production [1,2]. High frequency and severity of droughts have been predicted throughout the world in the future, including most parts of China, due to global warming and expected frequency of extreme climatic events [3,4,5]. Crop yield could be restrained by drought stress has been well documented in previous studies [6,7,8,9,10]. For instance, drought stress could significantly decrease soybean grain yield by 24–50% but gain higher water use efficiency (WUE) [11]. Meanwhile, WUE is an important trait for indicating plant resistance under drought stress [12].

Drought stress could alter physiological characteristics of plant leaves, such as lowering leaf photosynthetic and transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, thus restraining crop productivity [13,14,15]. In addition, drought stress could also affect plant phenology (e.g., advance or delay flowering time) and then influence crop productivity [16]. It has been reported that water shortage at flowering stage negatively affected chickpea (Cicer arietinum Linn.) yield [17], but soybean (Glycine max L.) flowering time was observed no response under drought stress [11]. Besides, root is always playing an important role in regulating crop productivity under drought stress, especially for the legume crop with nodules can fix N2 from atmosphere used as N nutrition [2,18,19]. For instance, plant always has deeper roots being able to assimilate more water and nutrition from deeper soil under drought stress [20].

Salinity is another one vital limiting factor for sustainable agriculture with depressing crop growth and production worldwide [21,22,23]. Globally, more than 70 countries have been characterized as existing large areas of salinity-affected lands and over 6% of the world’s total land is affected by salinity stress [24,25]. Salinity stress could not only reduce crop yield through affecting leaf physiological growth [26], but also could reduce the ability of plant roots to take up water and nutrition (e.g., N) from soil [27,28]. While other studies showed that salinity could increase transgenic barley growth and yield in both glasshouse and field conditions, but the mechanisms were unclear [29].

Biochar, a stable C-rich byproduct obtained from biomass, application to low fertility soils is a promising approach to improve soil quality and thus crop productivity [30,31, 32]. Generally, biochar application could increase crop productivity mainly occurred in acidic and neutral pH soils [31,33], but there were less studies on alkaline soil under drought stress.

Soybean, as one of the world’s most widely grown legume crops with a total production of more than 346 million tons in 2016 (FAO stat, http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC), provides large amounts of protein and edible oil for human consumption [34]. This important legume crop, however, is affected by several abiotic stressors, such as drought and salinity, which could significantly restrict soybean growth and productivity [8,11,34,35]. Previous studies have gained widely insight into the soybean productivity affected by drought and salinity, however, the physiological basis underlying the yield reduction is still not clear. In addition, whether biochar addition could be used as an effective management to infertile soil under the combination stress of drought and salinity is scarce. Thus, a better understanding of biochar addition on physiological basis and root traits for soybean growth under drought and salinity stress will be beneficial for sustainable agriculture.

Here, this study was carried out to examine biochar addition on soybean leaf physiological parameters, crop productivity and WUE at leaf and yield levels under the combination of drought and salinity stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the single and interactive effect of these treatments on soybean productivity. This study have tested three main hypotheses: 1) drought stress could decrease soybean leaf physiological parameters and thus crop productivity, 2) salinity stress could aggravate the negative effects of drought stress, and 3) biochar addition could alleviate the constrain effects of drought and salinity stress.

Soybean phenology (e.g. flowering time) and all leaf gas exchange parameters were significantly affected by drought and salinity stress, while no significant effect was observed as consequence of biochar addition, except for photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance (Table 1). Drought stress at low and high intensity significantly decreased leaf photosynthetic rate by 26.3% and 37.9%, stomatal conductance by 38.9% and 55.0%, intercellular CO2 concentration by 15.8% and 17.1% and transpiration rate by 49.6% and 71.2%. On the contrary, drought stress significantly increased WUE-leaf by 45.4% and 102.4% at D-L and D-H treatments, respectively. Soybean flowering time was delayed by almost one day under salinity stress. In addition, salinity stress significantly decreased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate (–20.7%, –26.3%, –10.5% and –27.2%, respectively) relative to the non-salinity treatment.

The present study showed few interactive effects of treatments on leaf gas exchange parameters and no effect on soybean flowering time (Table 1, Figure 1). Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were significantly influenced by interactions both drought × salinity and drought × salinity × biochar. Intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly affected only by salinity × biochar addition interaction. WUE-leaf showed significant changes considering drought × salinity and salinity × biochar addition interaction.

Drought and salinity stress significantly affected soybean biomass productivity and root growth (Table 2). With drought stress increasing, shoot biomass (–28.9% and –48.3% at D-L and D-H, respectively), root biomass (–4.7% and –34.3% at D-L and D-H, respectively) and total biomass (–25.5% and –46.3% at D-L and D-H, respectively) were depressed significantly compared with the control. On the contrary, drought stress significantly increased root length (21.7% and 10.6% at D-L and D-H, respectively) compared with the control and the longest root length occurred in D-L treatment.

Salinity stress significantly decreased root biomass (–24.5%) and total biomass (–13.2%) relative to control treatment. In accordance with root biomass, salinity stress significantly decreased root length by 21.7% compared with control.

Biochar addition showed significantly effects on shoot biomass, root biomass and total biomass, but had no effect on the ratio of shoot/root and root length (Table 2). With biochar addition rate increasing, higher shoot biomass (14.3% and 43.6% at B1 and B2, respectively), root biomass (15.8% and 31.5% at B1 and B2, respectively) and total biomass (14.6% and 41.6% at B1 and B2, respectively) than control were observed.

Generally, biomass production was partially affected by the interactive effects of drought stress, salinity stress and biochar addition (Table 2). Specifically, drought × salinity stress interaction significantly affected root length, root biomass and the total biomass production (Figure 2). It is worth mentioning that root length showed no difference among drought stress when salinity was added, but without salinity addition root length was enhanced by 35.5% under D-L and 28.1% under D-H compared to D-C treatment (Figure 2j). In addition, the drought stress × biochar addition interaction significantly affected shoot biomass, total biomass, and root length but not root biomass. With biochar addition increasing, drought stress depressed shoot biomass (averaged from –19.0% to –53.8%) and total biomass (averaged from –14.8% to –51.7%) stronger compared with control. Particularly, drought stress significantly increased root length (55.2% and 50.6% at low and high drought stress, respectively) only in B1 treatment.

Soybean gained the highest grain yield (10.46 g pot–1) at the D-C treatment with well irrigation. Drought stress significantly reduced the grain yield of soybean by 17.7% and 42.6% under low and high drought, respectively (Table 2). Similarly, salinity stress significantly lowered the grain yield by 21.1% compared with the treatment with no salinity addition. While, biochar addition significantly enhanced grain yield by 3.1–14.8% compared with the control.

Soybean grain yield was partially affected by the interactive effects of studied treatments (Table 2). As expected, drought × salinity stress interaction significantly affected grain yield with worse performance when salinity was added together with drought stress (Figure 3). Besides, drought stress interaction with biochar addition also significantly affected soybean grain yield. No significant effect on soybean yield was observed considering the interaction of drought stress × salinity stress × biochar addition.

Drought stress showed a positive effects on WUE-yield while salinity stress showed a negative effects on WUE-yield in this study (Table 2). Under water deficit, WUE-yield was increased by 27.5% and 25.5% under low and high drought stress, respectively. On the contrary, salinity stress significantly decreased WUE-yield by 24.2% compared with the non-salinity addition soils. Biochar addition significantly enhanced WUE-yield 15.6% at high addition rate while showed no effect at low addition rate.

WUE-yield was significantly affected by the studied treatments interaction (Table 2, Figure 3). Drought stress significantly increased WUE-yield but salinity addition significantly decreased WUE-yield under control treatment, however, biochar addition relieved the effects.

Flowering stage is an important transition period for soybean vegetative and reproductive growth, and sensitive to drought and salinity stress [36]. Both drought and salinity stress delayed soybean flowering time in this study, which should be an underlying mechanism for soybean adapting to the rigorous habitat. Previous studies have shown that drought and salinity stress could delay crop flowering time thereby making a negative effect on crop productivity [11,21,37,38]. The present study is in consistent with the above reported literature findings, which might be attributed to the greater water consumption with later flowering time [11].

Leaf photosynthetic efficiency plays an important role in regulating crop yield [15,35,39]. The present study showed that leaf photosynthetic rate was inhibited by drought and salinity stress, which could cause reduction of soybean yield [15,16]. The decrease of photosynthetic rate due to drought stress has been also reported in legume crops [15,40], and has been ascribed to stomatal closure under drought stress [14,15]. As reported by Hussain et al. [15], stomatal closure mediated restricted CO2 diffusion in the leaves is more dominating compared to CO2 assimilation, thus could decline leaf photosynthetic rate and crop productivity. In accordance with previous studies, the reduction of photosynthetic rate in the present study can be ascribed to two distinct mechanisms: 1) through decreased CO2 diffusion within the leaf due to stomatal closure (decreased by 56.7% and 80.3% under low and high drought stress, respectively). 2) through decreased the enzyme at the acceptor site of ribulose–1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase or inhibit photosynthetic enzymes due to lower intercellular CO2 concentration [16,40,42]. Similarly, the intercellular CO2 concentration is also considered as a key factor assessing the effects of salinity on photosynthetic efficiency [21,43]. Soil salinity stress could lead to enhance leaf cellular Na+ and Cl concentrations, then depress cell expansion and photosynthetic activity and thereafter accelerate leaf senescence, thus resulting in crop yield reduction [21,44]. Otherwise, salinity tolerant plant showed a better intercellular CO2 concentration in the leaf for the photosynthetic rate [23].

Root, the first organ to adapt and respond sensitively to abiotic stressors in soil (e.g., drought and salinity), plays an important role in regulating plant growth [45,46,47]. To our knowledge, however, few work has been done on root and nodule growth of soybean responding to the interaction of drought and salinity stress. Root architecture, particularly those that can entrench deeper with longer root length in the soil, plays an important role in maximizing the ability of plants to gain soil water and nutrients for plant growth [45,48]. Accompanied with strategies that reduce water loss, such as stomatal closure and leaf transpiration rate weaken, the augment in root length could increase soil water and nutrients obtain that is necessary to support biomass production and grain yield of soybean [45]. As shown in this study, root length was longer under drought condition than the control for acquiring more water and nutrition easier. On the contrary, root nodules were decreased sharply accompanied with soybean grain yield under drought and salinity stress. These findings suggest that in addition to root performance, the ability to develop and maintain root nodules may also be a crucial trait regulating the grain productivity of soybean. Although salinity addition showed no effect on root length and nodule weight, the interaction of drought and salinity suggests that we should consider the comprehensive influence of salinity on soybean productivity under drought stress, because root growth and nodule performance are crucial parameters associated with soybean productivity.

Biochar application to low fertility or pollutant soils as a promising approach to improve soil quality and thus enhance crop yield has been well reported in previous studies [30,31,32,49]. Actually, biochar application in field could enhance crop yield mainly ascribed to the regulation in soil pH [50], increase soil C storage [51], and retain soil water and nutrient [52]. In the present study, biochar addition significantly enhanced shoot biomass, root biomass and grain yield. These phenomenon could also be attributed to the alternation in leaf physiological variables (e.g. the rate of photosynthesis). Biochar addition led to a significant improvement of leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance (Table 1). This could increase leaf and soil available N content and thus partially contribute to yield improvement [53]. Physiological parameters are key traits to assess plant fitness and general performance, especially under environmental stress (e.g., drought and salinity). However, few studies have addressed the physiological responses of plants on biochar amendment under drought and salinity stress [24]. Thus, understanding the influence of biochar on plant physiological properties will provide another insight into the underlying mechanisms responsible for the reported agronomic benefits of biochar employment.

In rain-fed and semiarid regions, WUE has been regarded as an important trait indicating crop productivity, which links water and nutrient cycling in agroecosystems [39]. However, few studies have focused on how the WUE responded to drought and salinity stress at different scales, such as at leaf and yield levels. Drought and salinity stress showed the same effect on enhancing WUE at leaf scale in the present study (Table 1). The positive effect of drought and salinity on WUE-leaf is largely due to leaf stomatal closure and transpiration rate reduction under the external stress [54,55], thus leads to water evaporation less and water use more efficiency for the leaf. However, at the yield scale, WUE-yield was enhanced significantly by drought stress but decreased significantly by salinity stress. The inversed results were probability caused by root growth responded differently to drought and salinity stress, which is sensitively to obtain water from soil [56]. Furthermore, the interactive of drought and salinity stress significantly affected WUE at both leaf and yield levels, which means we should consider the comprehensive influence of drought and salinity on WUE in the future for sustainable agriculture.

This study shows that both drought and salinity stress delayed soybean flowering time and depressed leaf gas exchange parameters (e.g., photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate) with negative effect on grain yield. Biochar addition significantly increased plant biomass and grain yield. Drought stress showed an increase of WUE-leaf and WUE-yield while salinity stress showed a reduction of WUE-yield. Effective use of water implies maximal soil moisture capture for transpiration, which may be use to replace WUE in the future with drought stress. The results of this study indicate that drought and salinity stress effect on soybean productivity and WUE are highly conspicuous, while biochar amendment could alleviate the negative effects. We should take into account the employment of biochar and interactive effects of abiotic stressors for sustainable agriculture in the future.

Soil samples (0–20 cm depth cores) were collected from a sandy-loam vertisol (USDA soil classification system) managed with maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop rotation at the Research and Education Farm of Henan University, China (34° 49′ N, 114° 17′ E, 73 m a.s.l). The mean annual temperature is 14.5 °C, with monthly mean temperature ranging from −0.16 °C in January to 27.1 °C in July (China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System). Mean annual precipitation is 627 mm, with 87.8% distributing from April to October. The soil parent material is mainly formed from Yellow River sediment, consisting of 65.6% sand, 14.1% silt and 20.3% clay with an initial pH of 8.6 (1:2.5, water/soil, w/w) and an average bulk density of 1.35 g cm–3. Total N and organic C contents were 0.47 g kg–1 and 11.04 g kg–1, respectively. The electrical conductivity of saturated soil-paste extract (ECe) is 10.6 dS m–1.

Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw under pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C at the Sanli New Energy Company in Henan, China. The main properties of biochar were reported in our previous study [57]: total organic C 467.2 g kg–1, total N 6 g kg–1, pH 10.9 and ash content 20.8%.

A 3 × 2 × 3 factorial design pot experiment was conducted with the following main factors: 1) drought stress (main factor): soil moisture was kept at 75–80% WHC as control (D-C), 40–45% WHC as low drought stress (D-L), 20–25% WHC as high drought stress (D-H); 2) salinity stress (secondary factor): background soil as control and salinity addition at 1 g kg–1 dry soil as the salinity stress treatment; 3) biochar addition (thirdly factor): biochar applied at 0, 5, and 10 g kg–1 soil as control (B0), low (B1) and high (B2) biochar addition rate, respectively. In total, there were eighteen treatment combinations replicated four times for a total of 72 pots. In each plastic pot (with a circle radius of 20 cm and height of 25 cm), 5.6 kg soil (air dried weight basis) was added and soil surface was subsequently levelled before soybean sowing. The pot experiment was carried out in a rain shelter covered with glass.

Drought stress was controlled based on soil moisture with an electronic balance after thinning seedlings. Every 1 or 2 days, experiment pots were weighted and distilled water was used to replenish water loss if it was necessary. Salinity stress was adjusted by mixing NaCl into soil. Na+ content was 0.03 g kg–1 in the background soil, but we refer to the background soil as the control treatment as none Na+. NaCl and biochar was mixed thoroughly with soil prior to experiment start according to pre-determined amount.

The pot experiment was lasted 107 days, it began on June 30 and ended on October 15 in 2018. The soybean variety (Named Zhonghuang 35, produced by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) used in this experiment was one of the most widely planted variety in this region. Six well-selected soybean seeds were sowing in each pot. Thinning seedlings occurred after 20 days of sowing when the soybean plants have 3 or 4 cotyledons and two soybean plants were remained in each pot. Drought stress started after thinning seedlings.

The third leaf from the top plant was used to determine the leaf photosynthetic physiology, including photosynthetic rate (P-max),, stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) at soybean flowering stage by using an open gas-exchange system (Li–6400; Li-Cor Inc.) with a 6 cm2 clamp-on leaf cuvette on clear days (two times on August 4, 2018 and August 11, 2018). Leaf gas exchange was measured in the sunny morning between 08:00 to 11:00 (local time). During the measurement, leaves were illuminated at 1500 μmol m–2 s–1 using the LED light system. We did not control leaf temperature, water vapor or CO2 concentrations. Leaf level WUE (WUE-leaf) was calculated as: WUE-leaf = P-max Tr.

Grain yield from each pot was collected in mesh bags and air-dried for weighing. At the same time, soybean shoot samples were taken from each pot and oven-dried at 70°C to constant weight for calculating the shoot biomass. For the soybean root, we have washed the root cleanly and measured root length.

WUE at the yield level was calculated by dividing the soybean grain yield by water usage [58]:

WUE-yield (g L−1) = grain yield / water usage.

Leaf gas exchange parameters, soybean grain yield, biomass, root length and WUE were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and significant differences were checked through Fisher LSD test. All the parameters as affected by the interactive of drought stress, salinity stress and biochar addition were addressed in the figures. Statistical analysis of data was performed using SPSS version 21.0 (SPSS Inc.), and statistical significance was determined at the 0.05 probability level. The data are presented as means ± SE (n = 4).

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Funding

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41701283, U1804101), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019T120621, 2018M632760), Kaifeng Science and Technology Planning Project (1902007).

Authors’ contributions

YZ and CZ conceived and designed the experiment. JD and HW handled the experiment and measured physiological indicators. YZ, JD and LS analyzed the data and wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

Not applicable

Table 1. Flowering time, P-max, Cond, Ci, Tr and WUE-leaf of soybean at the flowering stage. Different letters within each treatment indicate significant differences for Fisher LSD test.

Flowering time

P-max

Cond

Ci

Tr

WUE-leaf

days

μmol CO2 m-2 s-1

mol H2O m-2 s-1

μmol CO2 mol-1

mmol H2O m-2 s-1

μmol mmol-1

Drought stress (D)

D-C

41.75±0.32 c

10.20±0.68 a

0.49±0.03 a

325.29±7.27 a

11.69±0.85 a

0.95±0.09 c

D-L

42.92±0.41 b

7.51±0.47 b

0.30±0.01 b

273.83±4.90 b

5.89±0.55 b

1.38±0.08 b

D-H

44.54±0.26 a

6.34±0.21 b

0.22±0.01 c

269.69±6.16 b

3.37±0.16 c

1.93±0.06 a

Salinity stress (S)

Control

42.58±0.33 b

8.94±0.56 a

0.38±0.03 a

305.58±7.17 a

8.08±0.83 a

1.36±0.09 a

Salinity

43.56±0.32 a

7.09±0.33 b

0.28±0.02 b

273.62±4.57 b

5.88±0.63 b

1.48±0.09 a

Biochar (B)

B0

43.17±0.40 a

7.02±0.45 b

0.31±0.03 b

289.18±7.70 a

6.13±0.76 a

1.38±0.11 a

B1

42.96±0.41 a

8.47±0.75 a

0.35±0.04 a

285.04±7.67 a

7.42±1.00 a

1.39±0.11 a

B2

43.08±0.42 a

8.55±0.48 a

0.34±0.03 ab

294.58±7.85 a

7.40±1.01 a

1.50±0.12 a

ANOVA

D

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

S

<0.01

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.01

0.055

B

0.896

<0.01

<0.05

0.369

0.156

0.274

D × S

0.057

<0.01

<0.001

0.079

0.141

<0.001

D × B

0.550

0.562

0.174

0.146

0.164

0.070

S × B

0.469

<0.05

0.094

<0.05

0.401

<0.001

D × S × B

0.328

<0.05

<0.05

0.156

0.717

0.339

Note: P-max, leaf maximum photosynthetic rate; Cond, stomatal conductance; Ci, intercellular CO2 concentration; Tr, transpiration rate; WUE-leaf, leaf water use efficiency

Table 2. Shoot biomass, root biomass, shoot/root, total biomass, root length, grain yield and WUE-yield of the soybean plant when harvesting. Different letters within each treatment indicate significant differences for Fisher LSD test.

Shoot biomass

Root biomass

Shoot/root

Total biomass

Root length

Grain yield

WUE-yield

g pot-1

g pot-1

g pot-1

cm

g pot-1

g L-1

Drought stress (D)

D-C

19.80±1.21 a

3.24±0.25 a

6.35±0.30 a

23.04±1.40 a

28.08±1.72 b

10.46±0.64 a

0.51±0.03 b

D-L

14.08±0.85 b

3.08±0.18 a

4.66±0.21 b

17.17±0.98 b

34.17±1.74 a

8.61±0.61 b

0.65±0.05 a

D-H

10.23±0.74 c

2.13±0.15 b

4.96±0.29 b

12.36±0.86 c

31.04±2.37 ab

6.00±0.29 c

0.64±0.03 a

Salinity stress (S)

Control

15.56±0.74 a

3.21±0.12 a

4.90±0.18 b

18.76±0.82 a

34.88±1.83 a

9.34±0.46 a

0.69±0.03 a

Salinity

13.86±1.22 a

2.42±0.21 b

5.75±0.29 a

16.28±1.39 b

27.31±1.12 b

7.37±0.55 b

0.52±0.03 b

Biochar (B)

B0

12.33±0.82 b

2.43±0.17 b

5.20±0.27 a

14.76±0.96 b

31.80±2.01 a

7.89±0.48 b

0.57±0.04 b

B1

14.09±1.03 b

2.82±0.19 ab

5.09±0.29 a

16.91±1.16 b

33.17±2.29 a

8.13±0.65 ab

0.59±0.04 b

B2

17.70±1.53 a

3.20±0.28 a

5.68±0.35 a

20.90±1.74 a

28.31±1.60 a

9.05±0.78 a

0.66±0.03 a

ANOVA

D

<0.001

<0.001

<0.01

<0.001

<0.05

<0.001

<0.001

S

0.051

<0.001

<0.01

<0.05

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

B

<0.001

<0.01

0.438

<0.001

0.090

<0.05

<0.05

D × S

0.059

<0.05

0.820

<0.05

<0.05

<0.001

<0.001

D × B

<0.05

0.401

0.534

<0.05

<0.05

<0.001

<0.001

S × B

<0.05

<0.05

0.853

<0.05

0.714

<0.01

<0.01

D × S × B

0.682

0.499

0.716

0.633

<0.05

0.160

0.160

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## Global Biochar Fertilizer Market on a Steady Growth Trail; FMI Provides Projections in Light of …

9 June, 2020

Latest Insights on the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market

According to the analysis of the research analyst’s at Future Market Insights (FMI), the Biochar Fertilizer Market is set to reach a market value of ~ US$3,714.3 Mn by the end of 2030. Further, the study indicates that the Biochar Fertilizer Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~ 14.5% during the forecast period (2020-2030). The well-researched market report offers a thorough quantitative and qualitative assessment of the Biochar Fertilizer Market along with easy to grasp tables, graphs, and figures. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused disruptions in supply chains of the Biochar Fertilizer Market. However, full and partial lockdown relaxations are anticipated to ease business processes in the upcoming months. Companies in the Biochar Fertilizer Market can gain insights about recent developments of COVID-19 and its impact on the Biochar Fertilizer Market. Get a hands-on over our upcoming report on the Biochar Fertilizer Market to gain an edge over other market players. 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Biochar Fertilizer Market Companies Covered in the Study: Biochar Fertilizer Market takeaways from the presented market analysis: The market analysis provides answers to some important questions related to the Biochar Fertilizer Market: Download Methodology of this Report @ https://www.futuremarketinsights.com/askus/rep-gb-11606 Reasons to Opt for Future Market Insights ## biochar 9 June, 2020 ## Double-digit Growth Predicted for Biochar Fertilizers Market, COVID-19 Pandemic puts Existing … 9 June, 2020 Technological breakthroughs in agriculture such as pyrolysis have been instrumental in enhancing soil quality and sequestering carbon levels, elevating the use of biochar fertilizers on a higher pedestal. PUNE, INDIA / ACCESSWIRE / June 9, 2020 / Over the years, sustainable agricultural practices have acquired immense importance. Increased tendencies towards utilizing inorganic fertilizers has drastically degraded soil quality, leading to inferior agricultural output. Concerned by this, farmers have made conscious attempts to wean off of such harmful chemicals. They have realized that the opportunity cost of soil fertility loss in the wake of faster yields is not worth it. Therefore, a shift towards organic farming has been witnessed. On the back of this, the biochar fertilizer market shall exhibit a robust growth outlook in the forecast period 2020-2030. Biochar fertilizers is slated to find greater acceptance as concerns for the environment grows with each passing day. Governments have formulated coherent stringent policies and enacted legislations to counter environmental degradation. Countries are wholeheartedly encouraging use of biochar fertilizers in agriculture, broadening its prospects. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has impeded growth prospects, with production facilities being inhibited due to curbs on economic activities to contain the virus. Consequently, a stagnancy is anticipated over the short-term forecast. "Burgeoning awareness about the benefits of organic fertilizers has prompted consumers to opt for biochar fertilizers over chemical ones. Temporary cessation of production attributed to COVID-19 shall hamper market prospects in the near future. Market players are putting their best foot forward to ensure minimal supply chain disruptions to ensure continuity of operations," says a leading FMI analyst. Request report sample with 200 pages to gain in-depth market insights at https://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/sample/rep-gb-11606 Biochar Fertilizer Market- Key Takeaways: Biochar Fertilizer Market- Key Driving Factors Biochar Fertilizer Market- Key Restraints Anticipated Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak The coronavirus pandemic has upset the world's economic cart. Nationwide lockdowns imposed to contain the spread of the pandemic has generated a recessionary pattern across multiple industries. The biochar fertilizer market is among the markets which have been adversely affected. Social distancing measures have compelled farmers to remain indoors. This has reduced farming activity, causing a dip in the demand for biochar fertilizers. However, growth is anticipated to pick up pace eventually. Countries such as China and India have eased restrictions imposed during the lockdown, enabling production cycles and supply chains to revert to normalcy. As logistical capabilities rebound, key manufacturers will find it easier to import the raw materials required to produce biochar, offsetting the current demand-supply gap. Presently, manufacturers are looking to leverage their existing supply chains by resorting to staggered work timings for their on-site staff, ensuring basic social distancing protocols, regular temperature screenings of employees and mandatory sanitizing and washing of hands by employees over regular intervals. Such measures have helped the biochar fertilizer market remain afloat during the pandemic. Explore the biochar fertilizer market report consisting of 88 illustrative figures. 96 data tables and the table of contents. You can also find a comprehensive market segmentation on https://www.futuremarketinsights.com/covid19/rep-gb-11606 Competition Landscape Highly fragmented, the biochar fertilizer market is characterized by the presence of a large number of market players. These include Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd., Full Circle Biochar, Diacarbon Energy Inc., BlackCarbon, Swiss Biochar GmBh, Carbon Terra, The Biochar Company (TBC), ECOSUS, Cool Planet, Interra Energy, Element C6, Vega Biofuels and Biochar Now to name a few. Formation of robust distribution channels by collaborating with other players is a primary growth strategy adopted by these companies. Moreover, some companies such as Phoenix Energy, Cool Plant Power Systems and Pacific Pyrolysis provide pyrolysis technology to address manufacturer energy solutions. This provides them with a competitive edge over others. 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Contact Us: Mr. Steven Fernandes Market Research Intellect New Jersey ( USA ) Tel: +1-650-781-4080 ## Global Biochar Market 2020 Analysis by Production, Sales and Consumption, Current Trend, Size … 9 June, 2020 ## Bio Char 9 June, 2020 Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Biochar is organic biomass used as a soil amendment. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Like most coconut, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration. Biochar thus has the potential to help mitigate climate change via carbon sequestration. Independently, biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. ## Is biochar the latest and greatest in forestry innovation? 9 June, 2020 ## My last biochar question. I promise! 9 June, 2020 Hella Clay ## Biochar 9 June, 2020 Go to bottom _____________________________________ Biochar Soil Improver / Enhancer. Stimulates plant growth and soil fertility resulting in higher crop yields. Better water and nutrient retention, for which willow biochar due to it’s higher porosity is superior to all other charcoal sources, Encourages beneficial microbial activity especially when used as the basis for “Terra Preta”. Better fertiliser efficiency reducing need for chemical fertilisers. Increases soil pH and carbon sequestration. __________________________________________________________ Argoed Coppice premium quality _______________________________________ 100% pure willow biochar soil improver / enhancer available in 5 & 25 litre packages 5 ltrs = £5 + post | 25 ltrs = £20 + carriage larger quantities made to order free local delivery (Oswestry / Welshpool area) phone:- 07931-681924 or email :- This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. document.getElementById(‘cloak0824bebb4020c03dc4d56edf48e88a40’).innerHTML = ”; var prefix = ‘ma’ + ‘il’ + ‘to’; var path = ‘hr’ + ‘ef’ + ‘=’; var addy0824bebb4020c03dc4d56edf48e88a40 = ‘info’ + ‘@’; addy0824bebb4020c03dc4d56edf48e88a40 = addy0824bebb4020c03dc4d56edf48e88a40 + ‘argoedcoppice’ + ‘.’ + ‘co’ + ‘.’ + ‘uk’; var addy_text0824bebb4020c03dc4d56edf48e88a40 = ‘info’ + ‘@’ + ‘argoedcoppice’ + ‘.’ + ‘co’ + ‘.’ + ‘uk’;document.getElementById(‘cloak0824bebb4020c03dc4d56edf48e88a40’).innerHTML += ‘‘+addy_text0824bebb4020c03dc4d56edf48e88a40+’‘; © 2020 Argoed Coppice ## Wood can even be carbon negative if you bury a portion of the biochar. Obviously… 10 June, 2020 reply ## Biochar-fertilizer interaction modifies N-sorption, enzyme activities and microbial functional … 10 June, 2020 ## Synthesis and characterization of magnetic biochar adsorbents for the removal of Cr(VI) 10 June, 2020 In this study, different types of magnetic biochar nanocomposites were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. Two biochar materials, namely, sewage sludge biochar and woodchips biochar, were prepared at two different temperatures, viz., 450 and 700 °C. These biochars were further modified with magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4). The modified biochar nanocomposites were characterized using field emission–scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), SQUID analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The potential of prepared adsorbents was examined for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and Acid orange 7 (AO7) dye from water as a function of various parameters, namely, contact time, pH of solution, amount of adsorbents, and initial concentrations of adsorbates. Various kinetic and isotherm models were tested to discuss and interpret the adsorption mechanisms. The maximum adsorption capacities of modified biochars were found as 80.96 and 110.27 mg g-1 for Cr(VI) and AO7, respectively. Magnetic biochars showed high pollutant removal efficiency after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption. The results of this study revealed that the prepared adsorbents can be successfully used for multiple cycles to remove Cr(VI) and AO7 from water. Graphical Abstract Presence of elevated concentrations of inorganic and organic contaminants in water bodies is considered a serious global issue. Heavy metals and dyes are discharged to the aquatic environment through effluents of various industries such as mining, textile, dyeing and tanning, and electroplating (Yin et al. 2008). Metals have high solubility in water, and due to their low biodegradability, these can be accumulated in the environment and microorganisms and further transported to human body (Sherlala et al. 2018). Exposure to heavy metal ions, especially As(III)/(As(V)), Hg(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(VI), even at lower concentrations, can have detrimental effects on human health, such as different types of cancers, and neurological and mental problems (Xu et al. 2018). Another important source of water contamination is synthetic dyes, which are classified as organic pollutants. Dyes are complex aromatic molecules that are highly water soluble and resistant for biodegradation. These organic colorants are the first visible pollutants in water. The coloration of water due to dye effluents prevents the sunlight penetration into the aquatic ecosystems and disturbs the photosynthesis process (Daneshvar et al. 2013; Daneshvar et al. 2014). Due to the high toxicity, non-biodegradability, and bio-accumulation, wastewater containing synthetic dyes and heavy metal ions must be treated before discharging it into the nature. Several physicochemical and biological methods, including electrochemical, filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, adsorption, and coagulation, have been used for the ouster of dyes and heavy metals from water (Fu and Wang 2011). Among the existing methods, adsorption is particularly attractive for the removal of organic (such as dyes) and inorganic (such as heavy metals) pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption is an inexpensive, eco-friendly, and efficient method for the removal of many pollutants from contaminated water. Various locally available minerals, and organic and biological materials such as agricultural wastes have been used as adsorbents (Thines et al. 2017). Carbon-based adsorbents have been found to be the favorite choice for water treatment because of their distinctive chemical and physical properties. Though activated carbon as a commercial adsorbent has high sorption capacity, sometimes the high cost and lengthy synthesis procedure limit its practical applications (Daneshvar et al. 2017). There is an increasing interest in exploration of sustainable materials for water remediation. Biochar is produced by the carbonization of biomass in an oxygen-limited atmosphere (Lehmann et al. 2006). As a low-cost material, it can be a suitable alternative to expensive activated carbon for removing organic pollutants and heavy metal ions from water. High porosity, physiochemical stability in water, and natural abundance of precursors make biochar a promising candidate for water remediation. In addition, carboxyl (–COOH) and hydroxyl (–OH) functional groups on the surface of biochar act as sorption sites for the toxic metal ions. In addition, surface complexation and/or ion exchange are considered the main mechanisms of sorption by biochar (Wan et al. 2018). Though micro- or nanoparticles of biochar exhibit extreme adsorption capacity due to high surface area, the residual powder of biochar can cause secondary pollution in water. Hence, an efficient method is necessary to separate biochar from water after the adsorption process. This problem can be resolved by synthesizing magnetic biochar that can be separated easily from water with the use of an external magnetic field (Wang et al. 2018). Synthesis of composites as efficient adsorbents has got attention in water treatment as the properties of two or more individual components (parent materials) are combined in one composite (Liang et al. 2018). Composites of magnetic biochar, because of their large specific surface area and high potential of recovery from water, have all of the required features of efficient adsorbents. Literature review reveals that biochar can be derived from a variety of biomass such as micro- and macroalgal biomasses, sawdust, agricultural wastes, fruit peels, wood, and wastewater sludge (Son et al. 2018). Wood chips and sludge from wastewater treatment plant have been found to be a potentially suitable source for biochar production due to their low-cost and free availability. Huge volumes of wood chips are produced during construction and demolition activities in Finland (Husgafvel et al. 2017) and other EU countries (Jonsson and Rinaldi 2017). In this study, biochars were synthesized from wood chips and sewage sludge at two different temperatures, viz., 450 and 700 °C, to remove Cr(VI) (inorganic) and AO7 (organic) pollutants from water. The main aim of this study was to compare removal efficiencies of two important classes of aquatic pollutants, viz., Cr(VI) and AO7 dye, by un-modified and modified (magnetic) biochars. The effects of different variables, viz., initial solution pH, biochar dose, metal or dye concentration, and contact time on the adsorption capacity have been studied. Isotherms and kinetics of adsorption processes were studied to elucidate the mechanism. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the adsorbents were analyzed by various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Analytical-grade K2Cr2O7 (≥ 99.0%), Orange II sodium salt (AO7 dye) (dye content ≥ 85 %), ferrous chloride (FeCl2.4H2O) (≥ 99.0%), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (≥ 98%), and ferric chloride (FeCl3·6H2O) (97%) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. All the solutions were prepared in distilled water. Biochar samples of sludge and woodchips were prepared at 450 and 700 °C (Baltrėnaitė et al. 2017). The prepared biochars were labelled as S-450, S-700, WC-450, and WC-700. Magnetic biochar samples were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. Typically, 100 mL of deionized (DI) water was added to a conical flask of 250 mL containing ferric chloride and ferrous chloride. The mixture was agitated on a magnetic stirring for 1 h. Later, 1 g of biochar sample was added to the DI water, followed by further stirring for 30 min. Simultaneously, another conical flask of 250 mL containing DI water (100 mL) with an appropriate amount of NaOH was stirred for 1 h at 80 °C. The above solutions were mixed in one beaker and stirred for 2 h at 100 °C. After 2 h, the magnetic biochars were accumulated using an external magnetic field. The collected modified biochars were washed with ethanol and then water for several times. Finally, the synthesized biochars were dried in a vacuum oven at 45 °C overnight. Modified biochar samples were denoted as MS-450, MS-700, MWC-450, and MWC-700. The stock solutions of Cr(VI) and AO7 were prepared with analytical grade of K2Cr2O7 and AO7 dye salts. The adsorption studies of Cr(VI) and AO7 dye with synthesized biochar composites were carried out in centrifuge tubes of polyethylene by batch method containing adsorbate solutions of known concentrations and a desired amount of modified biochar adsorbent at a speed of 80 rpm on a roller shaker. Contact time (0–200 min.), initial adsorbate concentration (5–100 mg L−1), adsorbent dosage (0.5–2 g L−1), and solution pH (2–10) were studied as variable parameters. The solution pH was adjusted by adding 0.1 M HCl or NaOH solutions in a negligible amount. While studying a single parameter during the experiment, the rest of the parameters were kept constant. The solid and liquid phases were separated after shaking for predetermined time by external magnetic field, followed by filtration with cellulose nitrate membrane filters of 0.45 μm. The concentrations of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) (1,5-diphenylcarbohydrazide method) were measured using UV–visible spectrophotometer (UV-2401PC) at the maximum absorbance wavelength of 485 nm and 540 nm, respectively. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI) ions and AO7 dye onto the synthesized modified biochar was calculated referring to the difference among the initial (Ci) and equilibrium (Ce) concentrations of pollutants in the liquid phase after the filtration. The removal efficiency of pollutants and adsorption capacity of biochars were calculated by the following equations: where Ci and Ce are the initial and equilibrium dye and/or metal ions concentration; Ce and qe are concentration of the dye and metal ions and equilibrium adsorption capacity at equilibrium; W is the weight of adsorbent in grams (g) and v is the volume of dye and metal ion solution (L). For the reusability studies, pollutant-loaded materials (0.005 g) in 10 mL of NaOH (0.1 M) were shaken at 80 rpm for 2 h at room temperature. Using external magnetic field, the adsorbent was separated and the adsorbate was further filtered with the 0.45 μm membrane filter. Final solution was analyzed for remaining metal or dye concentration by using UV technique. The obtained metal or dye desorbed materials were further used and the process was repeated up to five cycles (adsorption–desorption) to check the reusability potential of the prepared materials. The functional groups on the surface of adsorbents were analyzed by using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral analysis with Perkin Elmer (Version 10.5.1) in solid state with KBr. Analysis of the phase purity and crystalline nature of the samples has been performed with a Rigaku RINT-2000 X-ray diffractometer, endowed with a Cu Kα radiation generator. Surface charge of the samples was measured with PALS zeta potential analyzer (Brookhaven instruments) in aqueous solution at neutral pH. XPS analysis was performed on a ULVAC-PHI X-tool XPS spectrometer with an excitation source of Al Kα. The size and morphology of the prepared raw and modified biochar materials were determined with field emission–scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) S-4700, HITACHI, Japan, with an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images were obtained using a FEI Tecnai G2 F30 transmission electron microscope with a field emission gun operated at 300 kV. In order to prepare the TEM/HR-TEM samples, biochar was first dispersed in water via sonication for 15 min and then a small drop of the suspension was cast on a carbon-film-coated copper grids and dried overnight in a vacuum oven. The magnetic properties of the samples were acquired by SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design MPMS3) at room temperature and constant external applied field of 5 kOe using powder of the samples. Figure 1 shows the diffraction patterns of both un-modified and modified biochar materials which were obtained at 450 °C and 700 °C. A broad peak was observed at the 2θ value of around 22° for both WC-450 and WC-700. Figure 1(i) (a, b) shows that both amorphous and crystalline structures, and presence of some inorganic minerals, such as SiO2 and Al/Si oxides in the sewage sludge biochar, with the typical 21.22°, 26.44°, 28.32°, and 39.45° in the 2θ degree (Zhou et al. 2017). The peak at 22° was ascribed to crystallinity of cellulose, which was shown in Fig. 1(i) (c, d). Similar XRD results were reported by Shaaban et al. (2013) for raw rubber wood sawdust (RWSD) and (Wang et al. 2009) for raw woodchips. Figure 1(ii) shows the XRD patterns for modified biochar materials. All the crystal planes (220), (311), (222), (400), (422), (333), and (440) with respect to 2θ values of 30.20°, 35.69°, 36.92°, 42.98°, 52.93°, 57.23°, and 62.91°, respectively, were matched with the standard JCPDS No. 82-1533, which reveals that the biochar materials were modified successfully—coated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles without any other morphological impurities. XRD analysis of un-modified S-450 (a), un-modified S-700 (b), un-modified WC-450 (c), un-modified WC-700 (d), modified S-450 (e), modified S-700 (f), modified WC-450 (g), modified WC-700 (h) Figure 2 shows the SEM images of both un-modified and modified biochar materials of S-450 and S-700. Figure 2 (a, b) shows SEM images of the un-modified S-450, and Fig. 2 (c, d) shows the SEM images of un-modified biochar of S-700. The SEM images clearly show that the biochar materials exhibit flake like morphology, where size varied in micrometer ranges. Figure 2 (e–h) shows the SEM images of modified biochar S-450 and S-700, where the flake-like structures are decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and the nanoparticles were agglomerated. The average particle size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles is in the range of 50–100 nm. Figure 2 (i, j) shows the un-modified biochar materials of WC-450, and Fig. 2 (k, l) shows the un-modified biochar materials of WC-700. WC-450 (Fig. 2 (i, j)) clearly shows the hollow structures which are in μm sizes, but WC-700 (Fig. 2 (k, l)) do not show any hollow structures because the woodchips were sintered at 700 °C and became more amorphous in nature and the same was confirmed by the XRD pattern, whereas Fig. 2 (m–p) shows the modified biochar WC-450 and WC-700, and herein, the hollow structures were fully decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and the nanoparticles were agglomerated. The average particle sizes of Fe3O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 50–100 nm. SEM images of un-modified S-450 (a, b), un-modified S-700 (c, d), modified S-450 (e, f), modified S-700 (g, h), un-modified WC-450 (i, j), un-modified WC-700 (k, l), modified WC-450 (m, n), modified WC-700 (o, p) Figure 3 (a–d) shows the TEM images of modified S-450 and S-700. From the figure, it can be observed that the magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles aggregated and look rugged on the surface of the sludge biochar materials. As clearly seen in the figure, flake-like structure is observed in sludge biochar doped with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The average crystalline diameters of Fe3O4 nanoparticles are in range of ~ 15–25 nm. Figure 3 (e–h) shows the TEM images of modified WC-450 and WC-700. It can be clearly seen that Fe3O4 nanoparticles decorated the surface of woodchip biochar materials. Hence, it can be concluded that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were not only present on the surface of biochar but also surrounded on the biochar. TEM images of modified S-450 (a, b), modified S-700 (c, d), modified WC-450 (e, f), modified WC-700 (g, h) Figure 4 shows the full scan X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of modified biochar sludge and woodchips. The XPS spectrum in Fig. 4 reveals that both the samples are basically composed of C, Fe, and O core-elements. The ratios of C, O, and Fe in MS-450 and MS-700 were 46.48%, 22.72%, and 15.8%, and 29.75%, 42.56%, and 15.28%, respectively. On the other hand, in MWC-450 and MWC 700, the ratios of C, O, and Fe were 36.1%, 40.32%, and 19.01% and 47. 36%, 39%, and 18.91%, respectively. The XPS results indicated that modification with Fe2O3 nanoparticles in biochar materials was effective with a favorable quantity of Fe. Figure 5 (a, b) shows the FT-IR spectra of both, the un-modified and modified biochar materials, respectively. The main peaks that represent the vibration of the functional groups in the un-modified biochar materials were as follows: –OH—3456 cm−1; aromatic C = C and C = O—1595 and 1698 cm−1; and C–O–C—1048 cm−1. Comparison of the spectra of the un-modified biochar materials and modified biochar materials reveals that the strong absorption peak at 562 cm−1 is caused by Fe–O of iron oxide. This indirectly confirmed the presence of Fe3O4 in the modified biochar materials. Full scan survey of modified S-450 (a), modified S-700 (b), modified WC-450 (c), modified WC-700 (d) FT-IR analysis of un-modified biochar materials (a), modified biochar materials (b), magnetic hysteresis (M-H) studies of un-modified biochar materials (c), modified biochar materials (d), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm (e), BJH adsorption pore size distribution curve (f) of modified S-450 and modified WC-700 For recycling and easy recovery from the aqueous solution, magnetic sorbents could be worth enough for water remediation. The magnetic hysteresis of prepared modified biochar and un-modified biochar materials was measured at the magnetic fields of − 50,000 ≤ H ≤ 50,000 Oe at room temperature. Figure 5 (c, d) shows the magnetic hysteresis of both the un-modified and modified biochar materials. It can be clearly seen from the figure that the un-modified biochar materials have almost zero magnetization, while modified biochar materials show significant magnetization values. This is because of the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of biochar materials. The magnetization of modified biochar materials was 33.8, 30.3, 34.49, and 41.87 emu g−1 for MS-450, MS-700, MWC-450, and MWC-700, respectively. Fe3O4 nanoparticles decorating the biochar surface behave magnetically active, which in turn affect the magnetic properties of the biochars, that was also confirmed by TEM and SEM images. In addition, the zeta potential measurement values also showed that the zeta potential of the modified biochar materials can be reduced by the introduction of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The zeta potentials of the un-modified and modified biochar materials are presented in Table S1(Supplementary Information). The BET specific surface area isotherm of the modified biochar materials (MS-450 and MWC-700) is shown in Fig. 5 (e). The isotherm was ascribed to H2-type hysteresis loop and type IV shape. The specific surface areas of MS-450 and MWC-700 were 127.98 and 99.83 m2 g−1, respectively. In addition to this, the pore distribution curve is also shown in Fig. 5 (f) by using Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) method. The pore diameter of MS-450 and MWC-700 was 21.3 and 37.4 nm, respectively. The results showed that the prepared modified biochar materials possessed the mesoporous surface with high specific surface area. The comparison results for both un-modified and modified biochar materials for the adsorption of Cr(VI) and AO7 dye are presented in Fig. S1(Supplementary Information). As seen from Fig. S1, AO7 dye was removed well by MS-450 and MS-700, whereas Cr(VI) was well adsorbed by MWC-450 and MWC-700. This difference in sorption capacity of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) on different biochars might be due to several reasons, for example, differences in the chemical structure and molecular weight of each species. Both Cr(VI) and AO7 dye were well adsorbed by the modified biochar materials as compared with the un-modified biochar materials. So, all the parameters were tested only on the modified sludge biochar and modified woodchips biochar. The effect of contact time on the removal efficiency of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) ions by modified sludge and woodchips, respectively, was examined at various time intervals up to 200 min. Figure 6 (a) shows that the adsorption of AO7 dye was rapidly increased during the initial 10 min and the removal efficiency was reached almost 40%. Afterwards, the adsorption rate gradually decreased until the acquisition of equilibrium around 160 min with the maximum removal efficiency of 90%. However, MS-450 showed a different pattern of AO7 adsorption as compared with MS-700, but the equilibrium time of both adsorbates was 160 min. Figure 6 (b) shows that 20% of Cr(VI) was removed rapidly within 10 min. Afterwards, the rate of adsorption slowed down until it reached the equilibrium around 140 min with the maximum removal efficiency of 95%. The relatively fast adsorption of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) onto the modified biochar materials was probably due to the strong attraction between the pollutants and a large number of binding sites originating from the surface of the modified biochar materials. Compared with the initial stages, the adsorption was slower because of occupying the available binding sites on the surface of modified biochars. Hence, the results showed that the equilibrium time was around 180 min for both pollutants. Effect of contact time (a, b) on AO7 dye and Cr(VI) removal onto modified biochar materials (initial concentration of 10 mg L−1, pH 2, adsorbent dosage 0.5 g L−1), effect of pH (c, d) on AO7 dye and Cr(VI) removal onto modified biochar materials (initial concentration 10 mg L-1, adsorbent dosage 0.5 g L-1, contact time 180 min), effect of adsorbent dosage (e, f) on AO7 dye and Cr(VI) removal onto modified biochar materials (initial concentration 10 mg L−1, pH 2, contact time 180 min) In the adsorption process, the initial pH of aqueous medium is quite significant as compared with other parameters as it can affect the properties of both adsorbent and adsorbate. Figure 6 (c, d) shows the effect of pH on the adsorption of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) ions onto the modified biochar adsorbents. Figure 6 (c) depicts that the adsorption of AO7 dye was better at acidic pH compared with the basic pH. As pH increased from 2.0 to 10, the removal efficiency of AO7 dye onto the prepared modified sludge adsorbent was gradually decreased from 90 to 10%. Figure 6 (d) shows the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the prepared modified woodchip adsorbents; the removal efficiency was higher at acidic pH of 2.0, but it decreased when pH increased. The speciation of Cr(VI) will be changed according to the pH of the aqueous solution. Various forms of Cr(VI) that exist include HCrO4, CrO42−, and Cr2O72−. Based on the pH value, various forms of Cr(VI) are predominant. HCrO4 and Cr2O72− are predominant at pH of 2.0–6.0, while CrO42− is predominant at pH values > 6.0 (Mohan and Pittman 2006). At higher pH values > 6.0, the protonation of the modified biochar adsorbent is in a weak state to generate electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged ions and the surface of the prepared adsorbents (Yang et al. 2017). At low pH values from 2.0 to 6.0, HCrO4 is more predominant, which is the main form to remove Cr(VI) ions from the aqueous solution. Therefore, at lower pH values, the removal efficiency was higher than at higher pH values (Mohan and Pittman 2006). Thus, the prepared modified biochar adsorbents exhibited maximum removal efficiency of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) ions at pH of 2.0. Hence, pH 2.0 was chosen for the study. Sorbent dosage is another significant parameter because it deals with the adsorbent–adsorbate interaction and shows the equilibrium of the system. The removal percentages of AO7 and Cr(VI) were studied in response to different adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 2.0 g L−1 (Fig. 6 (e, f)). The figure shows that the removal efficiency of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) ions increased as the dosage of biochar was increased. The enhancement of removal efficiency with higher adsorbent dose is attributed to the availability of more binding sites for pollutant adsorption. However, at a certain dosage (1 g L−1), both the pollutants reached the saturation point. This may be due to the sufficient adsorbent dosage for a certain concentration of pollutants (10 mg L−1) in the solution. Hence, the highest removal efficiencies of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) ions were achieved as 99.8% and 100%, respectively, with 1.0 g L−1 of the modified biochar adsorbents. Figure S2(Supplementary Information) shows the kinetic graph of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) removal onto modified biochar by plotting time (min) versus qe (mg g-1). The adsorption kinetics of pollutants revealed that there is a gradual increase in the adsorption of pollutants with time and after ca. 180 min, the equilibrium was achieved (seen by almost constant plateau region in the graph) for modified biochar adsorbents. The obtained graphs suggested the equilibrium time of 180 min for the adsorption of AO7 and Cr(VI) by modified biochars. In order to better understand the rate-controlling steps, the adsorption kinetics of selected pollutants onto the prepared modified biochar adsorbents was studied. Various non-linear forms of kinetic models, viz., pseudo-first-order (Lagergren 1898), pseudo-second-order (Ho and McKay 1999), Avrami (Avrami 1939), and intra-particle diffusion (Weber and Morris 1963) models (Eqs. 36) were used to study the kinetics of the process. where qe is the adsorption capacity of pollutant ions at equilibrium and qt (mg g−1) is the adsorption capacity of pollutants at time t (min), respectively; k1 (min−1) is the pseudo-first-order rate constant and k2 (g mg−1 min−1) is the pseudo-second-order rate constant. Avrami constant was denoted as KAV (min−1), whereas Kp (mg g−1 min−1/2) is the intra-particle diffusion constant and I (mg g−1) is the intercept. The experimental data was fitted into different kinetic models (mentioned above), and the results are shown in Fig. S2(a) and (c) for AO7 dye and Fig. S2(b) and (d) for Cr(VI) ions onto modified sludge (MS-450 and MS-700) and woodchips (MWC-450 and MWC-700) biochars, respectively. Tables 1 and 2 show kinetic parameters for AO7 dye and Cr(VI) adsorption onto modified biochars. The theoretical (qe) values of selected pollutants were close to the obtained experimental values with minimum and maximum RMSE, and correlation coefficient (R2), respectively for the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for modified biochar adsorbents. Based on the above analysis, pseudo-second-order model was found to be best fitted model as compared with the pseudo-first-order and Avrami models. In this work, Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich–Peterson, and Sips isotherm models have been studied to describe equilibrium data of Cr(VI) and AO7 adsorption onto modified biochars. Monolayer and multilayer adsorptions onto different surfaces (homo- and heterogenous) of the adsorbents were analyzed by Langmuir (Langmuir 1918) and Freundlich (Freundlich 1907) isotherm models, respectively. The combination of formerly mentioned models gives the Sips model with three parameters (Sips 1948). Also, the adsorption can be pertained either in homo- or heterogenous systems leading to the Redlich–Peterson model, another three-parameter isotherm model (Redlich and Peterson 1959). The above mentioned non-linear isotherm models are presented by the Eqs. 710 as follows: where qe (mg g−1) is the amount of adsorbed Cr(VI) or AO7 per unit weight of biochars and Ce (mg L−1) is the equilibrium concentration of Cr(VI) or AO7; qm is the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of Langmuir model and KL (L mg−1) is the Langmuir constant; KF and n are the Freundlich constants and exponent, respectively; KS (L mg-1) and KRP (L g−1) and aRP (L mg-1) are constants in Sips and Redlich–Peterson models, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption was examined based on the initial concentrations of ions from 5 to 100 mg L−1. Non-linear curves of isotherm models were obtained by plotting Ce versus qe (Fig. S3, Supplementary Information). Accordingly, isotherm parameters of each model related to AO7 and Cr(VI) adsorption are presented in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. Langmuir model, with the highest correlation coefficient (R2) from 0.975 to 0.991 (close to 1.00) (Tables 3 and 4), was selected to describe the fitness of isotherm to the experimental data. The Langmuir fitting suggests that AO7 and Cr(VI) adsorption took place onto homogenous surfaces of modified biochar materials in this study. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of AO7 and Cr(VI) onto modified sludge 450 and modified woodchips 700 were 110.27 mg g−1 and 80.96 mg g−1, respectively (Tables 3 and 4). To compare the adsorption performance of synthesized biochars in this study with other adsorbents used for Cr(VI) and AO7 removal, a list of tested adsorbents and their maximum adsorption capacities are presented in Table 5. As it can be seen from the reviewed literature, MWC-700 showed higher adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) uptake as compared with other carbon- and biochar-based adsorbents. However, maximum adsorption capacity of MWC-700 was lower than clay- and silicon-based composites. It is also clear from Table 5 that MS-450 showed higher adsorption capacity of AO7 as compared with other reported adsorbents and it showed comparable adsorption capacity with activated carbon. High adsorption capacity of prepared adsorbents in this study confirmed that magnetic modification of woodchips and sewage sludge biochars can enhance their adsorption capacities for Cr(VI) and AO7 dye removal. Finally, RL was calculated by Eq. (11) to determine whether the adsorption is favorable or not (Weber and Chakravorti 1974): Different values of RL are interpreted as follows: RL = 0 (irreversible), 0 < RL < 1 (favorable), RL = 1 (linear), and RL > 1 (unfavorable) (Weber and Chakravorti 1974; Obayomi and Auta 2019). As can be seen from Tables 3 and 4, the values of RL were found between 0 and 1, which suggests that the adsorption of AO7 and Cr(VI) onto the prepared modified biochar materials was favorable. Desorption and regeneration studies of the prepared materials after their saturation by the pollutants are important for the commercial application. The adsorption efficiency of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) by MS-450 and MWC-700 was investigated after five adsorption–desorption cycles (Fig. S4(Supplementary Information)). It was found that the removal efficiency of AO7 dye and Cr(VI) by MS-450 and MWC-700 decreased from 98 to 78% and from 90 to 70%, respectively, after the fifth cycle. In another study, Zaheer et al. (2019) used 0.05 M NaOH for the desorption of AO7 from zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZvFeNPs). In agreement to the finding of this study, NaOH desorbed AO7 from ZvFeNPs efficiently and the removal efficiency decreased to 82% after five cycles. They stated that slight decrease of removal efficiency after several adsorption–desorption cycles might be related to the formation of hydroxide layer on the adsorbent surface. Similar to the current study, NaOH has been applied for Cr(VI) desorption from microalgal biochar, modified carbon composite, and bio-composite of mango by other researchers (Akram et al. 2017; Daneshvar et al. 2019; Nakagawa et al. 2014). They explained that CrO42− is the dominant form of Cr(VI) in alkaline solution, which can be exchanged by hydroxide (OH). They also described that at high pH solution, electrostatic repulsion due to negatively charged adsorption sites increases desorption of Cr(VI) from adsorbent. The results of the reusability experiment indicated that modified sludge 450 and modified woodchips 700 could be reused successfully for AO7 and Cr(VI) adsorption. Magnetic biochar adsorbents were synthesized by the facile co-precipitation method and later evaluated for the AO7 and Cr(VI) removal from water. Adsorption of studied pollutants onto the as-synthesized magnetic biochar materials indicated that the Langmuir isotherm model best fitted to the experimental data. The adsorption process was pH sensitive for both the pollutants (AO7 dye and Cr(VI)) and the optimum pH for highest adsorption was 2. The pseudo-second-order model was fitted well with the experimental data compared with other models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of MS-450 and MWC-700 were observed as 110.27 mg g−1 and 80.96 mg g−1 for AO7 dye and Cr(VI), respectively. Desorption results showed the reusability of the multiple adsorbents. Therefore, the prepared modified biochar materials could be used as efficient adsorbents for the removal of toxic pollutants from aqueous solution. Open access funding provided by University of Eastern Finland (UEF) including Kuopio University Hospital. The authors thank Victor Ludwig and Ugo Martinella, exchange students from the National School for Water and Environmental Engineering (ENGEES), France, for their help in the lab experiments. This research was partially funded by grants (No. S-MIP-17-83 and No. S-MIP-17-20) from the Research Council of Lithuania. Correspondence to Ehsan Daneshvar. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Responsible Editor: Zhihong Xu (DOCX 1027 kb) Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received: 05 February 2020 Accepted: 12 May 2020 Published: 10 June 2020 ## Mechanistic insights into adsorptive and oxidative removal of monochlorobenzene in biochar … 10 June, 2020 Adsorptive-catalytic capability of nZVI/biochar for MCB removal was demonstrated. The activation of nZVI/RS500 outperformed other nZVI/biochar composites. SO4•-, •OH and 1O2 were identified in the nZVI/biochar-PS system. Both nZVI and biochar’s graphitic carbon structures were involved in PS activation. Possible MCB degradation pathways in the nZVI/biochar-PS system was proposed. Adsorptive-catalytic capability of nZVI/biochar for MCB removal was demonstrated. The activation of nZVI/RS500 outperformed other nZVI/biochar composites. SO4•-, •OH and 1O2 were identified in the nZVI/biochar-PS system. Both nZVI and biochar’s graphitic carbon structures were involved in PS activation. Possible MCB degradation pathways in the nZVI/biochar-PS system was proposed. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) supported on rice stalk (RS) derived biochar composite (nZVI/RS) was synthesized as persulfate (PS) activator, achieving efficient adsorptive and catalytically oxidative removal for monochlorobenzene (MCB). Development of porous structures and enhanced aromaticity of RS with increased pyrolysis temperatures promoted MCB adsorption, with removal efficiencies of MCB rising from 11.2% for nZVI/RS300 to 72.3% for nZVI/RS700 after the adsorption for 14 h. The best PS activation performance was achieved for nZVI/RS500, with MCB removal efficiency being further increased to 98.8% after the oxidation for 3 h and reaction stoichiometric efficiency (RSE) reaching a maximum of 4.1% under conditions of 0.2 g·L-1 nZVI/RS500, 50.0 μM MCB, 2.0 mM PS and pH0 6.5. The pre-adsorption of MCB was a rate-promoting step in the oxidative degradation processes within the nZVI/RS-PS systems under low RS pyrolysis temperatures (< 500 °C). However, excessive adsorptive capacity of nZVI/RS600 and nZVI/RS700 induced blocking of the active sites and low PS activation efficiencies. In addition to transformation of nZVI and surface functional groups on RS500, electron transfer from sp2 hybridized carbon enhanced by internal electron migration of sp3sp2 hybridized carbon was also responsible for PS activation, producing SO4•-, ·OH and 1O2 for MCB degradation through both radical and nonradical pathways. Six degradation intermediates were identified with possible degradation pathways of MCB in the nZVI/RS500-PS system being proposed. Additionally, 80.2% and 67.4% of MCB removal rates were achieved in tap water and groundwater contaminated by MCB respectively. These findings have significant implications for the synthesis and application of metal-carbon composite based multifunctional materials with strong adsorption and catalytic potential for activating PS to completely remove organic contaminants in groundwater. ## Biochar reactor 10 June, 2020 In some embodiments, the biochar inlet is upstream of the reactor. A maximum biochar yield of 49. Pyrolysis can be performed by changing the operating conditions for varying yields and desired characteristics in the products. Cambridge Core – Climatology and Climate Change – Biochar – edited by Viktor J. The BEK supports multiple pyrolysis process modes in direct combustion (updraft, TLUD and stratified downdraft), indirect combustion retort, and sweep gas through bed heat transfer. a. The Shipping container containing community-scale pyrolysis reactor (the blue shipping container houses the drying unit). System components of reactor B. 6 out of 5 stars 18. We hope that you will enjoy the many benefits of IBI membership and we thank you for supporting an organization at the forefront of advancing biochar research and implementation worldwide. Thank you for supporting an international community of biochar professionals and supporters. The smaller scale biochar making machine is BST-05, producing about 500 kg of raw materials per hour. We just borrowed one of the condensers from a paddle reactor at this point. The system is fully automated and complete – from biomass hopper, gasifier-retort, and clean-burning flare with heat exchangers to biochar takeoff Ezekiel Kholoma, Agnieszka Renman, Gunno Renman, Filter Media-Packed Bed Reactor Fortification with Biochar to Enhance Wastewater Quality, Applied Sciences, 10. Because biochar has abundant carbon content, so it is a distinctive charcoal compared with other charcoal. Nitrogen was in-troduced into reactor to purge the residual Cl2 at 600 mL/min for 5 min Biochar production and characterization. One percent Cl2 (N2 as balance) was introduced into the reactor at 100 mL/min and the biochar was modiﬁed by Cl2 plasma for 5 min. into the reactor through a conveyor system, while being dried by heat generated from a thermal oxidizer exhaust stack. , Nachenius, R. Wait a couple of hours for it to cool and then enjoy your biochar! tags : biochar, gasifier The following is a quick rundown of the Climate Foundation biochar reactor: Dryer: Solid human waste enters the system through the hopper, into which containers are emptied. The output can reach up to 3000 kg/h. The name of this category is based on the metaphor that, as a bread oven is a unit used to bake dough to produce bread, a biochar oven is unit used to bake feedstock to produce biochar. Wakefield Biochar Soil Conditioner – Premium – 1 Gallon Bag – 100% Biochar – Low Dust – USDA Certified. The use of a simple home made biochar reactor will greatly increase the production of biochar (up to 80% biochar vs 50% for pit burn) and reduce the production of co2 and other greenhouse gasses during the burning cycle. e. 2. Linden Al Weimer Al Lewandowski Rita Klees Cori Oversby Ryan Mahoney Tesfa Yacob Richard Fisher Dragan Mejic Josh Kearns Sara Beck Kyle Shimabuku R. First Project Report. Designed and built in Australia by Pyrocal, it has seen many years of development and field deployment and has matured into a tough, efficient, and user friendly machine that can be installed and moved with relative ease. Water flowed from the bottom of the bioreactor to the top to prevent preferential flow generating. The biomass was pyrolyzed with temperature ranging between 400 and 600&nbsp;°C. In order to enhance soil productivity, most of farmers would use biochar. The biochar approach provides a uniquely powerful solution, for it allows us to address food security, the fuel crisis, and the climate problem, and all in an immensely practical manner. 89. That becomes$2320 per kg per hour investment. Biochar has been shown to be a very effective soil amendment in numerous studies in South America and Japan. de) in a commercial prototype slow pyrolysis screw reactor operating under a continuous feeding rate of 100–150 kg dry matter per hour and a carbon efficiency of up to 60%. A biochar produced from empty fruit bunches (EFB) was gasified in a fluidized bed using air to determine gas yield, overall carbon conversion, gas quality, and composition as a function of temperature. . Mar 29, 2020 · From here the raw materials are then conveyed directly into the biochar reactor. Nevertheless, the further development of this technology requires continuing research. A pyrolysis conditions (Temperature and Residence time) with a maximum biochar yield of 36. The property of biochar produced is much dependent upon the composition and type of As shown in Fig. Containerized Unit to Transform Biomass Waste to Heat and Biochar Datasheet Link The ALL Power Labs CharTainer is a compact, high-volume, Combined Heat and Biochar (CHAB) pyrolizer system enclosed within a standard 20-foot shipping container. The experiment began with introduction of ozone gas into the reactor containing 50 g of biochar at ambient temperature (23 °C). woody wastes) into bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. After some modifications of changing the temperature of fluidized bed reactor Pyrolysis, torrefaction, gasification process for biomass and waste Biogreen® is innovative, patented pyrolysis process operating since 2003. Biochar, also known as “agrichar” or “biomass-derived black carbon”, is a charcoal produced from carbon-rich material. The products (biogas/biochar/bio-oil) yields May 18, 2018 · This study was carried out to evaluate the agronomic potential of elephant grass biomass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) biochar obtained through slow pyrolysis using a semi-continuous pilot screw reactor in the absence of a carrier gas, and under different conditions. Apr 26, 2018 · Picture-in-picture thermal imaging of the tube reactor during biochar ozonization with its temperature scale (23–70 °C) displayed on the far right side. , into charcoal. Open-source designs for ovens can make them a very economical choice. Biochar’s ability to capture and hold minute particles is proving to lend itself to more than just a restorative soil amendment; with benefits such as improved digestion, increased immunity, the promotion of better overall health, and capabilities in improving coop hygiene, biochar is likely to gain a strong foothold in animal husbandry. Under the high-temperature and fully sealing process, the biochar output rate is greatly improved. Pyrolysis is the reaction used to coat a preformed substrate with a layer of pyrolytic carbon. The BiGchar (Black is Green) patented biochar production technology features durability, mobility, and accepts a wide range of feedstocks. 87 wt% attained in the reactor, and the yield of biochar decreased as the temperature and residence time of pyrolysis in the reactor increased. Cone Kiln I've messed around with various configurations of barrels and retorts and found that, almost universally, the yield of char for the time spent is too inconsiderable to make it worth while. The reactor converts feedstock into biochar, which is collected into barrels in two different forms: coarse biochar from a liquid cooled auger and dust removed from the gas stream by a cyclone. First, an introduction will be given to the different thermochemical conversion techniques of dry biomass (including pyrolysis) which result in char as one of the product fractions. Engineering a Nicaraguan adventure. B4SS Posters. FZK twin screw mixer-reactor 29 Figure 18. 5% and 4. Biochar pyrolysis reactor design – The biochar pyrolysis furnace is a major part of the biomass pyrolysis plant for sale, which has decided the service life of the whole machine. It is designed to char biomass. If operated 20 hr per day, that would be $116 … Mar 19, 2019 · The biochar reactor arrived safely at the reserve on Sept. S. The simplicity of the horizontal bed biochar reactor is intentional and each aspect of the design has been considered to provide a reliable, economical and financially performant device that will produce biochar, condensates and energy, all of which can provide revenue. Beston Biochar Production Equipment for Sale. Pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type used to produce biochar influence the physicochemical properties of the obtained product, which in turn display a range of results when used as soil amendment. 2 wt. The methods and system as described herein provide sufficient solar energy to a biochar reactor to convert animal waste or other biomass to biochar in a relatively cost-effective manner. Jul 30, 2019 · Not all charcoal is biochar. Fig. Odour control units (filled with biochar) at the top of the container. Biochar is free of odor and toxic, so it is widely used in food industry, such as BBQ. Biochar is the material left over after burning one (or more) of the above… May 28, 2015 · The system further comprises a filter downstream of the reactor and biochar inlet, the filter fluidly coupled to the fluid flow pathway; a treated water outlet fluidly coupled to the filter; and a reject stream outlet fluidly coupled to the filter. Biochar production equipment for sale uses different kinds of biomass to make charcoal. Brief Introduction of Beston Biochar Production Equipment For Sale. Biochar Solutions: Located in Carbondale, CO, they offer wholesale biochar as well as equipment such as the B-1000 Thermal Conversion System. Biochars manufactured from two pine species of feedstock, in timber and pellet form, were compared against a designer biochar. Biochar production equipment is used to produce biochar by pyrolysis with limited oxygen. ค. Twin screw mixer-reactor schematic 29 Figure 17. The soil additive properties of biochar have proven both effective and globally beneficial, but depend heavily on feedstock used and process conditions. They offer Black Owl biochar blends for specific applications by the bag, cubic foot, cubic yard or Comparative study on existing biochar plants and pyrolysis technology Biochar technologies continue to play a negligible role, although their potential in the long and medium term is significant not only in terms of the implementation of the Strategy Europe 2020. 89$ 17. Biochar can be thought off as x-ray scan of the original biomass, which uncovers the structures of the biomass input. Now you can start some awesome Terra Pretta! Carbon balances indicate carbon yields of biochar and aqueous, bio-oil light ends decreased by 18. Although commonly valued as a soil amendment, biochar also holds promise by providing several mechanisms for carbon sequestration in addition to sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere in properly-buried pyrolyzed biomass. Functionalization can include post-pyrolysis treatments such as supplementation with microbes or physical transformations including annealing and/or activation. Biochar is a very important alternative energy in many aspects of human life. Entrained fines Cyclone Biochar Biochar cooling screw •Chips, pellets as feedstock. Solar Biochar Toilet Fecal Sludge Management Conference October 29th-31st, 2012 Durban, South Africa R. 3 g biochar was loaded in a DBD plasma re-actor and that was sealed with high-vacuum silicon grease. Sep 24, 2014 · Biochar alters water flow to improve sand and clay Date: September 24, 2014 Source: Rice University Summary: New research could help settle questions about one of biochar's biggest benefits — the The substrate is then fed from the first stage reactor to both second stage reactors in equal proportions, with one second stage reactor being used to evaluate the effects of adding biochar, and the other reactor used as a reference. It is also not subjected to the risk of being blown down in a hurricane, or cut down, or otherwise placed in a Methods for Producing Biochar and Advanced Biofuels in Washington State Part 4: Literature Review Sustainability Issues, Business Models, and Financial Analyses February 2013 Publication no. All bulk shipments of our super sack will be shipped by Freight. . The reactor is a cylindrical, batch type, fixed bed reactor. This review summarizes existing data pertaining to earthworms where biochar and other black carbon substances, including slash Sep 24, 2014 · “Not all biochar is created equal, and one of the important lessons of recent studies is that the hydrological properties of biochar can vary widely, depending on the temperature and time in the reactor,” Masiello said. Reactor Design Considerations . 15, and Team ARTi members Bernardo del Campo, Matthew Kieffer and Juan Proano visited Haliburton (Sept. Complexities in biochar production processes and biochar characteristics can make biochar seem to be the province of scientists only. The International Biochar Initiative defines biochar as “a fine-grained, highly porous charcoal that helps soils to retain nutrients and water” [i]. Like so many others bit by the biochar bug, I wanted to create a kiln for my own use. For more than a decade, our solution works for converting biomass, plastics, and waste into energy and useful products. Screw reactor concept 27 Figure 16. SUSTAINABLE BIOCHAR PRODUCTION. Characterisation of biochar from maize residues produced in a self-purging pyrolysis reactor Abstract: Response surface methodology was used to optimise pyrolysis conditions to produce biochar from maize residues (cobs, husks, leaves and stalks). Part 1: Literature Review of Pyrolysis Reactors. , Dickinson, D. Wether you call it TERRA PRETA The effects that rice husk (biochar-rh), rice bran (biochar-rb) and walnut shell (biochar-ws) biochar had on aerobic granulation and reactor performance during the treatment of petroleum wastewater have been investigated. Microwave pyrolysis of oil palm fiber (OPF) with three types of Na-based catalysts was experimentally investigated to produce biochar. Crop residues have considerable energy potential if utilized appropriately. Biochar production is a carbon-negative process, which means that it actually reduces CO2 in the atmosphere. Biochar can also be made from manure, or even biosolids (the solids left after wastewater treatment). Biochars were produced from the pyrolysis of centimeter-sized particles of Western Australia (WA) mallee wood in a fixed-bed reactor at 300 to 500 °C and a heating rate of 10 °C/min. In this work a slow pyrolysis process (an auger reactor) at 400 °C and 600 °C is used as well as two fluidized bed systems for low-temperature (600 °C–750 °C) gasification for the combined energy and biochar generation. 7%, respectively, during autothermal pyrolysis compared to conventional pyrolysis while the more valuable, organic-rich heavy ends of the bio-oil were essentially preserved. Biochar reactors usually operate at temperatures between 400 and 600 THE CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF BIOCHAR PRODUCED FROM A DECENTRALIZED REACTOR USING FORCED AIR AND NATURAL DRAFT PYROLYSIS Leah Herbert, Ian Hosek, & Rishi Kripalani Advisor: Dr. " The project will make use of local hires from the village to "operate and manage the reactor, track system performance and lead community educational programming about the reactor and its benefits to the community. 3390/app10030790, 10, 3, (790), (2020). Biochar is being promoted for its potential to improve soil properties, fertility and carbon sequestration in soil while also producing renewable energy. Biochar was characterized by both proximate analysis and nutrient analysis. "Biochar has proven to be useful as a soil amendment, for odor elimination and to mitigate pollution at toxic waste sites. $17. Biochar equipment for sale designed by Beston Group adopts the advanced carbonization and pyrolysis technology, which can convert various biomass materials to charcoal through the process of drying, crushing, feeding, carbonization, cooling, discharging, etc. The Miscanthus biochar was produced in Germany in 2010 by Pyreg® Gmbh (www. The role of biochar in sequestering carbon and mitigating climate change . Bulk Biochar Available. This is typically done in a fluidized bed reactor heated to 1,000–2,000 °C or 1,830–3,630 °F. Biochar: Production, Characterization and Applications Proceedings 8-20-2017 Investigation of innovative and conventional pyrolysis of ligneous and herbaceous biomasses for biochar production Marina Morando Politecnico di Torino, Italy Silvia Fiore Politecnico di Torino, Italy Cedric Briens ICFAR, Western University, Canada Franco Berruti Biochar Now uses custom-designed, patented, slow-pyrolysis kilns to make its biochar. By-products of this pyrolysis process are syngas (synthesis gas) and pyrolysis oil. Figure 6: Reactor being used for Biochar Production The reactor used for the production has two compartments. Biochar can be used to ¬filter odor, boost plant growth as a soil amendment, and remediate pollution at contaminated sites. 4. 2, 0. Biochar Supreme: Located in Everson, WA on the west coast just south of Canada. This study demonstrated that BS-biochar can remove TCS from wastewater in continuous flow-through columns, although to a lesser extent than activated carbon. This paper provides an updated review on the subjects, the available alternative to produce biochar from biomass, quantification and characterization of biochar, the adsorptive capacity for the adsorption of contaminants, and the effect of biochar addition to agricultural soils on contaminant bioavailability. CarbonZero Biochar Reactor We have designed a larger capacity horizontal bed kiln that will a) produce biochar from nearly any feedstock b) condense wood vinegar from the raw syngas stream, c) crack and filter the raw syngas remaining after the condensation step to produce a clean mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, known as syngas, and d The BEK (Biochar Experimenter’s Kit) is a reconfiguration of GEK components to create a multi-mode pyrolysis machine for characterized biochar and bio-oil making. High temperature pyrolysis: in general, the moisture and size of raw material should be less than 20% and 50mm; after the pretreatment, we will convey the raw material to biochar reactor by the screw belt conveyor; and then use coal, wood or natural gas as fuel to heat the biochar furnace for 30 minute; next, the raw material will Biochar functional performance is affected by feedstock attributes as well as reactor conditions. This study characterizes how forced and natural draft air flows affect the biochar’s soil amendment potential. Reactor design schematic 40 Figure 22. Then convey these processed raw materials to biochar pyrolysis reactor for heating by high temperature, and when the temperature reaches the required data, the raw materials will generate charcoal and combustible gas in furnace, and the whole pyrolysis time is about 15 minutes; May 20, 2020 – Explore tangentsafari's board "Biochar" on Pinterest. The yield varies between 25 and 40% depending on feedstock. The charcoal from biomass has a higher carbon content than the common charcoal. An auger transports the waste to the belt. Beston biomass pyrolysis reactor is made of special materials, which has better wear resistance and corrosion resistance, so that it can extend the service life The plants capture CO2 from the air transforming it into plant matter and the pyrolysis process locks the CO2 in the char for thousands of years in an organic carbon form thereby preventing the CO2 emissions from decomposing biomass. Once the furnace reaches a specific temperature, the crushed palm kernel shells will produce a combustible gas, which is then used for providing heat to the furnace. Scott Summers Team Karl G. Welcome to IBI’s Membership Program. Find bulk biochar options with volume discounts on trailer loads. Biochar is under investigation as a viable approach for carbon sequestration, as it has the potential to help mitigate global warming and climate change. Biochars are hereby denoted by the feedstock acronym and pyrolysis temperature, e. Pyrolytic carbon coatings are used in many applications, including artificial heart valves. 3. It is widely used to process coconut shells, palm fiber, jute stick, wood chips, bamboo, rice hull, etc. , 2010). Improving Community Health “The Kivalina Biochar Reactor is a safe way for the community to dispose of their sewage as well as an effective solution to an overflowing landfill and declining public infrastructure budgets Finally, the auger reactor is an intermediate pyrolysis technology that can be used successfully for the production of large quantities of both biochar and bio-oil (Garcia-Perez et al. The products (biogas/biochar/bio-oil) yields This reactor was used to produce part of the biochar needed for the characterization. com All, found to be$580 000 for a 250 kg h-1 unit. " to determine biochar yield as a function of the final reactor temperature. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Scott Summers Biochar is commonly linked to the Terra Preta, or Dark Earths, discovered by Europeans when they arrived in the Amazonian basin. Sep 18, 2017 · TEM imaging of biochar nanostructures. www. Wood chips were provided by a local mill produced from ash tree. Additionally, physical-chemical properties of the biochar produced at 500 °C are presented in order to verify its main Malaysian Customers Visiting Beston Biochar Production Equipment for Sale Tips for You While Using the Biochar Making Machine. Place the lid on the reactor and, using the handles, move it to a nearby mud pit. Hydrogen gas from Dec 21, 2015 · Tag: biochar reactor. This criterion was met, as the oscillations here were only 3% from the mean. Thanks for mentioning that Cone Kiln – this is a new design for me, and it looks like it would suit how we tend to work. Higher temperature brings the higher efficiency of carbonizing. 5. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. In Nicaragua, they have a saying, “Que le vaya bien,” which means “may you Mar 23, 2008 · Biochar is mostly inert, and is known to stay in the soil for thousands of years. This chapter gives an overview of the key technologies to produce biochar. As ozone reacted with biochar, the reactor got warmer. Highlighted by the Parliament of Australia, Department of Parliamentary Services, 10 September 2009, “The Basics of Biochar”; biochar is primarily produced using pyrolysis on biomass—which is plant material and agricultural waste—hence the name ‘biochar’. • The biochar drops over a weir at the end of the trough. Our biochar pyrolysis machine adopts a double-layer design. Very high feedstock flexibility due to mechanical auger. 9% were selected for this investigation. Biochar for Waste Reclamation Objective. The reactor biochar temperature is approximately 450°C. , highlighted by the first carbon negative biochar mine reclamation project in the world with Biochar is a charcoal product produced by thermally processing biomass via pyrolysis in a rotary kiln. The safety of biochar as a feed additive has been certified by Biocheck, a laboratory for veterinary diagnostics and environmental hygiene. Department of Biological Systems Engineering and the Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 137 pp. 4 g 100g −1 at 300 and 700°C, respectively). So it is perfect if you use it as fuel because it will not cause any pollution. 1. jpg 2,272 × 1,704; 983 KB May 15, 2010 · Rocket Retort Rocks! Yesterday was the christening of my new kiln, the Rocket Retort, a culmination of many months of research, design, contemplation; and a recent spate of hard work. (photo credit: R. True biochar is the result of heating biomass in an emission free pyrolysis reactor devoid of oxygen. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the batch pyrolysis reactor designed at the National Pingtung University of Science and Technology (Taiwan), and Figure 2 shows the built reactor. Cylinder with a cover iii. Pyrolysis Reactor The pyrolysis reactor is designed for pyrolysis of waste materials like biomass, agricultural wastes, scrap types etc. Esquivel-Garcia) Wood-based products in municipal solid waste are extremely varied and include materials such as plywood, particle board, and furniture (Figure 1). It was observed that biochar has the potential to replace coal as a gasification agent in power plants. Inside the reactor the biomass is heated and undergoes chemical and physical processes being transformed into biochar. 19–21) to train its staff on how to operate the reactor. It can dry the raw materials first before carbonization. Our biochar and biochar-blended products improve human well-being and address soil, water, air and carbon challenges. The European Biochar Certificate suggests that there should be no more than 20% fluctuation in reactor temperature during char production, with the recommendation waived for small systems producing 20 tonnes p. A improved solar biochar reactor, system including the reactor, and methods of forming and using the reactors and systems are disclosed. Biochar thus has the potential to help mitigate climate change via carbon sequestration. Description: (a) Front view of biochar reactor, (b) Movable capsule inside the reactor, it separates the fire and the biomass during pyrolysis, (c) Temperature sensor, can reach 1000 C ∘, (d) Flat cover avoids oxygen exchange, (e) Concave cover goes after flat cover, helps to direct the smoke emitted while charring to the excess pipe, (f) Reactor cover and excess pipe, (g) valve used to Screw reactor (Indirect heating) Flue gas Afterburner. The horizontal bed biochar reactor can be used for a variety of feedstocks, it has a pre-dryer, incorporates the ability to closely control process parameters of temperature and residence time, and can be flexibly configured to make use of the excess heat produced, and condense tars from the raw syngas. This waste to energy machine has created profitable economic value for investors. pyreg. An additional benefit of using BS-biochar is that WRRFs could re-activate biochar on-site by using a pyrolysis reactor. ——– Forwarded Message ——– Subject: Re: [biochar] An open-source biomass pyrolysis reactor Date: Sat, 16 Sep 2017 18:19:24 -0500 From: Paul Anderson <psanders@ilstu. Bruckman The biochar reactor built by the American University of Sharjah’s College of Engineering as part a two-year project. The kiln’s unique multi-zone combustion, airflow, negative pressure and recipe-driven control system allow each kiln to independently produce consistent, high quality biochar. Biochar is part of the black carbon continuum of chemo-thermal converted biomass. And it is getting popular around the world because of the high-quality charcoal and eco-friendly design. At the same time, the biochar is truly beneficial for the soil. This provides an ideal situation for the combined energy and biochar production. From soil carbon (C) sequestration strategy to nutrient source, biochar is used to enhance soil properties and to improve agricultural production. The temperature of the biochar making reactor is between 400℃ and 600℃. In our own tests, the only biochar used was inert biochar (carbo ligni) made by means of a technical pyrolysis using the so-called “Schottdorf reactor”. December 21, 2015 • kbk. The products of biomass pyrolysis include biochar, bio-oil and gases including methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. 12-07-035 Jul 24, 2009 · This study investigates the possibility to pretreat biomass to produce biochar as a solid biofuel to address these issues. Besides, our charcoal production plant is designed to reuse combustible gas as fuel to heat the reactor to save your cost. Department Of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium) 1st FOREBIOM Workshop 4/4/13 -Vienna Biochar is a charcoal-like material that is produced by pyrolysis of biomass. Charcoal-making stoves show promise of bringing low-cost biochar to rural areas. 1. Lab-scale auger reactor system 39 Figure 21. Because of the differences in bulk density between feedstocks, the actual mass of biomass in the reactor differed: ca. Europe is lagging behind the trend of implementation of Biomass pyrolysis and biochar characterization Ronsse, F. A large ‘super sack’ size bag (2 cubic yards) of Wakefield Premium Biochar is made from pine wood. It can be our belief, that about everybody has enough time to protect their cash, to make a Biochar Technology, Holywood. Recent advance in the biochar technologies makes it possible to turn some of solid wastes (trashes) into value-added biochar and bioenergy (treasures). It consists of the following parts majorly: i. Despite the overwhelming importance of earthworm activity in the soil system, there are a limited number of studies that have examined the impact resulting from biochar addition to soil. A mixer box let’s the user choose between these biochar production for carbon sequestration a major qualifying project figure 8: reactor (top) and sieve tray filled with corncob biomass (bottom) . You will make great profits from making biochar. Biochar making machine can process various biomass wastes, such as sawdust, rice husk, coconut shell, palm shell, wood, bamboo, etc. Biochar is a type of charcoal produced by the conversion of biomass or feedstock to a charred product under oxygen-limited conditions in a reactor, a process known as pyrolysis, says biogeochemist May 18, 2018 · This study was carried out to evaluate the agronomic potential of elephant grass biomass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) biochar obtained through slow pyrolysis using a semi-continuous pilot screw reactor in the absence of a carrier gas, and under different conditions. Taking biochar education to the public is a crucial step in not only capturing the myriad environmental and social benefits of biochar, but in building markets that support small-scale local industry. % was attained in the reactor, and the yield of biochar decreased as the residence time of the biochar in the reactor increased. 5T (Feed) charcoal reactor that we've been working on. End Products of Biochar Production Equipment. The so-called biochar production equipment has adopted this advanced biochar production technology and has been equipped with related mature devices, which is aimed at making charcoal from biomass and turning waste to energy. 4 g 100g −1 and significantly greater than biochar, but biochar θ s significantly increased with temperature (95. In biochar-amended compost CB1, we used a mixed woody waste biochar B1 (700°C, Pyreg ® reactor ), in CB2 a sewage sludge char B2 (650°C, Pyreg ® reactor) and in CB3 a wood waste/pruning residue biochar B3 quenched with water (700°C, flame curtain pyrolysis in a KonTiki [17, 18]). University of Georgia auger reactor schematic 35 Figure 20. 9 “Biochar may represent the single most important initiative for humanity’s environmental future. Biochar: Production, Characterization and Applications Proceedings 8-20-2017 Biochar production through hydrothermal carbonization: Energy efficiency and cost analysis of an industrial-scale plant Michela Lucian, University of Trento, Italy Fabio Merzari University of Trento, Italy Luca Fiori University of Trento, Italy Oct 03, 2016 · The scientific merit of the benefits of biochar as a soil amendment has been tested for over a thousand years. The only by-product of our pyrolysis system, is biochar. 135, 100, 70, and 70 g of wood, straw, green waste and algae were respectively used in each pyrolysis experiment. Depending on the US8361186B1 US12/796,629 US79662910A US8361186B1 US 8361186 B1 US8361186 B1 US 8361186B1 US 79662910 A US79662910 A US 79662910A US 8361186 B1 US8361186 B1 US 8361186B1 Authority US United States Prior art keywords biochar biomass method pyrolysis biochar core Prior art date 2009-06-08 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not May 24, 2018 · Choosing a biochar reactor to meet your needs. Other methods of biochar production beyond pyrolysis include gasification, hydrothermal conversion, torrefaction and carbonization. Contact Wakefield Biochar with questions regarding shipping service and estimated delivery. 540 likes. Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass occurring in the absence of oxygen. Biochar (pyrolysis) Pyrolysis is the thermo-chemical conversion of dry organic materials (i. Get it as soon as Wed Jan 18, 2019 · The on-farm burning of crop residues and biomass results in numerous environmental issues and affects human beings. Energy-saving. title = "Start up performance of biochar packed bed anaerobic digesters", abstract = "The development of microbial biofilm community in biochar packed anaerobic digesters was explored during start up at demonstration scale on high strength grease trap waste wastewater. The present paper provides an updated review on two subjects: the available alternatives to 19 ม. The other reactor is a 1. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. The main types are rotary drums, augers, and moving beds agitated with either grates or For each slow pyrolysis experiment, biomass pellets were loosely packed in the reactor to form a bed height of 25 cm. Sewage sludge saturated water content (θ s) was 130. Biochar differs from charcoal and similar materials by the fact that it is produced for agricultural and not energy purposes. Mississippi State University lab-scale auger reactor 32 Figure 19. We produce about 400Kg of vinegar for each 1. Component 2: Biochar. • Temperature of the biochar is controlled by changing the feed rate, the flow rate of water mist onto the charring bed and the amount of primary air entering the chamber. Source materials can be plant materials like leaves, stems, and woody tissue. Pyrolysis decreased the biochar’s water repellency, assessed by molarity of ethanol droplet (MED), compared to the Michael Ayiania used a spoon pyrolysis reactor to create small samples of biochar from urban wood residuals. Kelpie Wilson, the driving force behind the above stove design, also has a teachers guide for a 3 can Top Lit UpDraft pyrolytic gasifier, which is a similar design without the stove top. The habitat would naturally be fire maintained but has not been burned in 50 years. 7 versus 105. Biochar is very porous, but not amorphous (unshaped), this determines the essential characterises of biochar and offers a wide range of applications. “It’s important to use the right recipe for the biochar that you want to make, and the differences can be subtle. Develop a prototype of Pyrolysis Chemical Reactor to generate the decomposition of Organic Waste through the application of heat into a Charcoal commonly named Biochar, what is a stable solid, rich in carbon, used to increase the soil fertility to increase the yield in agricultural production, and also allowing us to mitigate global warming by sequestering carbon and producing energy that can Kingtiger Group is a top manufacturer of biomass pyrolysis plant; we have decades of experience in manufacturing pyrolysis plant of waste tire, plastic and biomass. 2016 – Horizontal Bed Biochar Reactor for Large Scale Biochar Production will a) produce biochar from nearly any feedstock b) condense wood vinegar from the raw syngas stream, c) crack and filter the raw syngas remaining after the condensation step to produce a clean mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, known as syngas, and d) optionally burn the syngas to generate electricity. While if you want to start a larger biochar charcoal production plant, you can choose our BST-10, BST-20 and BST-30. The dome school has done some great work on biochar so do check out their resources. It is the fundamental chemical reaction that is the precursor of both the combustion and gasification processes and occurs naturally in the first two seconds. The experiment was conducted in the temperature range of 500–850 °C. Linda Vanasupa California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Materials Engineering Department 4 June 2012 The pine sawdust was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor at 1123K with and without a pine sawdust biochar placed downstream of the pyrolysis process to crack the pyrolysis tar. Under the hypoxic condition, the biomass is carbonized to high-quality charcoal. com. •27 wt% biochar yield (average) •Scale: 1 ton/day biochar •Multiple commercial implementations today (Sonnenerde, AU; Swiss The biochar or biochar core can be functionalized to form a functionalized biochar or functionalized biochar core. edu&gt; To: biochar@yahoogroups. Intermediate pyrolysis reactors are preferred for processes focused on the production of high‐quality biochar. g. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. , pecan shell feedstock (PS25) and biochar produced at 700 °C (PS700). Biochar can be combusted rather than incorporated into soils in order to increase net energy output; however, this would greatly reduce net avoided C emissions (Gaunt and Lehmann, 2008). Cocoa pod Husk can be effectively used as The lower lid Biochar, the condensed aromatic carbon-rich solid co-product of biomass pyrolysis, is a soil amendment that is effective for sequestering carbon for centuries, if not millennia, while improving soil quality and reducing leaching of Figure 15. To determine the reactor dimensions a simulation in MATLAB will be done based on the heat transfer inside the reactor. (13359114075). Insulated Outer Box with a cover ii. The residual end product left in the furnace is a type of charcoal that is collected directly. Forest-derived biomass is considered an ideal raw material due to its abundance and relatively low cost. Bio charcoal production refers to carbonizing biomass materials by high temperature heating to generate charcoal. In addition to the numerous biochar-related resources found on this website, … Here's the link to DIY 55 gallon biochar reactor using recycled 55 gallon drums:. Biochar technology seems to have a very promising future. Our umbrella of companies have had many successes including launching biochar projects from Hawaii to Canada to the continental U. Crop residues can be converted into biochar through thermo-chemical routes; conversion helps in the managing and handling of biomass. biocharsolutions. Crossref Biochar production equipment employs carbonization technology to make charcoal from biomass waste. The top side of reactor can be open for feeding the raw material and Brazil: Experimental Study on Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Therm ochemical Processes Pilot Plant This paper investigates the sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis for bio-oil and biochar production in a pilot plant that was designed to perform the gasification process. & Prins, W. Series of four biochar videos in Spanish with English subtitles May 24, 2018 / by Ruy Anaya de la Rosa. Liquid and gaseous biofuels Biochar Solutions Production Equipment Biochar Solutions' production equipment optimizes biochar for the characteristics of fixed carbon and high surface area, through exothermic production. to reduce waste while making profits. Feasability of using a biochar reactor for side income and to prevent fire on acres of raw land? I own 30 acres of mixed woods with oaks, pine, and scrubby woody shrubs. The pyrolysis reactor is fed with biomass from top while air is supplied through the bottom part. Feb 15, 2018 · Biochar – as the name implies – is made from formerly living substances. As we all know, biochar is widely used as fertilizer for soil. Biochar consisted of coarse 2 or 3 cm chips and was purchased from "Biochar new company" which was heated 350 to 550 &deg;C. As a result, you should pay much attention to the temperature. Our biochar pyrolysis plants are popular with customers due to its energy conservation and environmental protection, low cost but high output, longer service life, as well as simple operation. One method of making biochar: pile up woody debris in a shallow pit in a garden bed; burn the brush until the smoke thins; damp down the fire with a one-inch soil covering; let the brush smolder Biochar Production Equipment Beston biochar production equipment adopts the technology of pyrolysis and carbonization to produce biochar from biomass. Design and deployment of biochar producing technologies by slow and fast pyrolysis. Biochar can be made from any lignocellulosic material, with chemical makeup and characteristics of the resulting biochar differing depending on the source material and process parameters used to create the biochar. Slow Pyrolysis as a Promising Approach for Producing Biochar from Sunflower Straw Yan Yue, a Qimei Lin, a, * Muhammad Irfan, a Qun Chen, b Xiaorong Zhao, a, * and Guitong Li a Slow pyrolysis opened new channels for the highly efficient utilization of sunflower straw in salt-affected regions and obtained not only 28% to 40% biochar, but also 29% A Biochar-Based Route for Environmentally Friendly Controlled Release of Nitrogen: Urea-Loaded Biochar and Bentonite Composite a 250 mL reactor containing 20 g of biochar at 135 °C and According to the International Biochar Initiative (IBI), biochar is a charcoal which can be applied to soil for both agricultural and environmental gains. The kiln has a biomass feed input of 300-1000kg/hr. Beyond Waste Objectives: Aug 13, 2016 · HOW TO MAKE BIOCHAR REACTOR – TLUD BURN BARREL for TERRA PRETA PERMACULTURE CARBON SEQUESTRATION Lets unlock a 7,000 year old amazonian carbon sequestration secret. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium chloride (NaCl), and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with purity 99. Image Credit: Courtesy: AUS A bibliographic research will be done to determine which industrial process will be chosen and what kind of changes will be necessary to introduce to the reactor in order to produce biochar suitable for smelting plants. Beston biochar production equipment uses advanced technology to turn biomass into charcoal, like coconut shell, sawdust, wood, bamboo, palm kernel, etc. BSI equipment is capable of continuously processing woodchip and nut hull feedstock into biochar in a proprietary, two-stage process. Seal the edge of the lid with mud. 5T input as our feedstock is quite dry (around 35% moisture content), so you don't need a lot of biomass to produce all you need of vinegar. Carbonization process of Beston biochar making machine. Therefore, biochar production is becoming the trend. In the process of making biochar, the unstable carbon in decaying plant material is converted into a stable form of carbon that is then stored in the biochar. Go ahead and try the best biochar on the market! Biochar and Advanced Biofuels in Washington State. If you possess the tiny amount of time that will help you make a really good biochar pyrolysis reactor, that will help you spend less and avoid losing money, then carrying this out every research will probably be definitely worth the effort to do so. See more ideas about Soil improvement, Making charcoal, Carbon sequestration. biochar reactor

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## Biochar vs ash

10 June, 2020

Learn more about the science and how to make your own biochar from expert Kai Hoffman-Krull. The invention is directed to a method for producing an oxygenated biochar material possessing a cation-exchanging property, wherein a biochar source is reacted with one or more oxygenating compounds in such a manner that the biochar source homogeneously acquires oxygen-containing cation-exchanging groups in an incomplete combustion process. (Scale is 10x in graph) Available amounts range from 24mg/kg (Mg in oak and pine) to 1. The CM biochar at three temperatures (350, 450 and 750°C) showed higher yield and higher ash content than the other biochars ( Table 1 ), due to large amount of inorganic compounds (K, P, Ca, and Mg) in this biomass ( S1 Table ), which Incineration vs Pyrolysis: pariah vs pioneer Posted on January 28, 2018 by fing2335 Recently I met with my State Senator to discuss a proposed incineration plant for a beautiful part of the Finger Lakes; the home of the white deer, the former Seneca Army Depot. inﬁltration excess runoff) was subsequently identiﬁed using exceedance probabilities of storm intensity, by comparing ﬁve-year storm intensity values with the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of measured inﬁltration rates. Biochar has been found to suppress ash dieback in a recent study featured on the BBC’s Countryfile on Sunday 21 February. Effect of biochar and charcoal on soil water retention Jan 16, 2012 · Activated Carbon. To learn more about the benefits of biochar and current research on biochar visit: Biochar – Cornell University. 59. Studies conducted primarily in Europe and Australia indicate that biochar has Development of renewable energy is essential to mitigating the fossil fuel shortage and climate change issues. I think if you simply just separate the biochar from the ash, you remove most of the Calcium Carbonate. resident carbon – this is basically a measure Furthermore, M ash,c and M ash,b and are the weights (kg) of the ash in the biochar and in the original biomass feedstock out of which the biochar was produced, respectively. dry batter left. Limestone does the same thing as ash, so make sure your total applications of both fertilizers don't exceed 20 pounds. Briquettes are a chemical mix with many unknown additives; I wouldn’t even save the ash for the garden. 2. Carbonates and Wood stove biochar experiment Once I started damping our Jotul F 602 wood stove down at night, I realized that the stove makes copious amounts of first class charcoal. In this paper, the gasification reaction between CO<sub>2</sub> and biochar was investigated. It’s not burnt to ash but is a form of charcoal that has some of the same characteristics as humus, plus one very important other function: When it’s buried in the soil, it stores carbon so it doesn’t enter the air as carbon dioxide Combustion of rice hulls affords 'rice husk ash' (acronym RHA). Biochar ash content and elemental composition (%, oven-dry, wt. “Recycling and disposing of wood ash. The biochar was applied in November 2010 and the measurements were obtained in 2012. 2019. A long-term (5 year) laboratory experiment was conducted under controlled conditions using 11 biochars made from five C3 biomass feedstocks (Eucalyptus saligna wood and leaves, papermill sludge, poultry litter, cow manure) at 400 and/or 550 °C. There is no noticeable effect from the heating rate on the biochar pH during intermediate pyrolysis (Angin 2013). Jul 12, 2019 · Cut, Pile & Burn vs Cut, Char & Quench Item CP&B CC&Q Cut (chainsaw work) $350$350 Pile (5-8 piles/hr per worker) $600 Burn (20 piles/acre, using drip torch)$150 Biochar Kilns (3 – 4 kilns per acre, 1 person feeds 2 kilns) $600 Quenching water (water truck & operator)$150 Total cost/acre $1100$1100 • Currently, most of the labor dollars Oct 12, 2017 · 2016 – Modified gasifier from mostly syngas and ash to mostly biochar and syngas 2017 – Greenhouse/field trial AWS Biochar from manure, digestate, ag residuals 2018 – Commercial biochar production, WRCAC Project for CAFO permit renewal Biochar, that is, carbonized biomass similar to charcoal, has been used in acute medical treatment of animals for many centuries. 10mL of liquid urine sample is combined with 2-8g biochar 3. Biochar, or charcoal, has been used for centuries as a soil amendment, but only recently has it been scientifically considered for viticultural applications. If any of the Biochar impacts on Soil Microbes & N Cycling 44 different biochars evaluated 11 different biomass parent materials Hardwood, softwood, corn stover, corn cob, macadamia nut, peanut shell, sawdust, algae, coconut shell, turkey manure, distillers grain Represents a cross-sectional sampling of available “biochars” C content 1 to 84 % Biochar impacts on Soil Microbes & N Cycling 44 different biochars evaluated 11 different biomass parent materials Hardwood, softwood, corn stover, corn cob, macadamia nut, peanut shell, sawdust, algae, coconut shell, turkey manure, distillers grain Represents a cross-sectional sampling of available “biochars” C content 1 to 84 % Nov 21, 2010 · Once again biochar, compost, worm castings and rockdust etc. 4 to 28. Lawn grass, because of its abundance, captures more ambient CO2 than any existing or proposed technology. Bermuda grass growing in biochar amended soil after 28 days of drought. Thank you everyone for the views, shares and support 😀 Buy less, but buy it through my Amazon First, this process produces ash, not biochar. 10 and tendencies are discussed at P ≤ 0. The aromaticity and degree of condensation of aromatic rings of the medium-scale biochar was high, as was its resistance to chemical oxidation. Its unique structure allows it to hold water in very small pores, and this water becomes available to the plant as needed, rather than evaporating to the surrounding environment. APSIM Biochar model predictions of corn grain yield, corn stover, soil bulk density (BD), soil pH, SOC (soil organic carbon) and volumetric soil moisture vs. Biochar and Compost Facilities – Cornell University. “Biochar is simply biomass-derived charcoal ignition is the ash. Jae-Young Kim, Shinyoung Oh, Young-Kwon Park, Overview of biochar production from preservative treated wood with detailed analysis of biochar characteristics, heavy metal behavior, and their ecotoxicity, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 10. Biochar yield is maximized when a slow pyrolysis technique is employed, and conversely biochar yield is minimized Rick, I am responding to your two recent messages. (2014). pH, total NH 3, and phosphorus are tested using HACH test kits 6. Erich, M. Ash is white and is a very different material (biochar is black). 2 MJ kg−1, which are comparable to that of the Biochar for bedding: 84% less odors Biochar as feed additive: 77% less dysenteries 62% animals are calmer and balanced 77% less odor in barns Observation: cells in milk decreased, less streptococcus, less rumen ulcer, better fitness Biochar as liquid manure additive 79% less odors 63% less cauterization of the liquid manure EBC – barn protocol Biochar Biocharis charcoal created from biomass, and differs from charcoal only in the sense that its primary use is not for fuel. Biochar Initiative Director Tom Miles, is that the emergence of biochar for various applications has made recycling this feedstock more viable in some parts of the U. Biochar is produced by heating biomass in the total or partial absence of oxygen. In soil, biochar’s carbon-carbon bonds don’t break down, and stay in soil for centuries. NOTE — The temperature of 105°C is quite critical for organic Make Your Own BioChar and Terra Preta: A simple way to make BioChar in a 55 gallon drum. It is specifically pyrolized (charred) to support the improvement of soil. Aerified, raked clean, broadcast biochar by hand over weak established stand, dragged/raked in, seeded. Biochar is made using Some biochar is black ash, which may be volumetrically >50% C, but is >75% ash by weight. 1 Oven, capable of being regulated to a constant temperature of 105 ± 5°C. Despite an initial rapid rate of 14 CO 2 release from the biochar amended soil in the first 10 d, there was no overall effect of biochar or wood ash on the rate of microbial biomass mineralization over the 50 d incubation period (P = 0. 220). In this study, the sulfur content and speciation in biochars generated from pyrolysis and gasification of oak and corn stover were determined. Some chars may have high ash content and may benefit from rinsing with rain water or soaking in organic acids. Low ash woody biochars have low mineral content, ranging 5mg/kg (P in Oak) to 5g/kg of total elements. When mixed with lime and water, fly ash forms a compound similar to Portland cement. The high heating values of the as-prepared bio-coals from the representative biomass are within 25. 4 to -1. Both soil amendments increased soil pH and soil Ca levels; high-carbon wood ash also increased soil Cu, Zn, B, S, and Pb. Apr 11, 2008 · Charcoal May Help Improve Soil Quality Researchers say that adding charcoal to soil may provide more benefits for long-term soil quality than compost or manure. Figure 1A shows that the greater the amount of biochar added, the higher the observed pH value. biochar absent from the diet (i. Primary biochar benefits are its potential to combat climate change by removing harmful carbon from the atmosphere. biochar. By Joe GregoireOrange County Master Gardener University studies have shown that adding charcoal (also called biochar) to soil increases the You can spread pure inoculated biochar around a grow area, then mulch as normal to hold the biochar in place. In addition, biochars offer a simple, sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added value products. S. Figure 6. Sprinkle biochar on top of fresher compost: this will decrease smell, co-compost the biochar with the compost, provide biochar as feed for chickens, and expedite both composting and the microbiota and fungal synergy with the biochar. . Table 6 3. Take "final product" from "completed" side of the chicken-biochar-compost area and mix with soil. This biochar is then incorporated into the soil as a soil amendment. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5. 3 ppm). On the other hand, compost addition significantly increased CEC. Recent studies have found that addition of biochar to AD increases methane production Biochar powder (BC) was created as a byproduct of fast pyrolysis that was produced from 1 to 2 mm particles of cellulosic biomass from mixed hardwood residues with <10% moisture, pyrolyzed at 450 to 500 C (C-Quest biochar, Dynamotive Energy Systems Corp. An annual application of ash is plenty, so the best thing to do when you're done is to store it away or get rid of it. Numerous research studies pointed out that biochar can act as a soil conditioner enhancing plant growth Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 8 m2 g 1 surface area [33 The Effects of Biochar Amendment to Soil on Bioenergy Crop Yield and Biomass Composition Charles Warren Edmunds cedmund1@utk. In principle, any organic feedstock can be pyrolyzed, although the yield of solid residue (char) respective to liquid and gas yield varies greatly along with physicochemical properties of the resulting biochar. The results showed the initial temperature and the final temperature of the gasification reaction between biochar and CO<sub>2</sub> were lower, while Dec 17, 2018 · Biochar’s primary use is in agricultural gardens, while its benefits to ornamental garden plants, shrubs and trees are largely unstudied and unsupported. Wood ash fertilizer is 0-1-3 or 0-1-4 depending on what type wood is burned. 57 A Fly ash 2 11. The exact chemical makeup depends highly upon the condition of combustion (moisture, heat of combustion, air flow during combustion, length of The effect of biochar and wood ash on microbial biomass turnover is shown in Fig. The two biochar properties that most affect soils are liming equivalent (due to the amount of ash contained in the biochar) and the relative fractions of mobile vs. We examined the effects of a poplar (Populus) wood biochar and a high-carbon wood ash on soil and vegetation in a 3-year experiment in northwestern Ontario, Canada. The left pot contains 4% biochar (by weight) in the soil and had nearly 100% recovery. Biochar recoveries, volatile matter, pH, and surface area measurements (Novak et al. When charcoal is activated, it is processed in a way to increase the porosity. Biochar included vs. , in review) Slide 12 Moisture contents (w w-1) of Norfolk loamy sand after biochar additions and leaching with di. Biochar and biofuel production Both raw bagasse and digested bagasse residue were converted Ash was separated by placing biochar sample in a nickel crucible and it was heated at 700°C for 2 h under air . ” Tappi Journal, 73 (1990): 141–146. 15. Cation‐exchange capacity (CEC) could not be increased upon biochar addition while base saturation (BS) was significantly increased due to ash addition with biochar. Biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon can be broadly defined in the following ways: Biochar is a carbon-rich solid that is derived from biomass (organic matter from plants ) that is heated in a limited oxygen environment. should be used together to benefit growing systems, but biochar needs to be mixed to get shorter term benefits, if you add it straight you may get a negative effect or a very small positive effect in the short term, but better effects in the long term as biochar settles into the soil 117 Numbers exceeding the residential soil cleanup level are labeled as R and exceeding industrial level are labeled as I. One (furthest below) was about developing societies with focus on labor, and the other (with extracts immediately below) was about developed societies and mechanized production. Declaration Declaration Ash at 750 °C for 6 hours. REDUCE EMISSIONS • CAPTURE CARBON • IMPROVE COMPOST. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8. recovery as evidenced by the brown color. Pyrolysis: Pariah vs Pioneer by Kathleen Draper Recently I met with my State Senator to discuss a proposed incineration plant for a beautiful part of the Finger Lakes; the home of the white deer, the former Seneca Army Depot. The application of biochar to soil is being proposed as a novel approach to establish a significant long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems. fraction of the dried residue was analyzed for TS and VS content and the remaining mass was used for biochar production. 5. Wood burns twice, once from wood to char, then from char to ash. 11 ft3, 53. 8% and 3% treatments) was also analyzed as a preplanned contrast. 43, as shown in Table 1) due to the ash in biochar containing more basic cations, like Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +, etc. The ash and the carbon left in the partially burned biomass elements will benefit the soil, but that is a different discussion. Carbon content in wood biochars > 80% typical. The 0. 1. Biochar vs Charcoal In contrast, Charcoal is a fuel that is used for cooking and other heat generating applications and created by heating biomass, typically wood, under conditions of limited oxygen. It could also be used to sequester Campbell, A. This alkalinity can be a concern if applied unchanged to alkaline or calcareous soils. Because of the inevitable ash content of biochar, it has the advantage of reducing the acidity of the soil which is usually helpful. Elemental analysis The elemental (CHN) analysis was performed in duplicate using a Flash 2000 Elemental Analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). , (2012) Nov 18, 2010 · The story goes that charcoal buried in the soil is stable for thousands if not hundreds of thousands of years and increases crop yields. I will meet with him in a few weeks to talk about the details. 1 g of ash sample was mixed with 3 mL of HNO 3 (65 %) and 9 mL of HCl (37 %) and poured into special May 29, 2013 · It grew into a pit to gain greater air control. 4 vs. Using Biochar vs cost: Biochar – that black charcoal like substance discussed so often in recent days for its miraculous effects on soil and compost – is good for more than just your garden. Consequently, biochar pyrolysis temperature, biochar alkalinity, soluble ash composition, and soil pH may explain a large proportion of variability in the literature examining biochar impacts on Oct 02, 2018 · Traditional production of Terra Preta was a dirty, environmentally unfriendly process. Strictly speaking, activated charcoal is fired at a hotter range. Mean odor threshold ranged from 1. “Currently sourcing enough biochar for application at the commercial farm scale is nearly impossible, due to lack of supply. experimental observations from Rogovska et al. Terra Preta de Indio – Cornell University. The biochars were incubated in a I am the co-founder of Carbon Gold Ltd, a biochar company in Bristol, England. STEPS: Mix water and Portland Cement together first; Fold in three parts biochar. 2012). The proposal to grow crops on hundreds of millions of hectares to be turned into buried ‘biochar’ is therefore widely seen as a “carbon negative” initiative that could save the climate and boost food production. 4 months ago 9 Biochar yields were reduced and ash contents increased with an increase in pyrolysis temperature . 5. Biochar, charcoal used as a soil amendment, is intended to improve soil condition by adding humus, increasing soil organism relationships and sequestering carbon, while ashing is aimed exclusively at eliminating insect pests, animals or weeds from a field or garden. vs. Top Lit Open Fire: Light the pile from the top, on the downwind side, let it burn top-down to a pile of char, when the high dancing yellow flames are mostly done, attack the pile with water and rakes before Biochar is the pyrolysis product which contains all non-combustible constituents of the feedstock (ash), and therefore is always present as a product of pyrolysis and gasification, regardless of process temperature and feedstock. On flat ground the biochar produced during burning is hard to protect from oxygen entering from the sides. 74 A Bottom ash 5. A biochar prepared from a biomass with a high ash content has a high pH (Enders et al. • Production of Biochar requires; • Organic Material • Reduced O2 and low heat (<700 C) Several studies have reported negative results in crop yields from biochar applications. 20 A FGD 6. Biochars are primarily stable Carbon Rings = Graphene Sheets. Activated carbon is also known as activated charcoal. Biochars made from ash-rich biomass have ~10-100 times more total nutrients, from 1-70g/kg. The question of growing food in changing climate is one we all need to be asking. 2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. That would be the … The March 2020 IBI Newsletter is now available. Biochar is a valuable product that can be produced in combination with bio-energy in a cascading approach to make best use of available resources. Apr 14, 2017 · Biochar is any organic matter that has been burned in a way so as to reduce it to consisting mainly of carbon. the biochar, the washed biochar, lime and ash are shown in Table S1. This ash is a potential source of amorphous reactive silica , which has a variety of applications in materials science . Author information: (1)UBC Bioreactor Technology Group, School of Engineering, University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Canada. 71 ppm vs. . Modern Biochar production has been refined to burn or recapture the escaping gases in a process called pyrolysis. This is important in the biochar quenching process because dry char means burning hasn’t stopped, holding the potential to ignite an unwanted fire. 3 parts biochar: note biochar should be soaked in water prior to mixing at a rate of 4 cups water to ½ cubic foot of biochar to reduce dust; particle size should be 1/8” or less. Wood ash can pile up during a cold winter, and it would be nice to have a practical use for it. The center pot contains 2% biochar and had a recovery of 40-60%. You use biochar for a healthier soil. So, CO2 fixed by photosynthesis is now an inert form, safely stored long-term. To learn more about using wood ash as a soil amendment check out: natural biochar/charcoal in soils show: • Terra Preta – Amazon Dark earths – 500 to 7000 yrs • Based on annual char inputs from fires: – Northern Australian woodlands – 1300 to 2600 yrs – Western Vancouver – 3300 yrs Mechanisms of Biochar Decay: • Mineralization Biological decomposition (<2%) – type of biochar; production temperature Methane production is limited during anaerobic digestion (AD) due to complex molecular structure of organic waste and inhibition of archaea by by-products generated from mineralization of organic matter. For potted plants, use pure biochar at a ratio of about 1:16 with your potting soil – about ½ cup per gallon of soil (118ml per 4 litres of soil). No experience with chickens and lice (i have ducks), but charcoal and wood-ash are fundamentally different: Wood-ash contains a strong alkaline (Potassium Hydroxide) that may kill off the lice – i'm not sure. Researchers are actively experimenting with biochar for its possible uses to amend poor soil, store carbon, and absorb pollutants in contaminated Jan 15, 2019 · Rather than burning the “alligators” to ash, it is still possible to burn these piles into biochar using an Top Lit Open Fire method. Dec 04, 2016 · The EFB biochar was alkaline in nature with a pH of 9. As a fertilizer, the ashes typically Fuel wood—often oak, hickory, ash, or maple—was generally stacked in piles and covered with damp earth, lit from the top of the pile, and left to combust and smolder for days. Biochar PhysioChemical Properties. pH of CCR samples Sample pH A Fly ash 1 9. edu This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate School at Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. Biochar that is made from clean agricultural residues, such as woody material, leaves and grass stalks, is generally very safe for introduction into the soil. Thus, biochar in soil is a true carbon-negative strategy. Probabilities were considered significant at P < 0. The carbon is retained in the char, unlike regular wood ash, while the hydrogen and oxygen are driven off. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. The good news, according to U. e. The research featured on the programme reveals that ash dieback could be more effectively managed and the spread of the disease slowed and potentially halted using biochar prodcuts. 96–3. It has been In fact it's possibly, even likely, more efficient than the retort, in which ~50% of the wood (which is outside the retort) is burned to ash. 129 replies 3 2 3. pendula) biochar was assessed 0. 75 We have already found out that our biochar has an excellent, high level of fixed carbon content and low ash and volatiles, making it a nice and pure carbon, topping the biochar databases. Biochar has a characteristic high pH (10. It has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees already in the U. If biochar is made in a burner, some carbon returns to the air as CO2, but 20 to 60% of the carbon remains as biochar. So let’s hear what the experts had to say about the pros of using either lump charcoal or briquettes. 6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23. 83 g biochar (g VS Oct 25, 2016 · Biochar free of labile chemicals (chemical‐free biochar, CFB) used in Experiment II was prepared by an extraction procedure as follows: an aliquot of biochar was shaken 24 h at 25°C in an ethyl acetate: methanol azeotrope (56 : 44 v/v) at a 1 : 9 w/v ratio, allowed to settle, separated from the solvent, and then shaken again in methanol at a Biochar, a by-product of biomass pyrolysis, was investigated as a carbon-based electrode material for a water treatment method based on electrostatic adsorption/desorption of ions in electric double layers (EDLs) formed on the charged electrodes (capacitive deionization, CDI). Hoping to promote simple, scalable, environmentally sound methods for making biochar for improving the soil on small farms and in backyard gardens. 3. But wait, there's more. Then you can run water through the biochar to remove the KOH . First, about price, you wrote: 120 per CY is about $600 per ton biochar by my estimate. ” Nov 07, 2019 · Recyclers of construction & demolition (C&D) material have increasingly struggled to find markets for wood. Jun 10, 2018 · Some talking points and addressing questions about biochar & rants about comments on biochar videos. 11 B Fly ash 1 6. Step 3 – Store or Dispose of Unused Ash. The content of ash was calculated as: Ash content (%) = (M Ash /M Biochar) ×100, where M Ash was the mass of ash and M Biochar was the mass of biochar. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. To learn more about using wood ash as a soil amendment check out: Oct 12, 2019 · Lump charcoal vs briquettes – what do the experts say? Most experts with an opinion on the matter can relate that each of the two choices come with their advantages and disadvantages. Mean odor offensiveness ranged from -0. Biochar is a different challenge, since it does not matter how it burns. 82 A Fly ash 3 8. Nov 18, 2019 · Effect of biochar and wood ash amendment on biochemical methane production of wastewater sludge from a temperature phase anaerobic digestion process. It takes about 10 pounds (4. 5kg) of biochar to properly cover 100 square feet (9. Backyard BBQ Biochar: Your beautiful and well maintained lawn can be one of the best carbon sequestration devices in existance. May 04, 2020 · American BioChar creates all-natural supplements which improve the health of soil depleted in nutrients and micronutrients, increasing the carbon stock, improving soil structure, and enhancing plant growth. In recent years, gardeners have been given mixed signals about the safety and value of using wood ash on their garden soil. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. and will be a serious threat to Nebraska’s 44 million ash trees. “Effect of wood ash application on soil pH and soil test nutrient levels. Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Here, we propose to produce a new type of energy, bio-coal, via a fast pyrolysis coupled with atmospheric distillation process. bioCORE™, our patented high-temperature, super low-ash biochar. “Agronomic effectiveness of wood ash as a source of phosphorus and potassium. Discussion 4. 45% for the Miscanthus feedstock, pointing to the absence of labile C pool in the biochar. Is this High Carbon Ash Biochar? • This is not a by-product of pyrolysis • It provides many of the attributes to soil that are attributed to the use of biochar as a soil amendment • Currently available in relatively large quantities (5000 tons per year from this one biomass plant) Ash from this plant is unique, because no reinjection is used Ash is the inorganic mineral residue of the combustion or pyrolysis of biomass or coal. Which one is better would depend on what you would need it for – in gardening and land management, biochar is definitely the clear winner. , many agro-residues that can become Biochar is applied to acid soils to raise the pH of acid soils, but the degree to which wood ash in the char contributes to the increase in pH is unknown. One of the key materials for a sustainable future of the planet, biochar has many other uses that can be integrated into new organic systems for farming The question here is how much CaCO3 is in the actual biochar vs just the ash. When producing activated carbon, charcoal is treated with oxygen. Biochar is plant matter, wood mostly, roasted until it’s black and crumbly. Unusable dead trees, woody debris and other organic materials undergo a low-heat process of slow burning (without oxygen) called pyrolysis. 0. Pyrolysis is the most common technology employed to produce biochar, and also occurs in the early stages of the combustion and gasification processes. Ohno, T. ” Journal of Environmental Quality 20 (1991): 576–581. 2017; Yakout 2017). I use to worry too much wood ash will increase ph and kill plants but 1 pint per plant is no problem when mixed well into the soil then covered with 1" of soil before planting my plants direction on top of the wood ash. Because of this, more of the material turns to ash. Source: Artiola et al. So what is biochar? Learn more about biochar and its benefits in this article. Biochar • Biochar is loosely packed hexagonally arranged carbon rings that differ from ash , which ha s a much higher concentrations of Ca and Mg. Pyrolysis, which is also the first step in gasification and combustion, occurs in the absence or near absence of oxygen, and it is thus distinct from combustion (burning), which can take place Emerald ash borer is able to kill all ash trees, regardless of their health, age or size. 2 vs. We promise! There is a difference in how biochar is made. (2014) which studied the same type of biochar. Failing to extinguish the fire can also result in a kiln full of ash instead of biochar. The biochar will absorb most of the liquid in this time. Kishimoto and Sugiura (1985)observed a 37% and 71% decrease in soybean yield with biochar applied to soils (volcanic ash loam) at rates of 5 t ha⁻¹ and 15 t ha⁻¹, respectively. tHE BIOCHAR JOURNAL's Kelpie Willson has written the single best article I've ever read in over 8 years of research concerning; How Biochar Works in Soil. Guidelines for Conditioning Biochar Consider a Nutrient source AND a Microbial inoculant Nutrient and Microbe diversity is preferred Char should be wetted: encourage adsorption, resist floating Consider pH. The right pot with 0% biochar had 0% . 84 B Fly ash 3 11. , in review) Table 2. 89 B Fly ash 2 11. biochar to soil can have multiple benefits, such as the carbon sinks and soil additives to increase plant productivity. This ash contains valuable minerals, but it also raises the pH of the biochar to around pH 8. It has often been used as a soil amendment in gardens. Typically used as a soil amendment. The high ash content and high porosity of biochar produced by autothermal pyrolysis of herbaceous biomass compared to biochar from conventional (oxygen-free) pyrolysis of woody biomass suggest its use in two immediate markets: enhancing anaerobic digestion (AD) of grassy feedstocks and livestock odor control (LOC). Also, Bulleen Art and Garden (BAAG) sell a bulk soil improver (~$80/cubic metre) which is based on composted wood with added biochar, although the amount of biochar is undefined. g. How to make low ash biochar. It is defined analytically as the residue after complete combustion of any remaining carbon compounds. 89 B Bottom ash 1 10. cellulose-dominated corn stover biochar produced at 300 C (Corn300); (2) high-temperature, lignin-dominated oak wood biochar at 600 C (Oak600); and (3) high-temperature, high-ash content poultry manure mixed with sawdust at 600 C (Poultry600). 40% wt% of ash). biochar vs hugelkultur. 6 for the control. This makes fly ash suitable as a prime material in blended cement, mosaic tiles, and hollow blocks, among other building materials. Also At the end of the Video, will also tell Ash is a mixture of a small amount of biochar (the exact proportion varies depending on the condition of combustion) with the rest being the left over dregs of combustion that simply will not burn. Apr 08, 2016 · For optimal results as a soil amendment, biochar should have low ash content, minimal volatile organic compounds, high porosity, and high carbon content. If applied to acid soils, such as those found in the Pacific Northwest region, the liming capacity of ROGUE BIOCHAR™ can be a great benefit. Biochar is a unique environmental approach to fertilizing. Water and ash provide similarly reduced long-term value in the biochar, but most people recognize that situation and purchase accordingly. (2015) and Norazlina et al. jhazmat. Since 2010, livestock farmers increasingly use biochar as a regular feed supplement to improve animal health, increase nutrient intake efficiency and thus productivity. Biochar may look like charcoal but it isn’t made the same way so don’t start dumping your fireplace ashes into your garden. A small pit of 16 x 24 x 32" (7. 121356, (121356), (2019). Jan 28, 2018 · Wood Ash is a very cost effective organic fertilizer used commonly in nurseries which is the top secret for healthy plants you see in plant nurseries. 91 A Fly ash 4 1. 3m 2). All biochars were produced by a slow pyrolysis process (Daisy Reactor, Best Energies, The desired biochar properties will determine the type of plant that will be purchased (or designed and manufactured) Key biochar properties are persistence, porosity, adsorptivityand hydrophobicity of biochar, and percentage of ash (affects pyrolysis temperature and time) For achieving green production of iron ore sintering, it is significant to substitute biochar, which is a clean and renewable energy, for fossil fuels. Biochar is under investigation as a viable approach for carbon sequestration, as it has the potential to help mitigate global warming and climate change. To address this, we generated biochar (450 °C) and wood ash (870 °C) from the same mixed hardwood feedstock and added it to an agricultural grassland at comparable rates under both laboratory and field conditions (10 t ha −1 and 571 kg ha −1 for BC and WA, respectively). The purpose of this project was to help the Environmental Science department at Shanghai Jun 27, 2019 · The effect of biochar application on P availability in agricultural soils was calculated using the response ratio (R), which is the mean of the biochar-treated soil divided by the mean of the biochar and Silver birch (B. , and M. Sep 27, 2018 · From the residual biomass generated by the palm oil sector in Ecuador, kernel shell (KS) is of major importance because it has been demonstrated that its use as solid fuel could replace diesel and LPG currently subsidized by the government to be used in the industrial and commercial sectors to produce thermal energy. Surface area, porous structure, and functional groups of biochar were developed, and corresponding effects on EDL Ash Composition, wt % The 3rd FOREBIOM Workshop 05 & 06 June, 2014 Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey Biochar T-CS0,80 T-OS T-VS T- LHL T-BL CS OS VS LHL BL 0 Composting with Biochar – Comparative CEC, VOC, and effectiveness. , that had strong H + exchange capability in the compost (Uras et al. This makes our soils more forgiving at the wilting point— an important benefit to growers who like Feedstock is the term conventionally used for the type of biomass that is pyrolyzed and turned into biochar. 4 Organic matter is determined by sub­ tracting percent ash content from 100. 1% for the medium-scale biochar vs. -2. water Slide 14 Conclusions: disintegrates into ash. The soil at th e experiment al station i s classi ﬁ ed as a Typic Kanhaplu dult and is a sandy cl ay loam. NOTE: As a work around to this potential draw down on soil nutrients CHARCOAL GREEN ® BIOCHAR PLUS begins as a pure biochar then is inoculated with beneficial soil microorganisms and enriched substrates . In a 90-day laboratory incubation, cumulative mineralization was 0. The ash content is ex­ pressed as a percentage of the mass of the oven-dried sample. CTO Rate was 1 cf/1000sf in fall and topdress 1 cf/1000sf on 3/28/17 CTO G2 Rate was 2 cf/1000sf in fall. Yoder and Galinato, 2009 The stability of biochar carbon (C) is the major determinant of its value for long-term C sequestration in soil. Some soaked samples were saved for agricultural testing Synthetic Urine Pyrolysis, the chemical decomposition of organic (carbon-based) materials through the application of heat. Burning wood slowly and at low temperatures is still one of the least expensive and easiest ways to make charcoal. 6 to 2. The situation with Leonardite is a bit more hopeful. 24 Biochar application is more effective on highly Incineration vs. What is Biochar? Biochar may be produced intentionally as a soil amendment or as a waste byproduct in the production of bioenergy. We found the primary determinant of the total sulfur content of biomass to be the feedstock from which the biochar is generated May 11, 2019 · Adding wood ash is a proven way to improve soil . Most of the ash is used in the production of Portland cement . The property of biochar produced is much dependent upon the composition and type of Apr 12, 2019 · Biochar, otherwise known as charcoal, is an age-old method of increasing soil health. Many soils are more acidic than is ideal for agriculture. In British Columbia, biochar and wood ash are waste products of bioenergy produced from forestry residues. Freshly made biochar can be very caustic (pH12+) and if this is substantially ash by mass, this type of biochar can have a huge impact on soil pH. 73 (in water) probably due to the presence of ash produced during the pyrolysis process, and this was consistent with the finding of Rabileh et al. Biochar is like charcoal, and it’s made in a similar way. G. , Richmond, BC, Canada), and with 69% C content, 9% ash, and 2. Abstract. combining the 0. Total Ash Required DIN 51719, ISO 1171 or EN 14775 – ashing at 550°C, heating at 5 K/min to 106°C under nitrogen atmosphere then at 5 K/min to 550 ° C under oxygen, hold for 1h Required ASTM D1762-84 ‘Standard Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Wood Charcoal’. Biochar reminds me of 1980 when I hung out with the long hair hippie group and everyone was interested in Mother Earth News The effects of feedstock type and biomass conversion conditions on the speciation of sulfur in biochars are not well-known. 3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0. We hypothesized that alkaline, nutrient-rich wood ash would Oct 13, 2018 · Biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon: An overview. 1 vs. Samples are removed and vacuum-filtered through a GF-C filter 5. Biochar–urine slurry samples are placed in a tumbler for 24 hours 4. Inorganic Carbon, using Fermenting Analogies, covering Composting Synergies, Humus & Chemistry. When charged biochar is mixed with garden soil, biochar has a high carbon and low ash content, giving it a slightly alkaline pH. Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the Charcoal vs Briquettes Biochar is NOT the same as charcoal used in a backyard cooking grill. In biochar, the ash may occur as separate dispersed particles, or may melt to beads or films. [1] ANALYTICAL OPTIONS FOR BIOCHAR ADSORPTION AND SURFACE AREA 2 of 15 These measures have established assays from the coal industry, and accurately predict how charcoals will behave when used in their intended applications, typically either cooking or metal processing. Also oxygen, hydrogen, and ash compounds : Mg, Ca, Si Jan 31, 2020 · Wood ash is an excellent garden fertilizer it contains 20% to 30% calcium depending on the wood that is burned plus it contains, phosphorus and potash = potassium and several trace elements. Thirteen days of fires filled up our bucket beyond the brim — time to figure out how to filter the charcoal from the ash. 3b. These results show that biochar covers hold promise as an effective means for reducing odor and gas emissions while sorbing nutrients from liquid dairy manure. Professor Jonathan Deenik of UH Manoa and some of his students will be conducting more research into questions such as these with a batch of plain and composted biochar that I produced and donated. ash samples for their potential use as a “biochar” material –Moving the focus to carbon sequestration –Seeking to identify conditions and factors that optimize the residual C content in ash samples This paper provides an updated review on the subjects, the available alternative to produce biochar from biomass, quantification and characterization of biochar, the adsorptive capacity for the adsorption of contaminants, and the effect of biochar addition to agricultural soils on contaminant bioavailability. I had to ask my friend Google what »biochar« is – it is activated charcoal, ground to a dust. 1 for the control. 3. Biochar is made with agriculture in mind. Things everyone should know about compost but probably don't. The success of biochar production will depend on the economic values of the various products that can be produced or the potentially value-added uses of biochar that can be envisioned”. In a pit, the biochar is covered with more wood as it is produced. 6g/kg (K in Hazelnut) (4% to 37%). biochars. However, if that high pH biochar is allowed to season, meaning allowed to equilibrate with atmospheric CO2 Sep 29, 2019 · Grass or manure biochar will probably be more ash than carbonized material. Cimon C(1), Kadota P(2), Eskicioglu C(3). Apr 17, 2015 · You will not get the same result if you just light up a bunch of shrubs in a trash can and spread the ashes onto your soil. The methane yield from the anaerobic digestion of bagasse was re-ported in terms of the values of VS obtained. She covers it all; Nano-Structure to Electron Transfer to both Ad & Absorption, Organic Vs. The second part can only happen with oxygen. Shields believes that the primary safety concern is the set of EPA 503 regulated metals (US Environmental Protection Agency standard). Charcoal vs Biochar The best way to compare charcoal and biochar would be in terms of purpose, impact, and economy. A 1/2 inch electric drill makes this easier, but could be done with muscle power. the biochar pH increases gradually with an increase in the heat treatment temperature (HTT) (Wei et al. Erich. In addition, there are resources that have not been used up to now, such as, e. 1016/j. 2 gallons) yields around 16-17 gallons (loose chunks and fines) of char. Because of this, activated carbon will have a large surface area, which can adsorb substances effectively. Tip: Wood ash also adds potassium to the soil. The way biochar is manufactured, it creates a high carbon level (83+% of Wakefield Biochar is carbon and certified 97% USDA Certified Biobased Product) and it is incredibly porous. Apparatus 3. basis) (Novak et al. 4. Fly ash is a pozzolan, a substance containing aluminous and siliceous material that forms cement in the presence of water. eration mechanism in the watershed (saturation vs. The implementation of a torrefaction process could improve the KS handling Poultry litter ash We also report on the microbiota results from two large scale feeding trials incorporating 2% w/w biochar vs control diets on two commercial “In fact, biochar is not a unique product, but is composed of a wide range of materials ranging from slightly charred organic material to highly condensed refractory soot, including char, charcoal, bone char, carbon ash, carbon black, activated carbon, and other carbonized materials,” wrote Lal. 82 A Slag 6. The growing need for food, energy and materials demands a resource efficient approach as the world’s population keeps increasing. This month’s issue features: Welcome to Our New and Renewing Corporate Members News that Bears Reporting The Big Picture Regional Briefs Biochar-related Opportunities, Jobs, and Education News You Can Use Calendar Transforming carbon into charcoal for a cooler and cleaner Earth New Research (español / français) To… Use a 50/50 ratio by volume of liquid fertilizer to biochar. It's part of the puzzle anyway. biochar vs ash

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10 June, 2020

## Interactive Effects of Straw-Derived Biochar and N Fertilization on Soil C Storage and Rice …

10 June, 2020

Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha(-1)) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1)) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha(-1) biochar. There were no differences in CO2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g(-1) and 11.69 mg g(-1) (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1) biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g(-1). The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China.

Keywords: Biochar; Greenhouse gas emissions; Rice paddy; Soil total carbon.

## Biochar Market Survey Report 2020 Along with Statistics Till 2026

10 June, 2020

The Biochar Market an off-the-shelf research report for the year 2020-2026 has been recently added by Market Insights Reports to get an in-depth analysis of different attributes of industries and providing timely access to accurate, reliable and unbiased analysis of the market. The data provided related to the Market Size in value and volume*, top market segments driving sales and revenue, top companies, the share of the market in the market and the top countries which account for the maximum production and consumption.

The major manufacturers covered in this report:

Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels,and Others.

We aimed to provide most segmented consumption and sales data of different types of Biochar, downstream consumption fields and competitive landscape in different regions and countries around the world, this report analyzes the latest market data from the primary and secondary authoritative source.

Types Of Global Biochar Market is Segmented as Follows:

Wood Source Biochar

Corn Stove Source Biochar

Rice Stove Source Biochar

Wheat Stove Source Biochar

Other Stove Source Biochar

and others.

Sample PDF Copy of Biochar Market 2020 :

https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/01071716467/global-biochar-market-research-report-2020/inquiry?mode=MH82

Application Of Global Biochar Market is Segmented as Follows:

Soil Conditioner

Fertilizer

Others

and others.

We aim to deliver a high quality report with a relatively low cost thus delivering a optimum ROI and helping those involved in making informed, analytically driven decisions. Each of our reports has a database that has been researched and honed for the past 5 to 7 years, Along with this secondary sources referred to and studied include press releases, financial statements, analyst reports and other paid sources.

Special Offer: Avail Up to 20% Discount On Biochar Report:

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Geographical Regional Analysis :

The research mainly covers Biochar market in

-North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)

-Europe industry (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)

-Asia-Pacific (Southeast Asia, China, Korea, India and Japan)

-South America industry (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia)

-Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

Important Features that are under Offering and Key Highlights of the Reports:

-Detailed overview of Biochar Market

-Changing market dynamics of the industry

-In-depth market segmentation by Type, Application etc.

-Historical, current and projected market size in terms of volume and value

-Recent industry trends and developments

-Competitive landscape of Biochar Plant Market

-Strategies of key players and product offerings

-Potential and niche segments/regions exhibiting promising growth

This data is provided from 2014 to 2019 in actual and has been forecasted from 2020 to 2026 keeping in mind the current market trends, micro and macroeconomic factors and other legal and environmental factors affecting the market.

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## Biochar Market Report 2020 by Global Key Players, Types, Applications, Countries, Market Size …

11 June, 2020

Biochar Market report 2020 entitles with an in-depth analysis towards the competitive market, which involves the market shares and company outline of the major competitors functioning in the Biochar Market. The study offers detailed summarization of products, various technologies applied in the Biochar Market type of product, and manufacturing analysis taking in to account all the major factors that include cost, revenue, gross profit and so on. This Biochar Market report consists of a financial overview, market synopsis, demand towards various segments and growth aspects. Numerous applications, and analysis on demand and supply activities, Biochar Market price during the projected period. The global Biochar Market report will be maintaining good productivity with increasing CAGR of XX%. Considering all the basic aspects such as product type, application, various industrial competitors, and regional analysis.

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Prominent players included in the Biochar Market:

Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House, Anaerob Systems, Algae AquaCulture Technologies, CECEP Golden Mountain Agricultural Science And Technology, EarthSpring Biochar/Biochar Central, Energy Management Concept, 3R Environmental Technology Group and Renargi

Global Biochar Market Segmentation

Biochar Market division by product type:

by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification and Others)

Biochar Market division by application:

by Application (Agriculture and Others)

Market bifurcation by Biochar Market geographical region includes North America, Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the world respectively.

North America (U.S.) Europe (Germany, U.K.) Asia Pacific (China, India) and Rest of the World

The Biochar Market report represents an important tool towards the manufacturers all over the world along with the value chain and also for new competitors by allowing them to benefit from business opportunities as well advanced business tactics. It has studied the Biochar Market thoroughly focusing on market size, growth opportunities, and market status.

Detailed qualitative Biochar Market research approach which involves investigation and recognition of the following terms:
* Biochar Market classification
* Driving factors influencing Biochar Market growth
* Biochar Market key restraints and market opportunities
* Upcoming product developments and Biochar Market major challenges
* SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threat) and Biochar Market PORTER’S Five Forces analysis

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The Biochar Market report serves major analytics on the market position of the Biochar Market industries and acts a valuable source for guiding and directing the companies interested in the Biochar Market as well individuals. The Biochar Market report explains the basic fundamentals related to the market strategies their applications, product specifications, definitions, various classifications, production process, their cost structure, Biochar Market raw materials analysis and even more.

Ask our Expert if You Have a Query at:
Questions answered in the global Biochar Market report:
1. What are the market strategies applicable, market insight, and Biochar Market product type analysis?
2. What are driving factors influencing the growth of the global Biochar Market, analysis by region and application?
3. What are the market dynamics that involves the scope of the product and price breakdown of Biochar Market key manufacturers?
4. Who are the major challenges, opportunities and risk factors for Biochar Market, including the upstream and downstream towards raw material and buyers?
5. Who are the key market players, Biochar Market business outline by application, product type, market share and gross profit?
6. What are major threats tackled by the sellers in the global Biochar Market?

The Biochar Market current and past data related to market signifies the existing market valuation and the future prospects. Moreover, data collected here are through primary and secondary research, that includes interviews with major Biochar Market industries including the values of top manufacturers, their suppliers, and various application, as well company report, latest trends, and reviews. Also, through different research findings, Biochar Market distribution channels, traders, results, and Appendix.

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## Addressing the potential impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on Global Keywiord Market …

11 June, 2020

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Market Segment Analysis
The research report includes specific segments by Type and by Application. This study provides information about the sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of 2015 to 2026. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.
Segment by Type, the Fine Biochar Powder market is segmented into
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Source Biochar
Wheat Source Biochar
Others

Segment by Application
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Global Fine Biochar Powder Market: Regional Analysis
The Fine Biochar Powder market is analysed and market size information is provided by regions (countries). The report includes country-wise and region-wise market size for the period 2015-2026. It also includes market size and forecast by Type and by Application segment in terms of sales and revenue for the period 2015-2026.
The key regions covered in the Fine Biochar Powder market report are:
North America
U.S.
Europe
Germany
France
U.K.
Italy
Russia
Asia-Pacific
China
Japan
South Korea
India
Australia
Taiwan
Indonesia
Thailand
Malaysia
Philippines
Vietnam
Latin America
Mexico
Brazil
Argentina
Middle East & Africa
Turkey
Saudi Arabia
U.A.E
Global Fine Biochar Powder Market: Competitive Analysis
This section of the report identifies various key manufacturers of the market. It helps the reader understand the strategies and collaborations that players are focusing on combat competition in the market. The comprehensive report provides a significant microscopic look at the market. The reader can identify the footprints of the manufacturers by knowing about the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and sales by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2015 to 2019.
The major players in global Fine Biochar Powder market include:
Diacarbon Energy
Agri-Tech Producers
Biochar Now
Carbon Gold
Kina
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
ElementC6
BioChar Products
BlackCarbon
Cool Planet
Carbon Terra

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Objectives of the Fine Biochar Powder Market Study:To define, describe, and analyze the global Fine Biochar Powder market based on oil type, product type, ship type, and regionTo forecast and analyze the Fine Biochar Powder market size (in terms of value and volume) and submarkets in 5 regions, namely, APAC, Europe, North America, Central & South America, and the Middle East & AfricaTo forecast and analyze the Fine Biochar Powder market at country-level for each regionTo strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trends and their contribution to the global Fine Biochar Powder marketTo analyze opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying high growth segments of the global Fine Biochar Powder marketTo identify trends and factors driving or inhibiting the growth of the market and submarketsTo analyze competitive developments, such as expansions and new product launches, in the global Fine Biochar Powder marketTo strategically profile key market players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategiesThe Fine Biochar Powder market research focuses on the market structure and various factors (positive and negative) affecting the growth of the market. The study encloses a precise evaluation of the Fine Biochar Powder market, including growth rate, current scenario, and volume inflation prospects, on the basis of DROT and Porterâs Five Forces analyses. In addition, the Fine Biochar Powder market study provides reliable and authentic projections regarding the technical jargon.

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After reading the Fine Biochar Powder market report, readers can:Identify the factors affecting the Fine Biochar Powder market growth â drivers, restraints, opportunities and trends.Examine the Y-o-Y growth of the global Fine Biochar Powder market.Analyze trends impacting the demand prospect for the Fine Biochar Powder in various regions.Recognize different tactics leveraged by players of the global Fine Biochar Powder market.Identify the Fine Biochar Powder market impact on various industries.

## Latest Biochar Fine Granules Market Research Report Archives

12 June, 2020

Biochar is a form of charcoal used to improve compost and top soil. It is created by heating wood in the absence of oxygen — the process is called ‘pyrolysis’. (This differs to a normal biomass boiler that ‘combusts wood’ – ie burns the wood with oxygen). Biochar is a form of horticultural charcoal. The

## Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (COVID-19 Impact) 2020-26: Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack

12 June, 2020

COVID-19 Impact on Biochar Fertilizer Market Compititors Research Reports 2020

The recent study on the global Biochar Fertilizer Market is considered as an essential improvement of the universal marketplace with impact of COVID-19. The key aim of the Biochar Fertilizer market report is to offer detailed information about a series of Biochar Fertilizer suppliers, ventures, associations in accordance to different materials as well as governance. Additionally, the survey report(COVID-19 Impact) on the Worldwide Biochar Fertilizer market delivers major statistics about the prime players in the Biochar Fertilizer international industry. Furthermore, it also offers predicted forecast of Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack in detail.

The research report on the global Biochar Fertilizer market also sheds light on the distinct industrial components such as incomes, new agreements, anticipated interest rates, Biochar Fertilizer product distributors as well as major companies who actively worked in the respective industry. The research document on the global Biochar Fertilizer market is said to be a basic merge of potential capabilities and evaluation of the worldwide Biochar Fertilizer market which has been crafted with the help of numerous techniques and methods to represent a clear outlook of the current and expected Biochar Fertilizer growth factors. It even covers an in-depth segregation of various geographical regions such as Biochar Fertilizer U.S, India, Japan and China.

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Biochar Fertilizer market study report include Top manufactures are:

Biogrow Limited
Biochar Farms
Anulekh
GreenBack
Carbon Fertilizer
Global Harvest Organics

Biochar Fertilizer Market study report by Segment Type:

Organic Fertilizer
Inorganic Fertilizer
Compound Fertilizer

Biochar Fertilizer Market study report by Segment Application:

Cereals
Oil Crops
Fruits and Vegetables
Others

Reportedly, by anlayzing the increasing demand and desirable resources estimated by the remarkable vendors, the worldwide Biochar Fertilizer industry has been assessed and predicts the upcoming industrial growth rates of the Biochar Fertilizer market. Besides this, the report on the Biochar Fertilizer market segments the global Biochar Fertilizer market into distinct categories like product types, applications, topological regions, well-established industry players.

Prime objectives of the Global Biochar Fertilizer# market report as follows:

• Briefly analyzing the comprehensive overview of the global Biochar Fertilizer market along with recent industrial trends and SWOT analysis.
• Investigating the potential conditions of the Biochar Fertilizer industry dynamics in terms of forthcoming growth opportunities.
• Detailed assessment about the worldwide Biochar Fertilizer market segmentation alongside qualitative and quantitative analysis with respect to the merge of both financial and non-economic ingredients.
• Deeply examining the Biochar Fertilizer market value and volume for each segment as well as sub-segment.
• In depth analysis of region-wise and country-wise structure explaining the vital demand and supply companies that are accountable for increasing the Biochar Fertilizer industry growth.
• Detailed summary of the competitive landscape in terms of the global Biochar Fertilizer market share of crucial players, along with the different strategical schemes confirmed by manufacturers in the past five years.
• The overall company profiles in relatives to a brief evaluation of Biochar Fertilizer SWOT analysis, key fiscal understanding, current improvements and distinct strategies utilized by the major Biochar Fertilizer market vendors.
• 1-year expert guide with whole statistical support in excel format.

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The research data offered in the global Biochar Fertilizer market research report has been evaluated by the group of top business executives, providing a wide range of statistics to the industry experts, data analysts, Biochar Fertilizer leading managers etc. The study report helps them in clearly understanding desirable opportunities, current applications, differentiable patterns related to the Biochar Fertilizer industry and risk factors.

12 June, 2020

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## Impact of Covid-19 on Biochar Market Global Share, Segment Analysis, Growth Drivers and …

12 June, 2020

The Biochar market report focuses on the economic developments and consumer spending trends across different countries for the forecast period 2020 to 2027. The research further reveals which countries and regions will have a better standing in the years to come.  Apart from this, the study talks about the growth rate, market share as well as the recent developments in the Biochar industry worldwide. Besides, the special mention of major market players adds importance to the overall market study.

This report focuses on the Biochar in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

If you are a Biochar vendor than this article will help you understand the Sales Volume with Impacting Trends. Click To get FREE SAMPLE PDF (Including Full TOC, Table & Figures) @ https://www.marketographics.com/sample-enquiry-form/2805

Major Players in Biochar market are:

Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels

Market segment by Region/Country including:

North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)

Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Spain etc.)

Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia and Southeast Asia etc.)

South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Chile etc.)

Middle East & Africa (South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia etc.)

Scope of the Report:
Based on the types, the Biochar market has been further classified based on geography, application and consumption capability. On the basis of the product application, the industry is bifurcated taking into consideration those in demand and are an outcome of technology advancement. Region-wise, the performance of the industry along with the prominent vendors operating in the geography also illuminates stakeholders, business owners, and field marketing, executives.  The different facets of the business based on parameters including new launches, acquisition and mergers and new entrants are discussed extensively during the study.

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On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into:

Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar
Other Stove Source Biochar

On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including

Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Browse complete Biochar report description And Full TOC @ https://www.marketographics.com/industry-reports/biochar-market

To offer more clarity on what the future holds for the industry elements such market segmentation based on the end-user, geography, product type, gross margin and profits generated across various regions for the forecast period, 2020 — 2027. In addition, the inclusion of statistics on acquisition and mergers, collaborations, technology innovation and key market players further makes this research on Biochar market value for business evangelists planning to explore new regions, launch revolutionary products and increase their customer base.

The content of the study subjects, includes a total of 15 chapters:

Chapter 1, to describe Biochar product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market driving force and market risks.

Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Biochar, with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Biochar in 2017 and 2018.

Chapter 3, the Biochar competitive situation, sales, revenue and global market share of top manufacturers are analyzed emphatically by landscape contrast.

Chapter 4, the Biochar breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2014 to 2019.

Continue…

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To summarize, the global Biochar market report studies the contemporary market to forecast the growth prospects, challenges, opportunities, risks, threats, and the trends observed in the market that can either propel or curtail the growth rate of the industry. The market factors impacting the global sector also include provincial trade policies, international trade disputes, entry barriers, and other regulatory restrictions.

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## Global Biochar Market 2020 Analysis, Types, Applications, Forecast and COVID-19 Impact …

12 June, 2020

MarketsandResearch.biz presents a new market report namely Global Biochar Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2026 aims to improve the experience by offering an extensive and explicit analysis of Biochar market. The report delivers insights about products, markets, customers, competitors, and marketing strategy.  The report collects data about the customers, marketing strategy, competitors. Participants and principals of the industry besides product type, the end-user applications, key manufacturers, and geological areas are analyzed. Market measurements regarding revenue, sales, value, capacity, regional market examination, section insightful information, and market forecast are offered in the overall investigation.

This market research report analyzes the growth prospects for the key vendors operating in this Biochar market space including Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6, Vega Biofuels,

NOTE: Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explains that the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers post COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry.

Next, the company profile section of players such as includes its basic information like its market position, historical background, and top competitors by market capitalization/revenue along with contact information. Historical data available in the report supports the global Biochar market development on national, regional, and international levels. The report also sheds light on current issues with consumers and opportunities present in the market. The study offers thorough observations to users, service providers, suppliers, manufacturers, stockholders, and individuals who want to boost their business.

Product type coverage (market size & forecast, a major company of product type, etc.): Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar

Application coverage (market size & forecast, different demand market by region, main consumer profile, etc.): Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

The regions are extensively analyzed with respect to every parameter of the geographies in question, comprising, North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia etc.), Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

Moreover, the report includes the outcomes of various analyses like SWOT analysis, PEST Analysis, PORTERS Analysis, etc. The key figures and statistical representation of the Biochar market are provided. In the end, the report comprises an investment feasibility analysis explaining the total technical feasibility of this undertaking and price structure. The authors of the report have talked about the major trends and developments taking place in the market and their estimated impact on the overall growth. Market forecast by regions, type, and application, with sales and revenue, from 2020 to 2026 has been provided in the report.

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## Effects of Corn Straw Biochar on Process, Nutrient Content, and CO 2 Emissions of Corn Straw …

12 June, 2020

Biochar has unique physicochemical properties of being rich in carbon, being alkaline, and exhibiting a highly porous structure, which can adjust features of different systems. A 90-day microcosm incubation experiment was performed to investigate the effects of corn straw biochar on the process, properties, nutrient contents, and CO2 emissions during corn straw composting. There were four treatments, including control (CK), 5% biochar addition (B1, as mass fractions of biochar), 10% biochar addition (B2), and 20% biochar addition (B3). The results showed that biochar significantly increased the temperature rise rate and temperature peak of the straw maturation system, and promoted straw decomposition. Biochar increased the pH of the microbial active period, and the electrical conductivity (EC) value of the straw decomposition system, which provided a more suitable environment for microbial degradation of the organics. Further more, biochar decreased the organic matter content, increased the total nutrient content of the straw decomposition system, and improved the quality of the straw decomposition products. In addition, nitrogen (N) content was not changed by increasing amount of biochar; however, both phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O) content were significantly increased. Compared to control, the content of P2O5 and K2O in B3 treatment was increased by 0.2% and 0.9%, respectively. Biochar addition could improve CO2 emission of the straw decomposition system. The CO2 emission was consistent with the trend of temperature change, which provided solid evidence that biochar improve the degradation of organic matter by microbes in the system.

Keywords: CO 2 emission; biochar; nutrient content; straw decomposition.

## Biochar Applications in Agriculture and Environment Management

13 June, 2020

This may happen as a result of the following:

13 June, 2020

## Effective sequestration of Cr (VI) from wastewater using nanocomposite of ZnO with cotton stalks …

14 June, 2020

The disposal of chromium (Cr) containing wastewater in surface water bodies without prior treatment is a serious threat to humans, animals, and plants. A novel nanocomposite (CSB/ZnO) of cotton stalks biochar (CSB) with ZnO nanoparticles was synthesized for the removal of Cr (VI) ions from contaminated water at batch scale. The impact of adsorbent dosage (1–4 g/L), initial Cr (VI) levels (25–200 mg/L), pH (2–8), and interaction time (0–180 min) was assessed for the removal of Cr (VI) from contaminated water. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and point of zero charge (PZC) characterization showed successful impregnation of ZnO particles on CSB with improved surface characteristics. The maximum adsorption (qmax) of CSB and CSB/ZnO was 54.95 and 107.53 mg Cr/g, respectively that is relatively higher than various previously studied adsorbents. The experimental isothermal data better fitted with the Freundlich model in comparison with other isotherm models while adsorption kinetics well corroborated with the pseudo-second-order model. The results revealed that doping of biochar with metallic nanoparticles (CSB/ZnO) proved very effective (99.6% at 50 mg/L) with high reusability (91%) after five adsorption/desorption cycles and seems a suitable strategy for the decontamination of Cr (VI) contaminated waters.

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We are thankful to the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology for financial support of the current research work under No.16-51/CRGP/CIIT/IBD/15/759.

Correspondence to Muhammad Imran or Shafaqat Ali.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Zhihong Xu

Accepted: 26 May 2020

Published: 13 June 2020

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## Global Biochar Market 2020- Impact of COVID-19, Future Growth Analysis and Challenges | Cool …

15 June, 2020

The report contains a thorough summary of Biochar Market that includes several well-known organizations, key market players who are leading in terms of sales, variable market change, revenue, end-user demands, conformity through trustworthy services, restricted elements, products and other processes. Technical advancements, surplus capacity in developing markets, market bifurcation, globalization, regulations and environmental guidelines, production and packaging are some trends that are explained in the market report.

The Global Biochar Market will arrive at critical CAGR during estimate period 2020-2027. Furthermore, this report presents showcase rivalry circumstance among the sellers and friends profile, in addition, advertise value examination and worth chain highlights are shrouded in this report.

Following Top Key Players are profiled with global positioning:

Cool Planet
Biochar Supreme
NextChar
Terra Char
Genesis Industries
Interra Energy
CharGrow
Pacific Biochar
Biochar Now
The Biochar Company (TBC)
ElementC6
Vega Biofuels

Get Free Sample PDF (including full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Biochar Market @ https://www.glamresearch.com/report/global-biochar-market-by-product-type-wood-source-334635/#sample

The Biochar market research report investigates the market as far as income and developing business sector patterns and drivers and incorporates a cutting-edge examination and estimates for different market portions, significant players and every single land area till 2027 and the worldwide pandemic of COVID-19 calls for rethinking of business methodologies. This Biochar market report incorporates the effect investigation vital for the equivalent.

Global Biochar market report gives a select inclusion which has been accommodated market drivers and challenges & opportunities for a nation level market in the particular provincial sections. The report contains a serious examination of the key players working in the market and covers inside and out information identified with the serious scene of the market and the ongoing methodologies and items that will help or influence the market in the coming years.

Global Biochar market report client gets detailed and verified data about the business. Likewise, this report covers the top to bottom factual investigation and the market elements and requests which give an entire situation of the business. The report gives the distinctive business challenges which are affecting business sector development a positive and negative way.

Global Biochar Market Segmentation By Type:

Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar
Other Stove Source Biochar

Global Biochar Market Segmentation By Applications:

Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Global Biochar Market Segmentation By Regions:

Place Inquiry for Buying or Customization of Report: https://www.glamresearch.com/report/global-biochar-market-by-product-type-wood-source-334635/#inquiry

The report also provides the current industry value according to the demand. This report consists the all over the information regarding the Biochar market. By using this report user get a clear perspective on the Biochar market conditions, trends, and coming period outlook for various segments.

By referring this report user understanding the overall behavior of the consumers in the market place and reasons for those behavioral trends. Also by using the focus groups, surveys, and tracking sales history methods a user can analyze the psychological, personal, and social consumer behavior. As a result, users can plan their strategies and getting the most important sub segments of the market which they are targeting. So, the report helps businesses to get segments according to their consumer-based information.

The Biochar market report offers the current state of the market around the world. The report began with the market outline and key components of the Biochar market which assumes a significant job for clients to settle on the business choice. It additionally offers the key focuses to upgrade the development in the Biochar market. Some fundamental ideas are likewise secured by reports, for example, item definition, its application, industry esteem chain structure and division which help the client to break down the market without any problem. Also, the report covers different factors, for example, arrangements, efficient and innovative which are affecting the Biochar business and market elements.

Chapters Define in TOC (Table of Content) of the Report:

Chapter 1: Market Overview, Drivers, Restraints and Opportunities, Segmentation overview
Chapter 2: Market Competition by Manufacturers
Chapter 3: Production by Regions
Chapter 4: Consumption by Regions
Chapter 5: Production, By Types, Revenue and Market share by Types
Chapter 6: Consumption, By Applications, Market share (%) and Growth Rate by Applications
Chapter 7: Complete profiling and analysis of Manufacturers
Chapter 8: Manufacturing cost analysis, Raw materials analysis, Region-wise manufacturing expenses.
Chapter 9: Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
Chapter 10: Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
Chapter 11: Market Effect Factors Analysis
Chapter 12: Market Forecast
Chapter 13: Biochar Research Findings and Conclusion, Appendix, methodology and data source.

## Biochar Market Research Insights, Industry Size 2020 With Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit …

15 June, 2020

The Biochar Market report is a scrupulous investigation of the present scenario of the global market, which covers several market dynamics. This market document provides explanation about the detailed market analysis with inputs from industry experts. All the parameters of this report can be explored to analyse market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities, challenges, risks, entry barriers, sales channels, and distributors. The Biochar Market report encompasses the key developments in the market with respect to current scenario and the forthcoming advancements. This market report lends a hand with Chemical and Materials industry to divulge the best market opportunities and look after proficient information to efficiently climb the ladder of success.

The Research and analysis carried out in this Biochar report helps clients to predict investment in an emerging market, expansion of market share or success of a new product with the help of global market research analysis. Estimations of CAGR values, market drivers and market restraints assists businesses decide upon several strategies.

Global Biochar Market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026.

Complete study compiled with over 100+ pages, list of tables & figures, profiling 10+ companies. Ask for Sample @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

Biochar is usually formed when biomass like wood leaves or manure are heated or burned in the presence of oxygen. They are usually formed by a process called pyrolysis and are widely used to improve the quality of the soil and mitigate climate change. Biochar have the ability to convert carbon into stable form and is cleaner than the other form of charcoal. They are widely used in applications like gardening, agriculture, electricity generation etc. Increasing demand of biochar in greenhouse gas remediation is the major factor fuelling the growth of this market.

Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

Global Biochar Market By Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Microwave Pyrolysis, Cookstove and Others)

Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household, Electricity Generation)

Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Animal Manure, Forestry Waste, Biomass Plantation)

Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa)

Top Manufacturers Covered in the Report:

The key players are highly focusing innovation in production technologies to improve efficiency and shelf life. The best long-term growth opportunities for this sector can be captured by ensuring ongoing process improvements and financial flexibility to invest in the optimal strategies. Company profile section of players such as Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture, GreenBack Pte Ltd and others.

Huge data and information of Biochar report has been collected from a multiple trustworthy sources such as journals, websites, white papers, annual reports of the companies, and mergers. This market report works on all the aspects of market that are required to create the finest and top-notch market research report. The report makes use of an excellent research methodology which focuses on market share analysis and key trend analysis. It estimates CAGR values in percentages which designate the rise or fall occurring in the market for particular product for the specific forecast period. The insights provided in this Biochar Market research report are based upon SWOT analysis on which businesses can rely confidently.

Inquire for further detailed information of Biochar Market Report at: https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/inquire-before-buying/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

Chapter One Biochar Market Overview:

Overview and Scope of Biochar Market

Sales and Growth Comparison of Biochar Market

Biochar Market Sales Market Share

Biochar Market by product segments

Biochar Market by Regions

Chapter Two Biochar Market segments:

Biochar Competition by Players

Biochar and Revenue by Technology

Biochar and Revenue by Application

Know More Business Opportunities In Global Biochar Market Speak To Our Analyst @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/speak-to-analyst/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe, MEA or Asia Pacific.

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## Latest Updated Report on Biochar Market 2019-2026| by Major Companies: Cool Planet, Pacific …

16 June, 2020

This Biochar Market analysis report examines the market and the industry thoroughly by considering several aspects. According to this market report, the global market is anticipated to notice a moderately higher growth rate during the forecast period. The makeover in the market can be subjected to the actions of key players or brands which include developments, product launches, joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions that in turn change the view of the global face of the industry. This Biochar Market business research report makes available all-inclusive study about production capacity, consumption, import and export for all the major regions across the globe.

This Biochar Market report will suit your business requirements in many ways while also assisting in informed decision making and smart working. Company profiles of the key market competitors are analysed with respect to company snapshot, geographical presence, product portfolio, and recent developments.

Global Biochar Market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026.

Complete study compiled with over 100+ pages, list of tables & figures, profiling 10+ companies. Ask for Sample @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

Biochar is usually formed when biomass like wood leaves or manure are heated or burned in the presence of oxygen. They are usually formed by a process called pyrolysis and are widely used to improve the quality of the soil and mitigate climate change. Biochar have the ability to convert carbon into stable form and is cleaner than the other form of charcoal. They are widely used in applications like gardening, agriculture, electricity generation etc. Increasing demand of biochar in greenhouse gas remediation is the major factor fuelling the growth of this market.

Global Biochar Market Segmentation:

Global Biochar Market By Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Microwave Pyrolysis, Cookstove and Others)

Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household, Electricity Generation)

Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Animal Manure, Forestry Waste, Biomass Plantation)

Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa)

Top Manufacturers Covered in the Report:

The key players are highly focusing innovation in production technologies to improve efficiency and shelf life. The best long-term growth opportunities for this sector can be captured by ensuring ongoing process improvements and financial flexibility to invest in the optimal strategies. Company profile section of players such as Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture, GreenBack Pte Ltd and others.

Huge data and information of Biochar report has been collected from a multiple trustworthy sources such as journals, websites, white papers, annual reports of the companies, and mergers. This market report works on all the aspects of market that are required to create the finest and top-notch market research report. The report makes use of an excellent research methodology which focuses on market share analysis and key trend analysis. It estimates CAGR values in percentages which designate the rise or fall occurring in the market for particular product for the specific forecast period. The insights provided in this Biochar Market research report are based upon SWOT analysis on which businesses can rely confidently.

Inquire for further detailed information of Biochar Market Report at: https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/inquire-before-buying/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

Chapter One Biochar Market Overview:

Overview and Scope of Biochar Market

Sales and Growth Comparison of Biochar Market

Biochar Market Sales Market Share

Biochar Market by product segments

Biochar Market by Regions

Chapter Two Biochar Market segments:

Biochar Competition by Players

Biochar and Revenue by Technology

Biochar and Revenue by Application

Know More Business Opportunities In Global Biochar Market Speak To Our Analyst @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/speak-to-analyst/?dbmr=global-biochar-market

Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe, MEA or Asia Pacific.

Data Bridge Market Research set forth itself as an unconventional and neoteric Market research and consulting firm with unparalleled level of resilience and integrated approaches. We are determined to unearth the best market opportunities and foster efficient information for your business to thrive in the market. Data Bridge Market Research provides appropriate solutions to the complex business challenges and initiates an effortless decision-making process.

Contact:

US: +1 888 387 2818

UK: +44 208 089 1725

Hong Kong: +852 8192 7475

[email protected]

## Granular Biochar Market 2020 Global Share, Growth, Size, Opportunities, Trends, Regional …

16 June, 2020

Los Angeles, United State: QY Research recently published a research report titled, “Global Granular Biochar Market Research Report 2020-2026”. The research report attempts to give a holistic overview of the Granular Biochar market by keeping the information simple, relevant, accurate, and to the point. The researchers have explained each aspect of the market thorough meticulous research and undivided attention to every topic. They have also provided data in statistical data to help readers understand the whole market. The Granular Biochar Market report further provides historic and forecast data generated through primary and secondary research of the region and their respective manufacturers.

Get Full PDF Sample Copy of Report: (Including Full TOC, List of Tables & Figures, Chart) https://www.qyresearch.com/sample-form/form/1776810/covid-19-impact-on-granular-biochar-market

Global Granular Biochar Market report section gives special attention to the manufacturers in different regions that are expected to show a considerable expansion in their market share. Additionally, it underlines all the current and future trends that are being adopted by these manufacturers to boost their current market shares. This Granular Biochar Market report Understanding the various strategies being carried out by various manufacturers will help reader make right business decisions.

Key Players Mentioned in the Global Granular Biochar Market Research Report: Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra

Global Granular Biochar Market Segmentation by Product: Wood Source Biochar, Corn Source Biochar, Wheat Source Biochar, Others

Global Granular Biochar Market Segmentation by Application: Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

The Granular Biochar market is divided into the two important segments, product type segment and end user segment. In the product type segment it lists down all the products currently manufactured by the companies and their economic role in the Granular Biochar market. It also reports the new products that are currently being developed and their scope. Further, it presents a detailed understanding of the end users that are a governing force of the Granular Biochar market.

In this chapter of the Granular Biochar Market report, the researchers have explored the various regions that are expected to witness fruitful developments and make serious contributions to the market’s burgeoning growth. Along with general statistical information, the Granular Biochar Market report has provided data of each region with respect to its revenue, productions, and presence of major manufacturers. The major regions which are covered in the Granular Biochar Market report includes North America, Europe, Central and South America, Asia Pacific, South Asia, the Middle East and Africa, GCC countries, and others.

Key questions answered in the report:

Request for customization in Report: https://www.qyresearch.com/customize-request/form/1776810/covid-19-impact-on-granular-biochar-market

Table od Content

1.1 Research Scope
1.2 Market Segmentation
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Research Methodology
1.4.1 Research Process
1.4.2 Data Triangulation
1.4.3 Research Approach
1.4.4 Base Year
1.5 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Impact Will Have a Severe Impact on Global Growth
1.5.1 Covid-19 Impact: Global GDP Growth, 2019, 2020 and 2021 Projections
1.5.2 Covid-19 Impact: Commodity Prices Indices
1.5.3 Covid-19 Impact: Global Major Government Policy
1.6 The Covid-19 Impact on Granular Biochar Industry
1.7 COVID-19 Impact: Granular Biochar Market Trends

2 Global Granular Biochar Quarterly Market Size Analysis
2.1 Granular Biochar Business Impact Assessment — COVID-19
2.1.1 Global Granular Biochar Market Size, Pre-COVID-19 and Post- COVID-19 Comparison, 2015-2026
2.1.2 Global Granular Biochar Price, Pre-COVID-19 and Post- COVID-19 Comparison, 2015-2026
2.2 Global Granular Biochar Quarterly Market Size 2020-2021
2.3 COVID-19-Driven Market Dynamics and Factor Analysis
2.3.1 Drivers
2.3.2 Restraints
2.3.3 Opportunities
2.3.4 Challenges

3 Quarterly Competitive Assessment, 2020
3.1 Global Granular Biochar Quarterly Market Size by Manufacturers, 2019 VS 2020
3.2 Global Granular Biochar Factory Price by Manufacturers
3.3 Location of Key Manufacturers Granular Biochar Manufacturing Factories and Area Served
3.4 Date of Key Manufacturers Enter into Granular Biochar Market
3.5 Key Manufacturers Granular Biochar Product Offered
3.6 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

4 Impact of Covid-19 on Granular Biochar Segments, By Type
4.1 Introduction
1.4.1 Wood Source Biochar
1.4.2 Corn Source Biochar
1.4.3 Wheat Source Biochar
1.4.4 Others
4.2 By Type, Global Granular Biochar Market Size, 2019-2021
4.2.1 By Type, Global Granular Biochar Market Size by Type, 2020-2021
4.2.2 By Type, Global Granular Biochar Price, 2020-2021

5 Impact of Covid-19 on Granular Biochar Segments, By Application
5.1 Overview
5.5.1 Soil Conditioner
5.5.2 Fertilizer
5.5.3 Others
5.2 By Application, Global Granular Biochar Market Size, 2019-2021
5.2.1 By Application, Global Granular Biochar Market Size by Application, 2019-2021
5.2.2 By Application, Global Granular Biochar Price, 2020-2021

6 Geographic Analysis
6.1 Introduction
6.2 North America
6.2.1 Macroeconomic Indicators of US
6.2.2 US
6.3 Europe
6.3.1 Macroeconomic Indicators of Europe
6.3.2 Germany
6.3.3 France
6.3.4 UK
6.3.5 Italy
6.4 Asia-Pacific
6.4.1 Macroeconomic Indicators of Asia-Pacific
6.4.2 China
6.4.3 Japan
6.4.4 South Korea
6.4.5 India
6.4.6 ASEAN
6.5 Rest of World
6.5.1 Latin America
6.5.2 Middle East and Africa

7 Company Profiles
7.1 Diacarbon Energy
7.1.2 Diacarbon Energy Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.1.3 Diacarbon Energy Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.1.4 Diacarbon Energy Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.2 Agri-Tech Producers
7.2.2 Agri-Tech Producers Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.2.3 Agri-Tech Producers Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.2.4 Agri-Tech Producers Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.3 Biochar Now
7.3.2 Biochar Now Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.3.3 Biochar Now Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.3.4 Biochar Now Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.4 Carbon Gold
7.4.2 Carbon Gold Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.4.3 Carbon Gold Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.4.4 Carbon Gold Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.5 Kina
7.5.2 Kina Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.5.3 Kina Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.5.4 Kina Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.6 The Biochar Company
7.6.1 The Biochar Company Business Overview
7.6.2 The Biochar Company Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.6.3 The Biochar Company Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.6.4 The Biochar Company Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.7 Swiss Biochar GmbH
7.7.1 Swiss Biochar GmbH Business Overview
7.7.2 Swiss Biochar GmbH Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.7.3 Swiss Biochar GmbH Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.7.4 Swiss Biochar GmbH Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.8 ElementC6
7.8.2 ElementC6 Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.8.3 ElementC6 Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.8.4 ElementC6 Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.9 BioChar Products
7.9.2 BioChar Products Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.9.3 BioChar Products Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.9.4 BioChar Products Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.10 BlackCarbon
7.10.2 BlackCarbon Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.10.3 BlackCarbon Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.10.4 BlackCarbon Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.11 Cool Planet
7.11.2 Cool Planet Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.11.3 Cool Planet Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.11.4 Cool Planet Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments
7.12 Carbon Terra
7.12.2 Carbon Terra Granular Biochar Quarterly Production and Revenue, 2020
7.12.3 Carbon Terra Granular Biochar Product Introduction
7.12.4 Carbon Terra Response to COVID-19 and Related Developments

8 Supply Chain and Sales Channels Analysis
8.1 Granular Biochar Supply Chain Analysis
8.1.1 Granular Biochar Supply Chain Analysis
8.1.2 Covid-19 Impact on Granular Biochar Supply Chain
8.2 Distribution Channels Analysis
8.2.1 Granular Biochar Distribution Channels
8.2.2 Covid-19 Impact on Granular Biochar Distribution Channels
8.2.3 Granular Biochar Distributors
8.3 Granular Biochar Customers

9 Key Findings

10 Appendix
10.2 Disclaimer

QY Research established in 2007, focus on custom research, management consulting, IPO consulting, industry chain research, data base and seminar services. The company owned a large basic data base (such as National Bureau of statistics database, Customs import and export database, Industry Association Database etc), expert’s resources (included energy automotive chemical medical ICT consumer goods etc.

## CuAl LDH/Rice Husk Biochar Composite for Enhanced Adsorptive Removal of Cationic Dye from …

17 June, 2020

No citation recorded.

## Effects of Fe-Mn-modified biochar addition on anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge

17 June, 2020

MnFe2O4-biochar enhanced the performance and stability of the AD of SS.

MnFe2O4-biochar addition led to 55.86% increase in cumulative methane yield.

MnFe2O4-biochar enhanced digestion performance via help establishing DIET.

MnFe2O4-biochar was helpful for immobilization and risk reduction of HMs in SS.

MnFe2O4-biochar treatment enhanced acetoclastic methanogenesis pathway.

MnFe2O4-biochar enhanced the performance and stability of the AD of SS.

MnFe2O4-biochar addition led to 55.86% increase in cumulative methane yield.

MnFe2O4-biochar enhanced digestion performance via help establishing DIET.

MnFe2O4-biochar was helpful for immobilization and risk reduction of HMs in SS.

MnFe2O4-biochar treatment enhanced acetoclastic methanogenesis pathway.

This study investigated the effects of MnFe2O4-biochar on sludge anaerobic digestion performance, methane production and heavy metal stabilization. The highest cumulative methane yield was achieved when the MnFe2O4-biochar dose was 1.50 g, which was 55.86% higher than control. A suitable dose of MnFe2O4-biochar stimulated methanogenic activities and improved methane yield, whereas excessive addition shows an inhibitory effect on anaerobic digestion. MnFe2O4-biochar addition significantly enhanced the biodegradation of organic matter, as the average volatile fatty acids degradation rate increased by 35.44%, compared to the control. Chemical speciation analyses demonstrated that MnFe2O4-biochar addition was more helpful for immobilization and risk reduction of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Simultaneously, microbial community analysis indicated that MnFe2O4-biochar obviously enriched acetoclastic methanogens Methanosarcina that capable of participating in direct interspecies electron transfer, which could accelerate substrate decomposition and methane production. These findings supply useful information for the resource utilization of sewage sludge.

## EarthRenew Inc. – EarthRenew Announces Supply and Reseller Agreements With BiocharNow

18 June, 2020

EarthRenew Inc. (CSE:ERTH) (“EarthRenew” or the “Company”) is pleased to announce that it has entered into a supply agreement to acquire biochar at a discounted price from BiocharNow, LLC (“BiocharNow”) and a reseller agreement to distribute EarthRenew finished pellets in the United States on a non-exclusive basis through BiocharNow. The supply agreement is projected to secure a high-quality Organic Materials Review Institute of Canada (“OMRI”) certified fertilizer input and we anticipate that the reseller agreement will expand EarthRenew's market reach throughout the United States.

Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment for both soil health benefits and carbon sequestration. Biochar is a stable solid, is rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. It can assist with the retention of water and nutrients in the soil and promote the microbiological health of the soil.

EarthRenew and BiocharNow have conducted extensive testing on different product formulations together over the past two years. Adding biochar to EarthRenew's pellets has improved the nutrient value of the finished pellets and helped manage odour. BiocharNow will benefit from the ability to sell its biochar product in a pelleted format which simplifies delivery and application for BiocharNow's customers. EarthRenew and BiocharNow have successfully generated pellets with between 4 and 40% biochar content. EarthRenew is also testing a variety of other OMRI-certified organic inputs and generating a suite of products that can serve multiple customer needs.

EarthRenew CEO, Keith Driver, commented, “This is another strategic step forward as we move toward recommissioning our Strathmore facility. Securing this supply agreement for OMRI-certified biochar ensures that we have the ingredient inputs we need to serve our customers.”

Mr. Driver further added, “Expanding our access to the United States through a strategic partnership is the right next step in growing our market presence.”

BiocharNow's chief executive officer, James Gaspard, said, “Our customers have been asking us to deliver our product in a pelleted format. These agreements will allow us to sell high-percentage biochar pellets throughout the United States. This new format will also open new markets and create new customers for us.”

BiocharNow is a Colorado-based biochar production company and a pioneer in the biochar industry with strong engineering, manufacturing, sales and administrative personnel focused on making and selling quality biochar on a very large scale.

EarthRenew transforms livestock waste into a high-performance organic fertilizer to be used by organic and traditional growers in Canada and the United States. Located on a 25,000 head cattle feedlot, our flagship Strathmore plant is capable of producing up to four megawatts (MW) per hour of low-cost electricity powered by a natural gas fired turbine. The exhausted heat from the turbine is used to convert manure into certified organic fertilizer.

Contact:
Keith Driver
CEO of EarthRenew
Phone: (403) 860-8623
E-mail: kdriver@earthrenew.ca

Cautionary Note regarding Forward-Looking Information

This press release contains “forward-looking information” within the meaning of applicable Canadian securities legislation. Forward-looking information includes, but is not limited to, statements with respect to  our ability to acquire biochar from BiocharNow and to resell our fertilizer pellets for distribution by BiocharNow, the expansion of our market reach into the United States, the recommissioning of our Strathmore facility, our ability to execute our business plan, and our proposed business activity. Generally, forward-looking information can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “plans”, “expects” or “does not expect”, “is expected”, “budget”, “scheduled”, “estimates”, “forecasts”, “intends”, “anticipates” or “does not anticipate”, or “believes”, or variations of such words and phrases or statements that certain actions, events or results “may”, “could”, “would”, “might” or “will be taken”, “occur” or “be achieved”. Forward-looking information is subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking information, including but not limited to: general business, economic, competitive, geopolitical and social uncertainties; regulatory risks; and other risks of the energy and fertilizer industries. Although the Company has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking information, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. There can be no assurance that such information will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking information. The Company does not undertake to update any forward-looking information, except in accordance with applicable securities laws.

Neither the Canadian Securities Exchange nor its Market Regulator (as that term is defined in the policies of the Canadian Securities Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

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18 June, 2020

18 June, 2020

19 June, 2020

## effect on sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) growth under partial root zone drying irrigation

19 June, 2020

Coarse textured soils with water scarcity significantly restrict the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, particularly in arid regions. The effects of the partial root zone drying irrigation strategy (PRD) and different organic soil amendments on sweet pepper growth, yield, and water-use efficiency (WUE) in sandy soil were surveyed. PRD consisted of two treatments: IR1 (80% ETc) and IR2 (100% ETc). Amendments consisted of biochar (BC), compost (Comp), and their mixture. The results showed that a reduction in the water supply (IR1) caused significant decreases in the morphological traits of pepper plants during flowering, fruit setting, and vigorous fruit-bearing stages. However, vegetative growth stage is not sensitive to such treatment. Plants under IR1 had higher reductions in fresh and dry weight partitioning of all plant parts (root, stem, leaf, and fruit), fruit number, and total yield compared to those under IR2. However, the WUE value was 21.6% higher than those under IR2. Integrated application of BC 2% + Comp 2% showed clear and positive effects on plant growth (plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves), yield, and WUE, followed by Comp 4%. On the other hand, amending plants with BC 2% + Comp 2% under the full water level (IR2) generated the greatest yield improvement (70.4%). However, such treatment under IR1 gave a moderate improvement (39.9%) in yield with a higher WUE (103.8%) than the control (no organic applying under IR2). Thus, the application of BC 2% + Comp 2% with PRD (80% ETc) could be a good management strategy to enhance the productivity of sweet pepper, while saving approximately 22.0% of applied water. Information from such studies will help vegetable producers make proper decisions about increasing productivity or saving water to be allocated for greenhouse production of pepper in arid regions under water scarcity conditions.

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The authors sincerely thank King Saud University, Deanship of Scientific Research, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Research Center for supporting this research.

It is with sincere respect and gratitude that we express our deep thanks to the Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University and the Agriculture Research Center, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences for the financial support, sponsorship, and encouragement.

Correspondence to Abdulrasoul Al-Omran.

Accepted: 03 June 2020

Published: 19 June 2020

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## Full Length Article On the self-heating behavior of upgraded biochar pellets blended with pyrolysis oil

19 June, 2020

Biochar pellets blended with pyrolysis oil are associated to self-heating risk.

Pyrolysis oil as binder reduces porosity and hence the capability of releasing heat.

Re-heating the pellets at least at 600 °C reduced the ignition risk.

Self-heating can also be controlled directly producing biochar at least at 600 °C.

By TGA, risk is minimized if pellets undergo treatments at around 700 °C.

Biochar pellets blended with pyrolysis oil are associated to self-heating risk.

Pyrolysis oil as binder reduces porosity and hence the capability of releasing heat.

Re-heating the pellets at least at 600 °C reduced the ignition risk.

Self-heating can also be controlled directly producing biochar at least at 600 °C.

By TGA, risk is minimized if pellets undergo treatments at around 700 °C.

Biochar obtained from biomass pyrolysis is a promising carbon neutral material which can be used in substitution of fossil coal and coke in metallurgical applications. Biochar’s mechanical properties improve significantly without compromising reactivity, when upgraded by densification with pyrolysis oil and reheated. However, upgraded biochar pellets use in the industry is limited due to the risks associated with self-heating. This issue must be seriously considered for further industrial production of upgraded biochar pellets. Self-heating oven tests are generally time-consuming and limit the possibility of testing various potential solutions. The aim of this work was both to investigate the self-heating behavior of densified biochar and to possibly substitute the standard oven test with a fast and cost-effective thermogravimetric analysis. This was done by using Response Surface Methodology, where pyrolysis temperature, oil content and treatment temperature were selected as independent variables. By statistical analysis it was possible to understand that self-heating risk can be drastically reduced by upgrading the pellets at high temperatures (i.e. re-heating). In addition, through the analysis of the initial combustion temperature, the maximum weight loss rate and the activation energy (considered as responses of the model), it was possible to understand how to predict the results of the self-heating oven tests through thermogravimetric analysis.

20 June, 2020

## Safety evaluation and ibuprofen removal via an Alternanthera philoxeroides

20 June, 2020

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are a representative class of emerging contaminants. This study aimed to investigate the PPCP removal performance and application safety of a biochar fabricated using the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides (APBC). According to scanning electron microscopy and pore size analyses, APBC exhibited a porous structure with a specific surface area of 857.5 m2/g. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated the presence of surface functional groups, including phosphorus-containing groups, C=O, C=C, and –OH. The adsorption experiment showed that the maximum removal efficiency of ibuprofen was 97% at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L and APBC dosage of 0.8 g/L. The adsorption kinetics were fitted by the pseudo-second-order model with the highest correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9999). The adsorption isotherms were well described by the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.9896), which indicates a dominant multilayer adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of APBC was 172 mg/g. A toxicity evaluation, based on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and human epidermal BEAS-2B cells, was carried out using a spectrum analysis, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay, and flow cytometry. The results of the above showed the low cytotoxicity of APBC and demonstrated its low toxicity in potential environmental applications.

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This work was supported by the Key Research and Development Program of Shandong Province, PR China (2019GSF109103), Distinguished Middle-Aged and Young Scientist Encourage and Reward Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2016CB18), Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program (No. J18KA186), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51708340), International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program (No. 20180063), Special Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2015 T80738), and the National Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (2017ZX07101001).

Yuan-da Du and Xin-qian Zhang contributed equally to this work.

Correspondence to Qiang Kong.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Zhihong Xu

(DOCX 678 kb)

Accepted: 11 June 2020

Published: 20 June 2020

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## Global Fine Biochar Powder Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application …

22 June, 2020

Market Overview

The global Fine Biochar Powder market size is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025, with a CAGR of xx% in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025 and will expected to reach USD xx million by 2025, from USD xx million in 2019.

The Fine Biochar Powder market report provides a detailed analysis of global market size, regional and country-level market size, segmentation market growth, market share, competitive Landscape, sales analysis, impact of domestic and global market players, value chain optimization, trade regulations, recent developments, opportunities analysis, strategic market growth analysis, product launches, area marketplace expanding, and technological innovations.

Market segmentation

Fine Biochar Powder market is split by Type and by Application. For the period 2015-2025, the growth among segments provide accurate calculations and forecasts for sales by Type and by Application in terms of volume and value. This analysis can help you expand your business by targeting qualified niche markets.

By Type, Fine Biochar Powder market has been segmented into

Wood Source Biochar

Corn Source Biochar

Wheat Source Biochar

Others

By Application, Fine Biochar Powder has been segmented into:

Soil Conditioner

Fertilizer

Others

Regions and Countries Level Analysis

Regional analysis is another highly comprehensive part of the research and analysis study of the global Fine Biochar Powder market presented in the report. This section sheds light on the sales growth of different regional and country-level Fine Biochar Powder markets. For the historical and forecast period 2015 to 2025, it provides detailed and accurate country-wise volume analysis and region-wise market size analysis of the global Fine Biochar Powder market.

The report offers in-depth assessment of the growth and other aspects of the Fine Biochar Powder market in important countries (regions), including:

North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)

Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)

Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)

South America (Brazil, Argentina, etc.)

Middle East & Africa (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

Competitive Landscape and Fine Biochar Powder Market Share Analysis

Fine Biochar Powder competitive landscape provides details by vendors, including company overview, company total revenue (financials), market potential, global presence, Fine Biochar Powder sales and revenue generated, market share, price, production sites and facilities, SWOT analysis, product launch. For the period 2015-2020, this study provides the Fine Biochar Powder sales, revenue and market share for each player covered in this report.

The major players covered in Fine Biochar Powder are:

Diacarbon Energy

ElementC6

Carbon Gold

Agri-Tech Producers

Swiss Biochar GmbH

Biochar Now

BlackCarbon

The Biochar Company

Kina

BioChar Products

Cool Planet

Carbon Terra

Among other players domestic and global, Fine Biochar Powder market share data is available for global, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa and South America separately. Global Info Research analysts understand competitive strengths and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

The content of the study subjects, includes a total of 15 chapters:

Chapter 1, to describe Fine Biochar Powder product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market driving force and market risks.

Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Fine Biochar Powder, with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Fine Biochar Powder in 2018 and 2019.

Chapter 3, the Fine Biochar Powder competitive situation, sales, revenue and global market share of top manufacturers are analyzed emphatically by landscape contrast.

Chapter 4, the Fine Biochar Powder breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2015 to 2020.

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to break the sales data at the country level, with sales, revenue and market share for key countries in the world, from 2015 to 2020.

Chapter 10 and 11, to segment the sales by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2015 to 2020.

Chapter 12, Fine Biochar Powder market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2020 to 2025.

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Fine Biochar Powder sales channel, distributors, customers, research findings and conclusion, appendix and data source.

The base year for the study has been considered 2019, historic year 2014 and 2018, the forecast period considered is from 2020 to 2027. The regions analyzed for the market include North America, Europe, South America, Asia Pacific, and Middle East and Africa. These regions are further analyzed at the country-level. The study also includes attractiveness analysis of type, application and regions which are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and attractiveness in terms of present and future opportunity for understanding the future growth of the market.

Market is segmented on the basis:

The report offers in-depth analysis of driving factors, opportunities, restraints, and challenges for gaining the key insight of the market. The report emphasizes on all the key trends that play a vital role in the enlargement of the market from 2019 to 2026.

The report provides company profile of the key players operating in the market and a comparative analysis based on their business overviews industry offering, segment market share, regional presence, business strategies, innovations, mergers & acquisitions, recent developments, joint venture, collaborations, partnerships, SWOT analysis, and key financial information.

1 Market Overview

1.1 Fine Biochar Powder Introduction

1.2 Market Analysis by Type

1.2.1 Overview: Global Fine Biochar Powder Revenue by Type: 2015 VS 2019 VS 2025

1.2.2 Wood Source Biochar

1.2.3 Corn Source Biochar

1.2.4 Wheat Source Biochar

1.2.5 Others

1.3 Market Analysis by Application

1.3.1 Overview: Global Fine Biochar Powder Revenue by Application: 2015 VS 2019 VS 2025

1.3.2 Soil Conditioner

1.3.3 Fertilizer

1.3.4 Others

1.4 Overview of Global Fine Biochar Powder Market

1.4.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Status and Outlook (2015-2025)

1.4.2 North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)

1.4.3 Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Russia and Italy)

1.4.4 Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)

1.4.5 South America, Middle East & Africa

1.5 Market Dynamics

1.5.1 Market Opportunities

1.5.2 Market Risk

1.5.3 Market Driving Force

2 Manufacturers Profiles

2.1 Diacarbon Energy

2.1.1 Diacarbon Energy Details

2.1.2 Diacarbon Energy Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.1.3 Diacarbon Energy SWOT Analysis

2.1.4 Diacarbon Energy Product and Services

2.1.5 Diacarbon Energy Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.2 ElementC6

2.2.1 ElementC6 Details

2.2.2 ElementC6 Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.2.3 ElementC6 SWOT Analysis

2.2.4 ElementC6 Product and Services

2.2.5 ElementC6 Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.3 Carbon Gold

2.3.1 Carbon Gold Details

2.3.2 Carbon Gold Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.3.3 Carbon Gold SWOT Analysis

2.3.4 Carbon Gold Product and Services

2.3.5 Carbon Gold Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.4 Agri-Tech Producers

2.4.1 Agri-Tech Producers Details

2.4.2 Agri-Tech Producers Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.4.3 Agri-Tech Producers SWOT Analysis

2.4.4 Agri-Tech Producers Product and Services

2.4.5 Agri-Tech Producers Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.5 Swiss Biochar GmbH

2.5.1 Swiss Biochar GmbH Details

2.5.2 Swiss Biochar GmbH Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.5.3 Swiss Biochar GmbH SWOT Analysis

2.5.4 Swiss Biochar GmbH Product and Services

2.5.5 Swiss Biochar GmbH Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.6 Biochar Now

2.6.1 Biochar Now Details

2.6.2 Biochar Now Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.6.3 Biochar Now SWOT Analysis

2.6.4 Biochar Now Product and Services

2.6.5 Biochar Now Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.7 BlackCarbon

2.7.1 BlackCarbon Details

2.7.2 BlackCarbon Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.7.3 BlackCarbon SWOT Analysis

2.7.4 BlackCarbon Product and Services

2.7.5 BlackCarbon Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.8 The Biochar Company

2.8.1 The Biochar Company Details

2.8.2 The Biochar Company Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.8.3 The Biochar Company SWOT Analysis

2.8.4 The Biochar Company Product and Services

2.8.5 The Biochar Company Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.9 Kina

2.9.1 Kina Details

2.9.2 Kina Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.9.3 Kina SWOT Analysis

2.9.4 Kina Product and Services

2.9.5 Kina Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.10 BioChar Products

2.10.1 BioChar Products Details

2.10.2 BioChar Products Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.10.3 BioChar Products SWOT Analysis

2.10.4 BioChar Products Product and Services

2.10.5 BioChar Products Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.11 Cool Planet

2.11.1 Cool Planet Details

2.11.2 Cool Planet Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.11.3 Cool Planet SWOT Analysis

2.11.4 Cool Planet Product and Services

2.11.5 Cool Planet Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

2.12 Carbon Terra

2.12.1 Carbon Terra Details

2.12.2 Carbon Terra Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis

2.12.3 Carbon Terra SWOT Analysis

2.12.4 Carbon Terra Product and Services

2.12.5 Carbon Terra Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)

3 Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Manufacturer

3.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Market Share by Manufacturer (2018-2019)

3.2 Global Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Manufacturer (2018-2019)

3.3 Market Concentration Rate

3.3.1 Top 3 Fine Biochar Powder Manufacturer Market Share in 2019

3.3.2 Top 6 Fine Biochar Powder Manufacturer Market Share in 2019

3.4 Market Competition Trend

4 Global Market Analysis by Regions

4.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Regions

4.1.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)

4.1.2 Global Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)

4.2 North America Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

4.3 Europe Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

4.4 Asia-Pacific Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

4.5 South America Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

4.6 Middle East and Africa Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

5 North America by Country

5.1 North America Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Country

5.1.1 North America Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)

5.1.2 North America Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)

5.2 United States Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

5.3 Canada Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

5.4 Mexico Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

6 Europe by Country

6.1 Europe Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Country

6.1.1 Europe Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)

6.1.2 Europe Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)

6.2 Germany Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

6.3 UK Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

6.4 France Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

6.5 Russia Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

6.6 Italy Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

7 Asia-Pacific by Regions

7.1 Asia-Pacific Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Regions

7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)

7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)

7.2 China Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

7.3 Japan Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

7.4 Korea Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

7.5 India Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

7.6 Southeast Asia Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

7.7 Australia Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

8 South America by Country

8.1 South America Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Country

8.1.1 South America Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)

8.1.2 South America Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)

8.2 Brazil Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

8.3 Argentina Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

9 Middle East & Africa by Countries

9.1 Middle East & Africa Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Country

9.1.1 Middle East & Africa Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)

9.1.2 Middle East & Africa Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)

9.2 Saudi Arabia Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

9.3 Turkey Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

9.4 Egypt Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

9.5 South Africa Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

10 Market Segment by Type

10.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Sales and Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

10.2 Global Fine Biochar Powder Revenue and Market Share by Type (2015-2020)

10.3 Global Fine Biochar Powder Price by Type (2015-2020)

11 Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Segment by Application

11.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Sales Market Share by Applicat