1 May, 2020

1 May, 2020

A wide variety of price for biochar options are available to you, There are 275 suppliers who sells price for biochar on Alibaba. Our modular post-pyrolysis processing systems can apply a wide range of treatments, including a simple water quench, a light acid wash to increase initial cation exchange capacity and decompose any residual poly aromatic hydrocarbons New England Biochar LLC specializes in building biochar production systems on a small to community scale. One cubic foot of biochar retails between $30 and$60. Regardless of the scale, biochar requires biomass (organic material) to be produced. Recently I was at the Sound Waters Stewards expo the other day talking to folks about it. Why Primitive Charcoal Making? Why Not Make Something Fancy? If you have a biochar kiln you can convert everything to char, even weeds, but it’s hard to do that when you’re raking coals around. American Ceramic Supply Company offers the best lines of quality kilns at wholesale pricing – We are an authorized distributor for the following kiln brands – Paragon Kilns, Skutt Kilns, Olympic Kilns, Amaco/Excel Kilns, and the greatest discount pricing, customer service and support! 4-2020. Wilson Biochar Associates biochar burning time per kiln batch, hrs. The difference? The intended use. I’ve learned The biochar was created using sugar maple feedstock in a Missouri Kiln, which had a maximum pyrolysis temperature of 400° C. T l u d. Got it! production of biochar using our innovative SuperChar biochar kilns. The woody material that would otherwise be wasted is turned into a valuable resource. activated carbon that is especially good at supporting plant growth. S. Buy biochar online with Carbon Gold to get seedlings off to a flying start, avoid transplant stress, and naturally revitalise tired plants. Jun 17, 2012 · Garden mentor Fred Bové and I planted three sets of 'Cherry Belle' and daikon radishes, adding 1 to 1 1/2 cups of straight biochar to approximately 1 cubic foot of potting soil, a biochar-compost Sep 04, 2018 · While these biochar are not necessarily in any way the “best” for any specific application, including one or several of them in a study adds value to the research of the whole field. This 30. avoids emissions of methane during pyrolysis Help us close the carbon loop as we make unloved biomass into biochar, and capture th | Check out 'Building a biochar kiln for sawmill waste' on Indiegogo. Numerous groups are promoting and supporting the use of biochar. But his latest way to create better soil is by adding biochar, made in his new bespoke kiln. This past weekend I attended a fascinating biochar seminar put on by the Tilth alliance and Washington State University. Medium to Large Scale Charcoal & Biochar Production System. It’s touted as the next amazing amendment for the garden, a powerhouse amendment. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Like so many others bit by the biochar bug, I wanted to create a kiln for my own use. The ranges for adsorption capacity are provided below combined with the economic performance as stated by the authors (v1) and a revised version based on more realistic biochar pricing as stated by yours truly (v2). The best texture for soil addition is as fine as possible. There are two models of charcoal kiln,one is brick ki PacPyro have been world leaders in fostering the scientific development of biochar products as soil amendments through the production and provision of biochar to research groups, actively collaborating in research programs and through publishing findings in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. The quality of biochar can range from the charcoal made in a bonfire, to charcoal that is developed using a professional kiln that burns it at the perfect temperature and keeps the material away from all oxygen. The Best BioChar Garden Kiln is based on the Japanese cone kiln. A group of volunteers at the Rainforest Information Centre in Lismore, NSW, Australia have formed a village-scale biochar work group that has won a grant to produce small farm and village-scale non-polluting biochar kilns. Our locally made Japanese style cone kilns are available here with the backing of our years of knowledge of the kiln process and use of the stable carbon product. My team and I have been given the task of designing a Kiln that will turn a 55-gallon drum full of waste wood from a farm into charcoal for the purpose of creating a material called biochar. Applied at thicknesses of up to 20 cm, it is a substitute for Styrofoam insulation. is an acronym for Top Lit Up Draught meaning you lite it at the top and the air is sucked up through the fire. , Ltd. After making the . Re: [biochar] First retort kiln, smoking like crazy [Discussion] 22 Mar, 2016 in Discussions / News tagged Paul S. When biochar is charged with beneficial bacteria and fungi, it can bring increases in crop yields in one season (source, source, source, source). To make Mar 10, 2015 · How to Make Biochar with a Dome Kiln on March 10, 2015. The exhaust heat it generates can also be made available as energy for human use. 5″ wide by 11″ deep kiln, made of sturdy 20 gauge steel, is by far the easiest,  5 Nov 2018 "Where There Is No Engineer" competition winner's trip 2017 to Nepal Concept: Biochar Kiln Team Members: – Eoin Bracken – Dan Morgan  APE-UK, Artists for Planet Earth, selected the biochar kiln project from many hundreds The volunteers, calling themselves the Project 540 Biochar Kiln Group, are IBI provides a platform for fostering stakeholder collaboration, good industry  Feedstock Size. Biochar is defined as a carbon-rich product obtained when biomass, such as wood, manure, or leaves, is heated at relatively low temperatures (700°C) in a closed container with little or no available air (Lehmann and Joseph, 2009). Reducing stormwater run-off with biochar addition to highway greening. Primary biochar benefits are its potential to combat climate change by removing harmful carbon from the atmosphere. Buy Biochar For Better Soil Health For 100's of years biochar was used to support soil health for crops. Using ground charcoal as a soil amendment is proving to increase yeilds and sequester carbon among long lists of other positive benefits. Ability to alter and enhance the physical properties of the biochar produced to increase biochar surface area, biochar pore size and biochar stability (i. What is it I hear you say. We have the ability to produce a wide variety of biochars with our horizontal bed kiln, ranging in process temperature from sub 300° C to 750° C. Dec 18, 2017 · Biochar is produced in a kiln. Preparation of biochar. Biochar Slides and Presentations. And it is getting popular around the world because of the high-quality charcoal and eco-friendly design. It has been very interesting and fulfilling learning about biochar and developing the company. 1, raising the pH from below 6 to 6. This post has been written by Mike Thomas, a great bloke who was a student on our 2013 Permaculture Design Course. Just one gram of biochar, if unfolded, would cover the entire surface of a basketball court. We will spend the rest of the class practicing the skills you will need to make one: cutting metal and welding. 550°C  microbial activity required for maintaining better soil health. Dec 02, 2013 · Rather than worrying about barrels and flues and infrastructure, it’s time to start making easy biochar! As I wrote Friday, I’m attempting to enrich a chunk of lousy dirt in the middle of my front yard. Biochar has a highly unique and stable structure. Biochar is best thought of as a system-defined term referring to black carbon pyrolysis technologies, such as biochar kilns that aim to maximize char produc-. Can pyrolise any type of wood – logs to twigs. Some of the research shows that whenever biochar is used to amend dry infertile soil it increases soil fertility, decreases the amount of nutrient runoff, and improves the overall physical condition or tilth of the soil. We are leading the way in producing biochar, and other products, with our new horizontal bed kiln, allowing us the ability to consistently produce high volume, high quality carbon products. Biochar Equipment. The most common earth kilns are the traditional and improved earth kilns. Very different to charcoal as it come out of the kiln/retort and very difficult to handle and incorporate in to a compost mix. Biochar can also be applied to the outside walls of a building by jet-spray technique mixing it with lime. The top countries of suppliers are China, Singapore, from which the percentage of price for biochar supply is 93%, 1% respectively. Biochar Products Oregon, United States, Biochar Products is in the early stages of developing a biochar 10 Dry Ton Per Day biochar plant to be located on the old Ellingson Lumber mill site near Halfway, Oregon. As the moisture is cooked out of the wood, volatile gases are released, and Low shifts the kiln to the gasification phase. biochar, more cheaply than the pyrolysis process the main emphasis in the latter is on the production of biochar. Pyrolysis is fueled by igniting the waste biomass. I first read about the wonders of biochar  ARE BEST FOR SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION? Kelpie Wilson. Enjoy! Last summer at the ‘Plumplot’ (our farm in Margate, southern Tasmania) we built a dome kiln with the aim of making biochar. Beston Biochar Production Equipment for Sale I wasn't concerned about getting the maximum possible weight of biochar from the waste material burnt, instead I sacrificed a small amount of yield for ease of operation and clean burning. In most of the studies, acidic soils have been the subject of research, and these have generally been in tropical or semi-tropical regions. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration. Blue Sky Biochar retails unique products for all your agricultural needs from Biochar to bamboo vinegar and biomass stoves and kilns for your go green needs. On-Farm Biochar Production and Use – Practice Guideline: Using a Flame Cap Kiln 6 Best Practices for Safe Biochar Operations Wear fire-resistant clothing, and use a heat shield around the kiln. We light the fire from the top inside the kiln and let it burn to charcoal then put it out with water. This thermal treatment, combined with the characteristics of biomass, yields a charcoal-like material with a unique physical structure and chemical makeup. A method for making biochar includes placing waste bio mass in a cylindrical retort chamber. 5 cubic feet of biochar per batch. These can be as small as a personal kiln in the back yard or as large as brush piles in an open field. The kiln uses any small dimensioned, dry feedstock that won’t pack together – sawdust or wood chips are too small. Biochar making machine can process various biomass wastes, such as sawdust, rice husk, coconut shell, palm shell, wood, bamboo, etc. FREE Lay-A-Way! A growing number of farmers use Kon-Tiki kilns to produce their own biochar on-farm. New company aims to commercialize technology that makes charcoal from woody wastes, a method to improve soil and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Convert your biomass to produce charcoal with a modern retort-kiln, biomass conversion techniques, pyrolysis,retort klin, biochar production, Sustainable charcoal production and charcoal kiln. To do this, the team came up with a design for a biochar kiln (it is technically a low cost pyrolizer) that uses a 55 gallon oil drum. 8-2. Those of you following the biochar-hawaii list know that i’ve stopped using my kiln, and am now focused on making biochar in a pit. As a soil amendment, biochar also stores carbon in the soil and keeps it out of the environment. My personal favorite way to make a quick batch of biochar from small diameter stick wood, like yard prunings. How to make biochar The "top-down" fast furnace way A second chimney drafts the firebox under the kiln. Biochar cone kilns. The best feature of this Tlud is when the flames go out you then have biochar. Mean pH of the biochar was 8. Biochar is a unique environmental approach to fertilizing. Sep 10, 2014 · Michigan Tech senior Paul Hagadone of the Consumer Product Manufacturing Enterprise, which aims to bring clean-burning biochar to wood-fired cook stoves in Benin. Jun 04, 2018 · Kon-Tiki Cone Kiln. Biochar: from kiln to pit Those of you following the biochar-hawaii list know that i’ve Biochar retort, experimental design, first trial run My friends Josiah and Jay down in Puna are producing UBI biochar As a followup to my last biochar post, i was Biochar and Tea I spent the month of September 2011 back on the Want to learn about making your own kiln for biochar? We will start the class by talking a little bit about what biochar is and how the kiln works. Mar 15, 2015 · In Switzerland this July, at the Ithaka Institute, we commissioned a new kind of very simple and effective biochar kiln, where we make the biochar in an open metal cone like a fire pit. The length is best kept shorter than the kiln diameter. biocharproject. Such a low-cost kiln has been used during the last year in the Dead Sea & Arava Science Center of Israel in order to demonstrate the ease of biochar production. It is likely there will be higher condensed volatiles present in the char, which could affect its performance and desirability as biochar for soil amendment. How is Biochar Made? Biochar is made with controlled burns. The Kon-Tiki (or it’s cousin, the ‘Oregon Kiln‘) are unique among small, ‘backyard’ biochar systems: the truncated cone (or pyramid) design with open top is an oxygen limited container that allows for relatively clean biochar production, while still maintaining the primal feeling of working an open fire. The smaller scale biochar making machine is BST-05, producing about 500 kg of raw materials per hour. Protect yourself from smoke. Biochar is ideal for gardeners and professional growers. ready to be fired for the Biochar field and farmer trial in pumpkin plantation Best Biochar Kiln LLC is an Idaho Limited-Liability Company filed on May 27, 2014. Kon-Tiki Biochar Kiln in action Biochar definition is – a form of charcoal that is produced by exposing organic waste matter (such as wood chips, crop residue, or manure) to heat in a low-oxygen environment and that is used especially as a soil amendment. Biochar kiln This machine is used to carbonize different biomass materials into bbq charcoals. And improving the air as well. Fast pyrolysis converts finely ground feedstock into bio-oils, gas and char, in seconds. The Flame Initial filling of the kiln: Best practice for lighting is to build an initial rick of medium size. I wanted to develop a method where the biomass could be placed in the trench, charred, and then mixed with soil from that location as a labor saving step in getting the biochar in place in the field Gold N Black Biochar Soil Amendment by Pocono Bio Ag, Builds deep Rich Soil Supporting Microbial Life and fungal Activity Using Carbon, enhances Nutrient Density Through Mineralization and biomimicry small-scale production systems where the pile or kiln is less than five feet in diameter. Once no more Biochar is floating on the surface, it has been successfully conditioned to be hydrophilic. Biochar is a stable carbon-rich product of pyrolysis (the thermal decomposition of organic matter in a high heat, low oxygen environment). Biochar. This requires thousands of tons of biochar, but as we begin the 21st industry, making a few hundred pounds will teach us the basics, and yield enough for small test plots. Organic, chemical-free biochar for strong, healthy plants from root to tip. As we search for ways to be keeping carbon in our soil and out of the atmosphere, biochar may not be the answer but it may be a part of helping all the other answers. Some permie friends of mine, Best Biochar Kiln, in Stevens County, Washington, USA, make shippable  But his latest way to create better soil is by adding biochar, made in his new bespoke kiln. The most appropriate technology for biochar production at the farm level in Nepal is the soil pit Kon-Tiki flame curtain kiln. If you are planning a charcoal based enterprise then the mobile retort could be the best choice. 08-12 This guide is designed to assist you in deciding whether you will buy a kiln from a vendor, build a kiln from a published design, or develop your own kiln. Liquid manure is used to create the optimal nutrient enriched Biochar ready for use as soil amendment and odourless fertiliser • produced in our revolutionary Tasmanian built KON-TIKI-TAS Deep Cone Kiln. Interest in biochar stems from its potential agronomic benefits and carbon sequestration ability. However, seeing huge amounts of thermal energy being simply lost in the flames of the Kon-Tiki, many started to think about heat recovery systems to produce hot water. Place kilns carefully. Shut off and stow propane torches after use. Our two recent Biochar Conservation Burn Workshops in Paso Robles and Soledad were very well received and participants included winery owners, vineyard managers, students, entrepreneurs, air district staff, RCD representatives, and CalFire personnel. Tlud biochar stove for sale…. Pre-packaged biochar can be purchased from retailers today or can be made at home by buying or building a biochar kiln for home use. Commercially available biochar currently sells at a price of between $200-$400 a cubic yard. 3 tons/acre. 8 at the highest application rate of 72. LOW PRICE POLICY. Ben Elms is an expert compost-maker. If your natural wood is fresh, it takes long time to remove moisture of wood, therefore, carbonization time is longer. Biochar is under investigation as a viable approach for carbon sequestration, as it has the potential to help mitigate global warming and climate change. The biochar product from the The kiln’s oxygen-limited environment carbonizes the biomass to create biochar. Biochar Industry. • Alicia Ellingsworth, farm manager at Gibbs Road Farm: Allowed me to conduct burns on her farm, informed me of SARE If you can make biochar* on your property however, it’s probably best you learn how, and to stack functions of your waste residue in keeping with permaculture principles. Mix with the soil for a few days before planting seeds. Jun 02, 2011 · This is a charcoal retort / kiln I have invented has been designed to be environmentally friendly by burning the smoke it produces to help heat the retort. Featured on this page are several biochar products including plain biochar, blended and composted biochar and fertilizer blends To be able to serve customers in the agriculture industry, Oregon Biochar Solutions is registering Rogue Biochar™in each of the lower 48 states which require state regulatory approval — we hope to obtain approval in each of these jurisdictions by the end of 2017. A general best practice is to let material dry through one summer before burning during the following rainy season. For this reason simple carbonization methods, similar to the original biochar piles but in improved form are likely to be more economical than more complicated plants that place emphasis The advantages of our retort over a ring kiln are: Short burn time – around 8 hours, from lighting to shut down. Somehow it was forgotten from our culture but Wakefield Biochar is proud to bring it back. Our biochar and biochar-blended products improve human well-being and address Oct 01, 2018 · This book offers chapters on the heritage skills of earth burns, the enduring popularity of metal kilns, and the future represented by the charcoal retort. Before you fire your kiln, be sure to clear it with your fire department. Now you can cost effectively make your own quality biochar. 4 quenching and  23 Sep 2019 The biochar was produced from the controlled temperature biochar retort for slow pyrolysis process could have a good product and successfully  The Kon-Tiki (or it's cousin, the 'Oregon Kiln') are unique way to manage this kind of waste while making good biochar. Dec 13, 2018 · Tom builds an open top biochar kiln. We like the chippings from tree trimmers but any wood based material will work. This is a must if you with to inoculate the Biochar before you add it to soil. I think this is how most reading this report and blog believe best defines biochar. This is both for reasons of scalability and wear; my 55-gal steel drum kiln/retort could only make ~23-gal of char, and the surrounding kiln blocks cracked from repeated heating. 5″ wide by 11″ deep kiln, made of sturdy 20 gauge steel, is by far the easiest, affordable, and fastest way to make biochar at home. We used 5 sections of sheet steel (44" x 86" with 2" flanges) bolted together to surround a large slash pile. Although most of my charcoal goes for the barbeque market, I also make artists charcoal and biochar (small grade charcoal unsuitable for barbeques which is then crushed to a powder). You can make an earthen kiln to produce Bio-Char. Soil Reef biochar is a soil amendment that enhances plant growth and serves as a valuable tool in the fight against green house gas emissions and global warming. 26 Sep 2017 Excellent open source pyrolysis kiln from Switzerland for biochar production It may be a good way to get started with this type of pyrolysis. Applied at thicknesses of up to 20 cm, it is a substitute for styrofoam. For top and side dressing elements, you can choose Biochar. I wasn't sure if there was a special valve system or a means of using physics like if the pressure on the line is always great than the vent the flame won't There are three most common charcoal production methods today: earth kilns, brick and metal kilns. It follows, the best place for biochar is in the root zone. We've just cataloged the presentation slides from the 2016, 2018 and 2019 USBI Biochar Conferences. With its porous surface structure and chemical properties, biochar has proven to offer a wide range of benefits to soil. Words & images: Ben Elms. Aug 25, 2009 · Mobile 'biochar' machine to work the fields. The rate of producing biochar in this kiln has been approximately 5 kg from ground date palm fronds during a 1-h process and about 20 kg from cattle manure during a 4-h process. It The best charcoal is the kind that you make yourself, however. After browsing through many resources on techniques to prepare your biochar before mixing it with the soil we found Peter Hirst (New England Biochar) gave the best instructions: “The biochar has a micro-porous structure and it also chemically attracts organic molecules and water and tends to hold them in place. Biochar is one of this century’s most exciting new fields of research, with findings and practical implementations increasing exponentially every year so having the privilege of being part of something that can impact our world is a thrill. , into charcoal. If you have access to wood and steel drums, you can make your own charcoal. The Best BioChar Kiln. This first step of creating the biochar, cooking the moisture from the wood, lasts until around mid-day, with Low feeding the fire box regularly. by varing kiln heat, processing time May 29, 2013 · How to Make Biochar with Only a Match (and maybe a shovel too). Fully transportable – trailer mounted (optional). A jar of biochar is pictured in front of a student-made biochar kiln. There shouldn’t be a problem, but it’s best to get them on your side first. 16 May 2014 There is a more efficient charcoal kiln, the 'retort', of which mobile versions based enterprise then the mobile retort could be the best choice. And while you’re at it, you can also make biochar, which is incredible at improving garden soil. Although the biochar quality from the first experiments with an excavated earth kiln looked pretty good, it was too  DIY charcoal kilns, charcoal kilns South Africa, charcoal ovens, pyrolysis ovens, TLUD, emission reduction charcoal kilns, feedstock, 3-drum biochar retort,  22 Jan 2017 The cone kin=ln better fits my situation. Hoping to promote simple, scalable, environmentally sound methods for making biochar for improving the soil on small farms and in backyard gardens. The term “biochar” was originally associated with this type of production. This system uses a ‘direct combustion’ method, whereby the heat for carbonisation comes from burning a portion of the biomass feedstock in a limited air environment. Apr 12, 2019 · Today biochar may hold more significance than ever before. A forumula of half compost and half biochar is generally recommended so that the biochar has nutrients from the beginning when it is spread into your soil. Almost all small scale techniques available on the internet expose biomass to high temperatures, except this one! Learn to build this kiln, and the principles behind its design, with our step by step instructions. They sell their “climate kiln” in the US for $290 (including shipping) if you are interested. Many of my readers ask about how to make biochar or charcoal in bulk quantity instead of few kg per batch. Therefore, one furnace can get: 3tons machine-made charcoal, 1. The plant will be portable so it can be moved into the forest during months where fuels reduction projects are occurring. The retort chamber extends outwardly at a first end and a second end from a fire box. What biomass you make your biochar with is far less important than how you biocharge it. Our recommendation is to dig it when planting (eg seed drills, tree holes or when cultivating soil. Ours uses invasive buckthorn for feedstock and our biochar kiln is fired without fossil fuels. Biochar products for sale. This flame curtain pro Biosolid-derived Biochar for Phosphate (P) Remediation Emmanuel Deleon1*, William Deforest Gray1*, Pyoungchung Kim2, Andrew Sherfy1, Nicole Labbé2 1Biosystems Engineering & Soil Science, 2Center for Renewable Carbon, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37996 Converting Shelterbelt Biomass to Biochar, Wilson Biochar Associates, February 2017 3 leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus. Biochar application alters soil nitrogen (N) dynamics. All the combustion 3 Dec 2012 Worms Love Biochar Biochar works best when composted with other Alternative to Pile and Burn:Carbon Cultures Mobile Biochar Kiln; 32. This review establishes emerging trends and gaps in biochar-N research. org these stoves make great camping The best feature of this Tlud is when the flames go out you then have biochar. “Here is a full tutorial by O. In these classroom examples, combustible gases and oils can be separated from the biochar by creating a top light, updraft (TLUD) pyrolysis kiln or oven. Many factors can influence the characteristics of the char the kiln produces: the type of biomass that goes in, how much, and the temperature fluctuations that occur while it all burns. Sep 11, 2019 · Char Days. Jan 16, 2020 · These photos are two halves of a 55gallon drum ‘seamed’ together lengthwise as a trial of covered trench biochar method. May 15, 2010 · Rocket Retort Rocks! Yesterday was the christening of my new kiln, the Rocket Retort, a culmination of many months of research, design, contemplation; and a recent spate of hard work. Instead of dragging the mountains of wood to the processing facility, the University of Washington team wants to bring the processing facility to the mountains in the form of a heat-resistant laminate “blanket” that can be wrapped around a slash pile to form a biochar-baking kiln. He’s eager to spread it and the word around, and so is local horticulturist and biochar consultant Don Coyne, who helped Kelvin set up a farm-size biochar kiln on his property recently which produced lots of the loamy peat clumps of biochar to give the cows to eat in their food, and not just spread into his garden soils. Temperature Higher burn temperatures (above 750° F) result in biochar that has more surface area and Biochar is an efficient adsorber of electromagnetic radiation, meaning that biochar-mud plaster can prevent “electrosmog”. It’s easier than you think. Wood chunks, sticks or stalks will work better. Welcome to contact us! Biochar Production Plant in Turkey Beston Biochar Production Equipment for Sale. J. Biocharging biochar The type of biochar varies with biomass type—in many cases rice, wood or bark has been used—and production parameters, such as the rate of pyrolysis and kiln size. For optimal soil fertility benefit, biochar should be produced with a gentle, low temperature pyrolysis. We have made it our mission to improve the Portable Kiln charcoal-producing-kiln and investigate ways to turn it into a biochar producing kiln. preparing the final place for the kiln . It is best to mix with natural soil mixes like compost, peat moss, or healthy topsoil. U. For more information about biochar’s uses, processes, and benefits, visit Restore Char. Words & images: Ben Elms I first read about the wonders of biochar about 10 years ago, but it was an idea I left smouldering on the back burner while I dug deep into compost-making and waste reduction. This process can take place on a range of scales from DIY to an industrial plant. PLEASE BE SURE TO FOLLOW THE FIRE SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR YOUR AREA!! Ok, now go put a skewer on the biochar-making barbecue! Dimensions & Instructions from Kelpie's site: (The Pyramid kilns is) much easier to make than the round kiln. In order to get a charcoal production method that. Part of what we … Mar 15, 2016 · This causes the Biochar to become hydrophilic and absorb water. Biochar can remediate soil and bring it back to life, provided that land is returned to organic production. We provide details of some innovative designs that have been tested, organized in a way that will help you evaluate designs and choose a biochar device that suits your needs. FEECO has the expertise and experience to assist you with all of your biochar processing needs. Anderson by admin (updated on 7 June 2016 ) Dear Ted and all, The CharCone: a great little kiln that will cook your food and help uncook the planet! Posted on May 27, 2016 by fing2335 I am always flattered and excited when asked to do product reviews related to biochar. How To Make Biochar From Sawdust Olive Wastes , Find Complete Details about How To Make Biochar From Sawdust Olive Wastes,How To Make Biochar,Biochar Making Machine,Make Biochar Machine from Carbonization Stove Supplier or Manufacturer-Gongyi Dongxing Material Trade Co. This presentation reports on the developments of deep-cone Kon-Tiki kilns, to evaluate the best design parameters and operation for efficient clean biochar Tlud Biochar Stoves for sale at www. Benefits of Biochar. Garden Soil Encouragement Diagram The Backyard Biochar Retort Kiln This low cost wood-fired biochar kiln can be even cheaper if you have some of the materials already lying around or if you have welding skills. Having a direct tube would most likely create a bomb. I was complaining about the fact that I could’t Find enough dry wood to use as fuel in my biochar kiln. e. Many low-cost designs can be found online and enable the conversion of biomass (wood) into charcoal to amend the soil. The scientific research is hardly 10 years old I have been tinkering around with biochar for a while now. The presenter, Kai Hoffman-Krull did an admirable job outlining the advantages of adding biochar to garden soil. Verbesserte Holzkohle und Meiler Technik, carbon vegetal, carvao vegetal, wood vinegar, Holzessig, CDM, Clean Development Mechanism Oct 31, 2018 · An NRCS biochar project in Oregon found ways to create better value for farmers with manure and forest land to manage. In that case, you have to increase the size of the charcoal kiln or buy a professional production system. Monday morning, three of New England Biochar LLC's staff were winding up 13 AR3 Biochar Retort System for shipment to Ocean University of China in Qingdao. The Great Plains Biochar Initiative has an Oregon kiln for biochar production and char day hosts and attendees are encouraged to bring or provide their own kilns or styles of making biochar. Click if you have your own tricks to make biochar that you would like to share. Romo on making Charcoal and Biochar using a Brick Chimney Kiln. Sarah Bird photo This is a great opportunity to upgrade your firepit or burn pile to a cleaner burning biochar-maker. (based on 18 Nov 2010 Biochar is just charcoal, produced by burning organic matter such as wood, grasses, quite different from BC newly produced using rebuilt historical kilns [ 26]. we sell a versatile green kiln that can produce the heat and biochar for greenhouses by using the biomasse waste, making also a good charcoal and regreen the 10 Sep 2009 Biochar is just charcoal made from biomass—which is plant material and agricultural Terra preta's productivity is due to good nutrient retention and a neutral pH, At the end of this, two main products come out of the kiln. The resulting compost is an extremely effective slow release fertilizer. Where as charcoal is intended to be used a fuel source for heating or cooking. • Marty Craft: Consulted with me as to the best design for the kiln. Barefoot Biochar Biochar Stoves Events Vitality Community Consultation Testimonials FAQ Our enterprise is located in northern New South Wales in the middle of a neglected plantation forest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mixes for unrooted vegetative cuttings of hybrid poplar as represented by the clone ‘NM6’ (Populus Buying charcoal is for chumps. The Burn: Fill the paint can with whatever you are going to use to make charcoal. ” The charcoal can be used for numerous things such water filters and building soil in gardens. But what is biochar, anyway, and what’s it supposed to do? In its purest form, biochar is pyrolyzed organic material. Making Charcoal/BioChar Is there a safe way to pipe the combustable wood gas given off in the process back to assist the heat source. However I've more recently learnt that activated charcoal is simply grinding it to a fine dust. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment for both carbon sequestration and soil health Alternatively, each farmer or group of farmers can operate a lower- tech kiln. By making biochar from brush and other hard to compost organic material, you can improve soil — it enhances nutrient availability and also enables soil to retain nutrients longer. Over the years I did dabble by taking charcoal out of the fire Get exclusive Biochar deals you won't find anywhere else straight to your inbox We’d love to send you exclusive offers and the latest info from Carbon Gold by email. Developed to produce heat for process and heat from organic wastes. It also has been designed so that it Do-It-Yourself Low Temperature Biochar Kiln. Our mission as a company is to revitalize the planet, inspire action and generate mutual value by empowering people. We are looking after it by selecting the best trees to grow out and clear out the spindly ones. Sep 01, 2017 · Biochar can be effectively created at home in a pit, self-made kiln, or produced by expensive machines. Soil experts all over the world are recognizing biochar for its unique soil replenishing characteristics. BIOCHAR IN THE WOODS: WHAT TECHNOLOGIES ARE BEST FOR SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION? Kelpie Wilson Wilson Biochar Associates. Many factors come into play in terms of the final biochar product. Biochar works best for nurturing the soil, and thus, you can use it while planting the seedlings. How To Use Wakefield Premium Biochar. Simple Backyard Biochar Kiln Carbon Gold's SuperChar kilns use pyrolysis to efficiently convert a range of wet and dry We use cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Really, I’m totally low-tech in my gardening and homesteading. The biochar is then used to improve soil conditions. I don't really want to pay an metal engineer to make an expensive Kon-Tiki Kiln, or even a much easier Pyramidal Kiln, and I don't have the energy to dig a 2 m diameter soil pit that are used traditionally in my hard clay. Biochar—or small particle charcoal—has been heralded as a "super substance" that can increase soil fertility and productivity while locking up carbon into the ground. The proposal to grow crops on hundreds of millions of hectares to be turned into buried ‘biochar’ is therefore widely seen as a “carbon negative” initiative that could save the climate and boost food production. And when it's in the soil, it does a lot of good things," said Hamill. Biochar is a carbonaceous material created through the pyrolysis of biomass, a process often carried out in a rotary kiln with a limited oxygen environment. Mar 16, 2009 · Welcome to low-tech charcoal production. They do a very good job explaining what biochar is, what biochar isn't, and how it can be used. We’ll always treat your details with the utmost care and won’t share them with any third party. Biochar can be used for the immobilization of contaminants in water, soils or sediments , , , , as well as for the improvement of crop productivity in weathered and eroded soils , . They didn’t stop there. The idea is not to have the most efficient kiln or best quality biochar, but to deal with the large amount of biomass we have without having to use expensive machinery like chippers or having labor intensive processes. And it can do this economically and quickly. Do-It-Yourself Biochar Kiln. The process itself is what separates biochar from charcoal, as well as biochar from activated carbon. 6 mg g−1 biochar, occurs at pyrolysis temperatures &gt;600 °C with amounts adsorbed dependent on feedstock and NO3 Jan 12, 2017 · Instead, I use those for biochar. Email us to get your customized machine. We are currently at the design phase where we need to determine what materials we will use to build the kiln. They are to: create the very best biochar; use the energy that comes off the 7 Apr 2014 The first run of our newly constructed pyrolysis kiln. Make Your Own BioChar and Terra Preta: A simple way to make BioChar in a 55 gallon drum. biochar output per kiln batch, cy. Evaluating which crops respond best to different biochar applications, to make these results as relevant as possible for small-scale farmers; Dissemination . Biochar is a very efficient adsorber of electromagnetic radiation, meaning that biochar-mud plaster is very good at preventing “electrosmog”. We hope Fraser Common Farm Coop Kiln Design – Single Barrel Retort. Nov 18, 2010 · The story goes that charcoal buried in the soil is stable for thousands if not hundreds of thousands of years and increases crop yields. . • Daniel Dermitzel: Provided me with parts of a biochar kiln that he had made, and discussed the aspects of it that he thought would improve the design. Charcoal. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. 1. Systems and methods for a biochar retort kiln are disclosed herein. Most small scale methods of producing biochar, such as the Kon-Tiki kiln, fire pits, traditional heaps, many barrel methods, rocket stoves, gasifiers, etc, can only function at high pyrolysis temperatures, and particularly in the case of the heap method, long process times. Sep 09, 2019 · Anyone interested in producing biochar for small, niche markets such as farmers markets; Example: Assuming a biochar recovery rate of 33%, a 55-gallon drum retort kiln would yield ~2. Our goal here is to create a good DIY system that stacks heating on people by 2050 (UN, 2017), maintaining good soil quality and mitigating used a double barrel kiln to produce biochar at a temperature of around. We called the kiln the Kon-Tiki because we felt we were on a voyage of discovery to understand and bring into the modern world how the ancients made their biochar. Paul Imhoff & Seyyed Ali Akbar Nakhli, University of Delaware The Biochar Company (TBC) is an integrated biochar product development, marketing and sales company. Moreover, in order to make sure your handsome returns, Beston will provide you with the best biochar production equipment price. Fantastic device that is light and will work with all woods great survival tool . The first publications drawing on the Standard Biochars appeared in 2017 and currently there are 15 published papers in academic journals. The Best BioChar Garden Kiln is based on the Japanese cone kiln. The blend must have 20 percent compost, soil and 10 percent Biochar. This is not always possible (nor desirable if following no-till regime!). Pyrolysis is a form of thermal decomposition in a low-oxygen environment. One of the best resources for understanding biochar, IMO, is the Biochar Journal. You will not each leave with a kiln you make during this class. com, mainly located in Asia. Cleaner in operation – up to 75% fewer pollutants released. Well. 29 Nov 2014 Kon-Tiki Cone Kiln. Biochar is used for soil amendments and carbon sequestration. When you bury the c Apr 12, 2018 · At the Center for Sustainable Development we use organic biochar to help our soil produce the best vegetation possible. The production of biochar in modern industrial devices can be a highly controlled process with low gas emissions . There are several things that are important with our biochar: To demonstrate the benefits using biochar to improve soil fertility, we have established the Hill Of Abundance food project for 500 families here on the property. What is most interesting to me is a comparison of the best biochar against the best AC. The company's principal address is 5751 W Reality Loop, Coeur D Alene, ID 83814 and its mailing address is 5751 W Reality Loop, Coeur D Alene, ID 83814. Sep 29, 2019 · The term “biochar” has been going around gardening circles a lot. 5tons natural wood charcoal. cost biochar kiln at community level or low cost biochar stove at individual farmer's family level. Courtesy, Nevada Division of Forestry Crews with the Nevada Division of Forestry load a kiln as they prepare to make charcoal from pinion The key to understanding biochar is to independently analyze its production and its value as a soil amendment. During the 2015-2018 grant project, a goat dairy was able to keep odors in Biochar, like charcoal and char, is produced from the pyrolysis, the process of heating carbon-rich material (animal or vegetable matter) in oxygen-deprived conditions. Giant Ring of Fire Kiln Eats Smoke. Don't use material thicker than will char fully during the duration of the Provides projects and lessons with a focus on biochar for sequestering carbon, biochar for improving soil, and biochar kilns. The so-called biochar production equipment has adopted this advanced biochar production technology and has been equipped with related mature devices, which is aimed at making charcoal from biomass and turning waste to energy. Nov 26, 2018 · The recipe for biochar is not as simple. Biochar benefits have been shown when used as a top dressing or when lightly hoed into top few cm soil. Wakefield Premium Biochar needs to be mixed with organic material and water before it can fully benefit your soil. Some of these include: Our Biochar We’ve worked on R&D for about five years under the Biochar Project. Char days are informal, open-house style events. Making biochar in soil pit kilns . Benefits include high-quality biochar production, low emissions, no need for start-up fuel, short pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap construction and operation, with no initial capital investment except labour. So what is biochar? Learn more about biochar and its benefits in this article. BIOCHAR MARKET SURVEY. Survey and Analysis of the U. Folke Gunther demonstrates how to construct and use a simple biochar kiln made from two metal barrels with sample images and explanations. Biochar is being studied for its potential ability to sequester large amounts of CO 2 gas, mitigating the effects of global warming by acting as an effective and long-term carbon sink. "The best thing to do with biochar is put it into the soil, and it's very happy to be there. The company's filing status is listed as Inactive-Dissolved (Administrative) and its File Number is 421978. The production of biochar is an undertaking that is usually much more complex than people realize. Jul 22, 2019 · Cornell opened its pyrolysis kiln in May 2018, and approximately two dozen faculty programs use biochar in one permutation or another, from building materials to agriculture, according to Johannes Lehmann, professor of soil science. How to make biochar at home welcome to kiln frog great kilns! groovy prices! 4/13/2020 – Daily Update! We're still here for you everyday, answering your calls and questions, and helping you to make the best equipment buying decisions. Hello Jim is the Adam retort biochar kiln the right thing for the job ? 10 Feb 2017 Shelterbelt renewal is a good opportunity to realize the benefits of biochar at biochar production kilns have been proposed, that can produce In field trials with corn, rice and many other crops, biochar has increased productivity by making nutrients already present in the soil better available to plants. There is a chimney and the evidence of soil cover to insulate the kiln. Have you ever wondered how to make biochar in a simple fashion? Did you ever wonder if it could be done without investments in metal? In this post I will share with you how to make biochar with only a match (and a shovel). 20 Nov 2019 Modern biochar retort kilns reduce the harmful emissions over traditional charcoal It follows, the best place for biochar is in the root zone. Keep pets and children away from flames. Buy biochar soil amendment to enhance plant growth in your garden, improve the Earth’s soil through water and nutrient retention while protecting our natural resources. Movable biochar kiln is a simple but high efficient equipment,it has completely resolved the problem of building brick kiln and the problem of moving it,suitable for small charcoal makers. Biochar adsorption of NO3−, up to 0. "It stays there for a long time, and provides a home for soil bacteria and other microbes that improve soil. Two-barrel charcoal retort – a safe way to produce charcoal using two small barrels. 11 Mar 2013 Answer: a biochar stove – combining a DIY biochar kiln with a cooktop. No ash or waste. I even failed at tower gardening. If you have questions about anything, just give us a call, we're here for you! THANK YOU FOR SUPPORTING US AND OUR MANUFACTURERS! All READY-to-SHIP kilns all ship within 5-7 business Mar 22, 2012 · With companies scaling up production and dozens of do-it-yourself videos online showing how to make biochar at home, Masiello said it is important for scientists to examine how biochar is produced and learn which methods produce the best biochar. Sep 01, 2014 · Overall, biochar is best understood as a catalyst that continues over time to modulate and improve soil dynamics. I'm interested in making some biochar for my garden. NOTE: Each purchase donates a kiln to a Kenyan farmer. More efficient – 100% of wood is pyrolised. Biochar thus has the potential to help mitigate climate change via carbon sequestration. Per batch, a profit between$75 and $150 could be generated. We use this forestry residue to make firewood and… Biochar/Burn Workshops on the Central Coast. Biochar is a type of charcoal or activated carbon that is especially good at supporting plant growth. BC is best understood as a continuum of combustion products, Practice Guideline: Using a Flame Cap Kiln to Make Biochar. APE-UK, Artists for Planet Earth, selected the biochar kiln project from many hundreds of applications for a grant of £ Decrease your organic management costs & reduce your carbon footprint with Seneca Farms Biochar, LLC. The brick kilns are represented by the Argentine half orange Kiln and the Brazilian beehive kiln and the metal kilns by the drum kiln. We also must create biochar-burners that minimize air pollution, and biomass harvest methods that avoid turning the land into bioenergy plantations. " Editor's Note: If the fuel is chopped or shredded properly, it can be used as biochar to enhance the soil. She points out that when pre-charged with these beneficial organisms biochar becomes an extremely effective soil amendment promoting good soil the research process that the potential of biochar may be best realised. Ideally, you should water the mixed soil a few times. No two biochar batches are exactly alike, and making biochar is as much art as science, Van Zwieten likes to say. best biochar kiln ## Functionalized Biochar with Superacidity and Hydrophobicity as a Highly Efficient Catalyst in the … 1 May, 2020 ## advice on crushing biochar 1 May, 2020 Confrence Biochar Qubec Conference Characterizing biochars and measuring relevant properties before addition to soils from Biochar Quebec on Vimeo.. How to crush charcoal and prepare it for your garden soil, sequestering carbon in the process. Advice on Crushing Biochar . sean om. Posts 3. 1. posted 1 year ago. John Suavecito I have been using the meat grinder. quote wrote I tried it. The char was wet from when i put out the fire in the restort. It took about a half hour to go through a 5 gallon bucket at about 90rpm as you have to trickle it in. It stops with any brands or if How to crush charcoal into biochar This is a question I get asked a lot and today I have another peice of the puzzle for you. How to crush charcoal into biochar in commercial quantities. Functional test of Harbor Freight Predator 212cc 6.5 hp chipper shredder HF 62323 The Crouch Ranch Duration 1735. TheCrouchRanch Recommended for you I had some biochar that had been sitting for a bit after quenching it, and the other day I was putting away my leaf blower which has a 34mulcher34 option. I tried crushing the biochar using that and it turned it into a light airy I don39t want to say powder but maybe like a size up from powder. My question is, is that to small Biochar is made active by thoroughly wetting the char in a liquid fertilizer like fish emulsion, soluble mineral fertilizer, compost tea, etc. and then drying before crushing. Leaving a small moisture content keeps the dust down when crushing which can be done with a 2×4 in a heavy metal bucket, or a concave rock. Biochar grinder, biochar crusher, biochar pulveriser what ever you want to call it we now have a fantastic unit. We call it the carbonator like Arnold Schwarzenegger this beast is unstoppable when it comes to grinding charcoal into biochar. And it can do this economically and quickly. When biochar is charged with beneficial bacteria and fungi, it can bring increases in crop yields in one season source, source, source, source. How to make biochar at home. You can make biochar in the garden by doing a controlled burn in a trench right in your garden area. Advice on Crushing Biochar . Tim Ries. Posts 17. Location Arkansas Zone 8a. posted 6 years ago. 1 I am planning to in a few months to make my own Biochar a type of Charcoal if you don39t know, and I am looking for a simple way to grind it up. I was hoping someone here might have an idea, something I could hopefully build for not a lot. A fast clean way to crush charcoal into biochar for gardens. Crushing it is a bigger challenge for me. Im looking for suggestions. Crushing charcal for Biochar at home Garth Wunsch. Loading Unsubscribe from Garth Wunsch? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working Advice on Crushing Biochar. 49 replies 2 2 6. biochar. Biochar Mycorrhizae and High Nitrogen. 35 replies 2. Biochar can I just buy charcoal and grind it up 24 replies CharcoalBiochar Production Utilizing the volatile gasses, reducing pollution and fire risk . 25 replies 1 5. Diverse inoculation Was wondering the same thing Mike. Read through most of this post AdviceCrushingBiochar Seems like the consensus as a lot of things in life is personal preference. A mixed blend of various sizes seems to also make sense everything will find its own niche some bacteria may like a hotel while others like a modest small home. Advice on Crushing Biochar . Tim Ries. Posts 17. Location Arkansas Zone 8a. posted 6 years ago. 1 I am planning to in a few months to make my own Biochar a type of Charcoal if you dont know, and I am looking for a simple way to grind it up. I was hoping someone here might have an idea, something I could hopefully build for not a lot. Biochar was applied to soil under winter rye Secale cereale L. at rates of 10 BC10, 20 BC20, and 30 t ha1 BC30. Plots with biocharunamended soil were the control treatment BC0. The pH, TOC, and Nt content in the biocharamended soil were higher compared to the control soil. Largescale farmers powder their biochar so that it39s easy to apply with their machinery, but on the small scale, crushing biochar is a pain. In fact, from the multitude of questions about how to crush biochar on forums and from my own experience, I suspect that the crushing step is holding a lot of gardeners back using biochar in the garden. How to crush charcoal into biochar? This is a question I get asked a lot and today I have another peice of the puzzle for you. How to crush charcoal into biochar in commercial quantities. Crushing it is a bigger challenge for me. I39m looking for suggestions. Crushing charcal for Biochar at home Garth Wunsch. Loading Unsubscribe from Garth Wunsch Cancel Unsubscribe. Working I am planning to in a few months to make my own Biochar a type of Charcoal if you don39t know, and I am looking for a simple way to grind it up. At any rate I hope someone here might be able to point me in the right direction. Grinding Biocharnecessary or not posted in Earth and Climate Science Hey ,Ive dug a pit about 2 cubic meters and have accumulated a big mound of charcoal 3or4 cubic meters and am wondering how best to crush it or if crushing is necessary . I made some garden beds, some without biochar and some with30about 2 months ago , not much difference in growth rates though and that was Biochar in the woodstove In this video I share a really simple way to take chunk charcoal that is completely cooled off and dry and be able to crush it down into a finer powder if needed, or How would you grind charcoal into a powder We39re producing 34biochar34 and are about to start some plant growth trials, but need to grind it up before mixing with compost and planting. Accurate grain size control would be a plus. We39re shooting for something in the range of .0534 or smaller. Feeding Size: 65-300mm Discharging Size: 3-60mm Feeding Size:≤25-≤100mm Production Capacity:5-100t/h Feeding Size:300-700mm Production Capacity:50-250TPH Power:7.5-30kw Capacity:6-30TPH Copyright © 2020.China Eforlad Co., ltd. All rights reserved.Sitemap ## Coronavirus' business impact: Biochar Market 2020 Research by Business Analysis, Strategy and … 1 May, 2020 Analysis of the Global Biochar Market The recent market study suggests that the global Biochar market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~XX% between 2019 and 2029 and reach a value of ~US$XX by the end of 2029.

The study offers a microscopic view of the various segments and sub-segments of the Biochar market and accurately represents the data using informative tables, graphs, and figures. The objective of the report is to assist readers to make informed business decisions and improve their position in the global Biochar market landscape post the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Vital data enclosed in the report:

Segmentation Analysis of the Biochar Market

The Biochar market study offers a detailed understanding of the consumption, demand, and pricing structure of each product.

The Biochar market report evaluates how the Biochar is being utilized by various end-users.

By Region

The report offers valuable insights related to the growth prospects of the Biochar market in different regions including:

below:

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Questions Related to the Biochar Market Catered to in the Report:

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## Biochar

1 May, 2020

This is an introduction to the Biochar Roundtable at the Lodge at Pony Farm in Temple, New Hampshire, on May 9, 2009. It was a pioneering event!

Before we move on. let’s watch Hugh McLaughlin demonstrate some TLUD stoves he makes with scrap tin cans…

If you want a more graphic illustration of how the TLUD does not burn the fuel but rather the gases that have been driven off the fuel as smoke, here is a video I made showing lots of smoke being burned off. The next demonstration produced charcoal with a retort made from a recycled Cornelius keg.  I’ve taken the liberty of assuming that most people looking at this site would not be familiar with the Cornelius keg. In the following video, Hugh explains what it is and how to convert one as an excellent and affordable retort.

These kegs have been discovered by the homebrew beer set and they might be driving the price up.

And now for the keg in action as a retort for making charcoal from wood scraps.

You will see more videos of the Cornelius keg because Hugh gave me one to experiment with.  I can hardly wait!  This more fun than the old Gilberts Chemistry Sets  (if anyone remembers!).

Dr. Thomas B. Reed is going to show us his technique for making charcoal with inspiration from Jack Daniels.

Really.

Watch.

Tom modified the Jack Daniels “rick” for a technique for making a home brew. Of charcoal, of course!

## BioChar Source Growing Trials and Application Rates

1 May, 2020

BioChar Source is a synergistic biochar blend designed to build the vitality of soils and plants. It acts as a site of nutrient absorption and exchange, which decreases excess nutrient loss. It is also a catalyst that improves germination, enhances soil fertility while building long-term carbon reserves in the soil.

The biochar in this product is made under carefully controlled conditions with peak temperatures of 850° F in a process called slow pyrolysis. This ensures that it will retain its characteristics for hundreds of years when added to the soil. Due to its complex pore structure, BioChar Source increases nutrient and water holding capacity of soils while providing “safe harbor” sites for increasing the population of beneficial soil microorganisms.

BioChar Source is inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, organic worm castings, organic compost, and select mineral powders. All ingredients in BioChar Source meet NOP Standards for use in organic landscape and farming practices.

Biochar Source was applied to the field (sandy loam soil) at a rate of 1, 20-quart bag per 45 linear foot of row, placed in the furrow prior to seeding.  The total yield of potatoes (by weight) increased by 50%.  The total yield of green beans (by weight per plant) increased by 60%.

BioChar Source was added at a rate of 1 part Source to 5 parts commercial potting soil. This was compared to potting soil with no treatment. Tomato transplants shown are five weeks old.

BioChar Source is available in 20-quart and 40-quart bags sold wholesale by the pallet.  Contact us if you are a reseller interested in selling BioChar Source.

Mix 1⁄2 inch of BioChar Source into the top 4-6 inches of existing the soil and water in thoroughly.

Apply 1⁄2” of BioChar Source to bare soil prior to seeding or laying down sod. Work into the top 4-6 inches of the existing soil. Add seed, rake, and water thoroughly. For turf maintenance top dress lawn with 1/8 inch BioChar Source. Rake and water in thoroughly. For building capacity of existing lawns, apply 1/8 inch BioChar Source following plug aeration, slicing, or dethatching operations.

Mix BioChar Source in at 10 — 20 % of your potting soil

Add a 1-inch layer of BioChar Source to the bottom of the transplant hole, mix with the existing soil and water in thoroughly.

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1 May, 2020

Global Biochar Market is segmented to reach US$XX Mn by 2026 in terms of revenue with CAGR of XX% in the forecasting period 2019-2026. Biochar Market is a charcoal used to improve the soil fecundity, prevent soil degradation, isolate carbon into the soil, and provide protection against some of the foliar and soil-borne diseases. Biochar can enhance soils, sequester carbon as well as provide usable energy. Biochar also has a tendency to filter and retain nutrients from percolating soil water. REQUEST FOR FREE SAMPLE REPORT: https://www.maximizemarketresearch.com/request-sample/11779 Biochar Market can be an important tool to increase food security and cropland diversity in areas with severely depleted soils, hardly organic resources, and inefficient water and chemical fertilizer supplies. It is produced by heating various waste products such as agricultural waste, wood waste, forest waste, and animal manure. In the production of biochar, these waste products are primarily used as feedstock. Biochar aids in carbon sequestration and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Biochar Market is easily available of a cheap and wide variety of feedstock. Increase in biochar applications in the agriculture sector, Reliable and constant flow of energy, and strict environmental regulations. Increase in the use of biochar to enhance soil fertility and crop yields, as well as waste management ability, is also driving the Biochar Market for biochar. Global Biochar Market can be segmented by feedstock, by technology, by application, and region. On the basis of the feedstock, wood biomass segment accounted for nearly half of the overall demand in the Biochar Market. Wood waste that is converted into biochar is used as a valuable soil amendment product. Based on technology, Pyrolysis technology is one of the most efficient and effective ways of producing a high-quality product. Gasification technology does not create stable biochar which can be used in agriculture for soil amendment. Gasification technology has witnessed a rise in demand on account of the growing need for electricity in distributed energy systems. In terms of application, Agriculture was the largest application segment in 2017 and is expected to grow substantially over the forecast period. On the basis of region, North America was the dominant player in 2017. North America followed by Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. It is expected to show significant growth on account of the increasing need for organic food and the high consumption of meat. In North America, biochar awareness is better compared to other regions. The Asia Pacific is expected to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period. DO INQUIRY BEFORE PURCHASING REPORT HERE: https://www.maximizemarketresearch.com/inquiry-before-buying/11779 Some of the key prominent Biochar Market players in the global biochar market are Biochar Products Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc., Agri-Tech Producers LLC, Genesis Industries, Green-Charcoal International, Vega Biofuels Inc., The Biochar Company, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Full Circle Biochar, and Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd. Global Biochar Market Scope: Global Biochar Market, By Feedstock • Agriculture Waste • Forestry Waste • Animal Manure • Biomass Plantation Global Biochar Market, By Technology • Pyrolysis • Gasification • Others Global Biochar Market, By Application • Gardening • Agriculture • Household Global Biochar Market, By Geography • North America • Europe • Asia-Pacific • Middle East & Africa • Latin America Key Players operating in the Global Biochar Market: • ECOSUS • Cool Planet • Biochar Supreme • NextChar • Terra Char • Genesis Industries • Interra Energy • CharGrow • Pacific Biochar • Biochar Now • The Biochar Company (TBC) • ElementC6 • Vega Biofuels • Carbon Gold • Kina • Swiss Biochar GmbH • BlackCarbon • Carbon Terra • Sonnenerde • Biokol • Verora GmbH • Biochar Products Inc. • Diacarbon Energy Inc. • Agri-Tech Producers LLC • Green Charcoal International MAJOR TOC OF THE REPORT Chapter One: Biochar Market Overview Chapter Two: Manufacturers Profiles Chapter Three: Global Biochar Market Competition, by Players Chapter Four: Global Biochar Market Size by Regions Chapter Five: North America Biochar Revenue by Countries Chapter Six: Europe Biochar Revenue by Countries Chapter Seven: Asia-Pacific Biochar Revenue by Countries Chapter Eight: South America Biochar Revenue by Countries Chapter Nine: Middle East and Africa Revenue Biochar by Countries Chapter Ten: Global Biochar Market Segment by Type Chapter Eleven: Global Biochar Market Segment by Application Chapter Twelve: Global Biochar Market Size Forecast (2019-2026) Browse Full Report with Facts and Figures of Biochar Market Report at: https://www.maximizemarketresearch.com/market-report/biochar-market/11779/ About Us: Maximize Market Research provides B2B and B2C market research on 20,000 high growth emerging technologies & opportunities in Chemical, Healthcare, Pharmaceuticals, Electronics & Communications, Internet of Things, Food and Beverages, Aerospace and Defense and other manufacturing sectors. Contact info: Name: Vikas Godage Organization: MAXIMIZE MARKET RESEARCH PVT. LTD. Email: sales@maximizemarketresearch.com Contact: +919607065656/ +919607195908 Website: www.maximizemarketresearch.com Email: pr@pdqmedia.in MR Invasion is an online news media publication founded with the aim of providing instantaneous coverage of latest technology market trends. The site regularly features breaking news stories, rumors, reviews, and editorials related to the tech and gadgets marketplace. A venture from PDQ Media Pvt Ltd. ## Global Biochar Market To Witness The Highest Growth Globally In Coming Years 2020-2024 1 May, 2020 The research report on Biochar Market provides comprehensive analysis on market status and development pattern, including types, applications, rising technology and region. Biochar Market report covers the present and past market scenarios, market development patterns, and is likely to proceed with a continuing development over the forecast period. The report covers all information on the global and regional markets including historic and future trends for market demand, size, trading, supply, competitors, and prices as well as global predominant vendors information. This market research report on the Biochar Market is an all-inclusive study of the business sectors up-to-date outlines, industry enhancement drivers, and manacles. It provides market projections for the coming years. It contains an analysis of late augmentations in innovation, Porter’s five force model analysis and progressive profiles of hand-picked industry competitors. The report additionally formulates a survey of minor and full-scale factors charging for the new applicants in the market and the ones as of now in the market along with a systematic value chain exploration. An outline of the manufacturer’s active within the Biochar Market, consisting of Cool Planet Biochar Supreme NextChar Terra Char Genesis Industries Interra Energy CharGrow Pacific Biochar Biochar Now The Biochar Company (TBC) ElementC6 Vega Biofuels The Biochar Market Segmentation by Type: Wood Source Biochar Corn Stove Source Biochar Rice Stove Source Biochar Wheat Stove Source Biochar Other Stove Source Biochar The Biochar Market Segmentation by Application: Soil Conditioner Fertilizer Others Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers Get Upto 40% discount on this report Click Here @ https://www.reportspedia.com/discount_inquiry/discount/ 12511 The competitive landscape of the Biochar Market is discussed in the report, including the market share and new orders market share by company. The report profiles some of the leading players in the global market for the purpose of an in-depth study of the challenges faced by the industry as well as the growth opportunities in the market. The report also discusses the strategies implemented by the key companies to maintain their hold on the industry. The business overview and financial overview of each of the companies have been analyzed. This report provide wide-ranging analysis of the impact of these advancements on the market’s future growth, wide-ranging analysis of these extensions on the market’s future growth. The research report studies the market in a detailed manner by explaining the key facets of the market that are foreseeable to have a countable stimulus on its developing extrapolations over the forecast period. Key questions answered in this research report: Table of Contents: Global Biochar — Market Research Report Chapter 1 Biochar Market Overview Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis …….CONTINUED FOR TOC If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want. ## Adsorption Studies For Waste Water Treatment Plants 1 May, 2020 Adsorption Studies For Waste Water Treatment Plants: Adsorption is a good way to remove nitrogen contents from waste water using suitable adsorbent like biochar. Biochar is burnt organic material that is produced for its intentionally application to soils to confiscate Carbon and enhance soil quality. Nearly all industries have effluent streams that must be disposed off or recycled to reuse water streams. Therefore, many techniques are needed to retreat that water. The main two processes are used for this purpose. One is biological method and the other is by means of chemical. In chemical methods, precipitate is made by the addition of different ions like OH-1, S-2, CO3-2 and PO4-3 and this process has great importance. Still, there is an issue in this process which is the making of sludge that becomes a trouble as it is difficult to waste that sludge in a safe manner. Adsorption process has many advantages to purify waste water without causing the above-mentioned problem that is sludge formation and its handling. Adsorption technique involves biological resources, metallic oxides, activated carbon and polymeric materials are getting familiar day by day. Activated carbon is produced by biomass or by coal. Activated carbon is very much effective in the removal of pollutants from the water. Despite of its work, this process is not cost effective as compared to biochar. Biochar can be prepared inexpensively. Biochar is a little carbonized while comparing to activated carbon. It also involves higher hydrogen and oxygen contents along with some ash which obtained from bio mass. Biochar removes H-C compounds. C-compounds and some inorganic compounds. Biochar is formed after the pyrolysis & carbonization of the biomass under specific conditions that involves complete or partial ejection of oxygen. Thus, biochar is obtained from biomass. The biochar can be produced from several types of biomasses that may involve wood, corcobs, wheat straw, wastes of poultry. Biochar is stable and it is very difficult to decompose it due to its potential of stability. Biochar is negatively charged and have good adsorption attributes due to big surface area. These all benefits of biochar over activated carbon makes it preferable than activated carbon. That’s why day by day its production is increasing. Merits The use of bamboo is another option to produce biochar. From several examine, it is observed that bamboo is better than trees in case of timber production. One benefit of biochar obtained from bamboo is that the structure of that biochar consists of tiny holes or micro holes and there is no hassle of regeneration. As well, the charcoal of bamboo is 10 times efficient than the wood biochar. For this analysis, first ability of charcoal is experimented in terms of its efficiency in removing different metal ions then the result obtained was compared to the efficiency results of adsorption those metal ions of wood charcoal, and the charcoal obtained from wastes of rice, wheat straw. The analysis has been made for the cost effectiveness of biochar filter being used in WWTP. The following credentials were taken into account for this analysis: These all factors have been involved for consideration of biochar suitability for the elimination of different contaminants from the waste water. It was observed that a little more change in the process can bring remarkable change in the system of adsorption. Activation of biochars can bring major efficiency improvement but the cost effectiveness relies totally on the process chosen for its activation. Biochar adsorbents are considered in many research works and an increase in research is examined from the tenure of 2005 afterwards. Many research articles have been published on this in the category of sciences & engineering. After discussing Adsorption Studies For Waste Water Treatment Plants Biochar, Now, we will move to next technique which is Ion Exchange Method. ## Evolution of the functional groups/structures of biochar and heteroatoms during the pyrolysis of … 1 May, 2020 Change of the functionalities of biochar was more pronounced at 230 to 290 °C. The aliphatic nature of seaweed enhances production of heavy fraction in bio-oil. Nitrogen in protein form seaweed is retained in biochar or transferred to bio-oil. Sulfate polysaccharide in seaweed is transformed to Mg2K2(SO4)3 and then to CaS. Seaweed derived biochar contained remarkably high content of oxygen. Change of the functionalities of biochar was more pronounced at 230 to 290 °C. The aliphatic nature of seaweed enhances production of heavy fraction in bio-oil. Nitrogen in protein form seaweed is retained in biochar or transferred to bio-oil. Sulfate polysaccharide in seaweed is transformed to Mg2K2(SO4)3 and then to CaS. Seaweed derived biochar contained remarkably high content of oxygen. Pyrolysis temperature is one of the main parameters affecting the properties of biochar and the composition of bio-oil during the pyrolysis of aquatic biomass such as seaweed. In this study, the evolution of the functional groups of biochar during seaweed pyrolysis was characterized with in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The results showed that restructuring of the biochar was more pronounced at temperatures ranging from 230 to 290 °C, where the decomposition and pyrolysis of glucose crystals, polysaccharides and long-chain aliphatic compounds dominated. Fusion of the aromatic rings started and reached the equivalent of six fused rings at 500 °C and 12 fused benzene rings at 800 °C. Varying the pyrolysis temperature remarkably affected the distribution/transformation of the heteroatom in biochar and in the bio-oil formed. A large proportion of nitrogen in the original protein formed in seaweed was retained in the biochar, even at 800 °C. The sulfur species in the original sulfate polysaccharide form was transformed initially to Mg2K2(SO4)3 and then to MgO and CaS crystals. The oxygen content in the seaweed-derived biochar was rather high, as a significant portion of carbon was transferred into the tar fraction due to the aliphatic nature of seaweed. ## Remediation of Pb, Cd, and Cu contaminated soil by co-pyrolysis biochar derived from rape straw … 1 May, 2020 Novel co-pyrolysis biochars significantly decreased ecological risk of soil metals. BC-K was the most effective remediation material for soil metals. Phosphate and –OH on biochars precipitated and complexed with metals directly. The increase of soil pH and available P promoted metal stabilization indirectly. The increase of –COOH on incubated biochars benefited metal stabilization. Novel co-pyrolysis biochars significantly decreased ecological risk of soil metals. BC-K was the most effective remediation material for soil metals. Phosphate and –OH on biochars precipitated and complexed with metals directly. The increase of soil pH and available P promoted metal stabilization indirectly. The increase of –COOH on incubated biochars benefited metal stabilization. Biochars are widely used in the remediation of soil heavy metals, but there has been no clear understanding to the effects of novel co-pyrolysis biochars derived from biomass and orthophosphate on soil heavy metals. In this study, co-pyrolysis biochars derived from rape straw and orthophosphate (Ca (H2PO4)2·H2O/KH2PO4) were prepared and used to explore their effects on the speciations and ecological risks of Pb, Cd, and Cu in contaminated agricultural soil. The results showed that the addition of these co-pyrolysis biochars significantly decreased TCLP extracted concentrations (decreased by 5.9–81.7%) and ecological risks of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Cu) by transforming the metals from available speciation to stable speciation in soils. Co-pyrolysis biochar derived from rape straw and KH2PO4 showed the highest immobilization capacities, and the immobilization capacities of biochars for three metals were in the order of Pb > Cu > Cd. Co-pyrolysis biochars could precipitate and complex with heavy metals directly by the phosphate and –OH on their surface, and also could promote immobilization of heavy metals indirectly by increasing soil pH value and available P. During incubation, the content of carboxyl groups on biochars increased significantly, which was beneficial to the further complexation of heavy metals. In summary, the application of co-pyrolysis biochar derived from rape straw and orthophosphate (especially for KH2PO4) could effectively reduce ecological risks of Pb, Cd, and Cu in contaminated soil. ## Survey: Impact Of COVID-19 On Biochar Market Industry 2020 | In-Depth Analysis By … 1 May, 2020 MarketResearch.Biz has published a report titled “Biochar Market Report” that balances market elements, for example, opportunities, drivers, patterns and restraints on a global division. The extent of the report diagrams different possibilities factors dependent on economic gains dependent on market segmentation. How has the investigation considered the effect of COVID-19/2020 economic slowdown? Marketresearch.biz investigators have conducted an extraordinary survey and associated with sentiment leaders and industry specialists from various districts to completely comprehend the effect on development just as nearby changes to battle the circumstance. An uncommon section in the investigation presents the worldwide Biochar market impact analysis of COVID-19 alongside outlines and diagrams identified with different countries and portions demonstrating the effect on development patterns. Understand the influence of COVID-19 on the Biochar Market with our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe. STAY AT HOME | STAY SAFE • The Purpose of This Report: The purpose behind Biochar report is to offer sifted through market responses for market players for shrewd decision checking. The report unites market size, designs, subtleties of business ask about and basically more. It also offers an examination of worldwide and neighborhood information, a 360-degree perspective available that joins evident figures, focused scene, expansive division, key models, and key proposals. Market Summary: The worldwide Biochar market report is a far reaching study that includes top producers, prospective market share, income, purchaser volume regarding managing volume and global division for the Biochar business. The report further incorporates market characterization and definitions, item and industry review, fabricating particulars and cost structure, included crude materials, etc. Market Segmentation: The Biochar report follows an amassed research methodology that depends on long stretches of experience joined with organized information focuses procured from exclusive sources. These techniques work with careful research and investigation split among essential and optional research joined with an in-house information wrangling process. As a rule, the information focuses are accumulated from an assortment of sources, for example, seller projections, product list, look into papers and a detailed rundown of manufacturers. The investigation is than determined into quantitative market esteems, for example, subjective and quantitative characteristics, market conjecture models, market divisions and plans of action that rotate around the Biochar business. By technology: Pyrolysis Gasification Hydrothermal Others By application: Agriculture Water & waste water treatment Others • Key Assessments: – There are various sorts of evaluations finished in Biochar report to separate the pressing business sector nuances and survey market opportunities. These examinations are – Primary and Secondary assessment. These are accumulated through industry diaries, government bodies and accomplices. Furthermore, for auxiliary research, industry authorities are counseled. – Qualitative and quantitative assessment – Feasibility examination, Porter’s Five Forces investigation – SWOT Analysis highlights quality, weakness, opportunities and dangers of Biochar. Moreover, the Biochar market report explains the market division dependent on different parameters and traits that can be grouped on land locale, item types and market applications. • Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Table of Contents Section 1 Biochar Product Definition Section 2 Global Biochar Market Manufacturer Share and Market Overview 2.1 Global Manufacturer Biochar Shipments 2.2 Global Manufacturer Biochar Business Revenue 2.3 Global Biochar Market Overview Section 3 Manufacturer Biochar Business Introduction Section 4 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Region Level) Section 5 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Product Type Level) 5.1 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Product Type Level) Market Size 2014-2019 5.2 Different Biochar Product Type Price 2014-2019 5.3 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Product Type Level) Analysis Section 6 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Industry Level) 6.1 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Industry Level) Market Size 2014-2019 6.2 Different Industry Price 2014-2019 6.3 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Industry Level) Analysis Section 7 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Channel Level) 7.1 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Channel Level) Sales Volume and Share 2014-2019 7.2 Global Biochar Market Segmentation (Channel Level) Analysis Section 8 Biochar Market Forecast 2019-2024 8.1 Biochar Segmentation Market Forecast (Region Level) 8.2 Biochar Segmentation Market Forecast (Product Type Level) 8.3 Biochar Segmentation Market Forecast (Industry Level) 8.4 Biochar Segmentation Market Forecast (Channel Level) Section 9 Biochar Segmentation Product Type Section 10 Biochar Segmentation Industry Section 11 Biochar Cost of Production Analysis 11.1 Raw Material Cost Analysis 11.2 Technology Cost Analysis 11.3 Labor Cost Analysis 11.4 Cost Overview …. And More,Click here to more detilas! Motivations To Buy: Market division investigation including subjective and quantitative research consolidating the effect of monetary and non-financial perspectives Breaking down the viewpoint of the market with the ongoing patterns and SWOT examination Market elements situation, alongside development chances of the market in the years to come Local and nation level investigation incorporating the interest and supply powers that are impacting the development of the market. Market esteem (USD Million) and volume (Units Million) information for each section and sub-segment Extensive organization profiles covering the item contributions, key monetary data, ongoing turns of events, SWOT examination, and techniques utilized by the significant market players Competitive landscape including the piece of the overall industry of significant players, alongside the new ventures and techniques received by players in the previous five years Contact Us: Mr. Benni Johnson ([email protected]) MarketResearch.Biz (Powered By Prudour Pvt. Ltd.) 420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 300 New York City, NY 10170, United States Website: https://marketresearch.biz ## Chemically-Activated Biochar from Ricinus communis L. Cake and Their Potential Applications for … 1 May, 2020 Biochar is a rich-carbon material highly functionalized, which allows the use as electrodes modifier for preconcentration and voltammetric determination of several species. This work describes a castor cake biochar production and chemical activation with different reaction conditions using HNO3 and/or H2O2. Biochar samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman and zeta potential. Carbon paste modified electrodes (CPME) have been constructed using different biochar samples to evaluate the adsorptive capacity for the spontaneous preconcentration and voltammetric determination of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions, paraquat and methyl parathion pesticides. The activation treatments promoted modifications in the elemental, morphological and structural biochar characteristics. Activated biochar CPMEs showed increase in the current signal around 15 and 2.5 times higher than unmodified and precursor biochar electrode, respectively. N2 sample (HNO3, 60 °C for 3.0 h) presented the better response signals for all compounds. This was attributed to the more effective surface oxidation, promoting a high porosity, acid character and amount of acid functional groups. Besides that, this greater analytical response allows the CPME-N2 application as a passive sampler for the voltammetric determination of inorganic and organic contaminants for environmental management in aqueous matrices. Keywords: activated biochar; spontaneous preconcentration; voltammetric detection; inorganic and organic contaminants; environmental remediation Anthropogenic activities produce an elevate amounts of toxic organic and inorganic compounds in the environment, mainly in aqueous effluents.1 These compounds result in the contamination of other ecosystems and affecting human health.2 In order to minimize the effect of these contaminants, materials sorbents have been evaluated for sorption and/or retention of inorganic and organic contaminants promoting the removal/immobilization of them from soils and aqueous matrices.35 Biochar is a rich-carbon material highly functionalized obtained by pyrolysis of biomass (vegetable or animal) at controlled temperatures between 300 and 1000 °C, under oxygen limited condition.6 This material is extensively used for environmental management, such as soil amendment, carbon sequestration and soil/water remediation.7,8 Several feedstock can be used for biochar preparation, but industrial and agricultural wastes stand out because they allow the reuse of these materials.9,10 Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a tropical oilseed that has a large oil amount in the seeds.11 Castor seeds are widely used for the extraction of a non-edible oil rich in ricinoleic acid amount, which makes this oil extraction economically advantageous. The use of castor bean polyurethane is already reported as electrode modifiers for the preconcentration of polar and non-polar species.12 The production of castor derivates generate a large amount of waste, which often it does not have an adequate destination. The production of biochar is an excellent alternative for managing wastes since that is simple and low cost process, eco-friendly, sustainable and there are a wide range of applications.13 In order to improve the performance of the biochar towards preconcentration of organic and inorganic compounds, activation treatments can promote an increase of surface functional groups. For this, different strategies can be employed for biochar activation based on physical or/and chemical process.14 Chemical activation is based on formation of functional groups at carbonaceous surface by use of chemical agents such as nitric acid,15 sodium hydroxide,16 hydrogen peroxide,17 hydrochloric acid,18 sulfuric acid,19 potassium permanganate20 and others as reported by several authors.21,22 Besides of agricultural use of biochar, several papers2326 describing its use for construction of voltammetric sensors have been recently reported. These electroanalytical methods are based on spontaneous sorption ability of high functionalized biochar surface for organic and inorganic species. In present paper the preparation and an understanding characterization of biochar chemically activated by HNO3 and/or H2O2 were performed. Different experimental conditions were studied to evaluate the influence of chemical treatment on morphological and structural characteristics of biochar. The activated biochar was used for the construction of carbon paste electrodes and evaluated towards inorganic (Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+) and organic species (paraquat and methyl parathion) using a simple, low cost and effective voltammetric approach. Solutions were prepared with deionized water by a Millipore Milli-Q® system (Burlington, USA). All the reagents were of analytical grade and were used without further purification. Graphite and mineral oil used for electrodes construction, paraquat and methyl parathion pesticides were acquired from Sigma-Aldrich® (São Paulo, Brazil). Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions stock solutions were prepared from Merck® (Darmstadt, Germany) standard. Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide from Neon (Suzano, Brazil) were used as oxidant agents. Hydrochloric acid was obtained from F. Maia® (Belo Horizonte, Brazil). Sodium acetate (J.T. Baker®, Phillipsburg, USA) solution was used as supporting electrolyte, and glacial acetic acid (Isofar®, Duque de Caxias, Brazil) was used to pH adjust. The preparation of precursor biochar sample was carried out with castor cake biomass obtained from tailings industries in the production of vegetable oil, and which is already used in the biochar production.27 For this, biomass was macerated using a ball mill and particle size was homogenized with granulometry between 40 and 80 mesh. The samples were submitted to the pyrolysis process under controlled conditions, which were: residence time of 60 min, heating rate of 5 °C min−1 and final temperature of 400 °C. These conditions were chosen because they presented satisfactory results for the voltammetric evaluation, using electrodes modified with biochar.28 After the pyrolysis step, the precursor biochar sample (BC) was submitted to different surface treatment processes by chemical activation (Table 1), aiming to increase the amount of surface functional groups and consequently the improvement of the adsorptive capacity of the preconcentration. For this, 50 mL of the oxidizing agent solution, HNO3 and/or H2O2, were added to 1.0 g of precursor biochar. The dispersions were placed in a reflux system, under constant stirring, employing different temperature conditions and reflux time.2931 The mixture was filtered, washed with distilled water, oven dried at 100 °C for 24 h, and stored for further use as electrode modifier. Precursor and activated biochar samples were characterized by structural and morphological techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), estimation of the number of acid groups by Boehm titration method, Raman spectroscopy and zeta potential (ZP). SEM images were obtained using a JEOL® (Tokyo, Japan) JSM-6360LV scanning microscope. Semi-quantitative elemental composition of samples was estimated by EDS analyses using a Thermo model 200 spectroscope (Abingdon, England) with a resolution of 131 eV coupled to the scanning microscope. TGA was conducted in a Netzsch® (Selb, Germany) STA 449F3 thermal analyzer with nitrogen atmosphere (gas flow of 100 mL min-1). Approximately 10 mg of samples were used. The heating rate of 5.0 °C min−1, until 1000 °C was performed. For FTIR measurements 1.0% (m/m) of each biochar sample was homogenized with potassium bromide (KBr) and pressed to obtain a pellet. The pellets were analyzed in a BOMEM® (Quebec, Canada) MB100 spectrophotometer, in the region from 4000 to 400 cm−1, for obtaining information about the functional groups present on the biochar surface. Raman spectroscopy analyses were also carried out using a Witec® (Ulm, Germany) Alpha 300R Raman microscope equipped with a 532 nm laser with a power of 1.5 mW. The acid groups estimation was performed by potentiometric titrations using the method proposed by Boehm.32 Total acids groups (carboxylic, phenolic and lactonic) were quantified through retro-titration procedure using NaOH to neutralize the acid groups. Initially, 50 mg of biochar were solubilized in 5.0 mL of standardized base (0.10 mol L−1 NaOH). The mixture was kept under constant stirring for 24 h and then filtered. To the filtrate was added an excess of 0.10 mol L−1 HCl (10 mL). Titration was performed using 0.10 mol L−1 NaOH as titrant solution and using a Metrohm® (Utrecht, Netherlands) Titrino Plus titrator. ZP analysis was performed using biochar samples dried at 105 °C for 24 h. A portion of 5.0 mg of each sample was shaken in 50 mL of 0.01 mol L−1 KCl solution, using a shaking incubator at 150 rpm, for 24 h. Solutions of 0.01 mol L−1 HCl and NaOH were added every 200 s to vary the pH values between 3.0 and 8.0. Analyses were performed in a Microtrac Stabino® (Montgomeryville, USA) Particle Charge Mapping titrator. Biochar samples were used for preparation of carbon paste modified electrodes (CPME) aiming to investigate their preconcentration capacity of different electroactive species. For this, electrodes were manufactured using 25% (m/m) mineral oil, 60% (m/m) powder graphite and 15% (m/m) biochar (activated and pristine). Unmodified electrodes (CPE) were also prepared in a proportion of 25 and 75% (m/m) of mineral oil and graphite, respectively. The components were manually homogenized, and the paste formed was compacted in an electrode plastic support of 3.0 mm in diameter and using a copper rod as electrical contact (Figure S1, Supplementary Information (SI) section). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurements were performed using a Metrohm® Autolab potentiostat/galvanostat, managed by NOVA 1.10.5 software, and a conventional electrochemical cell composed of three electrodes. Auxiliary electrode of platinum and Ag|AgCl in 3.0 mol L−1 KCl as reference electrode were used. CPE and CPME with precursor and activated biochar were used as work electrodes. Initially, measurements were carried out to evaluate the potentiality of the proposed electrodes to preconcentrate different inorganic and organic species, being these Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions, and paraquat (PQ) and methyl parathion (MP) pesticides. The experimental procedures were similar for inorganic (Figure 1a) and organic compounds (Figure 1b), according to methodologies optimized and described in previous studies.24,28,33,34 For all methodologies, procedures with three steps were used. At first, a spontaneous preconcentration step was performed in open circuit potential condition for each individual specie, in 0.10 mol L−1 sodium acetate solution, under constant stirring for 5.0 min. Preconcentration solution with adjusted pH value of 5.0 was used for metallic ions and pesticides. After preconcentration step, electrodes were introduced in the electrochemical cell, and different procedures were used to evaluated species. An additional step was performed to promote the reduction of these ions preconcentrate on surface electrode, applying a potential of −1.0 V during 120 s. Then, DPV measurements were performed aiming the monitoring of metallic ions oxidation, from −1.0 to −0.20 V for Pb2+, from −0.30 to 0.30 V for Cd2+ and from −1.1 to −0.50 V for Cu2+, following the conditions: pulse amplitude of 100 mV, pulse time of 25 ms and scan rate of 50 mV s−1. Detection of Ni2+ was performed by the monitoring of Ni2+/Ni3+ redox reaction. At first, a conditioning step was performed to promote the oxidation of Ni2+ ions preconcentrate on electrode, applying a potential of 0.70 V during 90 s. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed in 0.01 mol L−1 KOH solution, from 0.30 to 0.70 V, with scan rate of 50 mV s−1. Pesticides were detected using the direct reduction by DPV, from −0.90 to −0.10 V for PQ and −1.1 to 0.00 V for MP. Measurements were conducted with following instrumental parameters: pulse amplitude of 25 mV, pulse time of 25 ms and scan rate of 50 mV s−1. The last step performed was the electrode cleaning. For metallic ions, the electrode was put in 0.10 mol L−1 HCl solution, under stirring for 5.0 min. For pesticides, the electrode surface was renewed by paper polishing. Representative SEM images were obtained with 2000 times magnification to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the biochar samples before and after chemical treatment (Figure 2). Some morphological variations between the activated biochar samples were observed. Samples treated with HNO3 (N1-N5, Figures 2a2e) exhibited more significant morphological alteration in comparison to biochar pristine (Figure S2, SI section) or treated with H2O2. These results can be explained since that HNO3 is a more effective oxidant when compared to H2O2 and promotes greater alteration of biochar surface. No significant alteration of morphology was observed for biochar treated with H2O2 (H1 and H2, Figures 2g2h). In addition, it can be noted that the NH sample (Figure 2f) treated with a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2 also did not show significant morphological differences, compared to HNO3 treated samples. Stavropoulos et al.35 evaluated the influence of HNO3 treatment on activated carbonaceous surface structures and described that chemical treatment had erosive effects on biochar structure. Other authors 20,29 also suggest that these effects could be related to the introduction of functional groups in biochar surface pores. In this sense, porosity and surface area of precursor and N2 activated biochar samples were studied by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method in comparison to precursor biochar, in a previous work.33 It was observed the increase of surface area and a slight increase in volume and diameter of mesopores after activated treatment. Thus, this behavior can be explained by the opening of pores and/or of microchannels structures by the chemical treatment, and the generation of functional groups in the biochar. Figure 3 shows EDS spectra obtained for the precursor biochar sample in the range of 0.10 to 2.0 keV and for the chemically activated biochar samples between 0.10 and 2.0 keV. EDS spectra of precursor biochar sample (Figure 3a) shows peaks denoting the existence of characteristic elements of this carbonaceous material. The process of obtaining the biochar (pyrolysis) promotes the incomplete combustion of the biomass, thereby some compounds can be formed and others degraded.27 Thus, both compounds and their content in the biochar can be varied according to the biomass used and the pyrolysis conditions.8 Pyrolyzed material presented a significant carbon content, and a decrease in oxygen content, as compared to castor cake biomass.28 Parallel to this, an increase in nitrogen content was observed and can be explained by its incorporation into structures of the material that is heat resistant and non-volatile.36,37 Mineral compounds, such as magnesium, silicon, sulfur, potassium and calcium, are also commonly found in the product of pyrolysis, and are derived from the raw material used.1 The presence of the peak relative to aluminum comes from the sample holder used for measurements. EDS spectra for activated biochar samples (Figure 3b) peaks (normalized) of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, aluminum and silicon were observed. It is possible that other elements previously observed for the precursor sample may have been removed by the action of surface chemical treatments. Some authors suggest that HNO3 can promote the release of ions present in biochar. The H+ ions are able to displace cations and/or solubilize compounds that are originally present on the biochar surface.38 Analyzing the semi-quantitative composition obtained by EDS analyses it was observed variations in the chemical composition after the activation process. Among these, the decrease of the carbon content of the activated samples in comparison to the precursor biochar, which may have been caused by the mineralization of the carbonaceous matrix.39 However, the samples submitted to H2O2 treatment showed an increase in carbon content. The increase in carbon content may be associated with the organic matter remaining in the biochar samples after activation.20 Another variation was the increase of the oxygen contents observed for all activated biochar samples. Nitrate ions in acid treatment are good oxidizing agents and promote the oxidation of the biochar surface, leading to the hydroxylic and carboxylic groups formation, which increases the oxygen content. However, the increase of the nitrogen content can be related to the formation of nitro groups, formed by the oxidation of amine groups, or to the adsorption of nitrate ions on the surface of the materials for the treatments with HNO3.35 It should be noted that the sample N2 (treated with HNO3, during 3.0 h at 60 °C) presented the highest elemental variations. For samples H1 and H2, treated with H2O2, changes in elemental composition were not significant, which agrees with reports in the literature,29 and this can be related to the fact that this treatment is less aggressive compared to HNO3. In order to obtain information about the biochar thermal behavior before and after activation treatments, TGA analyses were performed providing results based on mass variation of the samples (Figure S3, SI section). For castor cake biomass sample (not pyrolyzed), two thermal processes were observed. The first weight loss of 48.5% at temperature of 310 °C was attributed to hemicellulose degradation. Between 200 and 300 °C the decomposition of hydroxyls and carboxylic groups also can be verified.8 Up to 400 °C the decomposition of carbohydrates and/or aliphatic compounds occurs.40 The second process was observed at 477 °C with a weight loss of 34.4%, from cellulosic and aromatic compounds decomposition. Above 600 °C weight losses can be correlated to recalcitrant structures thermally.41 In addition, the loss of water remaining in the carbonaceous material can be observed from 105 to 200 °C. Table 2 shows that for both pristine and activated biochar samples only one thermal process related to cellulosic compounds degradation was observed. Lignin degradation occurs slowly to a temperature of 900 °C. For precursor biochar sample it was observed a weight loss of 69.4% at 417 °C. After, the chemical treatment samples have presented an increase in the weight loss compared to this sample. Some authors42,43 suggest that these weight losses can be mainly associated with the decomposition of carboxylic acid groups (-COOH) and other oxygen groups present in activated samples. This means that the chemical treatments influence in the biochar decomposition. In addition, a displacement in the thermal processes to higher temperatures was observed for the activated samples compared to the BC sample. Samples treated with H2O2 presented a lower variation in relation to this thermal process wherein was registered at 440 and 439 °C, with weight losses of 83.0 and 79.3% for samples H1 (refluxing time = 1.0 h) and H2 (refluxing time of 2.0 h), respectively. On the other hand, samples treated with HNO3 showed a higher displacement of the peaks for this process, registered above 490 °C and with weight losses between 86 and 92%. Inyang et al.44 also obtained materials with greater thermal stability after hickory and sugarcane bagasse biochar activation treatments. The authors recorded displacements in weight loss peaks between 350 and 500 °C with a weight loss of 70 to 80%. Thus, the results obtained may indicate the increase of more difficult structures to be degraded, i.e., more recalcitrant materials after biochar activation treatments. aTotal acid groups values reported in a previous work.34 EC: electrical conductivity; ZP: zeta potential; TGA/DTG: thermogravimetric analysis/derivative thermogravimetry; IEP: isoelectric point; T: temperature; ID/IG: ratio between the intensities of bands D and G; BC: precursor biochar sample; N1-N5: samples treated with HNO3; NH: sample treated with a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2; H1-H2: samples treated with H2O2. Results obtained by pH and EC measurements are presented in Table 2. All biochar samples presented an acidic character. Precursor biochar presented a pH of 6.0 and a decrease was observed for activated samples. After activation treatment oxygenated functional groups (e.g., carboxylic acid) are yield on the surface biochar causing the decrease in pH values. Considering that HNO3 is a stronger oxidant agent when compared to H2O2 these results are expected. The N2 sample treated with HNO3 at 60 °C for 3.0 h has shown the lowest pH value. In addition, this sample also presented a higher EC in comparison to the other activated samples. This behavior can be related to the more functional groups present in surface of this sample. Estupiñan et al.29 showed that coconut shell activated biochar samples showed a high increase of acidity for HNO3 than H2O2 treated samples, compared to precursor material. These results were correlated with the increase of oxygen functional groups, following the order: HNO3 > H2O2 > precursor. In the present paper, precursor material (BC) presented the highest EC in comparison to the all activated materials. This can be explained because of its higher amount of minerals, such as silicates, carbonates and phosphates, as observed by EDS analysis. For BC sample, a high EC can affect the adsorption efficiency by the competition of the substance of interest with these minerals adsorbed superficially, as also reported by other authors.45,46 On the other hand, the samples submitted to the activation treatments showed a decrease of EC, as expected. In this case, samples treated with H2O2 showed the lowest EC values in comparison to samples treated with HNO3. This last treatment can generate more quantity of functional groups on biochar surface, which can promote the increase of EC due to the presence of these groups. ZP is related to particle surface charge and was used to predict the sorption characteristics of biochar samples. The ZP measured for biochar samples varied from 35 to -39 mV in the pH range from 3.0 to 8.0, as presented in Figure 4. The ZP decrease with the pH increase can be due to the adsorption of OH, Cl, or other anions present in the solution at the biochar surface.47 For all evaluated samples, ZP values became more negative with pH increase. Precursor biochar showed a ZP less electronegative from 20.4 to -2.28 mV, in comparison to activated biochar samples. The ZP obtained for activated samples (N1, N3, N4, N5, NH, H1 and H2) were nearly similar. Whereas N2 biochar sample presented ZP values significantly more electronegative, from 34.8 to -38.4 mV, compared to all other samples for any pH evaluated. This indicates that N2 sample presents a greater amount of negatively charged on surface than other biochar samples. In addition, particles with higher ZP values (positive or negative) are considered more stable. Typically, to characterize the electrostatic stabilization, minimum ZP values above ± 30 mV are desirable.48 Based on this, N2 biochar sample can be considered more stable in comparison to the other samples. Similar results were reported by Li et al.,49 biochar samples treated with HNO3 have showed more negative ZP values when compared to biochar untreated. The authors suggest that this behavior is due to the large amounts of oxygen-containing functional groups as −COOH, −COH and −OH on the activated biochar surface. The isoelectric points (IEP) of biochar samples were determined from the pH versus ZP plot. IEP can be related to pH values at which the ZP is zero and represents the external surface charges of the biochar. The functional groups charge may vary depending on the solution pH, affecting the sorption capacity.50 However, the higher sorption is observed at values close to the IEP. IEP values from 4.98 to 7.31 were obtained for precursor and activated biochar samples, as presented on Table 2. The results indicated that the biochar surface charges were negative above determined IEP values, as expected. Precursor biochar showed the higher IEP of 7.31, whereas activated biochar samples showed lower values between 4.98 and 6.44. The higher IEP can be an indicative of low amount of surface functional groups. Decrease of IEP values suggests that activation treatments employed were effective to the increase of functional groups at biochar. Thus, this study allowed predicting that the samples with lower IEP value probably will have higher adsorption capacity at this pH, above these values the sorption capacity decreases. The pH of preconcentration solutions was adjusted with these pH values, for spontaneous preconcentration of respective species in biochar samples, following by the voltammetric determinations. Raman spectra in the region between 200 and 3000 cm−1 were obtained in order to evaluate the degree of disorder of biochar samples (Figure S4, SI section). It was possible to observe the G and D bands in 1570 and 1350 cm−1, respectively. The G band is associated with the stretching of carbon atoms with sp2 bonds and provides information about the degree of graphitization of the sample. The D band is formed by vibrational forms that become active when there are defects and functionalities, as -OH and -COOH groups, in the hexagonal planes of these structures.51,52 Thus, the D and G bands were correlated to obtain the ratio between the bands intensities (ID/IG), representative of the biochar defects amount (Table 2). Precursor biochar sample (BC) showed ID/IG ratio of 1.05, and for all biochar samples after chemical activation an increase compared with this value was found, related with the increase of surface functional groups. However, N3, N4 and N5 (HNO3 treatment), H1 and H2 samples (H2O2 treatment) exhibited a slight increase of this ratio, from 1.11 to 1.16. N1, N2 and NH samples presented higher values of ID/IG of 1.20, 1.30 and 1.24, respectively. In comparison, Inyang et al.44 obtained an increase of ID/IG ratio with sugarcane bagasse and hickory chips biochar samples treated with 1.0% (m/m) carbon nanotubes (stirred for 1.0 h). ID/IG ratio values from 1.12 to 1.28 and from 1.11 to 1.30 were obtained for the respective samples, before and after activations. Jiang et al.53 also reported a slight increase from 1.05 to 1.18 after the activation of red cedar wood biochar using 0.50 mol L−1 HNO3 (overnight, at room temperature). Thus, this increase may mean that the activated material had a higher proportion of surface functional groups, or defects, compared to the precursor biochar sample. In this way, it becomes clear that the introduction of functional groups occurred on the surface of the biochar sample after the activation treatments. FTIR measurements were performed aiming to find information about the functional groups present on the surface of the biochar samples before and after the chemical activation treatments. FTIR spectra (Figure 5) indicate some structural modifications of the biochar after the activation treatments, regarding the spectral distinctions. However, all samples presented bands characteristic of the carbonaceous material. Among the bands observed, around 3400 cm−1 corresponding to the stretching of the -OH binding can be highlighted. Vibrations between 3000 and 2800 cm−1 can be attributed to C-H stretching, and the spectra of the activated biochar samples showed bands with low intensity in this region.54 The 1620 cm−1 band can be attributed to the C=C stretch of aromatic rings or the C-H deformation. Stretch C=C and folding mode -CH2, related to lignin carbohydrates of the samples, can be characterized by the band at 1430 cm−1. The region between 1400 and 1200 cm−1 can be associated with the presence of several clusters, which can lead to overlapping of peaks. However, in relation to the biochar samples, these bands can be attributed to -OH groups of phenols and carboxylic acids. The band at 1030 cm−1 can be attributed to the C−O stretch and to the O-H folding mode of phenols and carboxylic acids.55 Bands between 1000 and 900 cm−1 can be associated with the asymmetric C-O-C stretch, characteristic of cellulosic components (cellulose and lignin) still present in biochar samples.56 Finally, Si-O bonds can be suggested by the presence of the band at 464 cm−1.57 After the activation treatments, other functional groups were generated on the biochar surface. In general, the activated samples presented, among others, bands at 1710 cm−1 corresponding to the C=O stretch of carboxylic groups (-COOH). C-O stretch bands and C-O-H asymmetric stretches, both of -COOH, can be attributed to the region around 1250 cm−1.58 The formation of functional groups after biochar activation can occur in the aliphatic portion of the molecule, breaking the benzyl carbons of C-C bonds or oxidation reactions involving methylene (-CH2).59 In addition, the presence of nitro groups in the samples can be identified by the bands at 1530 and 1330 cm−1 and associated, respectively, to the symmetrical and asymmetrical stretches of the -NO2 group. This suggests that the nitration reaction may occur simultaneously with the oxidation reaction.55 The introduction of nitro groups superficially adsorbed to the biochar can occur from the nitronium ions that react with the aromatic rings of the biochar structure.60 In addition, this treatment can release ions from groups existing on the surface of the biochar, i.e., H+ ions of HNO3 can displace and/or solubilize cations that are present in the biochar. This allows more functional groups present in the activated material to be available to interact with other compounds.42 Based on the information obtained by Boehm titrations, the amount of total acid groups (carboxylic, phenolic and lactonic) was estimated in equivalent per gram of biochar (mEq g−1) present on the surface of the samples. For this, the samples were neutralized with NaOH, a known excess amount of HCl was added, and potentiometric titrations were performed employing standardized NaOH as titrant solution. Thus, the amounts of total acid groups were obtained by back-titration calculations (Table 2) as compared to the treatment conditions of each activated biochar sample. It can be observed that the biochar samples submitted to the surface activation/functionalization treatments presented an increase of total acidic functional groups in relation to the biochar precursor (BC), which presented a value of 5.0 mmol g−1. The treatments with HNO3 also allowed the formation of a greater amount of these groups in comparison to the treatments with H2O2. These results are consistent with other studies29,38 and may be related to the treatment conditions that the samples were subjected to, and nitric acid is an oxidant that allows the generation of more acidic oxygenated functional groups. The formation of these groups allows the material to present more active sites to interact with other compounds by different mechanisms of surface interaction.15 For these treatments, it is observed that in a higher reflux time (3.0 h) the generation of a greater amount of acid groups occurs. This is consistent, since the longer the time of contact with the acid, the greater the formation of these groups. However, for the treatment employing higher temperature (90 °C) and HNO3 75% (v/v) no significant variations of total acid groups were observed. This may suggest that the temperature did not present great influences on the biochar functionalization treatments.13 Thus, there was no need to use reflux temperatures above 60 °C using HNO3 50% as the oxidizing agent. Based on this information, we highlight the sample N2, obtained in this condition and with reflux time of 3.0 h, which presented the highest amount of formation of acid functional groups, in comparison to the other samples evaluated. To the titrations of the biochar samples obtained by H2O2 treatment, small significant variations were observed for the reaction times of 1.0 and 2.0 h, suggesting that with this oxidizing agent the reflux time did not influence the generation of functional clusters. Thus, it can be assumed that the acid groups estimated for the mixed treatment (HNO3 + H2O2) are mostly due to the use of HNO3. Thus, it was observed that the chemical treatments performed with HNO3 showed greater influence on the formation of total acid groups on the surface of the biochar. In order to evaluate the influence of different activation strategies on the biochar samples, they were evaluated as electrode modifiers for preconcentration of different species. Following inorganic and organic species were investigated: Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ metallic ions; and pesticides paraquat (PQ) and methyl parathion (MP). Figure S5 (SI section) shows the voltammograms obtained for all evaluated probes. Voltammograms obtained for Pb2+ ions (Figure S5a) showed an oxidation peak recorded at −0.61 V for CPE and at −0.55 V for both CPME (vs. Ag|AgCl 3.0 mol L-1 KCl), which is attributed to the oxidation reaction Pb0 → Pb2+ + 2e. Figure 6a presents the anodic peak current intensity (Ipa) obtained by DPV measurements performed after preconcentration of 0.10 mmol L−1 Pb2+ ions for unmodified (CPE) and biochar precursor (BC) and activated biochar modified electrodes (BC N1, N2, N3, N4, N5, NH, H1 and H2). All modified electrodes (CPME) showed higher response signal compared to CPE, which confirms that the modifications lead to an improvement of the ability of Pb2+ preconcentration. In this sense, except the H2 sample (treated with 35% H2O2 for 2.0 h), no significant response variations were observed between N1, N3, N4, N5, NH and H1 modified electrodes (Student’s statistic t-test, 95% confidence). For samples treated with H2O2 (H1 and H2), it was observed that the increase in the refluxing time (1.0 and 2.0 h, respectively) caused a slight decrease in the response signal for Pb2+ ions. Long time of chemical treatment leads to degradation of H2O2 affecting the activation of the biochar surface.17 For the electrodes constructed with the samples treated with HNO3 the increase of the refluxing temperature to 90 °C (N3 and N4 samples) and with concentration of 75% (N5 sample) were not considered determinant parameters, not showing any significant variations in the response signals. However, the reflux time of 3.0 h showed better results than the time of 1.0 h. This is due to the longer contact time of the biochar with the oxidizing agent, which increased the amount of surface functional groups, as evidenced by Boehm titration results. The best voltammetric responses were obtained using N2 biochar sample as modifier, which was treated with 50% (v/v) HNO3, at 60 °C for 3.0 h. This sample had the highest surface acid groups estimation, which corroborates the higher amount of oxygen and nitrogen contents estimated by EDS analysis. This resulted in a better voltammetric performance for other evaluated species (inorganic ions and pesticides), as noted in Figure 6b. Cyclic voltammograms performed after nickel preconcentration presented a reversible reaction (Ni2+ ⇌ Ni3+ + 1e), with anodic and cathodic peaks at 0.59 and 0.49 V, respectively (Figure S5b). DPV voltammograms showed oxidation reactions for Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions at 0.00 and −0.77 V, respectively (Figures S5c-S5d). Redox reactions for copper and cadmium were similar to proposed for lead, following the oxidation reaction involving 2 electrons: Cu0 → Cu2++ 2e and Cd0 → Cd2+ + 2e. Pesticides were evaluated by reduction peaks, both recorded at peak potential of −0.55 V (Figures S5e-S5f). PQ was monitored by the first cathodic peak, attributed to PQ2+ reduction to radical cation form (PQ•+) (reaction 1).61 The MP reversible reaction was promoted by the nitro group reduction forming hydroxylamine, as shown in the reaction 2.62 (1) (2) For all evaluated species, the most significant response was registered for CPME-N2 compared to the CPE and modified electrode with biochar precursor (CPME-BC). Signals recorded using CPME modified with activated biochar were from 13 to 17 times higher than CPE (unmodified), and between 2 and 3 times higher than CPME-BC. It is important to mention that there are several and different mechanisms proposed to explain the interactions between biochar and inorganic and organic compounds. For inorganic species, a previous work28 has revealed that the castor cake biochar interactions occur mainly by a chemisorption mechanism, following the pseudo-second order model. From ZP analysis, it is possible to verify that biochar samples present a negatively charged surface for pH > 4.98. These superficial charges allow biochar interactions with cationic species by electrostatic attraction. In addition, mechanisms relating with ion exchange and/or complexation can also occur promoting better preconcentration of species on electrode surface.63 The adsorptive capacity of biochar samples for metallic ions preconcentration followed this preference order: Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+. This behavior can be related to the ionic radius and the hydration energy of the ions. As the evaluated cations have the same oxidation state, the interaction preference increases with the lowest hydrated ionic radius.64 Pb2+ ions present a lower hydrated ionic radius in comparison to the other ions, favoring its mobility to interact with biochar functional groups. For the other ions, the interaction preference can be related to the hydration energy. These results are consistent with other studies reported in the literature,65,66 in which the lower energy promotes a greater interaction. In relation to organic species, PQ pesticide is also a cationic compound67 which may also have favored its better interaction with acid functional groups of the biochar surface, unlike the results observed for MP pesticide, which is a neutral molecule.68 MP probably binds to the biochar by a mechanism involving hydrogen interactions with the MP nitro groups. In addition, p-p-type interactions between the aromatic ring of the pesticide and the carbonaceous part of the biochar may occur, improving the CPME-N2 response signal.34,69 Thus, based on results found it was possible to verify that the chemical treatments contributed significantly to improve adsorptive capacity of biochar. This improvement can be associated with a higher quantity of defects and surface acid functional groups in the N2 sample, as evidenced by the characterization analyses. The use of activated biochar enhances the voltammetric response since it allows a high spontaneous preconcentration of organic and inorganic species. Results obtained using CPME-N2 demonstrated greater electroanalytical potential compared to the other biochar samples evaluated, emphasizing this approach for environmental remediation. Chemical activation treatments of biochar samples have showed different effect on physical and/or chemical properties of the carbonaceous surface. All activated biochar samples showed a greater preconcentration capacity for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions, paraquat and methyl parathion pesticides, compared to precursor biochar. CPME modified with biochar sample (N2, treated with 50% HNO3, 60 °C for 3.0 h) presented best results for both ions and pesticides preconcentration, which improves the voltammetric performance of the sensor. This behavior was associated to the increase of both porosity and acid functional groups of N2 sample. Carbon paste electrode is a feasible, quick, low cost and an easy-construction tool for evaluation of preconcentration features of biochar toward organic and inorganic species. Besides that, there is a possibility to use CPME-N2 as a passive sampler in field for spontaneous preconcentration and effective voltammetric determination of inorganic and organic contaminants. Supplementary information (electrodes construction, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman analysis and voltammetric characterization results) is available free of charge at http://jbcs.sbq.org.br as PDF file. This work was financed by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brasil (CAPES), Finance Code 001 (process Nos. 454594/2014-3, 402943/2016-3 and 408309/2018-0). Received: August 07, 2019; Accepted: November 19, 2019 ## Resources 1 May, 2020 Biochar is charcoal that is suitable to incorporate into soil. There are many good descriptions of how biochar works in soil and one such article is that written by Kelpie Wilson. It has been published in the Biochar Journal 2014. The characteristics of biochar are dependent on a range of parameters that include; the organic matter (feedstock) that it is made from, the maximum temperature used to make it, the time spent at that temperature, and the rate at which it reaches that temperature etc. Hence biochar characteristics can span a wide range. To provide clarity and assurance to the industry, standards have been and are being developed. To date there are two published standards and a third set in draft form. The International Biochar Initiative (IBI) have produced a set of standards and scientists in Europe have produced the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). The Australian New Zealand Biochar Initiative (ANZBI) are in the process of doing so with a draft version available on their website. While it may seem confusing to have more than one standard, this has arisen because of some minor differences in analytical procedures and legislative requirements between countries. Standards are described in the following links: The references you will find here have been selected as examples from the large volume of research conducted in this field. ## Josiah Hunt 1 May, 2020 Josiah Hunt graduated from UH Hilo in 2004 with a BS in Agroecology and Environmental Quality. From his rural home farm on the Big Island of Hawaii he has helped to pioneer methods for biochar production, processing, and application in farming systems using organic and biological approaches since 2008. ©2020 Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation | All Rights Reserved Managed WordPress Hosting by Brent Norris ## Enhanced surface activation process of persulfate by modified bagasse biochar for degradation of … 1 May, 2020 An efficient and low-cost catalyst (Ca/BS-800-KOH) was successfully prepared. Ca/BS-800-KOH showed good phenol removal rate with relatively low dose (0.066 g/L). The mechanism of PS activation by Ca/BS-800-KOH was addressed. Free and non-free radical pathways were proposed, where 1O2 plays a key role. Ca/BS-800-KOH/PS had a good application potential in organic wastewater treatment. An efficient and low-cost catalyst (Ca/BS-800-KOH) was successfully prepared. Ca/BS-800-KOH showed good phenol removal rate with relatively low dose (0.066 g/L). The mechanism of PS activation by Ca/BS-800-KOH was addressed. Free and non-free radical pathways were proposed, where 1O2 plays a key role. Ca/BS-800-KOH/PS had a good application potential in organic wastewater treatment. Carbon-based catalysis for green and sustainable degradation of phenol in water and soil has attracted extensive concern. In this study, mesoporous biochar produced by bagasse calcination with KOH and CaCl2 modified activation (Ca/BS-800-KOH) was used to stimulate persulfate (PS) for the surface oxidation degradation of phenol, which exhibited excellent removal rate of 90% in 60 min (k =0.0404 min-1) with a relatively low dosage (0.066 g/L). Compared with untreated materials (BS-800, 27% removal rate in 180 min), after KOH and CaCl2 treatment, the functional groups (C-OH), increased porosity, defective structure and the more efficient electron transfer of Ca/BS-800-KOH were probably responsible for its good adsorptive and catalytic performance, which also closely related to the inactivation of Ca/BS-800-KOH. In the (Ca/BS-800-KOH)/PS/phenol system, PS was successfully activated in the presence of catalyst, and radical and non-radical reaction pathways were firstly found, in which the non-radical pathway like 1O2 accelerated quickly the oxidative degradation of phenol. While in radical pathway involving SO4· and ·OH, ·OH was the main oxidative species and also played an irreplaceable role in the degradation of phenol. The Ca/BS-800-KOH as a medium promotes the electron transfer between phenol (electron donor) and PS (electron acceptor), in which Ca accelerates the electron transfer rate on the surface of Ca/BS-800-KOH, thereby causing oxidative degradation of phenol. The superior removal efficiencies of common environmental pollutants (all more than 93%) and phenol in water (100%) and soil samples were found. This research proposed an insightful mechanism of the low cost and feasible carbon-material-based PS-AOPs in degrading organic pollutants. ## Original Article Analysis of a compact iron ore sintering process based on agglomerated biochar … 1 May, 2020 One of the most challenging issues of the actual steelmaking industry is the mitigation of CO2 emissions. To cope with this target, the massive use of granulated biomass and fuel gas in the iron ore sintering process are a promising technological solution and can contribute to mitigating the environmental impacts of the steel plant. We focused on the development of a comprehensive computational tool to analyze and suggest new practices for the sintering process, which mitigates CO2 emissions. The modeling approach uses an integrated multiphase and multicomponent theory. New phases, chemical species and rate equations are included. The model predictions were confronted with industrial data showing good adherence. New scenarios for utilizing the combined technologies of granulated biomass and gas fuel injections are investigated. The model predictions indicated that the high performance of the process with suitable sinter quality could be achieved. The conditions for operating the sintering process with fully renewable energy resources are demonstrated and new sustainable practices are proposed. Calculated results indicated that productivity could increase 50% for the best conditions analyzed. ## J. Mater. Res. Technol. 1 May, 2020 ## Biochar 1 May, 2020 JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. PO BOX 261 Crawford, NE 69339 USA Ph: (308) 665-1566 Fx: (308) 665-1565 ## biochar rocket stove design 2 May, 2020 biochar rocket stove with hot water oven and hot plate . thermal mass rocket stove welsh biochar making water . biochar system drawing 1 stove permaculture making water . pdf product development using cfd simulation of energy . rocket stove biochar retort activated carbon oven youtube . simple diy rocket stove producing hot water food and . baja robs biochar log rocket retort rocks . rocket mass heater biochar retort google search biochar . rocket stoves vuthisa . welsh biochar making water heater improved biomass cooking . how to make a small smoke free biochar retort . reverse bbq produces biochar biochar rocket stoves . how to build a rocket stove mass water heater . horizontal rocket stove tinkers blessing . rocket works rocket stove durban south africa improved . biochar rocket stove soil carbon regeneration home . the rocket mass heater builder s guide manualzz com . portable kilns vuthisa . making biochar first stove build milkwood permaculture . make your own biochar and terra preta 5 steps instructables . © 2020 Desmon.sandy-projekt.org – All rights reserved. ## biochar rocket stove design 2 May, 2020 biochar rocket stove with hot water oven and hot plate . thermal mass rocket stove welsh biochar making water . biochar system drawing 1 stove permaculture making water . pdf product development using cfd simulation of energy . rocket stove biochar retort activated carbon oven youtube . simple diy rocket stove producing hot water food and . baja robs biochar log rocket retort rocks . rocket mass heater biochar retort google search biochar . rocket stoves vuthisa . welsh biochar making water heater improved biomass cooking . how to make a small smoke free biochar retort . reverse bbq produces biochar biochar rocket stoves . how to build a rocket stove mass water heater . horizontal rocket stove tinkers blessing . rocket works rocket stove durban south africa improved . biochar rocket stove soil carbon regeneration home . the rocket mass heater builder s guide manualzz com . portable kilns vuthisa . making biochar first stove build milkwood permaculture . make your own biochar and terra preta 5 steps instructables . © 2020 Fanase.theetowahgroup.com – All rights reserved. ## Grain size-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen concentrations and characteristics of tomato … 2 May, 2020 The production of biochar is one of the new methods used in the recycling of organic wastes. The use of biochar may increase carbon storage in the soil for longer periods of time. In this study, carbon and nitrogen contents of different sizes of tomato harvest residue biochar (TB) produced at different temperatures and holding times were determined. TB produced at five different temperatures (300, 400, 500, 600, 700 °C) and three different durations (20, 40, and 80 min) was divided into three different grain size classes (< 0.5, 0.5–2, and 2–4 mm). Total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents of each size class were examined. Production temperature significantly affected N contents of TB (p < 0.05) while changes in the C contents due to temperature were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). On the other hand, effect of TB size on C and N contents was statistically significant (p < 0.05). As TB grain size increases, BET surface area and total pore volume increased, while average pore radius decreased. The larger size of biochar (2–4 mm) demonstrated highly porous and honey-combed structures and contained both micro- and mesopores, which create a high specific surface area. It was suggested that the properties of biochar produced under the same conditions may vary according to their size and different sizes of biochar may be preferred according to the intended use. Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions BET and SEM analyses were carried out at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Science and Technology Application and Research Center (ÇOBİLTUM). This research was supported in part by a Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Suleyman Demirel University with Grant No. of 5072-S1-17. Correspondence to R. İlay. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. Editorial responsibility: M. Abbaspour. Received: 24 December 2019 Revised: 11 February 2020 Accepted: 16 April 2020 Published: 02 May 2020 Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions ## Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Growth Analysis, Forecasts to 2026 : Biogrow Limited, Biochar … 2 May, 2020 Biochar Fertilizer Market (By Major Eminent Players, Types, Applications, and Leading Regions) Segments Outlook, Business Assessment, Competition Scenario, Trends and Forecast by Upcoming Years. The study of the Biochar Fertilizer market report is done based on the noteworthy research methodology that provides the analytical inspection of the global market based on various segments the Industry is alienated into also the summary and Advance size of the marketplace owing to the various outlook possibilities. The report also gives information about the key players of the Biochar Fertilizer Industry by different features that include the Biochar Fertilizer overview of the companies, the portfolio of the product and also the revenue facts from Period of Forecast, As Well. It presents a 360-degree overview of the competitive landscape of the industries. SWOT Analysis has been used to understand the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and threats in front of the businesses. Thus, helping the companies to understand the threats and challenges in front of the businesses. Biochar Fertilizer market is showing steady growth and CAGR is expected to improve during the forecast period. Get Free Sample PDF Copy (including full TOC, Tables, and Figures) of Biochar Fertilizer Market Report @ www.syndicatemarketresearch.com/market-analysis/biochar-fertilizer-market.html#sample This Report Covers Leading Companies Associated in Worldwide Biochar Fertilizer Market: Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics LLC. Report Covers Following Questions • What are the weaknesses and strengths of the key vendors? • What are the key outcomes of the five forces analysis of the Global Biochar Fertilizer market? • What are the various threats and opportunities faced by the dealers in the Global Biochar Fertilizer market? • Who are the leading key players and what are their key business strategies in the Global Biochar Fertilizer market? Key Businesses Segmentation of Biochar Fertilizer Market: On the basis of type/product Organic Fertilizer, Inorganic Fertilizer, Compound Fertilizer On the basis of the end users/applications Cereals, Oil Crops, Fruits And Vegetables, Others Biochar Fertilizer Market Regional Analysis Includes: Asia-Pacific (China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Australia) Europe (Russia, Turkey, Italy, Germany, UK, France, etc.) North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico) South America (Argentina, Brazil, etc.) The Middle East and Africa (South Africa, GCC Countries, and Egypt) Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask Our Industry Expert@ www.syndicatemarketresearch.com/inquiry/biochar-fertilizer-market Key Highlights of the Table of Contents: Overview: Along with a broad overview of the global Biochar Fertilizer, this section gives an overview of the report to give an idea about the nature and contents of the research study. Analysis on Strategies of Leading Players: Market players can use this analysis to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors in the Biochar Fertilizer. Study on Key Market Trends: This section of the report offers a deeper analysis of the latest and future trends of the market. Market Forecasts: Buyers of the report will have access to accurate and validated estimates of the total market size in terms of value and volume. The report also provides consumption, production, sales, and other forecasts for the Biochar Fertilizer. Regional Growth Analysis: All major regions and countries have been covered in the Biochar Fertilizer report. The regional analysis will help market players to tap into unexplored regional markets, prepare specific strategies for target regions, and compare the growth of all regional markets. Segment Analysis: The report provides accurate and reliable forecasts of the market share of important segments of the Biochar Fertilizer. Market participants can use this analysis to make strategic investments in key growth pockets of the Biochar Fertilizer. For More Information Kindly Contact: Syndicate Market Research 244 Fifth Avenue, Suite N202 New York, 10001, United States +1 347 535 0815 | Email ID: sales@syndicatemarketresearch.com Website: www.syndicatemarketresearch.com Follow us on Blogger @ syndicateresearchmarket.blogspot.com ## Best biochar kiln 2 May, 2020 ## Global trade impact of the Coronavirus Biochar Market Intelligence Report Includes Dynamics … 2 May, 2020 The recently published market study by MRRSE highlights the current trends that are expected to influence the dynamics of the Biochar market in the upcoming years. The report introspects the supply chain, cost structure, and recent developments pertaining to the Biochar market in the report and the impact of the COVID-19 on these facets of the market. Further, the micro and macro-economic factors that are likely to impact the growth of the Biochar market are thoroughly studied in the presented market study. According to the report, the Biochar market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~XX% during the forecast period, 20XX-20XX and attain a value of ~US$ XX by the end of 20XX. The report is a valuable source of information for investors, stakeholders, established and current market players who are vying to improve their footprint in the current Biochar market landscape amidst the global pandemic.

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Regional Assessment

The regional assessment chapter in the report offers an out and out understanding of the potential growth of the Biochar market across various geographies such as:

Application Assessment

The presented study ponders over the numerous applications of the Biochar and offers a fair assessment of the supply-demand ratio of each application including:

segmented as follows:

Global Biochar Market – Feedstock Type Analysis

Global Biochar Market – Application Analysis

Global Biochar Market – Regional Analysis

The report resolves the following doubts related to the Biochar market:

## Thermochemical Processing of Animal Manure for Bioenergy and Biochar

2 May, 2020

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## Biochar from Forest to the Farm webinar

2 May, 2020

The USDA Forest Service will hold a one-hour Biochar from Forest to the Farm webinar on May 21st at 11:00 am Eastern.

The webinar will discuss applications of biochar including animal bedding, irrigated lands, high value crops and improving forest soils. The webinar will be presented by Jim Archuleta, USDA Regional Woods Innovations Coordinator.

To take part in the webinar, go to http://www.forestrywebinars.net/webinars/biochar_forest_farm?sr=wp~mkt-whenPub

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## How Coronavirus Pandemic Will Impact Biochar Market 2020: Industry Size, Outlook, Share …

2 May, 2020

The global Biochar market study presents an all in all compilation of the historical, current and future outlook of the market as well as the factors responsible for such a growth. With SWOT analysis, the business study highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of each Biochar market player in a comprehensive way. Further, the Biochar market report emphasizes the adoption pattern of the Biochar across various industries.

The Biochar market report examines the operating pattern of each player – new product launches, partnerships, and acquisitions – has been examined in detail.

The report on the Biochar market provides a bird’s eye view of the current proceeding within the Biochar market. Further, the report also takes into account the impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Biochar market and offers a clear assessment of the projected market fluctuations during the forecast period.

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Competition Analysis
In the competitive analysis section of the report, leading as well as prominent players of the global Biochar market are broadly studied on the basis of key factors. The report offers comprehensive analysis and accurate statistics on sales by the player for the period 2015-2020. It also offers detailed analysis supported by reliable statistics on price and revenue (global level) by player for the period 2015-2020.
On the whole, the report proves to be an effective tool that players can use to gain a competitive edge over their competitors and ensure lasting success in the global Biochar market. All of the findings, data, and information provided in the report are validated and revalidated with the help of trustworthy sources. The analysts who have authored the report took a unique and industry-best research and analysis approach for an in-depth study of the global Biochar market.
The following manufacturers are covered in this report:
Cool Planet
Biochar Supreme
NextChar
Terra Char
Genesis Industries
Interra Energy
CharGrow
Pacific Biochar
Biochar Now
The Biochar Company (TBC)
ElementC6
Vega Biofuels
Biochar Breakdown Data by Type
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar
Other Stove Source Biochar
Biochar Breakdown Data by Application
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [email protected] https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2641183&source=atm

The Biochar market report offers a plethora of insights which include:

The Biochar market report answers important questions which include:

The Biochar market report considers the following years to predict the market growth:

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Why Choose Biochar Market Report?

Biochar Market Report follows a multi- disciplinary approach to extract information about various industries. Our analysts perform thorough primary and secondary research to gather data associated with the market. With modern industrial and digitalization tools, we provide avant-garde business ideas to our clients. We address clients living in across parts of the world with our 24/7 service availability.

## Michael Fallon

2 May, 2020

Michael Fallon graduated from the University of California Santa Barbara in 2004 with a BS in Molecular Biology.  Shortly thereafter he began working in the field of biotechnology as a research associate in Santa Cruz, California.  A few years later he was back in his hometown in Sonoma County for work at a winery.  After earning his JD from Taft Law School in 2014, Michael passed the California Bar Examination and began the practice of law.

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3 May, 2020

3 May, 2020

## Short term effects of biochar with different particle sizes on phosphorous availability and microbial …

3 May, 2020

The fine biochar particles resulted in significantly higher release of P at high temperature.

The fine biochar particles generally increased soil pH and available P.

High P release reduced the acid phosphatase activity.

Fine biochar particles increased soil microbial diversity.

The fine biochar particles resulted in significantly higher release of P at high temperature.

The fine biochar particles generally increased soil pH and available P.

High P release reduced the acid phosphatase activity.

Fine biochar particles increased soil microbial diversity.

Despite the increasing interest for biochar as a soil amendment, a knowledge gap remains on different particle size of biochar on soil phosphorous (P) availability and its impacts on microbial community. We hypothesized that biochar particle size and incubation temperature can significantly influence soil P availability and microbial community in subtropical acidic soil. A laboratory incubation study was established to investigate the effects of soil pH, available P and soil microbial responses to biochar addition having varying particle sizes using paddy soil and red soil under different incubation temperatures (15 °C & 25 °C). Biochar produced via pyrolysis of spent mushroom substrate feedstock was sieved into three particle sizes ((≤0.5 mm (fine), 0.5–1.0 mm (medium) and 1.0–2.0 mm (large)). The results exhibited that the fine particle biochar resulted in significantly higher release of P, soil pH, available P and bacterial species richness while simultaneously reducing the activities of phosphatase enzyme in both soils. Apprehending the impact of biochar particle size and incubation temperature, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) predicted that soil microbial communities with fine particle biochar and high incubation temperature (25 °C) clustered separately. Redundancy analysis depicted that fine particle biochar had a direct association with available P and soil pH while high incubation temperature depicted a strong affinity for microbial communities. Hence, it is suggested that fine particle biochar and high incubation temperature may provide better habitat for microorganisms compared to the other particle sizes which may be due to improved soil pH and available P. However, a long term study of different biochar particles application in subtropical acidic soil needs to be pursued further for a more comprehensive understanding on this issue.

These authors contributed equally to this work.

## Short term effects of biochar with different particle sizes on phosphorous availability and microbial …

3 May, 2020

3 May, 2020

Time-dependent evolution of Zn(II) fractions in soils remediated by wheat straw biochar1 February, 2020 •Zn(II) sorbed on WB produced

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## Granular Biochar Market Recent Development Analysis by Research 2020 Trends, Drivers …

3 May, 2020

Global Research on “Granular Biochar Market” Report Covers influencing data of production, Consumption, revenue, Gross margin, Cost, Gross, market share, and CAGR. It provides a detailed investigation of the various elements such as future trends, drivers, growth rate, future prospects of the Granular Biochar market. The research study on the world Granular Biochar market completely relies on the historical data and the current industry alongside distinct business approaches as well as accurate strategies.

Further, the report also takes into account the impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Granular Biochar market and offers a clear assessment of the projected market variations during the forecast period.

Get a Sample Copy of the Report At — https://www.industryresearch.co/enquiry/request-sample/14900698

Key Players Covered in the Report:

Request For Covid-19 Impact Sample https://www.industryresearch.co/enquiry/request-covid19/14900698

Market segment by Type, the product can be split into:

Market segment by Applications can be split into:

Granular Biochar Market Production by Regions:

The analysed data on the Granular Biochar market help you put up a brand within the industry while competing with the giants. This report provides insights into a dynamic competitive environment. It also offers a progressive viewpoint on different factors driving or restricting the market growth.

Inquire or Share Your Questions If Any Before the Purchasing This Report —https://www.industryresearch.co/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/14900698

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Granular Biochar Market:

Questions Answered in the Granular Biochar Market Report:

Granular Biochar Market TOC Covers the Following Points:

1 Study Coverage

1.1 Granular Biochar Product Introduction

1.2 Key Market Segments in This Study

1.3 Key Manufacturers Covered

1.4 Market by Type

1.5 Market by Application

1.6 Study Objectives

1.7 Years Considered

2 Executive Summary

2.1 Global Granular Biochar Production

2.2 Granular Biochar Market Growth Rate (CAGR) 2019-2025

2.3 Analysis of Competitive Landscape

2.4 Market Drivers, Trends and Issues

3 Granular Biochar Market Size by Manufacturers

3.1 Granular Biochar Production by Manufacturers

3.2 Granular Biochar Revenue by Manufacturers

3.3 Granular Biochar Price by Manufacturers

3.4 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans

4 Granular Biochar Production by Regions

4.1 Global Granular Biochar Production by Regions

4.1.1 Global Granular Biochar Production Market Share by Regions

4.1.2 Global Granular Biochar Revenue Market Share by Regions

4.2 North America

4.3 Europe

4.4 China

4.5 Japan

4.6 India

5 Granular Biochar Consumption by Regions

5.1 Global Granular Biochar Consumption by Regions

5.1.1 Global Granular Biochar Consumption by Regions

5.1.2 Global Granular Biochar Consumption Market Share by Regions

6 Market Size by Type

6.1 Global Granular Biochar Breakdown Dada by Type

6.2 Global Granular Biochar Revenue by Type

6.3 Granular Biochar Price by Type

7 Market Size by Application

7.1 Overview

7.2 Global Granular Biochar Breakdown Dada by Application

7.2.1 Global Granular Biochar Consumption by Application

7.2.2 Global Granular Biochar Consumption Market Share by Application (2014-2019)

Name: Ajay More

Phone: US +14242530807/ UK +44 20 3239 8187

Email: [email protected]

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3 May, 2020

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3 May, 2020

## Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on Fine Biochar Powder Volume Forecast and Value Chain Analysis …

3 May, 2020

The report on the Fine Biochar Powder market provides a bird’s eye view of the current proceeding within the Fine Biochar Powder market. Further, the report also takes into account the impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Fine Biochar Powder market and offers a clear assessment of the projected market fluctuations during the forecast period. The different factors that are likely to impact the overall dynamics of the Fine Biochar Powder market over the forecast period (2019-2029) including the current trends, growth opportunities, restraining factors, and more are discussed in detail in the market study.

For top companies in United States, European Union and China, this report investigates and analyzes the production, value, price, market share and growth rate for the top manufacturers, key data from 2019 to 2025.

The Fine Biochar Powder market report firstly introduced the basics: definitions, classifications, applications and market overview; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures, raw materials and so on. Then it analyzed the world’s main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, supply, demand and market growth rate and forecast etc. In the end, the Fine Biochar Powder market report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis.

Get Free Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Market Report @ https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2633479&source=atm

The major players profiled in this Fine Biochar Powder market report include:

Market Segment Analysis
The research report includes specific segments by Type and by Application. This study provides information about the sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of 2015 to 2026. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.
Segment by Type, the Fine Biochar Powder market is segmented into
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Source Biochar
Wheat Source Biochar
Others

Segment by Application
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

Global Fine Biochar Powder Market: Regional Analysis
The Fine Biochar Powder market is analysed and market size information is provided by regions (countries). The report includes country-wise and region-wise market size for the period 2015-2026. It also includes market size and forecast by Type and by Application segment in terms of sales and revenue for the period 2015-2026.
The key regions covered in the Fine Biochar Powder market report are:
North America
U.S.
Europe
Germany
France
U.K.
Italy
Russia
Asia-Pacific
China
Japan
South Korea
India
Australia
Taiwan
Indonesia
Thailand
Malaysia
Philippines
Vietnam
Latin America
Mexico
Brazil
Argentina
Middle East & Africa
Turkey
Saudi Arabia
U.A.E
Global Fine Biochar Powder Market: Competitive Analysis
This section of the report identifies various key manufacturers of the market. It helps the reader understand the strategies and collaborations that players are focusing on combat competition in the market. The comprehensive report provides a significant microscopic look at the market. The reader can identify the footprints of the manufacturers by knowing about the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and sales by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2015 to 2019.
The major players in global Fine Biochar Powder market include:
Diacarbon Energy
Agri-Tech Producers
Biochar Now
Carbon Gold
Kina
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
ElementC6
BioChar Products
BlackCarbon
Cool Planet
Carbon Terra

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Key Market Related Questions Addressed in the Report:

Important Information that can be extracted from the Report:

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## Review on sustainable production of biochar through hydrothermal liquefaction

3 May, 2020

Generate a file for use with external citation management software.

This review examines in detail the production and characteristics of biochar resulting from hydrothermal liquefaction. Specifically, the impact of feedstocks and different process parameters on the properties and yield of biochar by hydrothermal liquefaction has been thoroughly studied. Hydrothermal liquefaction derived biochars, relative to biochars from high-temperature thermochemical processes retain critical functional groups during carbonization and are therefore promising for a wide range of applications. Most of the review’s efforts are to study possible hydrothermal liquefaction biochar applications in various fields, including fuel, metal and dye adsorption, pollutant reduction, animal feed, and biogas catalyst. The feasibility of biochar through the hydrothermal liquefaction process has been analysed via life-cycle assessment and energy evaluation. The article concludes with a brief discussion on possible issues and strategies for the sustainable development of hydrothermal liquefaction-based biochar.

Adsorption; Bio-oil; Biochar; Catalyst; Hydrothermal liquefaction

Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

## Aminet Market Reports – Page 5489

3 May, 2020

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## Global Biochar Fertilizer Market's Growth Trajectory Catalyzed by COVID-19 Pandemic; Growth to …

3 May, 2020

Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Growth Projection

The new report on the global Biochar Fertilizer market is an extensive study on the overall prospects of the Biochar Fertilizer market over the assessment period. Further, the report provides a thorough understanding of the key dynamics of the Biochar Fertilizer market including the current trends, opportunities, drivers, and restraints. The report introspects the micro and macro-economic factors that are expected to nurture the growth of the Biochar Fertilizer market in the upcoming years and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Biochar Fertilizer . In addition, the report offers valuable insights pertaining to the supply chain challenges market players are likely to face in the upcoming months and solutions to tackle the same.

The report suggests that the global Biochar Fertilizer market is projected to reach a value of ~US$XX by the end of 2029 and grow at a CAGR of ~XX% through the forecast period (2019-2029). The key indicators such as the year-on-year (Y-o-Y) growth and CAGR growth of the Biochar Fertilizer market are discussed in detail in the presented report. This data is likely to provide readers an understanding of qualitative and quantitative growth prospects of the Biochar Fertilizer market over the considered assessment period. Get Free Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Market Report @ https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2619858&source=atm The report clarifies the following doubts related to the Biochar Fertilizer market: Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [email protected] https://www.researchmoz.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2619858&source=atm Segmentation of the Biochar Fertilizer Market The following manufacturers are covered: Biogrow Limited Biochar Farms Anulekh GreenBack Carbon Fertilizer Global Harvest Organics Segment by Regions North America Europe China Japan Segment by Type Organic Fertilizer Inorganic Fertilizer Compound Fertilizer Segment by Application Cereals Oil Crops Fruits and Vegetables Others You can Buy This Report from Here @ https://www.researchmoz.com/checkout?rep_id=2619858&licType=S&source=atm Vital Information Enclosed in the Report ## Effect of biochar and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on growth and phosphorus uptake by maize … 4 May, 2020 ## charcoal making oven design 4 May, 2020 51 best biochar charcoal kilns images making charcoal . 51 best biochar charcoal kilns images making charcoal . the best charcoal retort kiln in the world youtube . 50 best biochar charcoal kilns images in 2019 making . charcoal kiln design charcoalkiln com how to make your . biochar kiln google search cool stuff pinterest . permaculture maldives adam retort bio char the future . stove for sale biochar stove for sale . permaculture maldives adam retort bio char the future . cookswell energy saving jikos and charcoal ovens the . making charcoal bioenergy lists biochar mailing lists . pin by gary allen on project homemade smoker charcoal . how to make some charcoal 13 steps with pictures . charcoal kiln midi making charcoal charcoal rocket stoves . making biochar first stove build . charcoal making stove do it yourself mother earth news . renewable energy solutions kenya the kinyanjui portable . small scale charcoal production . tao charcoal burner made in thailand importfood . renewable energy solutions kenya a farmers field day . charcoal making indirect method tested by chuck 050382 . how to build a charcoal kiln large scale charcoal . wood fired pizza dough the fauxmartha . super mega charcoal grill rocket grill rocket stoves . beech charcoal oven new kid on the block . charcoal making stove do it yourself mother earth news . 50 best biochar charcoal kilns images in 2019 making . vuurvarkie braai bread oven charcoal under charcoal over . © 2020 Tosmun.praysafeconsulting.com – All rights reserved. ## Tag – Biochar Fertilizer Market share 4 May, 2020 Market Expertz has published a new report on the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market. This report gives the Biochar Fertilizer Market Profitability Analysis, raw… ## Biochar Fertilizer Market Segmentation By Qualitative And Quantitative Research Incorporating … 4 May, 2020 Market Expertz has published a new report on the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market. This report gives the Biochar Fertilizer Market Profitability Analysis, raw material and supply chain analysis, market entry tactics, recent developments & their impact on the market, prospects of Biochar Fertilizer Market, Opportunities, year-on-year growth rate, SWOT analysis, PESTEL analysis, market estimates, size, and forecast for product segments from 2020 to 2027. A detailed study of the Biochar Fertilizer market competitors and participants, alongside their market strategies, to better help the users to formulate plans of their own. The market is seen from the perspective of the potential investors and competitors, and the optimized routes to gain share in the Biochar Fertilizer global industry are also mentioned. This is the only report that is inclusive of the current effect of the coronavirus on the market and its forecasted trend. The coronavirus attack on the world economy has affected all industries, and its impacts are elucidated in-depth in the report for the Biochar Fertilizer market. Get FREE Sample Copy with TOC of the Report to understand the structure of the complete report@ https://www.marketexpertz.com/sample-enquiry-form/114012 The research report studies the market through an ROI analysis, landscape, company profile, capacity, product specifications, production value, key players market shares (2020), and its growth prospects during the forecast period. The Biochar Fertilizer market report provides detailed data to mentor market key players while forming important business decisions. The study has been made with congruence to the present market scenario and the factors that act as the drivers and the restraints. This is done by our analysts and industry experts to give a better and more accurate study. Leading Biochar Fertilizer manufacturers/companies operating at both regional and global levels: Biogrow Limited Biochar Farms Anulekh GreenBack Carbon Fertilizer Global Harvest Organics The report also inspects the financial standing of the leading companies, which includes gross profit, revenue generation, sales volume, sales revenue, manufacturing cost, individual growth rate, and other financial ratios. The report offers effective guidelines and recommendations for vendors to secure a position of strength in the Biochar Fertilizer industry. The Biochar Fertilizer Market Report mentions the key geographies, market landscapes alongside the product value, revenue, volume, production, supply, demand, market growth rate, and trends, etc. This report also provides Porter’s Five Forces analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis. Order Your Copy Now (Customized report delivered as per your specific requirement) @ https://www.marketexpertz.com/checkout-form/114012 Biochar Fertilizer product types, applications, geographies, and end-user industries are the key market segments that are comprised in this study. The report speculates the prospective growth of the different market segments by studying the current market standing, performance, demand, production, sales, and growth prospects existing in the market. The segmentation included in the report is beneficial for readers to capitalize on the selection of appropriate segments for the Biochar Fertilizer sector and can help companies in deciphering the optimum business move to reach their desired business goals. In market segmentation by types of Biochar Fertilizer, the report covers- Organic Fertilizer Inorganic Fertilizer Compound Fertilizer In market segmentation by applications of the Biochar Fertilizer, the report covers the following uses- Cereals Oil Crops Fruits and Vegetables Others The report includes accurately drawn facts and figures, along with graphical representations of vital market data. The research report sheds light on the emerging market segments and significant factors influencing the growth of the industry to help investors capitalize on the existing growth opportunities. !!! Limited Time DISCOUNT Available!!! Get Your Copy at Discounted Price@ https://www.marketexpertz.com/discount-enquiry-form/114012 Geographical regions covered in this report: Major Points Covered in The Report: Read the full Research Report along with a table of contents, facts and figures, charts, graphs, etc. @ https://www.marketexpertz.com/industry-overview/biochar-fertilizer-global-market To summarize, the global Biochar Fertilizer market report studies the contemporary market to forecast the growth prospects, challenges, opportunities, risks, threats, and the trends observed in the market that can either propel or curtail the growth rate of the industry. The market factors impacting the global sector also include provincial trade policies, international trade disputes, entry barriers, and other regulatory restrictions. About Us: Planning to invest in market intelligence products or offerings on the web? Then marketexpertz has just the thing for you — reports from over 500 prominent publishers and updates on our collection daily to empower companies and individuals catch-up with the vital insights on industries operating across different geography, trends, share, size and growth rate. There’s more to what we offer to our customers. With marketexpertz you have the choice to tap into the specialized services without any additional charges. Contact Us: John Watson Head of Business Development 40 Wall St. 28th floor New York City NY 10005 United States Direct Line: +1-800-819-3052 Visit our News Site: http://newssucceed.com ## Black & Veatch wins contract for biomass-recycling pilot project in Hong Kong 4 May, 2020 Commentary Cover Story In The News Technical & Practical Equipment & Services Past Issues Sponsored Content By Mary Page Bailey | May 4, 2020 Hong Kong is embarking on a semi-research project to facilitate territory-wide recycling of woody waste material. The Environmental Protection Department (EPD) of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has appointed Black & Veatch (BV; Overland Park, Kan.) to be the Owner’s Engineer of Hong Kong’s first pilot plant for woody waste recycling. The pilot plant will have a capacity of 24 tons per day and will be constructed in EcoPark, Tuen Mun. Reducing waste is one of Hong Kong’s strategies to optimize resources and reduce landfill disposal, while supporting sustainability. Woody waste recycling is a core element of the city’s bio-waste management strategy to divert valuable biomass resource from the landfills. “Black & Veatch is ready to support Hong Kong’s sustainability visions. We have worked with a large number of utilities and government agencies on waste-to-energy projects throughout the world, and many of them involve the conversion of biomass by means of pyrolysis or gasification to energy products,” says Andy Kwok, Managing Director, Black & Veatch Asia North. “The unique aspect of this pilot project is its focus on the production of biochar-type products, which are expected to find sustainable outlets in the Hong Kong market,” says James Chan, Project Director, Black & Veatch Hong Kong. Biochar is similar to charcoal and made by burning biomass in a process called pyrolysis. Biochar improves soil fertility and captures and stores carbon dioxide safely and has even shown promise in pollutant removal. In addition, the pilot plant project will explore if biochar can be produced to meet higher quality standards for other beneficial uses. For Hong Kong’s woody waste recycling plant, the potential feedstock includes used pallets, yard wastes as well as spent bamboo scaffolds. Black & Veatch Hong Kong is tasked to review the technology, market, environmental and regulatory aspects of the project’s proposed biochar plant. It is responsible for preparing a reference design, assisting in procurement, supervising construction and commissioning, and overseeing the pilot testing. Black & Veatch is recognized recently announced an expansion of its environmental engineering services. Waste management is another way Black & Veatch supports Asia’s resource resilience and sustainability strategies. This publication contains text, graphics, images, and other content (collectively “Content”), which are for informational purposes only. Certain articles contain the author’s personal recommendations only. RELIANCE ON ANY INFORMATION SUPPLIED IN THIS PUBLICATION IS SOLELY AT YOUR OWN RISK. © 2020 Access Intelligence, LLC. – All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy ## Biochar Market Competitive Analysis and Top Profiling Forecast To 2025 | Cool Planet, Pacific … 4 May, 2020 This business report gives details about the product launches, future products, joint ventures, marketing strategy, developments, mergers and acquisitions and effect of the same on sales, marketing, promotions, revenue, import, export, and CAGR values with the analysis and estimations. Global Biochar Market research report acts as a perfect guide for actionable ideas, superior decision-making and better business strategies. Market information related to specific stock, currency, commodity and geographic region or country has also been analysed in this report. With an absolute devotion and commitment, Biochar Market business document has been provided with the best reasonable service and recommendations which can be relied upon confidently. Global biochar market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026. Download PDF Sample report @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-biochar-market Methodologies utilized to evaluate the market-: Research analysts and experts have utilized excellent market research tools such as SWOT analysis, Porter’s Five Forces analysis, PEST analysis, and Primary and Secondary research analysis to define, describe and evaluate the competitive landscape of the Biochar Market . The titled segments and sub-section of the market are illuminated below: Global Biochar Market By Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Microwave Pyrolysis, Cookstove and Others) Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household, Electricity Generation) Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Animal Manure, Forestry Waste, Biomass Plantation) Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa) Few of the major competitors currently working in the global biochar market are Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture, GreenBack Pte Ltd and others. Want Full Report? Enquire Here @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/inquire-before-buying/?dbmr=global-biochar-market · In April 2016, ICEM announced the launch of their Interactive GMS Biochar and Soil Mapping Tool. This GMS has the ability to identify the regions which is highly suitable for the production of the biochar. This also have the feature to zoom into the areas for a more deeper view · In April 2014, VEGA BIOFUELS, INC announced that they have acquired Biochar Now, LLC so that they can expand their business in United States and in other parts of the country. This acquisition will help the VEGA to produce better quality product strengthening their position in the market place Market Drivers: · Rising usage of biochar in energy production and greenhouse gas remediation is driving the market growth · Increasing consumption of biochar in livestock feed will also propel the market growth · Rising awareness about the benefits of biochar among population will also act as a driver for the market · Increasing environmental concern among population is another important factor contributing towards the growth of this market Market Restraints: · High investment cost will hamper the growth of this market · Technological barrier in remote area will also restrain the growth of this market Following are the reasons to consider this Biochar Market report: Find More Competitor in TOC with Profile Overview Share Growth Analysis @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-biochar-market Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe, MEA or Asia Pacific. About Us: Data Bridge Market Research set forth itself as an unconventional and neoteric Market research and consulting firm with unparalleled level of resilience and integrated approaches. We are determined to unearth the best market opportunities and foster efficient information for your business to thrive in the market. Data Bridge Market Research provides appropriate solutions to the complex business challenges and initiates an effortless decision-making process. Contact: US: +1 888 387 2818 UK: +44 208 089 1725 Hong Kong: +852 8192 7475 [email protected] ## Earth Day remembered with biochar for healthier soil 4 May, 2020 You don’t have permission to access this resource. Additionally, a 403 Forbidden error was encountered while trying to use an ErrorDocument to handle the request. ## Process Engineering 4 May, 2020 For more information about Senior Design Day contact: Paul D. Funkenbusch Associate Dean, Education and New Initiatives Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering Professor, Materials Science paul.funkenbusch@rochester.edu 303-309 Lattimore Hall University of Rochester P.O. Box 270076 Rochester, NY 14627 (585) 275-4151 ## Building a Better, Biobased Cat Litter 4 May, 2020 An official website of the United States government The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. By Jan Suszkiw May 4, 2020 A new biobased kitty litter from Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists could be coming to a box near you—your cat’s, that is. Instead of sodium bentonite clay, traditionally used as a clumping agent for easy disposal of cat wastes, ARS scientist Steve Vaughn and colleagues created a litter formulation made of eastern red cedar flakes, guar gum, food-grade mineral oil and other biodegradable ingredients. Vaughn’s group at ARS’ National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR) in Peoria, Illinois, are always on the lookout for new, value-added uses for agricultural commodities, including forestry products. Vaughn said that when they learned of pet owner concerns over the potential for cats to ingest some of the bentonite clay used in traditional litters, they looked for alternative materials to use, along with ways to reduce dust particles. In previous work, the researchers had experimented with litters made of dried distiller’s grains, a byproduct of corn ethanol production. This time, however, they decided to investigate the use of flakes from reclaimed eastern red cedar, whose fibers are highly absorbent and currently used in some commercial biobased cat litters. The wood also contains flea- and tick-repelling compounds called bioactive sesquiterpenes. However, Vaughn’s group saw room for improvement—namely, in getting the flakes to properly clump together and reduce the offensive odor of cat urine. To achieve the latter, the researchers used a procedure called pyrolysis to convert some of the flakes into biochar. It’s a carbon-rich, highly porous charcoal-like substance with an affinity for capturing volatile organic compounds, including 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol (MMB), the chief odor compound in cat urine (but an important territorial marker for the felines). Mindful of the dust that can accompany biochar use, the researchers lightly coated the material with food-grade mineral oil and glycerol. Their market research also showed that cat owners prefer litter formulations in which 60 percent or more of the material clumps together for easier scooping and disposal. So, they mixed in guar gum, a common food-processing and binding agent. In trials using a variety of analytical procedures, the resulting litter formulation compared as well as or better than several commercial biobased products that the researchers used. This was especially true of tests that measured reductions in dust particles of 10 microns or smaller, which have shown toxicity to mammalian cells in culture, according to Vaughn. He added that there were virtually no traces of MMB in the airspace immediately above litter boxes containing the experimental litter, thanks to the biochar’s capture of the compound. The highest all-around marks, though, went to yet another biobased litter formulation that the team had devised in previous studies—but is withholding specific details on until a patent can be secured. Meanwhile, the researchers have submitted a paper to the journal of Industrial Crops and Products describing their use of biochar in litter made of eastern red cedar flakes. They also seek an industrial partner to further explore the commercial potential of their biobased cat litter formulations, potentially opening the door to greater use of agricultural commodities in a global pet-care market valued at$269 billion in 2019.

Vaughn’s collaborators in the effort are Jill Moser, Mark Berhow, Jeffrey Byars, Sean Liu, Mike Jackson, Steve Peterson and Fred Eller—all with NCAUR.

The Agricultural Research Service is the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s chief scientific in-house research agency. Daily, ARS focuses on solutions to agricultural problems affecting America. Each dollar invested in agricultural research results in $20 of economic impact. ## Enhanced Heavy Metal Removal from Synthetic Stormwater Using Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron … 4 May, 2020 The use of biochar for removal of heavy metals from stormwater is limited due to large area requirements and inadequate removal of nutrients and heavy metals at higher initial concentrations. In this study, biochar-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron (BC-nZVI) was effectively utilized for removing heavy metals from synthetic stormwater. We performed batch adsorption and laboratory-scale column experiments to demonstrate the exceptional ability of BC-nZVI to remove heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Zn) at varying higher initial concentration range (2.5 to 60 mg L−1) compared with typical urban stormwater runoff. The batch experiment results suggested that the metal removal efficiency of BC-nZVI compared with biochar was enhanced by 43% and 57% in individual metal solution and 50% and 42% in the mixed metal solution for Cd and Zn, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities of BC-nZVI for individual metal ions increased by 97% and 40% for Cd2+ and Zn2+, respectively, compared with original biochar. A series of characterization studies based on scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller revealed the chemical and morphological features of BC-nZVI, which are responsible for the enhanced metal removal. A laboratory-scale column study mimicking the field scale revealed the metal removal efficiencies of BC-nZVI increased by 115% and 123% for Cd2+ and Zn2+, respectively, compared with unmodified biochar. The higher removal efficiencies and adsorption capacities demonstrate the potential use of BC-nZVI as a media for attenuating heavy metals in current stormwater management practices. Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions This work was supported by Nelson Foundation Grant and the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The authors would like to thank Mr. Forest Cooper for providing support in setting up some of the lab equipment related to this work. We would like to acknowledge with gratitude Ms. Sushma Priyanka Karanam for their help during the experiment. Correspondence to Mengistu Geza. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. (DOCX 47725 kb) Received: 19 December 2019 Accepted: 08 April 2020 Published: 04 May 2020 Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions ## Wood Vinegar Market Current and Future Trends 2017-2025 4 May, 2020 Pyroligneous acid, commonly known as wood vinegar, is created from wood and plant materials, using a process known as destructive distillation. The core ingredients of wood vinegar include acetone, methanol, and acetic acid, and was historically used to produce acetic acid on large scales. Currently, the scope of use of wood vinegar stretches across a large number of application segments. One of the more common uses of wood vinegar goes in animal feed. Wood vinegar is an excellent choice when it comes to organic farming, as an additive to animal feedstock as well as a pesticide and fertilizer. Several organizations are supporting the use of wood vinegar amid the growing trend of organic farming, thereby creating added demand. The industry for char generation is a supportive force behind the organic production of wood vinegar and the booming demand experienced by the former is expected to help the global wood vinegar market in general. Get Sample Copy of the Report @ https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=B&rep_id=45 Additionally, wood vinegar is a high density fluid that bears a positive perspective when it comes to transportation of large quantities, thereby falling perfectly into place within an existing agriculture infrastructure in most countries. Wood vinegar is also getting recommended more and more for human treatment against commonplace issues such as acid reflux, foul odors, and an overall promotion of good bowel and liver health. Some studies also point to the lowering of cholesterol levels through a regular consumption of wood vinegar. It is also a common remedy against external irritations and inflammations, such as those caused by contact with poison ivy. Global Wood Vinegar Market: Overview The global wood vinegar market is expected to grow at a robust pace between 2017 and 2025. While it has been around for many years now, the market has been able to gain significant pace in emerging nations across Asia Pacific as they show more dependence on the agriculture sector. Wood vinegar, also known as liquid smoke, is a byproduct of biochar or charcoal production. Obtained through carbonization it is a dark liquid and witnesses high demand due to its bactericidal effect, which in turn helps in root stimulation. In this report, TMR Research aims at identifying the market drivers and restraints that could limit growth of the global wood vinegar market between 2017 and 2025. For the purpose of the study the report covers the market based on various segments, and provides in-depth analysis of the manufacturing cost and supply chain. A detailed assessment of the investment feasibility is aimed at providing existing and new players in-depth insights into the opportunities prevalent in the global wood vinegar market. Global Wood Vinegar Market: Key Market Segments For the purpose of the study, the global wood vinegar market is segmented based on various parameters such as animal feed, agriculture, medicinal, food, and consumer products. By application, the market can be segmented into animal feed, consumer products, medicinal, agriculture, and other industrial uses such as in waste water treatment, creosote and tar production, and in the production of acetic acid. Of these, the demand from the agriculture sector is expected to report a considerable rise over the course of the forecast period. In the agriculture sector, wood vinegar is used as fertilizer and pesticide and exhibits multifunctional benefits. It is also proven useful in controlling the impact of insects on crops and when mixed with manure wood vinegar helps reducing odor. Because it facilitates cell growth and acts as a catalyst for growth of various microbes and enzymes, wood vinegar has also proven beneficial in photosynthesis. The growing knowledge of the benefits it provide is expected to help the global wood vinegar market exhibit strong growth over the course of the forecast period. Request TOC for Facts & Tables @ https://www.tmrresearch.com/sample/sample?flag=T&rep_id=45 Global Wood Vinegar Market: Regional Analysis Regionally, Asia Pacific is expected to continue exhibiting lucrative opportunities for enterprises operating in the wood vinegar market. Besides expert opinions for the region to showcase the highest CAGR, enterprises are also expected to gain from the increasing demand for biofertilizers and biopesticides in Asia Pacific. Despite opportunities witnessed in the region, the low level of awareness about the correct application of wood vinegar will continue creating bottlenecks for the market in Asia Pacific. As per TMR, the market will continue witnessing robust opportunities in developed regions. As the leading economies in North America and Europe boast a high rate of technological developments, these regions will continue exhibiting lucrative opportunities for enterprises operating in the wood vinegar market. Global Wood Vinegar Market: Vendor Landscape The report covers a detailed assessment of the prevailing vendor landscape in the market. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of the leading companies, it conducts SWOT analysis on them, which also provides insights into the threats and opportunities that these companies might witness over the course of the forecast period. Some of the most prominent companies operating in the global wood vinegar market are Canada Renewable Bioenergy Corp., ACE (Singapore) Pte Ltd, TAGROW CO., LTD. (China), Nettenergy BV (Netherlands), and Byron Biochar (Australia). About TMR Research: TMR Research is a premier provider of customized market research and consulting services to business entities keen on succeeding in today’s supercharged economic climate. Armed with an experienced, dedicated, and dynamic team of analysts, we are redefining the way our clients’ conduct business by providing them with authoritative and trusted research studies in tune with the latest methodologies and market trends. ## Hong Kong Identifies Biowaste Reuse Opportunities, Supports Sustainable Development 4 May, 2020 ## Pyrolysis pilot for green waste gets green light in Hong Kong 4 May, 2020 Global engineering firm Black & Veatch has been assigned to review the technology, market, environmental and regulatory aspects of a proposed green waste-to-biochar plant being considered by the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) of the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. A consultancy service agreement to assess environmental engineering techniques for a proposed “woody waste recycling plant” involves Black & Veatch in Hong Kong’s effort to increase the recycling rate of yard waste and wood waste. According to a news release issued by the Singapore office of Black & Veatch, it will be “the owner’s engineer of Hong Kong’s first pilot plant for woody waste recycling.” The pilot plant will have a capacity of 24 metric tons per day, says Black & Veatch. “Black & Veatch is ready to support Hong Kong’s sustainability visions,” comments says Andy Kwok, managing director of Black & Veatch Asia North. “We have worked with a large number of utilities and government agencies on waste-to-energy projects throughout the world, and many of them involve the conversion of biomass by means of pyrolysis or gasification to energy products.” Says James Chan, a project director at Black & Veatch Hong Kong, “The unique aspect of this pilot project is its focus on the production of biochar-type products, which are expected to find sustainable outlets in the Hong Kong market.” Black & Veatch describes biochar as similar to charcoal, and as being made by burning biomass in a pyrolysis process. Biochar improves soil fertility and captures and stores carbon dioxide safely, says the firm. The Hong Kong pilot plant project also will explore if biochar can be produced to meet higher quality standards for other beneficial uses, according to Black & Veatch. For Hong Kong’s woody waste recycling plant, potential feedstock includes used pallets, yard wastes and spent bamboo scaffolding. Black & Veatch says it will be responsible for preparing a reference design, assisting in procurement, supervising construction and commissioning, and then overseeing the Hong Kong pilot plant testing. The company says reducing waste is one of the Hong Kong government’s strategies to optimize resources and reduce landfill disposal, while supporting sustainability. Woody waste recycling is a core element of the city’s biowaste management strategy to divert biomass resources from landfills. Black & Veatch describes itself as an employee-owned engineering, procurement, consulting and construction company with a more than 100-year track record of innovation in sustainable infrastructure. The United States-based company was founded in 1915 and says it has been involved in more than 100 countries in “addressing the resilience and reliability of our world’s most important infrastructure assets.” The firm had revenue of$3.5 billion in 2018.

The Washington-based Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) is calling a late April ruling by the federal Surface Transportation Board (STB) “a major win for the scrap industry.” ISRI has been making a case that railroad operators had been placing “excessive demurrage charges” and providing “inconsistent rail service” to recyclers who ship by rail.

“Following a hard-fought battle, scrap recyclers won a major victory toward improving the nation’s rail network for shippers and railroads alike,” states ISRI. “In a series of decisions, the STB rebuked the railroads for unreasonable practices combined with nontransparent, inaccurate billing and an unfair dispute resolution process.”

Adds ISRI, “The decisions come after years of public comments, testimony, outreach on Capitol Hill and other advocacy efforts by ISRI and its members.

Billy Johnson, chief lobbyist for ISRI, says, “Unreasonable practices by railroads have cost the scrap recycling industry tens of millions of dollars annually, and caused interruptions in the manufacturing supply chain. ISRI and its members fought for a level playing field and to have their voices heard, and won. The recycling industry appreciates the STB providing an avenue to address our concerns and taking reasonable measures to correct the behavior of the railroads.”

Following the implementation of an operational method called precision schedule railroading (PSR) at the start of 2019 by several Class 1 railroads, shippers began facing increased demurrage charges “hundreds of times larger than in previous years,” says ISRI. (Class 1 railroads operating in the United States include BNSF Railway Co., CSX Transportation, Grand Trunk Corp. [part of Canadian National], Kansas City Southern Railway, Norfolk Southern, Soo Line Corp. [part of Canadian Pacific] and Union Pacific Railroad.)

In some instances, demurrage charges increased from 600 to 1,000 percent year over year, ISRI says. Additionally, shippers had “no realistic way to challenge these demurrage charges because the railroads maintained inaccurate and confusing billing information,” the association adds.

Based on the late April STB decisions, railroads must develop more accurate billing, reliable and reasonable practices to avoid demurrage charges and make it easier for shippers to challenge those charges, according to ISRI.

“The STB’s rulings will allow for a better and more fair partnership between recyclers and railroads,” Johnson says. “When issues do occur, there will be a fair way to resolve disputes. This ensures that valuable commodity-grade scrap materials will consistently be delivered to manufacturers for the use in new everyday products.”

Umicore, a global materials technology and recycling group based in Brussels, says its financial results for the first three months of the year were ahead of the first three months of 2019. According to the company’s first-quarter 2020 earnings report, its recycling business unit performed strongly.

Umicore reports that its Precious Metals Refining business unit benefited from supportive supply conditions and metals prices in the first quarter of 2020. In its Precious Metals Management business unit, trading conditions for precious and certain platinum group metals were favorable, while the company’s Jewelry & Industrial Metals business unit benefited from strong demand for gold investment products and gold recycling services.

Based on the assumption that global automotive production in 2020 will be down about 25 percent year over year, Umicore says it anticipates that the recurring earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) of its Catalysis and Energy & Surface Technologies business unit will be below the levels it achieved in 2019. In its Recycling business unit, based on a strong performance in the first quarter of 2020 and the expectation of continued favorable supply conditions, the recurring EBIT in 2020 is expected to be above the levels of 2019, assuming metals prices remain at their current levels.

With the uncertainty of how much impact COVID-19 will have on the global economy, Umicore says it is unable to provide a reliable quantified outlook for its financial performance in 2020. The company says it expects recurring EBIT to be below the level it achieved in 2019.

“The COVID-19 pandemic is causing unprecedented challenges to all of us, and my first thoughts go out to people who are hardest hit and to everybody fighting the pandemic on the front lines,” says Marc Grynberg, CEO of Umicore. “Today more than ever, our priority is the health and safety of all Umicore employees. We have the ability to navigate these trying times, and I am confident that Umicore will resume its superior growth trajectory once this crisis will be overcome as the world needs to move towards a more sustainable development path. Finally, I would like to express once more my sincere gratitude and recognition to all Umicore employees for keeping the workplace safe and healthy and for their engagement to keep our operations running and serve our customers.”

COVID-19 impact on automotive markets, Umicore operations

While performance in the company’s Catalysis and Energy & Surface Technologies business unit experienced a good start to the year, the Automotive Catalysts and Rechargeable Battery Materials business unit felt “the impact of COVID-19 in February in China and as from mid-March in other key regions such as Europe and the U.S.,” Umicore states in its first-quarter 2020 earnings report.

According to Umicore, the automotive industry has been “severely hit” by the COVID-19 pandemic globally “with car production down 25 percent” year over year in the first quarter of 2020. In China, the market slowly picked up car production in March, down 45 percent year over year that month after a drop of 80 percent in February. In other parts of the world, COVID-19 is still peaking, and car original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have shut down their assembly lines in key markets outside China, South Korea and Japan since mid-March. In Europe and the U.S., car production in March was down 45 percent and 30 percent, respectively, year over year.

In Europe, assembly lines are gradually restarting production, and the same is expected to occur in North America around mid-May, Umicore states in its latest earnings report. However, demand from end consumers is anticipated to remain “fragile” as consumers’ likelihood of purchasing cars may decrease in light of the economic impact of the pandemic on their purchasing power. Umicore currently assumes that global car production for the full year will be down by about 25 percent compared with levels reported in 2019.

Production at Umicore’s automotive catalysts and battery materials plants in China was impacted at the time of the Lunar New Year holidays and the following weeks. Umicore reports that production levels have picked up slightly since then. The company says overall demand for vehicles in this region remains fragile.

Outside of China, South Korea and Japan, Umicore reports that it has stopped production at its automotive catalyst plants following the widespread shutdown of assembly lines of its automotive customers. While the impact of COVID-19 in the first quarter on the company’s automotive activities remained mostly limited to Asia, the full impact on the performance in Catalysis and Energy & Surface Technologies will be felt in the second quarter, Umicore says.

In the Recycling business unit, the Hoboken plant in Belgium and Umicore’s other recycling facilities have continued operations while complying with strict sanitary standards and precautionary measures.

Additionally, Umicore says several measures were launched to reduce costs, optimize working capital and delay certain investments to mitigate the impact COVID-19 would have on financial results. The company has adjusted its production capacity where needed and has furloughed 10 percent of its workforce. It also is delaying certain investments and expects capital expenditures for 2020 to be in a range of 400 million to 450 million euros (or about $440 million to$495 million), which is below levels reported in 2019.

Safety response to COVID-19

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Umicore shares in its first-quarter 2020 earnings report that it introduced “strict hygiene and other precautionary measures … in its facilities in Asia at the end of January and later in the rest of the world.” Measures implemented include social distancing, working at home wherever possible and systematic disinfection of the workplace as well as strict medical protocols to address any suspected cases. The company also reports that it has a dedicated task force managing its response to COVID-19 globally on a daily basis that is focused on protecting employees’ health and helping to contain a further spread of the virus. Due to the company’s early implementation of comprehensive protection measures, the number of infected employees is limited.

Aqua Metals Inc., McCarran, Nevada, has announced financial and operational results for its first quarter of 2020, ended March 31, reporting $18,000 in revenue, a 96 percent decrease from the$437,000 it reported for the quarter ended March 31, 2019. The decline in revenue was the result of the plant fire, which prohibited its recycled lead production after the fire in the fourth quarter of 2019 and in the first quarter of 2020.

The suspension of production resulting from the fire also meant that the cost of product sales decreased by approximately 69 percent for the quarter to $1.5 million compared with$4.7 million for the first quarter of 2019, the company says.

General and administrative expenses for the first quarter of 2020 decreased approximately 41 percent to $2.4 million from$4 million in the first quarter of 2019. The suspension of the Operations, Maintenance and Management section of the company’s overall agreement with Veolia reduced payroll and led to improvements in nearly all other expense categories. Aqua Metals also says it recognized $0.6 million in noncash expenses as a result of the Veolia agreement during the first quarter of 2020. This compares to$1 million in noncash expenses related to the Veolia agreement that was recognized during the first quarter of 2019.

Interest expenses for the first quarter of 2020 were $0.2 million compared with$2.9 million for the first quarter of 2019. The decrease is attributed to the payoff of the Interstate Battery convertible note during the first quarter of 2019, the company says.

For the quarter ended March 31, 2020, Aqua Metal had an operating loss of $4.1 million compared with an operating loss of$8.9 million for the first quarter of 2019. The net loss for the first quarter of 2020 was $4.4 million, or 7 cents per basic and diluted share, compared with a net loss of$11.7 million, or 27 cents per basic and diluted share, in the first quarter of 2019.

The net loss for the first quarter of 2020 was impacted by noncash items, including $1 million in stock-based compensation and$0.6 million related to the Veolia agreement. By comparison, noncash items that negatively affected the first quarter of 2019 included a one-time $2.6 million amortization expense recorded in conjunction with the payoff of the Interstate Battery convertible note,$1.1 million in stock-based compensation and the $1 million related to the Veolia agreement, Aqua Metals says. Insurance proceeds receivable totaled$9.9 million as of March 31. This balance reflects a decrease of $7.5 million from Dec. 31, 2019, as a result of insurance payments received. The original amount of insurance proceeds receivable recorded during the fourth quarter of 2019 of$19.9 million was limited by generally accepted accounting principles to the net book value of assets written off as a result of the fire. The company says it anticipates that actual total insurance collections, reflecting actual asset replacement cost, will be significantly more than the net book value of damaged assets.

“In response to a very difficult fourth quarter, I am pleased with the steps we’ve taken and the progress we have made in accelerating the transition of our business strategy to a capital-light, licensing business model,” says Steve Cotton, president and CEO of Aqua Metals. “We are convinced this is the right approach to build significant shareholder value. We have made positive strides in achieving our near-term 2020 goals in a very short time period and in the face of logistical challenges resulting from COVID-19.

“We believe we are in a sound financial position to accomplish the objectives of our business model,” he continues. “We expect to fortify our current resources with the receipt of additional insurance payments and select asset disposals. In conjunction with our recent agreement with Veritex [to extinguish existing debt in 2020], we have established a plan to be debt-free this year. We are on track to have the first V1.25L electrolyzer operational within six weeks after we are able to return to the facility following present COVID-19 restrictions. These V1.25L electrolyzers will AquaRefine the large quantity of valuable lead concentrate we produced and incurred cost to create prior to the plant fire, which eliminates the need for costly battery feedstock acquisition and processing costs. In addition, we have had meaningful conversations with potential customers and partners to consider licensing our proprietary AquaRefining technology. I am optimistic and proud of our team for effecting the strength of the Aqua Metals cash position and runway we have established to fund our go-forward plans, particularly in the face of the recent devastating fire and COVID-19 outbreak.”

Aqua Metals says it is implementing a capital-light business strategy designed to optimize shareholder value that focuses on licensing opportunities, which always been a core part of its business plan. “This path has the potential to maximize shareholder value as it could be far less capital intensive than rebuilding the plant and could potentially be funded primarily from a combination of cash on hand, insurance proceeds and asset dispositions,” the company states in the news release on its quarterly earnings. This strategy focuses on pursuing licensing opportunities within the lead battery recycling marketplace.

The company says it intends to dispose of certain assets that are not essential to the capital-light licensing strategy as the go-forward business strategy requires less space, less equipment, preserves cash and focuses on the needs of its future licensees.

The American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA), Washington, reports that the U.S. tissue and wood products industry set record-high levels of tissue production in February and March.

According to a news release from AF&PA, U.S. tissue mills manufactured about 700,000 tons of tissue in March. Heidi Brock, president and CEO of AF&PA, says more tissue was produced in March than any other month since 2007, which is when AF&PA began collecting this historical data.

Additionally, AF&PA states that its members safely delivered more than 22,000 tons of tissue per day in February and March.

Brock says record-high levels of tissue production are tied to demand from the COVID-19 pandemic.

“The men and women who work in the paper and wood products industry continue to do their part to respond to demand for products like bathroom tissue and paper towels during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic,” she says. “As daily production reached new thresholds, AF&PA member companies stayed the course, delivering sustainable tissue products to meet everyday, essential needs. I am heartened by the industry’s commitment to safety, and its ability to move products to the global market—just as we do 52 weeks each year.”

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In 2029, the Fine Biochar Powder market is spectated to surpass ~US$xx Mn/Bn with 3w Market News Reports by Everestthemes ## World coronavirus Dispatch: Fine Biochar Powder Market : Latest Trends, Demand and Analysis … 5 May, 2020 In 2029, the Fine Biochar Powder market is spectated to surpass ~US$ xx Mn/Bn with a CAGR of xx% over the forecast period. The Fine Biochar Powder market clicked a value of ~US$xx Mn/Bn in 2018. Region is expected to account for a significant market share, where the Fine Biochar Powder market size is projected to inflate with a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period. In the Fine Biochar Powder market research study, 2018 is considered as the base year, and 2019-2029 is considered as the forecast period to predict the market size. Important regions emphasized in the report include region 1 (country 1, country2), region 2 (country 1, country2), and region 3 (country 1, country2). The report on the Fine Biochar Powder market provides a bird’s eye view of the current proceeding within the Fine Biochar Powder market. Further, the report also takes into account the impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Fine Biochar Powder market and offers a clear assessment of the projected market fluctuations during the forecast period. Get Free Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables and Figures) of Market Report @ https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=S&repid=2555692&source=atm Global Fine Biochar Powder market report on the basis of market players The report examines each Fine Biochar Powder market player according to its market share, production footprint, and growth rate. SWOT analysis of the players (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) has been covered in this report. Further, the Fine Biochar Powder market study depicts the recent launches, agreements, R&D projects, and business strategies of the market players including The following manufacturers are covered: Diacarbon Energy Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra Segment by Regions North America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Segment by Type Wood Source Biochar Corn Source Biochar Wheat Source Biochar Others Segment by Application Soil Conditioner Fertilizer Others Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry [email protected] https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=E&repid=2555692&source=atm The Fine Biochar Powder market report answers the following queries: The Fine Biochar Powder market report provides the below-mentioned information: You can Buy This Report from Here @ https://www.marketresearchhub.com/checkout?rep_id=2555692&licType=S&source=atm Research Methodology of Fine Biochar Powder Market Report The global Fine Biochar Powder market study covers the estimation size of the market both in terms of value (Mn/Bn USD) and volume (x units). Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to calculate and authenticate the market size of the Fine Biochar Powder market, and predict the scenario of various sub-markets in the overall market. Primary and secondary research has been thoroughly performed to analyze the prominent players and their market share in the Fine Biochar Powder market. Further, all the numbers, segmentation, and shares have been gathered using authentic primary and secondary sources. 3w Market News Reports by Everestthemes ## Peoria Ag Lab Scientists Invent a Better Kitty Litter 5 May, 2020 Peoria Ag Lab scientists are introducing their latest invention: a new and improved kitty litter. The bio-degradable litter is made using eastern red cedar, which is Central Illinois’ only native coniferous tree. Lead scientist Steve Vaughn said it made sense to incorporate the wood, which is highly absorbant and contains flea and tick-repellant chemicals. “It’s a tough tree, we have a lot of it. And there’s a lot of harvesting of it anyways. So it’s kind of a natural solution,” he said. Vaughn’s team mixed the wood flakes with a cedar-based “biochar”, a charcoal-like compound which eliminates cat urine odors. Vaughn said it’s the “secret” ingredient that makes the cat litter unique. Guar gum was added to make the litter “clump,” making it easier to clean up. Most commercial cat litters are clay-based. “We tested many different formulations, and we combined them. And we essentially got really good bio-based cat litter,” he said. “It absorbs odors really, really well. It doesn’t have any allergenic issues, cats inhaling dust. You know, it had all sorts of good things.” Several companies are currently inquiring about rolling out the litter on a mass scale. Other scientists in Peoria who worked on the litter include Jill Moser, Mark Berhow, Jeffrey Byars, Sean Liu, Mike Jackson, Steve Peterson and Fred Eller. We’re living in unprecedented times when information changes by the minute. WCBU will continue to be here for you, keeping you up-to-date with the live, local and trusted news you need. Help ensure WCBU can continue with its in-depth and comprehensive COVID-19 coverage as the situation evolves by making a contribution. ## Biochar Market CAGR Status, Share, Gross Margin, Trend, Growth, Future Demand, Analysis by … 5 May, 2020 The global biochar market report covers deep insights of various vital aspects of the market. The Global biochar market research report delivers deep insights about the different market segments based on the end-use, types and geography. Moreover, in past few years, the market of biochar has recorded a significant development and is anticipated to further rise. Top Leading Key Players are: Biokol, Biomass Controls, LLC, Carbon Industries Pvt Ltd., Charcoal House, Anaerob Systems, Algae AquaCulture Technologies, CECEP Golden Mountain Agricultural Science And Technology, EarthSpring Biochar/Biochar Central, Energy Management Concept, 3R Environmental Technology Group and Renargi Request sample copy of this report at: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/698 Market research report for every industry is based on various important factors, for example demand & supply, market trends, revenue growth patterns and market shares. Report on the Global biochar market is made after a comprehensive research conducted by a systematized methodology. These techniques are helpful for analyzing the market on the terms of research guidelines. Basically, research reports covers all the information about the consumers, vendors, manufactures, research papers, products and many more. They provide a range of marketing as well as business research solutions basically designed for the readers looking forward to invest in the market. Moreover, their research report are collection of a particular industry research that includes information on products, market size, countries, trends, business research details & much more. Furthermore, research report covers all the quantitative as well as qualitative aspects about the biochar markets across the globe. The report is also inclusive of different market segmentation, business models and market forecasts. This market analysis enables the manufacturers with impending market trends. A thorough scrutiny of prominent market players or industrialists are vital aspect for planning a business in the market. Also, study about the rivals enables in attaining valuable data about the strategies, company’s models for business, revenue growth as well as statistics for the individuals attracted towards the market. This report is very useful for the new entrants as it offers them with the idea about the different approaches towards the market. Read complete report at: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/industry-reports/biochar-market Global Biochar Market is segmented based by type, application and region. Based on Type, the market has been segmented into: by Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification and Others) Based on Application, the market has been segmented into: by Application (Agriculture and Others) One of the most crucial feature of any report is its geographical segmentation of the market that consists of all the key regions. This section majorly focuses over several developments taking place in the region including substantial development and how are these developments affecting the market. Regional analysis provides a thorough knowledge about the opportunities in business, market status& forecast, possibility of generating revenue, regional market by different end users as well as types and future forecast of upcoming years. The key factor important for making any new business effective is advancement or making impactful modifications in the business. Report on Global biochar market, is an extensive papers that covers all the aspects of the market analysis and enables a comprehensive summary to its readers. In a nutshell, the biochar market research reports is a one-stop solution for all requirements by the in-house experts. For any query on the report: https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/contacts/enquiry-before-buying/698 About Us : Contact Us : ## Microbes help urban greenery plants to thrive 5 May, 2020 Urban greening provides additional green spaces in cities, but plants need special attention in order to grow in harsh conditions. The recent doctoral thesis from the University of Helsinki shows how adding plant growth-promoting microbes to the soil helps plants to tolerate stress and thrive in the city. Urban greening has gained increasing popularity in cities, helping to create a more liveable environment. Vegetated building envelopes include vegetated roofs, indoor and outdoor living walls and balcony gardens. They can provide additional green spaces and deliver ecosystem services, such as storm water management, air pollution mitigation, energy conservation and urban heat island effect reduction. The growing conditions on vegetated building envelopes are generally harsh, so it is crucial to investigate how to maintain plants on them in optimum conditions. Long Xie‘s doctoral dissertation from the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry focuses on maintaining plants in vegetated building envelope systems by introducing two beneficial plant growth-promoting microbes into the substrate, that is, the growth medium for plants, such as soil. Rhizophagus irregularis is an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) residing in plant roots. AMF features tree-like fungal structures called arbuscules growing inside root cells. They are important for nutrient exchange between the fungus and host plants. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, on the other hand, is a spore-forming bacterium residing outside the root surface. Both of these microbes can protect host plants against nutrient deficiency, pathogen infection, drought and high salinity. In return, the host plants support the microbes with chemicals and nutrients, rich in photosynthetic compounds, from the plant root system. The dissertation showed that both microbes are able to survive and inhabit the roots of greenery plants. In addition, the R. irregularis fungus was thought to promote the growth of B. amyloliquefaciens. The results also suggested that the colonisation of R. irregularis was affected by the pH of the growth medium. The effect of soil pH on R. irregularis colonisation was dependent on the plant species: some plants had higher colonisation levels in acidic soil than neutral soil, and other showed the opposite. Biochar supplementation showed a trend to reduced R. irregularis colonisation. The growth of B. amyloliquefaciens was affected by weather conditions — heat and drought reduced B. amyloliquefaciens density. Under laboratory conditions, both microbes were able to simultaneously inhabit most of the test plants, and B. amyloliquefaciens promoted the growth of R. irregularis. Above all, co-inoculation, which means injecting the soil with both microbes, resulted in higher shoot biomass and photosynthetic efficiency than inoculation of a single microbe. The increase in plant growth observed in co-inoculation occurred on vegetative roofs. In addition, plant species, planting methods (different ways of introducing plants into vegetated roofs), and their interactions affected the colonisation of R. irregularis, whereas the survival of B. amyloliquefaciens was influenced only by the plant species. “I would recommend using substrates and plant species that support plant growth-promoting microbes when vegetated building envelopes are constructed. It is also advisable to use both R. irregularis and B. amyloliquefaciens to achieve synergistic effects on plant growth,” says Long Xie. There are several different planting methods to introduce plants into vegetated building envelope systems, e.g., pre-grown vegetation mats, pre-grown plug plants, and seed-grown plants. Using a mixture of planting methods can achieve instant greening and maintain the building envelope’s ability to host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. It also necessary to irrigate the plants moderately during prolonged hot and dry periods in the first few years and, finally, to avoid invasive microbe and plant species. Xie’s research was funded by China Scholarship Council, Maiju ja Yrjö Rikalan Puutarhasäätiö, Finnish Cultural Foundation and August Johannes ja Aino Tiuran maatalouden tutkimussäätiö. ## New wood waste pyrolysis facility planned for Hong Kong 5 May, 2020 You don’t have permission to access this resource. Additionally, a 403 Forbidden error was encountered while trying to use an ErrorDocument to handle the request. ## Biochar Adsorption of Antibiotics and its Implications to Remediation of Contaminated Soil 5 May, 2020 Antibiotic contamination in water and soil has been widely investigated. However, there is still no effective removal method for antibiotics from water or soil environments. Therefore, the single and competitive sorption dynamics of ionizable tetracycline (TC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), norfloxacin (NOR), erythromycin (ERY), and chloramphenicol (CAP) adsorbed by NaOH-activated and hematite-modified biochars were investigated. NaOH-activated biochar (NAB) showed much better antibiotic sorption than the hematite-modified biochar (HMB). The affinity coefficient of NAB for TC, NOR, and ERY were at least 100 times higher than that of the HMB. The sorption rate of the five target antibiotics was faster in the single-solute systems than in the ternary-solute systems. Sorption capacity was inhibited in the competitive system for all five antibiotics adsorbed by either the NaOH-activated or hematite-modified biochars. Antibiotic sorption by the biochars was governed by electrostatic interactions, π-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions, and hydrogen bonding. All five antibiotics showed similar adsorption trends in pH treatments of both biochars. However, the sorption capacity slightly increased from pH 7 to pH 9 in HMB compared with those in NAB, as the metal ions from the hematite modification provided cation bridging combinations to negatively charged antibiotics at a high pH value. These observations are useful for producing NaOH-activated biochar as an engineered sorbent to reduce the bioavailability of antibiotics in water and soil. The results are important for the application of biochars to use as soil amendments in the remediation of antibiotic co-pollution in agricultural water or soils. Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions Correspondence to Min PAN. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Received: 04 November 2019 Accepted: 26 March 2020 Published: 04 May 2020 Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions ## How can potatoes be smartly cultivated with biochar as a soil nutrient amendment technique in … 5 May, 2020 The question if biochar is a suitable soil nutrient amendment for potato cultivation in the Atlantic Canada is yet to be answered. The objective of this study was to answer this question. Three replicates of twelve lysimeters, each 8000 cm2, were packed with an Atlantic Canada representative soil to cultivate potatoes with four treatments of soil amendments (T1 = control [no added nutrients], T2 = B [biochar], T3 = F [synthetic fertilizer @ recommended NPK], and T4 = B + F [biochar + recommended NPK]) under a completely randomized block design with factorial arrangements. Chemical analyses of soils were conducted for physical, hydrological, and chemical (including concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients) prior to and after the completion experiments to evaluate soil fertility and its resulting effects on crop yield. The biochar amendment improved soil micro- and macro-nutrients. Soil organic matter, pH, and cation exchange capacity (ECE) significantly increased by application of biochar. The maximum potato yield of 30,467.4 kg h−1 was achieved by the combined application of biochar and synthetic fertilizer as this combination resulted in the maximum net benefit ($4433.98 ha−1) in comparison with control treatment that had net loss of $– 2621.49 ha−1. It is therefore concluded that biochar amendment of soils resembling to that of the Atlantic Canada representative soil used in this study, with a mix of recommended NPK for, can formulate a smart precision farming nutrient management technique for this region subject to the field trials and replicate experimental treatments for more than three times. Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions The authors would like to thank the Precision Agriculture Team at the University of Prince Edward Island for their assistance during the experiment. This research was supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Horticultural Council, and the New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Aquaculture and Fisheries (CAP program). Correspondence to Aitazaz A. Farooque or Farhat Abbas. This article is part of the Topical Collection on Implications of Biochar Application to Soil Environment under Arid Conditions Received: 04 January 2019 Accepted: 18 April 2020 Published: 04 May 2020 Instant access to the full article PDF. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions ## <ACCESS' Gardening with Biochar: Supercharge Your Soil with Bioactiva – Twitter 5 May, 2020 We’ve detected that JavaScript is disabled in your browser. Would you like to proceed to legacy Twitter? You can add location information to your Tweets, such as your city or precise location, from the web and via third-party applications. You always have the option to delete your Tweet location history. Learn more ## Biochar Market Projected to Show Strong Growth by 2026 | Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit … 5 May, 2020 This Biochar Market research report contains specific segments by type and by application. Each type provides information about the production during the forecast period of 2020 to 2026. Analysis of upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand is also carried out. Development trends and marketing channels of Chemical industry are analyzed in the report. This Biochar Market business report presents the segments details figures, graphs, chart and tables which will offer an extensive overview of the market. The examination of advancement openings, regional analysis, and attentive study will prompt revenue estimation. Global biochar market is expected to rise to an estimated value of USD 3.92 billion by 2026, registering a healthy CAGR in the forecast period of 2019-2026. Download PDF Sample report @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-biochar-market Methodologies utilized to evaluate the market-: Research analysts and experts have utilized excellent market research tools such as SWOT analysis, Porter’s Five Forces analysis, PEST analysis, and Primary and Secondary research analysis to define, describe and evaluate the competitive landscape of the Biochar Market . The titled segments and sub-section of the market are illuminated below: Global Biochar Market By Technology (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Microwave Pyrolysis, Cookstove and Others) Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household, Electricity Generation) Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Animal Manure, Forestry Waste, Biomass Plantation) Geography (North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa) Few of the major competitors currently working in the global biochar market are Cool Planet, Pacific Biochar Benefit Corporation, Genesis Industries, LLC, CharGrow USA LLC, Black Owl Biochar, Phoenix Energy Group, Airex Énergie Inc., Ambient Energy LLC, Avello Bioenergy, ETIA Group, CharGrow USA LLC, Pyrocal Pty Ltd, Terra Humana Ltd, American BioChar Company, Bioforcetech Corporation, ECOERA Millennium Biochar and Carbon Emission Removal Service, Biochar Now, llc., EkoBalans Fenix, Carbo Culture, GreenBack Pte Ltd and others. Want Full Report? Enquire Here @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/inquire-before-buying/?dbmr=global-biochar-market · In April 2016, ICEM announced the launch of their Interactive GMS Biochar and Soil Mapping Tool. This GMS has the ability to identify the regions which is highly suitable for the production of the biochar. This also have the feature to zoom into the areas for a more deeper view · In April 2014, VEGA BIOFUELS, INC announced that they have acquired Biochar Now, LLC so that they can expand their business in United States and in other parts of the country. This acquisition will help the VEGA to produce better quality product strengthening their position in the market place Market Drivers: · Rising usage of biochar in energy production and greenhouse gas remediation is driving the market growth · Increasing consumption of biochar in livestock feed will also propel the market growth · Rising awareness about the benefits of biochar among population will also act as a driver for the market · Increasing environmental concern among population is another important factor contributing towards the growth of this market Market Restraints: · High investment cost will hamper the growth of this market · Technological barrier in remote area will also restrain the growth of this market Following are the reasons to consider this Biochar Market report: Find More Competitor in TOC with Profile Overview Share Growth Analysis @ https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/toc/?dbmr=global-biochar-market Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Europe, MEA or Asia Pacific. About Us: Data Bridge Market Research set forth itself as an unconventional and neoteric Market research and consulting firm with unparalleled level of resilience and integrated approaches. We are determined to unearth the best market opportunities and foster efficient information for your business to thrive in the market. Data Bridge Market Research provides appropriate solutions to the complex business challenges and initiates an effortless decision-making process. Contact: US: +1 888 387 2818 UK: +44 208 089 1725 Hong Kong: +852 8192 7475 [email protected] ## Global Biochar Fertilizer Market to Register Impressive Growth Rate as Demand Hikes During … 6 May, 2020 Detailed Study on the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market A recent market study throws light on some of the leading factors that are likely to influence the growth of the Biochar Fertilizer market in the upcoming decade. The well-researched market study touches upon the growth potential of various budding market players in the current Biochar Fertilizer market landscape. Moreover, established players, stakeholders, and investors can leverage the data in the report to formulate effective growth strategies. As per the report, the Biochar Fertilizer market is forecasted to reach a value of ~US$XX by the end of 2029 and grow at a CAGR of ~XX% through the forecast period (2019-2029). The key dynamics of the Biochar Fertilizer market including the drivers, restraints, opportunities, and trends are thoroughly analyzed in the presented report.

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The Research Aims to Addresses the Following Doubts Pertaining to the Biochar Fertilizer Market

The report on the Biochar Fertilizer market provides a bird’s eye view of the current proceeding within the Biochar Fertilizer market. Further, the report also takes into account the impact of the novel COVID-19 pandemic on the Biochar Fertilizer market and offers a clear assessment of the projected market fluctuations during the forecast period. The different factors that are likely to impact the overall dynamics of the Biochar Fertilizer market over the forecast period (2019-2029) including the current trends, growth opportunities, restraining factors, and more are discussed in detail in the market study.

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Biochar Fertilizer Market Segmentation

Competitive Landscape

The competitive landscape section of the report elaborates on the recent developments and innovations introduced by prominent players in the Biochar Fertilizer market. The growth potential, revenue growth, product range, and pricing strategies of each market player in inspected in the report with precision.

End-use Industry Assessment

The report segments the Biochar Fertilizer market on the basis of end-use industry and offers a detailed understanding of the supply-demand ratio and consumption pattern of the Biochar Fertilizer in each end-use industry.

The following manufacturers are covered:
Biogrow Limited
Biochar Farms
Anulekh
GreenBack
Carbon Fertilizer
Global Harvest Organics

Segment by Regions
North America
Europe
China
Japan
Southeast Asia
India

Segment by Type
Organic Fertilizer
Inorganic Fertilizer
Compound Fertilizer

Segment by Application
Cereals
Oil Crops
Fruits and Vegetables
Others

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Essential Findings of the Biochar Fertilizer Market Report:

## COVID-19 impact: Biochar Market Likely to Emerge over a Period of 2020 to 2029

6 May, 2020

A recent market study published by Fact.MR discusses the current and future prospects of the Biochar market. Further, the report includes an in-depth COVID-19 pandemic analysis and various factors that are likely to control the growth trajectory of the Biochar market in the upcoming years. In addition, a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the various market segments is enclosed in the report and accurately represented in the form of tables, graphs, and figures.

Free Shipping on Orders Over $100* Many carbon-conscious pet owners are aware of the non-recyclable waste that comes with owning a pet. Between kitty litter, puppy pads, and all those plastic dog bags, the waste adds up. Enter biochar. Imagine a world where the puppy pad is so odorless that your dog wants to sleep on it and the kitty litter box isn’t SO nauseating. Turns out, that future isn’t so far off, we just need to introduce a couple creative biochar solutions into our pets’ lives! The following is an excerpt from Burn, by Albert Bates and Kathleen Draper. It has been adapted for the web Few things are as exciting or exhausting as a new puppy. Kathleen can only think of two: raising children and being on the ground floor of the nascent biochar industry. Not satisfied with only two of these in her life, she decided that three exciting, exhausting outlets is really what she needed to make her life completely crazy. Enter a 2.5-pound (1.1 kg) Pugzu puppy. In an effort to housebreak (interesting word for it) the new family member, she began researching all sorts of ridiculous inventions, such as the elegantly named “wee wee pads.” But the thought of adding doggie diapers to garbage mountains started keeping her up at night. Of course, that could have just been the puppy. She slept better having figured out how to combine two of the three exciting yet exhausting things in her life, and the next day she purchased a roll of biodegradable landscaping fabric and sewed up three sides. Inside she added a few pounds of a biochar-vermicompost mix she had sitting around and sewed up the top. Since some of the finer particles of char can escape this type of fabric, she put the pad in a low box so it wouldn’t make a mess on the floor. While it took awhile for the puppy to figure things out, eventually she started to use the Terra Pee Pad for its intended use and more. Kathleen could detect zero odors after several deposits. Not too surprising, given what we know about biochar, but what is surprising is that the canine nose had no issues with it, either. The puppy didn’t just pee on the pad, she slept on it, too. Kind of gross, Kathleen thought, but kind of interesting, too. In reading up on the contents of dog urine (ever a fascinating subject), and how destructive it can be to lawns (unless you like the polka dot look) and urban trees, it occurred to Kathleen that homeowners might want to create a little Terra Pee sandbox for dogs to conduct their business in, lined with a similar Terra Pee Pad that could eventually be cascaded to garden use. And for those poor peed-upon trees doggies tend to favor, how about a Terra Pee Pad skirt for the trunk so trees don’t overdose on nitrogen, but instead take it in more gradually? Consider this: Most of the 2.6 million tons of kitty litter sold in the United States every year is made from bentonite clay. That is 12 percent of the 21.2 megatons of global bentonite mining that contributes 118,000 tons of CO2-e to climate change each year as bentonite mining expands 2 to 4 percent per year.1 To picture that amount of material, imagine nearly a quarter of a million dump trucks carting away clay after first blowing the tops off Wyoming mountains. Now imagine, as Jonah Levine of Confluence Energy has, that a large portion of that bentonite can be displaced with high-carbon, woody bio- char made from beetle-killed forests in Colorado or pallet waste. In the right combination, a pelletized biochar-based kitty litter is lightweight, highly absorbent, and controls odors—an appealing trifecta to consumers. Even better, when spent it can be composted instead of landfilled. But even if sent to a landfill, it would sequester 9.5 million tons of CO2 per year (assuming 1:1 substitution for clay kitty litter). How to Make Biochar Using Fire to Cool the Earth Igniting a New Carbon Drawdown Economy to End the Climate Crisis Grow your own mushrooms outdoors with this simple four step tutorial from Tradd Cotter, author of Organic Mushroom Farming and Mycoremediation. All you need is a log, some mushroom starter, and a couple basic tools and you are on your way to producing gourmet mushrooms for years to come. To demonstrate how easy it is,… Many carbon-conscious pet owners are aware of the non-recyclable waste that comes with owning a pet. Between kitty litter, puppy pads, and all those plastic dog bags, the waste adds up. Enter biochar. Imagine a world where the puppy pad is so odorless that your dog wants to sleep on it and the kitty litter… Not all invasive plants are necessary to get rid of. Garlic Mustard has been consumed for hundreds of years and has great nutritional value. Almost the entire plant can be used to promote a healthy body-leaves, seeds, and roots! Also, the garlic-flavor is a perfect addition to any recipe that calls for mustard. The following… Surviving the Future is a story drawn from the fertile ground of the late David Fleming’s extraordinary Lean Logic: A Dictionary for the Future and How to Survive It. That hardback consists of four hundred and four interlinked dictionary entries, inviting readers to choose their own path through its radical vision. Fleming’s long-time collaborator Shaun Chamberlin… The miraculous abundance provided by the mesquite tree continues to astound us. It offers a plethora of culinary possibilities. It has the power to cure, to shelter, to elicit profound emotions, and to connect us to our environment and our neighbors in a way we may not have thought about before. The following excerpt is… *Terms and Conditions: Discount Codes cannot be combined with any other offers (books on sale or multiple discount codes for example). Sales and special offers are for online orders only (not available for in-store purchase). Free Shipping is applied after the discount is applied (US orders only). Excluding not yet published books. While Supplies Last. All prices are subject to change without prior notice. International Order? International orders can be placed by phone (802-295-6300) or email. Currency exchange rates may vary at time of shipment. International shipping fees will not include any additional customs fees or tariffs that may be due on your end at delivery. Realizing international shipping is cost prohibitive our books are available through these partner retailers for international purchasing options: World: www.bookdepository.com, www.wordery.com | Australia: www.booktopia.com.au | Canada: www.amazon.ca | UK: www.amazon.co.uk Since 1984, Chelsea Green has been the leading publisher of books about organic farming, gardening, homesteading, integrative health, natural building, sustainable living, socially responsible business, and more. Now employee-owned. *Terms and Conditions: Discount Codes cannot be combined with any other offers (books on sale or multiple discount codes for example). Sales and special offers are for online orders only (not available for in-store purchase). Free Shipping is applied after the discount is applied (US orders only). Excluding not yet published books. While Supplies Last. All prices are subject to change without prior notice. International Order? International orders can be placed by phone (802-295-6300) or email. Currency exchange rates may vary at time of shipment. International shipping fees will not include any additional customs fees or tariffs that may be due on your end at delivery. Realizing international shipping is cost prohibitive our books are available through these partner retailers for international purchasing options: World: www.bookdepository.com, www.wordery.com | Australia: www.booktopia.com.au | Canada: www.amazon.ca | UK: www.amazon.co.uk Since 1984, Chelsea Green has been the leading publisher of books about organic farming, gardening, homesteading, integrative health, natural building, sustainable living, socially responsible business, and more. Now employee-owned. Enter your email to subscribe to updates from Chelsea Green (function() { if ( ! window.mc4wp) { window.mc4wp = { listeners: [], forms : { on: function (event, callback) { window.mc4wp.listeners.push( { event : event, callback: callback } ); } } } } })(); © 2020 Chelsea Green Publishing. All Rights Reserved. This is an necessary category. You’ll need to checkout before adding this pre-order item to your basket. ## Impact of percentage and particle size of sugarcane biochar on the sorption behavior of clomazone … 6 May, 2020 SILVA, MARCOS R.F. DA et al. Impact of percentage and particle size of sugarcane biochar on the sorption behavior of clomazone in Red Latosol. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2018, vol.90, n.4, pp.3745-3759. ISSN 0001-3765. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201820180135. Biochar is a carbonaceous material that has excellent potential as a fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effects of the amount and particle size of this pyrogenic material on the soil sorption capacity. In this work, evaluation was made of changes in clomazone (CMZ) sorption in a Red Latosol following soil conditioning using different percentages (0.25, 0.5, and 1% w/w) of sugarcane biochar in three particle sizes (<106, 106-508, and 508-610 µm). The conditioned soils presented apparent sorption coefficients (Kd) up to 1300 times higher than that of pure soil, besides changes in the behavior of CMZ sorption. The biochar particle size and percentage influenced sorption of the herbicide as well as its retention in the amended soil during desorption processes. Both sorption and desorption Freundlich constants were linearly correlated with the external surface area of the biochar present in the soil. Keywords : Apparent sorption coefficient; batch experiment; external surface area; factorial design; Freundlich isotherm; herbicide retention. ## Desulfurization Performance of MgO/ Rice Straw Biochar Adsorbent Prepared by Co-precipitation 6 May, 2020 The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above. ## Properties and adsorption mechanism of magnetic biochar modified with molybdenum disulfide for … 7 May, 2020 ## biochar rocket stove design 7 May, 2020 biochar rocket stove with hot water oven and hot plate . thermal mass rocket stove welsh biochar making water . biochar system drawing 1 stove permaculture making water . pdf product development using cfd simulation of energy . rocket stove biochar retort activated carbon oven youtube . simple diy rocket stove producing hot water food and . baja robs biochar log rocket retort rocks . rocket mass heater biochar retort google search biochar . rocket stoves vuthisa . welsh biochar making water heater improved biomass cooking . how to make a small smoke free biochar retort . reverse bbq produces biochar biochar rocket stoves . how to build a rocket stove mass water heater . horizontal rocket stove tinkers blessing . rocket works rocket stove durban south africa improved . biochar rocket stove soil carbon regeneration home . the rocket mass heater builder s guide manualzz com . portable kilns vuthisa . making biochar first stove build milkwood permaculture . make your own biochar and terra preta 5 steps instructables . © 2020 Pusmun.praysafeconsulting.com – All rights reserved. ## Exploring the recycling of bioleaching functional bacteria and sulfur substrate using the sulfur … 7 May, 2020 ## Best biochar kiln 7 May, 2020 ## Exploring the recycling of bioleaching functional bacteria and sulfur substrate using the sulfur … 7 May, 2020 Bioleaching has been attracting attention in the recent years as an emerging sediment heavy metal pollution remediation technology. However, the use of sulfur powder as sulfur substrate causes the problem of “post-acidification”, and the free bioleaching functional bacteria which are susceptible to environmental impact during reactor operation cannot be used efficiently for multiple rounds. These problems can be solved if the sulfur substrate and the bioleaching functional bacteria can be recycled simultaneously after bioleaching. A new kind of sulfur substrate, the laboratory-made sulfur-covered biochar particles, was used in the bioleaching experiment, compared with sulfur powder and sulfur powder mixed with the surfactant rhamnolipid. The sulfur-covered biochar particles exhibited superior bioleaching performance, including faster acidification rate, SO42− production rate and heavy metal bioleaching rate, and higher heavy metal solubilization percentage (Ni 33.76%; Cu 66.16%; Zn 65.494%), which resulted from the acceleration of bioleaching reaction by the bioleaching functional bacteria immobilized on the biochar surface. Otherwise, the sulfur-covered biochar particles could be reused in the second round, and the heavy metal solubilization percentage (Ni 32.84%, Cu 69.93%, Zn 67.17%) was comparable with that of the first round. Nevertheless, the sulfur content became the main limiting factor causing poor bioleaching performance during the third round. Sulfur mixed with the surfactant rhamnolipid did not show significant effect in promoting acidification and heavy metal solubilization due to high levels of organic matter and the impact of the low pH value. The research indicated the laboratory-made sulfur-covered biochar particles could realize the dual immobilization of the bioleaching functional bacteria and the sulfur substrate to support their recycling and reuse in the second bioleaching round. In the future research, the way to maintain the reuse of the sulfur-covered biochar particles for more rounds will be explored. In order to ensure the normal traffic of waterways and the safety of water quality, regular dredging work is inevitable. However, the heavy metal content of the dredged sediment often exceeds the environmental quality standard due to human activities. The heavy metal pollution remediation of the sediment is urgent. Compared to chemical methods, such as the direct use of mineral acids or chelating agents [1,2,3], bioleaching as an emerging sediment heavy metal pollution remediation technology has the advantages of environmentally friendly, energy-saving and low cost [4]. Bioleaching is a biological remediation technology utilizing acidophilus autotrophic bacteria including At. ferrooxidans, At. thiooxidans, Thiobacillus thioparus, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, etc., to perform bioleaching reaction [5]. These bioleaching functional bacteria can oxidize sulfur, reduced sulfur compound or/and ferrous ions to produce sulfuric acid and ferric ions, which have strong leaching ability [6] and can solubilize metals in their reduced forms and those associated with acid-soluble ores [7]. However, there are some problems in bioleaching technology that hinder its development in engineering applications. On the one hand, the most common used sulfur substrate in the bioleaching is sulfur powder, because it has a large specific surface area and can facilitate the adsorption and the growth of bacteria on the substrate to enhance the oxidation rate of sulfur [8]. However, the sulfur powder has high hydrophobicity and it is difficult to disperse in the liquid phase. Only 40–60% of the sulfur powder can be utilized in the bioleaching process in general [9]. The sulfur powder remaining in the sediment increases the operational cost and can cause “post-acidification” problem, which complicates the subsequent disposal of the sediment. The general solution is to add supplementary surfactant or to replace the sulfur powder with bio-sulfur [10,11,12]. Nevertheless, the addition of the industrial chemical surfactant might influence the growth of the bacteria and can cause secondary pollution. The bio-surfactant costs high and is not suitable for large-scale engineering applications; while the bio-sulfur has the disadvantages of limited sources, easy formation of colloidal solution. On the other hand, in the microbial engineering application, the free bacteria in the reactor often underperform due to not being well colonized and being susceptible to environmental fluctuations [13]. This problem can be solved by utilizing the microorganisms immobilization technology. The technology immobilized specific microorganisms on a carrier, restricting or positioning them in a certain area, so the microorganisms can maintain a high density and high biological activity, and can proliferate quickly [14]. This technology has the advantages of less microorganisms loss, strong toxicity resistance, and reusable microorganisms [15, 16]. The choice of the carrier material is crucial to this technology. An appropriate carrier can not only increase the number and the activity of the microorganisms, but also achieve efficient recycle of the microorganisms. These two problems can be solved at the same time if a suitable carrier can be utilized to immobilize sulfur substrate and bioleaching functional bacteria, because the residual sulfur substrate and the active bioleaching bacteria can be reused multiple times by recycling the carrier. In order to overcome the “post-acidification” problem and simplify the steps of the repetitive addition of bioleaching inoculum during the operation of the bioleaching sequencing batch reactor, the research selected bamboo biochar as the carrier to produce the recyclable sulfur-covered biochar particles by solidifying melted elemental sulfur on the surface of the bamboo biochar. The research investigated the bioleaching effect of the sulfur-covered biochar particles compared with the sulfur powder and the sulfur powder mixed with the surfactant rhamnolipid. The research also explored the potential and the mechanism of the immobilization of the bioleaching functional bacteria on the sulfur-covered biochar particles and their recycling use. The research also explored the change in the structure of microflora during the bioleaching process using the integrated high-throughput absolute abundance quantification (iHAAQ) technology [17]. The sediment sample selected in this study was from Puti Lake, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, China (E 120.73°, N 30.95°). The grab dredger was used to collect the sediment sample from the bottom layer within 0–30 cm. The coarse suspended matter was removed using a 20 mesh screen. The physical and chemical properties of the sediment were measured as follows: pH 7.29, Eh − 159.83 mv, total nitrogen 3.04 g/kg, total carbon 31.11 g/kg, acid volatile sulfur (AVS) 2.20 mg/kg and total solid 22.10%. The concentrations of various heavy metals were as follows: Ni 84 mg/kg, Cu 284 mg/kg, Zn 394 mg/kg. The heavy metal concentrations of the sediment were analyzed using the method mentioned in “Analysis of heavy metal contents” after the acid digestion of the sediment. The sulfur substrate used in the research included sulfur-covered biochar particles, sulfur powder and sulfur powder mixed with surfactant rhamnolipid (see Table 1 for details). The sulfur-covered biochar particles were prepared by the laboratory: the bamboo biochar was purchased from Lin’an Yaoshi Biochar Industry Co., Ltd. Bamboo sawdust was anaerobic-burned at 500 °C for 8 h, and the bamboo biochar particles were sieved with a mortar mill to obtain the particle size required for the research. After that, the bamboo biochar particles were washed three times with distilled water, and dried at 105 °C for 6 h. The surface area of the prepared bamboo biochar particles was 332.10 m2/g. The main components included C (56.05%), H (1.32%), N (0.23%), O (2.62%), ash (39.78%), P (0.29%) and Na (0.01%). And the sulfur-covered biochar particles were produced by solidifying melted elemental sulfur on the surface of the bamboo biochar at 120 °C. After cooling down, the weight of the attached melted sulfur on the bamboo biochar particles was measured in order to control the same sulfur content in each experiment group. The inoculum used in this experiment was obtained from the acclimation of the sludge indigenous bacterium in Hangzhou Qige Wastewater Treatment Plant. And the preparation methods were consistent with the previous research [18]. Three experiment groups were set up according to the sulfur substrate added: sulfur powder group (experimental code: S-A), sulfur-covered biochar particles group (experimental code: SC-A), sulfur powder mixed with rhamnolipid (experimental code: R-A). The bioleaching experiments were conducted in a 250-mL conical flask containing 2.5 g dry weight of sediment, 150 mL of distilled water (the sediment concentration was decided by pre-experiment), 3 g/L of sulfur substrate (calculated by sulfur content) and 3 mL of sludge-enriched inoculum (-A represented the addition of the inoculum). Control groups without sulfur substrate and sterilization groups without sulfur substrate but with 200 mg/L NaN3 were set at the same time (the experimental code: C/N). The conical flasks were placed in a shaking incubator at 28 °C and 180 r/min. Each treatment consisted of nine parallel groups, three of which were used to measure pH, concentration of SO42− and heavy metal on a daily basis. Distilled water was added daily to compensate for the loss of vaporization. The supernatant was withdrawn daily and the concentration of SO42− and heavy metals was analyzed. The other six parallel groups were tested for microbiological analysis on Day 4 and Day 9, respectively. When it came to Day 9, the Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to determine the content of different heavy metal forms in the solid phase after bioleaching [19]. The forms of heavy metals are represented as follows in Fig. 2: Res = residual state; Org = organic state; Fe–Mn = iron–manganese oxidation state; Car = carbonate-bound state; Exc = exchangeable state. After the first round, the sulfur-covered biochar particles of the SC-A group were recovered by filtration and washed with sterile physiological saline 3 times before being used for the second round of bioleaching. The experimental conditions of the second round were the same as those of the first round, but no bioleaching functional bacteria or sulfur substrate were added in all experimental groups. The third round of bioleaching experiment was carried out by the same experimental method. The pH value, concentration of SO42− and heavy metals of the samples were measured every day to investigate the bioleaching effect of the sulfur-covered biochar particles in the multiple recycling rounds. The pH value was measured using pH meter (PB-10) using the National Standard Method HJ 962-2018. The concentration of SO42− was detected by ion chromatography (ICS-1100); total nitrogen, total carbon, and total phosphorus of the sediment sample were determined using an elemental analyzer (Elementar vario MAX CNS). The specific surface area of the biochar samples were measured using the American Tristar III3020 automatic specific surface area. The BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) equation was used to calculate the surface area of the bamboo biochar particles [20]. The EA110 elemental analyzer was utilized to determine the percentages of elements C, H, and N in the biochar samples [21]. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FEI SIRION-100) was utilized to observe the surface structure and the colonization of the microorganisms on the sulfur-covered biochar particles. The heavy metal concentration of the sample was detected by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (PQMS 10-5000S-AR091). The limit of detection (LOD) of the ICP-MS is 1 ppb, the accuracy was < 5%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was < 5%. To control the analytical quality of the analytical procedure, a certified reference material (GBW-07405) was applied and analyzed following the same procedure. The recoveries of Ni, Cu and Zn were in the range of 74.3–113.3% (n = 3). The recoveries of heavy metals during the sequential extraction process were in the ranges of 79.08–117.92%, 76.16–107.94% and 74.93–113.62%, respectively. The method to calculate the recoveries of heavy metal during the sequential extraction process was written in Additional file 1. These results indicated that our methods were reliable and precise enough for the purposes of this study. Using the iHAAQ methodology proposed by Lou et al., the qPCR analyses were performed to quantify the specific genes of the extracted DNA with three replicates using a StepOnePlus TM Real-Time PCR System instrument (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The high-throughput sequencing was performed by using Illumina Miseq platform following standard protocols. The quality control of raw sequencing reads was performed using QIIME software (version 1.7.0). The absolute abundance of each genus level of the top 30 most abundant microorganisms in the sediment was calculated by multiplying the total abundance of bacteria (the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene in the V4 region measured by qPCR) and the corresponding relative abundance obtained by high-throughput sequencing [17]. The mathematical calculations involved in the study were done using Matlab 2017 software. The chart making and function curve fitting involved in the research were completed using Origin 8.0 software. The correlation analysis was performed using SPSS V22.0 software. Heavy metal bioleaching curves were fitted using logistic equations [22]: In the formula, M is the concentration of heavy metal (mg/kg) in the liquid phase; Mlimit is the upper limit bioleaching concentration of heavy metal (mg/kg); t is the bioleaching time; x, B, and p are constants. We assumed that when M = 95%Mlimit, the bioleaching is finished. Then based on Eq. (1), T95% could be calculated using Eq. (2): Using Eq. (1) to further determine the derivative of the time t and the bioleaching time (T_{{V_{text{max} } }}) (day), at which the maximum bioleaching rate Vmax (mg/kg/day) is reached, can be obtained. There was no significant difference in acidification rate within the experiment groups after the addition of the sludge-enriched inoculum. The SC-A group achieved the fastest acidification rate (pH reached 2.35 on the Day 5) and the lowest pH value (pH reached 1.80 on the Day 9) (Fig. 1). Although the specific surface area of the sulfur powder was much larger than that of the sulfur-covered biochar particles, the acidification rate of the S-A group was slightly slower than that in the SC-A group (pH reached 2.44 on the Day 6). In the R-A group, rhamnolipid was added as a surfactant to more easily disperse the sulfur powder in the liquid phase, but its acidification rate was the slowest (pH reached 2.36 on the Day 8). In order to investigate the acidification performance of the indigenous microorganisms in the sediment, the C group and the N group were set. When no sulfur substrate was added (the C group), the presence of indigenous microorganisms in the sediment also kept the system acidic (pH was about 5.5), while the pH of the N group remained at around 7. Acidification (solid line) and SO42− production (dotted line) during bioleaching The shorter the time bioleaching finished, the faster the total bioleaching rate. The SC-A group with the fastest acidification rate and the shortest the bioleaching time had the fastest total bioleaching rate (Table 2), and it also reached the highest heavy metal solubilization (Ni 33.76%; Cu 66.16%; Zn 65.49%). While the total bioleaching rate of the R-A group was slower than those of the S-A group and the SC-A group, these experiment groups with inoculum added all reached almost the same heavy metal solubilization at the end of the bioleaching experiment (Fig. 2). Solubilizations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and distribution of heavy metal forms before and after bioleaching. H represents sediment without bioleaching treatment. The triangle represents the solubilization of each group For the three heavy metals studied, the heavy metal solubilization percentage was in decreasing order: Cu > Zn > Ni (Additional file 1: Fig. S1), Zn and Cu were likely to be leached while Ni was least likely to be leached, which was similar to previous studies [23, 24]. The logistic formula (1) can fit the heavy metal bioleaching curve very well (see Table 2 for detailed parameters of curve fitting). Formula (2) can be used to calculate the time required for each sulfur substrate to reach the bioleaching end point. Formula (1) can be used to obtain Vmax (mg/kg/day) and the time it appears (T_{{V_{hbox{max} } }}) (day). According to Table 2, the Vmax was related to the heavy metal leached. The Vmax of the three heavy metals in the increasing order was Zn > Cu > Ni. Chen et al. [37] found that the higher the initial heavy metals contend in the sediment, the faster the Vmax, which was consistent with our result. The SC-A group had the fastest acidification rate, SO42− production rate, total bioleaching rate, the largest Vmax and the corresponding shortest (T_{{V_{hbox{max} } }}), and it also reached the highest heavy metal solubilization. In addition, the sulfur substrate could be reused when the sulfur-covered biochar particles were recycled. All of these indicated that sulfur-covered biochar particles had superior bioleaching ability and the potential for recycling. In order to test the bioleaching functional bacteria immobilization effect of sulfur-covered biochar particles, samples were collected for microbiological analysis in the middle of the experiment (Day 4) and the end of the experiment (Day 9). The integrated high-throughput absolute abundance quantification (iHAAQ) technology was used to investigate the changes in the flora structure and abundance during bioleaching (Fig. 3). The result showed that the absolute abundance of top 30 microorganisms in the SC-A group was less than the S-A group in the middle of the experiment. Among the dominant microorganisms associated with bioleaching, only Acidithiobacillus and Sulfuritalea were more abundant in the SC-A group. However, the situation reversed at the end of the experiment, the sulfur-covered biochar particles of the SC-A group enriched higher abundance of the top 30 microorganisms, regardless of whether they were related to bioleaching. The fold change of the absolute abundance of the SC-A group vs. the S-A group. The numbers 4 and 9 represent the sample of the Day 4 and the Day 9 At the same time, we performed scanning electron microscope observations of the sulfur-covered biochar particles recycled from the first round of bioleaching. The observation showed that large amount of rod-shaped microorganisms was immobilized on the surface of the sulfur-covered biochar particles, and the sulfur layer on the surface became rough and complicated due to metabolism of the bioleaching bacteria (Fig. 4). The scanning electron microscope result of the SC-A group on the Day 9. The magnifications of a and b were (×1000) and (×5000), respectively In order to investigate the feasibility of reusing the sulfur-covered biochar particles in multiple bioleaching rounds, the sulfur-covered biochar particles used in the first bioleaching round were recycled to be reused in the second and the third round of bioleaching, meanwhile no more sulfur substrate and sludge-enriched inoculum were added. The results showed that both the first round and the second round could reach pH < 2.5 when it came to Day 9, but the pH value of the third bioleaching round only reached 3.5 when the experiment came to an end. Although the final pH values of the first round and the second round were very close, the SO42− production of the second round was much lower than the first round, and the SO42− production rate of the third round stayed flat. At the end of the second bioleaching round, the heavy metals solubilization was Ni 32.84%, Cu 69.93% and Zn 67.17%, while only Ni 20.09%, Cu 10.28% and Zn 37.20% in the third round. Therefore, the recycled sulfur-covered biochar particles could support the second round of bioleaching, and the heavy metals solubilization was satisfied. When it came to an end of the third bioleaching round, only 20.25% elemental sulfur still remained on the biochar particles. It is generally accepted that the solubilization of the acid-soluble metal sulfides is caused by the attack of the proton (the “polysulfide pathway”) [25, 26], while the acid-insoluble metal sulfides are dissolved by the combination of oxidative attack and proton attack (the “thiosulfate pathway”) [27]. Therefore, we can investigate the acidification rate and the production of SO42− to judge the bioleaching of heavy metals from the side, and the result showed that the faster the pH declined, the faster the SO42− was produced, indicating that the acidification of the system was caused by the oxidation of sulfur to produce H2SO4. Sulfur powder is highly hydrophobic and difficult to disperse in the liquid phase, but it has a large specific surface area, so it is more prone to adsorb microorganisms and promote their growth, and its production rate of SO42− tends to be fast [9]. However, the acidification rate and SO42− production rate of the S-A group were slower than the SC-A group. Many studies have reported that the biochar is redox-active due to its quinone group and aromatic structure [28,29,30]. We performed Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the biochar particles used in the experiment. The results showed that the infrared absorption peak appeared at 1610 cm−1, indicating the existence of quinone structure (Additional file 1: Fig S2). The electron transfer in the process of microbial oxidation of elemental sulfur could be enhanced, resulting from the transformation of the oxidation and reduction states of quinone structure. Therefore, the comparable acidification rate of sulfur-covered biochar particles and sulfur powder may result from the acceleration of sulfur oxidation rate, especially when microbial oxidation was happening at the same time. Rhamnolipid is a biological surfactant commonly produced by strains of the genus Pseudomonas. The release of this biological surfactant promotes emulsification of the hydrocarbon phase, rendering such lipophilic molecules available to the metabolic pathways of microorganisms [31]. However, the R-A group did not show a significant effect in promoting the bioleaching acidification. This could be caused by the organic matters the rhamnolipid contained, which inhibit the autotrophic metabolism of indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. The growth of bioleaching functional strains could be inhibited by organic compounds such as pyruvic acid, citric acid, oxaloacetic acid, and glucose [32,33,34,35]. A large proportion of Cu in the sediment sample existed in the organic state (49.14%), and Zn mostly existed in exchangeable, carbonate-bound, and iron–manganese oxidation states (57.30%). In this case, Zn and Cu had high bioleaching levels in the experiment. The research found that the residual state was the most difficult form to be leached [36, 37], this is because that heavy metals in the residual form bound to a resistant crystal structure rarely contact sulfuric acid [38]. Therefore, the amount of the residual form determined the upper limit of the bioleaching of heavy metals and Ni mostly existing in the residual form was the most difficult metal to be leached. The kind of sulfur substrate affected the acidification rate, which in turn affected the total bioleaching rate, and the distribution of the initial form of the heavy metal determined the level of heavy metal solubilization in bioleaching. This explained why three experiment groups had different total bioleaching rate, but they all reached similar heavy metal solubilization and the distribution of heavy metal form in the sediment after bioleaching. Extraction of metals by anionic surfactant rhamnolipid through solubilization has been known and previously applied with effective results [39,40,41]. However, the R-A group did not show significant effect in promoting heavy metal solubilization in the research. This may be because that as the pH in the bioleaching system declined, the water solubility, surface tension and the number of heavy metal binding sites of the rhamnolipid continued to decrease [40, 42]. Otherwise, the complicated competitive ions and ligands in the sediment system were important factors affecting the adsorption and solubilization of heavy metals by rhamnolipid. The microbiological analysis and the scanning electron microscope result proved that the sulfur-covered biochar particles could enrich and immobilize bioleaching functional bacteria from the sediment. The reason why sulfur-covered biochar particles could immobilize large amount of bacteria may be related to its carrier bamboo biochar. Biochar contains a series of nutrients (such as K+, Mg2+, Na+, N, P, etc.), and because of its negative surface charge, it can also absorb salt ions in the surrounding environment to provide nutrients for microorganisms [43]. The adsorption of heavy metals leached during the bioleaching process on the biochar could reduce heavy metals bioavailability, which alleviated their toxicity to the microorganisms [44, 45]. Besides, the large specific surface area and the high pore volume of the biochar can provide safe and suitable microenvironment for microorganisms to grow [46]. Otherwise, the sulfur melted on the surface of the bamboo biochar particles provided the elemental sulfur as sulfur substrate while also expanding the reaction area to a certain extent. Therefore, compared with sulfur powder, the addition of sulfur-covered biochar particles had a stronger promotion effect on the growth of sulfur-oxidizing autotrophs. The recycled sulfur-covered biochar particles had satisfied bioleaching performance in the second round of bioleaching, but their sulfur content became the main limiting factor in the third or more rounds. Similar conclusion could also be obtained by combining the distribution figure of the elemental sulfur in different rounds (Fig. 5). In addition, we found that there was still much elemental sulfur that was not converted to SO42− but was wasted or converted to other sulfur compounds remained in the sediment, which indicated the complexity of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria metabolism during bioleaching process in the sediment. Acidification, SO42− production and the distribution of the elemental sulfur in the three bioleaching rounds (acidification curve: solid line; SO42− concentration: dotted line) The sulfur residue that remained on the biochar particles was different from sulfur powder; it was immobilized on the biochar particles and could be recycled efficiently, which avoided the problem of “post-acidification” and secondary pollution. No inoculum addition during the second bioleaching round indicated that the use of the sulfur-covered biochar particles could also simplify the operational step of the inoculum addition. Nevertheless, the sulfur-covered biochar particles could only maintain two rounds of bioleaching, and the third and more rounds of bioleaching were limited due to insufficient sulfur substrate. In the future research, it is considered to add a small amount of sulfur powder or supplement new sulfur-covered biochar particles to maintain a necessary sulfur content in the subsequent rounds of bioleaching, so as to achieve the reuse of the sulfur-covered biochar particles. In the current chemical fertilizer industrial production, the production operation of sulfur-covered urea particles is realized, which manifested that the industrial production of the sulfur-covered biochar particles is also practicable. The result showed that the sulfur-covered biochar particles had the fastest acidification rate, SO42− production rate and heavy metal bioleaching rate, and the highest heavy metal solubilization, which resulted from the acceleration of bioleaching reaction by the bioleaching functional bacteria immobilized on the biochar surface. Meanwhile, the dual immobilization of the bioleaching functional bacteria and the sulfur layer on the sulfur-covered biochar particles realized their recycling and their reuse in the second bioleaching round. In the future research, a small amount of sulfur powder or new sulfur-covered biochar particles will be supplemented to achieve more rounds of recycling of the sulfur-covered biochar particles, so as to maintain the reuse of the sulfur-covered biochar particles, to overcome the “post-acidification” problem and simplify the steps of the repetitive addition of bioleaching inoculum during the operation of the bioleaching sequencing batch reactor. The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. The sulfur powder groups with inoculum added The sulfur-covered biochar particles groups with inoculum added The sulfur powder mixed with rhamnolipid groups with inoculum added The control groups The control groups with inoculum added The NaN3 groups The authors acknowledge the National Science and Technology Major Project 2017ZX07206-003 and the National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 41877463 and 21677123) for their financial support for this study. The study was supported financially by the National Science and Technology Major Project 2017ZX07206-003 and the National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 41877463 and 21677123). CCW performed all experiments, analyzed the data and was a major contributor to writing the manuscript. LPL was major contributor to supervision, guided the laboratory experiments and contributed to writing the manuscript. MYJ guided the bioleaching experiment and contributed to writing the manuscript. LCH, YCC, YTS helped with the experiment. HZW, QL, CFS, and BLH contributed to supervision and writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Liping Lou. Not applicable. Not applicable. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received: 02 January 2020 Accepted: 24 April 2020 Published: 06 May 2020 ## Fine Biochar Powder Market Segmentation And Analysis By Recent Trends, Development Trends … 7 May, 2020 Detailed Analysis & SWOT analysis, Fine Biochar PowderMarket Trends 2020, Fine Biochar PowderMarket Growth 2020, Fine Biochar PowderIndustry Share 2020, Fine Biochar PowderIndustry Size, Fine Biochar PowderMarket Research, Fine Biochar PowderMarket Analysis,Fine Biochar Powder market Report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process of whole Enterprise Aluminum Lithium Alloys market. Overview of the “Fine Biochar Powder” Market: – Report on the “Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Insights, Forecast to 2025 Global Fine Biochar Powder market size will increase to Million US$ by 2025, from Million US$in 2018, at a CAGR of during the forecast period. In this study, 2018 has been considered as the base year and 2019 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Fine Biochar Powder.This report researches the worldwide Fine Biochar Powder market size (value, capacity, production and consumption) in key regions like United States, Europe, Asia Pacific (China, Japan) and other regions.This study categorizes the global Fine Biochar Powder breakdown data by manufacturers, region, type and application, also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis. Top most List manufacturers/ Key player/ Economy by Business Leaders Leading Players of Fine Biochar Powder Market Are: Get a Sample PDF of Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/13898718 Fine Biochar Powder Market Segment by Type covers: Fine Biochar Powder Market Segment by Applications can be divided into: Fill the Pre-Order Enquiry form for the report @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/13898718 Fine Biochar Powder Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers Look into Table of Content of Fine Biochar Powder Market Report @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/TOC/13898718#TOC Report Answers Following Questions: Fine Biochar Powder Market Historic Data (2013-2019): Fine Biochar Powder Market Influencing Factors: Fine Biochar Powder Market Forecast (2019-2024): Purchase Fine Biochar Powder Market Report$ 3900 (Single User License)

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7 May, 2020

## How can biomass energy be negative to the environment

7 May, 2020

How Architects Help the Environment and Save Energy …

The architect / engineer can design both robot and habitat, creating a secure ecology with a role in which the robots might succeed. Edge conditions are very specialized habitats where the occupants can communicate and co-operate to regulate energy use. Edge conditions

https://www.altenergymag.com/article/2013/07/how-architects-help-the-environment-and-save-energy/1276/

Energy from biomass: the potentialities, environmental …

· Energy from biomass: the potentialities, environmental aspects and technology G. Genon, D. Panepinto & F. Viggiano Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Italy Abstract In the perspective of the production of energy and the satisfaction of different.

https://www.witpress.com/Secure/elibrary/papers/EQ14/EQ14093FU2.pdf

Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies …

· All energy sources have some impact on our environment. Fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—do substantially more harm than renewable energy sources by most measures, including air and water pollution, damage to public health, wildlife and habitat loss, water use, land use, and global warming emissions. However, renewable sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, biomass

https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/environmental-impacts-renewable-energy-technologies

Biochar – A Carbon Negative Biomass Energy – FutureEnTech

Biochar can contribute significantly to securing a future supply of green energy because it can effectively retain nutrients and promote an environment in the soil that will enhance plant growth. As per estimates, 2.2 gigatons of carbon will be sequestered by 2050 and around 12 percent of global GHG emissions could be offset with biochar energy.

https://futureentech.com/biochar-carbon-negative-biomass-energy/

(PDF) Mesopotamia Environmental Journal Effect of Biomass …

Biomass gasification is a proficient technology able to convert any kind of biomass into valuable products and can contribute extensively to renewable energy generation.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281287855_Mesopotamia_Environmental_Journal_Effect_of_Biomass_Gasification_on_Environment

The biomass industry should come clean about its …

The biomass industry should come clean about its environmental impact a major review that showed that while energy crops, residues, and wastes can be low Biomass and bioenergy Environment.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/blog/2013/may/03/biomass-industry-environmental-impact

How Renewable Energy Choices Impact the Environment – …

Biomass and agriculture waste can be recycle through briquette press machine and convert into biomass energy which is renewable source of energy and Eco friendly in nature.A Solar panel is typically a panel that absorbs solar energy and uses it as a source of energy to generate electricity.

How Renewable Energy Choices Impact the Environment

What Is Biomass Energy? | Spring Power & Gas

Biomass energy is a type of renewable energy that can be drawn from organic materials. Biomass can either be burned or converted into liquid or gas form, which forms are called biofuels and biogas. What makes this energy so accessible and renewable is the long list of materials that the energy is drawn.

What Is Biomass Energy?

Striking the right balance: Facilitating sustainable …

· Biomass is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, but as a recently published JRC report has demonstrated, finding an equilibrium between the benefits and the possible negative impacts the increased use of biomass might have on the environment, is vital. Biomass can contribute to the decarbonisation of heating but also to air pollution.

https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/news/striking-right-balance-facilitating-sustainable-biomass-use-domestic-heating-danube-region

Biomass explained – U.S. Energy Information Administration …

Converting biomass to energy. Solid biomass, such as wood and garbage, can be burned directly to produce heat.Biomass can also be converted into a gas called biogas or into liquid biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. These fuels can then be burned for energy. Biogas forms when paper, food scraps, and yard waste decompose in landfills, and it can be produced by processing sewage and animal.

https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/biomass/

## Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Status (2015-2019) and Forecast (2020-2024) by Region, Product …

7 May, 2020

CREDENCE RESEARCH REPORTS recently broadcasted a new study in its database that highlights the in-depth market analysis with future prospects of Biochar Fertilizer market. The study covers significant data which makes the research document a handy resource for managers, industry executives and other key people get ready-to-access and self-analyzed study along with graphs and tables to help understand market trends, drivers and market challenges. Some of the key players mentioned in this research are Biogrow Limited  Anulekh  GreenBack  Global Harvest Organics LLC  Pacific Biochar  American BioChar  Pyrotech Energy  AIRTERRA  MBD Industries.

The research covers the current market size of the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market and its growth rates based on 5 year history data. It also covers various types of segmentation such as by geography North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific etc., by product type Organic Fertilizer  Inorganic Fertilizer  Compound Fertilizer, by applications Cereals  Oil Crops  Fruits and Vegetables  Others in overall market. The in-depth information by segments of Biochar Fertilizer market helps monitor performance & make critical decisions for growth and profitability. It provides information on trends and developments, focuses on markets and materials, capacities, technologies, CAPEX cycle and the changing structure of the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market.

This study also contains company profiling, product picture and specifications, sales, market share and contact information of various international, regional, and local vendors of Global Biochar Fertilizer Market. The market competition is constantly growing higher with the rise in technological innovation and M&A activities in the industry. Moreover, many local and regional vendors are offering specific application products for varied end-users. The new vendor entrants in the market are finding it hard to compete with the international vendors based on quality, reliability, and innovations in technology.

** The Values marked with XX is confidential data. To know more about CAGR figures fill in your information so that our business development executive can get in touch with you.

Global Biochar Fertilizer (Thousands Units) and Revenue (Million USD) Market Split by Product Type such as Global Biochar Fertilizer Market

The research study is segmented by Application such as Laboratory, Industrial Use, Public Services & Others with historical and projected market share and compounded annual growth rate.
Global Biochar Fertilizer (Thousands Units) by Application (2017-2022)

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), and market share and growth rate of Biochar Fertilizer in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering

Read Detailed Index of full Research Study at @ [ReportURL]

Additionally, the export and import policies that can make an immediate impact on the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market. This study contains a EXIM* related chapter on the Biochar Fertilizer market and all its associated companies with their profiles, which gives valuable data pertaining to their outlook in terms of finances, product portfolios, investment plans, and marketing and business strategies. The report on the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market is an important document for every market enthusiast, policymaker, investor, and player.

Key questions answered in this report — Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Data Survey Report 2025

What will the market size be in 2022 and what will the growth rate be?
What are the key market trends?
What is driving Global Biochar Fertilizer Market?
What are the challenges to market growth?
Who are the key vendors in Global Biochar Fertilizer Market space?
What are the key market trends impacting the growth of the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market?
What are the key outcomes of the five forces analysis of the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market?

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There are 15 Chapters to display the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market.

Chapter 1, to describe Definition, Specifications and Classification of Biochar Fertilizer, Applications of Biochar Fertilizer, Market Segment by Regions;

Chapter 2, to analyze the Manufacturing Cost Structure, Raw Material and Suppliers, Manufacturing Process, Industry Chain Structure;

Chapter 3, to display the Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Biochar Fertilizer, Capacity and Commercial Production Date, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status and Technology Source, Raw Materials Sources Analysis;

Chapter 4, to show the Overall Market Analysis, Capacity Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment);

Chapter 5 and 6, to show the Regional Market Analysis that includes North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific etc., Biochar Fertilizer Segment Market Analysis (by Type);

Chapter 7 and 8, to analyze the Biochar Fertilizer Segment Market Analysis (by Application) Major Manufacturers Analysis of Biochar Fertilizer;

Chapter 9, Market Trend Analysis, Regional Market Trend, Market Trend by Product Type Organic Fertilizer  Inorganic Fertilizer  Compound Fertilizer, Market Trend by Application Cereals  Oil Crops  Fruits and Vegetables  Others ;

Chapter 10, Regional Marketing Type Analysis, International Trade Type Analysis, Supply Chain Analysis;

Chapter 11, to analyze the Consumers Analysis of Biochar Fertilizer;

Chapter 12, to describe Biochar Fertilizer Research Findings and Conclusion, Appendix, methodology and data source;

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Biochar Fertilizer sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

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## Tag – Biochar Market

7 May, 2020

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## Global Biochar Fuel Market 2020 – Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Strategies and Forecast to 2025

7 May, 2020

This high-end research comprehension on World Biochar Fuel Market Research Report 2022 (covering USA, Europe, China, Japan, India, South East Asia and etc) presents an all in all compilation of the historical, current and future outlook of the market and the factors responsible for such a growth. The report is directed to arm report readers with conclusive judgment on the potential of mentioned factors that propel growth in the global Biochar Fuel market. In its subsequent sections of this detailed research report on market states information on regional segmentation, as well as thoughtful perspectives on region-specific developments, leading market players’ objectives to trigger maximum revenue generation and profits. The study highlights development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status.

Market Segmentation:

The report presents a thorough inspection of historical and futuristic market scenarios that covers information on key players, key sections, and market dynamics. A breakdown of the global Biochar Fuel market has been given by product type, application, and region. The segmental analysis offers specific details on market development and demand for applications and products that players may concentrate on their industrial growth.

Based on type, the market has been segmented into: Fine Biochar Fuel Powder, Granular Biochar Fuel, Big Chip Biochar Fuel,

Based on application, the market has been segmented into: Agriculture, Energy Production, Environmental Protection, Others,

The report investigates the development, trends, and new entrants in the sector, with elaborate profiles of the leading companies operating in the market, including Biochar Fuel Products, Agri-Tech Producers, Hawaii Biochar Fuel, Pacific Biochar Fuel, The Biochar Fuel Company (TBC), Cool Planet Energy Systems, Walking Point, Ec6Grow, RAUCH INTERNATIONAL, Diacarbon Energy, Vega Biofuels

Geographically, the global Biochar Fuel market is segmented into USA, Europe, Japan, China, India, South East Asia. This report forecasts revenue growth at a global, regional & country level, and provides an analysis of the market trends in each of the sub-segments from 2020 to 2025.

An Outline of the Major Key Points of the Market Report:

Analysis of the competitive backdrop of the global Biochar Fuel market is provided in the report. The research comprises products developed, industries they cater to, and the strategies they adopt. Data related to organizations such as the sales amassed by the manufacturers have also been mentioned. The report offers data related to the firm’s price models along with gross margins. The research report presents data regarding products and market share of the product segments. Moreover, the application landscape has been elaborated in the report. The report offers information such as production value, strategies adopted by market players and products/services they provide.

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## A comparison and evaluation of the effects of biochar on the anaerobic digestion of excess and …

7 May, 2020

This study provided a novel method to cultivate excess sludge to anaerobic sludge.

100% biochar and excess sludge can substitute anaerobic sludge as inoculum.

Biochar selectively enriched Trichococcus and Methanomicrobiales in excess sludge.

This study provided a novel method to cultivate excess sludge to anaerobic sludge.

100% biochar and excess sludge can substitute anaerobic sludge as inoculum.

Biochar selectively enriched Trichococcus and Methanomicrobiales in excess sludge.

The mechanisms and enhancing effects of different biochar loadings on the digesters receiving low and high excess (or anaerobic) sludge loadings were thoroughly examined in the present study. This was done to explore an efficient method for converting excess sludge to anaerobic sludge. Biochar had an obvious effect on the anaerobic digestion of excess sludge but not on the anaerobic sludge. When the amount of biochar added was equivalent to 100% of the sludge TS, the cumulative methane yields of anaerobic digestion inoculated with small and large amounts of excess sludge were respectively 30.2 and 1.7 times that of those without biochar. The number of methanogens in the digesters that received small and large inoculations of excess sludge with 100% biochar, were respectively 105.4% and 20.6% higher than those without biochar. The biochar enhanced the systems performance because it selectively enriched the Trichococcus and Methanomicrobiales tightly attach to it. This enhanced the synergy and overall activity of the system by promoting biofilm development. Ultimately, the integration of 100% biochar and excess sludge can be used as a substitute for anaerobic sludge as an inoculum by giving similar overall performance.

These authors contributed equally to this article and are joint first authors.

## (Salix viminalis L.) and Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus)

7 May, 2020

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Saletnik, B.; Zaguła, G.; Saletnik, A.; Bajcar, M.; Puchalski, C. Biochar and Ash Fertilization Alter the Chemical Properties of Basket Willow (Salix viminalis L.) and Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus). Agronomy 2020, 10, 660.

Saletnik B, Zaguła G, Saletnik A, Bajcar M, Puchalski C. Biochar and Ash Fertilization Alter the Chemical Properties of Basket Willow (Salix viminalis L.) and Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus). Agronomy. 2020; 10(5):660.

Saletnik, Bogdan; Zaguła, Grzegorz; Saletnik, Aneta; Bajcar, Marcin; Puchalski, Czesław. 2020. “Biochar and Ash Fertilization Alter the Chemical Properties of Basket Willow (Salix viminalis L.) and Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus).” Agronomy 10, no. 5: 660.

7 May, 2020

## Biochar: A cheapest and Eco-friendly source of fertilizers.

7 May, 2020

The change in climate is due to the emanation of different gases which is a serious threat to all lives. Biochar is a kind of fine-grained charcoal formed by the burning of wood and agricultural byproducts gradually at a low temperature. It acts as a soil amendment that ameliorates the carbon confiscation in soil and also reduces the carbon emission. Gardeners can improve the soil structure by the application of biochar as it makes the soil more efficient and holds nutrients i,e. magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen & makes them more accessible to plants. Burn the available residues from your field and wait until the smoke is turned grayish blue and material is burned and then wrap it with about one inch of garden soil. Let the material to smolder and charcoal formed. Slake the remaining fire with water. Now It can be used as a fertilizer by mixing with compost pile.

Growing vegetables and pulses in interspaces of the fruit trees enable farmers to utilize not …

7 May, 2020

## Short-term effects of biochar on soil CO2 efflux in boreal Scots pine forests

7 May, 2020

May 6, 2020 Dataset Open Access

Xudan Zhu

This dataset includes all the data we collected at the first summer after biochar application in boreal forests. Our paper“ the effect of biochar on soil CO2 efflux in boreal forests“ now is under review in Annals of Forest Science. Biochar prepared at two reaction temperatures was applied at three rates (including non-amended controls). During the first year after treatment, efflux increased with higher rates of biochar, but the reaction temperature had no effect. o explain char effects on efflux, soil moisture and temperature were also added to the model testing treatment effects. These environmental variables explained more of the variation in efflux and caused treatment to no longer have a significant effect. Based on this result, we concluded that soil temperature explains the effect of char on efflux.

## Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size

7 May, 2020

The Global Biochar Fertilizer Market poised to grow from USD xx million in 2020 to USD xx million by 2026 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of xx% during the projection period of 2020-2026.
The report states that the Biochar Fertilizer market condition and market forces acting across the industry. Analysts use the most recent primary and secondary research techniques and tools to arrange comprehensive and accurate marketing research reports. The research study also includes other types of analysis such as qualitative and quantitative. All proportion of shares and breakdowns are determined using secondary sources and verified primary sources. The report could be a collection of first-hand info, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, and industry participants across the value chain.

8 May, 2020

## Fine Biochar Powder Market 2020 Global Industry Size, Recent Trends, Demand and Share …

8 May, 2020

Global “Fine Biochar Powder Market” 2020 Industry Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Global Fine Biochar Powder industry. Moreover, research report categorizes the global Fine Biochar Powder market by top players/brands, region, type and end user. Fine Biochar Powder Market report also tracks the latest market dynamics, such as driving factors, restraining factors, and industry news like mergers, acquisitions, and investments. It provides market size (value and volume), market share, growth rate by types, applications, and combines both qualitative and quantitative methods to make micro and macro forecasts in different regions or countries.

Get a sample copy of the report at — https://www.researchreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-sample/15417446

The global Fine Biochar Powder market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2020 and 2026. In 2020, the market was growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

The report also tracks the latest market dynamics, such as driving factors, restraining factors, and industry news like mergers, acquisitions, and investments. Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Size (value and volume), market share, growth rate by types, applications, and combines both qualitative and quantitative methods to make micro and macro forecasts in different regions or countries.

The report can help to understand the market and strategize for business expansion accordingly. In the strategy analysis, it gives insights from marketing channel and market positioning to potential growth strategies, providing in-depth analysis for new entrants or exists competitors in the Fine Biochar Powder industry.

Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Report 2020 provides exclusive vital statistics, data, information, trends and competitive landscape details in this niche sector.

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List Of TOP KEY PLAYERS in Fine Biochar Powder Market Report are

The report also focuses on global major leading industry players of Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Share providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. With tables and figures helping analyse worldwide Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Forecast this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

The Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Trends, development and marketing channels are analysed. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed and overall research conclusions offered.

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into

On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including

Major regions covered in the report:

1 Report Overview
1.1 Study Scope
1.2 Key Market Segments
1.3 Regulatory Scenario by Region/Country
1.4 Market Investment Scenario Strategic
1.5 Market Analysis by Type
1.5.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Share by Type (2020-2026)
1.5.2 Wood Source Biochar
1.5.3 Corn  Source Biochar
1.5.4 Wheat  Source Biochar
1.5.5 Others
1.6 Market by Application
1.6.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Share by Application (2020-2026)
1.6.2 Soil Conditioner
1.6.3 Fertilizer
1.6.4 Others

2. Global Market Growth Trends
2.1 Industry Trends
2.1.1 SWOT Analysis
2.1.2 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
2.2 Potential Market and Growth Potential Analysis
2.3 Industry News and Policies by Regions
2.3.1 Industry News
2.3.2 Industry Policies

3 Value Chain of Fine Biochar Powder Market
3.1 Value Chain Status
3.2 Fine Biochar Powder Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis
3.2.1 Production Process Analysis
3.2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure of Fine Biochar Powder
3.2.3 Labor Cost of Fine Biochar Powder
3.3 Sales and Marketing Model Analysis
3.4 Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)

4 Players Profiles
4.1 The Biochar Company
4.1.1 The Biochar Company Basic Information
4.1.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.1.3 The Biochar Company Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.1.4 The Biochar Company Business Overview
4.2 Carbon Terra
4.2.1 Carbon Terra Basic Information
4.2.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.2.3 Carbon Terra Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.3 BlackCarbon
4.3.1 BlackCarbon Basic Information
4.3.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.3.3 BlackCarbon Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.4 Agri-Tech Producers
4.4.1 Agri-Tech Producers Basic Information
4.4.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.4.3 Agri-Tech Producers Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.5 Cool Planet
4.5.1 Cool Planet Basic Information
4.5.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.5.3 Cool Planet Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.6 Biochar Now
4.6.1 Biochar Now Basic Information
4.6.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.6.3 Biochar Now Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.7 Swiss Biochar GmbH
4.7.1 Swiss Biochar GmbH Basic Information
4.7.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.7.3 Swiss Biochar GmbH Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.7.4 Swiss Biochar GmbH Business Overview
4.8 Kina
4.8.1 Kina Basic Information
4.8.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.8.3 Kina Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.9 BioChar Products
4.9.1 BioChar Products Basic Information
4.9.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.9.3 BioChar Products Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.10 Diacarbon Energy
4.10.1 Diacarbon Energy Basic Information
4.10.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.10.3 Diacarbon Energy Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.11 ElementC6
4.11.1 ElementC6 Basic Information
4.11.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.11.3 ElementC6 Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)
4.12 Carbon Gold
4.12.1 Carbon Gold Basic Information
4.12.2 Fine Biochar Powder Product Profiles, Application and Specification
4.12.3 Carbon Gold Fine Biochar Powder Market Performance (2015-2020)

5 Global Fine Biochar Powder Market Analysis by Regions
5.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Regions
5.1.1 Global Fine Biochar Powder Sales by Regions (2015-2020)
5.1.2 Global Fine Biochar Powder Revenue by Regions (2015-2020)

…………Continued

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## Global Wood Vinegar Industry Market 2020 Top Manufactures, Growth Opportunities and …

8 May, 2020

The report titled Global Wood Vinegar Industry Market delivers a far-reaching investigation of the market, comprising an analytical knowledge on key trends. The report highlights essential market dynamics, including growth drivers, restraints, and opportunities. The report covers the overwhelming players in the market combined with their Wood Vinegar Industry market share. The report understands market competition, segmentation, geographical expansion, regional growth, market size, and other factors. A complete bifurcation product, its end-users, applications have been given in the report.

NOTE: This report takes into account the current and future impacts of COVID-19 on this industry and offers you an in-depth analysis of Global Wood Vinegar Industry Market.

Report Description:

The report provides reliable information about every segment of growth, development, production, demand, types, application of the specific product. Downstream consumers and upstream materials scrutiny are also carried out. The research has mentioned the complete profile of the manufacturers. The report helps in understanding Global Wood Vinegar Industry market dynamics, structure by identifying and analyzing the market segments and projecting the global market size. Further, with the presence of several players, the global market is fragmented. Influential market dynamics across regional segments are demonstrated in the report, with their magnitudes differing from country to country. The report also gives information on the strategic alliances, acquisitions, mergers, expansion initiatives, SWOT analysis, key innovations, product developments, and company overview of the market players.

This report covers leading companies associated in the market: Tagrow, Taiko Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., DaeSeung, VerdiLife LLC, Nettenergy B.V., Applied Gaia, Sigma Aldrich, Agribolics Technology Sdn Bhd, and Byron Biochar.

Region Focused:

The report provides market size and forecast until 2027 for the overall global Wood Vinegar Industry market with respect to five major regions, namely; North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, and the Middle East and Africa. The market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. The report covers the analysis and forecast of major counties globally along with the current trend and opportunities prevailing in the region.

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share, and growth rate of each type, while On the basis of the end users/applications, this global Wood Vinegar Industry market report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share, market growth rate for each application. The report provides an accurate calculation and forecast of sales by type and application in terms of volume and value for the period between 2020 and 2027.

Our experienced team of analysts, researchers, and consultants use proprietary data sources and various tools and techniques to gather and analyze information. The report demonstrates financial usage, the quantity of product, chain format, demand, and supply ratio. The report analyzes the important changes in consumer behavior and its business impact by market participants on development strategies. Recent developments in the global Wood Vinegar Industry market, products, revenue, production, business, and company are assessed.

Moreover, the report examines product positioning, customers’ perception of market competition, customer segmentation, consumer buying behavior, customer needs, and target customers.  The report identifies the various tactics leveraged by players of the global Wood Vinegar Industry market. The market impact on various industries has been comprehensively assessed within the report.

Customization of the Report:This report can be customized to meet the client’s requirements. Please connect with our sales team (sales@fiormarkets.com), who will ensure that you get a report that suits your needs.

## A Novel Combined Gasifier/Carbonization Reactor for Production of Biogas and Biochar

8 May, 2020

Project title: A Novel Combined Gasifier/Carbonization Reactor for Production of Biogas and Biochar

Starting date: September, 2019.

End date: September, 2020.

PI: Dr. Ahmed Elwardany

Funded by: STDF

Summary:

Egypt produces several million tons of biomass wastes annually. This include agriculture wastes and industrial wastes from food processing companies. These wastes are disposed of in improper ways including rogue burning in open air that causes environmental problems as “black cloud”.  Many methods could be followed to convert wastes to energy resources. This include thermochemical and biochemical processes.  Thermochemical processes are preferred over biochemical ones as there is no need to use chemicals during the conversion process. Among different thermochemical processes gasification and pyrolysis (carbonization) are of interest in the current research proposal. Gasification is usually carried out by partial burning of waste in lean environment (temperature may reach 1000 °C) while carbonization is heating waste in the absence of oxygen to remove volatiles and increase carbon content (temperatures > 200 °C). Both processes are using part of the waste to be accomplished, either by incomplete combustion or for heating for both gasification and carbonization, respectively. The focus of the project is to minimize the part of waste that is used for heating biomass waste or other wastes in carbonization. This will occur by combining both gasifier and carbonization reactors in a single unit to utilize the heat in the product biogas to heating up the wastes in the carbonization reactors.

Three different designs are proposed for the novel combined gasification/carbonization (CGC) reactor. They will be tested numerically using ANSYS Fluent CFD code to ensure homogeneity of temperature profiles inside the carbonization part of the CGC reactor. The air flow rates to gasifier and inert gas (nitrogen) to carbonization reactor will be optimized. The optimum design will be fabricated and equipped with mass flow meters (air and nitrogen) and thermocouples in different places of the CGC reactor to monitor operating parameters. The produced biochar will be weighed, and its calorific value will be measured. The biogas composition will be analyzed using GC-MS.

Along with biomass, other source of wastes that is existed in large amounts in Egypt and elsewhere in the world is the vehicle’s used tires. The new reactor will be tested with tires and artichoke biomass wastes. The importance of the artichoke wastes comes from its availability in large quantities (3-5 tons/day from single food processing company). The optimum operating condition will be also determined experimentally based on highest energy yield of both biochar and biogas.

An optimized test rig for the novel CGC reactor will be existed and results will be published in international results or a patent will be filed. The new CGC reactor provides a new investment opportunity for small scale projects that fits with youth needs and large-scale industries to get benefit from their companies wastes with higher energy yields than that of conventional methods.

Objectives and Impact:

The objectives of the project could be summarized as:

This project will provide an optimization tool for biochar productions and the ability to further upgrade the produced biochar to an extra-high carbon content material which can be incorporated in semiconductors and electronics industries.

SDGs that the project achieve:

Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy

Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth

## Full Length Article Mechanism of catalytic tar reforming over biochar

8 May, 2020

At the initial feeding (0–20 min), self-gasification leads to biochar weight loss.

The size of coke particles is mainly in the range of 2–5 nm in mesopores.

The in-situ conversion routes of main tar compounds over biochar were analyzed.

Char surface promotes WGSR and CH4-H2O reaction to change syngas component.

At the initial feeding (0–20 min), self-gasification leads to biochar weight loss.

The size of coke particles is mainly in the range of 2–5 nm in mesopores.

The in-situ conversion routes of main tar compounds over biochar were analyzed.

Char surface promotes WGSR and CH4-H2O reaction to change syngas component.

The two-stage fluidized bed/fixed bed reaction system was used to study the evolution characteristics of catalytic tar reforming process over biochar. The effect of different interaction time (feeding time varies within 10–50 min) between volatiles and char on the characteristics of char/tar is considered. InVia-Reflex Raman spectrometer (Raman), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), automatic specific surface and porosity analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) were used to characterize the structural characteristics and alkali metal and alkaline earth metal species (AAEMs) content of biochar. The tar components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and the gas components were monitored by MCA 100 SYN synthetic gas analyzer. The results indicate that the tar removal efficiency of gasification char is over 70% when the interaction time is within 30 min. When corn straw is fed for 40 min, the carbon deposition on the surface of biochar reaches saturation. The size of coke particles is mainly in the range of 2–5 nm, and the structure is mainly small aromatic ring within five rings. During catalytic tar reforming over biochar, the content number of O-containing functional groups and surface K element decrease rapidly. The main removal path of toluene, styrene, phenol and indene in tar is heterogeneous reforming on biochar surface. Carbon deposition results in the increase of biochar external surface area (73.8 m2/g to 158.1 m2/g). The homogeneous reforming of styrene and toluene on biochar surface is enhanced. Under the catalysis of biochar surface, the self-gasification of biochar, water–gas shift reaction and methane steam reforming reaction are all promoted. This results in the increase of CO, CO2 and H2 yield (9.68%, 52.38% and 69.63%), as well as the decrease of CH4 yield (25.23%) in the syngas of corn straw gasification.

## Biochar for lawn

8 May, 2020

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## Biochar Fine Granules Market 2020 by Company, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2024

8 May, 2020

The report on Biochar Fine Granules, gives an in-depth analysis of Global Biochar Fine Granules Market based on aspects that are very important for the market study. Factors like production, market share, revenue rate, regions and key players define a market study start to end. Biochar Fine Granules report gives an overview of market valued in the year 2020 and its growth in the coming years till 2024. It also predicts the CAGR.

Get Sample Copy of This Report at https://www.orbisresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/4431271

Biochar Fine Granules market research report follows a robust methodology to define its market value. This report on Biochar Fine Granules has been very well drafted to benefit anyone studying it. One of the most important aspects focused in this study is the regional analysis. Thus, a market research report can be called a comprehensive guide that helps in better marketing and management of businesses. The report on Global Biochar Fine Granules Market studies and analyses, how well a market has survived and how well it can cope up with challenges that the forecast period can throw at it. It needs to cover all factors right from political, to social to environmental.

Top Key Companies:

Cool Planet Energy Systems
Biochar Supreme
NextChar
Terra Char
CharGrow
Pacific Biochar
Biochar Now
The Biochar Company (TBC)

Browse Full Report with TOC: https://www.orbisresearch.com/reports/index/global-biochar-fine-granules-market-report-2020

Region segmentation of markets helps in detailed analysis of the market in terms of business opportunities, revenue generation potential and future predictions of the market. Making right business decisions is an undeniable measure that needs to be taken for market growth. Biochar Fine Granules market has a set of manufacturers, vendors and consumers that define that market and their every move and achievements becomes a subject of studying for market researchers and other stakeholders.

Major Industry Type:

Wood Source Biochar
Corn Source Biochar
Wheat Source Biochar

Major Industry Application:

Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer

This report on Biochar Fine Granules, also has the market analyzed on the basis of end user applications and type. End user application analysis can also help understand consumer behavior. It’s important to study product application to predict a product’s life cycle. Segment type is also an important aspect of any market research study. Reports are product based, they also includes information on sales channel, distributors, traders and dealers. This helps in efficient planning and execution of supply chain management as it drastically affects the overall operations of any business. Another important aspect of every market research report is the study of the key players or manufacturers driving the market forward. This can also be termed as competitor analysis. This study can benefit investors and business owners in many ways. It studies the business models, strategies, growth, innovations and every information about manufacturers that can help make business predictions and fetch good results.

## Biochar For Environmental Management Science Technology And Implementation

8 May, 2020

Get 1 month free trial using 1MONTHFREE code.

8 May, 2020

## Awards

8 May, 2020

2005 World Petroleum Congress, Runner-Up,Small Company Social Responsibility Award

PNI Nigeria was Highly Commended for the Coastal Development Initiative, which includes the creation of Community Development Foundations, the establishment of the Institute for Sustainable Development and the ‘living university’ concept. In addition, Statoil was the Winner of the Large Company Social Excellence Award for its ongoing support for the Akassa model of community development: a community project based on substantial local participation.

2002 Altran Foundation, First Prize for Technical Innovation

Two billion people around the world use wood for household energy needs. This contributes significantly to the world’s deforestation activities as well as increasing the risk of droughts and desertification. In an attempt to reduce deforestation, Pro-Natura has developed Green-Charcoal. This technological innovation, using agricultural residues and unused biomass, produces an environmentally friendly and economically competitive alternative to wood and charcoal. It has been awarded the 1st Prize 2002 of the Altran Foundation for technological innovation.

1997 Mitchell International Prize

Pro-Natura International was awarded the 1997 Mitchell International Prize by the American Academy of Sciences, in recognition of its efforts to encourage private companies to get involved in biodiversity conservation and sustainable development benefiting communities in tropical forest zones.

## Adsorption of phenanthrene from aqueous solutions by biochar derived from an ammoniation …

8 May, 2020

The ammoniation-hydrothermal method produced biochar with enhanced surface property.

The adsorption capacity for phenanthrene on this new biochar reached 1.97 mg/g.

The ammoniation increased N functionalities on biochar surface as adsorption sites.

Pyridine N in N-doped biochar showed the strongest binding ability with phenanthrene.

The ammoniation-hydrothermal method produced biochar with enhanced surface property.

The adsorption capacity for phenanthrene on this new biochar reached 1.97 mg/g.

The ammoniation increased N functionalities on biochar surface as adsorption sites.

Pyridine N in N-doped biochar showed the strongest binding ability with phenanthrene.

An innovative ammoniation-hydrothermal method of biochar production was developed for the adsorption of phenanthrene (PHE) from aqueous solutions in this paper. Phragmites australis (PA) was used to produce biochar in a hydrothermal kettle at 280 °C in muffle furnace using urea as an ammoniation reagent. Characterizations were executed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to explore its morphological, physical, and chemical properties. Batch experiments of PHE adsorption were carried out to study the adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Quantum chemistry computational simulations were employed based on density functional theory (DFT) to establish and optimize adsorption configurations and analyze the biochar's structural effects on adsorption performance. Results showed that the ammoniation-hydrothermal method produced biochar with a higher surface area and a maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of 1.97 mg/g. The adsorption fitted well with Freundlich isotherm model (R2 > 0.96) and Pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 > 0.82). Adsorption energy calculation revealed that the N functionalities, especially pyridine N in the N-doped biochar structure, exhibited stronger binding ability with PHE, which contributed most to the favorable adsorption ability of the ammoniation-hydrothermal biochar.

## Growth, yield and grain nutrients response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

9 May, 2020

Growth, yield and grain nutrients response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to biochar, lime and farmyard manure amendment of the croplands in southern Ethiopia.

Background: Soil fertility decline in agricultural land is due to intensive cropping system, shortening of the fallow period, reduced manure application, extensive use of crop residues as fuelor fodder and removal of ground cover. This study investigated the effect of biochar (BC), lime and farmyard manure (FYM) on growth, yield and grain nutrient of wheat on two cropland sites in southern Ethiopia.

Result: The effect of site was significant (P < 0.05) for most parameters investigated, indicating the influence of soil type. The effects of BC, lime, and FYM were significant (p ≤ 0.001) on straw yield, grain yield, and total biomass. However, BC (5 tha -1 ) produced the highest straw yield, grain yield, and total biomass.  Similarly, BC and lime significantly (P < 0.001) affected plant height, and tiller numbers and productivity. BC (5 tha -1 ) gave the highest plant height, total tillers, and productive tillers, maximum number of seeds per spike, while FYM (10 tha -1 ) produced the highest spike length. Biochar significantly (P < 0.05) increased the concentrations of P and K in wheat grain. The highest effect on grain Ca concentration was from the application of lime while the highest on grain N concentration was from FYM (10 tha -1 ).

Conclusion: The effect from BC was attributed to improvements in soil pH, CEC, nutrient availability and water retention. Thus BC has a good potential as a soil amendment for smallholder farm crop production.

Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) is globally one of the most important cereal crops in terms of area and production. Ethiopia is the largest wheat producer in sub-Saharan Africa (Minot et al. 2015) covering an estimated area of 1.7 million ha and with an annual production of 4.6 million tons (CSA 2018). Ethiopia’s wheat productivity has increased from 1.3 tha− 1 in 1994 (CSA 1995) to 2.7 tha− 1 in 2018 (CSA 2018). This productivity has grown significantly over the past decades due to government programs and initiatives encouraging agricultural growth and food security. However, the current wheat production is inadequate to fill Ethiopia’s needs (Minot et al. 2015) due to low soil fertility and soil management practices (Gebresselassie 2002). In 2013/14 the country imported 1.39 million metric tons, which equals 34 percent of the domestic production and more than 160 percent of the marketed wheat in the country (Minot et al. 2015).

Soil fertility decline constrains crop production in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). The nutrient balance for SSA appears to be negative because nutrient loses are greater than nutrient inputs (Agegnehu et al. 2014). Intensive cropping systems, shortened fallow periods, reduced manure applications, extensive use of crop residues for fuel or fodder, and removal of ground cover, all lead to soil fertility decline. In addition soils have low fertility due to a low rate of fertilizer use and insufficient organic matter application in a form biochar or compost (Gebrekidan 2003). The major constraints to agricultural production in Ethiopian highlands could be the decline in soil organic matter, nutrient imbalance, as well as soil acidity problems (Agegnehu et al. 2014). The combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer is a productive approach to improve soil fertility (Efthimiadou et al. 2010).

Studies in SSA, including Ethiopia, have reported the effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on crop yield (Efthimiadou et al. 2010; Waseem et al. 2013). The benefits of inorganic fertilizer have been widely demonstrated since the green revolution (Vanlauwe et al. 2010); however, most smallholder farmers in SSA cannot afford the recommended fertilizer. Moreover, the application of inorganic fertilizer alone is not a sustainable solution for improving soil fertility (Agegnehu et al. 2014). Other studies have reported the effect of liming materials on crop yield (Negash and Rezene 2015). Few studies reported the use of farmyard manure (FYM) on grain yield of wheat products (Efthimiadou et al. 2010). Ranva and Singh (2006) investigated the effect of Vermicompost on wheat growth parameters and yield attributes. Enujeke (2013) have investigated the effect of poultry manure on maize productivity in the Asaba area of Delta State.

Biochar (BC) is a C-rich, stable, product obtained by thermal decomposition of plant biomass at a temperature between 400 and 700oC in oxygen-limited combustion (Lehmann and Joseph 2009). Studies have reported the effect of the BC amendment on yield components for a variety of crops in different parts of the world (Agboola and Moses 2015; Haileselassie et al. 2015; Faruqueet al. 2017). For instance, a study by Faruque et al. (2017) investigated the utilization of BC in mulberry plant productivity. The effect of BC was studied on growth and yield attributes in the Mediterranean climate conditions (Manuel et al. 2014). A review of biochar studies indicated that most studies have been carried out in developed countries rather than developing countries (Agegnehu et al. 2016). Few published reports are available on the investigation of the influence of BC on crop yield in SSA (Abewa et al. 2013; Hailesilasie et al. 2015). Therefore, this study’s objective was to investigate the effect of BC, lime, and FYM on growth, yield and nutrient concentrations in the grain and straw of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) at two cropland sites in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

2.1. Experimental site

A field experiment was conducted on agricultural fields at the Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero kebeles of Damot Sore and Sodo Zuria districts of the Wolaita Zone in southern Ethiopia, respectively (Fig. 1). Soddo, the capital of Wolaita zone, is located 329 km south of Addis Ababa. The geographical coordinates of Gununo Hamusis 37°39’0″-37°43’0″E, 6°55’0″-7°5’0″N and Waja Kero at37°40’0″ − 37°45’0″E, 6°50’0″ − 6°55’0″ N. Gununo Hamus is located 44 km southwest of Soddo town, while the Waja Kero is 5 km west of Soddo. The elevation at Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero ranges from 1900 to 2100 m above sea level (asl). The study areas’ topography is level to sloping land with slopes less than 16%. The rainfall in the area is characterized by a bimodal distribution pattern with the main rainy season (Meher) occurring between June and the end of September and Belg, the shorter season, from late February to late March or early April. The mean monthly average temperatures (oC) and mean monthly total rainfall (mm) of one year within the two sites are shown in Fig. 2. According to the FAO/UNESCO soil map of the world, the dominant soil at Gununo Hamus is Ochric Andosol and that of Waja Kero is Eutric Nitisols (http://www.fao.org/geonetwork/srv/en/metadata.show%3 Fid = 14116).

2.2. Experimental materials, treatments and Design

The wheat variety ‘Kakaba’ was used as a test crop which was obtained from the Wolaita zone agricultural office. Lime, BC, and FYM were used as soil amendments. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a factorial arrangement with three replications. The 27 treatments applied included BC, FYM, and lime, with each treatment applied at three rates. Farmyard manure (cow dung decomposed for two months before application) was collected from farms in the study areas. It was manually applied at rates 0, 5, and 10 tha− 1 two weeks before sowing and incorporated into the soil using a spade within 24 hours. Biochar, was finely crushed charcoal, collected from commercial charcoal sellers in Wolaita Soddo town. The charcoal producers use the acacia tree species Acacia penninrvisis (locally called “Odorua”). The biochar was ground and sieved (0.25 mm mesh size) before application. It was manually applied at rates 0, 2, and 5 tha− 1 two weeks before sowing and incorporated within 24 hours using a spade. The limestone CaCO3 with a purity of 98% was used as the source of lime. The (CaCO3) was obtained from the Wolaita Zone Office of Agriculture. Lime was applied at three rates based on the lime requirement determination (LR). It was manually applied to the soil surface (0-15cm) a month before sowing. The lime requirement was determined by the Shoemaker, Mclean, and Pratt (SMP) buffer method to raise the pH to a target value of 6.5 (Shoemaker et al. 1961). Accordingly, pH 5.6 and 5.4 were taken for determining the lime rate used at Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero sites, respectively. After determining the lime requirement, lime was applied at the rates of 0, 2.9, 5.7 tha− 1 at Gununo Hamus and 0, 3.75, 7.5 tha− 1 at Waja Kero.

The inorganic fertilizers were obtained from Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional Bureau of Agriculture and Natural Resources, soil testing laboratory. The mineral fertilizer plots received 120 kg N ha− 1 as urea (46-0-0, N-P-K), 30 kg P ha− 1 as triple superphosphate (0-21-0, N-P-K) and 52 kg K ha− 1 as muriate of potash (0-0-60, N-P-K). Half the N and full P and K were applied just before sowing. The remaining N was applied as a top dressing at the tillering stage (35 days after sowing). All the treatments were assigned randomly to the plots within a block. The spacing between plots and blocks was 0.5 m and 1.5 m, respectively. Wheat was sown at the rate of 100 kg ha− 1 in a plot size of 3 m by 2 m with a row spacing of 20 cm.

2.2.1. Agronomic data collection and measurement

Ten plants were randomly selected from each plot and plant height was measured from the base to the spike tip, excluding awns, and averaged for each plot (Bhatta et al. 2012). From this data, the numbers of total and productive tillers per plant were selected. The effective and non-effective tiller plants were counted from each plot randomly and averaged for each plot. Spike length, excluding the awns, was measured and averaged for each plot. The number of grains per spike was determined, and filled and unfilled grains spike− 1 were counted and averaged for each plot. Total biomass was calculated after sun drying from the total weight of harvest at each plot. Grain yield was measured for each plot after air drying and then weighed and the straw yield obtained by the difference between total biomass and grain yield. Like grain yield, straw yield and total biomass were expressed as kg ha− 1. Yield components were calculated using standard protocols (Pask et al. 2012). From these data, the number of hundred seeds weights were counted from a sample of each plot, after sun drying, and measured by an electrical balance and converted into thousand-grain weights in kg. Harvest index (%) was calculated as the fraction of grain yield to the total biomass times 100, as described by Huhm (1990). Weeds were managed first by hand-weeding followed by two hoeings using a manually operated wheel-hoe. The crop was harvested by hand and separated into grains (yield) and biomass.

2.2.2. Plant tissue analysis

Grain samples were collected from each plot after harvest. The samples were air dried then ground in a stainless steel Wiley mill and sieved (0.5 mm mesh size). Calcium and K were determined following the acid digestion method with H2O2/H2SO4 (Okalebo et al. 2002). Calcium was analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while K was analyzed by flame photometer. Phosphorous was measured following the method in Murphy and Riley (1962). The percent nitrogen content was determined by the Kjeldahl method as described by Jackson (1958).

2.3. Statistical analysis

All of the data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a statistical analysis system (SAS) program (SAS, 2017). The least significant difference (LSD) test was used to separate significantly different treatment mean at P ≤ 0.05level.

3.1. Effect of biochar, lime and farmyard manure on growth parameters

The effect of site was significant (P < 0.05) for all growth parameters, and the effect of amendments was greater for Gununo Hamus than Waja Kero. The effects of BC, lime as well as interaction effects of site x BC, site x FYM, site x BC x FYM and site x BC x lime were highly significant (P < 0.001) on plant height (Table 1). As presented in Table 2, plant height was higher at 5 tha− 1 of BC for both sites. The effects of BC, lime as well as interaction effects of site x BC, site x BC x lime were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on the number of total and productive tillers (Table 1). The total tillers and productive tillers were higher at 5 tha− 1 of BC for both sites (Table 2). Moreover, the effects of BC, FYM, lime and the interaction effects of site x BC, site x FYM and site x lime were significant on spike length and seed per spike (Table 1). The longest spike length was at 10 tha− 1 FYM in both sites (Table 2). Likewise, the maximum number of seeds per spike was at 5 tha− 1 BC in both sites (Table 2).

3.2. Effect of biochar, lime and farmyard manure on yield and yield components

The effect of site was significant (P < 0.001) for most yield and yield components and the effect of amendments was greater for Gununo Hamus than Waja Kero. The effects of BC, FYM, lime as well as interaction effects of site x BC, site x lime and site x BC x lime were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on grain yield, straw yield and total biomass (Table 3). The highest grain yield, straw yield, and total biomass were found for BC amendment (5 tha− 1) in both sites (Table 4). The effects of BC, FYM, lime and interaction effect of site x BC and BC x FYM were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on thousand seed weight (Table 3). The heaver thousand seed weight was at 10 tha− 1 of FYM and 5 tha− 1of BC in Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero, respectively (Table 4). The effects of BC, FYM and interaction effects of site x BC and BC x FYM were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on harvest index (Table 3). The highest harvest index was found at 10 tha− 1 of FYM and 5 tha− 1of BC in Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero, respectively (Table 4).

3.3. Effects of biochar, lime and farmyard manure on grain nutrient content of bread wheat

The site has a significant effect (P < 0.001) on grain nutrient content of wheat (Table 5). The effects of BC, FYM, lime were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on the concentration of N, P, K and Ca in grain of wheat (Table 3). The highest grain N content was found at 10 tha− 1 of FYM and 5 tha− 1 BC for both sites (Table 6). The highest grain P was found at 5 tha− 1 BC for both sites (Table 6). The highest grain K was found at 5 tha− 1 of BC in Gununo Hamus and at 5 tha− 1of BC for both sites (Table 6). The highest grain Ca was found with lime of 5.7 and 7.5 tha− 1in Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero sites, respectively (Table 6). The interaction effects of BC and lime on wheat grain N, P and K were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) (Table 5). The highest grain N content (4.66%) was found at 5 tha− 1of BC with 2 tha− 1 lime (Fig. 3). Similarly, the highest grain P (3.56%) was found from the application of 5 tha− 1 BC with 2 tha− 1 Lime (Fig. 4). Moreover, the highest grain K content (2.84) was from the highest-rated of BC and lime interaction (Fig. 5).

The study showed that acacia biochar (BC) amendment could have a greater effect on wheat growth, yield and grain nutrient concentration than farmyard manure and lime on cropland in southern Ethiopia. Consistent with the present study, BC showed a positive impact on plant growth parameters for annual crops such as maize, wheat, tomato and rice (Dunlop et al. 2015; Haileselassie et al. 2015; Agegnehu et al. 2016). Biochar from Canadian agricultural biomass improved the growth of rice and sorghum (Asai et al. 2009). Agboola and Moses (2015) showed that the application of rice husk BC to soil improved soybean yield. Wheat grain yield increased from application of oil mallee waste BC (Solaiman et al. 2010). Similarly, mesquite BC increased grain and straw yields of wheat (Haileselassie et al. 2015). Maize BC amendment significantly increased the yield of maize and cassava (Abiven et al. 2015). Hossain et al. (2010) observed that sludge BC amendment increased the yield of cherries and tomatoes. Similarly, Dunlop et al. (2015) found that soil amended with BC from green tomato residue improved the growth of tomatoes. In contrast, other studies demonstrated that BC from woodchips did not affect the growth and yield of rice and leaf beet (Lai et al. 2013). The finding of Borsari (2011) showed that maple BC did not affect the growth parameters of peas and wheat. The significant variation of BC on plant growth and yield parameters among different studies in different sites could be ascribed to the effect of environmental factors (Shahzad et al. 2007).In a review of BC, Lehmann et al. (2006) indicated BC in general improved plant growth parameters and yield in the tropical environment. The effect of the BC amendment on plant growth and yield parameters could be associated with improvements in soil pH, CEC, nutrient availability and water retention (Liang et al. 2014). The increase in plant growth and yield parameters was attributed to the improved soil nutrient supply and increased uptake of plant nutrients (Lehmann et al. 2006). Thus BC addition to croplands enhance water retention, sorption capacity, nutrient availability, and soil organic C. Moreover, BC characteristics also vary between experiments depending on feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and rate of application (Streubel et al. 2011, Bird 2015). Biochar amendment had positive influence on most wheat growth, yield and grain nutrient parameters in both soil types (sites), but in a different manner. The influence of BC on different wheat parameters was in general greater for Ochric Andosol than for Eutric Nitisols. Consistently, BC improved peanut biomass and pod yield in a different way in two soil types (Xu et al. 2015). Amendment of agricultural soils with BC had a variable effect on soil properties depending on soil types (Streubel et al. 2011), which could be attributed to the BC influence on crop parameters.

In the present study, the grain N content was highest for FYM; grain P and K content was highest for BC; and Ca content was highest for lime. Grain N, P, K and Ca concentrations were in the reported sufficiency range for all treatments, with 4–5%, 0.24–0.36%, 2–3% and 0.28–0.42%,respectively (Barrett et al.,2017). The highest application of FYM (10 tha− 1) rate significantly increased the N concentration in wheat grain. Likewise, Zahir and Ishaq (2006) reported that the maximum N concentration in grain wheat was found from higher FYM. The next highest N concentration was from BC. The finding of Major et al. (2010) reported that N concentration in maize grains increased with the application of ponderosa pine wood BC. BC increased P concentration in grain. Likewise, Gonzaga et al. (2017) found that biosolids (sludge) BC addition increased P concentration in grain of maize providing improved seed formation and maturation thereby improving the above ground structure of maize. However, cassava stem BC had no significant effect on P content in green beans (Prapagdee and Tawinteung, 2017). The highest BC application (5 tha− 1) contributes to high K concentration in wheat grain due to improved exchangeable K in the soil. The finding by Prapagdee and Tawinteung (2017) showed increased K content in the grain bean by BC addition. Similarly, Jeffrey et al. (2019) found that Lodgepole pine chip BC addition significantly increased the concentration of K in grain corn. With liming, increased Ca concentration in grain may indicate the increase in crop growth and yield due to the amelioration of Al toxicity. This is in agreement with findings by Beukes et al. (2012) who reported that liming increased the Ca concentration in grain of maize crop. The high Ca in grain wheat concentration with a higher lime rate provides the soil have high soil exchangeable Ca attributed to improved Ca concentration in the soil (Bolanet al. 2003).

From this study’s results, it may be concluded that wheat growth, yield, and yield components, as well as grain nutrients, were significantly influenced by different cropland levels of BC, lime and farmyard manure depending on soil type. This study demonstrated that the application of a higher BC rate was superior to the other soil amendments in its impact on growth parameters, yield, yield components, and grain nutrients. Biochar amendment had positive influence on most wheat growth, yield and grain nutrient parameters in both soil types (sites), but greater influence in the site with Ochric Andosol soil type than the site with Eutric Nitisols soil type. The impact of BC was greater on plant height, spike length, seed per spikelet, tillers, grain yield, straw yield and total biomass at 5 tha-1. The highest harvest index and the heaver thousand seed weight were produced in the higher farmyard manure rate at 10 tha-1. Likewise, the addition of a higher BC rate at 5 tha-1 produced the higher nutrients of P and K in grain wheat. However, the higher Ca in grain was obtained from the higher lime rate at 5.7 tha-1 and 7.5 tha-1 owing to high Ca content in lime. The higher N in grain was obtained at a higher FYM rate at 10 tha-1. The results showed that BC has enormous potential for the improvement of wheat growth and yield parameters as well as grain nutrients. Thus, BC has great potential for use as a soil amendment on smallholder croplands in southern Ethiopia. We recommend further studies to be carried out to investigate the optimum amount of BC needed for wheat production at different levels of mineral fertilizer.

(BC) biochar, (FYM) farmyard manure, (GN) grain nitrogen, (GP) grain phosphorous, (GK) grain Potassium, (G Ca) grain calcium.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Funding

Ministry of Education provided fund only for sample collection and laboratory analysis.

Authors’ contributions

ML: collected, analyzed, interpreted the data and made the final write up which was part of his Doctoral thesis in Soil Science at Hawassa University, Ethiopia. BL and LH, as co-authors edited the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the grant given to graduate students from the Ethiopian Ministry of Education. The authors are grateful to Robert Sturtevant for editing the English.

CSA (Central Statistics Agency) (2018) Agricultural Sample Survey 2017/2018.   Volume I. Report on Area and Production of Major Crops (Private Peasant Holdings, Meher Season). Statistical Bulletin 586. Addis Ababa.

CSA (Central Statistics Agency) (1995) Agricultural sample survey (1994/95) report: Private peasant holding (Statistical Bulletin) Vol. III Central Statistics Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Dunlop SJ, Arbestain MC, Bishop PA, Wargent JJ (2015) Closing the loop: use of biochar produced from tomato crop green waste as a substrate for soilless, hydroponic tomato production. Hort Sci 50: 1572–1581.

Efthimiadou A, Bilalis D, Karkanis, Froud B (2010) Combined organic and inorganic fertilization enhances soil quality and increased yield, photosynthesis and sustainability of sweet maize crop. Aust Crop Sci 4 (9): 722-729.

Enujeke EC (2013) Effects Of Poultry Manure On Growth And Yield Of Improved Maize In Asaba Area of Delta State, Nigeria. J Agric Vet  Sci 4: 24-30.

Faruque  A, ShorifulI.Md, ToufiqI.Md(2017) Biochar amendment improves soil fertility and productivity of mulberry plant. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6 (3): 226 – 237.

Growth, yield and grain nutrients response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to biochar, lime and farmyard manure amendment of the croplands in southern Ethiopia.

Background: Soil fertility decline in agricultural land is due to intensive cropping system, shortening of the fallow period, reduced manure application, extensive use of crop residues as fuelor fodder and removal of ground cover. This study investigated the effect of biochar (BC), lime and farmyard manure (FYM) on growth, yield and grain nutrient of wheat on two cropland sites in southern Ethiopia.

Result: The effect of site was significant (P < 0.05) for most parameters investigated, indicating the influence of soil type. The effects of BC, lime, and FYM were significant (p ≤ 0.001) on straw yield, grain yield, and total biomass. However, BC (5 tha -1 ) produced the highest straw yield, grain yield, and total biomass.  Similarly, BC and lime significantly (P < 0.001) affected plant height, and tiller numbers and productivity. BC (5 tha -1 ) gave the highest plant height, total tillers, and productive tillers, maximum number of seeds per spike, while FYM (10 tha -1 ) produced the highest spike length. Biochar significantly (P < 0.05) increased the concentrations of P and K in wheat grain. The highest effect on grain Ca concentration was from the application of lime while the highest on grain N concentration was from FYM (10 tha -1 ).

Conclusion: The effect from BC was attributed to improvements in soil pH, CEC, nutrient availability and water retention. Thus BC has a good potential as a soil amendment for smallholder farm crop production.

Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) is globally one of the most important cereal crops in terms of area and production. Ethiopia is the largest wheat producer in sub-Saharan Africa (Minot et al. 2015) covering an estimated area of 1.7 million ha and with an annual production of 4.6 million tons (CSA 2018). Ethiopia’s wheat productivity has increased from 1.3 tha− 1 in 1994 (CSA 1995) to 2.7 tha− 1 in 2018 (CSA 2018). This productivity has grown significantly over the past decades due to government programs and initiatives encouraging agricultural growth and food security. However, the current wheat production is inadequate to fill Ethiopia’s needs (Minot et al. 2015) due to low soil fertility and soil management practices (Gebresselassie 2002). In 2013/14 the country imported 1.39 million metric tons, which equals 34 percent of the domestic production and more than 160 percent of the marketed wheat in the country (Minot et al. 2015).

Soil fertility decline constrains crop production in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). The nutrient balance for SSA appears to be negative because nutrient loses are greater than nutrient inputs (Agegnehu et al. 2014). Intensive cropping systems, shortened fallow periods, reduced manure applications, extensive use of crop residues for fuel or fodder, and removal of ground cover, all lead to soil fertility decline. In addition soils have low fertility due to a low rate of fertilizer use and insufficient organic matter application in a form biochar or compost (Gebrekidan 2003). The major constraints to agricultural production in Ethiopian highlands could be the decline in soil organic matter, nutrient imbalance, as well as soil acidity problems (Agegnehu et al. 2014). The combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer is a productive approach to improve soil fertility (Efthimiadou et al. 2010).

Studies in SSA, including Ethiopia, have reported the effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on crop yield (Efthimiadou et al. 2010; Waseem et al. 2013). The benefits of inorganic fertilizer have been widely demonstrated since the green revolution (Vanlauwe et al. 2010); however, most smallholder farmers in SSA cannot afford the recommended fertilizer. Moreover, the application of inorganic fertilizer alone is not a sustainable solution for improving soil fertility (Agegnehu et al. 2014). Other studies have reported the effect of liming materials on crop yield (Negash and Rezene 2015). Few studies reported the use of farmyard manure (FYM) on grain yield of wheat products (Efthimiadou et al. 2010). Ranva and Singh (2006) investigated the effect of Vermicompost on wheat growth parameters and yield attributes. Enujeke (2013) have investigated the effect of poultry manure on maize productivity in the Asaba area of Delta State.

Biochar (BC) is a C-rich, stable, product obtained by thermal decomposition of plant biomass at a temperature between 400 and 700oC in oxygen-limited combustion (Lehmann and Joseph 2009). Studies have reported the effect of the BC amendment on yield components for a variety of crops in different parts of the world (Agboola and Moses 2015; Haileselassie et al. 2015; Faruqueet al. 2017). For instance, a study by Faruque et al. (2017) investigated the utilization of BC in mulberry plant productivity. The effect of BC was studied on growth and yield attributes in the Mediterranean climate conditions (Manuel et al. 2014). A review of biochar studies indicated that most studies have been carried out in developed countries rather than developing countries (Agegnehu et al. 2016). Few published reports are available on the investigation of the influence of BC on crop yield in SSA (Abewa et al. 2013; Hailesilasie et al. 2015). Therefore, this study’s objective was to investigate the effect of BC, lime, and FYM on growth, yield and nutrient concentrations in the grain and straw of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) at two cropland sites in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

2.1. Experimental site

A field experiment was conducted on agricultural fields at the Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero kebeles of Damot Sore and Sodo Zuria districts of the Wolaita Zone in southern Ethiopia, respectively (Fig. 1). Soddo, the capital of Wolaita zone, is located 329 km south of Addis Ababa. The geographical coordinates of Gununo Hamusis 37°39’0″-37°43’0″E, 6°55’0″-7°5’0″N and Waja Kero at37°40’0″ − 37°45’0″E, 6°50’0″ − 6°55’0″ N. Gununo Hamus is located 44 km southwest of Soddo town, while the Waja Kero is 5 km west of Soddo. The elevation at Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero ranges from 1900 to 2100 m above sea level (asl). The study areas’ topography is level to sloping land with slopes less than 16%. The rainfall in the area is characterized by a bimodal distribution pattern with the main rainy season (Meher) occurring between June and the end of September and Belg, the shorter season, from late February to late March or early April. The mean monthly average temperatures (oC) and mean monthly total rainfall (mm) of one year within the two sites are shown in Fig. 2. According to the FAO/UNESCO soil map of the world, the dominant soil at Gununo Hamus is Ochric Andosol and that of Waja Kero is Eutric Nitisols (http://www.fao.org/geonetwork/srv/en/metadata.show%3 Fid = 14116).

2.2. Experimental materials, treatments and Design

The wheat variety ‘Kakaba’ was used as a test crop which was obtained from the Wolaita zone agricultural office. Lime, BC, and FYM were used as soil amendments. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a factorial arrangement with three replications. The 27 treatments applied included BC, FYM, and lime, with each treatment applied at three rates. Farmyard manure (cow dung decomposed for two months before application) was collected from farms in the study areas. It was manually applied at rates 0, 5, and 10 tha− 1 two weeks before sowing and incorporated into the soil using a spade within 24 hours. Biochar, was finely crushed charcoal, collected from commercial charcoal sellers in Wolaita Soddo town. The charcoal producers use the acacia tree species Acacia penninrvisis (locally called “Odorua”). The biochar was ground and sieved (0.25 mm mesh size) before application. It was manually applied at rates 0, 2, and 5 tha− 1 two weeks before sowing and incorporated within 24 hours using a spade. The limestone CaCO3 with a purity of 98% was used as the source of lime. The (CaCO3) was obtained from the Wolaita Zone Office of Agriculture. Lime was applied at three rates based on the lime requirement determination (LR). It was manually applied to the soil surface (0-15cm) a month before sowing. The lime requirement was determined by the Shoemaker, Mclean, and Pratt (SMP) buffer method to raise the pH to a target value of 6.5 (Shoemaker et al. 1961). Accordingly, pH 5.6 and 5.4 were taken for determining the lime rate used at Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero sites, respectively. After determining the lime requirement, lime was applied at the rates of 0, 2.9, 5.7 tha− 1 at Gununo Hamus and 0, 3.75, 7.5 tha− 1 at Waja Kero.

The inorganic fertilizers were obtained from Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional Bureau of Agriculture and Natural Resources, soil testing laboratory. The mineral fertilizer plots received 120 kg N ha− 1 as urea (46-0-0, N-P-K), 30 kg P ha− 1 as triple superphosphate (0-21-0, N-P-K) and 52 kg K ha− 1 as muriate of potash (0-0-60, N-P-K). Half the N and full P and K were applied just before sowing. The remaining N was applied as a top dressing at the tillering stage (35 days after sowing). All the treatments were assigned randomly to the plots within a block. The spacing between plots and blocks was 0.5 m and 1.5 m, respectively. Wheat was sown at the rate of 100 kg ha− 1 in a plot size of 3 m by 2 m with a row spacing of 20 cm.

2.2.1. Agronomic data collection and measurement

Ten plants were randomly selected from each plot and plant height was measured from the base to the spike tip, excluding awns, and averaged for each plot (Bhatta et al. 2012). From this data, the numbers of total and productive tillers per plant were selected. The effective and non-effective tiller plants were counted from each plot randomly and averaged for each plot. Spike length, excluding the awns, was measured and averaged for each plot. The number of grains per spike was determined, and filled and unfilled grains spike− 1 were counted and averaged for each plot. Total biomass was calculated after sun drying from the total weight of harvest at each plot. Grain yield was measured for each plot after air drying and then weighed and the straw yield obtained by the difference between total biomass and grain yield. Like grain yield, straw yield and total biomass were expressed as kg ha− 1. Yield components were calculated using standard protocols (Pask et al. 2012). From these data, the number of hundred seeds weights were counted from a sample of each plot, after sun drying, and measured by an electrical balance and converted into thousand-grain weights in kg. Harvest index (%) was calculated as the fraction of grain yield to the total biomass times 100, as described by Huhm (1990). Weeds were managed first by hand-weeding followed by two hoeings using a manually operated wheel-hoe. The crop was harvested by hand and separated into grains (yield) and biomass.

2.2.2. Plant tissue analysis

Grain samples were collected from each plot after harvest. The samples were air dried then ground in a stainless steel Wiley mill and sieved (0.5 mm mesh size). Calcium and K were determined following the acid digestion method with H2O2/H2SO4 (Okalebo et al. 2002). Calcium was analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while K was analyzed by flame photometer. Phosphorous was measured following the method in Murphy and Riley (1962). The percent nitrogen content was determined by the Kjeldahl method as described by Jackson (1958).

2.3. Statistical analysis

All of the data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a statistical analysis system (SAS) program (SAS, 2017). The least significant difference (LSD) test was used to separate significantly different treatment mean at P ≤ 0.05level.

3.1. Effect of biochar, lime and farmyard manure on growth parameters

The effect of site was significant (P < 0.05) for all growth parameters, and the effect of amendments was greater for Gununo Hamus than Waja Kero. The effects of BC, lime as well as interaction effects of site x BC, site x FYM, site x BC x FYM and site x BC x lime were highly significant (P < 0.001) on plant height (Table 1). As presented in Table 2, plant height was higher at 5 tha− 1 of BC for both sites. The effects of BC, lime as well as interaction effects of site x BC, site x BC x lime were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on the number of total and productive tillers (Table 1). The total tillers and productive tillers were higher at 5 tha− 1 of BC for both sites (Table 2). Moreover, the effects of BC, FYM, lime and the interaction effects of site x BC, site x FYM and site x lime were significant on spike length and seed per spike (Table 1). The longest spike length was at 10 tha− 1 FYM in both sites (Table 2). Likewise, the maximum number of seeds per spike was at 5 tha− 1 BC in both sites (Table 2).

3.2. Effect of biochar, lime and farmyard manure on yield and yield components

The effect of site was significant (P < 0.001) for most yield and yield components and the effect of amendments was greater for Gununo Hamus than Waja Kero. The effects of BC, FYM, lime as well as interaction effects of site x BC, site x lime and site x BC x lime were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on grain yield, straw yield and total biomass (Table 3). The highest grain yield, straw yield, and total biomass were found for BC amendment (5 tha− 1) in both sites (Table 4). The effects of BC, FYM, lime and interaction effect of site x BC and BC x FYM were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on thousand seed weight (Table 3). The heaver thousand seed weight was at 10 tha− 1 of FYM and 5 tha− 1of BC in Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero, respectively (Table 4). The effects of BC, FYM and interaction effects of site x BC and BC x FYM were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on harvest index (Table 3). The highest harvest index was found at 10 tha− 1 of FYM and 5 tha− 1of BC in Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero, respectively (Table 4).

3.3. Effects of biochar, lime and farmyard manure on grain nutrient content of bread wheat

The site has a significant effect (P < 0.001) on grain nutrient content of wheat (Table 5). The effects of BC, FYM, lime were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) on the concentration of N, P, K and Ca in grain of wheat (Table 3). The highest grain N content was found at 10 tha− 1 of FYM and 5 tha− 1 BC for both sites (Table 6). The highest grain P was found at 5 tha− 1 BC for both sites (Table 6). The highest grain K was found at 5 tha− 1 of BC in Gununo Hamus and at 5 tha− 1of BC for both sites (Table 6). The highest grain Ca was found with lime of 5.7 and 7.5 tha− 1in Gununo Hamus and Waja Kero sites, respectively (Table 6). The interaction effects of BC and lime on wheat grain N, P and K were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) (Table 5). The highest grain N content (4.66%) was found at 5 tha− 1of BC with 2 tha− 1 lime (Fig. 3). Similarly, the highest grain P (3.56%) was found from the application of 5 tha− 1 BC with 2 tha− 1 Lime (Fig. 4). Moreover, the highest grain K content (2.84) was from the highest-rated of BC and lime interaction (Fig. 5).

The study showed that acacia biochar (BC) amendment could have a greater effect on wheat growth, yield and grain nutrient concentration than farmyard manure and lime on cropland in southern Ethiopia. Consistent with the present study, BC showed a positive impact on plant growth parameters for annual crops such as maize, wheat, tomato and rice (Dunlop et al. 2015; Haileselassie et al. 2015; Agegnehu et al. 2016). Biochar from Canadian agricultural biomass improved the growth of rice and sorghum (Asai et al. 2009). Agboola and Moses (2015) showed that the application of rice husk BC to soil improved soybean yield. Wheat grain yield increased from application of oil mallee waste BC (Solaiman et al. 2010). Similarly, mesquite BC increased grain and straw yields of wheat (Haileselassie et al. 2015). Maize BC amendment significantly increased the yield of maize and cassava (Abiven et al. 2015). Hossain et al. (2010) observed that sludge BC amendment increased the yield of cherries and tomatoes. Similarly, Dunlop et al. (2015) found that soil amended with BC from green tomato residue improved the growth of tomatoes. In contrast, other studies demonstrated that BC from woodchips did not affect the growth and yield of rice and leaf beet (Lai et al. 2013). The finding of Borsari (2011) showed that maple BC did not affect the growth parameters of peas and wheat. The significant variation of BC on plant growth and yield parameters among different studies in different sites could be ascribed to the effect of environmental factors (Shahzad et al. 2007).In a review of BC, Lehmann et al. (2006) indicated BC in general improved plant growth parameters and yield in the tropical environment. The effect of the BC amendment on plant growth and yield parameters could be associated with improvements in soil pH, CEC, nutrient availability and water retention (Liang et al. 2014). The increase in plant growth and yield parameters was attributed to the improved soil nutrient supply and increased uptake of plant nutrients (Lehmann et al. 2006). Thus BC addition to croplands enhance water retention, sorption capacity, nutrient availability, and soil organic C. Moreover, BC characteristics also vary between experiments depending on feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and rate of application (Streubel et al. 2011, Bird 2015). Biochar amendment had positive influence on most wheat growth, yield and grain nutrient parameters in both soil types (sites), but in a different manner. The influence of BC on different wheat parameters was in general greater for Ochric Andosol than for Eutric Nitisols. Consistently, BC improved peanut biomass and pod yield in a different way in two soil types (Xu et al. 2015). Amendment of agricultural soils with BC had a variable effect on soil properties depending on soil types (Streubel et al. 2011), which could be attributed to the BC influence on crop parameters.

In the present study, the grain N content was highest for FYM; grain P and K content was highest for BC; and Ca content was highest for lime. Grain N, P, K and Ca concentrations were in the reported sufficiency range for all treatments, with 4–5%, 0.24–0.36%, 2–3% and 0.28–0.42%,respectively (Barrett et al.,2017). The highest application of FYM (10 tha− 1) rate significantly increased the N concentration in wheat grain. Likewise, Zahir and Ishaq (2006) reported that the maximum N concentration in grain wheat was found from higher FYM. The next highest N concentration was from BC. The finding of Major et al. (2010) reported that N concentration in maize grains increased with the application of ponderosa pine wood BC. BC increased P concentration in grain. Likewise, Gonzaga et al. (2017) found that biosolids (sludge) BC addition increased P concentration in grain of maize providing improved seed formation and maturation thereby improving the above ground structure of maize. However, cassava stem BC had no significant effect on P content in green beans (Prapagdee and Tawinteung, 2017). The highest BC application (5 tha− 1) contributes to high K concentration in wheat grain due to improved exchangeable K in the soil. The finding by Prapagdee and Tawinteung (2017) showed increased K content in the grain bean by BC addition. Similarly, Jeffrey et al. (2019) found that Lodgepole pine chip BC addition significantly increased the concentration of K in grain corn. With liming, increased Ca concentration in grain may indicate the increase in crop growth and yield due to the amelioration of Al toxicity. This is in agreement with findings by Beukes et al. (2012) who reported that liming increased the Ca concentration in grain of maize crop. The high Ca in grain wheat concentration with a higher lime rate provides the soil have high soil exchangeable Ca attributed to improved Ca concentration in the soil (Bolanet al. 2003).

From this study’s results, it may be concluded that wheat growth, yield, and yield components, as well as grain nutrients, were significantly influenced by different cropland levels of BC, lime and farmyard manure depending on soil type. This study demonstrated that the application of a higher BC rate was superior to the other soil amendments in its impact on growth parameters, yield, yield components, and grain nutrients. Biochar amendment had positive influence on most wheat growth, yield and grain nutrient parameters in both soil types (sites), but greater influence in the site with Ochric Andosol soil type than the site with Eutric Nitisols soil type. The impact of BC was greater on plant height, spike length, seed per spikelet, tillers, grain yield, straw yield and total biomass at 5 tha-1. The highest harvest index and the heaver thousand seed weight were produced in the higher farmyard manure rate at 10 tha-1. Likewise, the addition of a higher BC rate at 5 tha-1 produced the higher nutrients of P and K in grain wheat. However, the higher Ca in grain was obtained from the higher lime rate at 5.7 tha-1 and 7.5 tha-1 owing to high Ca content in lime. The higher N in grain was obtained at a higher FYM rate at 10 tha-1. The results showed that BC has enormous potential for the improvement of wheat growth and yield parameters as well as grain nutrients. Thus, BC has great potential for use as a soil amendment on smallholder croplands in southern Ethiopia. We recommend further studies to be carried out to investigate the optimum amount of BC needed for wheat production at different levels of mineral fertilizer.

(BC) biochar, (FYM) farmyard manure, (GN) grain nitrogen, (GP) grain phosphorous, (GK) grain Potassium, (G Ca) grain calcium.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Funding

Ministry of Education provided fund only for sample collection and laboratory analysis.

Authors’ contributions

ML: collected, analyzed, interpreted the data and made the final write up which was part of his Doctoral thesis in Soil Science at Hawassa University, Ethiopia. BL and LH, as co-authors edited the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the grant given to graduate students from the Ethiopian Ministry of Education. The authors are grateful to Robert Sturtevant for editing the English.

CSA (Central Statistics Agency) (2018) Agricultural Sample Survey 2017/2018.   Volume I. Report on Area and Production of Major Crops (Private Peasant Holdings, Meher Season). Statistical Bulletin 586. Addis Ababa.

CSA (Central Statistics Agency) (1995) Agricultural sample survey (1994/95) report: Private peasant holding (Statistical Bulletin) Vol. III Central Statistics Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Dunlop SJ, Arbestain MC, Bishop PA, Wargent JJ (2015) Closing the loop: use of biochar produced from tomato crop green waste as a substrate for soilless, hydroponic tomato production. Hort Sci 50: 1572–1581.

Efthimiadou A, Bilalis D, Karkanis, Froud B (2010) Combined organic and inorganic fertilization enhances soil quality and increased yield, photosynthesis and sustainability of sweet maize crop. Aust Crop Sci 4 (9): 722-729.

Enujeke EC (2013) Effects Of Poultry Manure On Growth And Yield Of Improved Maize In Asaba Area of Delta State, Nigeria. J Agric Vet  Sci 4: 24-30.

Faruque  A, ShorifulI.Md, ToufiqI.Md(2017) Biochar amendment improves soil fertility and productivity of mulberry plant. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6 (3): 226 – 237.

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## BioChar

9 May, 2020

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## and Copper(II) onto biochar in landfill leachate: implication of non-linear regression analysis

12 May, 2020

Adsorption of Lead(II), Manganese(II), and Copper(II) onto biochar in landfill leachate: implication of non-linear regression analysis

The feasibility of using wood-derived biochar (BC) to remove Pb, Mn, and Cu from landfill leachate was investigated and modeled in this study. The effect of contact time, biochar dosage and particle size on adsorption of the heavy metals onto BC was examined. BC was used in two form i.e. pulverized (PWB) and crushed (CWB) to evaluate the effect of BC particle size on adsorption characteristics. Biochar was produced under the pyrolytic temperature of 740 °C. The kinetics of Pb, Mn, and Cu adsorption onto PWB and CWB were assessed using the pseudo second-order and Elovich models, where both applied models could well describe the adsorption kinetics. Equilibrium adsorption capacity of the heavy metals onto BC in leachate system was evaluated using the Langmuir, non-linearized Freundlich, linearized Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms and found to have the following order for PWB: Non-linearized Freundlich>Temkin>Langmuir>Linearized Freundlich. The Langmuir and linearized Freundlich models could not adequately represent adsorption of the heavy metals onto biochar, especially for CWB. Using the non-linearized Freundlich isotherm significantly reduced adsorption prediction error. The adsorption affinity of PWB for Pb, Mn, and Cu was greater than CWB in all treatments. Wood-derived biochar is suggested to be used for the removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate as an economical adsorbent.

Effective removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate is of great concern due to the fact that toxic metals can seriously threaten soil and water resources, and therefore the human health even at low concentrations. Landfill leachate may contain a wide range of contaminants at levels enough to raise serious environmental and human health concerns. The majority of published research has focused on removal of ammonia-nitrogen and organic fraction of landfill leachates, such as using biological reactors [1], oxidation processes [2] and membrane separation [3]. Heavy metals content of landfill leachates are known as a serious environmental threat. Various heavy metals may occur in landfill leachates due to the diverse nature of buried wastes. Concentrations of heavy metals in fresh landfill leachate, characterized by lower pH, are usually higher than those in aged leachate [4]. Frequent occurrence of high concentrations of heavy metals in landfill leachate was reported in the literature [1].

Adsorption of heavy metals on carbonaceous materials has recently received considerable attention to remove toxic metals from contaminated aqueous solutions. Salam (2013) investigated the removal of heavy metals from synthetic aqueous solution by adsorption onto carbon nanotubes through a set of batch experiments which showed effective removal of heavy metals [5]. Activated carbon (AC) is a well known strong adsorbent which has been employed to remove heavy metals from different media principally because of its large surface area and high porosity [68]. Palm shell activated carbon was successfully used to remove Cu from aqueous solution [9]; but high production expenses of AC may limit its use as adsorbent [10]. Application of economical alternatives to AC has therefore drawn remarkable attention in recent years. For instance, in a study by Soco and Kalembkiewicz (2013), coal fly ash was successfully used for the removal of nickel and copper from a synthetically contaminated aqueous solution [11].

Using of biochar as a novel economical approach in wastewater treatment has attracted considerable attention recently [12]. De Caprariis et al. (2017) employed biochar to remove total organic carbon (TOC) from wastewater, and a very high sorption capacity of biochar was achieved (840 mg/g) [13]. In another study, biochar derived from sewage sludge eliminated Cr from water significantly by 89%, whereas As removal did not exceed 53% [14]. Many studies have focused on the immobilization and mitigation of contaminants, respectively, in soil and effluents [15, 16]; however, investigation on the removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate by biochar has remained limited. This research aimed to investigate the adsorption of Pb(II), Mn(II), and Cu(II) onto wood-derived biochar in fresh landfill leachate. The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage and particle size on adsorption process were examined. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of heavy metal ions onto biochar in landfill leachate were specifically investigated in this research.

Kahrizak landfill which is also known as Aradkooh waste disposal and processing complex is main disposal site of the capital city of Tehran, located at a 25 km distance from the southern part of the capital city of Tehran having longitude of 51°19’18’’E and latitude of 35°27’52’’N. daily more than 8000 tones of wastes are transferred to this landfill. Leachate generated in Kahrizak landfill has long been a serious environmental concern; firstly because of entering all types of municipal wastes, including hazardous household wastes, with poor source separation program, and secondly due to the lack of effective leachate collection and management system. High clay content and therefore low permeability of the land around the landfill caused infiltration of the landfill leachate to be minimal. Therefore, freshly generated leachate at Kahrizak landfill, which is now estimated to be about 637 cubic meters per day [17], flows gravitationally towards the low land next to the burial site creating a leachate lake with a depth of ca. 10 m, with seasonal variations. In this study, the leachate samples were directly collected from the generated leachate stream at the bottom of the waste discharge place at Kahrizak landfill and used for the adsorption experiments. Collected leachate can be classified as relatively fresh leachate based on the low pH values (5.11). Leachate samples were immediately transported to the laboratory. Samples were kept refrigerated at 4 °C without exposure to the ambient air for not more than three days before conducting relevant analysis to prevent potential chemical and biological changes.

Leachate samples characterized according to the Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [18]. Raw samples filtered using Whatman Paper Filter No. 1 (pore size: 11 µm) prior to acid digestion in order to remove large particles while retaining suspended solids up to 11 µm in the leachate samples in order to measure the recoverable heavy metals in different phases. Leachate samples were digested with nitric acid, then the digestate passed through MILEXHA 0.45 µm diameter filter followed by the US EPA 3005A method [19]. Partially filtered samples containing suspended particles (up to 11 µm) were analyzed for heavy metal content to imitate close to real conditions, like when landfill leachate is analyzed to control compliance with permissible limits as also suggested by Modin et al. (2011). Samples were digested in triplicate and analyzed for the concentrations of Cd in the final solution using an atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer 700). Organic load of the leachate produced at this landfill is markedly higher than that of leachate generated in many other countries [20, 21]; due to the high content of organics such as food wastes. Received MSW at Kahrizak landfill is characterized by putrifiable fraction of ca. 68% and moisture content of 65%-70% that significantly contribute to high organic load of produced leachate. Elevated ratio of BOD5/COD for landfill leachate as observed in this study indicates the high concentration of biodegradable organic compounds in leachate, and hence a good potential to be biologically degraded. Some characteristics of the leachate are as follow: COD (71245 mg L− 1); BOD5 (32187 mg L− 1); BOD5/COD (0.452); TSS (19800 mg L− 1), TDS (11480 mg L− 1), N-NO3 (70.34 mg L− 1), SO4 (1698.12 mg L− 1); EC (28.86 mS cm− 1); pH (5.11) and Pb (1.90 mg L− 1), Mn (7.78 mg L− 1) and Cu (2.52 mg L− 1).

Fresh urban yard trimmings with no pollution background was initially chopped into wood chips of 5–10 cm length and then oven-dried for 48 h. Yard trimmings can be found abundantly in most places and often used for composting or find their way into urban waste stream. Dried wood chips were placed in open crucibles, then weighted, and covered thoroughly with aluminum foil in order to provide an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar derived from the wood chips was produced under the pyrolytic temperature of up to 740 °C with a temperature gradient of ca. 10 °C/min until the desired temperature of 740 ± 5 °C was reached in the muffle furnace under the atmospheric pressure with residence time of 42 min. At the end, samples were kept in the furnace overnight to let them cool down to the room temperature. The produced biochar chips were air-dried over a week, ground using a ceramic mortar and pestle and sieved to 1–2 mm diameter, and mixed thoroughly to gain homogenous crushed wood-derived biochar (CWB). Moreover, some biochar chips were further ground and sieved to 63–75 µm diameter to yield fine-graded biochar to be used as pulverized wood-derived biochar (PWB) in the adsorption experiments. Some physico-chemical properties of the produced biochar are as follow: C (81.5%), H (3.3%), N (0.5%), Ash (3.4%), bulk density (1.5 g/cm3), and pH (9.1).

The adsorption process of Pb(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) was conducted under the adjusted pH of 5.1 in order to eliminate the possibility of formation of metal hydroxide precipitates. Precipitation of heavy metal hydroxides under the pH values of 6.5-7 was reported for heavy metals [22]. Adsorption of heavy metals onto PWB and CWB was carried out versus time at specified intervals up to 24 h. Actual concentrations of Pb(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions in leachate samples were considered as the initial concentration, to simulate real conditions. Each adsorption experiment was conducted in triplicate and the mean values were reported. The percentage removal of heavy metals in the solution was calculated using the following equation

Where, C0 and Ce are, respectively, the initial and final concentrations of Pb(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) in leachate samples (mg L− 1). Kinetic solutions were stirred on a shaker at constant rate of 120 rpm at room temperature of 24 ± 2 °C to provide effective interaction of sorbate with sorbent material. At the end of the specified agitation period, obtained mixtures were centrifuged for 15 min at 6000 rpm to separate liquid and solid phases, filtered by Whatman Paper Filter No. 1 (11 µm pore size) and the filtrates were then analyzed for the heavy metals concentrations. The adsorption isotherms were studied in actual leachate system for Pb(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II). Certain quantities of PWB and CWB (0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 5 g) were separately weighted and added to a 100 mL fresh landfill leachate at initial pH of 5.1. The pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models were used to study the kinetics of adsorption of Pb(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) onto BC in landfill leachate and the Langmuir, non-linearized and linearized Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were applied to fit the measured data.

Non-linear regression as a more general technique to estimate parameters of adsorption models can be used even if the model cannot be linearized. However, isotherm and kinetic models are mainly applied in linear form because less difficult calculations are required to find model parameters. It should be noticed that modifying and linearization of the original model might violate the theories and assumptions behind the development of a given model that means when parameters are estimated based on linear transformation of a given model it does not necessarily yield best fitting parameters for the nonlinear original model [23]. Error structure of experimental data has been found to be altered when adsorption isotherms transformed into linearized forms. Non-linear regression usually minimizes the error distribution between the experimental and predicted data, unlike linear regression [24]. Therefore linear determination coefficient (R2) should be used to measure the matching degree between experimental and predicted data when linear form of a given adsorption kinetic or isotherm model is applied. Beside linear determination coefficient which is an indicator of the fit between experimental and theoretical data based on used models, the applicability of the applied models can also be verified through error analysis techniques such as sum of error squares (SSE). The Sum of Error Squares SSE is said to be among the widespread used error functions. It can be written as:

Where, qe(Experimental) is the adsorption capacity at equilibrium condition obtained from adsorption experiments, qe(Calculated) is the calculated value of adsorption capacity at equilibrium state, and N is the number of data points [25].

The effect of contact time on the adsorption of Pb, Mn, and Cu in landfill leachate is shown in Figs. 1a and 1b. The adsorbent dosage was fixed at 1 g/100 mL (10 g L− 1) and the pH value of the fresh leachate was 5.1. The removal rate of the heavy metals experienced a drastic initial increase followed by a gradual rise to reach a plateau, which indicates equilibrium condition. Instant adsorption rate of heavy metals onto BC gradually declined to zero with the equilibrium point of adsorption lay between 150–200 min and 100–150 min for, respectively, PWB and CWB, suggesting that the contact time of 200 min and 150 min is sufficient to establish dynamic balance. The importance of contact time to provide sufficient contact between adsorbates and adsorbent surface has been emphasized by several authors [24, 26]. It can be inferred from Figs. 1a and 1b that the removal of Pb, Mn, and Cu was greater when PWB was used as adsorbent, compared to CWB. Moreover, longer period of contact time was required for the equilibrium state to be established when biochar with smaller particle size i.e. PWB was used, implying slower occupation of adsorption sites on the surface of PWB due to the greater specific surface provided by PWB relative to CWB. The highest removal rate of 87.96% by PWB was obtained for Pb.

As reaction time prolonged, repulsive forces between the metal ions adsorbed to biochar and those in the aqueous phase might be increased. In addition, unoccupied adsorption sites and therefore adsorption rate will be quickly declined until the establishment of dynamic balance in the system.The same observation was found for Ni uptake from aqueous solution by AC derived from sugar bagasse [26]. From the adsorption diffusion viewpoint, two distinct adsorption stages could be distinguished for the uptake of Pb, Mn, and Cu onto BC in landfill leachate; surface diffusion during which the mass transfer is rapid and physical processes control the adsorption, followed by intra-particle diffusion that is characterized by slow adsorption. Greater adsorption rate for heavy metals was observed for all the applied dosages of BC at initial stages of the experiment, that may be attributed to the higher availability of adsorption sites on BC surface which are rapidly occupied by the solutes in the leachate. When equilibrium is reached mass transfer from the leachate to the surface of BC was significantly restricted (Figs. 1a and 1b), which is consistent with those reported in the literature [21].

BC dosage varied from 0.05 to 5 g/100 ml (0.5 to 50 g L− 1) at initial pH of 5.1, with the reaction times of 200 min and 150 min, respectively, for PWB and CWB. Results indicated that the removal rate of the heavy metals was significantly raised by 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 times, respectively, for Pb, Mn, and Cu, when PWB content of the leachate increased from 0.5 to 5 g L− 1. Obtained results are consistent with the findings of Krishnan et al. (2011), where removal of Ni from aqueous phase increased by AC dosage [26]. The removal rate of Pb, Mn, and Cu did not change significantly as BC content exceeded 2 g/100 mL in leachate, suggesting the optimal dosage of 20 g L− 1 for both PWB and CWB to achieve the highest economical adsorption capacity for the heavy metals. Unsaturated adsorption sites may increase as BC dosage exceeds the optimum amount. The highest removal rate was obtained for Pb followed by Mn and Cu due to addition of PWB (Fig. 1c) and CWB (Fig. 1d).

Batch kinetic experiments were carried out for the adsorption of Pb, Mn, and Cu onto PWB and CWB in landfill leachate. The kinetics for adsorption of heavy metals onto BC was simulated using two kinetic models: pseudo second-order and Elovich kinetic models. The experimental effectiveness is controlled by the adsorption kinetics. Adsorption kinetic models are typically used to investigate the adsorption mechanism and the potential rate of the processes such as mass transfer and chemical reactions [21].

The non-linear form of pseudo second-order model is represented as follow:

Where k2p is the second-order adsorption constant (g mg− 1 min− 1), qe is the amount of heavy metals adsorbed onto biochar when dynamic balance researched (mg g− 1), and qt is the amount of adsorbate adsorbed onto biochar at any time, t. In order to gain the linear form of the pseudo second-order kinetic model the following equation should be solved through integration:

If the boundary conditions of qt = 0 to qt = qt and t = 0 to t = t is applied, the model can be written as follows:

The Elovich adsorption kinetic equation which was initially developed to describe chemisorption kinetics of gas onto solids [29], has recently gained increasing attention to describe kinetics of adsorption of adsorbates in aqueous phase onto adsorbents. The elovich kinetic model is expressed as follows:

Where α is the initial adsorption rate (mg g− 1 min− 1) and β is defined as desorption constant (g mg− 1) during any experiment [25]. Elovich differential equation can be solved assuming α βt > > 1 and by applying the boundary conditions of qt=0 at t = 0 and qt= qt at t = t [29]. Therefore, the linear form of the elovich equation can be presented as follows:

In order to study the adsorption kinetics using Elovich model a straight line of qt versus ln t should be plotted to be able to calculate the model constants of α and β from the slope and the intercept of the plot. For instance, Pb adsorption capacity of BC predicted by the Elovich kinetic model is shown in Fig. 3. Parameters of the Elovich kinetic model for adsorption of Pb, Mn and Cu onto PWB and CWB are presented in Table 2. Pretty high R2 and low SSE values obtained for the Elovich kinetic model suggesting that adsorption kinetics of the heavy metals onto BC in landfill leachate can be adequately represented by the Elovich kinetic model. However, higher values of R2 and lower values of SSE found for the pseudo second-order kinetic model compared to the Elovich kinetic expression in this study. Comparison of the kinetic data obtained in this study suggests pseudo second-order kinetic expression is the optimum kinetic expression to represent adsorption of Pb, Mn, and Cu onto BC in landfill leachate.

The equilibrium data were modeled using the Langmuir, non-linearized Freundlich, linearized Freundlich and Temkin isotherms in this study to predict adsorption capacity of PWB and CWB for heavy metals in landfill leachate. Experimental data versus the predicted adsorption of Pb, Mn and Cu onto BC in the leachate using different adsorption isotherms are shown in Fig. 4. Experimental results indicated that Pb could be adsorbed on BC to a higher degree than Mn and Cu. Adsorption of Mn on BC was comparable with that of Cu with slightly higher adsorption for Mn.

where, b is adsorption equilibrium constant (L mg− 1) which is related to the apparent energy of adsorption, qm is the quantity of adsorbate required to form a single monolayer on unit mass of a given adsorbent (mg g− 1) and qe is the quantity of adsorbate adsorbed on unit mass of the adsorbent (mg g− 1) when the equilibrium concentration is Ce (mg L− 1). Langmuir model equation can be linearized to five different linear types. Details of the various linearized Langmuir expressions and the corresponding plots to determine Langmuir constants i.e. qm and b were presented in Table 3.

Values of the constants for different types of linearized Langmuir isotherm are presented in Table 4 for the adsorption of Pb, Mn and Cu onto BC. Results showed the best fitting parameters for the linearized Langmuir types 1 and 5 for PWB with the highest R2 among the applied linearized forms. Among the five different linearized forms of Langmuir isotherm equations, types 1 and 2 have been used more frequently in the literature [32]. Langmuir isotherm can be further analyzed and the favorable nature of adsorption of adsorbate onto adsorbent can be expressed through determination of the separation factor, RL, which is a dimensionless equilibrium parameter defined by the following equation:

Where C0 is the initial concentration of adsorbate in the bulk solution (mg L− 1) and b is the Langmuir model constant related to the free energy of adsorption (L mg− 1). The separation factor, RL, indicates the shape of the isotherm. Values of 0 < RL < 1 indicates favorable adsorption, whereas RL > 1 represents an unfavorable adsorption. In addition, RL = 0 represents irreversible adsorption, while the adsorption is linear if RL = 1 [33, 34]. The dimensionless separation factors calculated for adsorption of the heavy metals onto PWB were between zero to one that shows favorable adsorption, while the corresponding values for CWB were greater than 1 indicating an unfavorable adsorption (Table 4).

The values of R2 and RL obtained from Langmuir-1 expression indicate positive evidence that the adsorption of Pb, Mn, and Cu onto PWB follows the Langmuir isotherm. The fit of the measured data to the Langmuir model reveals the possibility of sorption of the heavy metals onto PWB through chemisorptions [35]. Negative values obtained for maximum adsorption capacity of CWB reveals that adsorption of Pb, Mn and Cu onto CWB in the leachate does not follow Langmuir isotherm, suggesting that heavy metals do not follow the monolayer adsorption on the surface of CWB. In another study, negative values for adsorption capacity of dyes onto AC was obtained [24], which is practically and experimentally impossible. The highest value of the Langmuir constant b, 3.22 L mg− 1, was obtained for Pb adsorption onto PWB (Table 4) exhibiting greater affinity of Pb to the surface of PWB compared to Mn and Cu in landfill leachate.

Maximum adsorption capacities determined using different forms of Langmuir expressions are slightly higher than the experimental adsorbed amounts of Pb onto PWB. The same trend was found for Mn and Cu, to a higher degree compared with Pb. It seems that the monolayer adsorption capacity of Pb onto PWB provided a better fit to the experimental data compared to Mn and Cu. Table 4 indicates that the Langmuir constants obtained from different linear expressions are divergent, implying that transformation of non-linear model to linear forms may alter the error structure of a given isotherm. Smaller values of determination coefficients were gained in types 3 and 4.

Lower values of the SSE were obtained for Langmuir-4 and Langmuir-1 expressions, while Langmuir-5 expression give the highest SSE in most cases. Overally, the lowest value of the SSE will be generated for the Langmuir-1 expression compared to other linear forms, if the BC dosage of 0.05 mg g− 1 is overlooked. For instance, that 83% of the calculated SSE was attributed to the deviation occurred at dose of 0.05 mg g− 1, when the experimental adsorption of Cu onto CWB were modeled using the Langmuir-1 expression. Experimental results showed that adsorbed amounts of the heavy metals on BC was clearly increased with rising adsorbent dosage. Figure 4 compares the simulated isotherm curves and measured data for adsorption of Pb, Mn and Cu onto BC based on Langmuir-Type 1 expression. Results indicated that Langmuir isotherm is unable to describe the equilibrium data perfectly in most cases; however, Langmuir-1 expression could better simulate equilibrium data for adsorption of heavy metals on PWB in the leachate, compared to the other linearized forms of Langmuir model. The error structure varied upon linearization of non-linear Langmuir isotherm equation. Results indicated that the values of R2, RL and SSE are required to reliably determine the most appropriate form of the linearized type of the Langmuir model to fit the experimental adsorption data.

The Freundlich isotherm has been widely applied to characterize the adsorption of organic and inorganic pollutants using various adsorbents [36]. Freundlich isotherm constants found through plotting ln qe vs ln Ce are given in Table 5. The ratio of the amount of adsorbate adsorbed onto a given mass of adsorbent to the adsorbate concentration in the solution using the Freundlich model is represented by the following equation:

where, Ce is the equilibrium concentration (mg L− 1), qe is the amount adsorbed to solid phase (mg g− 1), Kf is the Freundlich constant representing the relative adsorption intensity of the adsorbent related to the bonding energy, and n is the heterogeneity factor indicating the deviation from linearity of adsorption which is commonly known as Freundlich coefficient. Linearized form of the Freundlich isotherm can be used to evaluate the adsorption data and determine the Freundlich model constants as follows:

Where, qm is the Freundlich maximum adsorption capacity (mg g− 1), KF is the Freundlich constant, and C0 is the initial concentration of adsorbate in the bulk solution (mg L− 1). The calculated maximum adsorption capacity of PWB for Pb, Mn, and Cu using the Freundlich isotherm were greater than the corresponding values for CWB, respectively, by a factor of 2.3, 5.3, and 1.4. Comparing the maximum adsorption capacity produced by application of the Freundlich and Langmuir-1 models reveals that predicted qmax using the Freundlich isotherm is markedly lower than the corresponding values obtained by the Langmuir-1 expression for PWB.

It can be inferred from the Figs. 5a, 5b and 5c that the predicted adsorption capacity of PWB and CWB using the linearized Freundlich isotherm is drastically underestimated for Pb, Mn and Cu. Error analysis also indicates high values of SSE for linearized Freundlich isotherm. The SSE values found for the Freundlich model are significantly higher than the obtained values for the Langmuir model. Overally, results indicated no adequate agreement between the predicted and measured adsorption data, implying the lack of validity of the linearized Freundlich isotherm to model the adsorption of the heavy metals onto BC in the leachate. Both linear and non-linear fitting of the experimental data to the Freundlich model yields high coefficients of determination in most cases but the error analysis presented a great difference between linear and non-linear fitting. The value of SSE calculated for non-linear fitting was much lower than that obtained for linear fitting, as it could also be realized by comparing experimental and modeled data presented in Figs. 5d, 5e and 5 f. Results indicate that non-linear fitting of the measured data to the Freundlich isotherm could provide significantly more robust prediction compared to the linear fitting. However, the obtained values for the constant n was less than 1 when CWB was used as an adsorbent both for linear and non-linear fitting of data indicating unfavorable adsorption of Pb, Mn, and Cu onto CWB. Results indicated much higher values of qm when non-linearized regression was applied. In other words, linearization of the Freundlich isotherm caused underestimation of qm, while fitting the measured data to non-linearized form of the Freundlich model depicted greater affinity between the experimental and predicted data. Application of non-linear Freundlich isotherm produced more valid data with significantly higher values of determination coefficient as well as much smaller SSE. Overally, results indicated that linearization of the Freundlich isotherm to fit the experimental data may generate higher errors and significantly deviate the predicted adsorption capacity of a given adsorbent from the experimental data.

The Temkin isotherm is based on the assumption that the heat of adsorption of all the molecules in the layer declines as adsorbent surface coverage increases due to adsorbate-adsorbate repulsions. Fall in the heat of adsorption is considered to be linear for Temkin isotherm rather than logarithmic as implied in the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption of adsorbate onto adsorbent is also characterized by a unisonous distribution of binding energies up to ca. maximum binding energy [28]. Temkin isotherm equation contains a factor that reflects the adsorbent-adsorbate interactions. The nonlinear form of Tempkin isotherm is represented by the following equation:

Where, T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin (K), R is the universal gas constant, 8.314 J mol− 1 K− 1, bT is the constant related to the heat of adsorption indicating the variation of adsorption energy (J mol− 1), and KT is the Temkin equilibrium binding constant (L g− 1) corresponding to the maximum binding energy. The dimensionless term (RT)/bT can be substituted by BT, thus Temkin isotherm equation can be linearized as given by the following equation:

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the University of Tehran for the support. The first author would also like to sincerely thank the Labor of Applied Geosciences, University of Tübingen, Germany, for the skilled laboratory support.

Authors’ contributions

Ali Daryabeigi Zand (ADZ) was responsible for developing the theory and idea, carrying out the experiments, performing and verifying the analytic calculations and numerical simulations, and writing the manuscript. Maryam Rabiee Abyaneh (MRA) was responsible for carrying out the experiments, performing the analytic calculations and numerical simulations, and writing the manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by University of Tehran.

Availability of data and materials

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included within the article.

Competing interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Authors’ details

1 School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Table 1. Kinetic parameters of the pseudo second-order model for adsorption of heavy metals onto BC in landfill leachate

BC Dosage

Pseudo first-order kinetic for PWB

Pseudo first-order kinetic for CWB

qe (cal.) (mg g-1)

K2p

h

R2

SSE

qe(cal.) (mg g-1)

K2p

h

R2

SSE

Pb

0.05

0.446

0.115

0.023

0.999

0.000

0.358

0.147

0.019

0.999

0.000

0.1

0.439

0.116

0.022

0.999

0.000

0.349

0.15

0.018

0.999

0.000

0.25

0.341

0.15

0.017

0.999

0.000

0.272

0.197

0.015

0.999

0.000

0.5

0.274

0.187

0.014

0.999

0.000

0.188

0.284

0.01

0.999

0.000

0.75

0.212

0.242

0.011

0.999

0.000

0.149

0.363

0.008

0.999

0.000

1

0.171

0.306

0.009

0.999

0.000

0.122

0.465

0.007

0.999

0.000

1.5

0.122

0.428

0.006

0.999

0.000

0.092

0.625

0.005

0.999

0.000

2

0.093

0.564

0.005

0.999

0.000

0.072

0.79

0.004

0.999

0.000

3

0.065

0.807

0.003

0.999

0.000

0.052

1.104

0.003

0.999

0.000

5

0.039

1.386

0.002

0.999

0.000

0.033

1.750

0.002

0.999

0.000

Mn

0.05

1.616

0.031

0.082

0.999

0.001

1.404

0.037

0.074

0.999

0.001

0.1

1.536

0.032

0.079

0.999

0.000

1.395

0.038

0.073

0.999

0.001

0.25

1.095

0.047

0.056

0.999

0.000

0.967

0.056

0.052

0.999

0.000

0.5

0.85

0.061

0.044

0.999

0.000

0.729

0.074

0.039

0.999

0.000

0.75

0.692

0.074

0.036

0.999

0.000

0.576

0.093

0.031

0.999

0.000

1

0.561

0.094

0.031

0.999

0.000

0.473

0.121

0.027

0.999

0.000

1.5

0.428

0.123

0.022

0.999

0.000

0.355

0.160

0.021

0.999

0.000

2

0.34

0.154

0.018

0.999

0.000

0.282

0.201

0.016

0.999

0.000

3

0.237

0.222

0.013

0.999

0.000

0.203

0.281

0.011

0.999

0.000

5

0.148

0.354

0.008

0.999

0.000

0.127

0.452

0.007

0.999

0.000

Cu

0.05

0.401

0.126

0.021

0.999

0.000

0.461

0.114

0.024

0.999

0.000

0.1

0.392

0.131

0.021

0.999

0.000

0.425

0.123

0.022

0.999

0.000

0.25

0.326

0.157

0.017

0.999

0.000

0.323

0.166

0.017

0.999

0.000

0.5

0.263

0.195

0.013

0.999

0.000

0.237

0.228

0.013

0.999

0.000

0.75

0.216

0.237

0.011

0.999

0.000

0.184

0.293

0.01

0.999

0.000

1

0.174

0.294

0.009

0.999

0.000

0.155

0.367

0.009

0.999

0.000

1.5

0.133

0.384

0.007

0.999

0.000

0.117

0.491

0.007

0.999

0.000

2

0.106

0.493

0.006

0.999

0.000

0.093

0.618

0.005

0.999

0.000

3

0.075

0.697

0.004

0.999

0.000

0.066

0.873

0.004

0.999

0.000

5

0.048

1.094

0.003

0.999

0.000

0.042

1.378

0.002

0.999

0.000

Table 2. Kinetic parameters of the Elovich model for adsorption of heavy metals onto BC in landfill leachate

Elovich kinetic for PWB

Elovich kinetic for CWB

qe (cal.) (mg g-1)

β

α

R2

SSE

qe(cal.) (mg g-1)

β

α

R2

SSE

Pb

0.05

0.487

14.493

0.056

0.953

0.002

0.388

18.182

0.044

0.955

0.001

0.1

0.480

14.706

0.055

0.952

0.002

0.380

18.519

0.043

0.956

0.001

0.25

0.374

18.868

0.043

0.948

0.002

0.297

23.81

0.034

0.955

0.001

0.5

0.297

23.810

0.034

0.948

0.001

0.205

34.483

0.024

0.955

0.000

0.75

0.233

30.303

0.027

0.949

0.001

0.163

43.478

0.019

0.955

0.000

1

0.184

38.462

0.021

0.937

0.000

0.134

52.632

0.015

0.951

0.000

1.5

0.134

52.632

0.015

0.937

0.000

0.098

71.429

0.011

0.951

0.000

2

0.098

71.429

0.011

0.937

0.000

0.078

90.909

0.009

0.951

0.000

3

0.070

100.000

0.008

0.939

0.000

0.056

125.000

0.006

0.951

0.000

5

0.043

166.667

0.005

0.935

0.000

0.035

200.000

0.004

0.952

0.000

Mn

0.05

1.764

4.011

0.201

0.952

0.032

1.545

4.566

0.176

0.956

0.028

0.1

1.708

4.132

0.195

0.952

0.031

1.530

4.608

0.174

0.956

0.026

0.25

1.200

5.882

0.137

0.948

0.016

1.065

6.623

0.121

0.955

0.013

0.5

0.838

8.576

0.107

0.948

0.000

0.805

8.772

0.092

0.955

0.008

0.75

0.755

9.346

0.086

0.948

0.006

0.634

11.111

0.072

0.954

0.005

1

0.614

11.494

0.07

0.937

0.004

0.521

13.514

0.059

0.95

0.003

1.5

0.465

15.152

0.053

0.937

0.002

0.377

18.857

0.045

0.95

0.001

2

0.374

18.868

0.043

0.937

0.002

0.310

22.727

0.035

0.95

0.001

3

0.261

27.027

0.03

0.936

0.001

0.226

31.250

0.026

0.95

0.001

5

0.163

43.478

0.019

0.936

0.000

0.141

50.000

0.016

0.95

0.000

Cu

0.05

0.445

15.873

0.051

0.952

0.003

0.508

13.889

0.058

0.957

0.003

0.1

0.438

16.129

0.050

0.952

0.003

0.465

15.152

0.053

0.957

0.002

0.25

0.352

20.000

0.041

0.948

0.001

0.352

20.000

0.041

0.955

0.001

0.5

0.282

25.000

0.032

0.948

0.001

0.261

27.027

0.030

0.955

0.001

0.75

0.233

30.303

0.027

0.948

0.000

0.198

35.712

0.023

0.954

0.000

1

0.191

37.037

0.022

0.937

0.000

0.169

41.667

0.019

0.955

0.000

1.5

0.141

50.000

0.016

0.937

0.000

0.126

55.556

0.014

0.955

0.000

2

0.113

62.500

0.013

0.937

0.000

0.098

71.429