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world-biochar-headlines-05-2017

Biochar Hacking Workshop with Vasko Drogriski and Rob Eales

1 May, 2017
 

Sat., 27/05/2017, 9:00 am –

Sat., 03/06/2017, 3:00 pm AEST

CERES Joe's Market Garden

34 Edna Grove

Coburg, VIC 3058

Australia

View Map

Connect to Facebook

This event is at 34 Edna Grove, Coburg, 3058, NOT at CERES.

Sat., 27/05/2017, 9:00 am –

Sat., 03/06/2017, 3:00 pm AEST

CERES Joe's Market Garden

34 Edna Grove

Coburg, VIC 3058

Australia

View Map

Connect to Facebook

Find out more about how your privacy is protected.

Events are social. Allow Facebook friends to see your upcoming events?


Returning biochar to fields: A review

1 May, 2017
 

Biochar generated from thermochemical conversion of biomass reduces greenhouse gas emissions and is useful for improving ecological systems in agriculture. However, certain biochars function well in improving soil, and other biochars do not. Why? Because it is not clear how to prepare the best biochar for soil. There is a disconnect between biochar preparation and returning the biochar to the soil. To elucidate this relationship, this paper reviews (i) technologies for preparing biochar, (ii) how preparation conditions affect biochar properties, and (iii) the effects on soil physical and chemical properties. In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, biochar improves the physicochemical and microbial properties of soil and absorbs poisonous and pernicious substances. Therefore, as biochar is produced by pyrolysis, optimizing processing conditions to improve its properties for agricultural use is a key issue explored in this article.

Biochar generated from thermochemical conversion of biomass reduces greenhouse gas emissions and is useful for improving ecological systems in agriculture. However, certain biochars function well in improving soil, and other biochars do not. Why? Because it is not clear how to prepare the best biochar for soil. There is a disconnect between biochar preparation and returning the biochar to the soil. To elucidate this relationship, this paper reviews (i) technologies for preparing biochar, (ii) how preparation conditions affect biochar properties, and (iii) the effects on soil physical and chemical properties. In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, biochar improves the physicochemical and microbial properties of soil and absorbs poisonous and pernicious substances. Therefore, as biochar is produced by pyrolysis, optimizing processing conditions to improve its properties for agricultural use is a key issue explored in this article.


Nathaniel Mulcahy from WorldStove Talks about Clean Cooking Stoves

1 May, 2017
 

Feast and fight food waste at World Disco Soup Day – the largest food waste awareness event on the planet on April 29.The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) released a report about the impact of rapid urban growth on food security and nutrition.Feast and fight food waste at World Disco Soup Day – the largest food waste awareness event on the planet on April 29.Feast and fight food waste at World Disco Soup Day – the largest food waste awareness event on the planet on April 29.Apply now to attend UNLEASH’s Innovation Lab 2017 to create real solutions to the SDGs. It takes place from August 13 to 21 in Denmark.Apply now to attend UNLEASH’s Innovation Lab 2017 to create real solutions to the SDGs. It takes place from August 13 to 21 in Denmark.Food insecurity in Africa worsening as U.N. calls for international aid—largest humanitarian crisis since 1945.The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) released a report about the impact of rapid urban growth on food security and nutrition.Food Tank has compiled 17 books to educate, inform, and inspire us this season.The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) released a report about the impact of rapid urban growth on food security and nutrition.Erica Hellen, co-owner and farmer at Free Union Grass Farm, is speaking at the third annual D.C. Food Tank Summit.By implementing carbon soil restoration practices, individuals can help aid in carbon sequestration.

WorldStove is a nonprofit organization that produces clean cookstoves that use pyrolytic gasification to reduce indoor air pollution and is working with communities to distribute these stoves around the world. These stoves use waste biomass as fuel, reducing the broader environmental impacts of wood fired cooking. According to the World Health Organization, 4.3 million people die each year as a result of air pollution attributable to cooking fires. In addition, there is a significant environmental toll caused by deforestation and carbon emissions caused by fuel used on these cooking fires. Food Tank recently had the opportunity to interview Nathaniel Mulcahy, founder, and owner of WorldStove, about how these stoves can be adapted to local community cooking cultures and support local economies, whilst also reducing emissions.

Food Tank (FT): Your company can adapt stoves to the needs of different cultures. Can you share with Food Tank readers some examples of these adaptations and tell us how communities have responded to your stoves?

Nathaniel Mulcahy (NM): Food is much more than nutrition. Culinary traditions build communities, strengthen families, and can make friends of strangers. In refugee settings, many have lost their home, their belongings, and in some cases even their families. For those people, culinary traditions may be the only thing they have left, the only thing that can not be stolen from them and this is where we try to make a difference.

Too often stove providers are focused on the water boiling test, where boiling a liter of water as fast and as efficiently as possible is the key focus. From engineering and environmental perspectives these are worthy goals, but what good are they if the stove that can boil a liter of water in record time can not be used to cook the dishes that are core to who you are? For this reason, when we start a new program, in nonemergency situations, we first go in and spend weeks working with the local community. We hire cooks and have them teach us to cook all the most important local dishes on their preferred stoves and with their preferred pots.

Working this way serves many important functions:

1) We do not arrive as the experts to tell people how to do things but we come as students, thereby empowering local cooks and giving communities a critical role in development.

2) We learn what parameters are vital to making the dishes that are central to that community’s culture.

3) We eat many delicious and wonderful new foods.

After this phase, we then tune our stoves to meet the needs of a particular culture and community. We then return with the modified stoves, again hiring local cooks to try cooking the same dishes on our stoves.  If they are pleased, we begin production locally, if not, we adjust and repeat as often as needed. Of course, high efficiency and low emissions are key design drivers for us, but if the stoves are to be successful, the people doing the cooking will have to want to use them.

Examples of adaptations we have made include the LuciaStove for Ethiopia, which cooks at a very high temperature for 40 minutes and has an incorporated mittard (like a clay griddle). The same LuciaStove tuned for Zambia cooks at a medium temperature for 2.5 to 3 hours and is adapted to work best with round bottom pots.

Perhaps the most challenging adaptation we’ve had to make was for northern Burkina Faso.  We had tuned the stove to use the locally available waste biomass (karite shells, left over from the production of shea butter) and to meet the requirements of all the local dishes, including variable temperature settings. We’d even made the stove run without the need for constant refueling, as we had done elsewhere as a labor savings option. As a crowning achievement, we developed a snorkel system so the stove could function when in the ground (required for a local cooking technique using a long stand up stirring staff).  We felt sure that we had done a good job, but we had made a critical oversight. An essential part of the culture is feeding fuel to the stove. Cooking in this region is a collective process. Women sit in a circle surrounding the fire as one woman stands to hold the stirring staff. Each woman takes turns adding small bits of twigs to keep the fire going at the right temperature.  By making a stove that required no refueling we were placing at risk a critical part of bringing the community together for exchanging information and socializing. We then redesigned the stove, one more time so that that fuel could be added at any time, and those stoves have been in use ever since.

FT: One of WorldStove’s objectives is to create local jobs and improve local economies. Can you tell us how your company works to achieves this objective?

NM:  This is a primary objective of WorldStove. Rather than distribute stoves, we help local communities establish their stove factories.  The income to support the factory and supplies comes from the sale of pellets (the production of which is part of the stove factory) and the return of carbon offsets.  In this way, the stove hubs are usually self-sustaining within 18 months.  WorldStove is the first company certified as carbon negative and, we did so by creating a new offset program. What is unique about our offsets is that they are measurable to one-tenth of a gram, verifiable with GPS tags, and (in contrast to all other offset programs) 100 percent of the revenue generated goes to the local communities running the programs. All fees and certification costs are paid for by WorldStove as part of our social entrepreneurship program.

FT: Can you explain to Food Tank readers how your stoves reduce emissions? Are there additional environmental improvements for communities that use your stoves?

NM: There are two primary ways our stoves reduce emissions. The first is that LuciaStoves are tuned to maximize efficiency using pellets locally made of waste biomass. Rather than burn the pellets, the stoves extract gasses from the pellets and burn only those gasses.  While burning solids, there are many differing processes taking place during combustion. However, by focusing only on the gas produced we can increase combustion efficiency, reducing black carbon emissions to the point that when Environmental Protection Authority first tested our stoves, they had to re-calibrate because several of the readings were too low to record.

The second way we reduce emissions is by the process LuciaStoves extract gas from waste biomass. Rather than have the gasses rise directly into the flame, they first pass down through the biomass and biochar, which acts as a filter to the gasses, before mixing with air and subsequent combustion.  The process itself has the added benefit that it bonds soluble nitrogen to the biochar. Typically nitrogen volatilizes, but the reverse air flow causes it to bind to the char making the biochar a nutrient source for agriculture.

As for additional environmental improvements for communities that use our stoves, the most important environmental advantage is that in each community we tune our stoves to run on the locally available waste biomass. Most waste biomass is too high in minerals and too small to be used in traditional stoves and most often is left to rot releasing stored carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. Alternatively, it is burnt in large heaps to avoid having waste issues. For example, Egypt alone produces  30 million tons of agricultural waste a year, and burning rice straw emits 80,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually.  By tuning our stoves to only work with waste material not only do we avoid having waste become an environmental problem but we eliminate the need to cut trees for fuel (after all trees have already done an excellent job of sequestering carbon, might as well let them keep it for us.)

FT: Your stoves produce biochar through the cooking process. How can biochar support soil regeneration?

NM: The food we eat, the water we drink, and indeed much of the life on this planet is dependent on soil. To some degree, soil is one of our planet’s most critical bank accounts, and since the dawn of modern industrial agriculture, we, as a species have been making withdrawals and never any deposits. Soil carbon is now 34-50 percent lower than it historically was.

By producing biochar, we can reduce emissions and provide a way to help restore soil carbon.  To avoid the temptation of burning the biochar we created an economic incentive through the offset program and used the biochar in aliquots, as part of our reforestation and agricultural programs.  Thanks to biochar, we’ve even been able to grow tomatoes in desertified areas like Senegal and Northern Haiti, using 10 percent of the water needed in loamy soils. By making it possible for plants to grow in desertified areas, we begin the process of reestablishing a fertile, carbon-rich, topsoil.

FT: What do you see as the key opportunities and barriers for your company over the next five years?

NM: Key opportunities are from ongoing research and development and our latest products.  Years in the making they help meet other critical needs. For example, one of our latest stoves, the LuciaClearwater, captures residual heat generated during cooking and uses it to run a three stage water purification process. As a result, with each meal cooked the stove can produce up to 11 liters of clean water starting from nonpure water, salt water or even urine.

In Burkina Faso we worked in a community where the average household spends $3 per day on fuel for cooking but only $0.05 per day per household for food, forcing many to have to make the terrible choice of buying food or the fuel needed to cook the food.  Another of our latest innovations hits closer to home, as this tragic situation exists even in Massachusetts. In 2012, 238,000 households in Massachusetts (more than one million people) reduced the number of meals they ate to one or less per day during the heating season as they could not afford both food and the fuel needed to keep their homes from freezing. Realizing that our stoves were helping resolve this problem in developing nations we thought they might be able to do the same in Massachusetts. We subsequently developed a heating unit that uses the LuciaProcess to heat homes with waste biomass. As a side note, it is interesting to note that the average American lawn produces enough waste biomass per year to generate 130 percent of the heating requirements of the average American home.

As for barriers over the next five years, to meet ever growing demand, we’ve had to move three times to ever bigger shops and factories.  With the latest products, it looks like we will have to do so again. A challenge for sure, but a good problem to have.

Suzy is Founder and Director of Beautiful Waste, an Australian social enterprise working with the hospitality industry to reduce food waste. Suzy has a Ph.D. and a Master of Public Health and is passionate about preventing and reducing food waste, obesity, and promoting sustainable food policy. Find her on social media: @BeautifulWaste1.

ASPCA’s Farm Animal Welfare Certification Guide helps farmers understand the three most meaningful welfare certification programs in the United StatesFeast and fight food waste at World Disco Soup Day – the largest food waste awareness event on the planet on April 29.

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world-biochar-headlines-05-2017

1 May, 2017
 

Sat., 27/05/2017, 9:00 am –

Sat., 03/06/2017, 3:00 pm AEST

CERES Joe's Market Garden

34 Edna Grove

Coburg, VIC 3058

Australia

View Map

Connect to Facebook

This event is at 34 Edna Grove, Coburg, 3058, NOT at CERES.

Sat., 27/05/2017, 9:00 am –

Sat., 03/06/2017, 3:00 pm AEST

CERES Joe's Market Garden

34 Edna Grove

Coburg, VIC 3058

Australia

View Map

Connect to Facebook

Find out more about how your privacy is protected.

Events are social. Allow Facebook friends to see your upcoming events?

Biochar generated from thermochemical conversion of biomass reduces greenhouse gas emissions and is useful for improving ecological systems in agriculture. However, certain biochars function well in improving soil, and other biochars do not. Why? Because it is not clear how to prepare the best biochar for soil. There is a disconnect between biochar preparation and returning the biochar to the soil. To elucidate this relationship, this paper reviews (i) technologies for preparing biochar, (ii) how preparation conditions affect biochar properties, and (iii) the effects on soil physical and chemical properties. In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, biochar improves the physicochemical and microbial properties of soil and absorbs poisonous and pernicious substances. Therefore, as biochar is produced by pyrolysis, optimizing processing conditions to improve its properties for agricultural use is a key issue explored in this article.

Biochar generated from thermochemical conversion of biomass reduces greenhouse gas emissions and is useful for improving ecological systems in agriculture. However, certain biochars function well in improving soil, and other biochars do not. Why? Because it is not clear how to prepare the best biochar for soil. There is a disconnect between biochar preparation and returning the biochar to the soil. To elucidate this relationship, this paper reviews (i) technologies for preparing biochar, (ii) how preparation conditions affect biochar properties, and (iii) the effects on soil physical and chemical properties. In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, biochar improves the physicochemical and microbial properties of soil and absorbs poisonous and pernicious substances. Therefore, as biochar is produced by pyrolysis, optimizing processing conditions to improve its properties for agricultural use is a key issue explored in this article.

Feast and fight food waste at World Disco Soup Day – the largest food waste awareness event on the planet on April 29.The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) released a report about the impact of rapid urban growth on food security and nutrition.Feast and fight food waste at World Disco Soup Day – the largest food waste awareness event on the planet on April 29.Feast and fight food waste at World Disco Soup Day – the largest food waste awareness event on the planet on April 29.Apply now to attend UNLEASH’s Innovation Lab 2017 to create real solutions to the SDGs. It takes place from August 13 to 21 in Denmark.Apply now to attend UNLEASH’s Innovation Lab 2017 to create real solutions to the SDGs. It takes place from August 13 to 21 in Denmark.Food insecurity in Africa worsening as U.N. calls for international aid—largest humanitarian crisis since 1945.The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) released a report about the impact of rapid urban growth on food security and nutrition.Food Tank has compiled 17 books to educate, inform, and inspire us this season.The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) released a report about the impact of rapid urban growth on food security and nutrition.Erica Hellen, co-owner and farmer at Free Union Grass Farm, is speaking at the third annual D.C. Food Tank Summit.By implementing carbon soil restoration practices, individuals can help aid in carbon sequestration.

WorldStove is a nonprofit organization that produces clean cookstoves that use pyrolytic gasification to reduce indoor air pollution and is working with communities to distribute these stoves around the world. These stoves use waste biomass as fuel, reducing the broader environmental impacts of wood fired cooking. According to the World Health Organization, 4.3 million people die each year as a result of air pollution attributable to cooking fires. In addition, there is a significant environmental toll caused by deforestation and carbon emissions caused by fuel used on these cooking fires. Food Tank recently had the opportunity to interview Nathaniel Mulcahy, founder, and owner of WorldStove, about how these stoves can be adapted to local community cooking cultures and support local economies, whilst also reducing emissions.

Food Tank (FT): Your company can adapt stoves to the needs of different cultures. Can you share with Food Tank readers some examples of these adaptations and tell us how communities have responded to your stoves?

Nathaniel Mulcahy (NM): Food is much more than nutrition. Culinary traditions build communities, strengthen families, and can make friends of strangers. In refugee settings, many have lost their home, their belongings, and in some cases even their families. For those people, culinary traditions may be the only thing they have left, the only thing that can not be stolen from them and this is where we try to make a difference.

Too often stove providers are focused on the water boiling test, where boiling a liter of water as fast and as efficiently as possible is the key focus. From engineering and environmental perspectives these are worthy goals, but what good are they if the stove that can boil a liter of water in record time can not be used to cook the dishes that are core to who you are? For this reason, when we start a new program, in nonemergency situations, we first go in and spend weeks working with the local community. We hire cooks and have them teach us to cook all the most important local dishes on their preferred stoves and with their preferred pots.

Working this way serves many important functions:

1) We do not arrive as the experts to tell people how to do things but we come as students, thereby empowering local cooks and giving communities a critical role in development.

2) We learn what parameters are vital to making the dishes that are central to that community’s culture.

3) We eat many delicious and wonderful new foods.

After this phase, we then tune our stoves to meet the needs of a particular culture and community. We then return with the modified stoves, again hiring local cooks to try cooking the same dishes on our stoves.  If they are pleased, we begin production locally, if not, we adjust and repeat as often as needed. Of course, high efficiency and low emissions are key design drivers for us, but if the stoves are to be successful, the people doing the cooking will have to want to use them.

Examples of adaptations we have made include the LuciaStove for Ethiopia, which cooks at a very high temperature for 40 minutes and has an incorporated mittard (like a clay griddle). The same LuciaStove tuned for Zambia cooks at a medium temperature for 2.5 to 3 hours and is adapted to work best with round bottom pots.

Perhaps the most challenging adaptation we’ve had to make was for northern Burkina Faso.  We had tuned the stove to use the locally available waste biomass (karite shells, left over from the production of shea butter) and to meet the requirements of all the local dishes, including variable temperature settings. We’d even made the stove run without the need for constant refueling, as we had done elsewhere as a labor savings option. As a crowning achievement, we developed a snorkel system so the stove could function when in the ground (required for a local cooking technique using a long stand up stirring staff).  We felt sure that we had done a good job, but we had made a critical oversight. An essential part of the culture is feeding fuel to the stove. Cooking in this region is a collective process. Women sit in a circle surrounding the fire as one woman stands to hold the stirring staff. Each woman takes turns adding small bits of twigs to keep the fire going at the right temperature.  By making a stove that required no refueling we were placing at risk a critical part of bringing the community together for exchanging information and socializing. We then redesigned the stove, one more time so that that fuel could be added at any time, and those stoves have been in use ever since.

FT: One of WorldStove’s objectives is to create local jobs and improve local economies. Can you tell us how your company works to achieves this objective?

NM:  This is a primary objective of WorldStove. Rather than distribute stoves, we help local communities establish their stove factories.  The income to support the factory and supplies comes from the sale of pellets (the production of which is part of the stove factory) and the return of carbon offsets.  In this way, the stove hubs are usually self-sustaining within 18 months.  WorldStove is the first company certified as carbon negative and, we did so by creating a new offset program. What is unique about our offsets is that they are measurable to one-tenth of a gram, verifiable with GPS tags, and (in contrast to all other offset programs) 100 percent of the revenue generated goes to the local communities running the programs. All fees and certification costs are paid for by WorldStove as part of our social entrepreneurship program.

FT: Can you explain to Food Tank readers how your stoves reduce emissions? Are there additional environmental improvements for communities that use your stoves?

NM: There are two primary ways our stoves reduce emissions. The first is that LuciaStoves are tuned to maximize efficiency using pellets locally made of waste biomass. Rather than burn the pellets, the stoves extract gasses from the pellets and burn only those gasses.  While burning solids, there are many differing processes taking place during combustion. However, by focusing only on the gas produced we can increase combustion efficiency, reducing black carbon emissions to the point that when Environmental Protection Authority first tested our stoves, they had to re-calibrate because several of the readings were too low to record.

The second way we reduce emissions is by the process LuciaStoves extract gas from waste biomass. Rather than have the gasses rise directly into the flame, they first pass down through the biomass and biochar, which acts as a filter to the gasses, before mixing with air and subsequent combustion.  The process itself has the added benefit that it bonds soluble nitrogen to the biochar. Typically nitrogen volatilizes, but the reverse air flow causes it to bind to the char making the biochar a nutrient source for agriculture.

As for additional environmental improvements for communities that use our stoves, the most important environmental advantage is that in each community we tune our stoves to run on the locally available waste biomass. Most waste biomass is too high in minerals and too small to be used in traditional stoves and most often is left to rot releasing stored carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. Alternatively, it is burnt in large heaps to avoid having waste issues. For example, Egypt alone produces  30 million tons of agricultural waste a year, and burning rice straw emits 80,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually.  By tuning our stoves to only work with waste material not only do we avoid having waste become an environmental problem but we eliminate the need to cut trees for fuel (after all trees have already done an excellent job of sequestering carbon, might as well let them keep it for us.)

FT: Your stoves produce biochar through the cooking process. How can biochar support soil regeneration?

NM: The food we eat, the water we drink, and indeed much of the life on this planet is dependent on soil. To some degree, soil is one of our planet’s most critical bank accounts, and since the dawn of modern industrial agriculture, we, as a species have been making withdrawals and never any deposits. Soil carbon is now 34-50 percent lower than it historically was.

By producing biochar, we can reduce emissions and provide a way to help restore soil carbon.  To avoid the temptation of burning the biochar we created an economic incentive through the offset program and used the biochar in aliquots, as part of our reforestation and agricultural programs.  Thanks to biochar, we’ve even been able to grow tomatoes in desertified areas like Senegal and Northern Haiti, using 10 percent of the water needed in loamy soils. By making it possible for plants to grow in desertified areas, we begin the process of reestablishing a fertile, carbon-rich, topsoil.

FT: What do you see as the key opportunities and barriers for your company over the next five years?

NM: Key opportunities are from ongoing research and development and our latest products.  Years in the making they help meet other critical needs. For example, one of our latest stoves, the LuciaClearwater, captures residual heat generated during cooking and uses it to run a three stage water purification process. As a result, with each meal cooked the stove can produce up to 11 liters of clean water starting from nonpure water, salt water or even urine.

In Burkina Faso we worked in a community where the average household spends $3 per day on fuel for cooking but only $0.05 per day per household for food, forcing many to have to make the terrible choice of buying food or the fuel needed to cook the food.  Another of our latest innovations hits closer to home, as this tragic situation exists even in Massachusetts. In 2012, 238,000 households in Massachusetts (more than one million people) reduced the number of meals they ate to one or less per day during the heating season as they could not afford both food and the fuel needed to keep their homes from freezing. Realizing that our stoves were helping resolve this problem in developing nations we thought they might be able to do the same in Massachusetts. We subsequently developed a heating unit that uses the LuciaProcess to heat homes with waste biomass. As a side note, it is interesting to note that the average American lawn produces enough waste biomass per year to generate 130 percent of the heating requirements of the average American home.

As for barriers over the next five years, to meet ever growing demand, we’ve had to move three times to ever bigger shops and factories.  With the latest products, it looks like we will have to do so again. A challenge for sure, but a good problem to have.

Suzy is Founder and Director of Beautiful Waste, an Australian social enterprise working with the hospitality industry to reduce food waste. Suzy has a Ph.D. and a Master of Public Health and is passionate about preventing and reducing food waste, obesity, and promoting sustainable food policy. Find her on social media: @BeautifulWaste1.

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© 2013-2016 Food Tank. All rights reserved.

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BioChar 50 Gallon Drums $110/Each

1 May, 2017
 

medford >

for sale >

farm & garden – by owner

Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


Gina Lopez awarded P9-B to USec Camara?

2 May, 2017
 


Garb announces intent to acquire biochar producer

2 May, 2017
 

Garb announces intent to acquire biochar producer


GARB OIL : announces intent to acquire biochar producer

2 May, 2017
 

GARB OIL : announces intent to acquire biochar producer https://t.co/y5LtVkk0nd


Garb announces intent to acquire biochar producer

2 May, 2017
 

SALT LAKE CITY, UT–(Marketwired — May 2, 2017) — Garb Oil & Power Corp. (OTC PINK: GARB) is pleased to announce it will begin producing biochar. Shifting its focus from rubber recovery, Garb will capitalize on the growing market for biochar products in agriculture and specifically, cannabis cultivation.

Recently appointed President of Garb’s Biochar Division, Wes Johnson, stated, “Biochar is an untapped market in the United States. With the explosion of the agriculture industry, especially in cannabis cultivation, the demand for biochar is tremendous.”

Johnson further stated “Biochar enhances the fertility and stability of the soils and plowed directly into the ground. The cannabis industry is highly focused on biochar as a soil additive. As legal cannabis becomes commoditized, growers are looking for competitive advantages in yield and quality. Biochar is that secret weapon.”

From Wikipedia: “Biochar is a high-carbon, fine-grained residue … produced through modern pyrolysis processes; it is the direct thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen (preventing combustion), which produces a mixture of solids (the biochar proper), liquid (bio-oil), and gas (syngas) products.” And According to the International Biochar Initiative, “… biochar is a powerfully simple tool that can 1) fight global warming; 2) produce a soil enhancer that holds carbon and makes soil more fertile; 3) reduce agricultural waste; and 4) produce clean, renewable energy. In some biochar systems all four objectives can be met, while in others a combination of two or more objectives will be obtained.”

Garb will provide more details of its biochar activities in the coming days. Johnson stated, “We are excited for the opportunities that are available with biochar. We have been focused on green technology for a while and we believe entering the biochar market is a substantial step.”

About Garb Oil & Power Corporation

Founded in 1972, Garb Oil & Power Corporation (OTC PINK: GARB), provides services in the fast growing waste-to-energy industry. Garb utilizes both next-generation machines and new technologies to vertically integrate into the waste refinement, recycling, and energy industries. Garb emphasizes producing profitable new and “green” solutions for waste-to-energy including the potential use of alternate energy sources, new equipment technologies that improve energy usage efficiency and utilizing recycled material in producing both useful and demanded products.

Safe Harbor Statement

This release contains statements that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These statements appear in several places in this release and include all statements that are not statements of historical fact regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of Garb Oil & Power Corp., its directors or its officers with respect to, among other things: (i) financing plans; (ii) trends affecting its financial condition or results of operations; (iii) growth strategy and operating strategy. The words “may”, “would”, “will”, “expect”, “estimate”, “can”, “believe”, “potential”, and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Investors are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond Garb’s ability to control, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements because of various factors. More information about the potential factors that could affect the business and financial results is and will be included in Garb’s filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Contact:
Jim Garrett
385-743-8566
jim@garbcorporation.com


Garb announces intent to acquire biochar producer

2 May, 2017
 

SOURCE: Garb Oil and Power Corporation

May 02, 2017 16:00 ET

SALT LAKE CITY, UT–(Marketwired – May 2, 2017) – Garb Oil & Power Corp. (OTC PINK: GARB) is pleased to announce it will begin producing biochar. Shifting its focus from rubber recovery, Garb will capitalize on the growing market for biochar products in agriculture and specifically, cannabis cultivation.

Recently appointed President of Garb’s Biochar Division, Wes Johnson, stated, “Biochar is an untapped market in the United States. With the explosion of the agriculture industry, especially in cannabis cultivation, the demand for biochar is tremendous.”

Johnson further stated “Biochar enhances the fertility and stability of the soils and plowed directly into the ground. The cannabis industry is highly focused on biochar as a soil additive. As legal cannabis becomes commoditized, growers are looking for competitive advantages in yield and quality. Biochar is that secret weapon.”

From Wikipedia: “Biochar is a high-carbon, fine-grained residue … produced through modern pyrolysis processes; it is the direct thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen (preventing combustion), which produces a mixture of solids (the biochar proper), liquid (bio-oil), and gas (syngas) products.” And According to the International Biochar Initiative, “… biochar is a powerfully simple tool that can 1) fight global warming; 2) produce a soil enhancer that holds carbon and makes soil more fertile; 3) reduce agricultural waste; and 4) produce clean, renewable energy. In some biochar systems all four objectives can be met, while in others a combination of two or more objectives will be obtained.”

Garb will provide more details of its biochar activities in the coming days. Johnson stated, “We are excited for the opportunities that are available with biochar. We have been focused on green technology for a while and we believe entering the biochar market is a substantial step.”

About Garb Oil & Power Corporation

Founded in 1972, Garb Oil & Power Corporation (OTC PINK: GARB), provides services in the fast growing waste-to-energy industry. Garb utilizes both next-generation machines and new technologies to vertically integrate into the waste refinement, recycling, and energy industries. Garb emphasizes producing profitable new and “green” solutions for waste-to-energy including the potential use of alternate energy sources, new equipment technologies that improve energy usage efficiency and utilizing recycled material in producing both useful and demanded products.

Safe Harbor Statement

This release contains statements that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These statements appear in several places in this release and include all statements that are not statements of historical fact regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of Garb Oil & Power Corp., its directors or its officers with respect to, among other things: (i) financing plans; (ii) trends affecting its financial condition or results of operations; (iii) growth strategy and operating strategy. The words “may”, “would”, “will”, “expect”, “estimate”, “can”, “believe”, “potential”, and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Investors are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond Garb’s ability to control, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements because of various factors. More information about the potential factors that could affect the business and financial results is and will be included in Garb’s filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

SALT LAKE CITY, UT–(Marketwired – May 2, 2017) – Garb Oil & Power Corp. (OTC PINK: GARB) is pleased to announce it will begin producing biochar. Shifting its focus from rubber recovery, Garb will capitalize on the growing market for biochar products in agriculture and specifically, cannabis cultivation.

Recently appointed President of Garb’s Biochar Division, Wes Johnson, stated, “Biochar is an untapped market in the United States. With the explosion of the agriculture industry, especially in cannabis cultivation, the demand for biochar is tremendous.”

Johnson further stated “Biochar enhances the fertility and stability of the soils and plowed directly into the ground. The cannabis industry is highly focused on biochar as a soil additive. As legal cannabis becomes commoditized, growers are looking for competitive advantages in yield and quality. Biochar is that secret weapon.”

From Wikipedia: “Biochar is a high-carbon, fine-grained residue … produced through modern pyrolysis processes; it is the direct thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen (preventing combustion), which produces a mixture of solids (the biochar proper), liquid (bio-oil), and gas (syngas) products.” And According to the International Biochar Initiative, “… biochar is a powerfully simple tool that can 1) fight global warming; 2) produce a soil enhancer that holds carbon and makes soil more fertile; 3) reduce agricultural waste; and 4) produce clean, renewable energy. In some biochar systems all four objectives can be met, while in others a combination of two or more objectives will be obtained.”

Garb will provide more details of its biochar activities in the coming days. Johnson stated, “We are excited for the opportunities that are available with biochar. We have been focused on green technology for a while and we believe entering the biochar market is a substantial step.”

About Garb Oil & Power Corporation

Founded in 1972, Garb Oil & Power Corporation (OTC PINK: GARB), provides services in the fast growing waste-to-energy industry. Garb utilizes both next-generation machines and new technologies to vertically integrate into the waste refinement, recycling, and energy industries. Garb emphasizes producing profitable new and “green” solutions for waste-to-energy including the potential use of alternate energy sources, new equipment technologies that improve energy usage efficiency and utilizing recycled material in producing both useful and demanded products.

Safe Harbor Statement

This release contains statements that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These statements appear in several places in this release and include all statements that are not statements of historical fact regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of Garb Oil & Power Corp., its directors or its officers with respect to, among other things: (i) financing plans; (ii) trends affecting its financial condition or results of operations; (iii) growth strategy and operating strategy. The words “may”, “would”, “will”, “expect”, “estimate”, “can”, “believe”, “potential”, and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Investors are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond Garb’s ability to control, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements because of various factors. More information about the potential factors that could affect the business and financial results is and will be included in Garb’s filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Contact:
Jim Garrett
385-743-8566
jim@garbcorporation.com

Contact:
Jim Garrett
385-743-8566
jim@garbcorporation.com

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biocharge

2 May, 2017
 

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Biochar as a novel niche for culturing microbial communities in composting.

2 May, 2017
 

Humification characterization of biochar and its potential as a composting amendment.

Use of biochar as bulking agent for the composting of poultry manure: effect on organic matter degradation and humification.

Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

Responses of bacterial community and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling to biochar, compost and combined amendments in soil.

Biochar amendment before or after composting affects compost quality and N losses, but not P plant uptake.

Daquan Sun

Yu Lan

Elvis Genbo Xu

Jun Meng

Wenfu Chen

Amino sugar

Biochar

Biolog?

Compost

DGGE

© 2017 – Aldente


Bio char research papers

2 May, 2017
 

Helaas, de opgevraagde pagina kon niet worden gevonden. Misschien kan de zoekfunctie helpen.


Influence of biochar application on potassium-solubilizing Bacillus mucilaginosus as potential …

2 May, 2017
 

Biochar-manure compost in conjunction with pyroligneous solution alleviated salt stress and improved leaf bioactivity of maize in a saline soil from central China: a 2-year field experiment.

Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems.

Does a rhizospheric microorganism enhance K⁺ availability in agricultural soils?

Development of a new biofertilizer with a high capacity for N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization and auxin production.

Biochar and flyash inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria act as potential biofertilizer for luxuriant growth and yield of tomato plant.

Sainan Liu

Wenzhu Tang

Fan Yang

Jun Meng

Wenfu Chen

Xianzhen Li

Charcoal

Fertilizers

Bacillus mucilaginosus

biochar

biofertilizer

cell growth

feedstock

potassium

© 2017 – Aldente


Example Essay Thesis Statement

3 May, 2017
 

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Wood-Vinegar-Biochar

3 May, 2017
 

The global diaper market is expected to grow from an estimated $52.7 billion in 2015, and reach $76.5 billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 5.5% during 2016 – 2022. The increased awareness about personal hygiene and growing population, increasing number of women workforce, and introduction of eco-friendly biodegradable diapers are the key growth drivers for the global diaper market.

Cooling the Planet with Biochar? – Biofuelwatch

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Premium Landscape Biochar Brochure – Bartlett Tree Experts

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BIOCHAR STOVES

Download 1.0MB PDF – Gerkin Windows & Doors

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Biochar Market: Global Analysis of Key Manufacturers, Dynamics, Demand & Forecast 2017-2022

3 May, 2017
 

Biochar Market report provides key statistics on the market status of the Biochar Manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Biochar Industry. The Biochar Market report delivers a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology. Also, the Biochar Industry report explores the international and Chinese Major Market players in detail. The Biochar Market report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, Contact Information of manufacturer and Biochar Market shares for each company.

Get PDF Sample of Biochar Market Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10545649

 Further in the report, Biochar Market is examined for price, cost and revenue. In prolongation with this data sale price for various types, applications and region is also included.

Biochar Market split by Product Type-Type 1, Type 2, Type3 Biochar Market split by Application-Application 1, Application 2, Application 3 Biochar Market Segment by RegionsUSA, EU, Japan, China and Others.

 Other Major Topics Covered in Biochar market report are as follows:

Manufacturing Technology of Biochar Industry, Development of Biochar, Manufacturing Technology, Analysis of Biochar Manufacturing Technology, and Trends of Biochar Manufacturing Technology, Analysis of Key Manufacturers of Biochar Market, Company Profile, Product Information, Production Information, Contact Information, Global and Chinese Biochar Market, Capacity, Production and Production Value of Biochar Market, Global Cost and Profit of Biochar Market, Market Comparison of Biochar Industry, Supply and Consumption of Biochar Market. Market Status of Biochar Industry, Market Competition of Biochar Industry by Company, Market Analysis of Biochar Consumption by Application/Type and Region, Market Forecast of Global and Chinese Biochar Market, Biochar Market Cost and Profit Estimation, Global and Chinese Biochar Market Share, Global and Chinese Supply and Consumption of Biochar Market.

Inquire for further detailed information about Biochar Market Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10545649

 The Report explores detailed information about Market Dynamics of Biochar Industry, Biochar Industry News, Biochar Industry Development Challenges, Biochar Industry Development Opportunities, Proposals for New Project, Market Entry Strategies, Countermeasures of Economic Impact, Marketing Channels, Feasibility Studies of New Project Investment, Analysis of Biochar Industry Chain, Industry Chain Structure, Upstream Raw Materials, Downstream Industry, Macroeconomic Outlook, Effects to Biochar Industry.

In the end, the Biochar Market report makes some important proposals for a new project of Biochar Industry before evaluating its feasibility. Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2012-2022 Global and Chinese Biochar Market covering all important parameters.

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What's going on? Hannibal Tree Board does maintenance work

3 May, 2017
 

After planting trees in the rain last Friday, Arbor Day, sprinkles on Wednesday morning did not deter members of the Hannibal Tree Board from performing maintenance around trees located on North Main Street.

Wednesday’s efforts followed Tuesday’s work when two blocks were covered by Tree Board members in approximately 2 1/2 hours.

Old mulch was being replaced. Also being added was biochar, a charcoal material that is added to the soil. Reportedly biochar can increase the fertility of soil.

In addition to working around trees, Tree Board members were also on the lookout for trees that are either in decline or need to be replaced.

Reach reporter Danny Henley at danny.henley@courierpost.com .

Original content available for non-commercial use under a Creative Commons license, except where noted.
Hannibal Courier – Post – Hannibal, MO ~ 200 N. 3rd Street, Hannibal, MO 63401 ~ Privacy Policy ~ Terms Of Service $(‘#footer-main-copyright p:last-of-type’).append(‘‘);


Burning shells for energy pays off for walnut grower-processor Russ Lester

3 May, 2017
 

Dixon Ridge Farms owner Russ Lester, who has farmed walnuts in California’s Yolo and Solano counties since 1979, knows there are multiple avenues to achieve more efficient production.

From an inventive irrigation system for his trees to the use of walnut shells to generate electricity, this grower-processor has embraced practices to help ensure the longevity of his operation.

Based at Winters, Dixon Ridge Farms produces, processes, and markets organic walnuts in domestic and international markets. Lester also buys, processes, and markets walnuts from other organic growers.

Dixon Ridge Farms’ 400 walnut acres were certified organic in 1991, yet Lester began using integrated pest management practices and reduced tillage much earlier.

“We try to go beyond what is required for organic certification. We are looking at long-term sustainability,” Lester said.

Irrigation systems at Dixon Ridge Farms were adapted to work with planted ground cover in walnut orchards. After experimenting with various systems, Lester moved the plastic lines off the ground, lacing the lines through lower tree branches. He used low pressure sprinkler heads hanging down to deliver the water.

Larger drops from the sprinkler heads reduce evaporation loss. The system can achieve 60-100 percent coverage with this system. With hoses and sprinklers off the ground, the ground cover is easier to manage with less damage from harvest equipment.

Lester says cover crops are a key part of the farm’s pest management system, providing habitat for predatory insects. His orchard cover crop mixture was developed with help from a University of California researcher and a seed expert. The cover crop is a food source for insect predators until pest insect levels are high enough to provide food.

Different legumes are part of the vegetation mix, he says, since a longer flowering period ensures a better food source. The determinant legumes die back after going to seed and become mulch, holding soil moisture. By harvest time, most of the mulch has decomposed.

Lester says Botryospaeria fungal disease is a major disease in his orchards. In addition to controlling a scale that vectors the disease, diseased wood is pruned and chipped.

According to Lester, a UC Cooperative Extension trial showed a pathogen reduction as the wood decomposed in the field. The chips do not interfere with harvest activity, he notes, since the moist environment on the orchard floor helps with decomposition.

Lester plans to compost the walnut hulls to reduce pathogen levels before returning the hulls to the orchard floor.

Ten years ago, Dixon Ridge Farms became the first on-farm user of a 50-kilowatt biogas powered generator to convert walnut shells into energy. Before then, shells were shipped to a traditional biomass plant for energy conversion.

With their own farm facility and subsequent upgrades in 2012 and 2014, Lester now produces all the energy needed to operate the processing plant, and achieves carbon negative status by returning part of the carbon in the walnut shells to the ground.

Lester’s upgraded Biomax 100 units add energy with fuels to their walnut drying facility, plus generate electricity. Each of the two units produced 850,000-kilowatt hours of electricity annually, producing $136,000 in electricity and $34,000 in heat to offset propane use in the facility’s dryers.

The Biomax 100 equipment converts shells into combustible gases through a process called pyrolysis. Lester describes it as capturing gas given off when a log is ignited in a fireplace. The pyrolysis gases are filtered and used for energy.

The by-product of the process, a sand-like ash called biochar, is a stable form of carbon which Lester returns to the soil. Besides carbon, biochar is 4 percent nitrogen. The biochar, compost, and nitrogen from the legume cover crop supply the nutrients needed for the trees.

“With this system, we can sequester carbon in the soil plus return part of the nitrogen to the orchard,” Lester said.

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Mining firm files graft complaint against Lopez in Ombudsman

3 May, 2017
 

A mining company filed graft, unethical conduct and extortion charges against Environment Secretary Gina Lopez on Wednesday, the same day the Commission on Appointments rejected her nomination, for requiring it to put up a P130-million performance bond in favor of a nongovernment organization (NGO) under her control.

Citinickel Mines Development Corp. (CMDC) lawyer Lorna Kapunan said mining laws did not require sucha bond but Lopez made it an additional requirement to secure a mineral ore export permit.

New restrictions

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“She exceeds the powers vested in her office by arbitrarily imposing new restrictions in the mining industry which [are] not found under existing laws,” Kapunan said after filing the complaint in the Ombudsman.

Kapunan said Lopez imposed the requirement even after she suspended CMDC in July 2016.

The company applied for the mineral ore export permit to haul its remaining stockpile in Palawan province.

The Mines and Geosciences Bureau issued the permit in November 2016.

On Jan. 30, Lopez issued a new order requiring mining companies to set up a trust fund of P2 million per hectare of disturbed land for rehabilitation purposes.

Performance bond

On Feb. 17, she issued another order requiring CMDC to pay a performance bond of P130 million and use biochar technology to rehabilitate the mined areas.

Kapunan said former Environment Undersecretary Philip Camara, who heads a company that promotes the use of biochar, had required CMDC to organize an NGO, called Española Community Administration Services Inc. (Ecasi), to receive the P130-million performance bond and the trust fund of P2 million per hectare of disturbed land.

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Suspension order

Kapunan said Camara required CMDC to deposit in Ecasi’s account P1 million for every vessel used to ship their mineral ores.

While Malacañang stayed Lopez’s suspension order on March 3 pending a review, Kapunan stressed that CMDC’s operations remained suspended.

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Biochar crop boost "found only in the tropics"

3 May, 2017
 

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Amid CA rejection, mining firm files graft complaint vs Lopez

3 May, 2017
 

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global_biochar

3 May, 2017
 


wood vinegar biochar

3 May, 2017
 

Major factor for high wood vinegar market demand arrives due to poverty alleviation as it can be produced at small as well as large scale in villages, using local feedstock. Its generation is helping to tackle poverty issues in various parts of developing and underdeveloped countries. Global wood vinegar market is in a budding form as few players are involved in large scale production of the product.

Different governmental and private institutions in various countries are farming regulations for bio based oil production and promoting bio based byproducts, supporting the growth of biochar and biorefineries. In turn, it creates plentiful opportunities for wood vinegar market growth globally.

Request for an in-depth table of contents for this report @ https://www.gminsights.com/request-toc/upcoming/1427

Wood Vinegar Market size is anticipated to observe a surge in demand owing of increase in organic food, bio based agricultural inputs and extensive use of the product in animal feed and medical applications. This market is also driven by factors including high crop yield, strict environmental regulations and improved end use industry base.

Wood vinegar is also known as pyro ligneous acid or liquid smoke. It is nontoxic and biodegradable in nature and is consider as an excellent choice for organic farming solutions. It is produced by carbonization of timber and various other plant constituents, which takes place when heated in closed airless container. Also, when bio oils produced at a mild temperature and high heating rate, it generates as a byproduct. Its major components are methanol, acetic acid and acetone. The product is being used as a commercial source for production of acetic acid, in turn increasing wood vinegar market demand.

It helps in stimulating plant growth, enriches soil fertility, enhance generation seed, lessen odor, prevent pests, rotting and weed production. Furthermore, it supports photosynthesis, improves resistance of crop damage and develops the content of chlorophyll in plant. It has a solid germicidal effect due to the presence of germicidal constituents including methanol and phenol with high acidity property. The product provides various health benefits including better digestion, protects liver disease, promotes oral health, reduces the effect of vomiting and diarrhea and maintains normal cholesterol level.

Based on pyrolysis method, wood vinegar market has been segmented into three major divisions including slow pyrolysis, intermediate and fast pyrolysis. Slow pyrolysis method is expected to hold largest market share owing to its superior properties including low temperature, long vapor resistance time and slow heating rate. Slow pyrolysis also offers better yields of wood vinegar, char and other products compared to intermediate and fast pyrolysis. However, the process generates low energy yield, is more time consuming and leads to pollution.

Agricultural segment is the largest growing application sector of wood vinegar market due to extensive use in pesticides and fertilizers for the prevention of insect attack on crops. By mixing with manure, it reduces odor and helps in productive composting techniques. It helps in growth of a wide range of enzymes and microbes acting as a catalyst and provides effective nutrient absorption and cell growth in crops. When used as a feed supplement with charcoal in poultry, it removes several bacteria, which causes gastric disease in poultry animals. It also improves the egg lying feature of hens.

Make an inquiry for buying this report @ https://www.gminsights.com/inquiry-before-buying/1427

Asia Pacific holds a major share in wood vinegar market growth due to rapid acceptance as important farming input material. It is produced locally as a substitute of synthetic chemicals with low production costs. Increasing adoption of organic based food is an additional growth factor for wood vinegar market in the region.

North America and Europe wood vinegar market are expected to grow at a relatively high growth rate due to extensive use of chemical fertilizers in various industries including agricultural and chemical processing. Latin America and Middle East & Africa wood vinegar market are projected to witness sluggish growth owing to severe political and economic turmoil in the region.

Global wood vinegar market is categorized by low competition owing to the presences of few large and small scale industry players. Some of the dominated players are Canada Renewable Bioenergy, TAGROW, ACE, Verdi Life, Byron Biochar, Doi & Co, New Life Agro and Penta Manufacturer. Other players include Taiko Pharmaceutical, Mizkan Group, Nettenergy, BIG CHAR and Fuqin Science & Technology.

Acquisition and joint ventures are the main strategies adopted by these players to guarantee their market growth. In 2012, Japan based Mizkan Group acquired the Sarsos’s and Dufrais wood vinegar businesses from British food manufacturer, Premier Foods to strengthen its production capacity targeting the north American vinegar market.

Purchase This Report by calling Global Market Insights, Inc. at 1-888-689-0688 (Toll Free) or 1-302-846-7766.

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24 Market Reports: Global Biochar Market Professional Survey Report 2017 PowerPoint presentation

3 May, 2017
 

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Global Biochar Market Professional Survey Report 2017

3 May, 2017
 

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Global Biochar Market Professional Survey Report 2017

3 May, 2017
 

Report Title: Global Biochar Market Professional Survey Report 2017 Published On: 19 April, 2017 Pages: 127 Category: Energy and Natural Resources Report Overview: This report studies Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2012 to 2016, and forecast to 2022. This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering Diacarbon Energy Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Now Carbon Gold Kina The Biochar Company Swiss Biochar GmbH ElementC6 BioChar Products BlackCarbon Cool Planet Carbon Terra Pacific Biochar Vega Biofuels Liaoning Jinhefu Group Hubei Jinri Ecology- Energy Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai) Sonnenerde Biokol ECOSUS Terra Humana Verora By types, the market can be split into Wood Stover Source Biochar Corn Stover Source Biochar Rice Stover Source Biochar Wheat Stover Source Biochar Other Source Biochar By Application, the market can be split into Soil Conditioner Fertilizer Others By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want) North America China Europe Southeast Asia Japan India Table of Contents: Table of Contents Global Biochar Market Professional Survey Report 2017 1 Industry Overview of Biochar 1.1 Definition and Specifications of Biochar 1.1.1 Definition of Biochar 1.1.2 Specifications of Biochar 1.2 Classification of Biochar 1.2.1 Wood Stover Source Biochar 1.2.2 Corn Stover Source Biochar 1.2.3 Rice Stover Source Biochar 24marketreports | International +1 646 781 7170 | www.24marketreports.com

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Effect of Biochar Type and Size on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation of Orchard Grass Hay

4 May, 2017
 

Effect of Biochar Type and Size on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation of Orchard Grass Hay

Affiliation(s)

ABSTRACT

KEYWORDS

Cite this paper

References

[1] Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S. (2009) Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan, London.
[2] Banner, R.E., Rogosic, J., Burritt, E.A. and Provenza, F.D. (2000) Supplemental Barley and Charcoal Increase Intake of Sagebrush by Lambs. Journal of Range Management, 53, 415-420.
https://doi.org/10.2307/4003753
[3] Villalba, J.J., Provenza, F.D. and Banner, R.E. (2002) Influence of Macronutrients and Activated Charcoal on Intake of Sagebrush by Sheep and Goats. Journal of Animal Science, 80, 2099-2109.
https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.8082099x
[4] Toth, J.D. and Dou, Z. (2016) Use and Impact of Biochar and Charcoal in Animal Production Systems. In: Guo, M., He, Z. and Uchimiya, M., Eds., Agricultural and Environmental Applications of Biochar: Advances and Barriers, Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, 199-224.
https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaspecpub63.2014.0043.5
[5] Leng, R.A., Inthapanya, S. and Preston, T.R. (2012) Biochar Lowers Net Methane Production from Rumen Fluid In Vitro. Livestock Research Rural Development, 24, 103.
[6] Leng, R., Inthapanya, S. and Preston, T.R. (2012) Methane Production Is Reduced in an In Vitro Incubation When the Rumen Fluid Is Taken from Cattle that Previously Received Biochar in their Diet. Livestock Research Rural Development, 24, 211.
[7] Leng, R., Inthapanya, S. and Preston, T.R. (2013) All Biochars Are Not Equal in Lowering Methane Production in in Vitro Rumen Incubations. Livestock Research Rural Development, 25, 106.
[8] Leng, R.A., Preston, T.R. and Inthapanya, S. (2012) Biochar Reduces Enteric Methane and Improves Growth and Feed Conversion in Local “Yellow” Cattle Fed Cassava Root Chips and Fresh Cassava Foliage. Livestock Research Rural Development, 24, 199.
[9] AOAC (1990) Official Method of Analysis. 15th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
[10] Pereira, C., Muetzel, R., Camps, S., Arbestain, M., Bishop, P., Hina, K. and Hedley, M. (2014) Assessment of the Influence of Biochar on Rumen and Silage Fermentation: A Laboratory-Scale Experiment. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 196, 220-231.
[11] McDougall, E. (1948) Studies on Ruminant Saliva. The Composition and Output of Sheep’s Saliva. Biochemical Journal, 43, 99-109.
https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0430099
[12] Erwin, E., Marco, G. and Emery, E. (1961) Volatile Fatty Acid Analyses of Blood and Rumen Fluid by Gas Chromatography. Journal of Dairy Science, 44, 1768-1771.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(61)89956-6
[13] Marten, G. and Barnes, R. (1980) Prediction of Energy Digestibility of Forages with In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Fungal Enzyme Systems. In: Pigden, W.J., Balch, C.C. and Graham, M., Eds., Workshop on Standardization of Analytical Methodology for Feed, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.
[14] Heilman, P. and Norby, R.J. (1998) Nutrient Cycling and Fertility Management in Temperate Short Rotation Foresty Systems. Biomass Bioenergeering, 14, 361-370.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(97)10072-1
[15] Manya, J.J. (2012) Pyrolysis for Biochar Purposes: A Review to Establish Current Knowledge Gaps and Research Needs. Environmental Science and Technology, 46, 7939-7954.
https://doi.org/10.1021/es301029g
[16] Spokas, K.A., Cantrell, K.B., Novak, J.M., Archer, D.A., Ippolito, J.A., Collins, H.P., Boateng, A.A., Lima, I.M., Lamb, M.C. and McAloon, A.J. (2012) Biochar: A Synthesis of Its Agronomic Impact beyond Carbon Sequestration. Journal of Environmental Quality, 41, 973-989.
https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2011.0069
[17] Menke, K.H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. and Schneider, W. (1979) The Estimation of the Digestibility and Metabolisable Energy Content of Ruminant Feeding Stuffs from the Gas Production When They Are Incubated with Rumen Liquor. Journal of Agricultural Science, 93, 217-222.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600086305
[18] Menke, K.H. and Steingass, H. (1988) Estimation of the Energetic Feed Value Obtained from Chemical Analysis and in Vitro Gas Production Using Rumen Fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28, 7-55.
[19] Leng, R.A. (2014) Interactions between Microbial Consortia in Biofilms: A Paradigm Shift in Rumen Microbial Ecology and Enteric Methane Mitigation. Animal Production Science, 54, 519-543.
https://doi.org/10.1071/AN13381
[20] Hansen, H.H., Storm, I.M.L.D. and Sell, A.M. (2012) Effect of Biochar on In Vitro Rumen Methane Production. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A: Animal Science, 62, 305-309.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09064702.2013.789548

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Negative emissions tech: can more trees, carbon capture or biochar solve our CO2 problem?

4 May, 2017
 

As CO2 levels rise, controversial techniques including carbon capture and storage, enhanced weathering and reforestation may be solutions

As CO2 levels rise, controversial techniques including carbon capture and storage, enhanced weathering and reforestation may be solutions

In the 2015 Paris climate agreement, 195 nations committed to limit global warming to two degrees above pre-industrial levels. But some, like Eelco Rohling, professor of ocean and climate change at the Australian National University’s research school of earth sciences, now argue that this target cannot be achieved unless ways to remove huge amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere are found, and emissions are slashed.

This is where negative emissions technologies come in. The term covers everything from reforestation projects to seeding the stratosphere with sulphates or fertilising the ocean with iron fillings.

It’s controversial – not least because of the chequered history of geoengineering-type projects, but also because of concerns it will grant governments and industry a licence to continue with business as usual. But many argue we no longer have a choice.

“Most things are not applied yet on larger scales but we have a pretty good feeling of things that will work and we can quantify roughly how much carbon we should be able to remove from the atmosphere with them,” says Rohling.

The scale of the task is staggering, says Dr Pep Canadell, from the global carbon project at CSIRO.

“The models are basically asking for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere which will be equivalent of one-quarter of all carbon emissions at present,” he says.

This amounts to about 10 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere and disposed of each year.

The least controversial method of doing this is deceptively simple: plant more trees. “We have lost a lot of density of carbon in the landscapes because of deforestation and degradation. We have depleted carbon in the soils in all the problem areas of the world,” Canadell says. “What are the opportunities to bring some of this carbon back?”

Again, the scale of reforestation efforts needed to make a dent in atmospheric carbon dioxide is substantial.

“We would need as many as three Indias worth of land globally – and good quality land, not marginal land,” Canadell says. Reforestation also needs enough water, and needs to be done in such a way that it enriches the soil and ecosystems, not deplete them.

The fact that so many soils are carbon-depleted by intensive agriculture offers a way to tackle two environment challenges at the same time. Biochar is a form of charcoal produced by heating plant material in the absence of oxygen. Agricultural waste, which would otherwise be a major source of greenhouse gas emissions if burnt, could instead be turned into a biochar – a process that produces more energy than it consumes – and the biochar could then be used to enrich agricultural soils with carbon. Research suggests that biochars not only boost crop yields, but could lock away carbon for several thousand years.

Another approach designed to lock away carbon while also helping depleted soils is enhanced weathering.

Olivine refers to a group of silicate minerals that react with carbon dioxide to form other compounds. Enhanced weathering aims to amplify this chemical interaction by mining huge quantities of olivine – which is widespread and relatively abundant – and pulverising it to maximise its exposure to the air, then spreading it over areas such as agricultural fields to add carbon to the soils.

Rohling believes enhanced weathering is very promising, but it does have some significant downsides.

“It’s not one of the most expensive approaches but it does require large-scale mining, which we do for everything else anyway,” he says. The mining would also consume significant amounts of energy, which reduces the efficiency of the process by up to one-third.

The oceans are of particular interest for negative emissions because of their enormous capacity for carbon dioxide. One proposal is to fertilise the oceans with powdered iron or olivine. This boost in important nutrients leads to an increase in phytoplankton which, when it dies, decomposes and sinks to the seafloor, taking the carbon with it.

This phenomenon occurred naturally during recent ice ages, Rohling says, when the Southern Ocean was fertilised with dust from South America and Australia. But any project that attempted to alter the biochemistry and ecology of the oceans would very quickly run foul of international conventions, and rightly so.

“The law of the sea would forbid you from dumping things that will affect the environmental chemistry or ecology, and that’s exactly what you want to do,” he says.

As atmospheric carbon dioxide rises above 400 parts per million (ppm) for the first time in human history, there’s even talk of direct capture of carbon dioxide, using huge versions of the atmospheric scrubbers that remove carbon dioxide from the air on board spacecraft.

Canadell’s strongest bet is on carbon capture and storage, but instead of sucking it out of the air, he wants to see every facility that produces carbon dioxide equipped with technology to capture it at the release point.

“Anything that can be attached to any plants that are emitting carbon, either it’s a full power plant, a bioenergy burning biomass to produce electricity or carbon capture storage that is associated to industrial processes which release carbon,” he says. The captured carbon can then be disposed of deep underground in abandoned oil and gas wells, saline aquifers, or in the kind of geology that locks it away chemically.

While not strictly a negative emissions technology, he argues that as long as we continue to emit carbon dioxide, we cannot hope to remain below two degrees of warming unless we find a way to capture it.

Whatever the choice of negative emissions technology, Rohling says we are running out of time to study and implement them responsibly. He’s worried that at the first big global climate change disaster, governments will respond with a knee-jerk embracing of whatever negative emissions technologies they can, regardless of whether scientists have adequately explored the consequences.

“We need to start preparing so we know what we’re talking about when we need it,” he says.


IC/UNDP/SPARC/049/2017 – Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy – National Consultant

4 May, 2017
 

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Duty Station: Jakarta, INDONESIA
Level: National Consultant Contract type: – (More info about Levels and Contracts)

Closing date: 2017-05-18

 
 

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1UNDP Bujumbura, BURUNDI International Consul – Consultant International chargé de lélaboration de la stratégie de mise en oeuvre de la politique nationale de lemploi2017-05-05 2017-04-13
2UNDP Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia G7 – * Finance Associate (OPEN TO MALAYSIAN NATIONALS ONLY)2017-05-05 2017-04-17
3UNDP Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia G5 – * Finance Assistant (for Malaysian Nationals only)2017-05-05 2017-04-17
4UNDP Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia G6 – * Finance Associate (for Malaysian Nationals only)2017-05-05 2017-04-17
5UNDP Jakarta, INDONESIA National Consultant – IC/UNDP/EU/BIOFIN/042/2017 – Data Collection and Analyze data related to biodiversity programme in Indonesia2017-05-05 2017-04-18
6UNDP Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia NOB – * Finance Analyst (Open to Malaysian nationals only)2017-05-05 2017-04-18
7UNDP Home based with one mission to Colombo, SRI LANKA International Consul – Environmental Policy and Law Expert_International2017-05-05 2017-04-20

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National Consultant: Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy

4 May, 2017
 

Read the full vacancy….


Biochar Market by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application

4 May, 2017
 

Biochar market analysis report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed thoroughly with four points Manufacturers, regional analysis, Segment by Type & Applications and the actual process of whole Biochar industry.

A complete analysis of the competitive landscape of the Biochar Market is provided in the report. This section includes company profiles of market key players. The profiles include contact information, gross, capacity, product details of each firm, price, and cost of Biochar Industry are covered.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Biochar Market Research Report @   http://360marketupdates.com/10385329

Biochar Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers

Get Sample PDF of Biochar Market Report @ 

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Scope of the Report:

This report focuses on the Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Biochar Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers

Biochar Market report provides application, type impact on market. Also research report covers the present scenario of Biochar Market Consumption forecast, by regional market, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2016 to 2021.

Biochar Market Segment by Type, covers

Biochar Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into

Have Any Query? Ask Our Expert for Biochar Market Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10385329                         

Key questions answered in the report:

·         What will the market growth rate of Biochar market in 2020?

·         What are the key factors driving the global Biochar market?

·         What are sales, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Biochar market?

·         Who are the distributors, traders and dealers of Biochar market?

·         Who are the key vendors in Biochar market space?

·         What are the Biochar market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Biochar market?

·         What are sales, revenue, and price analysis by types, application and regions of Biochar market?

·         What are the market opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Biochar market?

No. of Report pages: 113

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Garb Signs Letter of Intent to Purchase 30% Interest in BioChar Maker

4 May, 2017
 

Dominion plans to purchase a 79-megawatt solar energy facility under construction in Anson County, N.C., from Cypress Creek Renewables, LLC. A powe… Reports: At least 35 killed in Iran coal mine explosion A coal mine explosion that struck northern Iran …
Source: Solar Energy
Garb Signs Letter of Intent to Purchase 30% Interest in BioChar Maker
Garb Signs Letter of Intent to Purchase 30% Interest in BioChar Maker
Solar Energy

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SSL Server Security Test of biochar-international.org

4 May, 2017
 

See how a hybrid of human and machine-learning technology can deliver the most reliable application security testing. View Webinar

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Puja khare deepak goyal and vineet yadav bio char from aromatic plants waste and its applications …

4 May, 2017
 

Tomatoes are consumed both in raw, as salad and processed form. The popular processed products of tomato are ketchup, sauce, salsa, puree, juice and soup.During processing of tomato in to various products 10-30 per cent of their weight becomes waste or pomace which mainly constitutes its peel and seeds. The by-products of tomato processing industries (peels and seeds) pose a problem in its disposal, more so when it is wet. Many studies carried out to assess the potential of utilization of by-products for their inclusion in human diet showing promising results in reduction of the industrial costs and also controlling the pollution problem connected with food processing. A study was conducted to estimate tomato waste generated while processing by different methods, standardize extraction process of lycopene and use it for fortification. Wet and dry peel were used directly for extraction of lycopene using organic solvent and also by enzymatic pre-treatment before solvent extraction. The…

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Organic Turf Management with Biochar

4 May, 2017
 

The need for organic turf management is growing. We are reminding ourselves that the health of your lawn is directly related to the health of the soil it lives in. Many turf management techniques focus on rapidly introducing chemicals that support the growth and color of a nice looking blade of grass but does not consider the long-term impact of the soil’s health.

Chemical fertilizers will destroy the living ecosystem in your soil and create an unsustainable place for your grass to grow unless your continue to pump more chemicals in. Ultimately, a chemical fertilizer solution will sterilize your soil until it is really no different than plastic container holding your seeds.

Our growing awareness of environmental issues has moved our attention to organic solutions to save our soil and create a sustainable, healthy environment for plants to thrive. An organic turf management plan is desirable and, fortunately, it is attainable. Using a Wakefield organic soil mix with biochar provides the natural short-term benefits to spark a healthy stand of grass and the long term health benefits of a carbon rich, micro-organism loving soil that keeps your grass strong for years.

An organic lawn care solution depends on healthy soil that holds organic matter and lots of beneficial microorganisms to sustain the soil ecosystem. Wakefield Biochar offers two variations to our Organic Soil Mix that make organic soil management easy. We have a Premium Soil Mix with Biochar and our Mega Turf Builder with Biochar. The differences are based on the need to push a heavier does of NPK into the soil quickly with our Mega Mix or if you want to establish a premium soil base for planting grass, gardens, flowers, trees and shrubs with the Premium Soil Mix.

 

Contact Us For Pricing

This soil mix is great for:

Only available in bulk quantities. To order the Wakefield Premium Soil Mix with Biochar call 573-479-0468.

Or, to mix into existing soil consider apply up to 1/2″ of Premium Soil Mix with Biochar into the top 4″ of top soil.

 

Contact Us For Pricing

Only available in bulk quantities. To order the Wakefield Mega Turf Builder with Biochar call 573-479-0468.

Or, to mix into existing soil consider apply up to 1/2″ of Mega Turf Builder with Biochar into the top 4″ of top soil.

 

Find more information on other ways to use biochar on our biochar blog.

 


Physical and Dielectric Properties of Palm Shell Biochar

4 May, 2017
 

Author(s):  Yin Myo Su Naing, Than Than Win

Published in:   International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology

License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Website: www.ijert.org

Volume/Issue:   Volume. 6 – Issue. 05 , May – 2017

e-ISSN:   2278-0181

Biochars were prepared from palm shell by heating at different temperatures in the muffle furnace. The chars were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate morphology and composition of biochars. The biochars were pelletized into pellets and the values of dielectric constants were measured using LCR Digibridge meter. The porous nature and high dielectric values of palm shell biochar were observed.

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Negative emissions tech: can more trees, carbon capture or biochar solve our CO2 problem?

5 May, 2017
 


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5 May, 2017
 

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Negative emissions tech: can more trees, carbon capture or biochar solve our CO2 problem?

5 May, 2017
 

As CO2 levels rise, controversial techniques including carbon capture and storage, enhanced weathering and reforestation may be solutions In the 2015 Paris&hellip;Read the full article →

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5 May, 2017
 

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www.biochar-international.org_Website Analysis for biochar-international – Seo Analysis Tool

5 May, 2017
 

HTTP header is messages header of requests and responses in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

These HTML Tags are important for optimizing website.

We found 0 <h1>, 7 <h2> ,7 <strong>, 0 <b> on www.biochar-international.org.


IC/UNDP/SPARC/049/2017 – Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy

5 May, 2017
 

 

Organization: United Nations Development Programme

Country:

City, Town, State: Jakarta

Posted date: May 5, 2017

Closing date: 18-May-17 (Midnight New York, USA)

Please do not send your application through this website and send the complete application to bids.id@undp.org.

Interest candidate has to access procurement notice Ref.: IC/UNDP/SPARC/049/2017 – National Consultant for Project Planning and Action to Strengthen Climate Change Resilience of Rural Communities in Nusa Tenggara Timur (SPARC) (Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy)

Please fill in the Annex III and P11 (documents are provided in the Procurement Notice)

Only application with complete supporting document received in bids.id@undp.org before or at the closing date will be proceed.

Supporting documents are provided at the Procurement Notice as following link;

http://procurement-notices.undp.org/view_notice.cfm?notice_id=37417

Please do not send your application through this website and send the complete application to bids.id@undp.org.

Interest candidate has to access procurement notice Ref.: IC/UNDP/SPARC/049/2017 – National Consultant for Project Planning and Action to Strengthen Climate Change Resilience of Rural Communities in Nusa Tenggara Timur (SPARC) (Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy) Please fill in the Annex III and P11 (documents are provided in the Procurement Notice) Only application with complete supporting document received in bids.id@undp.org before or at the closing date will be proceed.

Supporting documents are provided at the Procurement Notice as following link;

http://procurement-notices.undp.org/view_notice.cfm?notice_id=37417

 

General Competencies:

Other Competencies (if applicable ) : 

Able to work independently with little or no supervision.

I. Academic Qualifications:

II. Experience:

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Analysts See $0.00 EPS for Abtech Holdings (ABHD), VEGA BIOFUELS (VGPR) Sellers …

5 May, 2017
 

May 5, 2017 – By Vivian Park

VEGA BIOFUELS INCORPORATED (OTCMKTS:VGPR) had a decrease of 95.28% in short interest. VGPR’s SI was 7,700 shares in May as released by FINRA. Its down 95.28% from 163,300 shares previously. It closed at $0.0061 lastly. It is down 95.46% since October 6, 2016 and is downtrending. It has underperformed by 105.50% the S&P500.

Analysts expect Abtech Holdings Inc (OTCMKTS:ABHD) to report $0.00 EPS on May, 15. It closed at $0.0215 lastly. It is down 66.67% since April 12, 2016 and is downtrending. It has underperformed by 76.71% the S&P500.

Vega Biofuels, Inc. was formed to pursue the production and sale of biofuel products throughout the world. The company has market cap of $8,400. The Firm markets approximately two products, including a renewable energy product called Bio-coal and a soil enhancement called Biochar. It currently has negative earnings. Biochar is an absorbent, specially designed charcoal used as a soil amendment for the agricultural industry.

Investors sentiment is 0 in 2016 Q4. Its the same as in 2016Q3. It is the same, as 0 investors sold Abtech Holdings Inc shares while 1 reduced holdings. only 0 funds opened positions while 0 raised stakes. 1.13 million shares or 11.76% less from 1.28 million shares in 2016Q3 were reported. Moreover, Tocqueville Asset Management L P has 0% invested in Abtech Holdings Inc (OTCMKTS:ABHD). Wall Street Access Asset Management Limited Liability Company owns 75,000 shares or 0% of their US portfolio. Solaris Asset Mngmt Lc holds 950,711 shares.

Abtech Holdings, Inc., through its subsidiary, AbTech Industries, Inc. , provides solutions to water contamination issues that are caused by stormwater runoff, industrial processes, water produced in the extractive industries, such as gas and oil drilling, and spills of oil fluids in marine environments. The company has market cap of $10.79 million. The Firm operates through the filtration and treatment of polluted water segment. It currently has negative earnings. It provides services for the design and selection of water treatment systems, products sales of filtration and treatment systems, installation of the treatment technologies and maintenance of the installed systems.

Receive News & Ratings Via Email – Enter your email address below to receive a concise daily summary of the latest news and analysts’ ratings with our FREE daily email newsletter.

By1 Vivian Park


Ask Fuzzy: Digging deep for answers

5 May, 2017
 

Question: What is carbon farming?

Carbon farming is a method of farming that reduces rates of greenhouse gas emissions and/or increases capture and retention of carbon in vegetation and soils.  Carbon farming is supported financially by a federal government Emission Reduction Fund, which provides incentives for these practices. 

Increased carbon storage can be achieved by increasing the area of land in woodland/forest, and by increasing the amount of “soil organic carbon”.  There are 12 to 13million tonnes of carbon stored in Australian woodlands/forests. This includes carbon above ground, below ground,  in  litter, and the soil.  

We’ll focus at soil organic carbon here, and I’ll cover forest carbon farming in a future column.

Globally there are about 550billion tonnes of carbon in terrestrial vegetation, and about 1500 to 2000 billion tonnes in the top metre of soil. Australian soils contain about 25billion tonnes in the top 0.3metres. 

Increased soil carbon is highly beneficial to plant health and yield.  Reduced tillage, stubble retention and other management practices such as ley cropping, and rotational cropping/grazing can improve soil carbon.

The State of the Environment Report 2016 suggests the evidence for improvements in soil carbon due to changes in land management practices is less than overwhelming. 

Climate, especially temperature and rainfall, may have stronger impacts on soil carbon than land management. Warm temperatures increase decomposition rates of plant residue, making it harder to achieve high soil carbon in the tropics.  Soils in arid climates are also less able to accumulate carbon.  

Biochar is a charcoal-like material produced by heating organic material in the absence of oxygen. It is also produced naturally during bushfires.  Biochar helps retain water and nutrients, and improve crop yield. It can also lock up carbon into a long-lived carbon pool. It is increasingly viewed as a means of carbon farming, although long-term impacts of biochar on soil properties remain unknown. Furthermore, the feedstock used to produce biochar and the temperature applied during its generation significantly influences its properties and efficacy.

Response by: Professor Derek Eamus, University of Technology Sydney

Brought to you by the Fuzzy Logic science show, 11am Sundays on 2XX 98.3FM. Send your questions to askfuzzy@zoho.com


IC/UNDP/SPARC/049/2017 – Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy

5 May, 2017
 

Please do not send your application through this website and send the complete application to bids.id@undp.org.

Interest candidate has to access procurement notice Ref.: IC/UNDP/SPARC/049/2017 – National Consultant for Project Planning and Action to Strengthen Climate Change Resilience of Rural Communities in Nusa Tenggara Timur (SPARC) (Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy)

Please fill in the Annex III and P11 (documents are provided in the Procurement Notice)

Only application with complete supporting document received in bids.id@undp.org before or at the closing date will be proceed.

Supporting documents are provided at the Procurement Notice as following link;

http://procurement-notices.undp.org/view_notice.cfm?notice_id=37417

Please do not send your application through this website and send the complete application to bids.id@undp.org.

Interest candidate has to access procurement notice Ref.: IC/UNDP/SPARC/049/2017 – National Consultant for Project Planning and Action to Strengthen Climate Change Resilience of Rural Communities in Nusa Tenggara Timur (SPARC) (Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy) Please fill in the Annex III and P11 (documents are provided in the Procurement Notice) Only application with complete supporting document received in bids.id@undp.org before or at the closing date will be proceed.

Supporting documents are provided at the Procurement Notice as following link;

http://procurement-notices.undp.org/view_notice.cfm?notice_id=37417

 

General Competencies:

Other Competencies (if applicable ) : 

Able to work independently with little or no supervision.

I. Academic Qualifications:

II. Experience:

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Bio char research paper

5 May, 2017
 

Can’t find what you need? Take a moment and do a search below!


Biochar

5 May, 2017
 

Biochar is wood charcoal, burned without oxygen for many hours. This process locks up the carbon into a form that cannot be released into the atmosphere. Adding biochar to your …


Negative emissions tech: can more trees, carbon capture or biochar solve our CO2 problem?

5 May, 2017
 

,

AT a recent geoengineering conference, two Harvard engineers announced plans for a real-world climate engineering experiment beginning in 2018. The science of

De Beers SA, the world’s biggest diamond producer by value, says it could operate a carbon-neutral mine within half a decade. The Anglo American PLC unit plans to store

De Beers, the world’s biggest diamond producer by value, says it could operate a carbon-neutral mine within half a decade. The Anglo American unit plans to store

In case you still thought that TV personality Bill Nye was a real “science guy,” this ought to disabuse you of that belief. In a recent interview on uber-Left-wing CNN,

If you think of politicians who won’t do anything about climate change as brainless invertebrates incapable of vision, you may be overly generous. Giant larvaceans

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De Beers Group today announced it is leading a ground-breaking research project that aims to deliver carbon-neutral mining at some of the company’s operations in as few as five years. The company’s scientists are working in close collaboration with a team of internationally-renowned scientists to investigate the potential to store large volumes of carbon at its diamond mines

When summer temperatures rise and people turn to their air conditioners to stay cool, something else also increases: air pollution. A new study published Wednesday (May 3, 2017) in the journal Environmental Science & Technology shows that the electricity production associated with air conditioning causes emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide to

Researchers from Harvard University, Princeton University and the Environmental Defense Fund proposed a new, more precise way to measure the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on Earth’s climate in an article published on Thursday in the academic journal Science. The proposal would create a two-digit measurement system the scientists likened to blood pressure readings in

05-May-2017 As part of efforts to move towards “climate-smart” agriculture, countries have shared new experiences on how to produce food in ways that help farmers cope with the impacts of climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture. The exchange took place at a special side-event on April 26 during a session of FAO’s executive Council in Rome. While

SAN FRANCISCO, May 3 (Xinhua) — A new study reveals that organic matter whose breakdown would yield only minimal energy for hungry micro-organisms preferentially builds up in floodplains, illuminating a new mechanism of carbon sequestration. The study, conducted by researchers from Stanford University, uncovers the previously unknown mechanism that explains why microbes

Wiener Abteilung! Geiles Album “Rohling” jetzt auf i-tunes…

Wiener Abteilung! Geiles Album “Rohling” jetzt auf i-tunes…

CD-Rohlinge eignen sich auch prima dafür, um damit Luftblasen zu machen. Wie das geht seht ihr hier….

CD-Rohlinge eignen sich auch prima dafür, um damit Luftblasen zu machen. Wie das geht seht ihr hier….

ROHLING.International.Club.Of.Arts.Of.Seven.Lies 1/3/2012…

ROHLING.International.Club.Of.Arts.Of.Seven.Lies 1/3/2012…

Hier exklusiv. Das komplette Debütalbum. Bei gefallen kaufen!…

Hier exklusiv. Das komplette Debütalbum. Bei gefallen kaufen!…

In dieser Episode zu Adobe Illustrator zeige ich, wie man einen CD- bzw. DVD-Rohling erstellen kann. Ich verwende dazu z.B. das Gitterwerkzeug mit verschiedenen Farbverläufen, Kunstfilter und Weichzeichnungsfilter sowie Schnittmasken….

In dieser Episode zu Adobe Illustrator zeige ich, wie man einen CD- bzw. DVD-Rohling erstellen kann. Ich verwende dazu z.B. das Gitterwerkzeug mit verschiedenen Farbverläufen, Kunstfilter und Weichzeichnungsfilter sowie Schnittmasken….

Ich zeige euch wie man eine Art Rohling ganz einfach selber bauen kann mit einfachem Material.Mit diesem Ding kann man Scheibenzuhaltungsschlösser knacken….

Ich zeige euch wie man eine Art Rohling ganz einfach selber bauen kann mit einfachem Material.Mit diesem Ding kann man Scheibenzuhaltungsschlösser knacken….

plasticine cartoon…

plasticine cartoon…

Ich öffne eine Gelkassette mit selbstgebautem Rohling…

Ich öffne eine Gelkassette mit selbstgebautem Rohling…

Vocal Recall in den Wühlmäusen in Berlin am 21.11.15. Video: Björn Tritschler (www.roehren.tv) Mehr Infos und Kontakt: www.vocal-recall.de…

Vocal Recall in den Wühlmäusen in Berlin am 21.11.15. Video: Björn Tritschler (www.roehren.tv) Mehr Infos und Kontakt: www.vocal-recall.de…

more

V


info

5 May, 2017
 

As CO2 levels rise, controversial techniques including carbon capture and storage, enhanced weathering and reforestation may be solutionsIn the 2015 Paris climate agreement, 195 nations committed to limit global warming to two degrees above pre-industrial levels. But some, like Eelco Rohling, professor of ocean and climate change at the Australian …


BioChar

5 May, 2017
 

zRm6Kg8z/jdA4wU7x @ Sun, 07 May 2017 05:54:30 GMT

SEC-43


phd thesis on biochar

5 May, 2017
 


Mother Earth Premium BioChar 1 cu ft (70/Plt)

6 May, 2017
 

At Inverter Supply we ship orders daily. Once your order has been placed it will ship within 24-48 hours, if the item is backordered we will contact you to see what you would prefer to do with your order. Shipping is typically FedEx ground depending on the shipping location and circumstances. If you would prefer to ship on your own UPS or FedEx account, we can accommodate your request.

All returns require a Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA). RMA will incur a 35% restock fee. An RMA must be requested within 15 days of the original invoice date for non-defective product. Thereafter, all sales are final. All items must be returned in “as new” condition in the original packaging and have all accessories, blank warranty cards and owners manuals. All Returns will be charged 35% restock fee – No Exception. Details

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UPM – BMA : BIOCHAR TO COMMUNITY

6 May, 2017
 

Since the establishment of Biochar Malaysia Association (BMA), BMA has actively educating public and conducting knowledge sharing sessions with the community through the activities conducted by its members from Faculty of Agriculture, UPM.

Amongst the activities were the knowledge sharing session of biochar application in organic farming in the programme “Pendidikan Organik untuk Pemakanan Sihat” held at Organic Unit, Ladang 16, Faculty of Agriculture, UPM on  12th November 2016. The specialty of this programme was the target community group, which was the students of age 6-12 years old. Educating the younger generation of biochar application as soil amendments was seen crucial for greener environment for future generations. Biochar with other organic soil amendments can help to restore soil conditions for its sustainability as well as improving plant growth. These organic amendments are suitable alternative for chemical fertilisers that can also negatively affect the environment and become hazard to human.

Other than that, biochar produced for soil application is a practical method to reduce carbon footprint through carbon sequestration in soil. This idea was also shared in demonstration on biochar varying sources and biochar uses as soil amendment, growth medium, compost formulation  in organic farming, which was the most engaging programme for public who came to visit the Organic Unit, Faculty of Agriculture, UPM during the Faculty of Agriculture Open Day last 19-20th March 2017.

Promotional activities of BMA including the membership promotional fliers were also done throughout both programmes. This  social engagement and knowledge sharing with communities is hope to bring new prospects biochar production and its application as well as knowledge and technology in wider  area and larger community.


wesionline.com

7 May, 2017
 

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Compost Tea Biochar

7 May, 2017
 

Get special bonus videos, rewards & rare vegetable Seeds! https://www.patreon.com/workwithnature Ok lets make some compost tea and get our biochar inoculated with lots of microbes. How to make biochar : […]


Compost Tea & Biochar – Here's How!

7 May, 2017
 

Get special bonus videos, rewards & rare vegetable Seeds! https://www.patreon.com/workwithnature

Ok lets make some compost tea and get our biochar inoculated with lots of microbes.
How to make biochar : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJLIH13fteY
Stir your compost tea : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GV_tgDtQyWg
adding nutrients to your bio char : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DdPRiHK2gmE

source



biochar

7 May, 2017
 

As CO2 levels rise, controversial techniques including carbon capture and storage, enhanced weathering and reforestation may be solutions

May 5, 2017 — In the 2015 Paris climate agreement, 195 nations committed to limit global warming to two degrees above pre-industrial levels. But some, like Eelco Rohling, professor of ocean Continue reading Can more trees, carbon capture or biochar solve our CO2 problem

Continue reading

Continue reading

Continue reading


the guardian: Negative emissions tech: can more trees, carbon capture or biochar solve our CO2 …

7 May, 2017
 

“As CO2 levels rise, controversial techniques including carbon capture and storage, enhanced weathering and reforestation may be solutions”

LINK

&laquo April June &raquo

KIEL EARTH INSTITUTE, Düsternbrooker Weg 2, 24105 Kiel | Tel +49 431 600 4140 | Fax +49 431 600 4102 | e-mail: info@climate-engineering.eu | Imprint


garden, earthworms (such as those seen here) can move biochar

7 May, 2017
 

Worms what are the different types of green worms? all about worms, types green worms types green worms http://wwwuwexedu/ces/ag. Types green worms things that invade the garden starting with the. One pound of worms! a mixture of different types of composting worms.

Population of slow worms which live down the garden slow worms, organic vegitable gardening what to plant in july. Have worms in the soil of my house plant" on further investigation. Good composting worms composting worms share the following qualities.

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Biochar – Importance in Agriculture

7 May, 2017
 

The amount of carbon in the soil is a direct indication of good quality of soil. Higher carbon stocks have a direct correlation with increased agricultural yields through improved soil health.

The amount of carbon in the soil is a direct indication of good quality of soil. Higher carbon stocks have a direct correlation with increased agricultural yields through improved soil health. In the current scenario of climate change and global warming, much of carbon in atmosphere has to be sequestrated into soil carbon pool so that increasing CO2 in the atmosphere and resulting warming could be reduced.

The use of biochar can be a simple yet powerful tool to combat climate change by sequestering much of atmospheric carbon into soil as well as providing an opportunity for the processing of agricultural and other waste into useful clean energy.

What is Biochar?

Biochar is a solid material obtained from the carbonisation of biomass. Biochar is produced through a process known as pyrolysis, means thermal decomposition of organic material (i.e. wood chips etc, crop waste and manure) under limited supply of oxygen (O2), and at relatively low temperatures (<700°C). This process often mirrors the production of charcoal, which is perhaps the most ancient industrial technology developed by humankind. However, it distinguishes itself from charcoal and similar materials by the fact that biochar is produced with the intent to be applied to soil as a means to improve soil health, to filter and retain nutrients from percolating soil water, and to provide carbon storage. Due to the molecular structure of biochar, it is in a more stable form than the original carbon (i.e. plant biomass, manure, etc.) both chemically and biologically. As a result, it is more difficult to breakdown biochar in the soil, resulting in a product that can remain stable in the soil for hundreds to thousands of years.

One of the great things about producing biochar through the process of pyrolysis is the fact that the main by-product is a gas, known as syngas which is a form of bio energy waiting to be used. It is easily captured and can be used to produce heat and power, to generate electricity as well as power the pyrolysis machine in the process, making the machine largely self sufficient.

Application in Agriculture

The potential benefits that biochar offers for farming includes:

Environmental Impact of Biochar

Biochar can be a simple yet powerful tool to combat climate change. Biochar sequestration is considered carbon negative as it results in a net decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide over centuries or millennia time scales. It can make a big difference in the fossil fuel emissions worldwide and act as a major player in the global carbon market with its robust, clean and simple production technology. As organic materials decay, greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane (which is 21 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO2), are released into the atmosphere. Instead of allowing the organic matter to decompose and emit CO2, pyrolysis can be used to sequester the carbon and remove circulating CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in virtually permanent soil carbon pools, making it a carbon-negative process. By charring the organic material, much of the carbon becomes “fixed” into a more stable form, and when the resulting biochar is applied to soils, the carbon is effectively sequestered. It is estimated that use of this method to “tie up” carbon has the potential to reduce current global carbon emissions by as much as 10 percent.

The use of pyrolysis also provides an opportunity for the processing of agricultural residues, wood wastes and municipal solid waste into useful clean energy. Although some organic matter is necessary for agricultural soil to maintain its productivity, much of the agricultural waste can be turned directly into biochar, bio-oil, and syngas.

Biochar can also provide an extremely powerful means of reversing desertification. In most semi-arid and desert climates the soil is nearly void of soil organic carbon (SOC), and thus has the potential to absorb massive quantities of carbon. Generally, the amount of carbon in the soil is a direct indication of soil quality: the greater the amount of SOC, the higher quality the soil. Higher carbon stocks have a direct correlation with increased agricultural yields, higher plant moisture absorption, improved soil tilth, and higher levels of soil biological activity.

Conclusion

Biochar has a both positive as well as negative impact on crop growth, yield and human health. This technology involves a large biomass demand for production as well as fine biochar particles are causing severe health hazards thus, it is critical that we address this issue with caution. However, application of biochar to damaged soils of low fertility seems promising and has a high potential for mitigating climate change and helping to raise soil fertility but not a silver bullet to improve nutrient economy in farming, or to increase crop yields. We need to investigate and utilise it to reduce our emissions and sustain soils, but we cannot rely on it for solving our emerging problems.

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Asia Pacific Biochar Market Forecast By End-use Industry 2014-2020

8 May, 2017
 

 

Disclaimer: If you have any questions regarding information in this press release please contact the company added in the press release. Please do not contact pr-inside. We will not be able to assist you. PR-inside disclaims the content included in this release.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy – National Consultant

8 May, 2017
 

Tenders shown are for the last 60 days. For older data and other countries please visit www.BidOcean.com.

Copyright © 2014 – 2017 Bid Ocean, Inc.


Biochar Industry

8 May, 2017
 


Demand for Biochar Rises in Livestock Sector

8 May, 2017
 

San Francisco, California, May 08, 2017: A new research report by TMR Research offers a thorough overview of the global biochar market, emphasizing on the vital factors that are projected to influence the development of the market in the near future. The research study, titled “Biochar Market — Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Trends, Analysis, Growth, and Forecast 2017 – 2025,” throws light on the market segmentation, key applications, and the competitive landscape of the overall market. In addition to this, the research study offers forecast statistics in order to offer a strong understanding for new players and readers.

A tremendous rise in the population worldwide and the rising popularity of organic food are the key factors that are anticipated to boost the demand for biochar in the next few years. The improvement of soil fertility and plant quality offered by the use of biochar is another factor expected to augment the global market throughout the forecast period. Furthermore, the increasing meat consumption and the growing demand for biochar from the livestock farming sector are anticipated to accelerate the growth of the overall market in the coming years.

The use of biochar helps in reducing the proportion of carbon dioxide in the environment, owing to which the market is estimated to witness a high level of growth in the next few years. In addition, the advancements in the technology and rising inclination of consumers towards a healthy lifestyle and diet are predicted to supplement the growth of the global biochar market throughout the forecast period. These factors are estimated to attract a large number of players to expand their product horizon and gain a competitive edge in the coming years.

From a regional viewpoint, the North America and Europe are anticipated to register a strong growth throughout the forecast period, thanks to the presence of a large number of players operating in these two regions. As a result, these two regions are likely to account for a large share of the global biochar market in the next few years. Furthermore, the rising awareness among consumers regarding the advantages of biochar is predicted to generate promising opportunities in several developing economies in Asia Pacific.

Some of the leading players operating in the biochar market across the globe are Weyerhaeuser, 3R ENVIRO TECH Group, Pacific Pyrolysis, Georgia-Pacific, Phoenix Energy, Biochar Supreme, LLC, West Fraser, and Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc. The increasing number of players that are likely to enter the market in the next few years are focusing on innovations and development of new product. This is expected to benefit the players as well as the global market in the next few years.


Bio char research papers

8 May, 2017
 

Efficiently iterate accurate content
Before next-generation applications. Distinctively expedite ethical web.

Proactively evisculate sustainable catalysts
For change without resource maximizing portals. Monotonectally innovate error-free.


Biochar research paper

8 May, 2017
 

EV4LS, which stands for Evaluation For All System, is an online appraisal, performance management, 360 degree feedback, training feedback survey, staff survey and an e-leave system that caters for workforce across all industries.

EV4LS work in partnership with SARD JV, an established United Kingdom software company which serves clients in the UK National Heath Service.

The partnership with SARD JV brings the benefits of a tried and tested software as well as technical support from an established and successful UK-based enterprise offering systems supporting personnel development and performance management.

Click edit button to change

Click edit button to change


Straw biomass biochar and biochar-based organo-mineral compound fertilizers approved as one …

9 May, 2017
 


Mechanical/Chemical Project Engineer at Haliburton Forest Biochar Ltd.

9 May, 2017
 

 

 

Mechanical/Chemical Project Engineer, Haliburton On

 

Haliburton Forest Biochar Ltd. (HFB) is an industrial start-up based in Haliburton, Ontario, currently seeking a full-time Mechanical/Chemical Project Engineer. To be considered for the role, you must have a degree in Mechanical, Chemical or Process Engineering. Applicants with experience in electrical systems engineering will be given special consideration. Must live in Haliburton or be willing to locate local to the project site.

 

HFB is developing a natural carbon-based biomaterial and pyrolysis technology, optimized to serve and supply their primary customer with material for manufacturing facilities across North America. The candidate will be a lead contributor to the design and construction of our start-up commercial facility, including supervising thermal systems equipment site installation, integration and commissioning, initially working with the Project Manager and technology developers. The candidate may be required to develop innovative process design for cooling systems, biomass drying systems, milling systems, and pyrolysis technology. Related components potentially include heat exchangers, compressors, pumps, piping, air-systems, and material handling equipment. Candidate may be required to author or co-author technical drawings/specifications to define designs and interfaces as well as installation requirements. The engineer we are seeking is hands-on, resourceful, a creative thinker and problem solver, can be self-directed in a start-up environment, and will embrace work and life in Ontario’s beautiful cottage country.

 

Qualifications:

Responsibilities:


Biochar comparison essay

9 May, 2017
 

It seems we can’t find what you’re looking for. Perhaps searching, or one of the links below, can help.


Bio char research papers

9 May, 2017
 

Beklager, en feil oppstod.


Carbon Farming & Biochar Workshop

9 May, 2017
 

This event will showcase regional biochar research and commercial opportunities. Presenters will include Michael Hoffman, Executive Director of the Cornell Institute for Climate Smart Solutions, Johannes Lehmann, Kathleen Draper, Dale Hendricks, Andy Wells, Jeff Hallowell, and others active in the biochar community.

Saturday, May 20th 2017 09:30am

Romulus, NY, United States
Romulus

The Biochar Journal, Romulus


Products

9 May, 2017
 

Four D Farms BioChar Blend is designed for use with indoor or outdoor pots, garden beds, or an amendment for new plantings with the landscape where only the best will do. BioChar Blend is our high quality Landscape Plus compost mixed with locally sourced BioChar that in the end promotes the best solution for water retention, nutrient uptake, nutrient storage and the best microbial life. If your project calls for the best compost, use BioChar Blend.

 

Four D Farms BioChar Blend is designed for use with indoor or outdoor pots, garden beds, or an amendment for new plantings with the landscape where only the best will do. BioChar Blend is our high quality Landscape Plus compost mixed with locally sourced BioChar that in the end promotes the best solution for water retention, nutrient uptake, nutrient storage and the best microbial life. If your project calls for the best compost, use BioChar Blend.

 

 

Copyright 2017 Four D Farms


fishtrap BioChar

10 May, 2017
 

seattle >

olympia >

for sale >

farm & garden – by owner

Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


Fidel, Rivka B.; et al. (2017): Impact of Biochar Organic and Inorganic Carbon on Soil CO2 and …

10 May, 2017
 

Fidel, Rivka B.; Laird, David A.; Parkin, Timothy B. (2017): Impact of Biochar Organic and Inorganic Carbon on Soil CO2 and N2O Emissions. In: Journal of environmental quality. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2016.09.0369.

“Here we therefore aim to assess biochar organic and inorganic C pool impacts on CO2 and N2O emissions from soil amended with two untreated biochars, inorganic carbon (as Na2CO3), acid (HCl) and bicarbonate (NaHCO3) extracts of the biochars, and acid and bicarbonate/acid-washed biochars during a 140-d soil incubation. We hypothesized that (i) both biochar labile organic carbon (LOC) and inorganic carbon (IC) pools contribute significantly to short-term (<1 mo) CO2 emissions from biochar-amended soil, (ii) biochars will influence the size of soil NH4+ and NO3 pools, and (iii) changes in soil inorganic N pools will affect soil N2O emissions.”

LINK

&laquo April June &raquo

KIEL EARTH INSTITUTE, Düsternbrooker Weg 2, 24105 Kiel | Tel +49 431 600 4140 | Fax +49 431 600 4102 | e-mail: info@climate-engineering.eu | Imprint


Pyrolysis carbonization machine for sawdust biochar

10 May, 2017
 

Home>Products>Carbonization Furnace>Pyrolysis carbonization machine for sawdust biochar

carbonization machine in container, spare parts in wooden box

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three layers carbonization machine introduction:

 Rice husk carbonization machine consists of feeding system, carbonization  systems (hosts and coal discharging equipment), 

purification systems, condensate systems, heating systems (gasifier),etc.

 

 

Raw materials for making carbon:

 

Continuous carbonization machine working condition:
Moisture content: no more than 15%

Continuous carbonization machine Applications:All kinds of biomass material: Fruit Husk,Wood Scraps and Crop Stalks,
Fruit Husk—Rice husk,Coconut shell, Peanut shell/Groundnut shell,Sunflower seed husk/shell,Palm kernel shell,Walnut shell,etc.
Wood Scraps—Wood sawdust,Wood shavings,Wood chips,Tree branch, Bamboo scraps,Waste from beer breweries,etc.
Crop Stalks—Plants straw,Crop residues,Soybean straw,Wheat straw,Cotton straw,Corn stalks,Maize Cob/Corncob,etc.

Continuous carbonization machine Materials requirements:
Particle size is less than 15 mm, water content <15% of biomass particles can feeding into the carbonization furnace directly, such as: sawdust, rice husk, palm shell, peanut shell, bamboo shavings, etc.;When you carbonize larger raw materials (Particle size more than 15 mm), raw materials need to be crushed into less than 15mm pieces firstly; If water content is more than 15%, using dryer for drying firstly, for fully carbonized and get high quality carbon.

 

 Rice husk carbonization machine working process:

 

 

1.Agricultural and forestry waste enter into gasfier, produced flammable gas send by high pressure fan into spray filter,After cooling

 by condenser, then gonging to burner at the bottom of carbonization equipment.

 

2.When Pipe temperature reach the demand for carbonization, materials conveyed by feeding conveyor to top feeder , top feeder 

 

carried materials into top high temperature tube for drying, by rotation tube and screw device inside tube, materials walking from

 

 one end to the other end, then middle feeder, middle high temperature pipe, bottom feeder, bottom high temperature pipe.

 

 

3.By using flammable gas produced during carbonization, heat source recycling(close gasfier ).

 

4.Carbon powder cooled by carbon-discharging machine, discharged from bottom, then send to warehouse.During carbonization, by using condenser for recycling

 

 wood vinegar fluid and wood tar oil.

 

Rice husk carbonization machine technical parameter:

 

Production capacity: 3-5t / d

 

Host Power: 3kw

 

Host feed power: 1.5kw × 2

 

The conveying power: 3kw

 

Coal discharing machine power: 3kw

 

Gasifier slag off power: 3kw

 

Carbon machine of gasifier power: 3kw

 

Floor space: 15m × 10m × 6m (L × W × H)

 

Wearing parts: 20 × 20 pure graphite parts , carbon discharging parts, feeding screw blades, burners.

 

If you want to visit our  factory, please note our city name, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, China(mainland)

 

 

Our air port name is : Zhengzhou Xinzheng International air port.

 

 Train station name is: Zhengzhou (Zhengzhou north) train station

 

 

 

 

京ICP证 040089号 京公网安备11010802017131

We will find the most reliable suppliers for you according to your description.

Be contacted easily by perfecting the information.

Thank you for your enquiry and you will be contacted soon.


Xps weight loss

10 May, 2017
 

XPS MOTIVATION : This is much more than your typical run of the mill weight loss pill. * No fillers,no additives,no chemicals, NO BS All Fat Burners are not created equal. Could you imagine a Fat Burner that suppressed appetite, increased mental focus and reaction time, gave you a good 8-12 hours of incredible energy and enhanced your mood and feeling of well being with no crash at all, help you burn many more calories at rest than ever in your life ,and as an added bonus increased memory? XPS MOTIVATION Version: Motivation is considered an essential element not only in learning, but also in the performance of learned responses. In other words, even when an organism (including a human being) has learned the appropriate response to a particular situation they will not necessarily produce this behavior. Details: XPS Motivation Light contains a full, pharmaceutical grade dose of key ingredients that synergistically increase thermogenesis , significantly improve mood, increase reaction times…especially when you’re tired, enhance cognitive performance and or brain function,suppress appetite, and overall improve athletic performance in the realm of speed, power, muscular torque, and work capacity. Motivation also contains 3 key ingredients that increase libido and blood flow to the genital area of both men and women as an added bonus. The incentive to produce the behavior is motivation. This Innovative product is loaded with powerful nootropics that are capable of crossing the blood/brain barrier and not only increase mental focus and clarity but also increase the ability of the right and left sides of the brain to communicate which in turn increase the creative thought process and higher quality work output. Whether you work in front of a computer all day and could simply benefit from a few more hours of clear mental focus or are a student studying for a major test . Or need motivation just to get through your training and to help shed a bunch of pounds off the belt line as an added bonus.

Last year, Dell wowed everyone with its new XPS 13, a tiny consumer laptop with a razor-thin bezel. Now the company has decided to give small business and enterprise customers the same treatment with its new 13-inch Latitude 7000, which shares similar dimensions with the XPS 13, and also has an Infinity Edge display. That doesn’t mean the new Latitude is a mere copy of the XPS 13, however. While the dimensions are similar, the enterprise version ditches the standard 6-generation Intel Core for an Intel Core M processor. Doing so sacrifices performance, which may seem a strange decision given the target market. But Core M makes it possible to ditch the cooling fan, and also shaves a bit off both size and weight. It’s the second point that I found most obvious when I picked up the new Latitude. The XPS 13 is light, but due to its small footprint, is rather dense – and thus feels heavy. It feels like the featherweight its dimensions suggest it should be.

We provide highly expert XPS surface analysis services. The nature of the Auger electron emission was described by Pierre Auger, who explained the cause of the Auger electron cascade that follows electron capture by a nucleus in the 1920s. Please discuss your analytical needs with either Charles R. Whatever the cause of an empty core electron hole (an electronic level with a missing electron), an electron from a higher energy level may fall into the empty level and fill that hole. In addition to photoelectrons, Auger electrons may also be generated. Draining this charge results in a photoelectric current, which was the effect that Einstein explained. Since the incoming radiation has no charge and the outgoing electrons do have a negative charge, the material or atom will develop a positive charge, unless it is grounded. The XPS or ESCA Surface Analysis Technique Direct questions specifically about XPS analysis services to Charles R. The kinetic energy of this electron is equal to the energy of the exciting radiation minus the binding energy of the electron which was emitted. Incoming electromagnetic radiation such as visible light, ultra-violet light, x-rays, and gamma rays incident upon a material surface or an atom in the vapor phase can excite an electron bound to an atom in an electronic orbital into the vacuum. His work provides the understanding of how a photoelectron is generated.

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Thesis On Biochar

10 May, 2017
 

BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON … · PDF fileBIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND TREE GROWTH A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements …Biochar: for better or for worse? – UEA Digital RepositoryAbstract. This thesis presents biochar state of the art and investigations into the environmental benefits and potential impacts of biochar application to soil.Biochar characterization and engineering · PDF fileGraduate Theses and Dissertations Graduate College 2012 Biochar characterization and engineering Catherine Elizabeth Brewer Iowa State UniversityTHESIS BIOCHAR EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL … · PDF fileTHESIS BIOCHAR EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND RESISTANCE OF ENZYMES TO STRESS Submitted by Khalid Elzobair Department …Biochar Thesis 2012 – pvbiochar | Pioneer Valley Biochar 3 posts · Thesis On Biochar – asas.edu.pkFile Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat THESIS. BIOCHAR EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND RESISTANCE OF. ENZYMES TO STRESS. Submitted by. …Biochar As An Alternative to Irrigation in Extreme DroughtBiochar may be a viable alternative to irrigation in wine regions experiencing severe drought (like Australia and California). A new study explains why.Biochar as a strategy for sustainable land management  · PDF fileBiochar as a strategy for sustainable land management, poverty reduction and climate change mitigation/adaptation? Thermolysis of lignin for value-added productsPhd thesis on biochar – South Simcoe Police ServiceMessage from the ChiefRichard Beazley; Specialized UnitsSouth Simcoe PoliceAdsorption Of Phosphorus From Wastewater Onto Biochar  · PDF fileNhat Trung Nguyen Adsorption Of Phosphorus From Wastewater Onto Biochar: Batch And Fixed-bed Column Studies Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences

 · PDF fileNhat Trung Nguyen Adsorption Of Phosphorus From Wastewater Onto Biochar: Batch And Fixed-bed Column Studies Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied SciencesThe Effects of Biochar Amendment to Soil on Bioenergy Crop  · PDF fileTo the Graduate Council: I am submitting herewith a thesis written by Charles Warren Edmunds entitled “The Effects of Biochar Amendment to Soil on Bioenergy Crop AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OFOregon State University · PDF fileAN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Perry R Morrow for the degree of Master of Science in Water Resources Science presented on June 7, 2013 Title: Biochar: …NZBRC biochar production thesis | AllBlackEarthDesign and Characterisation of an ‘Open Source’ Pyrolyser for Biochar Production. This masters thesis from Rhonda Bridges is available for download from here.Phd Thesis On Biochar – AlhanataiwanThesis. Biochar as a Geoengineering Climate Solution – ResearchGate File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat Biochar is a carbon dense solid that is produced via the …EFFECT OF SOIL AMENDER (BIOCHAR OR CHARCOAL) AND  · PDF file2 AN APPROVAL OF THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION COMMITTEE The thesis with the title: “Effect of soil amender (biochar or charcoal) and biodigesterPhd Thesis On Biochar | Can someone write my paper5/5 · Phd thesis on biochar » Original content – hello sushi [®]Phd thesis on biochar – Do you have to write a dissertation for a phd. WriteMyEssay is an eclectic group of word engineers. Eddo, PhD Thesis, 2013 Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants Title: Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants: Publication Type: Thesis: Year of Publication: 2015: Authors: Akhtar, Saqib Saleem: City: University of Phd Thesis On Biochar | Help writing a argumentative essay4/5 ·


The Effect of Biochar Application on Nutrient Availability of Soil Planted with MR219

10 May, 2017
 

Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Melaka, Malaysia

Received date: March 06, 2017; Accepted date: April 22, 2017; Published date: April 29, 2017

Citation: Abdul RNF, Abdul RNS (2017) The Effect of Biochar Application on Nutrient Availability of Soil Planted with MR219. J Microb Biochem Technol 9:583-586. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000345

Copyright: © 2017 Abdul RNF, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

This study aims to determine the effect of biochars on the soil pH, nutrient content in soil and the growth performance in terms of height of paddy and number of tiller in a field experiment. Biochars as a new soil amendment has a potential in controlling the fate of trace elements in the soil system. However, the production of biochar from different types of biomass resulted in variable biochars properties which have an influence on trace elements availability in soil. Both biochars type was tested at equal rates respectively. The results detailing the nutrient content and growth performance of paddy showed that the application of both RH and EFB improve biomass production. The results show that the addition of EFB biochar to soil has a positive effect in growth performance and nutrient content. However, after running the statistical analysis on data, it shows that there is no significant difference between the treatments either in soil pH, nutrient content, plant height and the number of tiller on paddy (P>0.05).

Biochar is plant based materials that has been charred by a process called pyrolysis, where there is no or less oxygen. It is rich in carbon elements. Biochar is referred to the plant biomass derived materials that includes chars and charcoal while excluding fossil fuel products [1]. The function of biochars are used as a soil amendment which enhances plant growth and nutrient use efficiency, improved holding capacity of nutrients such as nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and has higher pH and higher moisture-holding capacity to the soils. Biochar is usually produced from plant residue such as paddy husk, corn stalk, rubber pod and oil palm’s empty fruit bunches (EFB). Different types of plant residues require different temperature in order to turn into biochar. MR219 is a variety of rice that is widely planted in Malaysia due to its high yield potential (10.75 tonne/ha), shorter life cycle (105 to 111 days) and is good for consumption [2].

Types of soil

Soil of silty clay loam can be classified as one properties of soil organic matter. Some of the physical properties of silty clay loam have been proposed as indicators of soil quality. Long term sustainable agriculture based on the maintenance since its level generally lead to decreased crop productivity. The continuous cultivation in soil silty clay loam in most irrigated lands has resulted in the decline of soil physical condition. There are some of the properties of these soil which are the soil structure is strongly related to organic matter because it’s binds mineral particles into aggregates and reduces the susceptibility of soil to erosion. However in terms of the quality of soil, silty clay loam based on its soil structure on water sized stable shows that the soil is highly enriched and most labile fraction [3]. Usually in extremely low pH condition, the soil is subject to drought and with limited nutrients and poor drainage.

Application of fertilizers and biochars, however, can increase soil pH and also increased nutrient availability to plants with biomass of carbon (C) increase especially in low pH soil [4]. Application of biochars can improve soil’s physiochemical properties in terms of water holding capacity (WHC), increase the activity of microbes and available nutrient. Suggested that with the addition of biochars to the silty clay loam, it can alter the soil’s properties such as pH, WHC, CEC and plant nutrient [5].

Objectives

• To determine the content of biochars in term of nutrient.

• To determine the effect of difference biochars used on MR219 rice growth.

There are three treatments applied to the MR219 paddy – EFB biochar, rice husk biochar and conventional NPK fertiliser as control planted in silty clay loam soil. Treatment was applied on 3rd, 7th and 10th weeks. Data on paddy growth were collected on weekly basis and nutrient content in soil was tested the week following application of treatment. The nutrient content of biochar was tested using dry ashing method while nutrient content was tested using acid digestion method. Samples from both tests was analysed using the Perkin Elmer’s Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). All data and ICP’s result are further analysed using Minitab software (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Nutrient content on EFBB and RHB.

Figure 1 above presents the nutrient content in Empty fruit bunch biochars (EFBB) and rice husk biochars (RHB) used for the experiment. The EFBB were high in every element compared to the RHB which are lower. The EFBB are quite high in K and had more C than P and Mg. Figure above shows Ca and Mg in RH is low compared to in EFB biochar. However the availability nutrient on that element is related to the pH value. Since somehow the pH of RH is 4.8 something it affects the amount of Ca and Mg because pH of RH is less than 5, Ca and Mg is generally low amount. However the high content of K and Ca is expected to benefit from application of EFBB with a good temperature of biochars the application for both treatment to MR219 was applied with 18 g of biochars for total application of 3 times within week 3 to week 9, and the timeline of application are referred from manuring programme schedule for participating farmers [6,7]. In terms of plant height, application of EFBB and RHB to the plant were not significant (P=0.432) and the effect of plant growth also not significant even though the height and number of tiller plant showed an improvement from week 3 to week 10. The increase in soil nutrients and an improvement in plant due to the biochars application are consistent with the work of where the application of biochars had increase the content of nitrate (NO3) especially at tillering stage [8]. Plus, the increased in nutrients of biochars can be directly relate to the increases in soil pH recorded for the treatment (Table 1).

Table 1: The chemical properties of rice husk and empty fruit bunch biochars produced different pyrolysis temperatures.

Figure 2: Height of paddy.

In fact every parameter’s reading increased with the addition of biochars. Based on the physical properties of biochars, Table 1 shows the different pyrolysis temperatures. The biochars that were applied on plants with 550ºC, The temperature were choose because it is shows the best result were on 500ºC for EFB and RH in terms of nutrients content as shown in table below. The variability of the nutrients in the biochars with increasing temperature is due to their volatility and effect of pyrolysis temperature on both composition and chemical structure of biochars. Besides the concentration of the nutrients in the biochar also depend on the process of partial devolatilization of the nutrients at elevated temperatures [9].

There is no significant difference between application of EFB and rice husk biochar in terms of plants height as well as number of tiller. According to usage of biochar alone without the combination of urea fertilizer cannot gave much effect to growth performance of paddy (Figure 2).

In terms of crop production, the application of biochars generally, should be beneficial to the plant height on the Figure 2. The effects of biochars amendments on rice growth are shown in figure above. Overall, biochars application had positive effects on the paddy growth. EFB biochars application significantly increased height and number of tillers in few successive weeks. In weeks 5 the paddy treated with EFB amendments increased from 52.25 cm and 5.25 numbers of tillers to 94.75 cm in height and 46 tillers, respectively. In particular, in comparison with the corresponding controls, chemical fertilizer (NPK) showed a smaller gap between EFB either in height or number of tillers.

However, same goes to the rice husk that showed a poor response on effect of biochars which are from 37.25 cm and 4 to 93 cm and 40. Based on the three treatments, EFB give the result in terms of the plant height compared to the other two treatments. The amount of treatments are applied with the same amount per pail are based on journal which are 0.9 gram for NPK and 18 gram for both biochars. A statistically notable rise in the rice productivity are compared with its control treatment shown that the height of paddy and the number of tillers has no significance difference (P=0.432) on the application of the treatments but it had a significantly positive effect on the height and number of tiller. The positive growth responses were partly attributed to the nutrients directly supplied by the biochars and NPK.

However, the growth performance differed with biochars types. Rice husk usually had a high pH, therefore it is reasonable that the soil treated with rice husk biochars also had a high pH since it has high CEC value, P and K content. This result indicated that acidic soil can be treated with rice husk biochars can used as substitute application for lime materials in order to improve the pH soil (Figure 3).

Figure 3: The average of nutrient content before and after treatment in soil.

The Figure 3 above shows the average of nutrient content before and after treatment of biochars. It indicates the amount of every element which is P, K, Ca and Mg before treatment is lower than after treatment. Referred to the graph, the result present in the EFB treatment shows a most higher on the element especially in K and Mg. However the test statistical analysis shows that there is no significant different of nutrient content between before and after treatment. The element of K assist in regulating the plants used water by controlling the opening and closing of leaf stomata, where water release to cool the plant while Mg help in major constituent of the chlorophyll molecule, and it is therefore actively involved in photosynthesis. K element is essential for growth performance and reproductive activities of plant. Stated that the potassium levels remain high with increased biochar levels. So that this can implies by addition of biochars will greatly increase K levels in soil [10].

Nutrient availability in soil before treatment is lower due to low soil pH of silty clay loam. Application of fertilizers and biochar, however, can increase soil pH and also increased nutrient availability to plants with biomass of carbon (C) increase especially in low pH soil. This makes sense since biochar is shown to increase nutrient levels, such as magnesium. As shown in Figure 3, magnesium levels increase as biochar is added, so the percent of exchangeable magnesium naturally increases relative to the CEC.

For P the amount of P before treatment is lower compare to after treatment. The amount of P in NPK after treatment is the highest compare to the other treatment. However after running the statistical test there is no significant difference between each treatment (P=0.477). Referred the graph 3 the content of NPK in element P is higher compared to K element. This is due to K element is easily leached in soil compared to P element. There a few studies have reported a relatively low P leaching amount in soils, mainly because of low permeability.

For K the amount of K before treatment is lower compare to mount of K after treatment of EFB and Rice husk. While P before treatment is higher compare to the NPK after treatment. The function of K is known to be an enzyme that promotes metabolism in plant. In plant K is needed in photosynthesis and synthesis of proteins, plants lacking K will have slow and stunted growth. While deficiency of P in soil affect the plant growth, P technically assists in the activation of many growth-related enzymes in plants, and it therefore aids in proper plant growth. From the result height and the number of tiller in paddy shows an increased. Hence, it can be said that with the increased of K, the growth of paddy also increased. However from the test statistical analysis shows that there is no significant difference between each treatment (P=0.119).

For Ca the amount of Ca before treatment is lower compared to the value of NPK, EFB and RH after treatment. After running the statistical test the result shows there is no significant difference between each treatment (P=0.698). Stated that with the addition of biochars, calcium becomes increasingly available in the soil as the negatively charged surface of biochars attracts the positively charged ions such as Ca and make it available to plants. However, calcium in all soil treatments is still considered low for soil. Ca is an activator of several enzymes systems in protein and carbohydrate transfer. Besides Ca has a major role in the formation of the cell wall membrane in plant cell.

For Mg the amount of Mg before treatment is lower compared to the value of NPK, EFB and RH after treatment. However from test statistical analysis shows that there is no significant difference between each treatment (P=0.765). Mg is a major constituent of the chlorophyll molecule; therefore K is actively involved in the photosynthesis activity and also helps in stabilizing the structure of nucleic acids. According to when biochars is added along with compost, the exchangeable Mg was increases.

From the result we can estimate that biochars from EFB is better than RH in term of its nutrient content. But from the ANOVA test, it showed that there is no significant difference between both treatment in term of its nutrient content and plant growth (plant height and tiller). So we can choose to apply NPK fertilizer, EFB or RH biochars to the field since it end up with the same results. For future study, rate of biochars and NPK fertilizer application need to be increased and varied so that a more significant result can be achieved from the treatments. To the farmers that are concerned towards the environment, the use EFB or RH biochars are recommended. In term of cost, both EFB and RH biochars come as cheaper alternatives to the conventional practices of using the chemical fertilizer. Plus the use of biochars can also reduce toxicity to the soil.

I would firstly like to acknowledge and thank my supervisor, Madam Nur Firdaus Binti Abdul Rashid, for her contribution and support to complete my Final Year Project for one semester (Sept-Jan 2016). I would also like to thanks to laboratory assistant for their cooperation. I would like to thank my family for their love and support, course mate for their help from the beginning till the end of my project work. Last but not least, thanks to Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) that provides me the facilities and instrument in order to complete my Final Year Project.

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Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Research Report 2017

10 May, 2017
 

In this report, the global Biochar Fertilizer market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022.

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of Biochar Fertilizer in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering
– North America
– Europe
– China
– Japan
– Southeast Asia
– India

Global Biochar Fertilizer market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer; the top players including
– Biogrow Limited
– Biochar Farms
– Anulekh
– GreenBack
– Carbon Fertilizer
– Global Harvest Organics LLC

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
– Organic Fertilizer
– Inorganic Fertilizer
– Compound Fertilizer

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate of Biochar Fertilizer for each application, including
– Cereals
– Oil Crops
– Fruits and Vegetables
– Others

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

Table of Contents

Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Research Report 2017
1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Biochar Fertilizer
1.2 Biochar Fertilizer Segment by Type (Product Category)
1.2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production and CAGR (%) Comparison by Type (Product Category) (2012-2022)
1.2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016
1.2.3 Organic Fertilizer
1.2.4 Inorganic Fertilizer
1.2.5 Compound Fertilizer
1.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Segment by Application
1.3.1 Biochar Fertilizer Consumption (Sales) Comparison by Application (2012-2022)
1.3.2 Cereals
1.3.3 Oil Crops
1.3.4 Fruits and Vegetables
1.3.5 Others
1.4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market by Region (2012-2022)
1.4.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (Value) and CAGR (%) Comparison by Region (2012-2022)
1.4.2 North America Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.4 China Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.5 Japan Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.6 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.7 India Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Biochar Fertilizer (2012-2022)
1.5.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Status and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.5.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production Status and Outlook (2012-2022)

2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.1.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.1.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Average Price by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
2.4 Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area and Product Type
2.5 Biochar Fertilizer Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Concentration Rate
2.5.2 Biochar Fertilizer Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers
2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2012-2017)
3.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.5 North America Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.6 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.7 China Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.8 Japan Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.9 Southeast Asia Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
3.10 India Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)

4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Region (2012-2017)
4.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption by Region (2012-2017)
4.2 North America Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.3 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.4 China Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.5 Japan Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.6 Southeast Asia Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)
4.7 India Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export, Import (2012-2017)

5 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type
5.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
5.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
5.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Price by Type (2012-2017)
5.4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production Growth by Type (2012-2017)

6 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Analysis by Application
6.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption and Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
6.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
6.3 Market Drivers and Opportunities
6.3.1 Potential Applications
6.3.2 Emerging Markets/Countries

7 Global Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis
7.1 Biogrow Limited
7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.1.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
7.1.2.1 Product A
7.1.2.2 Product B
7.1.3 Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.2 Biochar Farms
7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.2.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
7.2.2.1 Product A
7.2.2.2 Product B
7.2.3 Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.3 Anulekh
7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.3.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
7.3.2.1 Product A
7.3.2.2 Product B
7.3.3 Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.4 GreenBack
7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.4.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
7.4.2.1 Product A
7.4.2.2 Product B
7.4.3 GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
7.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.5 Carbon Fertilizer
7.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.5.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
7.5.2.1 Product A
7.5.2.2 Product B
7.5.3 Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
7.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7.6 Global Harvest Organics LLC
7.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
7.6.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
7.6.2.1 Product A
7.6.2.2 Product B
7.6.3 Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
7.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview

8 Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Cost Analysis
8.1 Biochar Fertilizer Key Raw Materials Analysis
8.1.1 Key Raw Materials
8.1.2 Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
8.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
8.1.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials
8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
8.2.1 Raw Materials
8.2.2 Labor Cost
8.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar Fertilizer

9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
9.1 Biochar Fertilizer Industrial Chain Analysis
9.2 Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing
9.3 Raw Materials Sources of Biochar Fertilizer Major Manufacturers in 2015
9.4 Downstream Buyers

10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
10.1 Marketing Channel
10.1.1 Direct Marketing
10.1.2 Indirect Marketing
10.1.3 Marketing Channel Development Trend
10.2 Market Positioning
10.2.1 Pricing Strategy
10.2.2 Brand Strategy
10.2.3 Target Client
10.3 Distributors/Traders List

11 Market Effect Factors Analysis
11.1 Technology Progress/Risk
11.1.1 Substitutes Threat
11.1.2 Technology Progress in Related Industry
11.2 Consumer Needs/Customer Preference Change
11.3 Economic/Political Environmental Change

12 Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Forecast (2017-2022)
12.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production, Revenue Forecast (2017-2022)
12.1.1 Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
12.1.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
12.1.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Price and Trend Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption , Import and Export Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
12.2.1 North America Biochar Fertilizer Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2.2 Europe Biochar Fertilizer Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2.3 China Biochar Fertilizer Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2.4 Japan Biochar Fertilizer Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2.5 Southeast Asia Biochar Fertilizer Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2.6 India Biochar Fertilizer Production, Revenue, Consumption, Export and Import Forecast (2017-2022)
12.3 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
12.4 Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Forecast by Application (2017-2022)

13 Research Findings and Conclusion

14 Appendix
14.1 Methodology/Research Approach
14.1.1 Research Programs/Design
14.1.2 Market Size Estimation
14.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
14.2 Data Source
14.2.1 Secondary Sources
14.2.2 Primary Sources
14.3 Disclaimer

List of Tables and Figures

Figure Picture of Biochar Fertilizer
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) and CAGR (%) Comparison by Types (Product Category) (2012-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share by Types (Product Category) in 2016
Figure Product Picture of Organic Fertilizer
Table Major Manufacturers of Organic Fertilizer
Figure Product Picture of Inorganic Fertilizer
Table Major Manufacturers of Inorganic Fertilizer
Figure Product Picture of Compound Fertilizer
Table Major Manufacturers of Compound Fertilizer
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption (K MT) by Applications (2012-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Market Share by Applications in 2016
Figure Cereals Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Cereals
Figure Oil Crops Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Oil Crops
Figure Fruits and Vegetables Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Fruits and Vegetables
Figure Others Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Others
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (Million USD), Comparison (K MT) and CAGR (%) by Regions (2012-2022)
Figure North America Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure Europe Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure China Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure Japan Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure Southeast Asia Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure India Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) Status and Outlook (2012-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT) Status and Outlook (2012-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Major Players Product Capacity (K MT) (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity (K MT) of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity (K MT) of Key Manufacturers in 2016
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity (K MT) of Key Manufacturers in 2017
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Major Players Product Production (K MT) (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Production Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 Biochar Fertilizer Production Share by Manufacturers
Figure 2017 Biochar Fertilizer Production Share by Manufacturers
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Major Players Product Revenue (Million USD) (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017)
Table 2016 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table 2017 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Manufacturers
Table Global Market Biochar Fertilizer Average Price (USD/MT) of Key Manufacturers (2012-2017)
Figure Global Market Biochar Fertilizer Average Price (USD/MT) of Key Manufacturers in 2016
Table Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Base Distribution and Sales Area
Table Manufacturers Biochar Fertilizer Product Category
Figure Biochar Fertilizer Market Share of Top 3 Manufacturers
Figure Biochar Fertilizer Market Share of Top 5 Manufacturers
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity (K MT) by Region (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity Market Share by Region
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Production by Region (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) by Region (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 Global Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share by Region
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) by Region (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Table 2016 Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share by Region
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT) and Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Table North America Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Table Europe Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Table China Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Table Japan Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Table Southeast Asia Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Table India Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption (K MT) Market by Region (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption (K MT) Market Share by Region
Table North America Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Import & Export (K MT) (2012-2017)
Table Europe Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Import & Export (K MT) (2012-2017)
Table China Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Import & Export (K MT) (2012-2017)
Table Japan Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Import & Export (K MT) (2012-2017)
Table Southeast Asia Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Import & Export (K MT) (2012-2017)
Table India Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Import & Export (K MT) (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) by Type (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Production Share by Type (2012-2017)
Figure Production Market Share of Biochar Fertilizer by Type (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 Production Market Share of Biochar Fertilizer by Type
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) by Type (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Type (2012-2017)
Figure Production Revenue Share of Biochar Fertilizer by Type (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 Revenue Market Share of Biochar Fertilizer by Type
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Price (USD/MT) by Type (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Production Growth by Type (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption (K MT) by Application (2012-2017)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Market Share by Applications (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Market Share by Application in 2016
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
Table Biogrow Limited Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Production Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share (2012-2017)
Figure Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share (2012-2017)
Table Biochar Farms Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Production Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share (2012-2017)
Figure Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share (2012-2017)
Table Anulekh Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Production Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share (2012-2017)
Figure Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share (2012-2017)
Table GreenBack Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Production Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share (2012-2017)
Figure GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share (2012-2017)
Table Carbon Fertilizer Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Production Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share (2012-2017)
Figure Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share (2012-2017)
Table Global Harvest Organics LLC Basic Information, Manufacturing Base, Sales Area and Its Competitors
Table Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Production Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share (2012-2017)
Figure Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share (2012-2017)
Table Production Base and Market Concentration Rate of Raw Material
Figure Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
Table Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
Figure Manufacturing Cost Structure of Biochar Fertilizer
Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar Fertilizer
Figure Biochar Fertilizer Industrial Chain Analysis
Table Raw Materials Sources of Biochar Fertilizer Major Manufacturers in 2016
Table Major Buyers of Biochar Fertilizer
Table Distributors/Traders List
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Capacity, Production (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Price (Million USD) and Trend Forecast (2017-2022)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Production Market Share Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption (K MT) Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption Market Share Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Figure North America Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure North America Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Table North America Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export and Import (K MT) Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure Europe Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure Europe Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Table Europe Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export and Import (K MT) Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure China Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure China Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Table China Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export and Import (K MT) Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure Japan Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure Japan Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Table Japan Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export and Import (K MT) Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure Southeast Asia Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure Southeast Asia Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Table Southeast Asia Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export and Import (K MT) Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure India Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure India Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Table India Biochar Fertilizer Production, Consumption, Export and Import (K MT) Forecast (2017-2022)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Production (K MT) Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Price Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
Table Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption (K MT) Forecast by Application (2017-2022)
Figure Global Biochar Fertilizer Consumption (K MT) Forecast by Application (2017-2022)
Table Research Programs/Design for This Report
Figure Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for This Report
Figure Data Triangulation
Table Key Data Information from Secondary Sources
Table Key Data Information from Primary Source

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Biochar Stoves

10 May, 2017
 

Learn of the magical qualities of Biochar that can transform your soil structure, it’s water retaining capability and fertility.  How to PRODUCE IT whilst heating your water and cooking your food. £30 for the day.  Dates to be confirmed in spring, summer and autumn 2017.

Register your interest by texting Emma on 07976 296 364

 Soil aggregate qualities demonstrated by submerging dry samples in water.


The North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability

10 May, 2017
 

The North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability (NCFCIS), a 501(c) (3) nonprofit sustainable farming organization has developed and employed one of the larger scale farming models in the US which focuses on the effects of biochar use on the sandy soils found throughout the Southeast coastal plain region (Southeastern North Carolina). Efficient and strategic introduction of biochar for agricultural use requires farm-scale production using locally available feedstocks.

Biochar has received a lot of interest and press as a soil amendment due to the apparent ability of the material to enhance crop productivity and sequester carbon in soil (biochar normally contains in excess of 60% carbon on a dry basis, with a very long and stable soil retention time, suggested to be in thousands of years!). While an ancient product, dating back thousands of years to use in South America, called “terra preta”, the functional and critically important characteristics of biochar are only recently beginning to be identified and understood. The refinement in the understanding of this very interesting material is literally in its infancy, and thus almost any new data can play a critical role in building an understanding that can enable this ancient product to emerge once again as an important tool in our efforts to achieve ever improving environmental sustainability for the future.

Use of biochar along with other complimentary technologies and processes relating to its use have the potential to impact the local and national economy in a positive manner, by allowing what once was deemed unusable or underutilized farmland to become productive.  Economic stimulation begins with the creation of jobs and the influx of expendable income into the marketplace. As a land-area scale-neutral component, biochar has the potential to become a catalyst that could jump start that process by helping farm operations to expand and become more profitable, creating a need for more labor and opening the door to new business opportunities related to the production, application, and marketing of amendment-based materials. It may also serve to help regulate the availability of nutrients for crops, resulting in the possibility of achieving excellent yields with reduced inputs, a point that will be made subsequently in this report.

The landscape of agriculture, especially in the Southeastern United States, is changing rapidly. Smaller family owned farms are not as prevalent as they once were, giving way to larger units depending on economies of scale to compete in commodity-based agriculture. The demise and waning popularity of tobacco production within the state of North Carolina, especially, has significantly changed the patterns of land use as well as economic viability of the rural communities in the region. 

What follows is the final report of the three-year study involving field trials utilizing biochar and presents results and insights that relate to potential benefits from biochar application as a soil amendment. This project should be considered a starting point in what should to be a modern national effort, modeled after the historically successful “Regional Research Project System” in USDA/CSRS (subsequently CSREES/REE), to apply a national need to an integrated and coordinated effort to understand and subsequently provide recommendations for when and where to most effectively use biochar as an AGRICULTURAL soil amendment. NRCS is encouraged to take the lead in developing this initiative, and the budgetary support to fund it.

A 2009 national Conservation Innovation Grant (CIG) award from USDA provided funding to enable adding biochar as one of these promising technologies. As a result, the Farm Center is now assessing biochar’s potential for improving soil conditions and agricultural productivity in practical ways to reach the widest range of rural beneficiaries. Please click here for the full report authored by Len Bull.

Please see the conclusions from the report below:

The three year trial in agricultural biochar conducted by the North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability is finished.  As you read the final report you will note some of our surprises and challenges.

But the consensus of everyone involved in this project is that biochar as an agricultural soil amendment has a bright future—and may be the driver that brings the biochar industry of clean energy, carbon sequestration and conservation into the common nomenclature of the marketplace.

The next and very important step is to take lessons learned in the sandy soils of North Carolina and translate them into a national initiative that can be regionalized to local soils.  If the beneficial impact of agricultural biochar on crops in larger field trial is not pursued it would be a disservice to farmers, conservationists and taxpayers.

Equally exciting, however, are the opportunities agricultural biochar offers in conservation and sustainable practices and agricultural entrepreneurship. Going forward biochar has implications that include:

Climate, water, food security and carbon are moving once again into discussions that will determine national policies. Agricultural bichar has a place in each of these arenas.

The North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability feels privileged and honored to have had the opportunity to have participated in these trials and in doing so have opened the door to finding solutions to issues critical to us all.

For more information, contact Sharon Valentine at svalentine@ncfarmcenter.org or visit the website at: www.ncfarmcenter.org.


Biochar Workshop

10 May, 2017
 

June 3, 2017June 3, 2017

Learn how biochar restores soils, sequesters carbon, remediates pollution, and provides renewable energy.

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United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Research Report 2017

11 May, 2017
 

Disclaimer: If you have any questions regarding information in this press release please contact the company added in the press release. Please do not contact pr-inside. We will not be able to assist you. PR-inside disclaims the content included in this release.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Properties of biochar derived from wood and high-nutrient biomasses with the aim of agronomic …

11 May, 2017
 

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rimena_r@yahoo.com.br

Affiliation Department of Soil Science, Universidade Federal de Lavras, UFLA, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Affiliation Forest Sciences Department, Universidade Federal de Lavras, UFLA, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Affiliation Department of Soil Science, Universidade Federal de Lavras, UFLA, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Affiliation Forest Sciences Department, Universidade Federal de Lavras, UFLA, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Affiliation Department of Soil Science, Universidade Federal de Lavras, UFLA, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Affiliation Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal de Lavras, UFLA, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Affiliation Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS-CSIC), Departmento de Conservación de Suelos y Agua y Manejo de Residuos Orgánicos, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Murcia, Spain

Biochar production and use are part of the modern agenda to recycle wastes, and to retain nutrients, pollutants, and heavy metals in the soil and to offset some greenhouse gas emissions. Biochars from wood (eucalyptus sawdust, pine bark), sugarcane bagasse, and substances rich in nutrients (coffee husk, chicken manure) produced at 350, 450 and 750°C were characterized to identify agronomic and environmental benefits, which may enhance soil quality. Biochars derived from wood and sugarcane have greater potential for improving C storage in tropical soils due to a higher aromatic character, high C concentration, low H/C ratio, and FTIR spectra features as compared to nutrient-rich biochars. The high ash content associated with alkaline chemical species such as KHCO3 and CaCO3, verified by XRD analysis, made chicken manure and coffee husk biochars potential liming agents for remediating acidic soils. High Ca and K contents in chicken manure and coffee husk biomass can significantly replace conventional sources of K (mostly imported in Brazil) and Ca, suggesting a high agronomic value for these biochars. High-ash biochars, such as chicken manure and coffee husk, produced at low-temperatures (350 and 450°C) exhibited high CEC values, which can be considered as a potential applicable material to increase nutrient retention in soil. Therefore, the agronomic value of the biochars in this study is predominantly regulated by the nutrient richness of the biomass, but an increase in pyrolysis temperature to 750°C can strongly decrease the adsorptive capacities of chicken manure and coffee husk biochars. A diagram of the agronomic potential and environmental benefits is presented, along with some guidelines to relate biochar properties with potential agronomic and environmental uses. Based on biochar properties, research needs are identified and directions for future trials are delineated.

Citation: Domingues RR, Trugilho PF, Silva CA, Melo ICNAd, Melo LCA, Magriotis ZM, et al. (2017) Properties of biochar derived from wood and high-nutrient biomasses with the aim of agronomic and environmental benefits. PLoS ONE 12(5): e0176884. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176884

Editor: Jorge Paz-Ferreiro, RMIT University, AUSTRALIA

Received: February 8, 2017; Accepted: April 18, 2017; Published: May 11, 2017

Copyright: © 2017 Domingues et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: XDR analyses were performed at XRD1 beam-line of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), which is supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications (MCTIC). This study was funded by the National Council for Technological and Scientific Development – CNPq, grants 3038592/2011-5 and 303899/2015-8 and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Education Personnel (CAPES-PROEX AUXPE 590/2014). A PhD scholarship for RRD was provided by CAPES and research scholarships for PFT and CAS were provided by CNPq. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Large amounts of crop residues are generated worldwide and they are not always properly disposed of or recycled. Wood log production in Brazil generates about 50.8 million m3 of lignocellulosic residue yearly [1], while nearly 200 million tons/year of sugarcane bagasse is generated [2]. In 2016, 49 million bags of coffee [3] were harvested and almost the same amount (by weight) of coffee husk was produced. Based on the Brazilian chicken flock and on the average amount of manure produced per animal, about 12 million t year-1 of manure were generated in Brazil in 2009 [1]. Chicken manure is characterized by high N, P, Ca, and micronutrient contents, while coffee husk contains the highest K concentration [4]. Sugarcane bagasse and wood-derived wastes have low amounts of nutrients and high lignin and cellulose content.

In humid tropical areas, the application of raw residues on soils is the main management practice, but this has limited impact on increasing C in soils due to high organic matter decomposition rates [5]. In natura disposal of coffee husk in crop fields may lead to an increased population of Stomoxys calcitrans, a pest that may cause damages to dairy cattle and feedlots [6]. Conversion of wastes into biochar increases the recalcitrance of C due to increased proportions of condensed aromatic compounds in the biochare, which ensures higher persistence of C in the soil compared to the C from raw biomass [7]. In addition, conversion of wastes into biochar reduces residue volume, generates energy, improves the efficiency of nutrient use by crops, eliminates pathogens, and generates products with high agronomic value [810].

Characterization of biochars generated from the main Brazilian organic wastes is the first step in identifying agronomic and environmental applications and guiding future research trials. Plant-derived biochars have high aromatic C content due to the greater amount of lignin and cellulose present, which gives the biochar high stability and resistance to microbial decomposition [11]. Animal manures have high contents of labile organic and inorganic compounds, resulting in biochars with high ash content, which is positively related to the nutrient and chemical composition of the biomass [8, 12]. Higher ash, N, S, Na, and P concentration have been observed in poultry litter biochar than in peanut hull and pecan shell biochars [13]. High nutrient concentrations in the biomass can generate biochars with more ash content and alkalizing capacity [14]. Thus, biochar can be used in soils to correct acidity [12], increase soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), retain water [1516, 12], and regulate C and N dynamics [17]. In addition, researchers have pointed out positive effects of biochar on soil remediation due to its adsorption of pesticides or metals [1820].

We characterized biochars derived from wood, sugarcane bagasse, and nutrient-rich residues (coffee husk, chicken manure) aiming to identify potential agronomic and environmental benefits for fertilizing soil and enhancing soil quality. Our hypothesis is that nutrient-rich biochars derived from waste have fertilization potential, while biochars derived from wood and sugarcane charred at high temperature are potential for increasing C sequestered in soils. We also hypothesized that the liming value of the biochar is primarily regulated by its ash content, regardless of its pH; the mineral phase of chicken manure is effective in protecting the organic compounds from degradation, ensuring production of high CEC biochars even under high temperature (750°C). In this study, we aimed to (i) assess the chemical and physicochemical properties of biochars derived from wood and nutrient-rich sources in terms their potential agronomic and environmental benefits, and (ii) identify potential uses and drawbacks in biochar production from contrasting biomass types and suggest guidelines for future research trials in biochar-treated soils.

Fifteen biochars were produced from five biomass and three pyrolysis temperatures (350, 450, and 750°C). The biomasses selected were those with greatest availability in Brazil: i) chicken manure (CM); ii) eucalyptus sawdust (ES); iii) coffee husk (CH); iv) sugarcane bagasse (SB); and v) pine bark (PB). The nutrient concentrations of the biomasses are shown in S1 Table.

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed using a Shimadzu DTG-60H device. Samples of approximately 5 mg were heated from room temperature to 600°C at a rate of 10°C min-1 and a nitrogen flow of 50 mL min-1. Then, the first derivative of the TGA curve was calculated, which establishes loss in mass over the temperature range employed.

The biochar elemental composition was used to calculate the H/C, O/C, and (O + N)/C ratios [22].

Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water-soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC) was measured in a 10% (w v-1) biochar-water mixture shaken for 1 h and then filtered through a 0.45 μm membrane filter. In the liquid extracts, WSOC and WSIC were quantified using the liquid mode of a TOC analyzer (Vario TOC cube, Elementar, Germany). Considering that a single 1 h extraction is unlikely to solubilize all water-soluble organic and inorganic C from biochar, it should be take into account that WSOC and WIOC provide an index of part of water soluble C chemical species rather than 100% of all biochar soluble C; however, they were considered suitable for comparisons among biochars.

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed on a Perkin Elmer Spectrum 1000 device equipped with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory, in which the powder of each sample was inserted in a diamond crystal gate. All biomass and biochars had been dried at 65°C and sieved through a 0.150 mm mesh. FTIR spectra from 32 scans was recorded in the wavenumber range 4000–500 cm-1 with 2 cm-1 resolution. The broad band chemical group assignments described in Jindo et al. [23] were used to interpret the FTIR-ATR spectra.

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out at the XRD1 beam-line of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil, for detection of all mineral phases present in the biochars. Powdered biochar samples (< 150 mesh) were inserted in glass capillaries and analyzed in the X-Ray diffractometer through the range of 4–60° 2ɵ in a transmission mode with steps of 0.2° 2ɵ and a wavelength of about 1.0 Å. Minerals found in the biochar structure were identified after calculation of the d spacing according to Bragg’s law. The peak areas identified for different minerals were compared with XRD patterns of standard minerals compiled by the Mineralogy Database available at “web minerals” (http://webmineral.com/).

Biochar pH was measured in deionized water and in a 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 solution at a 1:10 (w/v) ratio, after shaking the samples for 1h. All measurements were performed in triplicate. Biochar CEC was determined by the modified ammonium acetate compulsory displacement method, adapted to biochars [24]. During CEC determination, a vacuum filtration system was employed, and samples were filtered through a 0.45 um membrane filter. Initially, 0.5 g of biochar sample was leached five times with 20 mL of deionized water to remove excess salts. After that, the samples were washed three times with a 1 mol L-1 sodium acetate (pH 8.2) solution, followed by five washes with 20 mL of ethanol to remove free (non-sorbed) Na+ ions. Samples were then washed four times with 20 mL of 1 mol L-1 ammonium acetate to displace the Na+ from the exchangeable sites of the biochar. The leachates were collected and stored in a 100 mL volumetric flask, and Na contents in the leachates were determined by flame photometry. The CEC corresponds to the amount of Na adsorbed per unit mass of biochar, expressed as cmolc kg-1.

Biochars are hereby referred by the biomass abbreviation and pyrolysis temperature, for example, CH350 denotes coffee husk pyrolysed at 350°C and CH750, coffee husk pyrolysed at 750°C. The experimental design used was factorial completely randomized with five biomasses (CM, ES, CH, SB, PB) combined with three pyrolysis temperature (350, 450, 750°C).

The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for significant differences between factors as biomasses, pyrolysis temperatures, and their interaction. When significant F-tests were obtained (0.05 probability level), the factors separation was achieved using Tukey’s honestly significant difference test. Data were statistically analysed employing SISVAR [27].

Biochar yields were reduced and ash contents increased with an increase in pyrolysis temperature (Table 1). The CM biochar at three temperatures (350, 450 and 750°C) showed higher yield and higher ash content than the other biochars (Table 1), due to large amount of inorganic compounds (K, P, Ca, and Mg) in this biomass (S1 Table), which accumulated after volatilization of C, O, and H compounds. Coffee husk biochar also showed a high ash content, which is probably due to the high K (22 g kg-1) content of the biomass. The ES and SB biochars, regardless of the pyrolysis temperature, showed the lowest ash content (<1.1% and <2.2%, respectively) (Table 1), explained by their low nutrient content (S1 Table). According to derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of biomass losses (S1 Fig), ES and SB showed higher mass loss between 250 and 350°C, which is attributed to high cellulose content in the biomass [28], which is easily degraded during low-temperature pyrolysis. CM, CH and, PB biochars showed lower mass loss between 250 and 350°C indicating higher thermal stability (S1 Fig).

Biochar volatile matter values reduced as the pyrolysis temperature was raised from 450°C to 750°C (Table 1). This is explained by an the increase in aromatization and greater losses of gas products, tar oil and low molecular weight hydrocarbons as a result of increasing pyrolysis temperature [28]. CM750 and CH750, however, showed the smallest losses of volatiles (Table 1) in contrast to the other biochars prepared at this same temperature. This was coincident with higher quantities of ash found in these biomasses, which can protect the organic fraction and structures of biochars during pyrolysis [2931]. Chemical activation of KOH impregnation has a catalytic effect in intensifying hydrolysis reactions, increasing volatile products [32, 33] and the development of pores in the charcoal structure [31], suggesting a role for pores in the adsorption of volatile materials [33]. Fixed C was inversely correlated with the ash contents and was higher in eucalyptus sawdust and sugarcane bagasse biochar compared to other biochars produced (Table 1).

Total C concentrations in plant-derived biochars increased with an increase in pyrolysis temperature (Table 2), whereas the O and H concentrations diminished (Table 2). Biochars derived from plant biomass showed the highest C concentration, up to 90% C for ES and SB pyrolyzed at 750°C (Table 2). Increase in C concentrations with a rise in pyrolysis temperature occurs due to a higher degree of polymerization, leading to a more condensed carbon structure in the biochar [11]. Similar results were reported for biochars produced from pine straw [22], peanut shells [13], sugarcane bagasse [34], and wheat straw [35]. The greater the degree of formation of aromatic structures is, the higher the resistance of the biochar to microbial degradation [36, 7]. The C concentration in CM biochar reduced with an increase in pyrolysis temperature (Table 2). Such results suggest that the organic compounds found in animal waste are more labile and are rapidly lost as pyrolysis temperature is increased, before the formation of biochar with recalcitrant compounds. A 6% reduction in C concentration in poultry litter biochar was reported when pyrolysis temperature was increased from 350°C to 700°C [8], as well as a decrease in sewage sludge biochar C content [37]. The C concentration in CM biochar was lower (≈ 30% C) than wood biochars (Table 2). These results are in agreement with those of Novak et al. [13].

The H/C and O/C ratios of biochars derived from plant biomass decreased as the pyrolysis temperature was increased (Table 2), indicating increasing aromaticity and a lower hydrophilic tendency, respectively [8, 13]. An increase in the aromatic character of biochars is associated with dehydration reactions and removal of O and H functional groups, as well as the formation of aromatic structures, as charring is intensified [11]. These features are consistent with the van Krevelen diagrams generated in this study, which showed a positive relationship between H/C and the O/C atomic ratios (S2 Fig). Biochars derived from CM did not change H/C and O/C ratios or the degree of aromaticity as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 350 to 450°C (Table 2).

The sugarcane bagasse biomass had the highest WSOC concentration (94.5g kg-1) (Fig 1A). However, with increasing pyrolysis temperature, WSOC concentration in bagasse were significantly reduced (< 0.2g kg-1), suggesting that the water-soluble carbon is degraded or incorporated into the organic compounds of biochar even at a relatively low pyrolysis temperature.

CM = chicken manure, ES = eucalyptus sawdust, CH = coffee husk, SB = sugarcane bagasse, and PB = pine bark. Uppercase letters compare pyrolysis temperatures within the same biomass and lowercase letters compare biomass at the same temperature. Bar followed by the same letter do not differ by the Tukey test at p <0.05.

The biochar WSIC concentration increased with pyrolysis temperature (Fig 1A). The highest WSIC concentration (11.7g kg-1) was verified for CH750. WSIC-coffee biochar was significantly (p<0.05) different from the other biochars produced at other pyrolysis temperatures. The WSIC concentrations of CM and SB biochars were also influenced by the pyrolysis temperature, especially those samples pyrolyzed at 750°C, whose WSIC concentration were 2.1 g kg-1 and 0.8 g kg-1, respectively (Fig 1B). For the other biochar samples, the WSIC concentration was not significantly (p<0.05) different (Fig 1B). The higher WSIC concentration found in CH750 in comparison with similar low-temperature biochar is probably due to the presence of the mineral kalicinite (Fig 2), a K inorganic compound with high solubility in water [38].

(A) Chicken manure biochar. (B) Coffee husk biochar. (C) Pine bark biochar.

Mineral components in the crystal form were identified in the CM, CH and PB biochars (Fig 2). No crystal substances were observed in the X-ray diffraction spectra for ES and SB biochars. For CM biochars produced at all temperatures, the presence of calcite (CaCO3) was identified by peaks at 3.85, 3.03, 2.49, 2.28, 2.09, 1.91, and 1.87 Å (Fig 2A). The presence of calcite in CM biochars is consistent with the high Ca content found in the chicken manure biomass (S1 Table). The presence of calcite in this biochar sample is probably due to the addition of phosphogypsum in manure, normally used to stabilize N forms during composting [4], as well as the use of calcium carbonate in chicken diets. Similarly, calcite and dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] were identified in sewage sludge biochar at 300–800°C [39].

For all CH biochars, the presence of kalicinite (KHCO3) was observed (Fig 2B). The formation of KHCO3 may have been favored by the reaction of K with CO2 released during thermal decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose [32]. An increase in the amounts of KHCO3 may also explain the high WSIC contents found in CH biochars (Fig 1). The peak intensity at 3.67 Ǻ increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, indicating relative accumulation of kalicinite in CH biochars. The peaks at 3.15, 2.22, 1.82, and 1.41 Ǻ were found in CH350 and CH450 were attributed to the presence of sylvite (KCl) (Fig 2B). In durian shell biochar, kalicinite was also the dominant mineral [38]. The presence of quartz (SiO2) was also confirmed in CH450 and CH750 from peaks at 3.34 and 4.25 Ǻ in the X-ray spectra. Identification of SiO2 was also noted in the biochars produced from PB biochar at the three pyrolysis temperatures (Fig 2B). Yuan et al. [25] also identified the presence of sylvite and calcite in biochars from canola straw pyrolyzed at 300, 500, and 700°C.

The FTIR-ATR biomass and biochar spectra are shown in Fig 3. The spectra of the all biomass samples showed a broad band at 3200–3400 cm-1, which is attributed to -OH from H2O or phenolic groups [22, 40, 11]. For all biomass sources, absorption in the region between 2920 and 2885 cm-1 (C-H stretching) was assigned to aliphatic functional groups [8, 40, 11], and the strong band at 1030 cm– 1 is due to the C-O stretching and associated with oxygenated functional groups of cellulose, hemicellulose, and methoxyl groups of lignin [8, 35, 41] [35]. The intense bands at 1270 cm−1 were assigned to phenolic—OH groups [22].

(A) Chicken manure. (B) Eucalyptus sawdust. (C) Coffee husk. (D) Sugarcane bagasse. (E) Pine bark.

Changes in biochar organic structure were apparent when biomass was pyrolyzed at 350°C, except for the CM biochars (Fig 3). The intensities of bands of -OH (3200–3400 cm-1), aliphatic C-H stretching (2920 and 2885 cm-1), -OH phenolic (1270 cm-1), and C-O stretching region (1030 cm-1) decreased sharply due to degradation and dehydration of cellulosic and ligneous components, even at low temperatures (350°C) [35, 22]. An increase in band intensity in the 1600 cm-1 region (C = C, C = O of conjugated ketones and quinones) and the appearance of weak bands between 885 and 750 cm-1 (aromatic CH out-of-plane) were attributed to an increasing degree of condensation of the biochar organic compounds. An increase in the degree of biochar condensation as pyrolysis temperature increases is in agreement with the results reported by Keiluweit et al. [35], Jindo et al. [23], and Melo et al. [40]. In the FTIR spectra of ES750, SB750, and PB750 biochars most of the organic functional groups present in the biochar structure were lost (Fig 3B, 3D and 3E). For CH biochars, weak bands remaining at the highest pyrolysis temperature were identified, which were assigned to aromatic C = C stretching (at about 1600 cm-1), -C-H2 bending (1400 cm-1), and aromatic C-H bending (885 cm-1). Losses of chemical groups in CH750 could explain the sharp decrease in CEC of this biochar in comparison to CH350 and CH450. In the CM biochars, the intensity of all organic functional bands remained largely unchanged after the biomasses were subjected to the charring process, regardless of the pyrolysis temperature used (Fig 3A). Protection of organic groups, even at high pyrolysis temperature, may be associated with the high ash content found in coffee husk and chicken manure (Fig 3). Ash acts as a heat resistant component, which may protect organic compounds against degradation and may hinder the formation of aromatic structures as charring intensity advances [42].

The pH in water of the biochars ranged from slightly acidic to alkaline (Fig 4A). Overall, the pH values of biochars were higher than 6.0 units. Compared to the biomass pH, the charring process increased pH in water and, in some cases, differences were up to 4 pH units for some of the biomasses pyrolyzed at 750°C (Fig 4A). An increase in biochar pH with pyrolysis temperature has been reported for corn straw [25], sewage sludge [36], pine [43], poultry litter [44], and sugarcane straw [40] biochars. With increasing temperature, there is an enrichment of basic cations in the ashes, which may be associated with alkaline species, such as carbonates, oxides and hydroxides [25, 45], and a reduction in the concentration of acidic surface functional groups [16]. Among biochars, the highest pH values were recorded for the CM biochars, which exhibited a pH of 9.7 (at 350°C), 10.2 (at 450°C), and 11.7 (at 750°C) (Fig 4A). In general, all biochars pyrolyzed at 750°C showed pH values higher than 8.0.

CM = chicken manure, ES = eucalyptus sawdust, CH = coffee husk, SB = sugarcane bagasse, and PB = pine bark. Uppercase letters compare pyrolysis temperatures within the same biomass and lowercase letters compare biomass at the same temperature. Bar followed by the same letter do not differ by the Tukey test at p <0.05.

Biochars of ES, SB, and PB produced at all pyrolysis temperatures used in this study showed reduced liming values (capacity to neutralize acidity) (Fig 4B), i.e, the ability to correct soil acidity should not only be evaluated by the pH value. CM and CH biochars, regardless of the pyrolysis temperature, showed higher liming values compared to the other biochars (4B), which were related to the high mineral concentration in chicken manure and coffee biochars, specifically to the calcium and potassium carbonates found in their respective X-ray diffraction spectra (Fig 2A and 2B). The presence of carbonates has been previously reported as the main alkaline components of the biochars [25]. Biochars produced from tomato [46] and paper sludge [16] showed high liming value, which was attributed to the presence of calcite and other carbonate minerals in these biochars. Thus, the biochar liming value is mainly regulated by the biochar ash content and chemical composition (especially of basic cations) and, to a much lesser extent, by the biochar pH. This characteristic should be considered when biochar is added to soils to correct soil acidity.

Electrical conductivity (EC) was mainly influenced by the biomass used in biochar production (Fig 4C). At all pyrolysis temperatures, the CH biochar showed the highest EC value, followed by the CM biochar (Fig 4C). These results, among other factors, may be due to the presence of soluble minerals, i.e., kalicinite and sylvite, in CH biochar (Fig 2B) and calcite in CM biochar (Fig 2A), and may be related to the high levels of WSIC in both biochars, as well (Fig 1B).

Biochar cation exchange capacity (CEC) values varied greatly, and are mainly dependent on the biomasses and the temperature used in the pyrolysis process (Fig 4D). CH350 and CH450 stood out from the other biochars due to the high CEC values (means of 69.7 cmolc kg-1 at 350°C and 72.0 cmolc kg-1 at 450°C) (Fig 4D). CM biochars produced at low temperatures (350°C and 450°C) also showed high CEC values (21.3 cmolc kg-1) (Fig 4D). Negative charge density on biochar surfaces produced at low temperatures is attributed to the exposure of functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, ketones, and aldehydes released by depolymerization of cellulose and lignin [47, 22, 35]. CH and CM biomasses also exhibited high K concentration, which can intercalate and cause the separation of carbon lamellae by the oxidation of cross-linking carbon atoms, resulting in formation of surface groups at the edge of the carbon lamellae [32]. ES, SB, and PB biochars shown low CEC, with mean values for biochar pyrolyzed at 350°C of 10.8, 4.6, and 2.4 cmolc kg-1, respectively (Fig 4D). An increase in pyrolysis temperature from 450°C to 750°C reduced the biochar CEC values, except for PB biochar (Fig 4D). These results were supported by the FTIR spectra shown in Fig 3, in which most of the organic group assignments and bands responsible for generating negative charges were lost, indicating the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups at most of the biochar at high temperature (750°C). Song and Guo [44] also verified that as carboxylic and phenolic group assignments disappear, the biochar CEC is lower; consequently, depending on the biomass charred, CEC is inversely correlated with pyrolysis temperature. In conclusion, biochar CEC is mainly regulated by the biomass rather than by pyrolysis temperature; however, the increase in temperature from 450°C to 750°C leads to a drastic reduction in the CEC of some biochars.

Carbon concentration, atomic ratios, and biochar FTIR fingerprints can be used as predictors of C persistence in biochars in soils. High C content, low H/C ratio, and FTIR spectrum features recorded for biochars derived from high temperatures are key indices of the aromatic character, stability against degradation in soils, and, consequently, high C residence time in biochar-treated soils [34, 6, 48]. Considering these, it is expected greater aromatic character for ES750, SB750, and PB750 than nutrient-rich biochars (S1 Table). As pointed out by Bruun et al. [34], the use of these biochars with a possible high residence time may be an important strategy to increase C sequestration in Brazilian soils, acting to offset greenhouse gas emissions.

In Brazil, agriculture is the main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Most of the N2O emissions originate from rice fields fertilized with N and from manure deposition by cattle grazing in low and intensively managed animal production systems. Feedstock type, production temperature and process, soil properties, biochar rate, and biochar N-source interactions are the dominant factors that contribute to reductions in N2O emissions from biochar-treated soils [49]. In fact, Cayuela et al. [49] reported that biochar can still effective at mitigating N2O emissions even at pyrolysis temperatures of 400–600°C (in addition to >600°C), in application rates of 1–5%, and in coarse-textured soils with water filled pore space of <80%. In addition to the already mentioned factors, the H:Corg ratio is a suitable factor to infer the capacity of biochar in reducing N2O emissions [50]. According to Cayuela et al. [50], biochar with H:Corg ratio <0.3 (i.e., biochar with high degree of polymerization and aromaticity) decreased N2O emissions by 73% while biochars with H:Corg ratio >0.5 only diminished N2O emissions by 40%. Considering only the technical aspects, most of the 750°C biochars, and especially the wood biochars produced in this study, are potential inputs for decreasing N2O emissions in crop fields, but, due to the high application rates required, biochar use to offset N2O emissions should be focused on more profitable processes (e.g., composting) instead of use in soil.

For the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions, the use of low labile C biomass pyrolyzed at >550°C is recommended [50, 51]. Based on these assumptions, sugarcane bagasse, pine bark, and eucalyptus biochars pyrolyzed at 750°C are suitable for reducing CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that the application of biochar can increase CH4 emissions [52, 53]. However, these studies were carried out in paddy soil, where species of methanogenic bacteria predominate and, thus, the addition of some biochars to the substrate creates a favorable environment for methanogenic microbial activity [52]. Therefore, it is very difficult to anticipate the role that may be played by the biochars characterized in this study in decreasing CH4 fluxes from soil to air, but wood and high-surface area biochars are potential inputs for use in soil to reduce CH4 emissions.

The labile C fraction in biochars can be easily decomposed and, in some cases, can stimulate the mineralization of native soil organic matter, through a positive priming effect [54, 33, 55, 50]. In general, these events occurred in soils treated with biochar produced at low temperature, but this condition may not be generalized. An increase in the biochar mineralization rate can be explained by the volatile material contained in the biochar, which may also be present in high concentrations in biochars produced at high temperatures [55]. Under these assumptions, chicken manure and coffee husk biochars both pyrolyzed at 750°C are not expected to increase C storage in soils due to their possible rapid decomposition in treated soils. The magnitude of volatile matter content in biochar is an important attribute to evaluate in C bioavailability and N cycling in biochar in the soil ecosystem. High aliphatic character (high O/C ratios and more intense FTIR peak) observed at low temperature (350 and 450°C) can be considered an index of biochar susceptibility to degradation by soil microorganisms, causing short-term immobilization of inorganic N in soil [33, 14]. This N immobilization may hamper the supply of N to plants in biochar-treated soils [56, 14]. Nevertheless, N immobilization can be seen as a beneficial mechanism for mitigating N2O emissions and for reducing inorganic-N leaching from soils [57, 16].

Differentiation of biochars was established by the parameters evaluated, which allowed the identification and discussion of agronomic benefits. Characterization by proximate analysis (Table 1) showed clear differentiation in ash contents among the biochar samples. In many cases, high ash content ensures biochars rich in nutrients with high alkalizing capacity [14, 58]. The high ash content was associated with alkaline chemical species, such as KHCO3 and CaCO3, as verified by XRD analysis (Fig 2). Such characteristics make chicken manure and coffee husk biochars potential materials to increase soil acidity buffering capacity and to neutralize soil acidity, which may partially replace the large amounts of limestone used to correct soil acidity in crop fields in Brazil (Fig 5). The solubilization of these alkaline chemical species can increase soil pH, decrease Al3+ toxicity, reduce Fe and Mn availability, and increase soil CEC [59, 25, 60], which may decrease the precipitation and adsorption of P [61, 62], as well as enhance the supply of Ca and K to plants. The high Ca and K contents in chicken manure and coffee husk biomass (S1 Table) can significantly replace conventional sources of K (mostly imported in Brazil) and Ca, which suggests the high agronomic value of these biochars (Fig 5). However, despite the high total concentration of these chemical elements, the availability of nutrient forms in biochars should not be neglected, since an increase in pyrolysis temperature can drastically reduce the labile P forms in biochars according to [39]. Other uses of these biochars could be for remediation of some cationic trace element found in contaminated soils due to their alkalinity and high CEC (Fig 5) [63, 45, 49].

Low—temperature biochars provided the largest CEC (chicken manure and coffee husk pyrolyzed at 350–450°C), which can make them possible to adsorb N-NH4+ up to 2.3 mg g-1 and to reduce N leaching rates [64]. Although high-surface-area biochars generated at high temperature (>600°C) usually generate low CEC biochars, the aging effect may come into play, oxidizing the organic biochar, increasing the negative charge density and increasing the formation of biochar-mineral complexes [33].

Wood- and sugarcane-derived biochars, regardless of the charring conditions, can potentially improve C storage in tropical soils (Fig 5). The agronomic value of biochars from wastes poor in nutrients is questionable since they have low CEC, and low ash contents. Charring intensity improved the potential capacity of wood and sugarcane biochars to offset GHG emissions due to their C-fixing and aromatic character. The potential of these aromatic biochars for increasing C sequestration is probably mediated by soil texture and organic matter contents. It is more plausible to use low nutrient and high C content biochars to decrease emissions of CO2 rather than N2O, due to the high biochar rates required to offset N gas emissions from soil. The potential of biochars from wood and sugarcane bagasse for remediating contaminated soils and/or increasing water retention capacity should not be overlooked. In this case, supplementary fertilization, especially with N, should be used to avoid immobilization and maintain soil fertility [65]. In Brazil, the cost associated with the use of biochars to sequester C in soils may be offset by governmental incentives such as that offered by the Brazilian government through the Low-Carbon Agriculture (Agricultura de Baixa Emissão de Carbono—ABC) Program.

The agronomic value of the biochars generated in this study is predominantly regulated by the nutrient richness of the biomass. CM and CH biochars have high agronomic value and they should be tested in crop fields in order to identify their potential for supplying K (CH and CM) and Ca (CM) to plants and for correcting soil acidity. Several experiments have been performed trying to enrich biochars with clays and minerals to modify the final characteristics of the biochars [29, 66]. With the use of chicken manure or other nutrient-rich biomasses like coffee husk, it may be possible to create biochars to reach similar results in a natural way. Among the potential uses of biochars discussed in this study, the K content in coffee husk biochars enables them to act as a slow-release K fertilizer. Considering the average coffee husk biochar yield of 63% and a mean K2O content of 16% in the final coffee husk biochars, each ton of the potential organo-mineral K biochar fertilizer produced may be sold for < US$100 per ton, considering the current cost of K2O in Brazil (US$ 0.625/kg). In short, all the aspects and possible functions of biochars in soil emphasize the fact that the “one biochar fits all approach” [65] is not an option for the main organic wastes available in Brazil and for the biochars produced in the charring conditions of this study. Following Yargicoglu et al. [67], whatever the potential agronomic or environmental use, screening of biochars is highly recommended, given the range of variability that biomass and the extent of thermal degradation may cause in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the chars produced.

In this study, the biomass source, rather than pyrolysis temperature, is the primary factor conditioning the biochar characteristics and the agronomic and environmental value of the biochar. However, pyrolysis temperature acts as a modify, changing the chemical nature and increasing the aromatic character of the organic compounds of most of the biochars investigated. In this study, characterization of the biochars was used to identify the main differences and similarities between them, offering guidelines for selecting a biomass and charring conditions to biochar end-users according to their specific soil and environmental requeriments. Biochars manufactured from ES, PB, and SB, regardless of the pyrolysis temperature employed, have potential for increasing C storage in soils, as the biochar aromatic character increases along with pyrolysis temperature. Both CH and CM biochars were also characterized by their high liming value, which make them potential materials for correcting soil acidity in crop fields. Both CH and CM biochars have a role as P and K sources for plants. High-ash biochars, such as CM and CH, produced at low-temperatures (350 and 450°C) exhibited high CEC values, which can be considered as a potential applicable material to retain nutrients. Inorganic components found in CM biochar can protect its organic compounds from degradation or hinder the charring process at 750°C. A diagram with the potential agronomic and environmental benefits of biochars is presented, and some guidelines are shown to relate the properties of biochars with their possible use. Research needs are identified and suggestions for future trials are also made.

The authors are grateful to Claudinéia Olimpia de Assis, PhD, for producing some of the biochar samples. XDR analyses were performed at XRD1 beam-line of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), which is supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications (MCTIC). This study was funded by the National Council for Technological and Scientific Development—CNPq, grants 3038592/2011-5 and 303899/2015-8 and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Education Personnel (CAPES-PROEX AUXPE 590/2014). A PhD scholarship for RRD was provided by CAPES and research scholarships for PFT and CAS were provided by CNPq. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

  1. Conceptualization: RRD CAS LCAM MASM.
  2. Data curation: RRD PFT CAS ICNAM LCAM ZMM MASM.
  3. Formal analysis: RRD CAS.
  4. Funding acquisition: RRD PFT CAS ICNAM LCAM ZMM.
  5. Investigation: RRD PFT CAS ICNAM ZMM.
  6. Methodology: RRD PFT CAS ICNAM ZMM.
  7. Project administration: RRD PFT CAS ICNAM LCAM MASM.
  8. Resources: RRD PFT CAS ICNAM LCAM ZMM.
  9. Supervision: RRD CAS LCAM MASM.
  10. Validation: RRD CAS LCAM ZMM MASM.
  11. Visualization: RRD CAS LCAM ZMM MASM.
  12. Writing – original draft: RRD CAS LCAM ZMM MASM.
  13. Writing – review & editing: RRD CAS LCAM ZMM MASM.

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Biochar comparison essay

11 May, 2017
 


Biochar comparison essay

11 May, 2017
 

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Phd Thesis On Biochar

11 May, 2017
 

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Biochar Discussion Lists; Bulletin Board; Jobs Board; Learn. Biochar FAQs; Project Profiles ; Biochar Production Technology. Open Source; Feedstocks; Production PhD Position, Biochar for carbon sequestration in soils PhD Position, Biochar for carbon sequestration in soils, AustriaFebruary 10, – Excellent Master thesis in a related field – Lab experience Biochar as a soil amendment and productivity stimulus for Wróbel-Tobiszewska, A (2014) Biochar as a soil amendment and productivity stimulus for Eucalyptus nitens plantations. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania. Expert PhD help | 100% tailored PhD services | Chat today Our world-class PhD experts provide PhD application, editing, writing, tutorial and publication consultancy services for PhD Students worldwide. Guaranteed success. Thesis – Wikipedia A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author’s research and

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2nd China-Asian Workshop on Biochar Production and Application for Green Agriculture-from …

11 May, 2017
 

The 2nd China- Asian Biochar Workshop is scheduled to take place during November 18-21, 2017. The theme of the workshop will be Biochar Production and Application for Green Agriculture-from Technology to Viable Systems. The workshop is aimed to enhance a joint exchange and sharing of the biochar developments between China and Asian countries and beyond, and an access to novel biochar technologies and viable systems for safe recycling of biowastes for green development.

The workshop is organized under the authority of China Asian cooperation project, the China State Agency of Foreign Expert Affairs and the Asian Hub of Michigan State University and Nanjing Agricultural University. And the workshop will be jointly sponsored by the Biomass and Biochar Green Technology Center, NJAU, the Asian Center of International Biochar Initiative (IBI), Jinhua Institute of Biochar Technology and Engineering as well as the hosting municipality. All the local costs will be covered for invited experts and waived for those from ASEAN countries who applied for waive (Application form attached to the announcement below).

The venue of this workshop will be in Wanda Hotel in Jinhua Municipality, Zhejiang Province, China.  Pre-registeration by sending back the form below is requested by July 31, 2017. An invitation letter for your visa application will be provided no later than 2 weeks after receiving your responses.

For more details, contact information, and the pre-registration form, see the Conference Announcement and Pre-registration Form (PDF file)

 


Community Gardens

11 May, 2017
 

Today we started the carbon/biochar and Korean Natural Farming inputs trial at our plot in the Community Gardens. Andrea and Kaat divided two beds in half. All halves received biochar (“pre-loaded” with compost — never apply pure biochar by itself!) and straw. Two of those halves (one in each bed) received the first Korean Natural Farming inputs.

According to Wikipedia, Korean natural farming (KNF) takes advantage of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) (bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoa) to produce fertile soils that yield high output without the use of herbicides, pesticides, fungicides or industrial fertilizers. A result is improvement in soil health, improving loaminess, tilth and structure, and attracting large numbers of earthworms. This practice has spread to over 30 countries, and is used by individuals and commercial farms.

In Wayland, the main student and advocate of KNF is Kaat,who has studied the techniques, makes the inputs herself (this is fundamental to KNF: all inputs can be made at home from “indigenous” materials), and is in the second year of applying them. Last year she saw great improvement, especially in her berry bushes and fruit trees, but of course that is anecdotal. She is for that reason very curious about this side by side trial.

The first inputs, which aim to load the soil with the right organisms, were Kaat’s home-made Fish Amino Acids (FAA) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and EM-1 (not home-made and not traditionally a KNF input, but entirely in line with KNF). The first seedlings (hardened-off broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Tom Thumb lettuce, arugula and pac choi will receive more FAA, as well as Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ) and Oriental Herb Nutrient (OHN) once they’re over the transplant shock.

The idea of the trial arose when NOFA Mass invited farmers and gardeners to participate in biochar/no biochar trials. According to NOFA Mass, for centuries, biochar has been used throughout the world as a natural and easily-obtained soil amendment that builds microbial communities and long-term fertility in soils. Created through a process known as pyrolysis, biochar adds stable carbon to the soil, functioning to sequester atmospheric carbon, retain moisture, sweeten soil, and build rich habitat for microbes, nematodes, and fungi that aid in plant nutrient availability.  (More here).

All those sounded good to the Transition Wayland Community Gardens group. They accepted the invitation and worked with NOFA to fine-tune the experiments. One group will test biochar / no biochar in the two established raspberry beds. Kaat and Andrea wanted to try annual veggies, but they decided to take it one step further. They asked, what if the biochar — also called “condominiums for your micro-organisms” — doesn’t work so well, or even at all, if there are no micro-organisms? You can build it, but what if they dont come? So let’s see what happens if you add the char and the micro-organisms. A good way to do that is through KNF.

Keep an eye on this space to see!

 


Download Biochar For Environmental Management Science Technology And Implementation …

12 May, 2017
 

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Biochar Market Key Players, Product and Production Information a

12 May, 2017
 

Biochar Market size is projected to experience significant growth prospects from 2016 to 2021. The objective of this report is to provide a detailed analysis of the Biochar industry and its impact based on applications and on different geographical regions; strategically analyze the growth trends, future prospects; R&D spending and trail investments.

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Search outside of DiVA

12 May, 2017
 

Onsite wastewater treatment systems in Sweden are getting old and many of them lack sufficient phosphorus, nitrogen and organic carbon reduction. Biochar is a material that has been suggested as an alternative to the common sand or soil used in onsite wastewater treatment systems. The objective of this study was to compare the phosphorus removal capacity between three different modified biochars and one untreated biochar in a batch adsorption and column filter experiment. The modifications included impregnation of ferric chloride (FeCl3), calcium oxide (CaO) and untreated biochar mixed with the commercial phosphorus removal product Polonite. To further study nitrogen removal a filter with one vertical unsaturated section followed by one saturated horizontal flow section was installed.

The batch adsorption experiment showed that CaO impregnated biochar had the highest phosphorus adsorption, i.e. of 0.30 ± 0.03 mg/g in a 3.3 mg/L phosphorus solution. However, the maximum adsorption capacity was calculated to be higher for the FeCl3 impregnated biochar (3.21 ± 0.01 mg/g) than the other biochar types. The pseudo 2nd order kinetic model proved better fit than the pseudo 1st order model for all biochars which suggest that chemical adsorption was important. Phosphorus adsorption to the untreated and FeCl3 impregnated biochar fitted the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model best. This indicates that the adsorption can be modeled as a homogenous monolayer process. The CaO impregnated and Polonite mixed biochars fitted the Freundlich adsorption model best which is an indicative of heterogenic adsorption.

CaO and FeCl3 impregnated biochars had the highest total phosphorus (Tot-P) reduction of 90 ± 8 % and 92 ± 4 % respectively. The Polonite mixed biochar had a Tot-P reduction of 65 ± 14 % and the untreated biochar had a reduction of 43 ± 24 %. However, the effluent of the CaO impregnated biochar filter acquired a red-brown tint and a precipitation that might be an indication of incomplete impregnation of the biochar. The FeCl3 effluent had a very low pH. This can be a problem if the material is to be used in full-scale treatment system together with biological treatment for nitrogen that require a higher pH.

The nitrogen removal filter showed a total nitrogen removal of 62 ± 16 % which is high compared to conventional onsite wastewater treatment systems. Batch adsorption and filter experiment confirms impregnated biochar as a promising replacement or addition to onsite wastewater treatment systems for phosphorus removal. However the removal of organic carbon (as chemical oxygen demand COD) in the filters was lower than expected and further investigation of organic carbon removal needs to be studied to see if these four biochars are suitable in real onsite wastewater treatment systems.

Många av Sveriges små avloppssystem är gamla och saknar tillräcklig rening av fosfor, kväve och organiskt material. Följden är förorenat grundvatten samt övergödning i hav, sjöar och vattendrag. Lösningar för att förbättra fosfor- och kvävereningen finns på marknaden men många har visat brister i rening och robusthet. Biokol är ett material som har föreslagits som ersättare till jord eller sand i mark och infiltrationsbäddar. Denna studie syftade till att i skak- och kolonnfilterexperiment jämföra fosforreduktion mellan tre modifierade biokol och ett obehandlat biokol. Modifieringen av biokolet innebar impregnering med järnklorid (FeCl3), kalciumoxid (CaO) samt blandning med Polonite som är en kommersiell produkt för fosforrening. För att undersöka förbättring av kväverening installerades även ett filter med obehandlat biokol där en vertikal aerob modul kombinerades med en efterföljande horisontell anaerob modul.

Skakstudien där biokolen skakades i 3.3 mg/L fosforlösning visade att adsorptionen var högst i det CaO-impregnerade biokolet, 0.3 ± 0.03 mg/g. Den maximala potentiella fosforadsorptionen beräknades dock vara högst för biokolet som impregnerats med FeCl3, 3.21 ± 0.01 mg/g. Skakförsöket visade också att fosforadsorptionen var främst kemisk då adsorptionen passade bättre med pseudo andra ordningens modell än pseudo första. Adsorption av fosfor på obehandlat biokol och FeCl3 impregnerat biokol modellerades bäst med Langmuir modellen, vilket tyder på en homogen adsorption. Det Polonite-blandade biokolet och CaO-impregnerade biokolet modellerades bäst med Freundlich modellen vilket är en indikation på en heterogen adsorptionsprocess.

Biokol impregnerat med CaO och FeCl3 gav de högsta totalfosforreduktionerna på 90 ± 8 % respektive 92 ± 4 %. Biokolet som var blandat med Polonite hade en reduktion på 65 ± 14 % och det obehandlade biokolet 43 ± 24 %. Ett problem med filtratet från CaO-filtret var att det fick en rödbrun färg samt en fällning vilket kan ha berott på ofullständig pyrolysering och impregnering. Filtratet från det FeCl3 impregnerade biokolet hade mycket lågt pH vilket kan vara problematiskt om mikrobiologisk tillväxt i filtret för rening av kväve och organiskt material vill uppnås.

Filtret för kväverening gav en total kvävereduktion på 62 ± 16 % vilket är högre än kommersiella system. Resultaten från skak och filterstudien visade på att impregnerade biokol kan ge en förbättrad fosforrening om de skulle användas i små avloppssystem. Rening av organiskt material, kemisk syreförbrukning (COD), var dock låg i alla filter och behöver studeras ytterligare för att avgöra om dessa biokol är lämpliga för småskalig avloppsvattenrening.


Biochar's long-term benefits to soil proven

12 May, 2017
 

AFTER 10 years of intensive research, Southern Cross University and Department of Primary Industries scientists have for the first time quantified the long-term accumulation of carbon in soil following a single application of biochar.

The research, recognised and published in the international Nature Climate Change Journal, was conducted on 36 plots at the Wollongbar Primary Industries Institute.

Biochar derived from eucalypt residues was applied in 2006 into a pasture soil managed for intensive dairy production, with periodic cuts to simulate grazing.

Some plots had biochar with the green waste, others with cow manure and some with and without lime.

The lime – and the manure – increased the production of rye grass, which was sown, as on a normal dairy farm, every March/April.

The project’s leader, DPI researcher and SCU adjunct professor Lukas Van Zwieten said the research threw up some unexpected results.

“We immediately saw an increase in soil carbon from the biochar, as expected, but what we didn’t expect was that soil carbon content continued to increase.

“This research demonstrates the ongoing benefits of biochar in farming systems to improve pastures and grasslands and increase farmers’ production and profitability,” Dr Van Zwieten said.

Biochar is produced through a process known as pyrolysis, which makes the organic carbon more stable to degradation.

Dr Van Zwieten said the researchers found that biochar enhanced the below-ground recovery of new root-derived carbon by 20% – that is, more of the carbon photosynthesised by plants was retained in the biochar-amended soil.

“Biochar accelerated the formation of soil microaggregates via interactions between organic matter and soil minerals, thus stabilising the root-derived carbon,” Dr Van Zwieten said.

That is, the improved structure of the soil protected the naturally occurring carbon, as well as the carbon added, said Southern Cross University’s associate professor Terry Rose, a co-author of the study.

“Importantly, the biochar also slowed down the natural breakdown of native soil organic carbon by more than 5%,” Dr Rose said.

The increased microbial activity and improved physical structure of the soil would also ultimately improve the effectiveness of fertiliser use, Dr Van Zweiten said, making the application of biochar particularly beneficial for high-end, intensive crop production.

NSW DPI technical specialist Annette Cowie said the new findings were important for managing climate change, and for global CO2 accounting.

Application of biochar to soils could increase soil carbon sequestration and both help stabilise atmospheric CO2 concentrations and improve soil health and sustainability, she said.

The Australia New Zealand Biochar Conference will be held from August 10-12 at the Murwillumbah Civic and Cultural Centre and Showgrounds.

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Applying biochar-rock mixture to old standing trees in Stockholm

12 May, 2017
 

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NABARD & SKAUST-J organise Training programme on Climate Change and Mitigation Strategies

13 May, 2017
 


What Is Biochar How To Make Why You Shouldnt Use Raw Biochar

13 May, 2017
 

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Study on adsorption characteristics of biochar on heavy metals in soil

13 May, 2017
 

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Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering


Biochar – Return to Ancient Wisdom | James Lovelock

14 May, 2017
 


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Glimpse into the miraculous potential of Biochar as a significant solution to climate change, soil degradation, drought, slash and burn deforestation, peak phosphorus and the global food crisis.

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Considering Biochar Burning Methods Conversion vs Context

14 May, 2017
 

wmAUDeCe/PC0SpSBC @ Mon, 15 May 2017 05:54:16 GMT

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Interra and the pursuit of soil magic via affordable biochar

14 May, 2017
 

Around this time of the year, driving southeast out of Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley towards the Mexican border is an exercise in slow pyrolysis — the temperature soars from time to time into the low 120s and breathing in the gaseous fire they use for breathing air, you start to feel the oxygen debt. Try and golf in this weather and by the 18th fairway you’ll feel like rubber and swinging anything heavier than a seven-iron isn’t in the cards. There are moments when you think that, if you don’t find a roadside oasis soon, you’ll become a neatly-piled up heap of desiccated dust.

Congratulations, you’ve become human biochar.

The world of feedstocks is watching biochar very carefully these days, and for good reason. Although it might feel quite a long ways upstream from the world of making and upgrading liquid fuels — affordable, sustainable feedstock is the pathway to biohappiness, and in a world where competition for waste feedstocks is rising, there’s more demand for calories and water aggregation is under stress — agricultural yields and water efficiency is under the microscope for everyone proposing to use biomass.

Meanwhile, we’d also like to reduce atmospheric carbon, in case you haven’t heard.

All of those factors are powering the whispering around biochar these days. Will it work? Is it affordable? Companies like Cool Planet are working hard on it.

In a perfect world, biochar checks off an awful lot of boxes. Sequesters carbon from the original biomass and packs it permanently into the soil. Improves, obviously, soil carbon. Depending on the configuration of the biochar particles, it can assist greatly with water and nutrient retention. Check check check.

The biochar story is a romantic one — usually the tale begins back in the ancient Amazon, where the tribes developed a soil-improving method of building up soil carbon through what is called terra preta. It has enough “Seven Wonders of the World” performance to it, that researchers have been scratching their heads for decades trying to exactly reproduce it. Most efforts are based in pyrolysis — since slow cooking of biomass is undoubtedly the approach these ancient Amazonians took.

In recent years, a number of players have popped up in the chase from biochar. Some comes from the energy side and have embraced biochar as a valuable first product with an enthusiastic supporter base. Others have come to biochar from the sustainable grower community.

Which brings us to Interra Energy and its Interra Preta product.

In January 2015, a group of three companies received grants from the California Energy Commission towards the development of modular bioenergy systems for “forest/urban interface areas”, and biochar figured in one of the winning entries.

The CEC focus was improving the financial performance of small waste-to-energy systems that have to a great extent in the California market lived off tipping fees from accepting construction and yard waste and chipping and grinding them down for power gen — as an alternative to shoveling more waste into landfills.

The winning technology in question is Interra Energy, which has developed a carbon-negative system and that is because of the focus on generating biochar — at affordable costs. Some 75 percent of the energy coming in to the project becomes system energy or syngas used for power gen — but the slow pyrolysis used by this technology has been supporting 23-28 percent biochar yields.

It’s the second grant for Interra from CEC. Another one came in during the 2013 round, for development of the initial pilot-scale reactor.

The goal for this modular system is a 4 ton per day commercial unit that would produce roughly 1 ton per day of biochar that could be commercially sold at around $800 per tom. That’s transformatively lower than the prices generally seen for biochar — even in the California market where water is scarce and crops such as grapes, strawberries and almonds have exotic revenues per acre.

“As long as biochar hits quality metrics, we are going to be able to manufacture at a price much lower  than competitors,” said Interra CFO Kenny Key, in an interview with The Digest. “At a commercial price of $600-800 per ton, there would be movement from the major agricultural players, Right now the larger ventures are selling at around $1200, and some over $1500 per ton, and it’s difficult for large-scale agriculture to get behind biochar at that price.”

That 4-ton per day system —  which is the next step in Interra’s evolution as it transitions from a testing-size 2 ton per day system — would be enough for the company’s first commercial project to be cash positive, and that prospect has the company out in the market raising a financing round that could range from $2 to $4 million for equipment, site upgrading at the company’s proposed first commercial site in California’s Imperial Valley, and for working capital.

The range in this financing round stems from an opportunity to acquire an established chipping and grinding operation, which could be partly debt financed — and which would provide the front end for the project as well as the site for the first commercial project.

For the first three projects, the company is expecting that it will be in a build, own and operate business model — as the technology is proven to potential licensors — long-term, the expectation is to move towards the more capital light licensing model.

It’s pressurized, slow pyrolysis. The reactor is pressurized and in the reactor test runs that were set up under the California Energy Commission grant, the reactor was run at 20, 35 and 45 psi.

The chipped material enters the reactor via what is commonly known as a knife gate among those who have worked in the pulp-and-paper industry — the biomass has been heat dried down from an initial 30 percent water content to something in the 10-15 percent range. Once running, the biomass provides all the system energy — and residence time is in the 45-60 minute range. So think in terms of a larger reactor than we would see in fast pyrolysis — as more than 250 pounds of material are going into the reactor, per batch.

We don’t see slow pyrolysis systems very often — they produce minimum bio-oil content and interest from the energy community has focused on the higher value and utility in the liquids. And we generally don’t see much of the screw-conveyor auger systems. So, Interra’s approach is a novelty — although there’s nothing particularly daunting about an auger screw conveyor to move material into a reactor, or the scientific world of slow pyrolysis, which in some ways isn’t completely different to braising a meal in a pressure cooker.

Recycling energy is a key feature however — capturing waste heat to drive the drying of biomass prior to entering the reactor — for example.

The final pressure that the system will run at — that awaits the data from all the configurations that were run under the CEC grant. Ultimately, the reactor design could support as much as 100 psi, but the current design iteration has seen just enough seal damage from running biomass through the knife gate that operation at above 75 psi is likely not feasible without a design revision.

Here’s the basic Interra claim: “comparing to traditional gasification systems of similar scale (four tons/hour), Interra’s system is approximately 1/3 the capital to build and has the potential to produce 3 to 24x the operational profit.”

Well, it’s an early-stage company and has a ways to go to prove that out, but it gets your attention.

The CEC grant was specific to forest and urban woody waste — so, the 27 different configurations tested to date have featured that feedstock set. Ultimately, the system is designed to be more feedstock-agnostic than that and would support the use, for example, of manure resources at a large ag licensor — a little more drying there and costly in terms of the energy inputs, but feasible.

The mystery to some extent is in the biochar’s performance. Given that the focal point in this CEC grant-supported set of configurations has been validating the design and measuring yield, we are about two months from wrap-up in this round from having biochar over at an external lab to analyze and compare in terms of product quality. Following that analysis, next steps would be to take the top candidates into field testing to understand how it performs as a soil enhancer. So,. we’ll be standing by on that.

The company is the brainchild of founder Thomas Del Monte, who was the co-founder of the Journal of Climate & Energy Law while at University of Sam Diego, and was president of the Environmental Law Society there, stemming from a “strong interest in green construction practices and similar industries.”

He researched California energy law and policy as applied to manure management practices using anaerobic digesters to capture methane to create electricity. During his research, he stumbled upon an internet article about pyrolysis and biochar — as a carbon negative method of producing energy.

In May 2012, Interra launched its first line of biochar enriched soil products. The Interra Preta line currently features both a biochar enriched soil amendment and a biochar enriched potting soil.

But expansion of the company beyond terra preta enthusiasts is predicated on deployment of this commercial-scale system.

To that end, the “large, California-based agricultural partner” working with Interra is not disclosed at this time, but for sure Interra has been working with San Diego State, which has an Imperial  Valley campus at Brawley, which lies southeast of Palm Springs and the Salton Sea and is roughly 24 miles north of Calexico, which is the “north of the border” counterpart to Mexicali.

One more round of funding is probably enough at this stage to see if Interra can translate promise into “promise realized” — but progress has been made, that’s for sure. The financial upside and low “cash-to-breakeven” makes this a tempting target for those who find the allures of $800 biochar more compelling than $450 per ton biocrudes. We’ll be watching the results out of the lab to see if this venture can make a biochar that can unlock, through a combination of price and performance, the interest of larger-scale agricultural ventures in California.

Lower inputs mean more sustainable feedstock and more of it. And that’s good for all who find themselves downstream.


Free Workshop: Biochar with Michael Low!

14 May, 2017
 

The Boston Food Forest coalition is a network of neighborhood-based, publicly accessible food gardens located throughout Boston. The gardens include newly planted sites, as well as established legacy orchards. Newly planted sites will use permaculture, a decision-making system based on the patter…

Part of our FREE WORKSHOP SERIES at the Zoo!!!!

(This means you get FREE admission to the zoo, and there is no cost to attend the event. No RSVP required, but please click *Going* if you plan to attend!)

Come learn all about biochar with Michael Low from Vermont Biochar! You’ll have a chance to buy some at the end if you’d like to take it home to your own garden.


Benefits of biochar, dung beetles and earthworms in soils

14 May, 2017
 

*Pic: Expert on earthworms and dung beetles, Dr Graeme Richardson will present at Exeter on 20th July.

What’s happening beneath our soils will be the topic of discussion at a workshop held on 20th July at Exeter.

Run under the banner of Backyard to Broadacres, the topic will interest large and medium sized farming operations through to smaller life stylers, horticulturists and gardeners.

Program coordinator, Greg Lundstrom from Tamar NRM said that “Attendees will see the benefits of putting dung beetles and earthworms to work in their pastures and gardens”. “We have coupled this with a biochar making demonstration, where you will see what biochar can do for all scales of operations.”

“We are delighted to have two experts in their respective fields who, through practical demonstration, will show soil forming and soil improvement methods.” Mr. Lundstrom said.

The day will start at Tresca Community Centre with agronomist Dr. Graeme Stevenson, author of ” Ruminations of a Poo-ologist: Native and Introduced Dung Beetles in Tasmania” and “Earthworms in Tasmanian Agriculture”, monitoring what worms are present on the neighbouring farm. Dr. Stevenson is the former senior research officer with the Tasmanian Agricultural Department.

A practical biochar making session will follow, discussing its benefits in utilising waste stream products to improve soil fertility and reduce the risk of waste into the environment. This session will be led by owner of Terra-Preta Developments and biochar producer Mr. Frank Strie.

This “Backyards to Broadacres” workshop is the fifth in a series of agriculturally focussed events aimed at providing regionally relevant information for sustainable farming. Funding is provided through the federal government’s sustainable agriculture small grants round.

It is important to register for catering purposes phoning Tamar NRM on 6323 3310 or email .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address) //’;l[1]=’a’;l[2]=’/’;l[3]=”;l[35]='”‘;l[36]=’ 117′;l[37]=’ 97′;l[38]=’ 46′;l[39]=’ 118′;l[40]=’ 111′;l[41]=’ 103′;l[42]=’ 46′;l[43]=’ 115′;l[44]=’ 97′;l[45]=’ 116′;l[46]=’ 46′;l[47]=’ 110′;l[48]=’ 111′;l[49]=’ 116′;l[50]=’ 115′;l[51]=’ 101′;l[52]=’ 99′;l[53]=’ 110′;l[54]=’ 117′;l[55]=’ 97′;l[56]=’ 108′;l[57]=’ 64′;l[58]=’ 109′;l[59]=’ 114′;l[60]=’ 110′;l[61]=’ 114′;l[62]=’ 97′;l[63]=’ 109′;l[64]=’ 97′;l[65]=’ 116′;l[66]=’:’;l[67]=’o’;l[68]=’t’;l[69]=’l’;l[70]=’i’;l[71]=’a’;l[72]=’m’;l[73]='”‘;l[74]=’=’;l[75]=’f’;l[76]=’e’;l[77]=’r’;l[78]=’h’;l[79]=’a ‘;l[80]=’= 0; i=i-1){ if (l[i].substring(0, 1) == ‘ ‘) output += “&#”+unescape(l[i].substring(1))+”;”; else output += unescape(l[i]); } document.getElementById(‘eeEncEmail_A0n6u6Wy82’).innerHTML = output; //]]> or go to the website: http://www.tamarnrm.com.au for more details.

Thursday, 20th July 2017
Tresca Community Centre and visits to
local farms and garden operations
Benefits of Biochar, Beetles and Worms in
Sustainable Farming Systems
Topic will cover: Sustainable agriculture, small scale farming, the benefits of putting dung beetles and worms to work in your pastures and gardens, biochar for all scales of operations, making biochar (practical demonstration – afternoon visit to Frank & Karin Strie’s property).
Date: Thursday, 20th July 2017
Time: 9.30am to 3.30 pm
Where: Tresca Community Centre, Exeter & Farm visit
Presenters: Agronomist Dr. Graeme Stevenson (Author of ” Ruminations of a Poo-ologist: Native and Introduced Dung Beetles in Tasmania” and “Earthworms in Tasmanian Agriculture” and a former senior research officer with the Tasmanian Agricultural Department.
Frank Strie, Master Forester and owner of Terra-Preta Developments (Black Soil Developments) bio biochar producer to discuss the uses of Biochar, the upcycling of bio mass and use of and waste stream product and manures to improve soil fertility and reduce risk of waste into environment.
FREE EVENT

Other Workshops by Tamar NRM:
WORKSHOP / FIELD DAY – Data to Decisions
Date: Tues 23rd May – Venue: Winkleigh Hall
Presenters: From Meat and Livestock Australia, RMCG and TP Jones & Co.
RMCG in collaboration with Tamar NRM, to deliver 1 full day workshop on beef and sheep. This workshop is focussing on production data management and associated decision making.

FIELD DAY – Pasture Trials for Better Pasture Management
Date: Friday 2nd June – Venue: “Greenhythe” at East Arm, East Tamar (near Hillwood)
Presenters: Peter Ball (Extensive Agriculture Centre, Industry Development and Extension Leader, Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture), Corey Hogarth (Senior Agronomist TP Jones).
Collaborating Organisations: East Tamar Landcare Group, Tamar NRM, TFGA (Tamar Valley Branch), & Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture.
Assess the Pasture Trial Sites, and answers the question “What to do with pastures between now and summer”.

*Greg Lundstrom is Program Co-ordinator at Tamar NRM

We have two worm farms which have improved the quality of our sandy soil no end. Flush the worms and they provide you with nutritious ‘worm juice’…wonderful for fertilizing pots etc. etc. Worm farms are a wonderful way of composting and every so often it is necessary to transfer some of the composted soil to the garden. And worms will eat leftover food, tea leaves, coffee grounds, soaked cardboard, lint from the vacuum cleaner etc. What wonderful animals they are!

We have a compost bin-no bottom opening flap -so I just dig around under every so often and pull out a couple of shovels of…stuff!
The bin has been in the same place -on soil- for over thirty years and is always full And although we place all kitchen waste and garden shreddings in it- it never overfills- just stays…full.
.

This is the remarkable success story by Hans-Peter Schmidt, the Ithaka Institute for Carbon Strategies, and his Nepal project team:

https://www.biochar-journal.org/en/ct/87-Biochar-Based-Afforestation-Award

Biochar Based Afforestation Award

by Suyesh Prajapati and Bishnu H. Pandit

Building resilient village economies through biochar based organic fertilization in afforestation and ‘fair trade carbon farming’ offsets:

The biochar based afforestation project led by Ithaka Nepal in partnership with MinErgy was selected as one of the most successful existing climate adaptation projects in Nepal and has been awarded the prestigious Adaptation at Scale, Protsahan Prize. This prize is a UK Aid global funded initiative that aims to recognize successful climate change adaptation initiatives, and reward innovative scale-up plans. Out of 59 applicants, 15 climate adaptation projects were selected as finalist and have been awarded with the stage 1 Protsahan Prize. …

… As a result, youth and economically active members from the first 25 households who had migrated to cities have returned home and started their own afforestation projects in the hope of earning more income and to live with their families. Due to the success of the initial phase of the project an additional 41 farmers from Ratanpur and 20 farmers from Jumdanda, Bandipur have since joined the biochar based afforestation campaign.

The Ithaka and MinErgy consortium plans to scale-up the concept in three more villages with a goal of planting 50,000 forest garden trees with organic biochar based substrates in 2017. Also, we plan to establish a knowledge management hub in Ratanpur for sharing and disseminating information on organic farming based on the use of biochar substrates.“

Very recent presentation:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0l-SvaimTK0

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Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science

15 May, 2017
 

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Bin Weevils – Biochar Central

15 May, 2017
 

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16 May, 2017
 


Global Biochar Market 2017 – BioChar Products, Agri-Tech Producers, Hawaii Biochar, Pacific …

16 May, 2017
 

Biochar Market analyzed the Industry region, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc. In the end, the report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis to 2022

The recent report on Biochar market throws light on the various factors governing the market across the globe. The report, titled Biochar assesses the growth of the Biochar market and estimates the valuation of the overall market by the end of the forecast period. The report provides an overview of the market and lists down the key drivers and restraints which will affect the market during the forecast horizon. Analysis of Porter’s Five Forces on Biochar market in the world has been mentioned in the report. The report also compiles insightful information about the key players in the market.

The report segments the Biochar market in the globe on the basis of product types and end-use application segments. The report analyzes the entire value chain of the Biochar market and forecasts the market size and revenue to be generated by each of the segments. Various micro- and macro-economic factors governing the global Biochar market has been mentioned in the report. In globe, the present slow growth of the economy and the impact of the government’s latest initiatives have been taken into account while forecasting the growth of the Biochar market in the region.

The report discusses in details about the vendor landscape of the Biochar market. The market has been analyzed on the basis of market attractiveness and investment feasibility. The report lists down the key players in the Biochar market and provides crucial information about them such as business overview, revenue segmentation, and product offerings. Through SWOT analysis, the report analyses the growth of the key players during the forecast horizon.

Request for Sample Report: http://www.fiormarkets.com/report-detail/48763/request-sample

The report determines the leading players in the global market. The company profiles of the major participants operating in the global Biochar market have been reviewed in this study.


Master's Theses (2009 -)

16 May, 2017
 

Home > Dissertations, Theses, and Professional Projects > theses (2009 -) > 394

Biosolids-Derived Biochar for Micropollutant Removal from Wastewater

Spring 2017

Thesis

Master of Science (MS)

Civil and Environmental Engineering

McNamara, Patrick J.

Zitomer, Daniel H.

Mayer, Brooke K.

Trace organic compounds including antibiotics, hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products are discharged to the environment with liquid and solid effluent streams from water resource recovery facilities. These compounds are referred to as micropollutants, and can have negative impacts in receiving waters. Current wastewater treatment processes are not specifically designed to remove micropollutants, and many of these compounds are recalcitrant to conventional treatment technologies. Triclosan (TCS) was selected as a representative micropollutant in this study due to frequent detection in liquid effluents, residual biosolids, and surface waters. Pyrolysis – the thermochemical decomposition of organic matter at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen – of wastewater biosolids is an emerging sludge management technique that can produce energetic by-products including biochar, py-oil, and py-gas. Biosolids-derived biochar is a carbon-rich material that is growing in popularity due to its beneficial use as a soil amendment and adsorbent. The objective of this research was to determine if biosolids-derived biochar could be implemented in flow-through columns as a polishing step at the end of wastewater treatment to remove micropollutants. Column adsorption experiments were conducted to determine the impact of pH, flow rate, organic micropollutants, inorganic nutrients, and secondary wastewater effluent on the removal of TCS via biosolids-derived biochar adsorbents. Results demonstrated that changes in pH from 7 to 8.5 do not affect TCS removal. Increased removal of TCS was observed at lower flow rates (2.6 gpm/ft2) compared to higher flow rates (10.3 gpm/ft2), presumably due to shorter empty bed contact time. Inorganic nutrients, ammonium and phosphate, decreased triclosan adsorption to biochar. Also, the presence of the organic micropollutants 17β-estradiol and sulfamethoxazole in solution decreased the adsorption of triclosan to biochar. In wastewater, triclosan was efficiently removed by adsorption biosolids-derived biochar, but exhibited decreased removal rates and adsorption capacity due to the presence of organic matter relative to Milli-Q water. Column adsorption experiments with commercial adsorbents were conducted to compare triclosan removal with biosolids-derived biochar. Activated carbon (CF300-AC) demonstrated higher adsorption capacity for triclosan compared to biosolids-derived biochar, but biosolids-derived biochar was superior to the pine-wood biochar (BN-biochar). This study demonstrated that biosolids-derived biochar can remove triclosan from water and wastewater in continuous flow-through columns, and could be implemented as a tertiary treatment technology to remove micropollutants. Future pilot-scale studies should be conducted with biosolids-derived biochar adsorbents to determine the overall feasibility of implementing biochar filtration processes at water resource recovery facilities.

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Biochar business plan

16 May, 2017
 

Biochar can be produced using many different raw materials, from agricultural waste to timber scraps. Theres huge opportunity for new business growth, with an ample supply of raw material. Stockholm, Sweden has a new project to reduce Christmas tree and yard waste through production of biochar, a charcoaltype product. Tags: climate change, research, rodale institute, soil health, sustainability. 19 Responses to Reversing Climate Change Achievable by Farming Organically The forecast period for biochar market covered in this report lies from 2014 to 2020. Lessons and Projects on Biochar for K12 Students and Teachers (International Biochar Initiative) chimney connected to a flue constructed beneath the pile and adoption of a circular ground plan. Jun 09, 2014The Philippines has been blessed and endowed with rich and abundant natural resources that we can use to thrive in the agricultural industry and become a. The State of the Biochar Industry Report. Successful commercialization of biochar systems will take many different pathways depending on desired outcomes, local. Locking carbon away for decades could be as simple as spreading biochar on farm fields. Students Win Grant to Develop Biochar Business. Biochar, a charcoallike substance, is a product of the pyrolysis. the company had to make a presentation and discuss its business plan. Airex Energy Canada based biochar and equipment producer; ArSta Eco India based technology company; America Sequesters CO2 U. In addition to Biocoal, we recently announced that we are expanding our business model to include the production of a product called Biochar to be marketed to. US Composting Council 4th Cultivating Community Composting Forum, Part 1. COMMUNITY COMPOSTING: DISTRIBUTED, DIVERSE, AND GROWING Biochar Application to Soils A Critical Scientific Review of Effects on Soil Properties, Processes and Functions F. Cool Planet: can biochar fertilize soil and help fight climate change? Earth insight Leaked IPCC climate plan to worsen global warming ecologists. Biochar may represent the single most important initiative for humanitys environmental future. The biochar approach provides a uniquely powerful solution, for. SocialEnvironmental Entrepreneurial Development (SEED) program Biochar Effect Economy: Culture Industry (BEECI) (Sync with BUSY) a businesslike manner, to ensure sustainability and resilience (walking the talk of Biochar really). Accutest Laboratories is an environmental testing laboratory, provides a full range of environmental analytical services to industrial, and. When organic matter is turned into biochar, the CO2 contained within the plant is converted into solid carbon. In a recent interview, President Obama spoke out in favor of a plan. In Greening Australias plan, these mixed native species tree plantations are grown specifically for the purpose of burning. The gasification process turns woody biomass into energy while sequestering carbon as biochar. Summary of Policy and Technical Program Revisions to the IBI Biochar Standards V2. Comparision between IBI Biochar Standards V2. 0 and the European Biochar Certificate V4.


Adam O'Toole

16 May, 2017
 

This “Cited by” count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. The ones marked * may be different from the article in the profile.

The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article.


The Biochar Solution: Carbon Farming and Climate Change (repost)

16 May, 2017
 


Biochar to benefit ten years on | The Land

17 May, 2017
 

NSW DPI senior principal research scientist, Adjunct Professor Southern Cross University and project leader, Dr Van Zwieten has led decade long research into biochar as a soil ammendment. A single application of biochar can enhance below-ground recovery of new root-derived carbon by a remarkable 20 per cent, say North coast researchers publishing decade long findings in the Nature Climate Change journal

via Biochar to benefit ten years on | The Land — Plant Health Solutions


Biochar research paper

17 May, 2017
 

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Ali Shafaqat

17 May, 2017
 

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Cadmium (Cd) uptake and accumulation in crop plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the main concerns for food security worldwide. A field experiment was done to investigate the effects of limestone, lignite, and biochar on growth, physiology and Cd uptake in wheat and rice under rotation irrigated with raw effluents. Initially, each treatment was applied alone at 0.1% and combined at 0.05% each and wheat was grown in the field and then, after wheat harvesting, rice was grown in the same field without additional application of amendments. Results showed that the amendments applied increased the grain and straw yields as well as gas exchange attributes compared to the control. In both crops, highest Cd concentrations in straw and grains and total uptake were observed in control treatments while lowest Cd concentrations was observed in limestone + biochar treatment. No Cd concentrations were detected in wheat grains with the application of amendments except limestone (0.1%). The lowest Cd harvest index was observed in limestone + biochar and lignite + biochar treatments for wheat and rice respectively. Application of amendments decreased the AB-DTPA extractable Cd in the soil while increasing the Cd immobilization index after each crop harvest. The benefit-cost ratio and Cd contents in plants revealed that limestone + biochar treatment might be an effective amendment for increasing plant growth with lower Cd concentrations. – Source :PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in vegetables is an important environmental issue that threatens human health globally. Understanding the response of vegetables to Cd stress and applying management strategies may help to reduce the Cd uptake by vegetables. The aim of the present review is to summarize the knowledge concerning the uptake and toxic effects of Cd in vegetables and the different management strategies to combat Cd stress in vegetables. Leafy vegetables grown in Cd contaminated soils potentially accumulate higher concentrations of Cd, posing a threat to food commodities. The Cd toxicity decreases seed germination, growth, biomass and quality of vegetables. This reduces the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and alteration in mineral nutrition. Toxicity of Cd toxicity also interferes with vegetable biochemistry causing oxidative stress and resulting in decreased antioxidant enzyme activities. Several management options have been employed for the reduction of Cd uptake and toxicity in vegetables. The exogenous application of plant growth regulators, proper mineral nutrition, and the use of organic and inorganic amendments might be useful for reducing Cd toxicity in vegetables. The use of low Cd accumulating vegetable cultivars in conjunction with insolubilizing amendments and proper agricultural practices might be a useful technique for reducing Cd exposure in the food chain. – Source :PubMed

Soil degradation by salinity and accumulation of trace elements such as cadmium (Cd) in the soils are expected to become one of the most critical issues hindering sustainable production and feeding the increasing population. Biochar (BC) has been known to protect the plants against soil salinity and heavy metal stress. A soil culture study was performed to evaluate the effect of BC on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, biomass, and reducing Cd and sodium (Na) uptake grown in Cd-contaminated saline soil under ambient conditions. Soil salinity decreased the plant growth, biomass, grain yield, chlorophyll contents, and gas exchange parameters and caused oxidative stress in plants compared with Cd stress alone. Salt stress increased Cd and Na uptake and reduced the potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) uptake by plants. AB-DTPA-extractable Cd and soil electrical conductivity (ECe) increased under salt stress compared to the soil without NaCl stress. Biochar application improved the plant growth and reduced the Cd and Na uptake except in plants treated with higher BC and salt stress (5.0% BC + 50 mM NaCl). Biochar application reduced the oxidative stress in plants and modified the antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced the bioavailable Cd under salt stress. The positive effects of BC under lower salt stress while the negative effects of BC under higher BC and salt levels indicated that BC doses should be used with great care in higher soil salinity levels simultaneously contaminated with Cd to avoid the negative effects of BC on growth and metal uptake. – Source :PubMed

Drought and salt stress negatively affect soil fertility and plant growth. Application of biochar, carbon-rich material developed from combustion of biomass under no or limited oxygen supply, ameliorates the negative effects of drought and salt stress on plants. The biochar application increased the plant growth, biomass, and yield under either drought and/or salt stress and also increased photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and modified gas exchange characteristics in drought and salt-stressed plants. Under drought stress, biochar increased the water holding capacity of soil and improved the physical and biological properties of soils. Under salt stress, biochar decreased Na(+) uptake, while increased K(+) uptake by plants. Biochar-mediated increase in salt tolerance of plants is primarily associated with improvement in soil properties, thus increasing plant water status, reduction of Na(+) uptake, increasing uptake of minerals, and regulation of stomatal conductance and phytohormones. This review highlights both the potential of biochar in alleviating drought and salt stress in plants and future prospect of the role of biochar under drought and salt stress in plants. – Source :PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known and widespread toxic heavy metal while the effects of biochar (BC) on Cd bioavailability and toxicity in wheat, especially in soils with aged contamination are largely unknown. In the present study, the effect of rice straw BC on Cd immobilization in soil and uptake by wheat in an agricultural contaminated-soil was investigated. Different levels of rice straw BC (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 5% w/w) were incorporated into the soil and incubated for two weeks. After this, wheat plants were grown in the amended soil until maturity. The results show that the BC treatments increased the soil and soil solution pH and silicon contents in the plant tissues and in the soil solution while decreased the bioavailable Cd in soil. The BC application increased the plant-height, spike-length, shoot and root dry mass and grain yield in a dose additive manner when compared with control treatment. As compared to control, BC application increased the photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange parameters in leaves. Biochar treatments decreased the oxidative stress while increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes in shoots compared to the control. The BC treatments decreased the Cd and Ni while increased Zn and Mn concentrations in shoots, roots, and grains of wheat compared to the control. As compared to the control, Cd concentration in wheat grains decreased by 26%, 42%, and 57% after the application of 1.5%, 3.0%, and 5.0% BC respectively. Overall, the application of rice straw BC might be effective in immobilization of metal in the soil and reducing its uptake and translocation to grains. – Source :PubMed


Popular Book The Biochar Debate: Charcoal s Potential to Reverse Climate Change and Build Soil

17 May, 2017
 


Biochar Stove Plans

17 May, 2017
 


Biochar

18 May, 2017
 

California Biochar Greenhouse Gas Offset Protocol–Open for Public Comment

Biochar Draft Methodology Approaches Final Phase Prior to Approval


Biochar Rocket Stove And Oven

18 May, 2017
 


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Agricultural scientist confirms results of experiments on biochar terraces

19 May, 2017
 

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Posted by | May 17, 2017 | , , , , | 5 |

 

Why would our ancestors commit extensive labor to build terrace complexes on the mountainsides of the Southern Appalachians and the hillsides of the Piedmont . . . but then often nearby cultivate massive fields of corn in the river bottomlands?  For example, the Track Rock Terrace Complex is in easy walking distance of several contemporary towns with mounds in the Nottely and Brasstown Creek flood plains.

Another question that I had was really a “fact check.”    Virtually all American History and Anthropology books state that Native Americans “grew the three sister plants, corn, beans and squashes/pumpkins together,” because the plants were symbiotic.  Is that really true, or is it the speculation of some professor, who everybody believed was infallible many decades ago?  

Five years ago I started construction of a “mini-terrace complex” with the same orientation and soil types as Track Rock Gap.   The only differences were is that the experimental location gets more rainfall and is a 2-5 degrees warmer in mid-summer than Track Rock  Gap.

 

From the beginning I used biochar, Maya and Creek farming techniques . . . all of which focus on “growing the soil” year-round.  I put all my bones and egg shells in the wood stove throughout the heating season and spread all of the ashes and charcoal on the garden.  I compost all of the weeds and non-burnable organic kitchen waste then mix the compost into the soil during late winter and early spring.  Periodically, during the peak growth periods, I irrigate with diluted human urine.  I sprinkle fine wood ashes on predatory insects, which generally makes them shrivel and die.

Effect on plants

What I have found is that legumes (beans and peas) indigenous to the Americas grow like kudzu on my terraces.  Seeds that the package says should grow vines 32 inches tall, produced vines six feet tall.  Seeds that were supposed to grow vines to about six feet tall grew from 11 to 14 feet  tall.  The legumes seem to be the most affected by biochar soil techniques.

As all those who have seen the magic garden can confirm, the biochar terraces produce picture perfect collards, cabbages and broccoli with very little damage from insects.   The broccoli and collards especially are “super-sized.”   However, Native Americans did not grow members of the cabbage family until after Europeans began colonizing North America. 

Both Yellow and Winter Squash planted near corn did very poorly with stunted fruits, while legumes planted near corn had spindly vines and few peas or beans.  So the mixing of these three plants seems to be an “urban legend,” created by academicians, who never farmed in their lives.

I have found that corn, beans and members of the squash family prefer entirely different types of soil and sun exposure.   Corn prefers sandy loam that is liberally treated with dolimitic lime, shells and animal bones.   Beans do best on well-drained soils consisting of clay that has been converted into brown or black bio-char soil.   Yellow (summer) squash prefers lots of space in soil, which contains a high percentage of decomposed wood or leave particles.  Winter squash prefers rough, woodsy soil with lots of whole decomposing leaves and soil that has been recently burned by “slash and burn” techniques.    I get monster butternut squashes when I plant the seeds directly in the areas where I burned brush and tree limbs the previous fall. 

What the expert said

Dr. Ray Burden was kind enough to drive down from Tennessee to visit my hovel and magic biochar garden today.  He served for many years as the Director of the Chattanooga-Hamilton County, Tennessee Agricultural Extension Office then was on the staff of the University of Tennessee for several years.  He has recently retired.  Ray is of Creek and Uchee descent and a member of the Coweta Creek Confederacy.

I asked Ray about the the contradiction between how my bio-char terrace garden behaved and what the history-anthropology text books say.    The beans are amazingly productive on the terraces, but the corn is stunted unless build furrows out of sandy loam from bottom land.  

One type of squash likes soil that is halfway between flood plain soils and mountainside soils, while the winter squash behave as if they would be happier growing on the edge of the woods and wrapping their vines around saplings.   Tomato plants grow to seven feet tall in the exact same soil that the yellow squash likes.   In contrast, pumpkins preferred the same soil that corn likes.  They did not do well on the biochar terraces . . . even in the same locations that their cousins, winter squash liked. 

I told Ray that I never saw corn growing on the terrace complexes in Chiapas State, Mexico and in southern Guatemala.  I only saw beans, peppers and small sweet squashes growing on the terraces.  All the corn was grown in bottom lands, while all the pumpkins and tobacco were grown at the bases of mountainsides in between the corn and the bean terraces.  Were the Mesoamerican farmers doing things all wrong or was this actually very sophisticated farming techniques?

Ray responded, “We always told the farmers to grow the corn in the bottomlands and the beans on the uplands.”

So apparently,  the “three sister crops growing together” thing is an urban legend (myth) created by someone, who never saw a Native American farmer and certainly never had a Native American in their home.

Hey Richard,
The Native American farmers were very smart and observant, they had to be to grow enough crops. I have been building my garden area for about 3 yrs now. This red clay takes a lot of organic matter to loosen it up for good plants. Melons do not do good in the Atlanta area because of the red clay, they need sandy soil like S. Georgia and northern Florida. Beans, peppers squash, and lettuce do well in my yard but my corn was non existent and tomatoes do ok. I will try some cole crops this fall, some Brussels sprouts and broccoli fresh from the garden with several kinds of lettucemake a great salad.
Well like usual when you start talking food I want to cook up some good Southern grub.
Thanks again!

Wayne,

Based on my experiments, I would say that we need to create separate garden areas for each of the plant families. One soil does not fit all. Based on what I saw in Mexico and Guatemala, I suspect that our Native ancestors knew this. There are eyewitness accounts of planting beds near Maya cities in the Lowlands. Since the terrain was too flat to have terraces, the planting beds seem to be the ways that they created special soil for each type of cultivated crop.

Richard

An explanation given for the terraces at Machu Picchu is that it was a demonstration plantation to show how different crops could be grown at different elevations and different soil conditions. The “primitives” may well have had a more sophisticated agricultural technologies than the Europeans.

Here in northwestern Nebraska, a neighbor is making biochar out of the local ponderosa pines. It will be interesting if he can get a following for this.

Were the seed you used the same as the Natives would have used or were they more modern varieties? I expect it would make a difference.

Whenever possible I cultivated plants that were cultivated by my Creek ancestors. For example, my main beans are lima and cranberry beans. There are no heirloom seeds for yellow squash.

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United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Report 2017

19 May, 2017
 

In this report, the United States Biochar Fertilizer market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022.

Geographically, this report splits the United States market into seven regions:
– The West
– Southwest
– The Middle Atlantic
– New England
– The South
– The Midwest
with sales (volume), revenue (value), market share and growth rate of Biochar Fertilizer in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast).

United States Biochar Fertilizer market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Biochar Fertilizer sales volume, price, revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including
– Biogrow Limited
– Biochar Farms
– Anulekh
– GreenBack
– Carbon Fertilizer
– Global Harvest Organics LLC

On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume, revenue, product price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
– Organic Fertilizer
– Inorganic Fertilizer
– Compound Fertilizer

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Biochar Fertilizer for each application, including
– Cereals
– Oil Crops
– Fruits and Vegetables
– Others

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

Table of Contents

United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Report 2017
1 Biochar Fertilizer Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Biochar Fertilizer
1.2 Classification of Biochar Fertilizer by Product Category
1.2.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (Sales Volume) Comparison by Type (2012-2022)
1.2.2 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (Sales Volume) Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016
1.2.3 Organic Fertilizer
1.2.4 Inorganic Fertilizer
1.2.5 Compound Fertilizer
1.3 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market by Application/End Users
1.3.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (Consumption) and Market Share Comparison by Application (2012-2022)
1.3.2 Cereals
1.3.3 Oil Crops
1.3.4 Fruits and Vegetables
1.3.5 Others
1.4 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market by Region
1.4.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (Value) Comparison by Region (2012-2022)
1.4.2 The West Biochar Fertilizer Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.3 Southwest Biochar Fertilizer Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.4 The Middle Atlantic Biochar Fertilizer Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.5 New England Biochar Fertilizer Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.6 The South Biochar Fertilizer Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.7 The Midwest Biochar Fertilizer Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.5 United States Market Size (Value and Volume) of Biochar Fertilizer (2012-2022)
1.5.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
1.5.2 United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
2 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Competition by Players/Suppliers
2.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales and Market Share of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.2 United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue and Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.3 United States Biochar Fertilizer Average Price by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.4 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.4.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Concentration Rate
2.4.2 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Players/Suppliers
2.4.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion in United States Market
2.5 United States Players/Suppliers Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Type
3 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales (Volume) and Revenue (Value) by Region (2012-2017)
3.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.2 United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
3.3 United States Biochar Fertilizer Price by Region (2012-2017)
4 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales (Volume) and Revenue (Value) by Type (Product Category) (2012-2017)
4.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales and Market Share by Type (Product Category) (2012-2017)
4.2 United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
4.3 United States Biochar Fertilizer Price by Type (2012-2017)
4.4 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate by Type (2012-2017)
5 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales (Volume) by Application (2012-2017)
5.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales and Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
5.2 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
5.3 Market Drivers and Opportunities
6 United States Biochar Fertilizer Players/Suppliers Profiles and Sales Data
6.1 Biogrow Limited
6.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
6.1.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
6.1.2.1 Product A
6.1.2.2 Product B
6.1.3 Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.2 Biochar Farms
6.2.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
6.2.2.1 Product A
6.2.2.2 Product B
6.2.3 Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.3 Anulekh
6.3.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
6.3.2.1 Product A
6.3.2.2 Product B
6.3.3 Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.4 GreenBack
6.4.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
6.4.2.1 Product A
6.4.2.2 Product B
6.4.3 GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.5 Carbon Fertilizer
6.5.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
6.5.2.1 Product A
6.5.2.2 Product B
6.5.3 Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview
6.6 Global Harvest Organics LLC
6.6.2 Biochar Fertilizer Product Category, Application and Specification
6.6.2.1 Product A
6.6.2.2 Product B
6.6.3 Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview
7 Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Cost Analysis
7.1 Biochar Fertilizer Key Raw Materials Analysis
7.1.1 Key Raw Materials
7.1.2 Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
7.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
7.1.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials
7.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
7.2.1 Raw Materials
7.2.2 Labor Cost
7.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
7.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar Fertilizer
8 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
8.1 Biochar Fertilizer Industrial Chain Analysis
8.2 Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing
8.3 Raw Materials Sources of Biochar Fertilizer Major Manufacturers in 2016
8.4 Downstream Buyers
9 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
9.1 Marketing Channel
9.1.1 Direct Marketing
9.1.2 Indirect Marketing
9.1.3 Marketing Channel Development Trend
9.2 Market Positioning
9.2.1 Pricing Strategy
9.2.2 Brand Strategy
9.2.3 Target Client
9.3 Distributors/Traders List
10 Market Effect Factors Analysis
10.1 Technology Progress/Risk
10.1.1 Substitutes Threat
10.1.2 Technology Progress in Related Industry
10.2 Consumer Needs/Customer Preference Change
10.3 Economic/Political Environmental Change
11 United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (Value and Volume) Forecast (2017-2022)
11.1 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume, Revenue Forecast (2017-2022)
11.2 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
11.3 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume Forecast by Application (2017-2022)
11.4 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
12 Research Findings and Conclusion
13 Appendix
13.1 Methodology/Research Approach
13.1.1 Research Programs/Design
13.1.2 Market Size Estimation
13.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
13.2 Data Source
13.2.1 Secondary Sources
13.2.2 Primary Sources
13.3 Disclaimer

List of Tables and Figures

Figure Product Picture of Biochar Fertilizer
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (K MT) by Type (2012-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016
Figure Organic Fertilizer Product Picture
Figure Inorganic Fertilizer Product Picture
Figure Compound Fertilizer Product Picture
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (K MT) by Application (2012-2022)
Figure United States Sales Market Share of Biochar Fertilizer by Application in 2016
Figure Cereals Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Cereals
Figure Oil Crops Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Oil Crops
Figure Fruits and Vegetables Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Fruits and Vegetables
Figure Others Examples
Table Key Downstream Customer in Others
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Size (Million USD) by Region (2012-2022)
Figure The West Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure Southwest Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure The Middle Atlantic Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure New England Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure The South of US Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure The Midwest Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Major Players Product Sales Volume (K MT) (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT) of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Share by Players/Suppliers
Figure 2017 United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Share by Players/Suppliers
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Major Players Product Revenue (Million USD) (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Figure 2016 United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Players/Suppliers
Figure 2017 United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Players/Suppliers
Table United States Market Biochar Fertilizer Average Price (USD/MT) of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
Figure United States Market Biochar Fertilizer Average Price (USD/MT) of Key Players/Suppliers in 2016
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Share of Top 3 Players/Suppliers
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Market Share of Top 5 Players/Suppliers
Table United States Players/Suppliers Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Base Distribution and Sales Area
Table United States Players/Suppliers Biochar Fertilizer Product Category
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT) by Region (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Region in 2016
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share by Region in 2016
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Price (USD/MT) by Region (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT) by Type (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Share by Type (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Share by Type (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Type in 2016
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Share by Type (2012-2017)
Figure Revenue Market Share of Biochar Fertilizer by Type (2012-2017)
Figure Revenue Market Share of Biochar Fertilizer by Type in 2016
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Price (USD/MT) by Types (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate by Type (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT) by Application (2012-2017)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share by Application in 2016
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate by Application (2012-2017)
Table Biogrow Limited Basic Information List
Table Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Biogrow Limited Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Biochar Farms Basic Information List
Table Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Biochar Farms Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Anulekh Basic Information List
Table Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Anulekh Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table GreenBack Basic Information List
Table GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure GreenBack Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Carbon Fertilizer Basic Information List
Table Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Carbon Fertilizer Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Global Harvest Organics LLC Basic Information List
Table Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Sales (K MT), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
Figure Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Sales Growth Rate (2012-2017)
Figure Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Sales Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Figure Global Harvest Organics LLC Biochar Fertilizer Revenue Market Share in United States (2012-2017)
Table Production Base and Market Concentration Rate of Raw Material
Figure Price Trend of Key Raw Materials
Table Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
Figure Manufacturing Cost Structure of Biochar Fertilizer
Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar Fertilizer
Figure Biochar Fertilizer Industrial Chain Analysis
Table Raw Materials Sources of Biochar Fertilizer Major Players/Suppliers in 2016
Table Major Buyers of Biochar Fertilizer
Table Distributors/Traders List
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2017-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Price (USD/MT) Trend Forecast (2017-2022)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume (K MT) Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume (K MT) Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume (K MT) Forecast by Type in 2022
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume (K MT) Forecast by Application (2017-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume (K MT) Forecast by Application (2017-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume (K MT) Forecast by Application in 2022
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume (K MT) Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Table United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume Share Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume Share Forecast by Region (2017-2022)
Figure United States Biochar Fertilizer Sales Volume Share Forecast by Region in 2022
Table Research Programs/Design for This Report
Figure Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for This Report
Figure Data Triangulation
Table Key Data Information from Secondary Sources
Table Key Data Information from Primary Sources

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Global Biochar Market 2017 – BioChar Products, Agri-Tech Producers, Hawaii Biochar, Pacific …

19 May, 2017
 

,

World Biochar Market by Product Type, Market, Players and Regions-Forecast to 2021

Global Biochar Market 2017, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biochar market globally, providing basic overview of Biochar market including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure, Biochar Market report provides development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures.

Access Full Report With TOC @ http://www.fiormarkets.com/report/world-biochar-market-by-product-type-market-players-48763.html

Biochar market research report provides the newest industry data and industry future trends, allowing you to identify the products and end users driving Revenue growth and profitability.

The industry report lists the leading competitors and provides the insights strategic industry Analysis of the key factors influencing the market.

The report includes the forecasts, Analysis and discussion of important industry trends, market size, market share estimates and profiles of the leading industry Players.

Global Biochar Market: Application Segment Analysis

Agriculture

Energy Production

Environmental Protection

Others

Global Biochar Market: Regional Segment Analysis

USA

Europe

Japan

China

India

South East Asia

Get Free Report Sample @ http://www.fiormarkets.com/report-detail/48763/request-sample

The Players mentioned in our report

BioChar Products

Agri-Tech Producers

Hawaii Biochar

Pacific Biochar

The Biochar Company (TBC)

Cool Planet Energy Systems

Walking Point

ec6Grow

RAUCH INTERNATIONAL

Diacarbon Energy

Vega Biofuels

Contact Us

Mark Stone

Sales Manager

Phone: (201) 465-4211

Email: sales@fiormarkets.com

Web: www.fiormarkets.com

Author: Reuters Sat, 2017-05-20 03:00 ID: 1495237189959068000 LONDON: Britain’s Prince Charles warned that tiny island nations could be wiped off the map by climate change,

Recent innovations in hydrogen generation, storage, transport and use could transform it into the ultimate source of clean energy Guardian sustainable business Innovations

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V


biochar suspended solution

19 May, 2017
 

A method is provided for producing a biochar solution. The method comprises the steps of collecting biochar particles, dispersing the biochar particles in a liquid solution and adding a stabilizing agent to keep the biochar in flowable suspension. The stabilizing agent may be added to the liquid solution or to the biochar prior to placing the biochar in solution.

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 62/219,501 filed Sep. 16, 2015 titled BIOCHAR SUSPENDED SOLUTION and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 62/290,026 filed on Feb. 2, 2016, titled BIOCHAR AGGREGATE PARTICLES; is a continuation-in-part to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/263,227 filed Sep. 12, 2016 titled METHODS FOR APPLICATION OF BIOCHAR, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 62/216,638 filed on Sep. 10, 2015, titled METHODS FOR APPLICATION OF BIOCHAR; is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/184,325 filed Jun. 16, 2016, titled BIOCHAR COATED SEEDS, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 62/186,876 filed Jun. 30, 2015, titled BIOCHAR COATED SEEDS; is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/184,763 filed Jun. 16, 2016, titled METHOD FOR APPLICATION OF BIOCHAR IN TURF GRASS LANDSCAPING ENVIRONMENTS which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 62/180,525 filed Jun. 16, 2015 titled METHOD FOR APPLICATION OF BIOCHAR IN TURF GRASS ENVIRONMENT; is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/156,256 filed May 16, 2016 titled ENHANCED BIOCHAR, which application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/162,219, filed on May 15, 2015, titled ENHANCED BIOCHAR; is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/873,053 filed on Oct. 1, 2015, titled BIOCHARS AND BIOCHAR TREATMENT PROCESSES which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/058,445, filed on Oct. 1, 2014, titled METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLICATIONS FOR CONTROLLED POROSITY AND RELEASE STRUCTURES AND APPLICATIONS and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/058,472, filed on Oct. 1, 2014, titled HIGH ADDITIVE RETENTION BIOCHARS, METHODS AND APPLICATIONS; is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/385,986 filed on May 29, 2012, titled METHOD FOR ENHANCING SOIL GROWTH USING BIO-CHAR which is a 371 of PCT/US12/39862 filed on May 29, 2012, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/154,213 filed on Jun. 6, 2011 (now U.S. Pat. No. 8,317,891); and is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/036,480, filed on Sep. 25, 2013, titled METHOD FOR PRODUCING NEGATIVE CARBON FUEL, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/189,709, filed on Jul. 25, 2011 (now U.S. Pat. No. 8,568,493), all of the above of which are incorporated in their entirety by reference in this application.

The invention relates to a biochar solution which consists of a liquid product containing a suspension of biochar particles and a method to create a suspended biochar solution.

Biochar has been known for many years as a soil enhancer. It contains highly porous, high carbon content material similar to the type of very dark, fertile anthropogenic soil found in the Amazon Basin known as Terra Preta. Terra Preta has very high charcoal content and is made from a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure. Biochar is created by the pyrolysis of biomass, which generally involves heating and/or burning of organic matter, in a reduced oxygen environment, at a predetermined rate. Such heating and/or burning is stopped when the matter reaches a charcoal like stage. The highly porous material of biochar is perfectly suited to host beneficial microbes, retain nutrients, hold water, and act as a delivery system for a range of beneficial compounds suited to specific applications.

During the production of biochar, large portions of biochar fines or dust particles are created. Along with the loss of useful product, these dust particles can be harmful for biochar manufacturing and agricultural distribution equipment. Due to the equipment not being equipped to handle the dust and fine remnants of the biochar, the dust and fine particles have the potential to clog and damage the manufacturing and distribution equipment. The various particle size distribution found during biochar manufacturing leads to distribution problems with agricultural equipment and causes the necessity of sizing equipment and costly capital expenditure. The light density of the biochar dust particles also makes mixing of growth enhancers such as fertilizers or microbes difficult as it allows for settling, separation, and distribution problems.

Given the known benefits of biochar, a need remains for a method to create a biochar solution that minimizes the complications of biochar dust or fine remnants to create a biochar soil enhancer with consistent viscosity and physical/chemical properties that can be uniformly distributed and applied in a variety of ways in large and small scale applications to have the highest positive impact on soils.

The present invention relates to a liquid product containing a suspension of biochar particles and method for producing this biochar solution using additives to enhance product application, agricultural growth, improved biology and microbiology in the rhizosphere, and improved use of water and nutrients in or applied during the growing season to the soil, soilless media, hydroponics, or other systems. Additionally, this product may be used as a mechanism to deliver biochar, microbes, and other compounds necessary for microbial life simultaneously through a wide variety of agricultural equipment.

The method includes producing a solution that may contain a mixture of biochar particles, water and xanthan gum and/or other additives to keep the biochar in flowable suspension.

The method comprises the steps of (i) collecting or producing biochar particles of the proper size; (ii) dispersing the biochar particles in a liquid solution; (iii) removing large particles if necessary; and (iv) adding one or more stabilizing agents to keep the biochar in flowable suspension. It should be noted that these steps can be performed in any order, or steps may be repeated during the process. Through this process, a consistent, dust free, biochar solution is created that can be easily distributed and applied in small and large scale applications and with existing agricultural irrigation and/or fertilization technology. Additionally, this method allows for much improved field mixing of other additives, inputs, or amendments in many agricultural situations.

By creating a suspended biochar solution, the variety of methods available for its application is abundant. Application methods that include the use of pumps and sprays can be used, which methods may be selected based on the area to be covered. Sprayers, booms, and misting heads can be an efficient way to apply the biochar solution to a large area, while backpacks or hose sprayers can be sufficient for smaller applications. Aside from spraying applications, biochar solution may also be pumped through the ground to eliminate the potential for wind erosion while allowing for faster infiltration into the soil. Furthermore, biochar solution can be used in connection with a variety of equipment used for hydroseeding or liquid fertilizer application. Specialized devices to mix and/or apply this solution may also be envisioned by one skilled in the art. As there are so many different options to apply biochar solution, much time and expense can be saved.

Furthermore, biochar solutions can infiltrate some soil types much more efficiently. Not only is the delivery of biochar faster, but there is little delay of the plants’ ability to utilize the physical and chemical properties of biochar. The application of biochar solution in the soil results in more consistently fuller plants with unvarying vitality and longevity that can ultimately be maintained with less water.

The suspended biochar solution can be created with either raw biochar or treated biochar that is treated in the manner or method further described below. In some cases, the biochar may be treated or processed in accordance with the methods outlined in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/873,053, or other related work which has been incorporated into this application previously by reference. In yet other cases, the biochar in this, or the following application methods may be treated or processed to enhance certain characteristics, such as pH, hydrophilicity, ion exchange, or removal of other deleterious substances which may impede positive benefits. Many of these modifications can be important in improving the efficacy of application—especially at lower rates.

As mentioned, the biochar solution can be applied through a wide range of devices, including pumpable and sprayable equipment. The application of the biochar solution can be used for trees, row crops, vines, turf grasses, potted plants, flowering plants, annuals, perennials, evergreens and seedlings. The biochar solution may also be applied to animal pens, bedding, and/or other areas where animal waste is present to reduce odor and emission of unpleasant or undesirable vapors. Furthermore it may be applied to compost piles to reduce odor, emissions, and temperature or even to areas where fertilizer or pesticide runoff is occurring to slow or inhibit leaching and runoff. The biochar solution may be incorporated into or around the root zone of a plant. As most trees, rows, and specialty crops extract greater than 90% of their water from the first twenty-four inches below the soil surface, the above applications will generally be effective incorporating the biochar around the root zone from the top surface of the soil and up to a depth of 24″ below the top surface of the soil, depending on the plant type and species, or alternatively, within a 24″ radius surrounding the roots regardless of root depth or proximity from the top surface of the soil. When the plant roots are closer to the surface, the incorporation of the biochar within the top 2-6″ inches of the soil surface may also be effective. Greater depths are more beneficial for plants having larger root zones, such as trees. Furthermore, biochar solution may also be utilized and applied through irrigation equipment. In summary, when any type of liquid is applied to the plants such as water or liquid fertilizer, the suspended biochar solution can be added to the liquid to provide further soil enhancement characteristics. The solution can even be used as a “root dip” to coat the root tissue or root ball of a plant, tree, or shrub during transplanting, movement, or installation.

Other devices, apparatus, systems, methods, features and advantages of the invention are or will become apparent to one with skill in the art upon examination of the following figures and detailed description. It is intended that all such additional systems, methods, features and advantages be included within this description, be within the scope of the invention, and be protected by the accompanying claims.

The invention may be better understood by referring to the following figures. The components in the figures are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention.

FIG. 1 illustrates a cross-section of one example of a raw biochar particle.

FIG. 2a is a SEM (10 KV×3.00K 10.0 μm) of pore morphology of treated biochar made from pine.

FIG. 2b is a SEM (10 KV×3.00K 10.0 μm) of pore morphology of treated biochar made from birch.

FIG. 2c is a SEM (10 KV×3.00K 10.0 μm) of pore morphology of treated biochar made from coconut shells.

FIG. 3 is a chart showing porosity distribution of various biochars.

FIG. 4 is a flow chart process diagram of one implementation of a process for treating the raw biochar in accordance with the invention.

FIG. 4a illustrates a schematic of one example of an implementation of a biochar treat processes that that includes washing, pH adjustment and moisture adjustment.

FIG. 4b illustrates yet another example of an implementation of a biochar treatment processing that includes inoculation.

FIG. 5 is a schematic flow diagram of one example of a treatment system for use in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 6 is a chart showing the water holding capacities of treated biochar as compared to raw biochar and sandy clay loam soil and as compared to raw biochar and soilless potting soil.

FIG. 7 illustrates the different water retention capacities of raw biochar versus treated biochar measured gravimetrically.

FIG. 8 is a chart showing the plant available water of raw biochar compared to treated biochar (wet and dry).

FIG. 9 is a chart showing the weight loss of treated biochars verses raw biochar samples when heated at varying temperatures using a TGA testing method.

FIG. 10 is a flow diagram showing one example of a method for infusing biochar.

FIG. 11 illustrates the improved liquid content of biochar using vacuum impregnation as against soaking the biochar in liquid.

FIG. 12a is a chart comparing total retained water of treated biochar after soaking and after vacuum impregnation.

FIG. 12b is a chart comparing water on the surface, interstitially and in the pores of biochar after soaking and after vacuum impregnation.

FIG. 13 illustrates how the amount of water or other liquid in the pores of vacuum processed biochars can be increased varied based upon the applied pressure.

FIG. 14 illustrates the effects of NPK impregnation of biochar on lettuce yield.

FIG. 15 is a chart showing nitrate release curves of treated biochars infused with nitrate fertilizer.

FIG. 16 is a flow diagram of one example of a method for producing a suspended biochar solution.

As illustrated in the attached figures, the present invention relates to a biochar solution and a method for producing biochar solutions that can be used in agricultural distribution equipment or be hand distributed by consumers for uniform application to achieve the highest positive impact on soils, plant life, or the soil biome or microbiome. As described below, raw biochar may be treated to increase the water holding and retention capacities of the overall soil. Through treatment, the properties of the raw biochar can be modified to significantly increase the biochar’s ability to retain water and/or nutrients while also, in many cases, creating an environment beneficial to microorganisms. The processing of the biochar can also ensure that the pH, hydrophilicity, particle size, usable pore volume, flow characteristics, and other important physical and chemical properties of biochar used in the present application ares suitable for creating soil conditions beneficial for plant growth, which has been a challenge for raw biochars.

For purposes of this application, the term “biochar” shall be given its broadest possible meaning and shall include any solid materials obtained from the pyrolysis, torrefaction, gasification or any other thermal and/or chemical conversion of a biomass, where the biochar contains at least 55% carbon based upon weight. Pyrolysis is generally defined as a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of, or with reduced levels of oxygen.

For purposes of this application, biochar may include, but not be limited to, BMF char disclosed and taught by U.S. Pat. No. 8,317,891, which is incorporated into this application by reference, and those materials falling within the IBI and AAPFCO definition of biochar. When the biochar is referred to as “treated” or undergoes “treatment,” it shall mean raw, pyrolyzed biochar that has undergone additional physical, biological, and/or chemical processing.

As used herein, unless specified otherwise, the terms “carbonaceous”, “carbon based”, “carbon containing”, and similar such terms are to be given their broadest possible meaning, and would include materials containing carbon in various states, crystallinities, forms and compounds.

As used herein, unless stated otherwise, room temperature is 25° C. And, standard temperature and pressure is 25° C. and 1 atmosphere. Unless stated otherwise, generally, the term “about” is meant to encompass a variance or range of ±10%, the experimental or instrument error associated with obtaining the stated value, and preferably the larger of these.

A. Biochars

Typically, biochars include porous carbonaceous materials, such as charcoal, that are used as soil amendments or other suitable applications. Biochar most commonly is created by pyrolysis of a biomass. In addition to the benefits to plant growth, yield and quality, etc.; biochar provides the benefit of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere by serving as a method of carbon sequestration. Thus, biochar has the potential to help mitigate climate change, via carbon sequestration. However, to accomplish this important, yet ancillary benefit, to any meaningful extent, the use of biochar in agricultural applications must become widely accepted, e.g., ubiquitous. Unfortunately, because of the prior failings in the biochar arts, this has not occurred. It is believed that with the solutions of the present invention may this level of use of biochar be achieved; and more importantly, yet heretofore unobtainable, realize the benefit of significant carbon sequestration.

In general, one advantage of putting biochar in soil includes long term carbon sequestration. It is theorized that as worldwide carbon dioxide emissions continue to mount, benefits may be obtained by, controlling, mitigating and reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the oceans. It is further theorized that increased carbon dioxide emissions are associated with the increasing industrial development of developing nations, and are also associated with the increase in the world’s population. In addition to requiring more energy, the increasing world population will require more food. Thus, rising carbon dioxide emissions can be viewed as linked to the increasing use of natural resources by an ever increasing global population. As some suggest, this larger population brings with it further demands on food production requirements. Biochar uniquely addresses both of these issues by providing an effective carbon sink, e.g., carbon sequestration agent, as well as, an agent for improving and increasing agricultural output. In particular, biochar is unique in its ability to increase agricultural production, without increasing carbon dioxide emission, and preferably reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, as discussed above, this unique ability of biochar has not been realized, or seen, because of the inherent problems and failings of prior biochars including, for example, high pH, phytotoxicity due to high metals content and/or residual organics, and dramatic product inconsistencies.

Biochar can be made from basically any source of carbon, for example, from hydrocarbons (e.g., petroleum based materials, coal, lignite, peat) and from a biomass (e.g., woods, hardwoods, softwoods, waste paper, coconut shell, manure, chaff, food waste, etc.). Combinations and variations of these starting materials, and various and different members of each group of starting materials can be, and are, used. Thus, the large number of vastly different starting materials leads to biochars having different properties.

Many different pyrolysis or carbonization processes can be, and are used to create biochars. In general, these processes involve heating the starting material under positive pressure, reduced pressure, vacuum, inert atmosphere, or flowing inert atmosphere, through one or more heating cycles where the temperature of the material is generally brought above about 400° C., and can range from about 300° C. to about 900° C. The percentage of residual carbon formed and several other initial properties are strong functions of the temperature and time history of the heating cycles. In general, the faster the heating rate and the higher the final temperature the lower the char yield. Conversely, in general, the slower the heating rate or the lower the final temperature the greater the char yield. The higher final temperatures also lead to modifying the char properties by changing the inorganic mineral matter compositions in addition to surface organic chemistries, which in turn, modify the char properties. Ramp, or heating rates, hold times, cooling profiles, pressures, flow rates, and type of atmosphere can all be controlled, and typically are different from one biochar supplier to the next. These differences potentially lead to a biochar having different properties, further framing the substantial nature of one of the problems that the present inventions address and solve. Generally, in carbonization most of the non-carbon elements, hydrogen and oxygen are first removed in gaseous form by the pyrolytic decomposition of the starting materials, e.g., the biomass. The free carbon atoms group or arrange into crystallographic formations known as elementary graphite crystallites. Typically, at this point the mutual arrangement of the crystallite is irregular, so that free interstices exist between them. Thus, pyrolysis involves thermal decomposition of carbonaceous material, e.g., the biomass, eliminating non-carbon species, and producing a fixed carbon structure.

As noted above, raw or untreated biochar is generally produced by subjecting biomass to either a uniform or varying pyrolysis temperature (e.g., 300° C. to 550° C. to 750° C. or more) for a prescribed period of time in a reduced oxygen environment. This process may either occur quickly, with high reactor temperature and short residence times, slowly with lower reactor temperatures and longer residence times, or anywhere in between. To achieve better results, the biomass from which the char is obtained may be first stripped of debris, such as bark, leaves and small branches, although this is not necessary. The biomass may further include feedstock to help adjust the pH, cationic and anionic exchange capacity, hydrophilicity, and particle size distribution in the resulting raw biochar. In some applications, it is desirous to have biomass that is fresh, less than six months old, and with an ash content of less than 3%. Further, by using biochar derived from different biomass, e.g., pine, oak, hickory, birch and coconut shells from different regions, and understanding the starting properties of the raw biochar, the treatment methods can be tailored to ultimately yield a treated biochar with predetermined, predictable physical and chemical properties. Additionally, the biomass may be treated with various organic or inorganic substances prior to pyrolysis to impact the reactivity of the material during pyrolysis and/or to potentially be fixed in place and available for reaction with various substances during the treatment process after pyrolysis. Trace materials, usually in gaseous form, but potentially in other forms, may also be injected during the pyrolysis process with the intention of either modifying the characteristics of the raw biochar produced, or for potential situation on the raw biochar so that those materials, or a descendant material created by thermal or chemical reaction during pyrolysis, may be reacted with other compounds during the treatment process.

In general, biochar particles can have a very wide variety of particle sizes and distributions, usually reflecting the sizes occurring in the input biomass. Additionally, biochar can be ground, sieved, strained, or crushed after pyrolysis to further modify the particle sizes. Typically, for agricultural uses, biochars with consistent, predictable particle sizes are more desirable. By way of example, the biochar particles can have particle sizes as shown or measured in Table 1 below. When referring to a batch having ¼ inch particles, the batch would have particles that will pass through a 3 mesh sieve, but will not pass through (i.e., are caught by or sit atop) a 4 mesh sieve.

TABLE 1 U.S. Mesh Microns Millimeters (i.e., mesh) Inches (μm) (mm) 3 0.2650 6730 6.370 4 0.1870 4760 4.760 5 0.1570 4000 4.000 6 0.1320 3360 3.360 7 0.1110 2830 2.830 8 0.0937 2380 2.380 10 0.0787 2000 2.000 12 0.0661 1680 1.680 14 0.0555 1410 1.410 16 0.0469 1190 1.190 18 0.0394 1000 1.000 20 0.0331 841 0.841 25 0.0280 707 0.707 30 0.0232 595 0.595 35 0.0197 500 0.500 40 0.0165 400 0.400 45 0.0138 354 0.354 50 0.0117 297 0.297 60 0.0098 250 0.250 70 0.0083 210 0.210 80 0.0070 177 0.177 100 0.0059 149 0.149 120 0.0049 125 0.125 140 0.0041 105 0.105 170 0.0035 88 0.088 200 0.0029 74 0.074 230 0.0024 63 0.063 270 0.0021 53 0.053 325 0.0017 44 0.044 400 0.0015 37 0.037

For most basic agricultural applications, it is desirable to use biochar particles having particle sizes from about 3/4 mesh to about 60/70 mesh, about 4/5 mesh to about 20/25 mesh, or about 4/5 mesh to about 30/35 mesh. However, for applications such as seed treatment, or microbial carriers, smaller mesh sizes ranging from 200, to 270, to 325, to 400 mesh or beyond may be desirable. For many applications of a suspended solution or flowable form biochar, smaller mesh sizes (below 140 mesh) are also desirable although not strictly necessary. It is understood that the desired mesh size, and mesh size distribution can vary depending upon a particular application for which the biochar is intended.

FIG. 1 illustrates a cross-section of one example of a raw biochar particle. As illustrated in FIG. 1, a biochar particle 100 is a porous structure that has an outer surface 100a and a pore structure 101 formed within the biochar particle 100. As used herein, unless specified otherwise, the terms “porosity”, “porous”, “porous structure”, and “porous morphology” and similar such terms are to be given their broadest possible meaning, and would include materials having open pores, closed pores, and combinations of open and closed pores, and would also include macropores, mesopores, and micropores and combinations, variations and continuums of these morphologies. Unless specified otherwise, the term “pore volume” is the total volume occupied by the pores in a particle or collection of particles; the term “inter-particle void volume” is the volume that exists between a collection of particle; the term “solid volume or volume of solid means” is the volume occupied by the solid material and does not include any free volume that may be associated with the pore or inter-particle void volumes; and the term “bulk volume” is the apparent volume of the material including the particle volume, the inter-particle void volume, and the internal pore volume.

The pore structure 101 forms an opening 121 in the outer surface 100a of the biochar particle 100. The pore structure 101 has a macropore 102, which has a macropore surface 102a, and which surface 102a has an area, i.e., the macropore surface area. (In this diagram only a single micropore is shown. If multiple micropores are present than the sum of their surface areas would equal the total macropore surface area for the biochar particle.) From the macropore 102, several mesopores 105, 106, 107, 108 and 109 are present, each having its respective surfaces 105a, 106a, 107a, 108a and 109a. Thus, each mesopore has its respective surface area; and the sum of all mesopore surface areas would be the total mesopore surface area for the particle. From the mesopores, e.g., 107, there are several micropores 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119 and 120, each having its respective surfaces 110a, 111a, 112a, 113a, 114a, 115a, 116a, 117a, 118a, 119a and 120a. Thus, each micropore has its respective surface area and the sum of all micropore surface areas would be the total micropore surface area for the particle. The sum of the macropore surface area, the mesopore surface area and the micropore surface area would be the total pore surface area for the particle.

Macropores are typically defined as pores having a diameter greater than 300 nm, mesopores are typically defined as diameter from about 1-300 nm, and micropores are typically defined as diameter of less than about 1 nm, and combinations, variations and continuums of these morphologies. The macropores each have a macropore volume, and the sum of these volumes would be the total macropore volume. The mesopores each have a mesopore volume, and the sum of these volumes would be the total mesopore volume. The micropores each have a micropore volume, and the sum of these volumes would be the total micropore volume. The sum of the macropore volume, the mesopore volume and the micropore volume would be the total pore volume for the particle.

Additionally, the total pore surface area, volume, mesopore volume, etc., for a batch of biochar would be the actual, estimated, and preferably calculated sum of all of the individual properties for each biochar particle in the batch.

It should be understood that the pore morphology in a biochar particle may have several of the pore structures shown, it may have mesopores opening to the particle surface, it may have micropores opening to particle surface, it may have micropores opening to macropore surfaces, or other combinations or variations of interrelationship and structure between the pores. It should further be understood that the pore morphology may be a continuum, where moving inwardly along the pore from the surface of the particle, the pore transitions, e.g., its diameter becomes smaller, from a macropore, to a mesopore, to a micropore, e.g., macropore 102 to mesopore 109 to micropore 114.

In general, most biochars have porosities that can range from 0.2 cm3/cm3 to about 0.8 cm3/cm3 and more preferably about 0.2 cm3/cm3 to about 0.5 cm3/cm3 (Unless stated otherwise, porosity is provided as the ratio of the total pore volumes (the sum of the micro+meso+macro pore volumes) to the solid volume of the biochar. Porosity of the biochar particles can be determined, or measured, by measuring the micro-, meso-, and macro pore volumes, the bulk volume, and the inter particle volumes to determine the solid volume by difference. The porosity is then calculated from the total pore volume and the solid volume.

As noted above, the use of different biomass potentially leads to biochars having different properties, including, but not limited to different pore structures. By way of example, FIGS. 2A, 2B and 2C illustrate Scanning Electron Microscope (“SEM”) images of various types of treated biochars showing the different nature of their pore morphology. FIG. 2A is biochar derived from pine. FIG. 2B is biochar derived from birch. FIG. 2C is biochar derived from coconut shells.

The surface area and pore volume for each type of pore, e.g., macro-, meso- and micro- can be determined by direct measurement using CO2 adsorption for micro-, N2 adsorption for meso- and macro pores and standard analytical surface area analyzers and methods, for example, particle analyzers such as Micrometrics instruments for meso- and micro pores and impregnation capacity for macro pore volume. Mercury porosimetry, which measures the macroporosity by applying pressure to a sample immersed in mercury at a pressure calibrated for the minimum pore diameter to be measured, may also be used to measure pore volume.

The total micropore volume can be from about 2% to about 25% of the total pore volume. The total mesopore volume can be from about 4% to about 35% of the total pore volume. The total macropore volume can be from about 40% to about 95% of the total pore volume. By way of example, FIG. 3 shows a bar chart setting out examples of the pore volumes for sample biochars made from peach pits 201, juniper wood 202, a first hard wood 203, a second hard wood 204, fir and pine waste wood 205, a first pine 206, a second pine 207, birch 208 and coconut shells 209.

As explained further below, treatment can increase usable pore volumes and, among other things, remove obstructions in the pores, which leads to increased retention properties and promotes further performance characteristics of the biochar. Knowing the properties of the starting raw biochar, one can treat the biochar to produce controlled, predictable and optimal resulting physical and chemical properties.

B. Treatment

The rationale for treating the biochar after pyrolysis is that given the large internal pore volume and large interior surface area of the biochars, it is most efficient to make significant changes in the physical and chemical properties of the biochar by treating both the internal and external surfaces and internal pore volume of the char. Testing has demonstrated that if the biochar is treated, at least partially, in a manner that causes the forced infusion and/or diffusion of liquids and/or vapors into and/or out of the biochar pores (through mechanical, physical, or chemical means), certain properties of the biochar can be altered or improved over and above simply contacting these liquids with the biochar. By knowing the properties of the raw biochar and the optimal desired properties of the treated biochar, the raw biochar can then be treated in a manner that results in the treated biochar having controlled optimized properties.

For purposes of this application, treating and/or washing the biochar in accordance with the present invention involves more than simply contacting, washing or soaking, which generally only impacts the exterior surfaces and a small percentage of the interior surface area. “Washing” or “treating” in accordance with the present invention, and as used below, involves treatment of the biochar in a manner that causes the forced, accelerated or assisted infusion and/or diffusion of liquids, vapors, and/or additivities into and/or out of the biochar pores (through mechanical, physical, biological, or chemical means) such that certain properties of the biochar can be altered or improved over and above simply contacting these liquids with the biochar or so that treatment becomes more efficient or rapid from a time standpoint over simple contact or immersion.

In particular, effective treatment processes can mitigate deleterious pore surface properties, remove undesirable substances from pore surfaces or volume, and impact anywhere from between 10% to 99% or more of pore surface area of a biochar particle. By modifying the usable pore surfaces through treatment and/or removing deleterious substances from the pore volume, the treated biochars can exhibit a greater capacity to retain water and/or other nutrients as well as being more suitable habitats for some forms of microbial life. Through the use of treated biochars, agricultural applications can realize increased moisture control, increased nutrient retention, reduced water usage, reduced water requirements, reduced runoff or leaching, increased nutrient efficiency, reduced nutrient usage, increased yields, increased yields with lower water requirements and/or nutrient requirements, increases in beneficial microbial life, improved performance and/or shelf life for inoculated bacteria, increased efficacy as a substrate for microbial growth or fermentation, and any combination and variation of these and other benefits.

Treatment further allows the biochar to be modified to possess certain known properties that enhance the benefits received from the use of biochar. While the selection of feedstock, raw biochar and/or pyrolysis conditions under which the biochar was manufactured can make treatment processes less cumbersome, more efficient and further controlled, treatment processes can be utilized that provide for the biochar to have desired and generally sustainable resulting properties regardless of the biochar source or pyrolysis conditions. As explained further below, treatment can (i) repurpose problematic biochars, (ii) handle changing biochar material sources, e.g., seasonal and regional changes in the source of biomass, (iii) provide for custom features and functions of biochar for particular soils, regions or agricultural purposes; (iv) increase the retention properties of biochar, (v) provide for large volumes of biochar having desired and predictable properties, (vi) provide for biochar having custom properties, (vii) handle differences in biochar caused by variations in pyrolysis conditions or manufacturing of the “raw” biochar; and (viii) address the majority, if not all, of the problems that have, prior to the present invention, stifled the large scale adoption and use of biochars.

Treatment can impact both the interior and exterior pore surfaces, remove harmful chemicals, introduce beneficial substances, and alter certain properties of the biochar and the pore surfaces and volumes. This is in stark contrast to simple washing, contact, or immersion which generally only impacts the exterior surfaces and a small percentage of the interior surface area. Treatment can further be used to coat substantially all of the biochar pore surfaces with a surface modifying agent or impregnate the pore volume with additives or treatment to provide a predetermined feature to the biochar, e.g., surface charge and charge density, surface species and distribution, targeted nutrient addition, magnetic modifications, root growth facilitator, and water absorptivity and water retention properties. Just as importantly, treatment can also be used to remove undesirable substances from the biochar, such as dioxins or other toxins either through physical removal or through chemical reactions causing neutralization. Furthermore, treatment can be used to adjust the size of the biochar particles themselves, as well as adjusting the distribution of particle sizes in a particular mixture of biochar.

FIG. 4 is a schematic flow diagram of one example treatment process 400 for use in accordance with the present invention. As illustrated, the treatment process 400 starts with raw biochar 402 that may be subjected to one or more reactors or treatment processes prior to bagging 420 the treated biochar for resale. For example, 404 represents reactor 1, which may be used to treat the biochar. The treatment may be a simple water wash or may be an acid wash used for the purpose of altering the pH of the raw biochar particles 402. The treatment may also contain a surfactant or detergent to aid the penetration of the treatment solution into the pores of the biochar. The treatment may optionally be heated, cooled, or may be used at ambient temperature or any combination of the three. For some applications, depending upon the properties of the raw biochar, a water and/or acid/alkaline wash 404 (the latter for pH adjustment) may be the only necessary treatment prior to bagging the biochar 420. If, however, the moisture content of the biochar needs to be adjusted, the treated biochar may then be put into a second reactor 406 for purposes of reducing the moisture content in the washed biochar. From there, the treated and moisture adjusted biochar may be bagged 420.

Again, depending upon the starting characteristics of the raw biochar and the intended application for the resale product, further processing may still be needed or desired. In this case, the treated moisture adjusted biochar may then be passed to a third reactor 408 for inoculation, which may include the impregnation of biochar with beneficial additives, such as nutrients, bacteria, microbes, fertilizers or other additives. Thereafter, the inoculated biochar may be bagged 420, or may be yet further processed, for example, in a fourth reactor 410 to have further moisture removed from or added to the biochar. Further moisture adjustment may be accomplished by placing the inoculated biochar in a fourth moisture adjustment reactor 410 or circulating the biochar back to a previous moisture adjustment reactor (e.g. reactor 406). Those skilled in the art will recognize that the ordering in which the raw biochar is processed and certain processes may be left out, depending on the properties of the starting raw biochar and the desired application for the biochar. For example, the treatment and inoculation processes may be performed without the moisture adjustment step, inoculation processes may also be performed with or without any treatment, pH adjustment or any moisture adjustment. All the processes may be completed alone or in the conjunction with one or more of the others. It should also be noted that microbes themselves may be part of the process, not simply as an inoculant, but as an agent to convey materials into or out of the pore volume of the biochar.

For example, FIG. 4a illustrates a schematic of one example of an implementation of biochar processing that includes washing the pores and both pH and moisture adjustment. FIG. 4b illustrates yet another example of an implementation of biochar processing that includes inoculation.

As illustrated in FIG. 4a, raw biochar 402 is placed into a reactor or tank 404. A washing or treatment liquid 403 is then added to a tank and a partial vacuum, using a vacuum pump, 405 is pulled on the tank. The treating or washing liquid 403 may be used to clean or wash the pores of the biochar 402 or adjust the chemical or physical properties of the surface area or pore volume, such as pH level, usable pore volume, or VOC content, among other things. The vacuum can be applied after the treatment liquid 403 is added or while the treatment liquid 403 is added. Thereafter, the washed/adjusted biochar 410 may be moisture adjusted by vacuum exfiltration 406 to pull the extra liquid from the washed/moisture adjusted biochar 410 or may be placed in a centrifuge 407, heated or subjected to pressure gradient changes (e.g., blowing air) for moisture adjustment. The moisture adjusted biochar 412 may then be bagged or subject to further treatment. Any excess liquids 415 collected from the moisture adjustment step may be disposed of or recycled, as desired. Optionally, biochar fines may be collected from the excess liquids 415 for further processing, for example, to create a slurry, cakes, or biochar extrudates. Furthermore, the process itself may be calibrated such that particles of various sizes follow different paths through the process. One skilled in the art will notice that hydrodynamic, aerodynamic, or other sorting of particles during the process can be integrated into any of the stages that involve flow or movement of particles. It should be noted that in any of these steps, the residual gaseous environment in the tanks or centrifuges may be either ambient air, or a prescribed gas or combination of gasses to impact (through assistance or attenuation) reactivity during the process.

Optionally, rather than using a vacuum pump 405, a positive pressure pump may be used to apply positive pressure to the tank 404. In some situations, applying positive pressure to the tank may also function to force or accelerate the washing or treating liquid 403 into the pores of the biochar 402. Any change in pressure in the tank 404 or across the surface of the biochar could facilitate the exchange of gas and/or moisture into and out of the pores of the biochar with the washing or treating liquid 403 in the tank. Accordingly, changing the pressure in the tank and across the surface of the biochar, whether positive or negative, is within the scope of this invention. The atmosphere of the tank may be air or other gaseous mixture, prior to the intuition of the pressure change.

As illustrated FIG. 4b, the washed/adjusted biochar 410 or the washed/adjusted and moisture adjusted biochar 412 may be further treated by inoculating or impregnating the pores of the biochar with an additive 425. The biochar 410, 412 placed back in a reactor 401, an additive solution 425 is placed in the reactor 401 and a vacuum, using a vacuum pump, 405 is applied to the tank. Again, the vacuum can be applied after the additive solution 425 is added to the tank or while the additive solution 425 is being added to the tank. Thereafter, the washed, adjusted and inoculated biochar 428 can be bagged. Alternatively, if further moisture adjustment is required, the biochar can be further moisture adjusted by vacuum filtration 406 to pull the extra liquid from the washed/moisture adjusted biochar 410 or may be placed in a centrifuge 407 for moisture adjustment. The resulting biochar 430 can then be bagged. Any excess liquids 415 collected from the moisture adjustment step may be disposed of or recycled, as desired. Optionally, biochar particulates or “fines” which easily are suspended in liquid may be collected from the excess liquids 415 for further processing, for example, to create a slurry, biochar extrudates, or merely a biochar product of a consistently smaller particle size. As described above, both processes of the FIGS. 4a and 4b can be performed with a surfactant solution in place of, or in conjunction with, the vacuum 405.

While known processes exist for the above described processes, research associated with the present invention has shown improvement and the ability to better control the properties and characteristics of the biochar if the processes are performed through the infusion and diffusion of liquids into and out of the biochar pores. One such treatment process that can be used is vacuum impregnation and vacuum and/or centrifuge extraction. Another such treatment process that can be used is the addition of a surfactant to infused liquid, which infused liquid may be optionally heated, cooled, or used at ambient temperature or any combination of the three.

Since research associated with the present invention has identified what physical and chemical properties have the highest impact on plant growth and/or soil health, the treatment process can be geared to treat different forms of raw biochar to achieve treated biochar properties known to enhance these characteristics. For example, if the pH of the biochar needs to be adjusted to enhance the raw biochar performance properties, the treatment may be the infusion of an acid solution into the pores of the biochar using vacuum, surfactant, or other treatment means. This treatment of pore infusion through, for example, the rapid, forced infusion of liquid into and out the pores of the biochar, has further been proven to sustain the adjusted pH levels of the treated biochar for much longer periods than biochar that is simply immersed in an acid solution for the same period of time. By way of another example, if the moisture content needs to be adjusted, then excess liquid and other selected substances (e.g. chlorides, dioxins, and other chemicals, to include those previously deposited by treatment to catalyze or otherwise react with substances on the interior or exterior surfaces of the biochar) can be extracted from the pores using vacuum and/or centrifuge extraction or by using various heating techniques. The above describes a few examples of treatment that result in treated biochar having desired performance properties identified to enhance soil health and plant life or other applications.

FIG. 5 illustrates one example of a system 500 that utilizes vacuum impregnation to treat raw biochar. Generally, raw biochar particles, and preferably a batch of biochar particles, are placed in a reactor, which is connected to a vacuum pump, and a source of treating liquid (i.e. water or acidic/basis solution). When the valve to the reactor is closed, the pressure in the reactor is reduced to values ranging from 750 Torr to 400 Torr to 10 Torr or less. The biochar is maintained under vacuum (“vacuum hold time”) for anywhere from seconds to 1 minute to 10 minutes, to 100 minutes, or possibly longer. By way of example, for about a 500 pound batch of untreated biochar, a vacuum hold time of from about 1 to about 5 minutes can be used if the reactor is of sufficient size and sufficient infiltrate is available to adjust the necessary properties. While under the vacuum the treating liquid may then be introduced into the vacuum chamber containing the biochar. Alternatively, the treating liquid may be introduced into the vacuum chamber before the biochar is placed under a vacuum. Optionally, treatment may also include subjecting the biochar to elevated temperatures from ambient to about 250° C. or reduced temperatures to about −25° C. or below, with the limiting factor being the temperature and time at which the infiltrate can remain flowable as a liquid or semi-liquid.

The infiltrate or treating liquid is drawn into the biochar pore, and preferably drawn into the macropores and mesopores. Depending upon the specific doses applied and pore structure of the biochar, the infiltrate can coat anywhere from 10% to 50% to 100% of the total macropore and mesopore surface area and can fill or coat anywhere from a portion to nearly all (10%-100%) of the total macropore and mesopore volume.

As described above, the treating liquid can be left in the biochar, with the batch being a treated biochar batch ready for packaging, shipment and use in an agricultural or other application. The treating liquid may also be removed through drying, treatment with heated gases, subsequent vacuum processing, centrifugal force (e.g., cyclone drying machines or centrifuges), dilution, or treatment with other liquids, with the batch being a treated biochar batch ready for packaging, shipment and use in an agricultural application. A second, third or more infiltration, removal, infiltration and removal, and combinations and variations of these may also be performed on the biochar with optional drying steps between infiltrations to remove residual liquid from and reintroduce gasses to the pore structure if needed. In any of these stages the liquid may contain organic or inorganic surfactants to assist with the penetration of the treating liquid.

As illustrated in FIG. 5, a system 500 for providing a biochar, preferably having predetermined and generally uniform properties. The system 500 has a vacuum infiltration tank 501. The vacuum infiltration tank 501 has an inlet line 503 that has a valve 504 that seals the inlet line 503. In operation, the starting biochar is added to vacuum infiltration tank 501 as shown by arrow 540. Once the tank is filled with the starting biochar, a vacuum is applied to the tank, by a vacuum pump connected to vacuum line 506, which also has valve 507. The starting biochar is held in the vacuum for a vacuum hold time. Infiltrate, as shown by arrow 548 is added to the tank 501 by line 508 having valve 509. The infiltrate is mixed with the biochar in the tank 501 by agitator 502. The mixing process is done under vacuum for a period of time sufficient to have the infiltrate fill the desired amount of pore volume, e.g., up to 100% of the macropores and mesopores.

Alternatively, the infiltrate may be added to the vacuum infiltration tank 501 before vacuum is pulled on the tank. Optionally, one or more selected gasses may be added to the tank. In this manner, infiltrate is added in the tank in an amount that can be impregnated into the biochar and optionally, the gasses introduced can also potentially impact the reactivity of the liquid as well as any organic or inorganic substances on the surface or in the pore volume of the biochar. As the vacuum is applied, the biochar is circulated in the tank to cause the infiltrate to fill the pore volume. To one skilled in the art, it should be clear that the agitation of the biochar during this process can be performed through various means, such as a rotating tank, rotating agitator, pressure variation in the tank itself, or other means. Additionally, the biochar may be dried using conventional means before even the first treatment. This optional pre-drying can remove liquid from the pores and in some situations may increase the efficiency of impregnation due to pressure changes in the tank.

Pressure is then restored in the tank 501 with either ambient air or a prescribed selection of gasses, and the infiltrated biochar is removed, as shown by arrow 541, from the tank 501 to bin 512, by way of a sealing gate 511 and removal line 510. The infiltrated biochar is collected in bin 512, where it can be further processed in several different ways. The infiltrated biochar can be shipped for use as a treated biochar as shown by arrow 543. The infiltrated biochar can be returned to the tank 501 (or a second infiltration tank). If returned to the tank 501 the biochar can be processed with a second infiltration step, a vacuum drying step, a washing step, or combinations and variations of these. The infiltrated biochar can be moved by conveyor 514, as shown by arrow 542, to a drying apparatus 516, e.g., a centrifugal dryer or heater, where water, infiltrate or other liquid is removed by way of line 517, and the dried biochar leaves the dryer through discharge line 518 as shown by arrow 545, and is collected in bin 519. The biochar is removed from the bin by discharge 520. The biochar may be shipped as a treated biochar for use in an agriculture application, as shown by arrow 547. The biochar may also be further processed, as shown by 546. Thus, the biochar could be returned to tank 501 (or a second vacuum infiltration tank) for a further infiltration step. The drying step may be repeated either by returning the dry biochar to the drying apparatus 516, or by running the biochar through a series of drying apparatus, until the predetermined dryness of the biochar is obtained, e.g., between 50% to less than 1% moisture.

The system 500 is illustrative of the system, equipment and processes that can be used for, and to carry out the present inventions. Various other implementations and types of equipment can be used. The vacuum infiltration tank can be a sealable off-axis rotating vessel, chamber or tank. It can have an internal agitator that also when reversed can move material out, empty it, (e.g., a vessel along the lines of a large cement truck, or ready mix truck, that can mix and move material out of the tank, without requiring the tank’s orientation to be changed). Washing equipment may be added or utilized at various points in the process, or may be carried out in the vacuum tank, or drier, (e.g., wash fluid added to biochar as it is placed into the drier for removal). Other steps, such as bagging, weighing, the mixing of the biochar with other materials, e.g., fertilized, peat, soil, etc. can be carried out. In all areas of the system referring to vacuum infiltration, optionally positive pressure can be applied, if needed, to enhance the penetration of the infiltrate or to assist with re-infusion of gaseous vapors into the treated char. Additionally, where feasible, especially in positive pressure environments, the infiltrate may have soluble gasses added which then can assist with removal of liquid from the pores, or gaseous treatment of the pores upon equalization of pressure.

As noted above, the biochar may also be treated using a surfactant. The same or similar equipment used in the vacuum infiltration process can be used in the surfactant treatment process. Although it is not necessary to apply a vacuum in the surfactant treatment process, the vacuum infiltration tank or any other rotating vessel, chamber or tank can be used. In the surfactant treatment process, a surfactant, such as yucca extract, is added to the infiltrate, e.g., acid wash or water. The quantity of the surfactant added to the infiltrate may vary depending upon the surfactant used. For example, organic yucca extract can be added at a rate of between 0.1-20%, but more preferably 1-5% by volume of the infiltrate. The infiltrate with surfactant is then mixed with the biochar in a tumbler for several minutes, e.g., 3-5 minutes, without applied vacuum. Optionally, a vacuum or positive pressure may be applied with the surfactant to improve efficiency and penetration, but is not strictly necessary. Additionally, infiltrate to which the surfactant or detergent is added may be heated or may be ambient temperature or less. Similarly, the mixture of the surfactant or detergent, as well as the char being treated may be heated, or may be ambient temperature, or less. After tumbling, excess free liquid can be removed in the same manner as described above in connection with the vacuum infiltration process. Drying, also as described above in connection with the vacuum infiltration process, is an optional additional step. Besides yucca extract, a number of other surfactants may be used for surfactant treatment, which include, but are not limited to, the following: nonionic types, such as, ethoxylated alcohols, phenols—lauryl alcohol ethoxylates, Fatty acid esters—sorbitan, tween 20, amines, amides—imidazoles; anionic types, such as sulfonates—arylalkyl sulfonates and sulfate—sodium dodecyl sulfate; cationic types, such as alkyl—amines or ammoniums—quaternary ammoniums; and amphoteric types, such as betaines—cocamidopropyl betaine. Additionally biosurfactants, or microbes which produce biosurfactants such as Flavabacterium sp. may also be used.

Optionally, the biochar may also be treated by applying ultrasonics. In this treatment process, the biochar may be contacted with a treating liquid that is agitated by ultrasonic waves. By agitating the treating liquid, contaminants may be dislodged or removed from the biochar due to bulk motion of the fluid in and around the biocarbon, pressure changes, including cavitation in and around contaminants on the surface, as well as pressure changes in or near pore openings (cavitation bubbles) and internal pore cavitation.

In this manner, agitation will cause contaminants of many forms to be released from the internal and external structure of the biochar. The agitation also encourages the exchange of water, gas, and other liquids with the internal biochar structure. Contaminants are transported from the internal structure to the bulk liquid (treating fluid) resulting in biochar with improved physical and chemical properties. The effectiveness of ultrasonic cleaning is tunable as bubble size and number is a function of frequency and power delivered by the transducer to the treating fluid

In one example, applying ultrasonic treatment, raw wood based biochar between 10 microns to 10 mm with moisture content from 0% to 90% may be mixed with a dilute mixture of acid and water (together the treating liquid) in a processing vessel that also translates the slurry (the biochar/treating liquid mixture). During translation, the slurry passes near an ultrasonic transducer to enhance the interaction between the fluid and biochar. The biochar may experience one or multiple washes of dilute acid, water, or other treating fluids. The biochar may also make multiple passes by ultrasonic transducers to enhance physical and chemical properties of the biochar. For example, once a large volume of slurry is made, it can continuously pass an ultrasonic device and be degassed and wetted to its maximum, at a rapid processing rate. The slurry can also undergo a separation process in which the fluid and solid biochar are separated at 60% effectiveness or greater.

Through ultrasonic treatment, the pH of the biochar, or other physical and chemical properties may be adjusted and the mesopore and macropore surfaces of the biochar may be cleaned and enhanced. Further, ultrasonic treatment can be used in combination with bulk mixing with water, solvents, additives (fertilizers, etc.), and other liquid based chemicals to enhance the properties of the biochar. After treatment, the biochar may be subject to moisture adjustment, further treatment and/or inoculation using any of the methods set forth above. In certain applications, ultrasonic technology may also be used to modify (usually reduce) the size of the biochar particles while retaining much, most, or nearly all of the porosity and pore structure. This yields smaller size particles with different morphologies than other methods of sizing such as grinding, crushing, sieving, or shaking.

C. Impact of Treatment

As illustrated above, the treatment process, whether using pressure changes (e.g. vacuum), surfactant or ultrasonic treatment, or a combination thereof, may include two steps, which in certain applications, may be combined: (i) washing and (ii) inoculation of the pores with an additive. When the desired additive is the same and that being inoculated into the pores, e.g., water, the step of washing the pores and inoculating the pores with an additive may be combined.

While not exclusive, washing is generally done for one of three purposes: (i) to modify the surface of the pore structure of the biochar (i.e., to allow for increased retention of liquids); (ii) to modify the pH of the biochar; and/or (iii) to remove undesired and potentially harmful compounds or gases.

Testing has further demonstrated that if the biochar is treated, at least partially, in a manner that causes the infusion and/or effusion of liquids and/or vapors into and/or out of the biochar pores (through mechanical, physical, biological, or chemical means), certain beneficial properties of the biochar can be altered, enhanced or improved through treatment. By knowing the properties of the raw biochar and the optimal desired properties of the treated biochar, the raw biochar can then be treated in a manner that results in the treated biochar having controlled optimized properties and greater levels of consistency between batches as well as between treated biochars arising from various feedstocks.

Using the treatment processes described above, or other treatments that provide, in part, for the infusion and/or effusion of liquids and/or vapors into and/or out of the biochar pores, biochars can have improved physical and chemical properties over raw biochar.

1. Water Holding/Retention Capacity

As demonstrated below, the treatment processes of the invention modify the surfaces of the pore structure to provide enhanced functionality and to control the properties of the biochar to achieve consistent and predicable performance. Using the above treatment processes, anywhere from at least 10% of the total pore surface area up to 90% or more of the total pore surface area may be modified. In some implementations, it may be possible to achieve modification of up to 99% or more of the total pore surface area of the biochar particle. Using the processes set forth above, such modification may be substantially and uniformly achieved for an entire batch of treated biochar.

For example, it is believed that by treating the biochar as set forth above, the hydrophilicity of the surface of the pores of the biochar is modified, allowing for a greater water retention capacity, as well as, perhaps more importantly, more effective association of water loving biology (such as plant root tissue and other microbial life) with the material. Further, by treating the biochars as set forth above, gases and other substances are also removed from the pores of the biochar particles, also contributing to the biochar particles’ increased water holding capacity. Thus, the ability of the biochar to retain liquids, whether water or additives in solution, is increased, which also increases the ability to load the biochar particles with large volumes of inoculant, infiltrates and/or additives.

A batch of biochar has a bulk density, which is defined as weight in grams (g) per cm3 of loosely poured material that has or retains some free space between the particles. The biochar particles in this batch will also have a solid density, which is the weight in grams (g) per cm3 of just particles, i.e., with the free space between the particles removed. The solid density includes the air space or free space that is contained within the pores, but not the free space between particles. The actual density of the particles is the density of the material in grams (g) per cm3 of material, which makes up the biochar particles, i.e., the solid material with pore volume removed.

In general, as bulk density increases the pore volume would be expected to decrease and, if the pore volume is macro or mesoporous, with it, the ability of the material to hold infiltrate, e.g., inoculant. Thus, with the infiltration processes, the treated biochars can have impregnation capacities that are larger than could be obtained without infiltration, e.g., the treated biochars can readily have 10%, 30%, 40%, 50%, or most preferably, 60%-100% of their total pore volume filled with an infiltrate, e.g., an inoculant. The impregnation capacity is the amount of a liquid that a biochar particle, or batch of particles, can absorb. The ability to make the pores surface hydrophilic, and to infuse liquid deep into the pore structure through the application of positive or negative pressure and/or a surfactant, alone or in combination, provides the ability to obtain these high impregnation capabilities. The treated biochars can have impregnation capacities, i.e., the amount of infiltrate that a particle can hold on a volume held/total volume of a particle basis, that is greater than 0.2 cm3/cm3 to 0.8 cm3/cm3.

Accordingly, by using the treatment above, the water retention capacity of biochar can be greatly increased over the water retention capacities of various soil types and even raw biochar, thereby holding water and/or nutrients in the plant’s root zone longer and ultimately reducing the amount of applied water (through irrigation, rainfall, or other means) needed by up to 50% or more. FIG. 6 has two charts showing the water retention capacities of planting substrates versus when mixed with raw and treated biochar. In this example, the raw and treated biochar are derived from coconut biomass. The soils sampled are loam and sandy clay soil and a common commercial horticultural peat and perlite soilless potting mix. The charts show the retained water as a function of time.

In chart A of FIG. 6, the bottom line represents the retained water in the sandy claim loam soil over time. The middle line represents the retained water in the sandy clay soil with 20% by volume percent of unprocessed raw biochar. The top line represents the retained water in the sandy clay loam soil with 20% by volume percent of treated biochar (adjusted and inoculated biochar). Chart B of FIG. 6 represents the same using peat and perlite soilless potting mix rather than sandy clay loam soil.

As illustrated in FIG. 7 the treated biochar has an increased water retention capacity over raw biochar of approximately 1.5 times the raw biochar. Similarly, testing of treated biochar derived from pine have also shown an approximate 1.5 times increase in water retention capacity over raw biochar. With certain biochar, the water retention capacity of treated biochar could be as great as three time that of raw biochar.

“Water holding capacity,” which may also be referred to as “Water Retention Capacity,” is the amount of water that can be held both internally within the porous structure and in the interparticle void spaces in a given batch of particles. While a summary of the method of measure is provided above, a more specific method of measuring water holding capacity/water retention capacity is measured by the following procedure: (i) drying a sample of material under temperatures of 105° C. for a period of 24 hours or using another scientifically acceptable technique to reduce the moisture content of the material to less than 2%, less than 1%; and preferably less than 0.5% (ii) placing a measured amount of dry material in a container; (iii) filling the container having the measured amount of material with water such that the material is completely immersed in the water; (iv) letting the water remain in the container having the measured amount of material for at least ten minutes or treating the material in accordance with the invention by infusing with water when the material is a treated biochar; (v) draining the water from the container until the water ceases to drain; (vi) weighing the material in the container (i.e., wet weight); (vii) again drying the material by heating it under temperatures of 105° C. for a period of 24 hours or using another scientifically acceptable technique to reduce the moisture content of the material to less than 2% and preferably less than 1%; and (viii) weighing the dry material again (i.e., dry weight) and, for purposes of a volumetric measure, determining the volume of the material.

Measured gravimetrically, the water holding/water retention capacity is determined by measuring the difference in weight of the material from step (vi) to step (viii) over the weight of the material from step (viii) (i.e., wet weight-dry weight/dry weight). FIG. 7 illustrates the different water retention capacities of raw biochar versus treated biochar measured gravimetrically. As illustrated, water retention capacity of raw biochar can be less than 200%, whereas treated biochar can have water retention capacities measured gravimetrically greater than 100%, and preferably between 200 and 400%.

Water holding capacity can also be measured volumetrically and represented as a percent of the volume of water retained in the biochar after gravitationally draining the excess water/volume of biochar The volume of water retained in the biochar after draining the water can be determined from the difference between the water added to the container and water drained off the container or from the difference in the weight of the wet biochar from the weight of the dry biochar converted to a volumetric measurement. This percentage water holding capacity for treated biochar may be 30% and above by volume, and preferably 50-55 percent and above by volume.

Given biochar’s increased water retention capacity, the application of the treated biochar and even the raw biochar can greatly assist with the reduction of water and/or nutrient application. It has been discovered that these same benefits can be imparted to agricultural growth.

2. Plant Available Water

As illustrated in FIG. 8, plant available water is greatly increased in treated biochar over that of raw biochar. FIG. 8 illustrates the plant available water in raw biochar, versus treated biochar and treated dried biochar and illustrates that treated biochar can have a plant available water percent of greater than 35% by volume.

“Plant Available Water” is the amount of unbound water in the material available for plants to uptake. This is calculated by subtracting the water content at permanent wilting point from the water content at field capacity, which is the point when no water is available for the plants. Field capacity is generally expressed as the bulk water content retained at −33 J/kg (or −0.33 bar) of hydraulic head or suction pressure. Permanent wilting point is generally expressed as the bulk water content retained at −1500 J/kg (or −15.0 bar) of hydraulic head or suction pressure. Methods for measuring plant available water are well-known in the industry and use pressure plate extractor, which are commercially available or can be built using well-known principles of operation.

3. Remaining Water Content

Treated biochar of the present invention has also demonstrated the ability to retain more water than raw biochar after exposure to the environment for defined periods of time. For purposes of this application “remaining water content” can be defined as the total amount of water that remains held by the biochar after exposure to the environment for certain amount of time. Exposure to environment is exposure at ambient temperature and pressures. Under this definition, remaining water content can be may be measured by (i) creating a sample of biochar that has reached its maximum water holding capacity; (ii) determining the total water content by thermogravimetric analysis (H2O (TGA)), as described above on a sample removed from the output of step (i) above, (iii) exposing the biochar in the remaining sample to the environment for a period of 2 weeks (15 days, 360 hrs.); (iv) determining the remaining water content by thermogravimetric analysis (H2O (TGA)); and (v) normalizing the remaining (retained) water in mL to 1 kg or 1 L biochar. The percentage of water remaining after exposure for this two-week period can be calculated by the remaining water content of the biochar after the predetermine period over the water content of the biochar at the commencement of the two-week period. Using this test, treated biochar has shown to retain water at rates over 4× that of raw biochar. Testing has further demonstrated that the following amount of water can remain in treated biochar after two weeks of exposure to the environment: 100-650 mL/kg; 45-150 mL/L; 12-30 gal/ton; 3-10 gal/yd3 after 360 hours (15 days) of exposure to the environment. In this manner, and as illustrated in FIG. 12, biochar treated through vacuum impregnation can increase the amount of retained water in biochar about 3× compared to other methods even after seven weeks. In general, the more porous and the higher the surface area of a given material, the higher the water retention capacity. Further, it is theorized that by modifying the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the pore surfaces, greater water holding capacity and controlled release may be obtained. Thus, viewed as a weight percent, e.g., the weight of retained water to weight of biochar, examples of the present biochars can retain more than 5% of their weight, more than 10% of their weight, and more than 15% of their weight, and more compared to an average soil which may retain 2% or less, or between 100-600 ml/kg by weight of biochar

Tests have also shown that treated biochars that show weight loss of >1% in the interval between 43-60° C. when analyzed by the Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) (as described below) demonstrate greater water holding and content capacities over raw biochars. Weight loss of >5%-15% in the interval between 38-68° C. when analyzed by the Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) using sequences of time and temperature disclosed in the following paragraphs or others may also be realized. Weight percentage ranges may vary from between >1%-15% in temperature ranges between 38-68° C., or subsets thereof, to distinguish between treated biochar and raw biochar.

FIG. 9 is a chart 900 showing the weight loss of treated biochars 902 verses raw biochar samples 904 when heated at varying temperatures using the TGA testing described below. As illustrated, the treated biochars 902 continue to exhibit weight loss when heated between 40-60° C. when analyzed by the Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) (described below), whereas the weight loss in raw biochar 904 between the same temperature ranges levels off. Thus, testing demonstrates the presence of additional moisture content in treated biochars 902 versus raw biochars 904.

In particular, the treated biochars 902 exhibit substantial water loss when heated in inert gas such as nitrogen. More particularly, when heated for 25 minutes at each of the following temperatures 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 degrees Celsius, ° C. the treated samples lose about 5-% to 15% in the interval 43-60° C. and upward of 20-30% in the interval between 38-68° C. The samples to determine the water content of the raw biochar were obtained by mixing a measured amount of biochar and water, stirring the biochar and water for 2 minutes, draining off the water, measuring moisture content and then subjecting the sample to TGA. The samples for the treated biochar were obtained by using the same measured amount of biochar as used in the raw biochar sample, and impregnating the biochar under vacuum. Similar results are expected with biochar treated with a treatment process consistent with those described in this disclosure with the same amount of water as used with the raw biochar. The moisture content is then measured and the sample is subjected to TGA described above.

The sequences of time and temperature conditions for evaluating the effect of biochars heating in inert atmosphere is defined in this application as the “Bontchev-Cheyne Test” (“BCT”). The BCT is run using samples obtained, as described above, and applying Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) carried out using a Hitachi STA 7200 analyzer under nitrogen flow at the rate of 110 mL/min. The biochar samples are heated for 25 minutes at each of the following temperatures: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60° C. The sample weights are measured at the end of each dwell step, at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. The analyzer also continually measures and records weight over time. Biochars having enhanced water holding or retention capacities are those that exhibit weight loss of >5% in the interval between 38-68° C., >1% in the interval between 43-60° C. Biochars with greater water holding or retention capacities can exhibit >5% weight loss in the interval between 43-60° C. measured using the above described BCT.

4. Bulk Density

Because of the high porosity/pore volume of typical biochars, this technique of leaving water, oils, other liquids, or even driving other solids or gasses into the pores of biochar can be used to adjust the density of the material—specifically adding liquid or solids to raise the density, and using gasses or less dense liquids to lower the density. This ability to adjust the density of the material by loading the pores with liquid can be highly useful in matching the density of the material with the density of a suspension fluid—allowing for much greater uniformity in suspension of the material, over much longer periods of time. One skilled in the art will realize that the both the density of the material being infused into the pores as well as the depth or percentage of biochar pore volume infused can be adjusted with these processes to produce a treated biochar with a particular range of particle density and also bulk density.

A batch of biochar has a bulk density, which is defined as weight in grams (g) of 1 cm3 of loosely poured material that has or retains some free space between the particles. The biochar particles in this batch will also have a solid density, which is the weight in grams (g) of 1 cm3 of just particles, i.e., with the free space between the particles removed. The solid density includes the air space or free space that is contained within the pores, but not the free space between particles. The actual density of the particles is be the density of the material in grams (g) of 1 cm3 of material, which makes up the biochar particles, i.e., the particle material with pore volume removed.

In general, as bulk density increases the pore volume would be expected to decrease and with it, the ability to hold infiltrate, e.g., inoculant. Thus, with the infiltration processes, the treated biochars can have impregnation capacities that are larger than could be obtained without infiltration, e.g., the treated biochars can readily have 30%, 40%, 50%, or most preferably, 60%-100% of their total pore volume filled with an infiltrate, e.g., an inoculant. The impregnation capacity is the amount of a liquid that a biochar particle, or batch of particles, can absorb. The ability to make the pore morphology hydrophilic, and to infuse liquid deep into the pore structure through the application of positive or negative pressure and/or a surfactant, alone or in combination, provides the ability to obtain these high impregnation capabilities. The treated biochars can have impregnation capacities, i.e., the amount of infiltrate that a particle can hold on a volume held/total volume of a particle basis that is greater than 0.2 cm3/cm3 to 0.8 cm3/cm3.

Resulting bulk densities of treated biochar can range from 0.1-0.6 g/cm3 and sometimes preferably between 0.3-0.6 g/cm3 and can have solid densities ranging from 0.2-1.2 g/cm3.

5. Hydrophilicity/Hydrophobicity

The ability to control the hydrophilicity of the pores provides the ability to load the biochar particles with larger volumes of inoculant. The more hydrophilic the more the biochars can accept inoculant or infiltrate. Test show that biochar treated in accordance with the above processes, using either vacuum or surfactant treatment processes increase the hydrophilicity of raw biochar. Two tests may be used to test the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of biochar: (i) the Molarity of Ethanol Drop (“MED”) Test; and (ii) the Infiltrometer Test.

The MED test was originally developed by Doerr in 1998 and later modified by other researchers for various materials. The MED test is a timed penetration test that is noted to work well with biochar soil mixtures. For 100% biochar, penetration time of different mixtures of ethanol/water are noted to work better. Ethanol/Water mixtures verses surface tension dynes were correlated to determine whether treated biochar has increased hydrophilicity over raw biochar. Seven mixtures of ethanol and deionized water were used with a sorption time of 3 seconds on the biochar.

Seven solutions of deionized (“DI”) water with the following respective percentages of ethanol: 3, 5, 11, 13, 18, 24 and 36, were made for testing. The test starts with a mixture having no DI. If the solution is soaked into the biochar in 3 seconds for the respective solution, it receives the corresponding Hydrophobicity Index value below.

Ethanol % Hydrophobicity Index 0: DI Water 0 Very Hydrophillic  3% 1  5% 2 11% 3 13% 4 18% 5 24% 6 36% 7 Strongly hydrophobic

To start the test the biochar (“material/substrate”) is placed in convenient open container prepared for testing. Typically, materials to be tested are dried 110° C. overnight and cooled to room temperature. The test starts with a deionized water solution having no ethanol. Multiple drips of the solution are then laid onto the substrate surface from low height. If drops soak in less than 3 seconds, test records substrate as “0”. If drops take longer than 3 seconds or don’t soak in, go to test solution 1. Then, using test solution 1, multiple drops from dropper are laid onto the surface from low height. If drops soak into the substrate in less than 3 seconds, test records material as “1”. If drops take longer than 3 seconds, or don’t soak in, go to test solution 2. Then, using test solution 2, multiple drops from dropper laid onto the surface from low height. If drops soak into the substrate in less than 3 seconds, test records material as “2”. If drops take longer than 3 seconds, or don’t soak in, go to test solution 3. Then, using test solution 3, multiple drops from dropper laid onto the surface from low height. If drops soak into the substrate in less than 3 seconds, test records material as “3”. If drops take longer than 3 seconds, or don’t soak in, go to solution 4.

The process above is repeated, testing progressively higher numbered MED solutions until the tester finds the solution that soaks into the substrate in 3 seconds or less. The substrate is recorded as having that hydrophobicity index number that correlates to the solution number assigned to it (as set forth in the chart above).

Example test results using the MED test method is illustrated below.

MATERIAL HYDROPHOBICITY INDEX Raw Pine Biochars 3 to 5 Surfactant Treated Pine Biochar 1 Dried Raw Coconut Biochar 3 Dried Vacuum Treated Coconut Biochar 3 Dried Surfactant Treated Coconut Biochar 1

Another way to measure and confirm that treatment decreases hydrophobicity and increases hydrophilicity is by using a mini disk infiltrometer. For this test procedure, the bubble chamber of the infiltrometer is filled three quarters full with tap water for both water and ethanol sorptivity tests. Deionized or distilled water is not used. Once the upper chamber is full, the infiltrometer is inverted and the water reservoir on the reserve is filled with 80 mL. The infiltrometer is carefully set on the position of the end of the mariotte tube with respect to the porous disk to ensure a zero suction offset while the tube bubbles. If this dimension is changed accidentally, the end of the mariotte tube should be reset to 6 mm from the end of the plastic water reservoir tube. The bottom elastomer is then replaced, making sure the porous disk is firmly in place. If the infiltrometer is held vertically using a stand and clamp, no water should leak out.

The suction rate of 1 cm is set for all samples. If the surface of the sample is not smooth, a thin layer of fine biochar can be applied to the area directly underneath the infiltrometer stainless steel disk. This ensures good contact between the samples and the infiltrometer. Readings are then taken at 1 min intervals for both water and ethanol sorptivity test. To be accurate, 20 mL water or 95% ethanol needs to be infiltrated into the samples. Record time and water/ethanol volumes at the times are recorded.

The data is then processed to determine the results. The data is processed by the input of the volume levels and time to the corresponding volume column. The following equation is used to calculate the hydrophobicity index of R

I = at + b  t a  :   Infiltration   Rate , cm  /  s b  :   Sorptivity , cm  /  s 1 / 2 R = 1.95 * b ethanol b water

Based upon the testing above, it can be demonstrated, based upon hydrophobicity tests performed on raw biochar, vacuum treated biochar and surfactant treated biochar that both the vacuum treated and surfactant treated biochar are more hydrophilic than the raw biochar based upon the lower Index rating. In accordance with the test data, hydrophobicity of raw biochar can be reduced 23% by vacuum processing and 46% by surfactant addition.

As an example, raw biochar and treated biochar were tested with ethanol and water, five times for each. The results below on a coconut based biochar show that the hydrophobicity index of the treated biochar is lower than the raw biochar. Thus, tests demonstrate that treating the biochar, using the methods set forth above, make the biochar less hydrophobic and more hydrophilic.

MATERIAL HYDROPHOBICITY INDEX Dried Raw Biochar 12.9 Dried Vacuum Treated Biochar 10.4 Dried Surfactant Treated Biochar 7.0 As Is Raw Biochar 5.8 As Is Vacuum Treated Biochar 2.9

Further, through the treatment processes of the present invention, the biochar can also be infused with soil enhancing agents. By infusing liquid into the pore structure through the application of positive or negative pressure and/or a surfactant, alone or in combination, provides the ability to impregnate the macropores of the biochar with soil enhancing solutions and solids. The soil enhancing agent may include, but not be limited to, any of the following: water, water solutions of salts, inorganic and organic liquids of different polarities, liquid organic compounds or combinations of organic compounds and solvents, mineral and organic oils, slurries and suspensions, supercritical liquids, fertilizers, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, free-living and nodule-forming nitrogen fixing bacteria, organic decomposers, nitrifying bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, biocontrol agents, bioremediation agents, saprotrophic fungi, ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae, among others.

D. Impregnation and/or Inoculation with Infiltrates or Additives

In addition to mitigating or removing deleterious pore surface properties, by treating the pores of the biochar through a forced, assisted, accelerate or rapid infiltration process, such as those described above, the pore surface properties of the biochar can be enhanced. Such treatment processes may also permit subsequent processing, may modify the pore surface to provide predetermined properties to the biochar, and/or provide combinations and variations of these effects. For example, it may be desirable or otherwise advantageous to coat substantially all, or all of the biochar macropore and mesopore surfaces with a surface modifying agent or treatment to provide a predetermined feature to the biochar, e.g., surface charge and charge density, surface species and distribution, targeted nutrient addition, magnetic modifications, root growth facilitator, and water absorptivity and water retention properties.

By infusing liquids into the pores of biochar, it has been discovered that additives infused within the pores of the biochar provide a time release effect or steady flow of some beneficial substances to the root zones of the plants and also can improve and provide a more beneficial environment for microbes which may reside or take up residence within the pores of the biochar. In particular, additive infused biochars placed in the soil prior to or after planting can dramatically reduce the need for high frequency application of additives, minimize losses caused by leaching and runoff and/or reduce or eliminate the need for controlled release fertilizers. They can also be exceptionally beneficial in animal feed applications by providing an effective delivery mechanism for beneficial nutrients, pharmaceuticals, enzymes, microbes, or other substances.

For purposes of this application, “infusion” of a liquid or liquid solution into the pores of the biochar means the introduction of the liquid or liquid solution into the pores of the biochar by a means other than solely contacting the liquid or solution with the biochar, e.g., submersion. The infusion process, as described in this application in connection with the present invention, includes a mechanical, chemical or physical process that facilitates or assist with the penetration of liquid or solution into the pores of the biochar, which process may include, but not be limited to, positive and negative pressure changes, such as vacuum infusion, surfactant infusion, or infusion by movement of the liquid and/or biochar (e.g., centrifugal force, steam and/or ultrasonic waves) or other method that facilitates, assists, forces or accelerates the liquid or solution into the pores of the biochar. Prior to infusing the biochar, the biochar, as described in detail above, may be washed and/or moisture adjusted.

FIG. 10 is a flow diagram 1000 of one example of a method for infusing biochar with an additive. Optionally, the biochar may first be washed or treated at step 1002, the wash may adjust the pH of the biochar, as described in more detail above, or may be used to remove elemental ash and other harmful organics that may be unsuitable for the desired infused fertilizer. Optionally, the moisture content of the biochar may then be adjusted by drying the biochar at step 1004, also as described in further detail above, prior to infusion of the additive or inoculant at step 1006.

In summary, the infusion process may be performed with or without any washing, prior pH adjustment or moisture content adjustment. Optionally, the infusion process may be performed with the wash and/or the moisture adjustment step. All the processes may be completed alone or in the conjunction with one or more of the others.

Through the above process of infusing the additive into the pores of the biochar, the pores of the biochar may be filled by 25%, up to 100%, with an additive solution, as compared to 1-20% when the biochar is only submerged in the solution or washed with the solution for a period of less than twelve hours. Higher percentages may be achieved by washing and/or drying the pores of the biochar prior to infusion.

Data have been gathered from research conducted comparing the results of soaking or immersion of biochar in liquid versus vacuum impregnation of liquid into biochar. These data support the conclusion that vacuum impregnation provides greater benefits than simple soaking and results in a higher percentage volume of moisture on the surface, interstitially and in the pores of the biochar.

In one experiment, equal quantities of pine biochar were mixed with equal quantities of water, the first in a beaker, the second in a vacuum flask. The mixture in the beaker was continuously stirred for up to 24 hours, then samples of the suspended solid were taken, drained and analyzed for moisture content. The mixture in the vacuum flask was connected to a vacuum pump and negative pressure of 15″ was applied. Samples of the treated solid were taken, drained and analyzed for moisture content. FIG. 11 is a chart illustrating the results of the experiment. The lower graph 1102 of the chart, which shows the results of soaking over time, shows a wt. % of water of approximately 52%. The upper graph 1104 of the chart, which shows the results of vacuum impregnation over time, shows a wt. % of water of approximately 72%.

FIGS. 12a and 12b show two charts that further illustrate that the total water and/or any other liquid content in processed biochar can be significantly increased using vacuum impregnation instead of soaking. FIG. 12a compares the mL of total water or other liquid by retained by 1 mL of treated pine biochar. The graph 1202 shows that approximately 0.17 mL of water or other liquid are retained through soaking, while the graph 1204 shows that approximately 0.42 mL of water or other liquid are retained as a result of vacuum impregnation. FIG. 12b shows that the retained water of pine biochar subjected to soaking consists entirely of surface and interstitial water 1206, while the retained water of pine biochar subjected to vacuum impregnation consists not only of surface and interstitial water 1208a, but also water impregnated in the pores of the biochar 1208b.

In addition, as illustrated by FIG. 13, the amount of moisture content impregnated into the pores of vacuum processed biochars by varying the applied (negative) pressure during the treatment process. The graphs of four different biochars all show how the liquid content of the pours of each of them increase to 100% as vacuum reactor pressure is increased.

In another experiment, the percentage of water retained in the pores of pine derived biochar was measured to determine the difference in retained water in the pores of the biochar (i) soaked in water, and (ii) mixed with water subjected to a partial vacuum. For the soaking, 250 mL of raw biochar was mixed with 500 mL water in a beaker. Upon continuous stirring for 24 hrs., aliquots of the suspended solid were taken, drained on a paper towel and analyzed for moisture content. For the vacuum, 250 mL of raw biochar was mixed with 500 mL water in a vacuum flask. The flask was connected to a vacuum pump and negative pressure of 15″ has been applied, aliquots of the treated solid were taken, drained on a paper towel and analyzed for moisture content.

The total retained water amounts were measured for each sample. For the soaked biochar, the moisture content of biochar remains virtually constant for the entire duration of the experiment, 52 wt. % (i.e. 1 g of “soaked biochar” contains 0.52 g water and 0.48 g “dry biochar”). Taking into account the density of raw biochar, 0.16 g/cm3 (or mL), the volume of the 0.48 g “dry biochar” is 3.00 mL (i.e. 3 mL dry biochar can “soak” and retain 0.52 mL water, or 1 mL dry biochar can retain 0.17 mL water (sorbed on the surface and into the pores)).

For vacuum, the moisture content of the biochar remains virtually constant for the entire duration of the experiment, 72 wt. %, (i.e. 1 g of vacuum impregnated biochar contains 0.72 g water and 0.28 g “dry biochar”). Taking into account the density of raw biochar, 0.16 g/cm3 (or mL), the volume of the 0.28 g “dry biochar” is 1.75 mL (i.e. 1.75 mL dry biochar under vacuum can “absorb” and retain 0.72 mL water, or 1 mL dry biochar can retain 0.41 mL water (sorbed on the surface and into the pores)).

It was next determined where the water was retained—in the pores or on the surface of the biochar. Capillary porosity (“CP”) (vol % inside the pores of the biochar), non-capillary porosity (“NCP”) (vol. % outside/between the particles), and the total porosity (CP+NCP)) were determined. Total porosity and non-capillary porosity were analytically determined for the dry biochar and then capillary porosity was calculated.

Since the dry biochar used in this experiment had a density less than water, the particles could be modeled and then tested to determine if soaking and/or treating the biochar could infuse enough water to make the density of the biochar greater than that of water. Thus, the dry biochar would float and, if enough water infused into the pores, the soaked or treated biochar would sink. Knowing the density of water and the density of the biochar, calculations were done to determine the percentage of pores that needed to be filled with water to make the biochar sink. In this specific experiment, these calculations determined that more than 24% of the pore volume would need to be filled with water for the biochar to sink. The two processed biochars, soaked and vacuum treated, were then immersed in water after 1 hour of said processing. The results of the experiment showed that the vast majority of the soaked biochar floated and remained floating after 3 weeks, while the vast majority of the vacuum treated biochar sank and remained at the bottom of the water column after 3 weeks.

Using the results of these experiments and model calculations, the biochar particles can be idealized to estimate how much more water is in the pores from the vacuum treatment versus soaking. Since the external surface of the materials are the same, it was assumed that the samples retain about the same amount of water on the surface. Then the most conservative assumption was made using the boundary condition for particles to be just neutral, i.e. water into pores equal 24%, the water distribution is estimated as follows:

VACUUM DRY SOAKED TREATED BIOCHAR BIOCHAR BIOCHAR Experimental result FLOATED FLOATED SANK Total water (determined in 0% 52% 72% first part of experiment) Water in the pores (assumed 0% 24% 44% for floating biochar to be boundary condition, calculated for biochar that sank) Water on the surface 0% 28% 28% (calculated for floating biochar, assumed to match floating biochar for the biochar that sank)

In summary, these experimental tests and model calculations show that through vacuum treatment more than 24% of the pores of the biochar can be filled with water and in fact at least 1.8 times the amount of water can be infused into the pores compared to soaking. Vacuum treatment can impregnate almost two times the amount of water into the pores for 1 minute, while soaking does not change the water amount into the pores for three weeks.

The pores may be substantially filled or completely filled with additives to provide enhanced performance features to the biochar, such as increased plant growth, nutrient delivery, water retention, nutrient retention, disadvantageous species control, e.g., weeds, disease causing bacteria, insects, volunteer crops, etc. By infusing liquid into the pore structure through the application of positive or negative pressure, surfactant and/or ultrasonic waves, alone or in combination, provides the ability to impregnate the mesopores and macropores of the biochar with additives, that include, but are not limited to, soil enhancing solutions and solids.

The additive may be a soil enhancing agent that includes, but is not be limited to, any of the following: water, water solutions of salts, inorganic and organic liquids of different polarities, liquid organic compounds or combinations of organic compounds and solvents, mineral and organic oils, slurries and suspensions, supercritical liquids, fertilizers, PGPB (including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, free-living and nodule-forming nitrogen fixing bacteria, organic decomposers, nitrifying bacteria, and phosphate solubilizing bacteria), biocontrol agents, bioremediation agents, saprotrophic fungi, ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae, among others.

Fertilizers that may be infused into the biochar include, but are not limited to, the following sources of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium: urea, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, sulfur, ammonium sulfate, monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, ammonium polyphosphate, potassium sulfate, or potassium chloride.

Similar beneficial results are expected from other additives, such as: bio pesticides; herbicides; insecticides; nematicides; plant hormones; plant pheromones; organic or inorganic fungicides; algicides; antifouling agents; antimicrobials; attractants; biocides, disinfectants and sanitizers; miticides; microbial pesticides; molluscicides; bacteriacides; fumigants; ovicides; repellents; rodenticides, defoliants, desiccants; insect growth regulators; plant growth regulators; beneficial microbes; and, microbial nutrients or secondary signal activators, that may also be added to the biochar in a similar manner as a fertilizer. Additionally, beneficial macro- and micro-nutrients such as, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, zinc, iron, manganese, molybdenum, copper and chloride may also be infused into the biochar in the form of a water solution or other solvent solution.

Examples of compounds, in addition to fertilizer, that may be infused into the pores of the biochar include, but are not limited to: phytohormones, such as, abscisic acid (ABA), auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, brassinosteroies, salicylic acid, jasmonates, planet peptide hormones, polyamines, karrikins, strigolactones; 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole (BTH), an inducer of systemic acquired resistance that confers broad spectrum disease resistance (including soil borne pathogens); signaling agents similar to BTH in mechanism or structure that protects against a broad range or specific plant pathogens; EPSPS inhibitors; synthetic auxins; photosystem I inhibitors photosystem II inhibitors; and HPPD inhibitors. Growth media, broths, or other nutrition to support the growth of microbes or microbial life may also be infused such as Lauryl Tryptose broth, glucose, sucrose, fructose, or other sugars or micronutrients known to be beneficial to microbes. Binders or binding solutions can also be infused into the pores to aid in the adhesion of coatings, as well as increasing the ability for the treated biochar to associate or bond with other nearby particles in seed coating applications. Infusion with these binders can also allow for the coating of the biochar particle itself with other beneficial organisms or substances.

In one example, a 1000 ppm NO3 N fertilizer solution is infused into the pores of the biochar. As discussed above, the method to infuse biochar with the fertilizer solution may be accomplished generally by placing the biochar in a vacuum infiltration tank or other sealable rotating vessel, chamber or tank. When using vacuum infiltration, a vacuum may be applied to the biochar and then the solution may be introduced into the tank. Alternatively, the solution and biochar may both be introduced into the tank and, once introduced, a vacuum is applied. Based upon the determined total pore volume of the biochar or the incipient wetness, the amount of solution to introduce into the tank necessary to fill the pore of the biochar can be determined. When infused in this manner, significantly more nutrients can be held in a given quantity of biochar versus direct contact of the biochar with the nutrients alone.

When using a surfactant, the biochar and additive solution may be added to a tank along with 0.01-20% of surfactant, but more preferably 1-5% of surfactant by volume of fertilizer solution. The surfactant or detergent aids in the penetration of the wash solution into the pores of the biochar. The same or similar equipment used in the vacuum infiltration process can be used in the surfactant treatment process. Although it is not necessary to apply a vacuum in the surfactant treatment process, the vacuum infiltration tank or any other rotating vessel, chamber or tank can be used. Again, while it is not necessary to apply a vacuum, a vacuum may be applied or the pressure in the vessel may be changed. Further, the surfactant can be added with or without heat or cooling either of the infiltrate, the biochar, the vessel itself, or any combination of the three.

The utility of infusing the biochar with fertilizer is that the pores in biochar create a protective “medium” for carrying the nutrients to the soil that provides a more constant supply of available nutrients to the soil and plants and continues to act beneficially, potentially sorbing more nutrients or nutrients in solution even after introduction to the soil. By infusing the nutrients in the pores of the biochar, immediate oversaturation of the soil with the nutrients is prevented and a time released effect is provided. This effect is illustrated in connection with FIGS. 14 and 15. As demonstrated in connection with FIGS. 14 & 15 below, biochars having pores infused with additives, using the infusion methods described above, have been shown to increase nutrient retention, increase crop yields and provide a steadier flow of fertilizer to the root zones of the plants. In fact, the interior and exterior surfaces of the biochar may be treated to improve their sorption and exchange capabilities for the targeted nutrients prior to inoculation or infusion. This is the preferred approach as it allows for the tailoring of the surfaces to match the materials being carried. An example would be to treat the surfaces to increase the anionic exchange capacity when infusing with materials which typically manifest as anions, such as nitrates.

E. Application

Given biochar’s increased water retention capacities, and structure to support microbial life, the application of the treated biochar and, in some cases raw biochar, can greatly assist with increased efficiency of water and nutrients. To improve soil quality in crop applications biochar preferably should be applied in a manner that incorporates ease, low cost, effectiveness, and in many cases precision, although in many applications this is not strictly necessary.

In order to ensure effective application the biochar to be applied, raw or treated as described previously, should have certain characteristics. At least 95% (by weight) of the biochar applied should have a particle size less than or equal to 10 mm. Also, in order to demonstrate the best results of biochar addition, the biochar should have one or more of the following properties: an AEC greater than 10 meq/l and preferably greater than 20 meq/l, a CEC greater than 10 meq/l and preferably greater than 20 meq/l, an ash content less than 15% (mass basis) and preferably less than 5%, a hydrophobicity index below 12, more preferably below 10, even more preferably below 6, and most preferably between 0 and 4 as derived by comparing the sorption of water to ethanol using a tension infiltrometer (Tillman, R. W., D. R. Scotter, M. G. Wallis and B. E. Clothier. 1989, Water-repellency and its measurement by using intrinsic sorptivity. Aust J. Soil Res. 27: 637-644); and a pH between 4 and 9 and preferably between 5 and 8.5, and even more preferably between 5 and 6.5. Regarding hydrophobicity, a less hydrophobic char will have the tendency to suspend in a solution much more uniformly, whereas a hydrophobic char will want to float. Thus, when the application relates to biochars suspended in solution, biochars with a lower hydrophobicity index number are more desirable.

Anion exchange capacity (“AEC”) of biochar may be calculated by directly or indirectly-saturated paste extraction of exchangeable anions, Cl—, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43- to calculate anion sum or the use of potassium bromide to saturate anions sites at different pHs and repeated washings with calcium chloride and final measurement of bromide (see Rhoades, J. D. 1982, Soluble salts, p. 167-179. In: A. L. Page et al. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis: Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties; and Michael Lawrinenkoa and David A. Laird, 015, Anion exchange capacity of biochar, Green Chem., 2015, 17, 4628-4636). When treated using the above methods, including but not limited by washing under a vacuum, treated biochar generally has an AEC greater than 5 milliq/l and some even have an AEC greater than 20 (millieq/l).

One method for cation exchange capacity (“CEC”) determination is the use of ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0 (see Schollenberger, C. J. and Dreibelbis, E R. 1930, Analytical methods in baseexchange investigations on soils, Soil Science, 30, 161-173). The material is saturated with 1M ammonium acetate, (NH4OAc), followed by the release of the NH4+ ions and its measurement in meq/100 g (milliequivalents of charge per 100 g of dry soil) or cmolc/kg (centimoles of charge per kilogram of dry soil). Instead of ammonium acetate, another method uses barium chloride according to Mehlich, 1938, Use of triethanolamine acetatebarium hydroxide buffer for the determination of some base exchange properties and lime requirement of soil, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 29:374-378. 0.1 M BaCl2 is used to saturate the exchange sites followed by replacement with either MgSO4 or MgCl2.

Indirect methods for CEC calculation involves the estimation of extracted Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ in a standard soil test using Mehlich 3 and accounting for the exchangeable acidity (sum of H+, Al3+, Mn2+, and Fe2+) if the pH is below 6.0 (see Mehlich, A. 1984, Mehlich-3 soil test extractant: a modification of Mehlich-2 extractant, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 15(12): 1409-1416). When treated using the above methods, including but not limited by washing under a vacuum, treated biochars generally have a CEC greater than 5 millieq/l and some even have a CEC greater than 25 (millieq/l).

Hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity can be measured as set forth in Section C.5 above. For measuring pH, there are a wide variety of tests, apparatus and equipment for making pH measurements. For example, and preferably when addressing the pH of biochar, batches, particles and pore surfaces of those particles, two appropriates for measuring pH are the Test Method for the US Composting Council (“TMCC”) 4.11-A and the pH Test Method promulgated by the International Biochar Initiative. The test method for the TMCC comprises mixing biochar with distilled water in 1:5 [mass:volume] ratio, e.g., 50 grams of biochar is added to 250 mol f pH 7.0±0.02 water and is stirred for 10 minutes; the pH is then the measured pH of the slurry. The pH Test Method promulgated by the International Biochar Initiative comprises 5 grams of biochar is added to 100 mol f water pH=7.0±0.02 and the mixture is tumbled for 90 minutes; 25 the pH is the pH of the slurry at the end of the 90 minutes of tumbling. In one example, prior to and before testing, biochar is passed through a 2 mm sieve before pH is measured. All measurements are taken according to Rajkovich et. al, Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil, Biol. Fertil. Soils (2011), from which the IBI method is based.

In many instances, treatments can be made to the biochar to allow better affiliation of root tissue with the material—these treatments can include modification of physical or chemical properties as just described, but they can also involve infusion of the biochar with rooting hormones, biologicals, nutritionals, or other materials which promote plant root development.

It has been discovered that these same benefits can be imparted to agricultural growth through the production and application of biochar suspended solutions as described below. The creation of biochar suspended solutions prevents the potential for wind to blow biochar dust or fines, thus reducing biochar losses and allowing more uniform application and distribution. Furthermore, the biochar suspended solution, being wet, allows for greater penetration through the soil and allows for more accessibility for the roots of plants to garner the biochar’s advantageous physical/chemical properties.

Further, biochar may be more effectively applied if the biochar is in suspension in solution. The biochar, prior to being put in suspension in solution, may be raw or treated, as described above. If the biochar is treated, not only can the pH be adjusted as needed, as discussed above, but also fertilizers, microbes, and host of other additives may be infused in the biochar prior to suspension in solution (as further described below). However, regardless of whether the biochar is raw or treated, the present application for the suspension of biochar in solution can be utilized for both.

FIG. 16 is a flow diagram of an example of a method that may be used for producing biochar solutions. For purposes of this application, “biochar solution” or “biochar suspended solution” shall mean biochar that has been added or suspended in a liquid, alone or in combination with other additives. In general, the method of producing liquid products containing biochar may be accomplished by sufficiently de-sizing the biochar to pass through nozzles and/or mesh screens, dispersing the biochar in solution, such as water, and adding xanthan gum and/or other additives to keep the biochar in suspension, in solution.

At step 1602, biochar particles, either treated or raw, are collected for use in solution. The biochar particles may be collected in any number of ways, including but not limited to: (i) flow from a centrifuge effluent, (ii) from biochar granular product, or (ii) a combination of both a centrifuge effluent and granulated product. In all cases, the collected biochar may be passed to a media mill, air impingement, burr grinder, or other grinding, milling, or particle sizing equipment for production of smaller particles. The media mill or other similar equipment (e.g., attritor mill) allows for the de-sizing of the biochar product through dry and/or wet grinding. Micro particles may also be collected directly by traditional desizing equipment, including but not limited to hammer mills and grinders. Those skilled in the art will recognize that other desizing equipment, such as impellers, ultrasonic mechanisms, vibrators, shakers, or other devices besides hammer mills and grinders may be used to produce and collect biochar micro particles. Flocculants such as polyacrylamide can also be used at levels of 1000 ppm or less to collect the micro particles and to create a biochar micro particle cake. The residual amount of flocculant left in the micro particle cake will vary depending on the amount of flocculant that leaves with the liquid. Those skilled in the art will recognize that other flocculants, besides polyacrylamide may be used to clump the biochar particles together and other agents besides flocculants may be used to separate the solid micro particles from liquid for storing, transporting, or other purposes. Differences or variation in liquid or gas flow speed, rate, or pressure may also be used to sort particles based on their hydrodynamic or aerodynamic properties.

At step 1604, the biochar micro particles may then be dispersed in a liquid solution to create a biocarbon solution having a biochar solid content of approximately 1-75%, most desirable ranges between 15-70%. The liquid solution may include, but not be limited to, water, deionized water, liquid fertilizer and/or any combination thereof. Other liquid and/or solid additives may also be included in solution without departing from the scope of the invention. Once mixed in solution, the resulting biochar solution may then be passed through nozzles and mesh screens to remove any large biochar particles from the solution, at step 1606. Filters, such as nozzles and screen may be used to filter particles of sizes greater than about 0.2 mm. For example, mesh screens ranging from 0.2 mm-7.0 mm in size may be used to filter undesired larger particle sizes from solution. For example, a 15 mesh screen having 1.0 mm-1.2 mm openings may be used to filter undesired larger particle sizes from solution. Those skilled in the art will also recognize that the step of filtering out the larger particles may alternatively occur prior to or during the collection process (at step 1602).

To best hold the biochar in suspension, biochar micro particle sizes of about 0.5 mm or less may be desired or may depend on the method of application. For example, if applying biochar suspended solution with irrigation equipment, less than 0.05 mm, 0.025 mm, 0.01 mm, or even less may be desired, whereas less than 1 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.2 mm, or even less than 0.1 mm may be desired if applying biochar suspended solution with varying types of fertilizer equipment.

The following table shows the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of particles when held in suspension to support the efficacy of using biochar held in suspension compared to other mixtures such as solutions and colloids:

TABLE 18-2 “Laboratory 18.0: Colloids and Suspensions – Introduction.” Characteristic Solution Colloid Suspension Type of particle individual very large individual very large molecules or molecules or aggregates of ions aggregates of ions to molecules thousands of smaller molecules Particle size <1 nm ~1 nm to ~200 nm >100 nm Separation by no no (usually: otherwise, yes gravity? very slowly) Separation by no yes, for more massive yes centrifugation? dispersed particles Captured by filter no no yes paper? Captured by no yes (usually) yes membrane? Precipitatable by no yes yes flocculation? Exhibits Tyndall no yes yes Effect? Affects colligative yes no no properties?

http://makezine.com/laboratory-18-colloids-and-suspensi/.

It should be noted that the pH of the biochar solution can affect how much biochar particles will stay in solution and the viscosity of said solution. Thus it may be beneficial to add an acid or base before, during, or after these steps. For example, lowering the viscosity of the solution by adding a base to the solution prior to wet milling will allow for more efficient milling and result in a higher amount of solids fit for the solution, i.e. less particles will be removed during the large particle removal step. Then, after the wet milling an acid could be added to bring the pH back down and provide the viscous stability to ensure the particles stay and solution instead of settling.

At step 1608, a stabilizing agent may then be added to keep the biochar in flowable suspension and prevent it from settling. The stabilizing agent can include xanthan gum at about 0.1% to 0.7% by weight to the solution or it can vary depending on the solids already in solution, the percentage of solids in solution and/or the particle size of the biochar used to create the solution. Alternative natural or synthetic agents with pseudoplastic rheology capable of suspending biocarbon particles in solution may also be added at this step such as alkali swellable acrylic thickeners, inorganic substances, surfactants or other water born thickeners. Isothiazolin type preservatives could also be added to prevent biological degradation of the xanthan gum. For example, 50 ppm of active Kathon™ LX 1.5% biocide may be added to protect the xanthan gum. Those skilled in the art will recognize that other preservatives may be used to prevent biological degradation of the xanthan gum. Those skilled in the art will also recognize that the step of adding stabilizing agents may alternatively occur prior to, during, or after the collection process (at step 1602).

For example, the stabilizing agent could be added prior to the creation of the suspended biochar solution by mixing or spraying the agents on dry biochar particles either prior or post micro particle collection process. In fact, they could even be added or infuse into the biochar during the treatment processes. This could allow for the production, transport, and/or sale of a dry or semi-dry biochar product that could then be turned into a solution after production, for example at the time of sale or just prior to application at say the farm where it will be applied. Similarly, the process of adjusting the density of the biochar can be combined with the process of adding stabilizing agents or thickeners.

Depending on the thickener or stabilizing agent used at step 1608, a preservative may also be added to ensure an optimal product with long shelf life. Choosing the right preservative is important as the biochar itself can absorb certain preservatives and thus allow unwanted microbiological growth in the solution over time. Potential preservatives that may be used are polymeric preservatives such as poly quats or formaldehyde emitter preservatives. Chlorine based preservatives are not generally used as the biochar can degrade chlorine in a short amount of time. Another option to avoid biochar solution degradation is to choose a stabilizing agent that will not rot or encourage microbiological growth in the solution. One example of this is clay based thickeners such as Attagel and Veegum. An exception to this would be cases in which microbial agents are to be inoculated on or suspended with the biochar itself. A third option is to not create the solution until right before it will be used, for example at the time of sale or at the time of application. The shorter shelf-life reduces chances of solution degradation.

Optionally, growth enhancing additives, including but not limited to, fertilizers, liquid micronutrients, liquid manure, liquefied compost or compost “tea”, compost extract and beneficial microbes can be added to the biochar solution. These additives may be added either prior, during, or after the suspended biochar solution is created. For example, the additive may be infused into the biochar prior to creating the solution using vacuum infiltration or a surfactant as further described above. Alternatively, or in addition to infusing the biochar with additives, additives may be included with the biochar solution described above prior, during or after creation of the biochar solution.

For example, fertilizers may be pulverized to an average particle size of <1 mm and included with the solid biochar or added to solution. Liquid fertilizers may also be used in solution. For example, 1000 ppm NO3 N fertilizer solution may be used. Examples of fertilizers that may be added to the solution, include, but are not limited to the following: ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, monoammonium phosphate, ammonium polyphosphate, Cal-Mag fertilizers or micronutrient fertilizers. Other additives, such as fungicides, insecticides, nematicides, plant hormones, beneficial microbial spores, or secondary signal activators, may also be added to the solution in a similar manner as a fertilizer, the inclusion of which does not depart from the scope of the invention. Additionally, beneficial macro- and micro-nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, zinc, iron, manganese, molybdenum, copper and chloride can be added to the suspended biochar solution. As set forth above, in addition to adding these to solution, such additives can be infused into the biochar prior to creating the solution.

Examples of compounds, in addition to fertilizer, that may be mixed with the biochar solution or infused into the biochar prior to creating the solution include, but are not limited to: 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole (BTH), an inducer of systemic acquired resistance that confers broad spectrum disease resistance (including soil borne pathogens); signaling agents similar to BTH in mechanism or structure that protects against a broad range or specific plant pathogens; biopesticides; herbicides; and fungicides.

Those skilled in the art will recognize that there are many other mechanisms and processes that may be used to produce biochar solutions without departing from the scope of the invention. Those skilled in the art will further recognize that the present invention can be used on any type of soil application, including, but not limited to, the following: crops, turf grasses, potted plants, flowering plants, annuals, perennials, evergreens and seedlings. Further, it should be noted that the above described steps to create the solution can be performed in any order, or steps may be repeated during the process.

By putting the biochar solution, as taught above, a variety of equipment may be used for the application of the suspended biochar solution. The ability to uniformly apply the biochar solution is also enhanced by allowing the use of pumps, sprays and various other types of equipment capable of handling liquid dispersion. For example, Sprayers, booms, and misting heads can be an efficient way to apply the biochar solution to a large area, while backpacks or hose sprayers can be sufficient for smaller applications. Aside from spraying applications, biochar solution may also be pumped through the ground to eliminate the potential for wind erosion while allowing for faster infiltration into the soil. Furthermore, biochar solution can be used in connection with a variety of equipment used for hydroseeding, manure spreading (either solid or liquid), foliar spraying, irrigation, or other liquid application technologies. As there are so many different options to apply biochar suspended solutions or solution, much time and expense can be saved.

In addition, the use of a biochar suspended solution can allow for more efficient and focused applications to ensure the biochar treatment stays in the root zone, or is deployed in the vicinity of juvenile or developing root tissue, thus reducing the amount of biochar needed on a cubic yard per acre basis. For example, if the biochar solution is put through irrigation tape that is laid directly in a row crop bed the biochar will only be treating the root zones of said crop in the beds and not the row crop furrows nor above or below the root zone in the bed. Not only does this lessen the cost by reducing the amount of biochar needed it also can lessen the cost of the application method itself as it can be applied using the same equipment that may already be available for irrigation and liquid fertilizer application.

The application of the biochar solution can be used for trees, row crops, vines, turf grasses, potted plants, flowering plants, annuals, perennials, evergreens and seedlings. The biochar solution may be incorporated into or around the root zone of a plant at ratios of between 1:999 to 1:1. However, an application does not necessarily need to be restricted or limited to these ratios. Biochar can be added to soil at a concentration of 0.01% up to 99% depending upon the application, plant type and plant size. As most trees, rows, and specialty crops extract greater than 90% of their water from the first twenty-four inches below the soil surface, the above applications will generally be effective incorporating the biochar around the root zone from the top surface of the soil and up to a depth of 24″ below the top surface of the soil, depending on the plant type and species, or alternatively, within a 24″ radius surrounding the roots regardless of root depth or proximity from the top surface of the soil. When the plant roots are closer to the surface, the incorporation of the biochar within the top 2-6″ inches of the soil surface may also be effective. Greater depths are more beneficial for plants having larger root zones, such as trees.

The biochar suspended solution may also be applied to animal pens, bedding, and/or other areas where animal waste is present to reduce odor and emission of unpleasant or undesirable vapors. Furthermore it may be applied to compost piles to reduce odor, emissions, and temperature or even to areas where fertilizer or pesticide runoff is occurring to slow or inhibit leaching and runoff. In some instances, it may even be mixed with animal feed, fed to animals directly as a liquid, or used in aquaculture applications.

Biochar solution may also be utilized and applied through irrigation equipment for both low flow and high flow irrigation systems. For the purpose of this application, “low flow system” includes but is not limited to micro sprays, drip emitters, and drip lines and “high flow systems” includes but is not limited to fixed sprays, rotors, bubblers, and soaker hoses. Although the utilization of the chemical and physical properties of biochar for optimal plant growth would ideally be most effective when applied to plants during their peak growing cycle, all of the applications discussed above can be applied at any time during the different stages of plant growth or ground preparation as needed. Similarly, the methods of application can be repeated as many times as needed from year to year depending on factors not limited to plant type, climate, soil properties, topography, and light. In summary, when any type of liquid is applied to the plants such as water or liquid fertilizer, the suspended biochar solution can be added to the liquid in order to provide further soil enhancement characteristics.

An alternative method for creating a biochar solution is to instead make a biochar slurry using a process similar to hydromulching or hydroseeding. With this method the size reduction step can be reduced or eliminated since the process is typically applicable for larger particle sizes in which the resulting slurry is applied through pumps and sprays. For this application method typically the granular biochar will be mixed with water, fiber mulch, and optionally a tackifier at time of application and then sprayed to area needed. In addition, it can be mixed with fertilizer, seeds, or other additives including dyes to help aid in uniform distribution. Typical hydroseeding and hydromulching equipment may be used and generally include a tank mounted truck that is equipped with a special pump and continuous agitation system. The pump then pushes the slurry though a hose and nozzle for application. To create a biochar slurry for this application the fiber mulch is usually a cellulose based material which can be made from shredded waste paper sources and can include dyes, binders, or other additives. The optional tackifier can include but is not limited to guar gum, xanthan gum, plantago gum, methyl cellulose, pectin, lignin, seedmeals, such as camelina or lesquerella, polysaccharide gums, or starches, such as corn starch. The addition of a tackifier increases the biochar slurry’s effectiveness especially when applied on a slope, on an area that is erosion prone, or other areas that would cause concern of the biochar application being washed away due to rain or irrigation. If the slurry is to be made significantly prior to application then a preservative would likely be needed as well to ensure a longer shelf life. Otherwise the biochar, fiber, and tackifier can be mixed dry and then turned into a slurry just prior to application or even onsite, similarly to current practices of hydromulching and hydroseeding. This biochar slurry may be particularly useful in turf and landscape applications where hydroseeding or hydromulching is already being used. In the case of turf particularly, it could be either mixed with grass seeds prior to application or applied immediately prior to the hydroseeding application. A process similar to this can be used for mixing the biochar with manure to create a manure slurry, either in lagoons, or at any point prior to application of the manure.

The foregoing description of implementations has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. It is not exhaustive and does not limit the claimed inventions to the precise form disclosed. Modifications and variations are possible in light of the above description or may be acquired from practicing the invention. The claims and their equivalents define the scope of the invention.

1. A method for producing a biochar solution the method comprises the steps of (i) collecting biochar particles; (ii) dispersing the biochar particles in a liquid solution; and (iii) adding a stabilizing agent to keep the biochar in flowable suspension.

2. The method of claim 1 where the step of collecting the biochar micro particles includes collecting biochar from a centrifuge effluent and passing the biochar to equipment for de-sizing.

3. The method of claim 1 where the step of collecting the biochar particles includes collecting biochar from biochar granular product and passing the biochar to equipment for de-sizing.

4. The method of claim 1 where the step of collecting the biochar particles includes collecting biochar from both centrifuge effluent and granulated product and passing the biochar to equipment for de-sizing.

5. The method of claim 2 where the de-sizing equipment is a media mill.

6. The method of claim 3 where the de-sizing equipment is a media mill.

7. The method of claim 1 where the step of collecting the biochar particles includes adding a flocculant to the biochar.

8. The method of claim 1 where the liquid solution includes water.

9. The method of claim 1 where the liquid solution includes both water and an additive.

10. The method of claim 9 where the additive is a fertilizer.

11. The method of claim 1 further including the step of removing larger biochar particles from the liquid solution by filtering the solution.

12. The method of claim 11 where the liquid solution is filtered using a mesh screen ranging from 0.2 mm-7.0 mm in size.

13. The method of claim 1 where the stabilizing agent is xanthan gum.

14. The method of claim 1 where step of adding a stabilizing agent further includes adding a preservative.

15. The method of claim 1 where the biochar used in solution has been treated by infusing a liquid into the pores of the biochar particles.

16. A biochar solution comprising biochar particles, a liquid solution and a stabilizing agent to keep the biochar in suspension in the liquid solution.

17. The biochar solution of claim 16 where the liquid solution is water.

18. The biochar solution of claim 16 where the liquid solution includes both water and an additive.

19. The biochar solution of claim 18 where the additive is a fertilizer.

20. The biochar solution of claim 16 where the stabilizing agent is xanthan gum.

21. The biochar solution of claim 16 where biochar solution further includes a preservative.

22. The biochar solution of claim 16 where the biochar used in solution has been treated by infusing a liquid into the pores of the biochar particles.

23. The biochar solution of claim 16 where 90% of the biochar particles are 0.5 mm or less in size.

24. The biochar solution of claim 18 where the additive is a plant nutrient.

25. The biochar solution of claim 18 where the additive is a biological agent beneficial to plants.

26. The biochar solution of claim 18 where the additive is manure.

27. The biochar solution of claim 18 where the additive is a liquid solution of compost.

28. The biochar solution of claim 1 where the step of adding the stabilizing agent to keep the biochar in flowable suspension is performed before dispersing the biochar particles in a liquid solution.


Vermitea Charged Biochar

20 May, 2017
 

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Earthworks on the farm

21 May, 2017
 

After a heavy rainfall, the gush of water flowing along the new channel at Living Web Farms is what you’d expect after a good deluge, according to John Nelson.

Nelson, who designs and installs permaculture systems, is in the process of completing a large installation of earthworks at Living Web’s Grandview Farm in Mills River. The system will help the demonstration farm better utilize rainwater for use in growing food, maintaining livestock and creating species diversity.

“Rainwater is the only water we can really work with — if we can hold the water and slow it down, you have the opportunity to recharge the aquifer,” said Nelson.

At its core a design system, permaculture encourages finding patterns, navigating problems and seizing opportunities.

For the Grandview Farm project, Nelson focused on a water application for permaculture, which strives for sustainable resource use that enhances and works with natural functions in the environment. He’s taken advantage of key features of the landscape, such as the natural contour of the land, to complement his low-impact design.

“With permaculture it’s all about the possibilities,” said Nelson. “I was looking at patterns, problems, opportunities — where the needs are. On a farm it’s all about where the water is — that’s the limiting factor.”

Living Web has three farm locations in Mills River; its Grandview Farm near Rugby Road comprises about 16 acres and includes greenhouse food production, livestock (including sheep, donkeys, chicken and geese) and a facility for making biochar, a purer form of naturally-produced lump charcoal.

“Living Web is all about sustainable and resilient systems, and it’s about farming for effective water, nutrient and water cycling,” said Meredith Leigh, education coordinator and livestock co-manager at Living Web. “This project helps us keep more water in the soil. It’s fast tracking our ability to keep water here.”

A large earthworks channel, formed by a berm and swale construction, eases the flow of water over the land as it links two new ponds. One pond sits at the highest point of the property and the other at the lowest point, where a small wetland ecosystem has been created. Another large water catchment on the property acts akin to a wetland as it serves to filter water, encourage wildlife and replenish the aquifer.

Serviceberry, elderberry, honey locust, alder and willow trees have been planted along the berm to create diversity and act as animal food.

“This water-savvy swale/berm network John has created for us allows us to maximize diversity, achieve greater levels of productivity and most importantly become more resilient,” said Patryk Battle, director of Living Web Farms. “I love how our crew has embraced John’s work and are inspired by it.”

Nelson said the Grandview installation — which is likely the largest project of its kind in North Carolina — could easily be scaled down to a smaller size, say, for a typical residential property. An afternoon workshop on Aug. 19 with a donation-based fee at the Grandview Farm will provide an opportunity for the public to learn more.

“Rainwater harvesting makes sense, even more sense in an urban environment because there’s more runoff,” he said. “If you can use the water off your land, it’s a win-win situation … with water becoming more valuable.”

Essentially, Nelson’s installation is intended to create resilience in the face of unpredictable rainfall patterns. It also will dramatically decrease the amount of water leaving the farm as storm water runoff.

Nelson said that wells, which tap precious groundwater, are a contributing factor to storm water runoff, which becomes an issue after heavy rainfall, adding sediment to waterways and increasing the risk of damage due to flooding. Additionally, he recognizes how aquifers become the primary, vulnerable source of water for both households and agriculture in periods of drought.

“Even in a desert there’s enough rainfall to capture,” Nelson said.

Nelson’s earthworks design originated at the “outlet,” the lowest point on the farm, where a wetland system and pond are being established with plants near the farm’s large greenhouse and biochar facility. The pond will be stocked with brim, bass, catfish and carp, and will include a fish lock for easy harvesting.

“The earthworks is integrated with the livestock, and then with the perennial, annual, vegetative plantings that create diversity and forage for livestock as well as food for humans and for soil,” said Leigh.

Features in this zone include a cascade system to keep the water aerated and regulate the water level. Runoff from the parking lot gets filtered through biochar Nelson placed at the base of the wetland water catchment; the three feet of charcoal soaks up nutrients and provides a growing base for juncus grass, sedges and other wetland plants.

From it, two underground water lines head toward a windmill that can pump a couple of million gallons of water per year to the upper pond, according to Nelson.

“This is an old-timey windmill, made in America, a heavy duty 47-foot tower,” he said. “We’ve got tons of water, plenty of wind. It works well because we have a windy season that coincides with most of the rain.”

A two-inch water line runs also runs from the windmill to the greenhouse, for irrigation. Potentially, 10 million gallons of water could be distributed around the farm, once a solar-powered pump is eventually added.

“I hope it inspires people to use more traditional and alternative energy,” Nelson said.

A key feature of the farm, which until recently was a washed out gully choked with invasive exotic plants, had originally served to save surface water for farm use. Nelson and his crew of helpers uncovered layers of rock, including stairs, in what is now a kind of funnel catchment that filters in a cascading action after filling up from the bottom.

Trees have also been planted at the edge of the water catchment, which is lined with compacted clay. Plants like yarrow, lemon balm, Echinacea, autumn olive and oregano will add to the filtering function, as a “biofilter.”

The plant layer at catchments and on berms also acts as a hedgerow, a diverse “edge” area with benefits for native birds and insect pollinators. “It’s just all these win-win situations,” said Nelson.

For more information about Living Web Farms and the August workshop, call 828-582-5039 or visit livingwebfarms.org. 

To learn more about applications of permaculture design, contact John Nelson at 828-702-1928 or visit stoneandspade.com.

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gardening

21 May, 2017
 

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r/composting

Mix with rich compost and/or manure.

Thanks! Will compost tea do the trick too?

Ya!

How long do I let the two sit?

edit: if I pour my charcoal and compost tea in a bucket, how long until I strain the charcoal out and use it?

At least a few days I suppose. Then just put the whole muck in the garden.

Thank you so much for the help!

I'm fairly sure that whatever you've got in that bag is already biochar. I mean, it's a soil amendment made from charcoal is it not?

It is charcoal, but it has not been 'charged' so to speak. From what I understand, you are supposed to soak this virgin charcoal in a nutrient rich liquid to make this bio-charcoal.


1 ton of Bio Char

21 May, 2017
 

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Characteristics of biochar: physical and structural properties

21 May, 2017
 

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How To Make Biochar From Sawdust

22 May, 2017
 

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On Biochar

22 May, 2017
 

I had some expectations of what I was going to be shown, but they were all thrown out the window…. I had been expecting to see kilns such as the one at right which are all enclosed for the purpose of starving the fire of Oxygen so as to pyrolise the wood and make charcoal. My friend Bruce in Queensland has been making charcoal this way for thirty years to satisfy his blacksmithing habit (and those of many others I might add), and he has this down to a fine art. But it appears there’s a revolution underway…..

The presenter on the day was Frank Strie, who thirty years ago emigrated from Germany with his whole family to Tasmania. “We started to plant lots of different fruit trees” Frank says on his website, “such as Cherries, Apricots, Peaches, Plums, Prunes and various apple and pear trees. And of course, we wanted to grow our own vegetables. Also, about 20 years ago we established a Hazelnut Orchard, which covers nearly one third of the property.” It’s all organic of course, and he sounds like he’s pretty good mates with Peter Cundall, Tassie’s gardening guru……

The fact that he brought three kilns on a trailer and the back of a ute all the way from Launceston just shows how versatile and portable his gear is.

The new kilns are open topped, and most interestingly, funnel shaped. They make the process faster — like maybe half the time or better — and allow for activation of the charcoal (which is what turns it into biochar) all in one go. Being able to just tip the finished product onto the ground instead of laboriously shoveling it out of the kiln looks good to this old man with a bad back as well.

The idea of the funnel shape is that as the air outside is heated, it rises up the sides, and when it reaches the lip, a vortex effect is created causing the air to be sucked into the kiln speeding up the burn. The ‘big one’ even comes with a skirt that acts as a venturi, speeding up the air as it is squeezed between the kiln and skirt at the lip of the kiln. The effect was clearly visible, though nigh impossible to catch in a still photo.

The ‘smothering’ effect is created by simply adding more and more firewood to the pile. Before combustion is complete, the fire is quenched (with water on this particular day, but normally a liquid fertiliser would be used) from the bottom up. The bottom of the kiln is plumbed to a pipe which can be used for both removing excess liquid, or adding it under pressure from an IBC on, say, the back of a ute. On the day, Frank used a garden hose, because we could not do what he normally does because of where we were….

On the day, the kiln was not filled to capacity due to location and time constraints, but you can clearly see the results. The big kiln even comes with a winch to tip the biochar out for easy work, and if it wasn’t for the fact I’m far too busy house building and counting my remaining pennies, I would buy one tomorrow,

To learn more about biochar, here is an interesting link supplied by Frank that anyone keen on this process would find enlightening. I think this is definitely the way of the future, a bright light among all the rubbish we see every day about renewable energy and electric cars. This has the potential to sequester huge amounts of Carbon, and even more importantly, prepare farm soil for the post oil era looming on the horizon.

Mike said: “Each time I burned the piles, I got the guilts knowing all that resource was going to waste and contributing to climate change”.

Mike,
My understanding has always been that — with regard to CO2 outputs — if you are simply ‘converting’ carbon that is already in the biosphere from one form to another then you are not contributing to climate change. You are simply participating in what is essentially a naturally occurring climate cycle. I acknowledge the potential impacts of ‘extreme’ levels of such processes of ‘conversion’, but isn’t it ‘fossil carbon’ — releasing the stuff locked away for millennia — that we should ‘get the guilts’ about…
Sam.

Only if you replace the cut down trees……. and I am working on that.

I’m happy that you posted this Mike. As a Texas Master Gardener (and current president of our county Master Gardener Association), I’m interested in biochar. I did considerable research on this several years ago and have written newsletter stories about it. Biochar passes the tests of time and history and there is some evidence (in South America) that it actually regenerates itself and grows over time. While I’m knowledgable about biochar, your post added something new and interesting to me — the specific method your friend and colleague uses to create it. The old-fashioned way can get a bit tedious. I’m especially interested in the comment that the technique you describe both creates and activates the biochar. That intrigues me. As for your regret about burning that pile of accumulated timber and brush, just remember that the average person does not know the difference between carbon sequestration and carbon de-sequestration. Keep your sense of humor. I suspect you will need it one of these days. We all will. There will be some surprises along the way.

Biochar is a spin off of terra prete, which was discovered in the Amazon basin relatively recently, created by people hundreds of years ago. Be interesting to find out if outside the Amazon it can regenerate itself. We sure need it in this nation of poor soils. Rock dust is another useful soil conditioner.

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Global Biochar Market 2017

22 May, 2017
 

World Biochar Market by Product Type, Market, Players and Regions-Forecast to 2021 Global Biochar Market 2017, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biochar market globally, providing basic overview of Biochar market including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure, Biochar Market report provides development policies and plans are discussed… Read More »

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Interra and the pursuit of soil magic via affordable biochar

22 May, 2017
 


Global Biochar Market Rising at $585.0 Mn By 2020

23 May, 2017
 

Biochar is a fine-grained carbon-rich product obtained by the heating organic material such as wood, manure or leaves under conditions of no oxygen. Biochar can enhance soils, sequester carbon as well as provide useable energy. Biochar also has tendency to filter and retain nutrients from percolating soil water. Pyrolysis, hydrothermal conversion, and gasification are simple and efficient technologies for transforming different biomass feedstocks into renewable energy products. Furthermore, biochar has the ability to produce usable energy during its production while concurrently creating a carbon product, which provides sequester or store carbon and improves agriculture and other processes.

Request For Free Sample Report: www.marketresearchstore.com/report/biochar-market-z43492#RequestSample

Based on technology, biochar market can be segmented as pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal and others. The pyrolysis technology is largest segment accounted for significant share and expected to witness the fastest growth at a CAGR of over 10.0% in terms of revenue from 2015 to 2020. Gasification technology does not create stable biochar which can be used in agriculture for soil amendment. This technology segment expected to decline its market share in the years to come.

Request For Free Price Quotations www.marketresearchstore.com/requestquote?reportid=43492

With over 50% shares in total volume consumption, North America was the largest market. North America followed by Europe and Asia-Pacific region. Europe was the second largest market for biochar and accounted for around 25% shares in total volume consumption in 2014. Asia Pacific is the third largest market accounted for the significant share of a total market in 2014. Latin America and Meddle East & Africa are also expected to grow at a moderate pace.

Some of the key industry players including Diacarbon Energy Inc, Vega Biofuels, Inc, Agri-Tech Producers. LLC, Hawaii Biochar Products. LLC, Biochar Products, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc, Black carbon A/S, Green Charcoal International, Earth Systems Pty Ltd, and Genesis.

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1a) Because of this porosity, higher amounts of biochar in the t

23 May, 2017
 

1a). Because of this porosity, higher amounts of biochar in the treated soil increased the habitat for microbes to grow. Joseph et al. (2010) indicated that most of biochar has a high concentration of macro-pores that extends from the surface to the interior, and Selleckchem BKM120 minerals and small organic particles might accumulate in these pores. Few studies have been published

on the influences of biochar on the physical properties of soils (Atkinson et al., 2010). In addition to improved chemical properties of the soils, our results indicated a particularly significant improvement in the physical properties of the highly weathered soil. The results indicated a significant decrease in Bd, and an increase in porosity, Ksat, and the MWD of soil aggregates in the biochar-amended soils, even at the low application rate (2.5%) after incubation of 105 d (Table 2). During the incubation duration, the values of Bd kept higher in the biochar-amended soils JAK/stat pathway than in the control after 21 d. Before 21 d, the rapid increase

in the control’s Bd might be caused by gradual infilling of clays into pores of the soil, which reflected that the incubated soils are stable and approached field condition after 21 d. For the biochar-amended soils, physical dilution effects might have caused reduced Bd levels, which agreed with Busscher et al. (2011) who indicated that increasing total organic carbon by the addition of organic amendments in soils could significantly decrease Bd. Furthermore, the decrease in Bd of the biochar-amended soils appears to have also been the result of alteration of soil aggregate sizes, as shown by Tejada and Gonzalez (2007) who amended the following soils by using organic first amendments in Spain. In our study, micromorphological observations of the amended soils indicated the flocculation of soil microaggregates after the addition of biochar (Fig. 4a; b). The porosity could also be effectively improved by application of the biochar and hydraulic Modulators conductivity as well.

Asai et al. (2009) indicated that the incorporation of biochar into rice-growing soils changed the pore-size distribution, which increased water permeability. Regarding the porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the amended soils, we considered the redistribution of the proportion of soil aggregate sizes to be a critical factor in influencing the physical and chemical properties of the soil (Table 2). The incorporated biochar could function as a binding agent that connects soil microaggregates to form macroaggregates. The oxidized biochar surface, which included hydroxyl groups and carboxylic groups, could adsorb soil particles and clays (Fig. 4c) to form macroaggregates under acidic environments. Our incubation study showed that the biochar-amended soils seemed to have larger soil aggregates than the control after 21 d although significant difference of MWD was just found after 63 d between the amended soils and the control.


Biochar

24 May, 2017
 

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for sale >

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Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


Biochar organic fertiliser

24 May, 2017
 

 

 


Charcoal s potential to reverse climate change and build soil

24 May, 2017
 


Biochar Conference

24 May, 2017
 

The international Biochar conference will be held in Murwillumbah this year between Aug 10-12th.

See anzbiochar.org.au for program and registration.


Application of biochar from residual biomass in crops Seminar @ ΙΝAB

25 May, 2017
 

The Institute of Applied Biosciences (INAB), Center of Research and Technology Hellas,
invites you to the seminar:

“Application of biochar from residual biomass in crops”

The seminar will take place in the Seminar Room of Institute of Applied Biosciences (INAB/CERTH),
6th Km Charilaou-Thermi Road, Thessaloniki, Greece,

on January 8th, 2016, Friday at 09.00 am.

Speaker: Zoe Hilioti, Researcher, Institute of Applied Biosciences (INAB)


Effect of Biochar Amendment and Ageing on Adsorption and Degradation of Two Herbicides

26 May, 2017
 

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11270-017-3392-7.pdf


How Making Charcoal From Biomass Is Effective In Reducing CO2 Emissions

26 May, 2017
 

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While coal is definitely an cheap method to obtain energy, furthermore, it has serious environmental impacts. Burning coal releases a lot of carbon in the atmosphere, increasing the degrees of greenhouse gasses and accelerating the entire process of global warming. Because of this, lowering the carbon footprint of coal power plants is usually essental to the government, or can result in serious tax credits. One of the best means of accomplishing this is certainly coburning biochar with coal.

So what is biochar? Biochar is produced by making charcoal from biomass. Biomass is waste from living things, usually plants. Examples of good biomass for biochar include rice husks, leaves, hay, sawdust, lawn trimmings, and the like. Many industries, especially food industries, have lots of cast off biomass, making biochar cost effective to make. Inside the developing world, biochar is a very effective alternative to sources of energy that need more industrial methods to produce, like coal, gas, and oil.

Click this link http://plasticpyrolysisplants.com/biomass-carbonization-machine/ to get a free quote about biomass carbonization machine.


CBU professor develops environmentally friendly charcoal that could change the industry

27 May, 2017
 

It’s the only biochar currently being produced in Canada

SYDNEY, N.S. — It’s completely black but nearly totally green. Gritty and sooty, yet great to use for washing up. Know what it is? Give up?

It’s biochar, an environmentally friendly charcoal developed at Cape Breton University by professor Stephanie MacQuarrie and business partner Barrie Fiolek of B.W Bioenergy.

The pair recently co-founded a company called Breton Organic Charcoals to sell their product, which they say can replace and outperform the activated charcoal currently used in hundreds of different applications, ranging from water filtration and environmental remediation to farming and cosmetics.

Compared to activated charcoal, which is typically made from coconut, bamboo or coal, then “activated” by being heated to extreme temperatures as high as 2,000 C, or even treated with chemicals, the biochar developed at CBU is as green as it is black.

MacQuarrie, an associate professor in organic chemistry at CBU, says they generate their product from forestry waste and burn it at around 400 C, meaning they expend far less energy creating it. It’s also the only biochar currently being produced in Canada, so far less fossil fuels are burned shipping it from overseas.

But what really sets their biochar apart is as much a shift in philosophy backed up by years of intensive research into the characteristics and behaviours of activated charcoal and biochar.

Unlike activated charcoal, or even regular charcoal, which are burned until all that remains is carbon and the large uniform pores that help it absorb water and other chemicals, biochar retains some of the organics and remains biologically active.

Even though the pores are less regular and the surface area isn’t as large — a teaspoon of activated charcoal has a surface area the size of a football field, while a teaspoon of Breton Organic Charcoals biochar’s is a couple hundred square feet — “it has this extra type of absorption that’s possible through chemical connections,” said MacQuarrie.

“What I believe is that for years we’ve just been seeing how much surface area can we get and using these activated charcoals that have these massive surface areas for all these applications, and now what we’ve shown is that you don’t need those large surface areas. It’s like using a sledgehammer when we could have been using a finishing hammer,” she explains.

“So we spent the last five years showing that biochar can perform as well, if not better, in most of the applications that activated charcoal is used for, but it’s greener and it’s produced in Canada and it’s produced from a forestry residue — so you’re actually taking a waste that’s rotting and generating carbon dioxide and converting it into a thick carbon that can be used in applications that you typically import charcoal from China for.”

Although research has proven the Breton Organic Charcoals biochar performs as well as activated charcoal for water filtration — during a 12-week study the Université Sainte-Anne replaced the activated charcoal it imports from Indonesia for its lobster holding tanks with the Cape Breton-made biochar and “there was no difference in the lobsters’ health at all — totally replaceable,” said MacQuarrie — and removing heavy metals — “our biochar loves lead” — the product is uniquely positioned to be a major ingredient in cosmetics.

It seems activated charcoal is one of the hot new trends in the beauty business and the fine black powder is finding its way into everything from facemasks to toothpaste.

One Nova Scotia soap company that produces 85,000 pounds of soap a year already has a special formula in production using the Cape Breton-made biochar and 15 other local soapmakers are experimenting with samples.

Perhaps most exciting, though, is the pending ban on microbeads. The ubiquitous little plastic beads commonly found in shower gels, facial cleansers and makeup products are a huge threat to marine life because they get flushed down the drain and get eaten by birds and fish. With its granular texture and eco-friendly nature, MacQuarrie says biochar would make an ideal substitute.

“Cosmetics is sort of the low-hanging fruit because the area of adding activated charcoal to cosmetics is a really hot area right now — everybody wants to make an activated charcoal cosmetic,” said MacQuarrie. “We’re making something that is organic and it’s made from organic forestry waste — no added chemicals, low-energy process — and it does exactly the same thing. It will absorb oil, or possibly absorb toxins from your skin, but it also acts as an exfoliant, and that’s really its No. 1 benefit.”

 

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Role of biochar on composting of organic wastes and remediation of contaminated soils—a review

27 May, 2017
 

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research


Sanna

27 May, 2017
 

Laura Sanna, Maim Engineering, Sardinia, Italy

Maim has been studying the potential use or pyrolisis and other treatments in effectively handling chicken wastes. The initial study has been favorable, and the environmental impact minimal.

For more detail see: Positive conclusions from Italian biomass pyrolysis research

Maim Engineering

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Tillamook Bay Watershed Council Speaker, The Life In the River, May 30th

28 May, 2017
 

The Tillamook Bay Watershed Council is pleased to announce the next installment in its 2017 Speaker Series featuring local ODFW Research Biologist Derek Wiley. Join us on May 30th at the Tillamook County Library for an in-depth update on salmon, steelhead and trout populations in the rivers of Tillamook County. Derek will share data collected by his Life Cycle Monitoring crew, as well as a compilation of amazing videos capturing underwater behavior of juvenile and adult chum salmon, Chinook salmon, coho salmon, steelhead, and Pacific lamprey in our local rivers. The Council’s regular monthly business meeting will follow the presentation, including updates on habitat restoration efforts in the Tillamook Bay watershed. Doors will open at 6:00PM and the presentation will begin at 6:30PM. This event is FREE and open to the public!

1. Claire Bradley and Anna Mattson were curious whether byproducts from the processing of Netarts Bay salt by Jacobsen Salt could improve the growth of oyster spat in the Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery. They designed a study that measured lypoproteins and calcium in the baby oysters as they were exposed to calcium and magnesium sulfates (the byproducts). They found a direct correlation between the byproduct and increased oyster growth. Their findings may assist the hatchery in maintaining optimum water chemistry to maximize growth.

2. Sam Adams could not be present, so instructor Thomas shared a brief overview of Sam’s study. Sam found that there was significant buffering capacity of calcium and magnesium on the acidity of saltwater—a major issue considering the increasing problem of ocean acidification. Sam’s study showed that acidification can be mitigated using these natural chemicals, and Clair reported that the results have spurred on further study at OSU.

4. Dillon Pierce investigated the potential for using “bio-char” from the Hampton Lumber Mill to help remove sulfates from the liquid manure that is processed at the Hooley Methane Digester. His study showed that bio-char was very effective at removing sulfates, and that the practice could greatly improve digester efficiency and economics. He calculated that the use of bio-char at the Hooley Digester could result in annual costsavings of $750,000 to $1M annually.

5. Celeste Stout studied the capacity and functionality of the Holden Creek tide gates on the Trask River. Her investigations showed that the water level in Holden Creek cannot begin to drop until the Trask drops below a certain level. She also noted an improvement in function at the tide gates in the winter of 2016-2017 versus prior years. She found that flooding in Holden Creek could be reduced with larger tide gates.

6. Ben Springs could not attend, so Clair presented an overview of Ben’s study. Ben measured the response of Mill Creek to the placement of large-wood structures in 2016 by the TBWC. Kayne Oleman, Council member and TBCC student, mentored Ben in his investigations. They measured pebble counts, macro-invertebrate presence, and geomorphology before and after large wood structures were placed. They found that the diversity of macro-invertebrates almost doubled after the large-wood project—from 9 species to 17 species. They also found that the presence of coho salmon in the study area went from zero in 2016 to 4 adults and 6 redds in 2017.

Council members thanked the students and commended them for providing important information which could result in significant improvements to our watersheds and our local industries.

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IC/UNDP/SPARC/049/2017 – Senior Specialist for Biochar Application Strategy

29 May, 2017
 

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Phd Thesis On Biochar

29 May, 2017
 

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29 May, 2017
 

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A dark past for a bright future in the Ecuadorian Amazon

30 May, 2017
 

May 30, 2017 6:40 PM ET

 

Terra preta soil, made by humans 1-2000 years ago, contains charcoal — known as “biochar” — that helps retain soil nutrients. Little is known about biochar effects in the tropics, particularly to aid forest restoration. We propose to apply biochar to native tree plantations, and to assess soil properties, soil organisms, and tree growth in experiments and in forests with terra preta soil in Ecuador. Biochar has potential to directly aid forest restoration and take pressure off natural forests.

 

 

The Ecuadorian Amazon is threatened by deforestation. In this region, once the forest is gone the soil productivity decays dramatically, due to the poor nutrient availability. Paradoxically, in the Brazilian Amazon, very fertile dark “terra preta” soils were first discovered. These anthrosols have high carbon content; their discovery has motivated a great amount of research on charcoal, and coining of the term biochar. However, most current research is in temperate regions, even though the idea was first discovered in Amazonia. Also, very little is known about the insects most immediately impacted by biochar addition. We will implement long-term silvicultural plots, to measure soil physical, chemical, and biological responses to biochar, comparing them with terra preta characteristics.

 

 

With your support we will implement the first study of biochar in the Ecuadorian Amazon rain forest. The project will involve additions of biochar in native tree plantations used in forest restoration to analyze the role of biochar in enhancing soil fertility and tree growth. With the help of local students, we will also analyze changes of soil insect communities (ants, crickets, beetles) in the field in response to biochar additions, to better understand these heroes of biodiversity and soil bioturbation. In addition, soils and insect communities of biochar-addition plots will be compared with Ecuadorian terra preta associated with Amazonian millennial cultures.

 

 

The project aims to generate alternatives for deforestation in the Ecuadorian Amazon, by enhancing productivity of already logged areas for timber and the productivity of non-timber forest products, as well as recognizing invertebrate bioindicators for biochar in the tropics. With your support we will:

· Generate biochar from an early secondary forest source (Pollalesta discolor), that is generally used to make boxes, leaving small pieces as left over from this activity.

· Amend 10mX10m plots with biochar in native tree species plantations.

· Develop taxonomic skill in beginner entomologists, who are local students from Universidad Estatal Amazónica.

· Make laboratory experiments that will tests insect preferences to various physical and chemical soil conditions.

Pedro Ríos Guayasamín, Sean Thomas, and Sandy Smith

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30 May, 2017
 

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Removal of hexavalent chromium upon interaction with biochar under acidic conditions

31 May, 2017
 

Chromium pollution of soil and water is a serious environmental concern due to potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] when ingested. Eucalyptus bark biochar (EBB), a carbonaceous black porous material obtained by pyrolysis of biomass at 500 °C under oxygen-free atmosphere, was used to investigate the removal of aqueous Cr(VI) upon interaction with the EBB, the dominant Cr(VI) removal mechanism(s), and the applicability to treat Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewater. Batch experiments showed complete removal of aqueous Cr(VI) at pH 1–2; sorption was negligible at pH 1, but ~55% of total Cr was sorbed onto the EBB surface at pH 2. Detailed investigations on unreacted and reacted EBB through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) indicate that the carboxylic groups in biochar played a dominant role in Cr(VI) sorption, whereas the phenolic groups were responsible for Cr(VI) reduction. The predominance of sorption–reduction mechanism was confirmed by XPS studies that indicated ~82% as Cr(III) and ~18% as Cr(VI) sorbed on the EBB surface. Significantly, Cr(VI) reduction was also facilitated by dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from biochar. This reduction was enhanced by the presence of biochar. Overall, the removal of Cr(VI) in the presence of biochar was affected by sorption due to electrostatic attraction, sorption–reduction mediated by surface organic complexes, and aqueous reduction by DOM. Relative dominance of the aqueous reduction mechanism depended on a critical biochar dosage for a given electrolyte pH and initial Cr(VI) concentration. The low-cost EBB developed here successfully removed all Cr(VI) in chrome tanning acidic wastewater and Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater after pH adjustment, highlighting its potential applicability in effective Cr(VI) remediation.

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Mining for answers on abandoned mines

31 May, 2017
 

Soil scientist Jim Ippolito believes in local solutions to local problems. The problem he’s working on is contaminated soils near abandoned mines.

In the western United States 160,000 abandoned mines contaminate soils in the region. Ippolito, associate professor of soil science at Colorado State University, hopes to solve this problem with biochar, a charcoal-like substance that can reduce the toxic consequences of mining for metals.

Biochar is made by burning plant material in a low-oxygen kiln. Ippolito proposes using western states plant materials such as dead lodge pole pine trees or pesky, nuisance trees—like the invasive tamarisk—as fodder for the kiln.

“I thought, why don’t we just use this stuff to make biochar?” said Ippolito. “It’s using local materials to solve a local problem.”

Abandoned mine sites are common in western states. Over the years, extracting precious metals like gold or silver left a legacy of high acidity in mining-affected soils.

“When you dig holes in the ground via mining and pull out rock that hasn’t seen the atmosphere in millions of years, the materials undergo a change,” said Ippolito. “These materials can start to acidify.”

When certain rock minerals are exposed to the atmosphere, they can form sulfuric acid. The spreads like an infection, breaking down rocks around it. Some of these rocks contain , like lead or copper, and most of the time the metals are harmless. The heavy metals turn into a problem when they become bioavailable—or when plants are able absorb them. Sulfuric acid makes metals more bioavailable to plants by releasing metals from rocks.

“A good analogy would be that the process sort of works just like the way our stomach acid works to break down food into components that are bioavailable to us,” said Ippolito.

The bioavailable heavy metals can pass into plant cell membranes and poison the plant. “You’ll find places near abandoned mines that are completely void of vegetation because of elevated bioavailable metals,” said Ippolito.

Most people cleaning up old mine sites mix lime into the soil to reduce acidity. Less acidity in the soil means less opportunity for plants to absorb heavy metals, because the metals change form from more to less bioavailable in the presence of lime.

Instead of lime, Ippolito wants to use biochar to reduce soil acidity. Biochar is typically produced by heating plant material in a sealed environment. “Basically you take wood, put it into a drum, seal it, and start a fire underneath it,” said Ippolito. “The material that’s left in the drum looks like charcoal.”

The research on the uses of biochar is extensive: it’s been tested as a water purifier, a fertilizer, a carbon sink and more. Ippolito’s biochar is special because it’s made from local trees that pose problems in western states. One of the trees is the lodge pole pine. Mountain pine beetles have decimated millions of acres of the lodge pole pine in western states and Canada. Rows and rows of trees lay like matchsticks. In dry regions, felled pines are a tinderbox for forest fires. Ippolito said making something useful from flammable, wasted trees can only be a good thing. He’s also proposing using tamarisk as a biochar feedstock. Tamarisk is an invasive species in western states. It clogs watersheds, robbing nutrients and water from native species.

The researchers made biochar from both trees and mixed it into four different soils from abandoned mine sites in Colorado and Idaho. They analyzed the bioavailability of the metals present in the soil. Both biochar types decreased acidity in all four soils. The biochar successfully interrupted the toxic combination of acidified soils and heavy metals, converting those metals to less bioavailable forms.

Ippolito’s next step is to take his locally-sourced biochar into the field. He said he’s ready to put it to use. “I’ve spent at least a decade testing biochars in the lab and greenhouse,” he said. “It’s finally time to apply the biochar to some mine sites.” Ippolito is working with the USDA Agricultural Research Service to test the on a western U.S. mine site as well as in Missouri.

More information: J. A. Ippolito et al, Biochars Reduce Mine Land Soil Bioavailable Metals, Journal of Environment Quality (2017). DOI: 10.2134/jeq2016.10.0388

Adding a charred biomass material called biochar to glacial soils can help reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, according to U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists.

A new technology being developed by Wake Forest researchers could help reverse the devastating effects of deforestation and mining on the world’s largest rainforest.

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Researchers at the UPM have developed a carbonaceous material from sewage sludge that when applied to soil can help to improve its quality.

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(Phys.org) —In the quest to decrease the world’s greenhouse gases, Cornell scientists have discovered that biochar – a charcoal-like substance – reduces the nemesis nitrous oxide from agricultural soil on average by …

A team led by the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory has identified a novel microbial process that can break down toxic methylmercury in the environment, a fundamental scientific discovery that could potentially …

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from Sweden, Denmark and Finland has conducted field experiments that offering evidence that suggests permafrost melting in the Arctic could release major amounts of nitrous oxide into the …

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A three-year survey of the California Current System along the West Coast of the United States found persistent, highly acidified water throughout this ecologically critical nearshore habitat, with “hotspots” of pH measurements …

Searching for corals where they shouldn’t be found has become an urgent quest for marine biologist Dr Emma Camp. As the impact of climate change on the world’s coral reefs grows in frequency and intensity, the options for …

When the Black Death swept across Europe in the 14th century, it not only killed millions, it also brought lead smelting, among many other commercial activities, to a halt.

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