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EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Biochar Market Report 2017

1 April, 2017
 

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Got Dirt? The Art of Building Soil

1 April, 2017
 

edible Cape Cod
By Michelle Koch | July 13, 2009

Like Wallace, Eastham farmer Bob Wells amends his soil heavily with mulch and compost, but his unique twist is to add some biochar. Biochar is a solid charcoal made from plant material that is pyrolized, or burned in a nearly oxygen-free process until it’s reduced to pieces of what is nearly pure carbon. Wells crushes the biochar chunks, “usually by running them over with my tractor,” he says, and then stirs it into his compost before side-dressing his plants.
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thesis on biochar

1 April, 2017
 


Advances in studies on soil microbial community structure in black soil affected by bio

1 April, 2017
 

Biochar is a solid material produced by pyrolysis of biomass feedstock under anaerobic or anoxic conditions, and biochar usually has the characteristics of high pH value, high carbon and nitrogen ratio, high porosity and strong adsorption ability to soil nutrient. The biochar is applied to the soil and is not easily decomposed and utilized by microorganisms for a long time. It is considered as a soil improver which is beneficial to improve the soil carbon fixation and improve soil physical and chemical properties.But the international bio- The study of soil biological characteristics is based on the indoor culture of the year or the pot experiment and the field test results, and the short-term and long-term effects of the study are still few years later. Northeast black soil elements with high soil organic matter content, fertile soil , But due to long-term over-exploitation and unreasonable management of agricultural measures and other reasons, resulting in soil acidification, soil compaction and soil fertility degradation and other serious problems.Based on the inherent characteristics of bio-carbon and soil into the dynamic, Carbon short-term and long-term ecological effects are of guiding significance for the scientific development of biochar application strategies.

In this paper, a long-term observational research platform for straw biochar application was established in 2012. The biochar was 0%, 2%, 4% and 8% of the soil quality of the tillage layer, and the farmland molecular ecology group of the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences The effects of biochar on soil physical and chemical properties and soil microbes were monitored by one-time mixing of soil, soybean and maize rotation, and the soil samples were collected four times in 2014 to analyze soil physical and chemical indexes and soil bacteria and fungi The results showed that the soil physical and chemical indexes had significant effects on the soil physical and chemical indexes after 3 years of biochar application, and increased the soil total carbon and total nitrogen content, increased soil water content, increased soil pH value, reduced soil bulk density, etc. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing showed that the addition of biochar increased the abundance of soil bacteria and changed the bacterial community composition at the level of door, genus and OTU. It was found that the application of biochar increased The relative abundance of functional bacteria, such as Bacillus and Pedomicrobium, reduces the number of slow-borne rhizobia (Bradyr Habobium relative abundance and CCA analysis showed that the change of soil bacterial community structure was closely related to soil pH, total carbon, total nitrogen and total potassium content.It was found that biochar application also increased the abundance of soil fungi in soil fungal community structure, At the level of genus and OTU, the fungal community structure was changed, but there was no significant effect on the level of the door. It is noteworthy that biochar application reduced the relative abundance of Fusarium and Fusarium species (UstilagoOTUs) The results showed that the changes of soil fungal community structure were closely related to soil physical and chemical indexes such as soil pH, water content, TC, TN, TK and AK, and so on.

The results of the study were recently published in the << Soil Biology and Biochemistry (Applied Biology and Biochemistry) (Applied Soil Ecology). Northeast Geography Institute Ph.D. Yao Qin as the first author, researcher Wang Guanghua (BDB (XDB15010103) and the Heilongjiang Provincial Outstanding Youth Science Foundation (JC201116), which is a joint venture between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Information:

1.Yao, Q., Liu, J., Yu, Z., Li, Y., Jin, J., Liu, X., Wang, G *. Three years of biochar amendment alters soil physicochemical properties and fungal community composition In a black soil of northeast China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2017, 110: 56-67.

2.Yao, Q., Liu, J., Yu, Z., Li, Y., Jin, J., Liu, X., Wang, G *. Changes of bacterial community member after three years of biochar application in a Black soil of northeast China. Applied Soil Ecology, 2017, 113: 11-21.

Figure 1 Biomass application to the black soil bacterial community (A, B and fungal community structure (C, D NMDS and CCA analysis

The effects of different additions of biochar on the relative abundance of dominant fungi were shown in Figure 2. A, B, C and D were the soil samples collected in April, June, August and October respectively.

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Phd thesis on biochar

2 April, 2017
 

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Characteristics and mechanisms of nickel adsorption on biochars produced from wheat straw …

3 April, 2017
 

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Biochar Market Deep Research Study with Forecast by 2025

3 April, 2017
 

Albany, NY — (SBWIRE) — 04/03/2017 — Global Biochar Market: Overview

Biochar is a time-honored soil amendment practice and also a fine solution to climate change effects. Regions with insufficient supply of chemical fertilizers, organic resources, and water can significantly benefit from this highly porous and fine-grained charcoal. Along with bioenergy, it can displace fossil fuel usage and sequester carbon in well-balanced soil carbon pools to tackle climate change. Biochar has won worldwide appreciation for its unique soil enhancing properties with the widespread prominence of the Amazon’s biochar-rich dark lands.

Global Biochar Market: Key Trends

With a substantial rise in population size, organic food has drew in a lot of demand, owing to which the biochar market is expected to invite a handsome growth. The credit for this growth could be given to biochar’s propensity for improving plant development and soil fertility. The improving agricultural industry in different nations such as Australia, Germany, Canada, and the U.S. is anticipated to aggravate the demand for biochar. As a result, the global market is predicted to record a healthy growth over the coming years.

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Large-scale gasification projects receiving support from Europe and North America governments and the increasing performance of organic farming are projected to put the world biochar market is a good position. The rise in meat consumption and growing significance of biochar in livestock farming benefiting with key nutrients are forecasted to set the tone for the market.

The growth in the global biochar market could be impeded on account of technological and financial barriers. Besides this, the ignorance of consumers on the part of biochar’s long-term advantages is foretold to delay the market growth. Howbeit, a considerable expansion of the market is expected to occur as organic food and farming open up new opportunities.

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Global Biochar Market: Market Potential

Biochar possesses a massive potential to reduce the proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, in fact, virtually every greenhouse emission. This could be an epic breakthrough in the elimination of climate-warming black carbon. Capable of enduring the test of time for survival, this super charcoal can sequester carbon dioxide many times longer than trees. For producers which operate in areas where labor cost is economical but maintenance expenditure is large, biochar production could be ideal. This is because of the simple and low-priced equipment required to convert soy hay and other wastes into biochar. In a way, the biochar market is deemed to be a great medium to minimize the gap between smart business and smart environmentalism.

Global Biochar Market: Regional Outlook

The biochar sector is envisaged to be developed at a telling rate on the back of regions such as Europe and North America, registering an elevating rise in the count of small and medium scale manufacturers. A steady progress is foreseen to be witnessed by Australia as the awareness about the advantages and benefits of biochar escalates across the country. Followed by Europe, North America is prognosticated to record a dominant share in the global biochar market. Producers of biochar can also find opportunities in other markets such as Asia Pacific and Rest of the World.

Read Complete Report @ https://www.tmrresearch.com/biochar-market

Global Biochar Market: Competitive Landscape

Players in the biochar market receive support from companies supplying pyrolysis technology and wood pellets and residue. Phoenix Energy, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis, and 3R ENVIRO TECH Group are some of the top firms involved in the pyrolysis technology business. Wood pellets and residue are primarily provided by timber businesses such as West Fraser, Georgia-Pacific, and Weyerhaeuser. Out of the prominent biochar players in the international market, Biochar Supreme, LLC is prophesied to make the cut. The analysts anticipate the market to own a fragmented character.

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Biochar provides high-definition electron pathways in soil

3 April, 2017
 

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(Cornell University) Cornell University scientists have discovered a new high-definition system that allows electrons to travel through soil farther and more efficiently than previously thought.

Original Article: Biochar provides high-definition electron pathways in soil


Biochar provides high-definition electron pathways in soil

3 April, 2017
 

,

‘Microorganisms need electrons for everything they do. If they

All plants need electrons to aid biological and chemical tasks. Cornell scientists have discovered a new high-definition system that allows electrons to travel through soil

Washington: Trees are considered as one of our biggest natural allies in the war against global warming, but in a new twist, scientists have found that the army of green is

Two Montana State University researchers have played a major role in discovering how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a

Read the magazine story to find out more ARS scientists analyzed micro- and macro-nutrients in 30 different varieties of Brassica microgreens, such as red cabbage

Deep in the heart of the Staffordshire countryside, scientists have constructed an elaborate laboratory to mimic the future of global warming. Huge masts pump carbon

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A team of researchers from the University of Bristol have recently shown that ecosystems created by melting glaciers in the Arctic are sensitive to climate change and human activity. Melting ice is exposing vast landscapes that are colonised by simple forms of microbial life. These microbes in Arctic soils must cope with short cool summers and long freezing winters, as well as

Researchers measured the carbon dioxide and methane fluxes of the soil, tree trunks and CWD to determine whether those three components were sources or sinks of these greenhouse gases. …

Press Release 17-029 Discovery expands the tree of life April 3, 2017 Related stories on NSF’s Dimensions of Biodiversity program are available online. Researchers have discovered that previously unidentified microorganisms have a genetic element that enables them to self-mutate. What’s more, these organisms are so plentiful they dramatically expand the diversity of the tree of

Glaciers and ice sheets have recently been considered significant sources of organic carbon and provide nutrients to downstream marine ecosystems. However, the exact origin and bioreactivity of the dissolved organic carbon from glacier surfaces are not fully understood. A team from the Bristol Glaciology Centre – based at the University of Bristol – has found that microbial

The role of plants in taking up CO2 is one of the known unknowns in climatology. CO2 is a plant fertiliser and researchers think that as levels increase the trees will fix more of it into their trunks, roots and organic matter in the earth. But they believe the fertilizing effect will be limited over time by other factors such as lack of nutrients, lack of water and rising

Follow _cornell__ On IG: https://www.instagram.com/_cornell__/ Don’t Forget To Comment/Like/Share/Subscribe!…

Follow _cornell__ On IG: https://www.instagram.com/_cornell__/ Don’t Forget To Comment/Like/Share/Subscribe!…

@_Cornell__ Compilation 2016 November (please Go Follow This Funny Guy) #2 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: “Hood Funny Skits And Clips 2017 January #56” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDGWhyqZDrU -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-…

@_Cornell__ Compilation 2016 November (please Go Follow This Funny Guy) #2 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: “Hood Funny Skits And Clips 2017 January #56” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDGWhyqZDrU -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-…

Cornell University: Glorious To View celebrates what makes Cornell University so special—its campus beauty, breadth and depth of academics, spirit of inclusiveness, and commitment to serving the public good. From its inception, Cornell has aspired to be elite and egalitarian. As founder Ezra Cornell said, “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.” Cornell University: Glorious To View features soaring views of the campus along with interviews with students, faculty and alumni. From the gorges and waterfalls in Ithaca to Weill Cornell Medical College and Cornell Tech in New York City, then across the globe to Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, and back again to Ithaca, Glorious to View shows you Cornell as you have never seen it before. With appearances by Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg; actor Ed Helms; Google search “architect” Amit Singhal; four-time NCAA wrestling champion and Sports Illustrated Male College Athlete of the Year Kyle Dake; Rhodes Scholar and Dean of the Law School Eduardo Peñalver, Rhodes Scholars Kit Dobyns and Rachel Harmon; New York Times columnist Jane Brody; NBC News correspondent Kate Snow; Breakthrough Prize winner Lewis Cantley; Nobel laureate Roald Hoffmann; Mars Rover Principal Investigator Steven Squyres, and more. The video honors Cornell faculty icons Carl Sagan, Vladimir Nabokov, and many others. Credits: Produced, directed and edited by Micah Cormier. Directors of Photography: Robert Barker, Micah Cormier, Lindsay France, Jason Koski, Scott Sinkler. Aerial Videography by Helicam Aer…

Cornell University: Glorious To View celebrates what makes Cornell University so special—its campus beauty, breadth and depth of academics, spirit of inclusiveness, and commitment to serving the public good. From its inception, Cornell has aspired to be elite and egalitarian. As founder Ezra Cornell said, “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.” Cornell University: Glorious To View features soaring views of the campus along with interviews with students, faculty and alumni. From the gorges and waterfalls in Ithaca to Weill Cornell Medical College and Cornell Tech in New York City, then across the globe to Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, and back again to Ithaca, Glorious to View shows you Cornell as you have never seen it before. With appearances by Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg; actor Ed Helms; Google search “architect” Amit Singhal; four-time NCAA wrestling champion and Sports Illustrated Male College Athlete of the Year Kyle Dake; Rhodes Scholar and Dean of the Law School Eduardo Peñalver, Rhodes Scholars Kit Dobyns and Rachel Harmon; New York Times columnist Jane Brody; NBC News correspondent Kate Snow; Breakthrough Prize winner Lewis Cantley; Nobel laureate Roald Hoffmann; Mars Rover Principal Investigator Steven Squyres, and more. The video honors Cornell faculty icons Carl Sagan, Vladimir Nabokov, and many others. Credits: Produced, directed and edited by Micah Cormier. Directors of Photography: Robert Barker, Micah Cormier, Lindsay France, Jason Koski, Scott Sinkler. Aerial Videography by Helicam Aer…

Sometime you gotta do what you gotta do lol Follow me on Instagram: @_cornell__ Facebook: @nellyvidz…

Sometime you gotta do what you gotta do lol Follow me on Instagram: @_cornell__ Facebook: @nellyvidz…

After Newt Gingrich was elected Speaker of the House in 1995, he disrupted the status quo by moving power out of Washington and back to the American people. Gingrich, now a “New York Times” bestselling author, widely respected political commentator, and documentarian, is partnering with YAF to talk about the role of government on campuses across America. Young America’s Foundation engages with students across the country to inspire them with the ideas of individual freedom, a strong national defense, free enterprise, and traditional values. YAF is the principal outreach organization of the Conservative Movement and introduces hundreds of thousands of young Americans to these principles every year, most of whom have never heard the arguments for freedom and personal responsibility before. Learn more: http://yaf.org…

After Newt Gingrich was elected Speaker of the House in 1995, he disrupted the status quo by moving power out of Washington and back to the American people. Gingrich, now a “New York Times” bestselling author, widely respected political commentator, and documentarian, is partnering with YAF to talk about the role of government on campuses across America. Young America’s Foundation engages with students across the country to inspire them with the ideas of individual freedom, a strong national defense, free enterprise, and traditional values. YAF is the principal outreach organization of the Conservative Movement and introduces hundreds of thousands of young Americans to these principles every year, most of whom have never heard the arguments for freedom and personal responsibility before. Learn more: http://yaf.org…

Cornell Vine Compilation All video rights and ownership go to creators Cornell Ross. Give him a follow on ig @_cornell__ ROADDTO10K Check out our channel! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQrctV6tVisBc0xEW-1K2DQ Check out our playlists so far! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQrctV6tVisBc0xEW-1K2DQ/playlists Many more on the way! Have any short vine clips that you wanna be featured? Imperialvines@yahoo.com Follow me on my new twitter to see what’s happening! https://twitter.com/ImperialVines_?lang=en…

Cornell Vine Compilation All video rights and ownership go to creators Cornell Ross. Give him a follow on ig @_cornell__ ROADDTO10K Check out our channel! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQrctV6tVisBc0xEW-1K2DQ Check out our playlists so far! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQrctV6tVisBc0xEW-1K2DQ/playlists Many more on the way! Have any short vine clips that you wanna be featured? Imperialvines@yahoo.com Follow me on my new twitter to see what’s happening! https://twitter.com/ImperialVines_?lang=en…

Every April Cornell University welcomes thousands of the newly admitted freshmen class to campus. Parents and students have many difficult decisions to make but choosing the right “home” is the most critical decision. With the help of the Cornell Admissions Ambassadors, campus truly comes alive in preparation for the Class of 2020! At the end of the day, Cornell Days breaks down the abstract of college decisions by providing an environment for people to connect and create a personal narrative….

Every April Cornell University welcomes thousands of the newly admitted freshmen class to campus. Parents and students have many difficult decisions to make but choosing the right “home” is the most critical decision. With the help of the Cornell Admissions Ambassadors, campus truly comes alive in preparation for the Class of 2020! At the end of the day, Cornell Days breaks down the abstract of college decisions by providing an environment for people to connect and create a personal narrative….

A year ago I decided that one day I would make a song and music video comprised entirely of sounds from my everyday life at Cornell. The video has a main beat that I made with snippets of my life mixed in between….

A year ago I decided that one day I would make a song and music video comprised entirely of sounds from my everyday life at Cornell. The video has a main beat that I made with snippets of my life mixed in between….

More from Inside Edition: http://bit.ly/2bF0iuC Students at a Louisiana prep school waited patiently for results of a college application and it seems they got the answer they were hoping for. A video of Brendon Gauthier getting his acceptance letter for Cornell University has been viewed millions of times on Facebook. He’s a senior at TM Landry College Prep. The owner, Michael Landry, says it’s a small school with only about 100 students from grades 1 through 12, but he says all graduates go to 4-year universities….

More from Inside Edition: http://bit.ly/2bF0iuC Students at a Louisiana prep school waited patiently for results of a college application and it seems they got the answer they were hoping for. A video of Brendon Gauthier getting his acceptance letter for Cornell University has been viewed millions of times on Facebook. He’s a senior at TM Landry College Prep. The owner, Michael Landry, says it’s a small school with only about 100 students from grades 1 through 12, but he says all graduates go to 4-year universities….

Experience the beauty and energy of Cornell’s Ithaca campus in this video, Cornell University: Glorious to View (Short). Watch the full 18-min film here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GuM8vTq0jd4 Cornell University: Glorious To View (Short) celebrates what makes Cornell University so special – its campus beauty, breadth and depth of academics, spirit of inclusiveness, and commitment to serving the public good. From its inception, Cornell has aspired to be elite and egalitarian. As founder Ezra Cornell said, “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.” Credits (Short Version): Produced, directed and edited by Micah Cormier. Directors of Photography: Robert Barker, Micah Cormier, Lindsay France, Jason Koski. Aerial Videography by Helicam Aerial Media Services and Micah Cormier. Sound mix by Bertrand Odom-Reed. Color correction by Matthew Fondeur. “Many Paths” composed by Elias Trevino. Music licensed from Firstcom.com. A production of Cornell University. © 2016 Cornell University. Learn more at: http://www.cornell.edu/ https://www.facebook.com/Cornell https://twitter.com/Cornell…

Experience the beauty and energy of Cornell’s Ithaca campus in this video, Cornell University: Glorious to View (Short). Watch the full 18-min film here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GuM8vTq0jd4 Cornell University: Glorious To View (Short) celebrates what makes Cornell University so special – its campus beauty, breadth and depth of academics, spirit of inclusiveness, and commitment to serving the public good. From its inception, Cornell has aspired to be elite and egalitarian. As founder Ezra Cornell said, “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.” Credits (Short Version): Produced, directed and edited by Micah Cormier. Directors of Photography: Robert Barker, Micah Cormier, Lindsay France, Jason Koski. Aerial Videography by Helicam Aerial Media Services and Micah Cormier. Sound mix by Bertrand Odom-Reed. Color correction by Matthew Fondeur. “Many Paths” composed by Elias Trevino. Music licensed from Firstcom.com. A production of Cornell University. © 2016 Cornell University. Learn more at: http://www.cornell.edu/ https://www.facebook.com/Cornell https://twitter.com/Cornell…

Chris Cornell sat down for an in-depth interview and acoustic performance in the SiriusXM Studios for an Artist Confidential where he performed a cover of Prince’s Nothing Compares 2 U. Check Out Chris Cornell’s latest single “Nearly Forgot My Broken Heart”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KhJ9IwYc5NU Lithium is the destination for grunge rock and ’90s alternative. Find Lithium on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lithium Follow Lithium on Twitter: https://twitter.com/SiriusXMLithium Connect with SiriusXM Online Visit the SiriusXM Website:http://full.sc/1ibeANg Follow SiriusXM on Instagram:http://full.sc/1hrjwjt Find SiriusXM on Facebook:http://full.sc/1ibeMfl Follow SiriusXM on Twitter:http://full.sc/1ibfeKP Follow SiriusXM on Google+: http://full.sc/1ibeVj6 You can hear entire episodes of SiriusXM programming on SiriusXM On Demand. For more information and a free trial go to http://www.siriusxm.com/ondemand Chris Cornell “Nothing Compares 2 U” Prince Cover Live @ SiriusXM // Lithium Watch more Lithium videos: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLKDc5p6CCbyPrDQl1N1mcMFD7hxLiNBC6 Subscribe to SiriusXM on YouTube:http://full.sc/1hriVOX…

Chris Cornell sat down for an in-depth interview and acoustic performance in the SiriusXM Studios for an Artist Confidential where he performed a cover of Prince’s Nothing Compares 2 U. Check Out Chris Cornell’s latest single “Nearly Forgot My Broken Heart”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KhJ9IwYc5NU Lithium is the destination for grunge rock and ’90s alternative. Find Lithium on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lithium Follow Lithium on Twitter: https://twitter.com/SiriusXMLithium Connect with SiriusXM Online Visit the SiriusXM Website:http://full.sc/1ibeANg Follow SiriusXM on Instagram:http://full.sc/1hrjwjt Find SiriusXM on Facebook:http://full.sc/1ibeMfl Follow SiriusXM on Twitter:http://full.sc/1ibfeKP Follow SiriusXM on Google+: http://full.sc/1ibeVj6 You can hear entire episodes of SiriusXM programming on SiriusXM On Demand. For more information and a free trial go to http://www.siriusxm.com/ondemand Chris Cornell “Nothing Compares 2 U” Prince Cover Live @ SiriusXM // Lithium Watch more Lithium videos: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLKDc5p6CCbyPrDQl1N1mcMFD7hxLiNBC6 Subscribe to SiriusXM on YouTube:http://full.sc/1hriVOX…

Ed Helms, the actor who portrayed fictional Cornell alumnus Andy Bernard ’93 on the television comedy ‘The Office,’ delivered the Senior Convocation address to graduating students and guests at Schoellkopf Stadium, May 24, 2014….

Ed Helms, the actor who portrayed fictional Cornell alumnus Andy Bernard ’93 on the television comedy ‘The Office,’ delivered the Senior Convocation address to graduating students and guests at Schoellkopf Stadium, May 24, 2014….

_______________________________________________ Artist:Chris Cornell (Soundgarden/Audioslave/Temple Of The Dog) Album:Chris Cornell – Unplugged In Sweden Country:U.S.A. (Recorded in Sweden,Live @ O’Baren,Stockholm) Year: 2006 ________________________________________________ *** Note: Since all of the individual tracks on this album are freely but seperately available on Youtube anyways, i have decided to upload the *full album* for all of you fans out there.Enjoy! (-_-) _________________________________________________ *** Disclaimer: I do not own any of this material. All rights,credits,kudos and respect belong to Chris Cornell. __________________________________________________ WE LOVE YOU CHRIS. Tracklist: 01) Doesn’t Remind Me (Audioslave) 1:03 02) Like A Stone (Audioslave) 5:31 03) Wide Awake (Audioslave) 10:17 04) Fell On Black Days (Soundgarden) 14:19 05) Be Yourself (Audioslave) 18:58 06) Billie Jean (Michael Jackson Cover) 23:21 07) Original Fire (Audioslave) 27:49 08) Redemption Song (Bob Marley Cover) 31:49 09) Peace,Love And Understanding (Elvis Costello Cover) 35:18 10) All Night Thing (Temple Of The Dog) 37:40 11) Black Hole Sun (Soundgarden) 41:37 12) Call Me A Dog (Temple Of The Dog) 47:24 13) Thank You (Led Zeppelin Cover) 52:11 -End- Chris Cornell Walmart Soundcheck Videos: http://www.youtube.com/user/richardslave90/videos (5 acoustic songs.Good quality) ___________________________________________________…

_______________________________________________ Artist:Chris Cornell (Soundgarden/Audioslave/Temple Of The Dog) Album:Chris Cornell – Unplugged In Sweden Country:U.S.A. (Recorded in Sweden,Live @ O’Baren,Stockholm) Year: 2006 ________________________________________________ *** Note: Since all of the individual tracks on this album are freely but seperately available on Youtube anyways, i have decided to upload the *full album* for all of you fans out there.Enjoy! (-_-) _________________________________________________ *** Disclaimer: I do not own any of this material. All rights,credits,kudos and respect belong to Chris Cornell. __________________________________________________ WE LOVE YOU CHRIS. Tracklist: 01) Doesn’t Remind Me (Audioslave) 1:03 02) Like A Stone (Audioslave) 5:31 03) Wide Awake (Audioslave) 10:17 04) Fell On Black Days (Soundgarden) 14:19 05) Be Yourself (Audioslave) 18:58 06) Billie Jean (Michael Jackson Cover) 23:21 07) Original Fire (Audioslave) 27:49 08) Redemption Song (Bob Marley Cover) 31:49 09) Peace,Love And Understanding (Elvis Costello Cover) 35:18 10) All Night Thing (Temple Of The Dog) 37:40 11) Black Hole Sun (Soundgarden) 41:37 12) Call Me A Dog (Temple Of The Dog) 47:24 13) Thank You (Led Zeppelin Cover) 52:11 -End- Chris Cornell Walmart Soundcheck Videos: http://www.youtube.com/user/richardslave90/videos (5 acoustic songs.Good quality) ___________________________________________________…

Cornell University was founded in 1865 by a telegraph pioneer and an accomplished scholar and writer. This partnership of business acumen and intellectual excellence resulted in a university that has consistently set educational standards and achieved many academic ‘firsts.’ This video was filmed entirely on site at Cornell University. For more information: http://topcolleges.admissionsconsultants.com/cornell-university/…

Cornell University was founded in 1865 by a telegraph pioneer and an accomplished scholar and writer. This partnership of business acumen and intellectual excellence resulted in a university that has consistently set educational standards and achieved many academic ‘firsts.’ This video was filmed entirely on site at Cornell University. For more information: http://topcolleges.admissionsconsultants.com/cornell-university/…

The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar. Cornell is one of two private land grant universities, and its seven undergraduate colleges include three private, state-supported statutory or contract colleges. As a land grant college, it also operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York.

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Biochar provides high-definition electron pathways in soil

3 April, 2017
 

ITHACA, N.Y. — All plants need electrons to aid biological and chemical tasks. Cornell University scientists have discovered a new high-definition system that allows electrons to travel through soil farther and more efficiently than previously thought.

"Microorganisms need electrons for everything they do. If they consume nutrients or spew out methane or expel carbon dioxide — for any living, biological process — they need electrons," said Tianran Sun, postdoctoral researcher in soil and crop sciences and lead author of the paper that appears March 31 in Nature Communications.

Like large volumes of electricity that flow from Niagara Falls throughout upstate New York, electrons convey through soil via carbon. "We weren't aware of this high-definition soil distribution system transporting electrons from far away. It's not kilometers, it's not meters, but centimeter distances that matter in soil," said Johannes Lehmann, professor of soil science.

In fact, amending the soil with pyrogenic carbon — known as biochar — brings high definition to the electron network. In turn, the electrons spur conductive networks and growth, said Sun.

"Previously we thought there were only low-performing electron pathways in the soil — and now we've learned the electrons are channeled through soil very efficiently in a high-performing way," said Lehmann.

Lehmann and the members of his laboratory had struggled to understand why microorganisms thrived in the presence of biochar. The group removed soil phosphorus, making the environment inhospitable. They ruled out water and nutrients. They discarded the use of biochar as a food source because microorganisms cannot consume much of it. Through Sun's background in environmental chemistry, the scientists found that microorganisms may be drawn to electrons that the biochar can transport.

"These results will lead to a better understanding of microbial responses in soil and microbial metabolism, including long-term effects on greenhouse gas emissions," Sun said.

###

The National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture funded this research.

Cornell University has television, ISDN and dedicated Skype/Google+ Hangout studios available for media interviews. For additional information, see this Cornell Chronicle story.

Media Contact

Melissa Osgood
[email protected]/* */
607-255-2059
@cornell

http://pressoffice.cornell.edu


Biochar provides high-definition electron pathways in soil

3 April, 2017
 


[PDF] Sacred Soil: Biochar and the Regeneration of the Earth By Robert Tindall Download Full

3 April, 2017
 


Biochar comparison essay

3 April, 2017
 


Bio char research papers

3 April, 2017
 

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Biochar: A Guide to Analytical Methods

3 April, 2017
 

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The first biochar plant of City of Stockholm up and running!

3 April, 2017
 


Business boost for Mid North

3 April, 2017
 

Your 4-day local weather forecast

The future of the Mid North Forests is looking bright following the announcement of three new enterprises which are set to bring new life to the region.

State Minister for Forests Leon Bignell announced on Sunday that a firewood and tourism business at Yarcowie Forest, a grazing and firewood business at Leighton Forest and the transformation of the former Wirrabara Forest School into a self-catering tourist accommodation business would all open, following a state government Request for Proposal process.

The minister also confirmed that the transferring of the Bundaleer recreation grounds to the Bundaleer Sports and Recreation Association would occur for $1.

The future of foresting in the region was damaged after the Bangor bushfire in 2014 and the Bundaleer fire in 2013 burnt over 2,000 hectares of commercial plantations.

Proponent of Yarcowie Biochar David Fudge said the opportunity to develop the forest was an exciting one.

“The intention of our new firewood and tourist venture in Yarcowie Forest is to harvest limbs of existing trees and convert them into biochar, which is a carbon-rich charcoal that will be used in agricultural cropping systems,” Mr Fudge said.

“We plan to build a tourist eco villa using some selected wood harvested from the forest, produce lump barbecue charcoal, and saw mill selected hardwood for furniture making.”

Proponent of the grazing and firewood business at Leighton Forest Stephen Redden said sustainability and safety were high on the priority list for the new enterprise.

“We plan to sustainably manage Leighton Forest by sustainably harvesting a small portion each year to enable regrowth,” Mr Redden said.

“Many of the trees are 100-years-old and will make high value firewood. We’ll also graze the land to reduce the fuel load.”

Minister Bignell was positive about the introduction of new businesses to the region.

“These initial new enterprises will be exciting additions to the Mid North region, and will create and maintain jobs,” Mr Bignell said. “Commercial-in-confidence negotiations are continuing for a range of proposals, including the continuation of commercial forestry under new ownership.”

Ned Kelly, Shane Warne, and Ernie Dingo will head to Sydney's Olympic Park for the Royal Easter Show.

Norwood charged home to win the first South Australian National Football League prmeiership.

TAS: Alexis-Lee was 20 when she realised she was born in the wrong body.

The Laura Art Exhibition was launched at the Courthouse Gallery on Friday night.


Biochar For Environmental Management Science Technology And Implementation Read …

3 April, 2017
 

deku Küchenzentrum Paguera


BioChar Workshop Offers Special Learning Opportunity

4 April, 2017
 

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Biochar Provides High-definition Electron Pathways in Soil

4 April, 2017
 

ITHACA, N.Y. – All plants need electrons to aid biological and chemical tasks. Cornell University scientists have discovered a new high-definition system that allows electrons to travel through soil farther and more efficiently than previously thought.

“Microorganisms need electrons for everything they do. If they consume nutrients or spew out methane or expel carbon dioxide – for any living, biological process – they need electrons,” said Tianran Sun, postdoctoral researcher in soil and crop sciences and lead author of the paper that appears March 31 in Nature Communications.

Like large volumes of electricity that flow from Niagara Falls throughout upstate New York, electrons convey through soil via carbon. “We weren’t aware of this high-definition soil distribution system transporting electrons from far away. It’s not kilometers, it’s not meters, but centimeter distances that matter in soil,” said Johannes Lehmann, professor of soil science.

In fact, amending the soil with pyrogenic carbon – known as biochar – brings high definition to the electron network. In turn, the electrons spur conductive networks and growth, said Sun.

“Previously we thought there were only low-performing electron pathways in the soil – and now we’ve learned the electrons are channeled through soil very efficiently in a high-performing way,” said Lehmann.

Lehmann and the members of his laboratory had struggled to understand why microorganisms thrived in the presence of biochar. The group removed soil phosphorus, making the environment inhospitable. They ruled out water and nutrients. They discarded the use of biochar as a food source because microorganisms cannot consume much of it. Through Sun’s background in environmental chemistry, the scientists found that microorganisms may be drawn to electrons that the biochar can transport.

“These results will lead to a better understanding of microbial responses in soil and microbial metabolism, including long-term effects on greenhouse gas emissions,” Sun said.


Purchase: Global and Chinese Biochar Industry, 2017 Market Research Report

4 April, 2017
 


Research Report Covers United States Biochar Market Report 2016

4 April, 2017
 

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BioChar 50 Gallon Drums $110/Each

4 April, 2017
 

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Bio-Char 101

4 April, 2017
 

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North Olympic Fruit Club Presentation: Biochar

4 April, 2017
 

The program for Tuesday April 4th will be given by Francesco L. Tortorici on Biochar. He will talk about Biochar which is a carbon-rich product that he makes and that is used in the garden to help the soil which is rich in nutrients. Come and bring your questions on why it benefits the soil and how to use it.

The North Olympic Fruit Club meets the 1st Tuesday of each month to share ideas, teach grafting and exchange fruit wood.

Local growers gather to talk about growing and harvesting fruits that can be grown successfully in our area. Planting, pruning, care and feeding are important topics discussed regularly. Exchange of scion wood, grafting demonstrations, and many other important aspects of the backyard grower are discussed. Come join us! You don’t have to join the club to attend the meeting, but the membership is only $20 per year.


Biochar provides high-definition electron pathways in soil

4 April, 2017
 

IT, dev, tech and science news aggregator

( Cornell University ) Cornell University scientists have discovered a new high-definition system that allows electrons to travel through soil farther and more efficiently than previously thought.

The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.


Recent Bio-char Study!

5 April, 2017
 

type Exception report

message Argument ‘userAgentString’ must not be null.

description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.

exception

net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:65) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:52) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:107) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:197) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:64) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:33) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:78) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:61) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:53) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:78) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.UrlMultiSlashFilter.doFilter(UrlMultiSlashFilter.java:33) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:34) 

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


Biochar provides high-definition electron pathways in soil

5 April, 2017
 

All plants need electrons to aid biological and chemical tasks. Cornell University scientists have discovered a new high-definition system that allows electrons to travel through soil farther and more efficiently than previously thought.

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Biochar – Plant Operator / Site Manager

5 April, 2017
 

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Communicate directly on Gumtree using My Messages – it stores all of your Gumtree messages so you don’t need to rely on SMS or email.
Go to My Messages

Are you passionate about the environment? Do you want to contribute toa new sustainable industry that will take steps towards solving our globalwarming problem? We need enthusiastic and hands on people to help run our newtechnology as we build a new and sustainable industry.

As a key member of the Carbon and Energy Team at Earth Systems, youwill be involved in the daily operation, maintenance, and site management ofthe CharMaker biochar production facility.

Key contact

To apply for this position or for furtherinformation please contact hr******@******.au + click to reveal , or phone +*********7500 + click to reveal .

30 April 2017.

To protect the privacy of our community, Gumtree now requires you to register to receive seller contact details. Alternatively, you can still contact the seller via send message.

To protect the privacy of our community, Gumtree now requires you to register to receive seller contact details. Alternatively, you can still contact the seller via send message.


small explosion – a cautionary tale

5 April, 2017
 

type Exception report

message Argument ‘userAgentString’ must not be null.

description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.

exception

net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:65) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:52) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:107) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:197) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:64) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:33) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:78) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:61) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:53) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:78) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.UrlMultiSlashFilter.doFilter(UrlMultiSlashFilter.java:33) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:34) 

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


Biochar provides high-definition electron pathways in soil

5 April, 2017
 


Banding with Biochar in Established Orchards for Water Management, Water Retention, and Tree …

5 April, 2017
 

by Dr. D. Michael Shafer

It is critical to note what can and cannot be controlled in the assessment, how our findings can be used and, most important, what we hope to gain from this effort.

Given these possible sources of variation, our assessment cannot say anything about the underlying scientific data regarding biochar. And we are not interested in applying it in such a manner.

What we want to know is whether or not this simple, low-cost, low-effort technique can accomplish two things that have never been accomplished here before: a systematic effort to address the unimpeded runoff of rain and irrigation water from barren orchards and a systematic effort to address the problem of degraded and still degrading soil.

 

Before beginning: This is not a scientific paper and is written to describe the start of a multiyear program of testing by normal farmers using the proposed techniques as they would normally do so. The aim is to test whether or not biochar, applied as made by farmers using whatever biomass they have available, mixed as best they can and applied as best they can has results of the sort found in controlled laboratory experiments. As with all Warm Heart projects, this is highly public. Each participating orchard is identified by a banner and each treatment is identified by a banner. Friends and neighbors of the participating farmers are invited to offer their observations and suggestions. The participating farmers are routinely interviewed on video and Warm Heart posts summary videos on its website.

The paper explains the local context, public and private needs, and the proposed, partial solution that applies biochar.

The project is not framed as a piece of formal, scientific research; it is a self-conscious field application. Were it to be framed around specific hypotheses, however, they would be the following – each amended with the conditional phrase: “as applied here.”

The “as applied here” condition is critical in both cases. As for H1, the efficacy of biochar banding and of contoured swales confound – and we lack the necessary test equipment to compare soil moisture differences between test and comparison plots. As for H2, the possibility of improved water retention improving yields confounds any efficacy attributed to biochar’s impact on yield improvement.

There is also no reason to believe that a failure of either hypothesis to show positive results contradicts well-established findings that biochar improves water penetration and retention, and plant nutrition. All that can be said is that the Warm Heart biochar banding technique did not improve water penetration-retention and/or plant nutrition in orchards on slopes.

 

Public efforts to address the water issue have been ineffective, capital-intensive and impractical. No ideas regarding climate change risk mitigation have been articulated. Reforestation efforts have failed as a result of forestry policy and land tenure battles that go back more than a century. Traditional solutions to local water availability such as digging more ponds ignore local water management problems, and high tech solutions – such as using solar power to pump water from rivers to the top of mountains to then trickle down again – are capital-intensive, fail to address the fact that the water will still be wasted and that the river will run dry when the need is the greatest.

 

Efforts to address the problems of increasing agricultural productivity while reducing synthetic fertilizer use have been ineffective. The problem is partly political: the fertilizer industry is well protected. But the reigning paradigm continues to be one of large-scale, chemical-intensive commercial agriculture which, whatever its relevance in the well-watered and fertile central plain of Thailand, is irrelevant in the mountainous North and semi-arid Northeast where the productivity challenge lies. Here the issue is building basic soil quality, something synthetic fertilizers cannot do, that the state could not afford if they could, and that poor farmers certainly cannot afford. In the North and Northeast, Thailand’s future source of staples, the issues are pH increase, soil structure improvement to improve water penetration and retention, C and OM content increases, the regeneration of soil life and erosion control. Neither the research nor the extension capacity to accomplish this exist and there is no evidence of a ground swell of change at faculties of agriculture where faculty and students continue to focus on factory agriculture in Central Thailand.Water as a Private Problem

North Thailand orchards are designed to suffer water problems. The soil is generally clay that dries to a brick-like hardness in the sun; no vegetation is permitted to grow under orchard trees; and orchards are situated on sloping foothills not appropriate for other crops. The result is fast runoff of passing rains and large quantities of irrigation water, and a lengthy period at the start of the rainy season before trees begin to absorb water. Where farmers pay for water, irrigation is a big production cost. Their best alternative is to install drip irrigation which is effective and also reduces fertilizer costs, but represents a major capital investment.

 

 

When asked about the future, farmers generally just shrug their shoulders. All of the orchard crops they grow are prone to boom-bust price cycles and it is not uncommon for farmers to suffer catastrophic losses when a poor harvest and/or price collapse leave them with extreme fertilizer debts. Diversification opportunities are limited and risk mitigation all but impossible with current resources. Farmers all hope to see a no fault government crop insurance program, but that is unlikely to materialize. When told that the means are at hand to mitigate the risks posed by increasingly unpredictable rainfall, improve their soil and reduce their input costs, they are all excited – and highly skeptical. The primary function of the highly visible banners and field tours that are part of the Warm Heart test program is fully to engage local farmers in a “believe your own eyes” campaign to improve soil quality and yields while reducing risk.

 

In the context of Phrao, Chiang Mai Province and North Thailand as a whole, the banding program has “public” and “private” aims. In both cases, the program addresses concerns about water and plant nutrition.

 

For each test plot, we have records of previous year crop yields; longan, however, is notoriously erratic from year to year. In each test orchard, we propose to assess average annual yield per tree using a common sampling system applied to each test section of each orchard. Otherwise, we have no knowledgeable soil scientist to design or implement tests of changes in soil quality or water retention over time, nor do we have any lab equipment. Our focus, therefore, is on the simplest variable of all and the only one that farmers care about, yield.

In three years, we would like to test whether the presence of banding reduces the required N application rate, a primary input cost for farmers. This, however, will follow a first round of results from water retention and the presence of biochar.

The three real test plots are located within the Phrao valley.

The five sections will be:

“Test” Plot 1

We started at Warm Heart where we have small mango and longan orchards in order to develop the basic banding technique.[2] In learning how to band, how much biochar to use (based on total band length per rai (local measure of area) and cost per kg, and how to refill, we “treated” the entire Warm Heart site, leaving no opportunity for comparative performance testing.

Test Plot 2

Plot divided in half top to bottom to mimic water flow; one half banded, the other not.

Test Plot 3

10 rai plot of 250 trees planted on rolling land.

Test Plot 4

10 rai plot of 250 trees planted on land varying from flat to 20⁰ slopes.

 

At 20 cm x 100 cm, the band is 0.2 m2. The biochar applicate is 1.25 kg/m. The resulting application is therefore 5 x 1.25 kg/m or 6.25 kg/m2 or the equivalent of 62.5 MT/ha.

 

 

Farmer acceptance is a function of perceived value and cost. As our tests go forward, we hope to be able to demonstrate value to individual farmers. (We place no faith in the possibility of government acceptance of the program and its replication with government support. The discussion of the public utility of the program is simply for the benefit of an interested public.)

As for costs, they are low but highly variable depending on whether or not a farm family wishes to undertake the project themselves or a larger farmer wishes to outsource the project.

Fruit orchards generate approximately 1.25 MT per rai of prunings annually; if a family has 2 rai, they will have 2.5 MT of feedstock. Using a Warm Heart 2,000 l. Trough Oven (cost $200), a family can make .625 MT (625 kg) of biochar in less than 2 days. Crushing takes a matter of hours at most. If the family has access to pig, cow or horse urine, saturation is more a function of collection time than activity time. If the family does not have access to urine, sloppy pig pen mud or chicken coop floor litter can be mixed in as a replacement. The amount of time required depends largely on the number of hands available. (Total, 10 person days)

A rai is 40 m x 40 m. The way orchard trees are planted, each rai requires 4 bands of 40 m for a total of 160 m/rai. A 2 rai orchard will require 320 m of banding. Using a kwai lek, a farmer can do this in a few hours. (0.5 person days)

Filling at the rate of 1.25 kg per m, the family will require 320 x 1.25 or 400 kg of biochar. This should not take more than a few hours working from a farm cart. In-filling can happen at the same time if there are two people. Planting will take just a few hours, although preparing the lemon grass for planting may also take several hours. (4 person days)

Depending on local availability, biochar can be purchased for $0.14 to $0.29 per kg, pre-saturated. Cost for the required 4,000 kg = $560 – $1,160

Assuming that owner has kwai lek, 3 days of work, one laborer at Thai minimum wage (unrealistically high) = 3 x $10 = $30

Assuming large scale-economies, 60 person days at Thai minimum wage = 60 x $10 = $600

[1] We understand scientific experimentation to require the complete control of all relevant variables and the capacity to measure variation in relevant variables in their isolation with a very high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, we understand scientific experimentation not to be subject to human interest, but to be undertaken at “neutral” sites fully controlled by the experimenter. On the other hand, we conduct our assessments in working orchards subject to every conceivable, uncontrolled and even unknown variability. Likewise, our “lab assistants” are the farmer’s day laborers and our instruments are the field scales they use to weigh fruit yields. And, of course, unlike a proper test plot, the orchards we work on are often farmer’s sole source of income, which gives them a powerful interest in our “experimentation.”

[2] Warm Heart’s land is flat (there is no runoff problem); Warm Heart has never irrigated (there is no water cost problem, but Warm Heart lost the entire 2016 crop because of drought); and Warm Heart has never fertilized with either synthetic or organic fertilizers (there is no input cost as the orchards have been neglected).

[3] The Warm Heart program has experimented only with lowland areas because this is where orchard crops are grown. In the mountains, farmers plow with water buffalo. The next project will be to test water retention-soil nutrition providing banding in steep mountain corn fields plowed with water buffalo.

[4] Depending on the age of the orchard, the lemon grass may thrive or just survive. If the orchard is young, the farmer gets a small crop; if it merely survives, it has fulfilled its primary mission which is to absorb water and slow runoff.

[5] Temperature varies during pyrolysis with feedstock loading; pyrolysis time depends on whether char is from feedstock loaded early or later. Char from each burn and subsequently char from many burns is mixed. Average residence time is approximately one hour.

[6] Warm Heart has the good fortune of being located within 2 km of a commercial piggery that permits us to collect urine from its biodigester overflow free. We collect it in a 1,000 l. pickup truck tank and use it liberally on our biochar. Field tests show that pig urine charged biochar outperforms local farmer’s normal NPK applications.


Biochar and Organic Compost Tea.

5 April, 2017
 

Serendipity…that’s what I called the timing of meeting up with an old high school friend who happens to be a sales rep for Earthworm Organics- Vermigrow. He knew we’d be getting ready for spring planting soon and offered to bring over some of his company’s compost tea and bio char. At the time, I was […]

via Organic Compost Tea & BioChar — Gandules and Greenhouses


Worldwide Biochar Market Key Vendors, Trends, Challenges, Drivers and Forecast Till 2019

5 April, 2017
 

Research study says global biochar market to grow at a CAGR of 15.46 percent over the period 2014-2019, Ask for sample@ http://www.bigmarketresearch.com/request-sample/222237

Recent research added report on “Worldwide Biochar Market Technology, Overview, Analysis, Demand, Report, Trends, Growth and Research – Global Biochar Market 2015-2019”

Biochar is a porous stable solid, which is rich in carbon. It is produced from the carbonization of biomass. It is a type of charcoal used for soil amendment and filtration. Biochar’s carbon sequestration characteristics help mitigate climate change. It is naturally found in soil as a result of natural vegetation or forest fires.

Covered in this report

The report includes the segmentation of the market based on application, geography, technology, and feedstock.

TechNavio’s report, Global Biochar Market 2015-2019, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.

Read more@ http://www.bigmarketresearch.com/global-biochar-2015-2019-market

Key vendors

  Agri-Tech Producers

  Biochar Products

  Diacarbon Energy

  Pacific Biochar

  Phoenix Energy

Other prominent vendors

  Advanced BioRefinery

  Avello Bioenergy

  Biochar Now

  Biochar Supreme

  Biogreen-Energy

  DynaMotive Energy Systems

  Encendia Biochar

  Green Harvest Group

  International Tech

  Tolero Energy

Market driver

  Advantages of biochar carbon sequestration projects

  For a full, detailed list, view our report

Market challenge

  Lack of demonstration projects

  For a full, detailed list, view our report

Ask for Discount@ http://www.bigmarketresearch.com/purchase-enquiry/222237

Market trend

  Investment in R&D and alternative financing mechanism

  For a full, detailed list, view our report

Key questions answered in this report

  What will the market size be in 2019 and what will the growth rate be?

  What are the Key market trends?

  What is driving this market?

  What are the challenges to market growth?

  Who are the key vendors in this market space?

  What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the key vendors?

  What are the strengths and weaknesses of the key vendors?

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Continuous Pyrolysis Biochar Production

5 April, 2017
 

Jean has proved to have an awesome PR personality! We have come in touch with the Professor Carl Pabo of Caltech giving the team a good opportunity to find talented people in the Academia that could help us move the project along. Ricardo will be assisting to the lectures from now on, they're really good (and open to those interested)

We're hunting down the parts for Mk1 and aiming to start building it before month's end. Unfortunately, Jean is going back to Montreal, but he will continue helping the project while he's there.

We hope to have you back in town soon, farewell good friend!

Hi all, finally the team is coming together! Ricardo has just arrived and we're brainstorming ideas on how to complete our design and build an initial prototype that could make the idea more enticing, and easier to explain to people. We're going down the route of finding off-the-shelf parts and limiting the welding component to the minimum possible, we're also discussing what type of solid waste to use first. We'll keep on publishing details about the concepts of our project as we go through them. We'll also resort to this project log entries as a means of sharing our progress… so stay tuned!!

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Hair as Feedstock

6 April, 2017
 

type Exception report

message Argument ‘userAgentString’ must not be null.

description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.

exception

net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:65) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:52) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:107) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:197) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:64) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:33) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:78) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:61) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:53) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:78) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.UrlMultiSlashFilter.doFilter(UrlMultiSlashFilter.java:33) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:34) 

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


Phd Thesis On Biochar

6 April, 2017
 

Phd Thesis On Biochar – topenglishpaperessay.life phd thesis on biochar Professional Resume Writing Services 3rd Kings Private Custom Essay Writer Compare And Contrast Essay On High School And College Phd Thesis On Biochar – topenglishbestessay.life Phd Thesis On Biochar phd thesis on biochar Paid Master Thesis Fpga 2010 Apa Proposal Example Phd Thesis On Educational Technology 500 Word Essay Phd thesis on biochar – southsimcoepolice.on.ca Phd thesis on biochar. Special promotion through training opportunities. Aim of native soil amendment. Jim amonette pacific northwest university; biochar solutions Phd thesis on biochar » Original content – hello-sushi.de Phd thesis on biochar – Do you have to write a dissertation for a phd. WriteMyEssay is an eclectic group of word engineers. Eddo, PhD Thesis, 2013 Phd Thesis On Biochar | Can someone write my paper Phd Thesis On Biochar,Generation X Essay Thesis.Buy essays on from pencils to pixels subject Profile: Biochar at Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Profile: Biochar at Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering “After finishing my PhD thesis on biogas in 2008, Thesis On Biochar – asas.edu.pk File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat THESIS. BIOCHAR EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND RESISTANCE OF. A.Freddo, PhD Thesis, 2013 – University of East Anglia Thesis On Biochar – tizianacatanzani.it phd thesis on biochar Dri uk custom do you have to use quotes in a research paper phd coursework information technology phd thesis on biochar bold dissertation PDF Biochar Amendments to Forest Soils: Effects on Soil BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND TREE GROWTH A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Phd thesis on biochar – uludaginfo.com youth justice essay in the scenic phd thesis on biochar Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province of South Africa was phd thesis on biochar established in 1982.

Ph. D. Thesis. Biochar as a Geoengineering Climate Solution – ResearchGate File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat Biochar is a carbon dense solid that is produced via the Production of biochars for use in soil quality enhancement Production of biochars for use in soil quality enhancement. visit a research lab that studying the producing of biochar from organic material as soil enhancer. PDF Application of Fast Pyrolysis Biochar to a Loamy soil Risø-PhD-Report Application of Fast Pyrolysis Biochar to a Loamy soil – Effects on carbon and nitrogen dynamics and potential for carbon sequestration ProQuest Document View – Biochar: Its characterization and Biochar: Its characterization and utility for recovering phosphorus from anaerobic digested dairy effluent by Streubel, Jason Dale, Ph.D., WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Biochar as a soil amendment and productivity stimulus for Wróbel-Tobiszewska, A (2014) Biochar as a soil amendment and productivity stimulus for Eucalyptus nitens plantations. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania. Sian Hawthorne Phd Thesis – topenglishserviceessay.life Phd Thesis On Biochar Thesis Proposal Writing Who Wants To Write My Paper For Me Money Can Buy Health Essay Buy College Application Essays Outline. Biochar Carbon Sequestration Dissertation Dissertation Slash and Char as Alternative to Slash and Burn – soil charcoal amendments maintain soil fertility and establish a carbon sink (click on images to download) Geotechnical Group PhD List 1951-2016 — Geotechnical and PhD Thesis; Geotechnical and Geotechnical Group PhD List 1951-2016 The impact of biochar on soil processes and its potential in soil remediation: 232. Bandara Biochar References Articles Books – Cornell University Biochar – The new frontier : Inspired by the intriguing properties of ancient Terra Preta de Indio, biochar‡ was identified as a soil amendment that has the PDF Biochar and bioenergy production for climate change mitigation (with distinction) and a PhD in management (his thesis being in the management of industrial innovation). Biochar and bioenergy production for climate change

Recommended Citation. Northup, Jake, “Biochar as a replacement for perlite in greenhouse soilless substrates” (2013). Graduate Theses and Dissertations. What is a Ph.D. Dissertation? – Purdue University What is a Ph.D. Dissertation? [I wrote this in 1993 as a letter to a student concerning a draft of his dissertation. in 2003 I edited it to remove some specific How I wrote a PhD thesis in 3 months – James Hayton PhD How I wrote my PhD thesis in 3 months; the 10 crucial factors to writing a thesis fast How to Write a Dissertation & What is a dissertation How to Write a Dissertation Editing Services. Get Help for All Levels phd dissertation,dissertation database professional academic writers.What is a dissertation

Amennyiben az oldalt a tovább használja elfogadja ezen sütik használatát, eetleg lehetősége van ezek letiltására a böngésző beállításainál.. Részletek

A süti (cookie) egy kis méretű szöveges fájl, amit elhelyezünk a számítógépén, ha Ön beleegyezik. A sütiket számos különféle célra használhatjuk, amelyekről részletesen írunk az alábbiakban.

Mire szolgálnak az egyes sütik a Honda weboldalán?

A sütik számos feladatot látnak el, amelyek közül néhányat az alábbiakban kiemelünk:

• Megjegyzik az Ön egyes beállításait, ezáltal bizonyos folyamatokat könnyebben és gyorsabban teljesíthet (például amikor akosárba teszi a termlket akkor is sütiket használunk).

• Névtelen felhasználói információk gyűjtésére is alkalmasak – segítségükkel például megtudhatjuk, hogy az oldal látogatói közül hányan jöttek affiliate partnereink oldaláról.

• Emlékezni fognak rá, hogy meglátogatta a weboldalunkat, az online hirdetők pedig felhasználhatják ezt az információt ahhoz, hogy személyre szabott üzeneteket készítsenek az Ön számára – például egy hirdetés közvetítésekor egy harmadik fél weboldalán, amely egy aktuális Vitálvár ajánlatra hívja fel a figyelmét.

Ne feledje, a sütiket bármikor letilthatja vagy eltávolíthatja, ezáltal az addig tárolt információk is tartósan törlődnek. 

A sütik négy kategóriáját használjuk weboldalunkon:

1. Nélkülözhetetlen sütik

• Az ilyen sütik nélkülözhetetlenek a weboldalunk megfelelő működéséhez. Olyan sütiket tartalmaznak például, amelyek lehetővé teszik, hogy a helyes oldalakra lépjen, ha a weboldal működését illetően frissítést hajtottunk végre.

2. Teljesítménnyel kapcsolatos sütik

• Az ilyen sütik arról gyűjtenek információt, hogy hogyan használják a látogatók az oldalunkat, segítségükkel megérthetjük az esetlegesen felmerülő hibák okát, valamint új funkciók tesztelését is lehetővé teszik a számunkra. Nem gyűjtünk olyan információkat, amelyek közvetlenül azonosíthatják a látogatót, mivel az adatok összesítettek és névtelenek. Ezeket az információkat kizárólag oldalunk működésének javításához használunk fel. 

3. Működőképességgel kapcsolatos sütik

• Az ilyen sütik segítenek a specifikus funkciók engedélyezésében az oldalon, hogy növelni tudjuk a látogatói élményt, például azáltal, hogy megjegyzik az Ön preferenciáit (pl. az egyoldalas kosár), észlelik, ha egy szolgáltatást korábban már a figyelmébe ajánlottunk, illetve összetettebb döntéseket is tárolni tudnak (mint például egy konkrét termék elhelyezése a kosárban).

4. Célzott/hirdetési sütik

• Ezek a sütik az oldalunkon tett látogatását, a megnyitott oldalakat, valamint a linkeket követik figyelemmel, amelyekre rákattintott. Ezen információkat arra használjuk, hogy weboldalunkat és a rajta megjelenő információkat, esetleges reklámokat érdeklődési körére szabjuk. Ezt az információt harmadik felekkel is megoszthatjuk e célból. Emellett a reklámkampányok hatékonyságát is nyomon követhetjük velük. 

Kérjük, vegye figyelembe, hogy harmadik felek (többek között a hirdetési csatornák és külső szolgáltatók, például a webes forgalmat elemző szolgáltatások) szintén használhatnak sütiket, amelyeket mi nem ellenőrzünk. Az ilyen sütik valószínűleg teljesítménnyel kapcsolatos sütik vagy célmeghatározó sütik.

 


Vega Biofuels to Host Cannabis Growers at 2017 Cannacon

6 April, 2017
 


VGPR Biochar is a highly absorbent

6 April, 2017
 

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Biochar provides high-definition electron pathways in soil

6 April, 2017
 

IT, dev, tech and science news aggregator

Scientists have discovered a new high-definition system that allows electrons to travel through soil farther and more efficiently than previously thought.

Earth science research and news. Read science articles on air quality, geology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology and science and the environment.


Kitchen Fresh Biochar Compost Deodorizer (2 Quart) 606989963727

6 April, 2017
 

Already have an account?


biochar

6 April, 2017
 

Biochar

… Some examples include biochar

Biochar

… and rice hull biochar makes a good soil amendment …

… Amending soil with biochar has been observed to increase the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi …

… If biochar becomes widely used for soil improvement …

Biochar is shown to have increased soil cation exchange capacity leading to improved plant nutrient uptake …

Biochar also shows that …

Biochar stability as a form of charcoal is due to its formation …

… Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal and is sometimes utilized as biochar

… Pyrolysis of the sludge to create syngas and potentially biochar is possible …

… or with biochar produced from a pyrolytic process …

… The ash can be used as biochar fertilizer …

… Lower-temperature gasification is desirable when co-producing biochar

… A derivative of solid biofuel is biochar

Biochar made from agricultural waste can substitute for wood charcoal …

… the long-term use of biochar

… the long-term use of biochar

… natives are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity by smoldering plant waste …

… to convert biomass into syngas and biochar

… Efforts are underway to recreate these soils through biochar

Biochar improves the soil texture and ecology …

Biochar is also being considered for carbon sequestration …

… It has been suggested that rural communities might obtain fuel from the biochar and synfuel process …

… The biochar thus created …

… and producing biochar

… Since 2013 ZEGG is experimenting with the use of Biochar and Terra Preta in building soil and fertility …

Biochar is charcoal produced at relatively low temperatures from a biomass of wood and leafy plant materials in an environment with very low or no oxygen …

Biochar is capable of decreasing soil acidity and if soaked in nutrient rich liquid can slowly release nutrients …

… manure and biochar is of particulate nature and capable of moving down the soil profile and improving soil fertility and carbon in the current soil peds and aggregates over a viable time frame …


Wakefield Biochar

6 April, 2017
 

Our shipping rates are discounted to make shopping online easier than ever! Buy Biochar online and get your order delivered to your front door in just a few days!
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Log 2: One team member leaving…

6 April, 2017
 

Jean has proved to have an awesome PR personality! We have come in touch with the Professor Carl Pabo of Caltech giving the team a good opportunity to find talented people in the Academia that could help us move the project along. Ricardo will be assisting to the lectures from now on, they're really good (and open to those interested)

We're hunting down the parts for Mk1 and aiming to start building it before month's end. Unfortunately, Jean is going back to Montreal, but he will continue helping the project while he's there.

We hope to have you back in town soon, farewell good friend!

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+ Ask Your Query

6 April, 2017
 

Call: +1-631-407-1315 / +91-750-729-1479
Email: sales@themarketreports.com

Copyright © 2017 The Market Reports. All rights reserved.


Extension Master Gardener

6 April, 2017
 

eXtension provides objective and research-based information and learning opportunities that help people improve their lives. eXtension is a critical part of the Cooperative Extension System and an educational partner of 75 land-grant universities in the United States.

 © 2017 eXtension. All rights reserved.


Vega Biofuels to Host Cannabis Growers at —…–7 Cannacon

6 April, 2017
 

Members Only. Please Sign Up or Log In first.

Bookmark of this page has been deleted.

Increase in Cannabis Legalization Boosts Companyâs Biochar Sales

NORCROSS, Ga., April 06, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink:VGPR) announced today that it will be hosting cannabis growers from several different states at the 2017 Cannacon in Santa Rosa, CA. The April 20 event will include over 5,000 legal cannabis growers from all over the world. Vega Biofuels will be showcasing the Companyâs Biochar product. Biochar is a highly absorbent specially designed charcoal-type product primarily used as a soil enhancement for the agricultural industry to significantly increase crop yields. Biochar is made from timber waste using torrefaction technology and the Companyâs patent pending torrefaction machine. The introduction of Biochar into soil is not like applying fertilizer; it is the beginning of a process. Most of the benefit is achieved through microbes and fungi. They colonize its massive surface area and integrate into the Biochar and the surrounding soil, dramatically increasing the soilâs ability to nurture plant growth and provide increased crop yield. Cannabis growers currently using Biochar as a soil enhancement have reported dramatic increases in plant production.

Vega recently announced the Company has entered into an Agreement with an Alaska based grower to market the Companyâs Biochar product throughout the state of Alaska through a Reseller Agreement with Vega. Alaska recently approved the sale of both medical and recreational cannabis. Vega is using this model as it markets to growers in other states.

âThe Reseller Agreements give us an opportunity to have an immediate presence in states that have legalized the manufacturing and sale of cannabis products,â stated Michael K. Molen, Chairman/CEO of Vega Biofuels, Inc. âThe Santa Rosa Cannacon provides us with a tremendous opportunity to reach over 5,000 growers in one location. The harvest reports that we are hearing are staggering and the return on investment for the growers is even greater. We will post pictures and further information from the show as things develop. The sale of Biochar to the cannabis industry will have a significant impact on our bottom line this year.â

For plants that require high potash and elevated pH, Biochar can be used as a soil amendment to significantly improve yield. Biochar can improve water quality, reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching, reduce soil acidity, and reduce irrigation and fertilizer requirements. Biochar was also found under certain circumstances to induce plant systemic responses to foliar fungal diseases and to improve plant responses to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. The various impacts of Biochar can be dependent on the properties of the Biochar, as well as the amount applied. Biochar impact may depend on regional conditions including soil type, soil condition (depleted or healthy), temperature, and humidity. Modest additions of Biochar to soil reduces nitrous oxide N2O emissions by up to 80% and eliminates methane emissions, which are both more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.

About Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink:VGPR):

Vega Biofuels, Inc. is a cutting-edge energy company that manufactures and markets a renewable energy product called Bio-Coal and a soil enhancement called Biochar, both made from timber waste using unique technology called torrefaction. Torrefaction is the treatment of biomass at high temperatures under low oxygen conditions. For more information, please visit our website at vegabiofuels.com.

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements are not a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by, which such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time the statements are made and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainty and other factors that may cause our results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this press release.

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Dakota James Botts

6 April, 2017
 

No comments by Dakota James Botts yet.

Our shipping rates are discounted to make shopping online easier than ever! Buy Biochar online and get your order delivered to your front door in just a few days!
Buy biochar to find out how easy it is.


biochar

7 April, 2017
 

biochar

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Biochar

… It has been suggested that rural communities might obtain fuel from the biochar and synfuel process …

… The biochar thus created …

… and producing biochar

… Pyrolysis of the sludge to create syngas and potentially biochar is possible …

… or with biochar produced from a pyrolytic process …

… The ash can be used as biochar fertilizer …

… Lower-temperature gasification is desirable when co-producing biochar

… A derivative of solid biofuel is biochar

Biochar made from agricultural waste can substitute for wood charcoal …

… the long-term use of biochar

… the long-term use of biochar

… natives are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity by smoldering plant waste …

… to convert biomass into syngas and biochar

… Efforts are underway to recreate these soils through biochar

Biochar improves the soil texture and ecology …

Biochar is also being considered for carbon sequestration …

… Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal and is sometimes utilized as biochar

… Amending soil with biochar has been observed to increase the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi …

… If biochar becomes widely used for soil improvement …

Biochar is shown to have increased soil cation exchange capacity leading to improved plant nutrient uptake …

Biochar also shows that …

Biochar stability as a form of charcoal is due to its formation …

Biochar

biochar

… Some examples include biochar

Biochar

… and rice hull biochar makes a good soil amendment …

Biochar is capable of decreasing soil acidity and if soaked in nutrient rich liquid can slowly release nutrients …

… Since 2013 ZEGG is experimenting with the use of Biochar and Terra Preta in building soil and fertility …

Biochar is charcoal produced at relatively low temperatures from a biomass of wood and leafy plant materials in an environment with very low or no oxygen …


Site Info

7 April, 2017
 


Log 3: We started the 2050 class!

7 April, 2017
 

Thanks again to Professor Pabo to allow us into his class. We're now going to develop our work and documentation under his guidance and post them here as we go.

We're also going to apply to the Supplyframe residency program. Hopefully you'll find us at the lab in the upcoming weeks!

The BOM is coming up nicely, we're being extra careful to select the right materials thus minimizing our initial costs.

Finally, one picture of our inaugural celebration, just before Jean started his trip back home…

Cheers!

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spantoneous combustion wood charcoal stove wood biochar kiln

8 April, 2017
 

Home>Products>Continuous Carbonization Stove/furnace>spantoneous combustion wood charcoal stove wood biochar kiln

wood biochar kiln
wood carton, nude packing or 20 ft. container

This machine is equipped with: Auto-feeding Conveyor,Biomass Gasifier equipment, Dust-Removal Device,Gas cleaner system, PLC touchscreen manual automatic dual-use electric control cabinet, Cooling and Discharging Conveyor,Carbonization furnace and other equipments.

Burning the raw material inside of the gasification furnace (as sawdust, shell, Palm shell, husk, straw, wood scrap etc.), the produced flue gas in pipeline within after spray pour, cooling purification, became combustible gas (carbon monoxide, methane, ethane,), as early carbonization of heat, heating and carbonizing the raw material inside of the carbonization furnace(as mechanism core rod, abandoned logs, bark, coconut shell, life garbage,etc.)

When the temperature reached to 300 degrees Celsius, carbonization furnace starting carbonizing of raw materials, producing smoke; flue gas become into a combustible gas after spray pour, cooling purification by the cooling purification system, continue carbonizing, then gasifier stop working.

 

 

Technical parameters:

 

Test report 

 

 

Working process diagram and plant layout

wood biochar kiln 

Products images

 

wood biochar kiln 

wood biochar kiln 

 

wood biochar kiln 

 

 

Our  continuous carbonization stove/furnace is mainly used for carbonizing:

 

Almost all of the Biomass Straw,Friut Husk,and Wood Scraps.

 

Such as Sawdust,Rice Husk,Groundnut Shell,Plants Straw, Tree Bark,Grinded Coconut shell,Bamboo dust,Bagasse,Cotton Stalk,Coffee Husk,Mustard Husk/Stalk,Pine Needles,Sugar Mill Waste,Jute Waste,Coir Pith and other wastes&residues like Castor Shell,Red Gram Stalk,Tobacco Stem,Tea Waste,Sander Dust,Wild Grasses,Shrubs and Sander dust etc.

 

The Granule size of all aboved raw material should be less than 50 mm;if more than 50mm, configure a crusher.

Henan Haozhou export & import Co., Ltd. is a modern and high-tech enterprise established with a state level research center. We are located in Guangling road, Gongyi,Zhengzhou China, covering an area of above 27 thousand square meters. Since established 10 years ago, we have won many honors as well.

 

The company has been taking the scientific management method of the modern enterprise, producing products with meticulous care and non-stop creation and developing to become a bright pearl and pacemaker of the mechanical industry in our country.

Our company has a lot of engineers and technical personnel. They absorb the advanced management method of domestic and overseas positively, carry out the systemize construction strongly, do their best to meet customer’s needs, and try to build the top-grade employees’ team.

 

Our company mainly supplies Automatic vacuum brick making machine/Concrete/cement Color Tile Making Machine, Continuous Charcoal Carbonization Stove and lines.wood charcoal making machine.

 

Based on customers’ demand, we supply the services in a flexible way not only the traditional services but also the internet on-line services. Our engineers are 24 hours online. We try our best to carve out market and provide services all the time. Before purchasing, we will send our engineers to customers’ site for spot check, installation and take trial running. We are always doing our best to provide our customers with perfect quality, favorable price and wonderful service. Welcome all of you come to visit and carry out the cooperation!

 

京ICP证 040089号 京公网安备11010802017131

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Thank you for your enquiry and you will be contacted soon.


biochar machine activated carbon plant activated carbon product line

8 April, 2017
 

Home>Products>A/C Machine>biochar machine activated carbon plant activated carbon product line

biochar machine machine activated carbon plant
wood carton, nude packing or 20 ft. container

 

Working principle

All kinds of materials should be carbonized first, and then the materials below 2mm which have been carbonized should be screened out, with water content < 15%. At this moment, the materials are fed into the elevator tank, enhanced into the top feed bin, and fed into the furnace by a frequency conversion feeder through the top feed bin. The previous afterheat temperature in the furnace needs to reach above 800°C for feeding. At this moment, the moderate oxygen should be put into the furnace by a draught fan, and the steam is open and the moderate steam is fed into the furnace to activate the materials. At this moment the steam needs to go through the steam. Two tons of steam should be fed into the furnace every activated carbon. At this moment the steam cannot be diffused steam, otherwise the less hour rate of the carbon is large and the efficiency and quality are not good. Materials gradually enter the carbonization preheating zone as the furnace body is turning. When the materials are heated to about 800 ℃, they enter the material activation area. When the materials’ temperature rises quickly to about 900-1050 ℃ after the contact and reaction with water vapor, the time of contact between materials and water vapor is called as "activation time", which is about 25-40 minutes according to different temperature and oxygen supply, namely, the materials go forward at 6 meters per hour with the turning furnace body. When the material enters the cooling section, it enters the furnace body discharging pipe, and the temperature at this time is about 500-600 ℃ When passing the discharging pipe and gradually cooling down to 200 ℃, the material will automatically fall into another water cooling channel outside of the furnace. After about 3 minutes of oxygen-free cooling, the activated material has reached the room temperature, about 30-40 ℃. At this moment, the cooling-down material automatically falls into the early prepared packaging ton bag (0.5 ton per bag). When the bag is full, the material will be displaced by manpower pressure forklift. The furnace tail is equipped with a settling chamber which plays four roles: firstly, preheat the waste heat boiler; secondly, dust settlement; thirdly, after the furnace is stopped, the steam is not shut to prevent pipelines from being frozen in cold areas; fourthly, burn the unclean combustion gas again to reduce the black rock and make full use of the heat of the flue gas. Equip a steam waste heat boiler behind the settling chamber and utilize the high-temperature exhaust gas (about 800℃) to make the steam waste heat boiler generate steam, which is used for activating materials. Behind the boiler is equipped with an ID fan, in order to pump the high temperature exhaust in the boiler to the waste heat boiler, and the exhaust will be pumped into the pulse bag filter before being emitted up to the standard.

 

Technical parameters:

 

 

Product name

(Carbonized material)

Iodine sorption value

(New national standard)

Methylene

blue

Water content

Yield

Output

24 hours/day

Coconut shell carbon

>1000

>9.5

<3

2.1:1

3t

Apricot shell carbon

>1000

>11

<3

2.3:1

2.6t

Carbon

>1000

>12

<3

3:1

2.2t

Coal carbon

>800

>8

<3

2.9:1

2.5t

 

  biochar machine activated carbon plant 

 

Test report 

 

biochar machine activated carbon plant

Working process diagram and plant layout

 

    biochar machine activated carbon plant 

Products images

 

 

 

 

 

  biochar machine activated carbon plant 

 

 

 

Our  continuous carbonization stove/furnace is mainly used for carbonizing:

 

Almost all of the Biomass Straw,Friut Husk,and Wood Scraps.

 

Such as Sawdust,Rice Husk,Groundnut Shell,Plants Straw, Tree Bark,Grinded Coconut shell,Bamboo dust,Bagasse,Cotton Stalk,Coffee Husk,Mustard Husk/Stalk,Pine Needles,Sugar Mill Waste,Jute Waste,Coir Pith and other wastes&residues like Castor Shell,Red Gram Stalk,Tobacco Stem,Tea Waste,Sander Dust,Wild Grasses,Shrubs and Sander dust etc.

 

The Granule size of all aboved raw material should be less than 50 mm;if more than 50mm, configure a crusher.

Henan Haozhou export & import Co., Ltd. is a modern and high-tech enterprise established with a state level research center. We are located in Guangling road, Gongyi,Zhengzhou China, covering an area of above 27 thousand square meters. Since established 10 years ago, we have won many honors as well.

 

The company has been taking the scientific management method of the modern enterprise, producing products with meticulous care and non-stop creation and developing to become a bright pearl and pacemaker of the mechanical industry in our country.

Our company has a lot of engineers and technical personnel. They absorb the advanced management method of domestic and overseas positively, carry out the systemize construction strongly, do their best to meet customer’s needs, and try to build the top-grade employees’ team.

 

Our company mainly supplies Automatic vacuum brick making machine/Concrete/cement Color Tile Making Machine, Continuous Charcoal Carbonization Stove and lines.wood charcoal making machine.

 

Based on customers’ demand, we supply the services in a flexible way not only the traditional services but also the internet on-line services. Our engineers are 24 hours online. We try our best to carve out market and provide services all the time. Before purchasing, we will send our engineers to customers’ site for spot check, installation and take trial running. We are always doing our best to provide our customers with perfect quality, favorable price and wonderful service. Welcome all of you come to

visit and carry out the cooperation!

 

 

 

Ms Shadow – Sales Manager

Henan Haozhou Export & Import Trading Co., Ltd.
TEL: +86-371-8608 1370
FAX: +86-371-8608 1370
Wechat:277202798
SKYPE: mayzhang40
Adress:F17-U1-B6,Xianghe Garden,No.168 Nanyang Road,Jinshui District,Zhengzhou,Henan,PRC,450000

 

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hot in indonesia hemp wood biochar charcoal kiln

8 April, 2017
 

Home>Products>Continuous Carbonization Stove/furnace>hot in indonesia hemp wood biochar charcoal kiln

hemp biomar charcoal kiln
wood carton, nude packing or 20 ft. container

Working principle 

hemp wood biochar charcoal kiln

Heating process: input the baskets into the furnace–>heat the furnace to 100-120mins–> stop heating when the temperature up to 300-330 and there are CH4&C2H4 effecting.

 

Carbonizing processing: normally it takes 8-12hs; during the stage, the material should be pyrolysed, hence need more heating;

 

Cooling process: after carbonization, taking the inner basket out and then let it cool in natural. It takes usually 80-10hs to cool;

 

Heating Recycled: after taking the baskets out, another one should be put in, we could recycle the heating resource to carbonizing. 

 

Furnace structure 

hemp wood biochar charcoal kiln

One main furnace with three inner baskets

Main furnace Includes heating room, furnace body and heat-keeping layer.

Inner basket: resistance thermal steel and sealing cover.

Fume extracion tube: during the carbonizing process, there will be lots of smoke which can be burning; the smoke can return to the furnace through tube air blast carbonization.

Whats material could be carbonized?

 

BBQ charcoal stoves

 

 

 

How about the quality of the charcoal?

BBQ charcoal stoves

 

All the charcoal samples could be sent in FREE for test, once achieve your requirement and lets talk more.

 

How to operate the whole line?

 

Whats the quality warranty and after sales service?

 

 

We make sure of 2years quality warranty of the quality and an extra set of spare parts should be sent in free when shipping the machine; Also, our engineer could be able to service oversea for both installing and training.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

京ICP证 040089号 京公网安备11010802017131

We will find the most reliable suppliers for you according to your description.

Be contacted easily by perfecting the information.

Thank you for your enquiry and you will be contacted soon.


Read More..

8 April, 2017
 

DENR pushes for Green Economy Model through the conduct of Training on BioChar production at Ecopark, Brgy.Hayanggabon, Claver, Surigao del Norte on April 7-8, 2017. More than 100 stakeholders attended the event with the participation of BioChar Trainors from the Philippine BioChar Association headed by Mr. Daniel Villanueva.

 

The participants of the Training on BioChar production witness the actual process of generating liquid smoke and raw biochar during their hands-on training at Ecopark.(Read More..)

Participants of the Training on BioChar Production at Ecopark, Barangay Hayanggabon, Claver, Surigao del Norte..(Read More…)

DENR pushes for Green Economy Model through the conduct of Training on BioChar production at Ecopark, Brgy.Hayanggabon, Claver, Surigao del Norte.(Read More...)

The DENR Assistant Secretary for Field Operations-Mindanao Atty. Michelle Angelica Go explains the Green Economy Model (GEM)..(Read More..)

Asec for Field Operations-Mindanao Atty. Michelle Angelica D. Go (2nd from Left)  and DENR CARAGA Top Officials..(Read More..)

DENR ASEC for Field Operations-Mindanao Atty. Michelle Go briefs DENR Caraga officials and employees of the paradigm shift of the DENR..(Read More..)

DENR Caraga OIC, Regional Director Charlie E. Fabre, Ph.D. delivered a lecture during the Usapang Dagat..(Read More..)

CHARLIE E. FABRE, Ph.D.
OIC, Regional Director

        Hotline for Field Offices

Caraga Total Land Area-1,913,842


Biochar From the Ground Up

8 April, 2017
 

Discover all events in Summertown and in the world
recommended on your interests.

Try it now, it’s free!

Some familiarity with biochar is assumed.
$700 Early Bird
$800 After April 30
Includes all meals and accomodations

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Illinois Biochar Group

9 April, 2017
 

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The Illinois Biochar Group (IBG) will hold its next meeting on Friday, June 2nd, 2017, 11:30 am to 3:30 pm at the USDA’s National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, Illinois. It will begin with a lunch and networking session from 11:30 am – 1:00 pm. A tour of NCAUR will be available at 12:30, presentations will start at about 1:15, followed by networking. Agenda will be available in May. If you are interested in presenting a short 10-15 minute talk about your biochar work, please contact Steve Peterson (Steve.Peterson@ars.usda.gov or 309-681-6325) by May 19th

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Biochar

9 April, 2017
 

Biochar is exceptionally porous and can have a surface area of more than 300 square meters (3,200 square feet) per gram, allowing it to absorb up to five times its own weight in water or other soluble nutrients. This latter property is known as adsorption capacity. Biochar is formed at temperatures between 400 and 750 degrees Celsius (752 to 1,382 degrees Fahrenheit) during pyrolysis, with higher temperatures typically generating higher surface area and thus improved adsorption capacity.

Cation-exchange capacity (CEC) is the measurement of a soil’s ability to hold exchangeable ions and is used as a measurement of soil fertility. Typically, it is challenging to change a soil’s CEC; however, biochar’s electrostatic surface charges attract and hold positive ions (cations), making them available for plants and microorganisms. The capacity increases on contact with oxygen and soil particles and eventually reaches a peak. A high exchange capacity prevents the leaching of minerals and organic nutrients, ensures nutrient availability, and binds toxins harmful to soil organisms, rendering them unavailable to plants.

The sum of all these positive properties makes biochar an excellent carrier for nutrients. Microorganisms find an ideal habitat within the pores and are able to stimulate the soil, allowing a symbiosis between microorganisms and plant roots. Biochar acts like a sponge, sucking in water and nutrients, and then passing them on to plants when required. In addition to having a positive effect on climate protection, scientists have demonstrated the following benefits:

However, we would be remiss if we did not strongly caution readers that not all biochar is the same and of equal high quality. If it is made from inferior or contaminated biomass, or under poorly controlled production conditions, the resulting biochar can contain toxins such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dioxins. Therefore, all biochar should be controlled and certified.

It is important to understand that biochar is not a fertilizer but rather an excellent medium for storing nutrients, water, and microorganisms. As we have stated previously, before it can achieve its beneficial effects on the soil, it should be “charged” with nutrients and populated by microorganisms. This can be accomplished by using a variety of procedures, such as bokashi fermentation or composting.

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and perform a myriad of beneficial services. They have existed on the planet for 3.5 billion years-bacteria and fungi were for a long time the first and only occupants of our planet, and they are involved in practically all natural processes. The enormous diversity of microorganisms drives the cycling of all organic matter. They can be found in all habitats and settle not only on the surface of living creatures but also deep inside. Without them and their metabolic products, life for plants, animals, and humans would be inconceivable.

Since industrialization, people’s lifestyles have altered radically. The delicate balance between biotic communities in nature has been disrupted by, among other things, a false understanding of hygiene. Microorganisms are now often seen as a threat to be brought under control by the use of cleaning agents and disinfectants that increasingly find their way into the food supply. Unfortunately, but not surprisingly, various microbial species and functions are destroyed in the quest for this so-called hygiene.

In the early 1980s, Japanese agronomist and horticultural professor Teruo Higa developed a mixture of anaerobic (not dependent on oxygen) and aerobic (oxygen dependent) microorganisms in the course of his experiments on soil improvement. Spraying his mixture on soil and on plants, he improved the health of various fruits, vegetables, and rice. He termed his product “effective microorganisms” (EMS). His secret blend of some 80 species of microorganisms contains mostly lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. When applied under the absence of air, it introduces the lactic fermentation of organic matter, thus avoiding putrescence and uncontrolled decay. The function is based on the same widespread principle of nature that is also found in the guts of earthworms, the digestive tracts of humans and livestock, and in good humus soils.

In the mid-1990s, the use of effective microorganisms spread to North America and Europe. Since then, a network of producers, distributors, and consultancy agencies for EM products has been developed.

The probiotic microorganisms create via fermentation a milieu with strong regenerative, antioxidant, and energizing powers. Similar fermentation processes have been used for thousands of years for producing sauerkraut, sourdough, yoghurt, and the silage of fodder. In the process, microorganisms degrade complex organic matter into smaller molecules that are easy to assimilate by soil microbes and plants. In the conversion processes, there are no unwanted byproducts such as ammonia, methane, or hydrogen sulfide, which make uncontrolled decay so bad smelling and negative for the climate.


Contact

9 April, 2017
 

This is a contact page with basic contact information and a contact form.

 

 


About

9 April, 2017
 

Terra Preta is the Portuguese name of a special type of soil which is thought to have almost super powers by miraculous properties. The Internet and the press are flooded with reports about “the new black gold”. Scientists believe that two of the greatest problems facing the world — climate change and the hunger crisis — can be solved by the wonder soil.

The beauty of Terra Preta is that everyone in the world can do something about it because since the early 2000 years the secret of this black soil has been revealed. It is a secret that seemed to had been lost with the downfall of the once thriving Indian culture of the Amazon basin by the arrival of the conqueros. The recipe is astonishingly simple as all you need are kitchen or garden wastes, charcoal, sauerkraut juice and earthworms, so it can be produced on every balcony or on the smallest of garden plots.

This website condenses the knowledge about the secret of the world’s most fertile soil into readable peaces. The website also offers an instruction of manually producing Terra Preta and organic charcoal (biochar).

Terra preta — Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_preta

Terra preta is a type of very dark, fertile manmade (anthropogenic) soil found in the Amazon Basin. It is also known as “Amazonian dark earth” or “Indian black earth”.
http://www.terrapretawiki.org

Terra Preta de Indio — Crop and Soil Science — Cornell University
www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/…/terra%20preta/terrapretamain.htm…

“Terra Preta de Indio” (Amazonian Dark Earths; earlier also called “Terra Preta do Indio” or Indian Black Earth) is the local name for certain dark earths.
https://www.biochar.info/biochar.terra-preta.cfml

Origin of Biochar — Terra Preta. The technique of using charcoal to improve the fertility of soils originated in the Amazon basin at least 2500 years ago.
http://www.loveterrapreta.com

Superdirt Made Lost Amazon Cities Possible? — Latest Stories
news.nationalgeographic.com/…/081119-lost-cities-amazon_2.ht…
Today scientists are racing to tease apart the terra-preta recipe. The special soil has been touted as a way to restore more sustainable farming to the Amazon.

Origin of Biochar — Terra Preta
https://www.biochar.info/biochar.terra-preta.cfml

An Open Letter on Biochar
http://www.biochar-international.org/timflannery


TERRA PRETA BLOG

9 April, 2017
 

Terra Preta will safe the agriculture for mankind

You ever wanted to find out how to produce the super magical black earth. Whether in compost heaps, kitchen bokashis, or slatted wooden crates-there are many ways of producing black earth. This guide addresses many frequently asked questions and offers practical tips about the production of Terra Preta. Depending on whether you want to liven […]


Dielectric Properties of Biomass/Biochar Mixtures at Microwave Frequencies

9 April, 2017
 

Figure 1

Ellison, C.; McKeown, M.S.; Trabelsi, S.; Boldor, D. Dielectric Properties of Biomass/Biochar Mixtures at Microwave Frequencies. Energies 2017, 10, 502.

Ellison C, McKeown MS, Trabelsi S, Boldor D. Dielectric Properties of Biomass/Biochar Mixtures at Microwave Frequencies. Energies. 2017; 10(4):502.

Ellison, Candice; McKeown, Murat S.; Trabelsi, Samir; Boldor, Dorin. 2017. “Dielectric Properties of Biomass/Biochar Mixtures at Microwave Frequencies.” Energies 10, no. 4: 502.

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.


Kinetic and adsorptive characterization of biochar in metal ions removal

9 April, 2017
 

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Carbon Farming & Biochar Workshop @ Boathouse Beer Garden, Romulus

9 April, 2017
 

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This is a one day workshop is being held on provide further education on carbon farming methods, including a focus on biochar (i.e. carbonized organic material). The workshop will review the proposed legislation and its potential impact on farmers and will include sessions led by students and faculty from Cornell University on carbon farming. In addition to an introductory keynote by Cornell’s Prof. Johannes Lehmann, PhD, there will be overview of biochar benefits and uses will be provided by Kathleen Draper, owner of Finger Lakes Biochar and other researchers and entrepreneurs in the biochar field.

Pre-registration tickets are $30 and include lunch, a complimentary beverage (beer, wine or non-alcoholic).

Purchase your tickets HERE: http://www.brownpapertickets.com/event/2899484

Day-of event tickets are $40

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BioChar

10 April, 2017
 


Effect of biochar on alleviation of cadmium toxicity in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

10 April, 2017
 

Soil degradation by salinity and accumulation of trace elements such as cadmium (Cd) in the soils are expected to become one of the most critical issues hindering sustainable production and feeding the increasing population. Biochar (BC) has been known to protect the plants against soil salinity and heavy metal stress. A soil culture study was performed to evaluate the effect of BC on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, biomass, and reducing Cd and sodium (Na) uptake grown in Cd-contaminated saline soil under ambient conditions. Soil salinity decreased the plant growth, biomass, grain yield, chlorophyll contents, and gas exchange parameters and caused oxidative stress in plants compared with Cd stress alone. Salt stress increased Cd and Na uptake and reduced the potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) uptake by plants. AB-DTPA-extractable Cd and soil electrical conductivity (ECe) increased under salt stress compared to the soil without NaCl stress. Biochar application improved the plant growth and reduced the Cd and Na uptake except in plants treated with higher BC and salt stress (5.0% BC + 50 mM NaCl). Biochar application reduced the oxidative stress in plants and modified the antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced the bioavailable Cd under salt stress. The positive effects of BC under lower salt stress while the negative effects of BC under higher BC and salt levels indicated that BC doses should be used with great care in higher soil salinity levels simultaneously contaminated with Cd to avoid the negative effects of BC on growth and metal uptake.


Biochar Market 2017 Global Industry Growth and Key Manufacturers Analysis

10 April, 2017
 

Big Market Research include new market research report” Biochar Market in the Global 2017-2022” to its huge collection of research reports.

In this report, the United States Biochar Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022.

United States Biochar Market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Biochar sales volume, price, revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including
Kina
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
ElementC6
BioChar Products
BlackCarbon
Cool Planet
Carbon Terra
Pacific Biochar
Vega Biofuels
Liaoning Jinhefu Group
Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy
Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology
Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)
Sonnenerde
Biokol
ECOSUS
Terra Humana
Verora

Do Enquiry for Sample Report: https://www.bigmarketresearch.com/request-sample/1061421

On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume, revenue, product price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Wood Stover Source Biochar
Corn Stover Source Biochar
Rice Stover Source Biochar
Wheat Stover Source Biochar

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Biochar for each application, including
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer

Key Points from Table of Contents:

United States Biochar Market Report 2017

6 United States Biochar Players/Suppliers Profiles and Sales Data

6.1 Diacarbon Energy
6.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
6.1.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.1.3 Diacarbon Energy Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview

6.2 Agri-Tech Producers
6.2.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.2.3 Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview

6.3 Biochar Now
6.3.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.3.3 Biochar Now Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview

6.4 Carbon Gold
6.4.2 Biochar Product Category, Application and Specification
6.4.3 Carbon Gold Biochar Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017)
6.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview

Do Enquiry for Discount: https://www.bigmarketresearch.com/request-for-discount/1061421

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Worldwide Biochar Industry 2017 Analysis Report

10 April, 2017
 

The report analyzes the Global Biochar Industry size (volume and value) and industry chain structure published through its high quality database.

The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Biochar manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.

Complete report on Biochar market spreads across 124 pages profiling 23 companies and supported with 216 tables and figures @ http://www.reportsnreports.com/contacts/discount.aspx?name=945784 .    

Key Companies Analysis: – Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6, BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet Carbon Terra and Pacific Biochar profiles overview.

The Global Biochar Industry provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Biochar market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status.

Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand Figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins.

The Global Biochar Industry focuses on global major leading industry players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. The Biochar industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new investment projects are assessed and overall research conclusions offered. With the tables and figures the report provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

Place a Direct Purchase on this Report @ http://www.reportsnreports.com/purchase.aspx?name=945784 .

Major Points Covered in Table of Contents:

 1 Industry Overview

 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Biochar

 3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis

 4 Production Analysis of Biochar by Regions, Technology, and Applications

 5 Sales and Revenue Analysis of Biochar by Regions

 6 Analyses of Biochar Production, Supply, Sales and Market Status 2010-2017

 7 Analysis of Biochar industry Key Manufacturers

 8 Price and Gross Margin Analysis

 9 Marketing Traders or Distributor Analysis of Biochar

 10 Development Trend of Biochar industry2017-2022

 11 Industry Chain Suppliers of Biochar with Contact Information

 12 New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Biochar

 13 Conclusion of the Global Biochar industry 2017 Market Research Report

List of Tables and Figures

Get more details on this report @ http://www.reportsnreports.com/contacts/inquirybeforebuy.aspx?name=945784 .

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Permaculture

11 April, 2017
 

use the following search parameters to narrow your results:

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Permaculture (Permanent-Culture): A practical design philosophy intended to help us live and prosper in an environment, while working with nature in a positive way, using solutions based on careful observation of natural ecosystems and common sense. This can include food and energy production, shelter, resource management, nature conservation and community living.

You can find our wiki here

Please Read Before Posting:

It's pretty often that we see questions along the lines of, "I want to do X–what are the species/structures to get it done?" This isn't a bad question but there's not enough information to give a decent answer. When submitting a question, there is some information that ought to be included, such as:

This is the kind of stuff a permaculture consultant wants to know before doing a site visit/design/recommendation. And while no one is going to get a professional job done over reddit, better questions will lead to better answers.

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Biochar (for soil or compost)

11 April, 2017
 

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Thesis on biochar

11 April, 2017
 

It was hard to limit the list to ten. With a mix of proven technologies and award- winning prototypes we present ten ways to put human waste to good use. About ANU. ANU is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital. Our focus is on research as an asset, and an approach to education. IBI Business Members. Airex Energy Canada based biochar and equipment producer; ArSta Eco India based technology company; America Sequesters CO2 U.S. based equipment. Roger Brook, no dig gardening, NGS open gardens, Bolton Percy churchyard, Worsborough Cemetery, veg plot, dicentras, organic gardening. ABSTRACT. Biochar (carbonized biomass for agricultural use) has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for Brazil, since its.

Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen). It involves the simultaneous. About ANU. ANU is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital. Our focus is on research as an asset, and an approach to education. MBB News. If you have interesting news you want to share, please send it to [email protected]/* */ University Open Days. The University’s next Open Day will be. Welcome to the Marschner Reviews page of Plant and Soil. This site provides FREE access to our Marschner Reviews initiative. In view of the rapid development of.

INFLUENCE OF FIRE ON FACTORS THAT AFFECT SITE PRODUCTIVITY. Roger D. Hungerford Michael G. Harrington William H. Frandsen Kevin C. Ryan Gerald J. Niehoff. Research Publications. Below are links to annual collections listing all of the research publications produced at The University of Western Australia from 1993 to 2012. Wood gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in place of gasoline, diesel or other fuels. During the production process. Roger Brook, no dig gardening, NGS open gardens, Bolton Percy churchyard, Worsborough Cemetery, veg plot, dicentras, organic gardening.

Many gardeners are adding fountains, ponds, and other water features to their landscapes. Water gardens are beautiful and calming, but, if not managed properly, can. The University of Venda, situated in Thohoyandou in the scenic Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province of South Africa was established in 1982. The university has. Welcome to the Marschner Reviews page of Plant and Soil. This site provides FREE access to our Marschner Reviews initiative. In view of the rapid development of.

Collects, disseminates, archives, and preserves theses and dissertations published by graduate students at The University of Western Ontario. New research shows oxygen depletion in the atmosphere accelerating since 2003, coinciding with the biofuels boom; climate policies that focus exclusively on carbon. Professional home page for Professor Ajayan Vinu, Professor of Nanomaterials, Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia. MBB News. If you have interesting news you want to share, please send it to [email protected]/* */ University Open Days. The University’s next Open Day will be.


[Biochar and Soil Biota] (By: Natalia Ladygina) [published: April, 2013]

11 April, 2017
 


He's probably referring to biochar. Turning biomass into charcoal, grinding it i…

11 April, 2017
 

reply


World Biochar Market by Product Type, Market, Players and Regions-Forecast to 2021 Trends …

11 April, 2017
 


Search

11 April, 2017
 

Home > UMCUR > 2012 > ORALPRES2C > 2

Assessing the effects of biochar amendments on plant growth and nutrient cycling in Montana top soil

Presentation

This project examines the effects of biochar application rates on soil properties and plant growth in a Missoula topsoil. Recent research delves into the many possible uses of biochar, from agriculture to soil reclamation and restoration projects. In Idaho and Montana portable biochar burners have been transported to timber harvest sites. The unusable slash piles can be burned through a pyrolysis process, creating biochar, a fine porous charcoal-like substance that attracts and sorbs water and nutrients. When added to soil, biochar makes these substances readily available for plant uptake, which has potential uses for facilitating native plant establishment and growth. This investigation focuses on the effects of biochar on two common species native to western Montana, Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) and Lupinus albifrons (silvery lupine) and one exotic invasive species, Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed). A treatment of 0%, 5% and 15% (v/v) biochar was mixed into the soil and the seeds planted and monitored over a two month period. The assessment includes measuring final above and below ground plant biomass and examining soil properties, including pH, soil organic and inorganic nitrogen content, microbial biomass and water holding capacity. The results provide information to those involved in forest management and restoration who are interested in strategies for enhancing soil quality and native plant growth.

Social Sciences

This project examines the effects of biochar application rates on soil properties and plant growth in a Missoula topsoil. Recent research delves into the many possible uses of biochar, from agriculture to soil reclamation and restoration projects. In Idaho and Montana portable biochar burners have been transported to timber harvest sites. The unusable slash piles can be burned through a pyrolysis process, creating biochar, a fine porous charcoal-like substance that attracts and sorbs water and nutrients. When added to soil, biochar makes these substances readily available for plant uptake, which has potential uses for facilitating native plant establishment and growth. This investigation focuses on the effects of biochar on two common species native to western Montana, Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) and Lupinus albifrons (silvery lupine) and one exotic invasive species, Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed). A treatment of 0%, 5% and 15% (v/v) biochar was mixed into the soil and the seeds planted and monitored over a two month period. The assessment includes measuring final above and below ground plant biomass and examining soil properties, including pH, soil organic and inorganic nitrogen content, microbial biomass and water holding capacity. The results provide information to those involved in forest management and restoration who are interested in strategies for enhancing soil quality and native plant growth.

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BiOchar fiRe muSic jAm danCe.

11 April, 2017
 

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about

11 April, 2017
 

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Europe Fine Biochar Powder Market Report 2017

12 April, 2017
 

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Permaculture – towards making life patterns

12 April, 2017
 

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Fairview, AB

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By Chris Eakin, Fairview Post

Cynthia Pohl speaking about roof top gardens at the 201721st Century Homesteading Permaculture Conference at GPRC Fairview on April 5.

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Attendance was down somewhat at this year’s 21st Century Homesteading: Permaculture Conference at GPRC Fairview Campus with about 50 people attending, but those who did attend seemed to quite enjoy it and get a lot out of it.

 

Permaculture: a system of agricultural and social design principles centered on simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems. Permaculture was developed, and the term coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978. (Wikipedia)

Keynote speakers Cynthia Pohl and Ron Berezan brought unique outlooks and information on aspects of Permaculture, Berezan speaking about Food Forests for Colder Climates and Pohl addressing Growing up: green roofs in Alberta.

Berezan started off the day with his presentation: Got Permaculture with local and global examples of how permaculture has improved the lives of people around the world.

Pohl followed up with her take on Designing for yourself and beyond: sustainable landscapes.

Berezan explained the basics of permaculture – it is care of the earth, care of people and sharing the surplus, a way of designing to meet our needs in a sustainable way without interfering with the needs of other species and a pathway towards the creation of sustainable human habitats.

Permaculture is based on seven design elements: soil, water, energy, plants, animals, appropriate technology and people. He said he started building forest gardens in 2008 using his own and his neighbours yards.

He showed the example of the Urban Homestead – an urban farm in the City of Pasadena created by a family which moved from a 10 acre lot to a 1/10th acre lot (66’x132’) which the family transformed from a city lot into a farm which produces 6,000 lbs of produce every year.

He also spoke about a family in Cuba which took a ravine used only as a garbage dump and turned it into a garden, using old tires to build raised beds and grow food for themselves (the local name for the garden is Cielo de las gomas, or Tire Heaven).

Although he spent most of his life in Alberta, Berezan now lives on the west coast and helped a group in Powell River turn an Anglican Church lot into a productive food forest garden and social centre.

Pohl spoke about the need to improve the environment, estimating that in her 20 years as a landscaper she has planted 252,000 trees.

She explained how her background and life history contributed to bringing her to Permaculture – a childhood observing nature from the back of a pony, running through nature as a long-distance runner and even working as a tree-planter.

She has built a career as a landscape designer over the past 20 years and bases her designs on the elements of earth, air water and fire. She said efficient use of energy requires observation and before she begins to design a landscape for anyone she asks the to observe the property for a year.

Some of her advice included – do not till the earth, feed the soil organics with top-dressing. She advises for vegetables mulch paths and create raised beds using solarization (cover the ground to be used with heavy black plastic and pin it down. The heat will kill any weeds and other plants underneath).

She has begun to design what she referred to a landscapes in the sky – gardens built on top of flat-roofed buildings. She added that Toronto is one of the first cities to have a green roof policy and the first to require green roofs on any new construction which has a flat roof and is over 2,000 square metres.

She likes her designs to include habitat for pollinators, food for pollinators (plants that produce pollen, berries, etc) and whenever possible she uses indigenous plants (although she added you have to be very careful where you get your plants from so as not to get plants that take over the whole garden area). Her gardens include structures (usually wood, sometimes rotted) for insects to use as nests or resting places.

She also includes a water source for wildlife (insects included) to use and showed a video of some ravens enjoying the rooftop water in one of her designs. She added that invertetbrates showed up in the water within 24 hours and within a year, cattails had seeded themselves as well.

In his presentation on Food Forests for Colder Climates, Berezan showed some food forests in warmer climes, where the practice is more widespread – a family in Cuba started one because they didn’t want to be tobacco farmers, a family in Vietnam has been on the same parcel of land for 28 generations and has built up expertise in herbal medicine.

He said the purpose of a food forest is to create a stable and resilient ecosystem that is largely self-maintaining and self-renewing. He added that once it is in place, human intervention is mostly limited to harvesting and trimming back.

He showed how the families integrated animals into their food garden.

He also showed video of the garden he had created for his family in Edmonton and explained how he used cardboard for mulching to prepare the ground for planting later. He added he included a small open area for a vegetable garden until the canopy developed.

He also explained how he chooses plant species to include some that fix nitrogen, others with deep tap roots that bring up nutrients from down below.

A food forest includes seven layers: the canopy, low trees, shrubs , herbaceous, rhizosphere, soil surface and vertical layer (climbing vines such as hops).

He said diversity of and within species is important but more critical are the functional relationships, including plants that attract beneficial insects or that can act to confuse pest insects.

Pohl said the first rooftop garden she ever designed, a job she wasn’t sure she actually wanted to take on, earned her an international award as well as earning the building an award.

She cautioned those attending they should not expect to go home and design their own green roof (unless for a shed with nobody in it) because of the load a green roof can put on a building and emphasized any green roof must be engineered.

Benefits of a green roof include: reduced energy consumption, storm water retention, heat island mitigation, noise pollution reduction, filtrations and increased lifespan of the roof structure.

She did explain that she uses growth medium (like potting soil), not soil for green roofs and explained there are different classes of green roofs – divided by the depth of the growing medium: 4-6 inches, 6-8 inches and 8 inches and up. There is a limit as to what can be planted on a roof – due to the wind, trees must be kept short. For ground cover, sedums are a standard but there are other plants which can be used including strawberries. The plants should be heat tolerant, drought tolerant. She has found although other designers do not use mulch on green roofs, mulch helps to retain moisture and her one design does not need watering, while others need regular watering.

She does not like to use agressive species, though she has planted buffalo beans and is monitoring the situation. She has found some plants do much better on a rooftop garden than they do in the wild, producing more flowers.

Berezan also presented a workshop on “Backyard Biochar – Creating Sensational Soil & Saving the World Biochar is a specialized form of charcoal used for thousands of years around the planet to create some of the most fertile soils ever known. Biochar also shows great promise for carbon sequestration, sustainable energy, and waste diversion. Learn how biochar can bring your soil to life and how you can use local waste materials to make it in your own back yard!” (From Wikipedia: Biochar is a high-carbon, fine-grained residue that today is produced through modern pyrolysis processes; it is the direct thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen (preventing combustion), which produces a mixture of solids (the biochar proper), liquid (bio-oil), and gas (syngas) products.)

Pohl also presented a second workshop: “Get Buzzy: Creating Pollinator Habitats – Pollinator health is a global concern. This session will help create an awareness of pollinators with focus on the important role they play in our lives and communities. You will learn about the issues facing our pollinator populations and what each of us can do to create and maintain restorative pollinator habitat.”

 

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'Unjust' firings at DENR demoralize employees

12 April, 2017
 

BEHIND their smile, there is a feeling of fear and resentment. Fear of getting transferred or eventually losing their jobs and resentment over what happened to some of their colleagues.

The “emotional outburst”, triggered by a “show cause order” and “transfer order” affecting two employees—Miriam M. Marcelo, the chief of the personnel division and Rolando R. Castro, a supervisor at the same unit—is just the tip of the iceberg.

“Its all about the hiring and firing happening in the Department of Environment and Natural Resources [DENR].”

They said that, for them, it is the “suffering and social injustice” they had to
deal with every day as they go about their work at the DENR.

Being from an oligarchic family, they fear Lopez who appears to be kind is actually dictator-like most of the time.

Lopez has the tendency to make her own rules, apparently stepping up her game, and changing the game in the DENR, they said.

They clarified that the silent protest, where employees reported for work clad in black, and the one-hour protest the following day during lunch break in front of the DENR Office of the Secretary Building was to express their discontent—and not meant to block  Lopez’s confirmation by the bicameral Commission on Appointments.

“We wanted to support our fellow career officials and employees who were unjustly transferred,” one employee told the BusinessMirror.

The rally, the protesters said, was meant “to protect and promote the welfare of government employees” and to call the attention of President Duterte.

Demoralization

“WE are demoralized,” says one employee, who claimed that career service employees are being booted out one by one to accommodate people being brought in by Lopez.

Starting January, Lopez implemented a structural reorganization that resulted in the sacking of many career personnel, and started to bring in people, in the process putting at least 50 career officials and employees of the agency—including bureau directors, assistant directors, provincial environment and natural resource officers (Penros) and community environment and natural resources officers (Cenros), on “floating” status.

Floating status means an employee has no specific position or task and is assigned to an office to working under another employee who occupies his plantilla position.

On Thursday last week the DENR employees called off their plan to picket Lopez’s office after DENR Employees Union officers who held a closed-door meeting with Lopez reported that Lopez is withdrawing her order against Marcelo and Castro.

Later in the afternoon, however, they learned that Lopez changed her mind again—and signed the transfer orders, causing outrage that led to the walkout and emotional outbursts of some employees on Friday, when they demanded the ouster of Undersecretary Philip Camara, one of Lopez’s “consultants”.

Camara quits post

LAST  Sunday Lopez said Camara has decided to beg off from his appointment as Penro and accepted the decision of the Civil Service Commission (CSC) to reject his appointment.

“He has decided to accept the denial of his application…. He wants to take a break. He has been working six months without pay and three months for a really low pay. So he will be a consultant…still helping me but no longer in operating capacity,” Lopez said in a text message to the BusinessMirror.

Lopez added Undersecretary for Policy and Planning Marlo Mendoza, another member of her trusted team, will take Camara’s job “and I will work with Marlo—together with Galo for field operations. Let’s see where this takes us,” she said.

Biochar, area development

CAMARA was described by one DENR employee as “the biochar guy who is doing the hiring and firing in the DENR” for Lopez.

“We like Ma’am Gina. We support her policies and programs. But we are not incompetent and corrupt, as she keeps on saying as the reason for bringing in her trusted personnel,” one employee who spoke on condition of anonymity told the BusinessMirror.

The DENR is aggressively promoting the use of biochar, particularly in the rehabilitation of abandoned and mined-out areas.

Incidentally, some mining companies that were forced to cough out P2 million per hectare outside their Social Development and Management Program areas are crying foul, accusing Lopez of abuse of authority and graft because of the requirement.

They said there is nothing in the Philippine Mining Act of 1995 or its implementing rules and regulations that require them to spend such huge amount outside their host communities—and specifically to apply or use Camara’s biochar technology for livelihood of affected communities.

“The farmers will benefit from biochar and he will not earn a single centavo from these contracts,” Lopez said.

Employees, however, remained skeptic. Retaining Camara “still smacks of conflict of interest given his association with Biochar”, one employee told the BusinessMirror when sought to comment on the development.

Unjust firing

ONE protester told the BusinessMirror that the issue of unjust “hiring and firing” in the DENR in violation of civil service rules started since Lopez took over.

“Hindi lang naman dalawa ang tinanggal. Marami pa,” a female DENR employee who appeared to be in her 50s said.

They are cautious of exposing themselves as they claimed that Lopez’s consultants are all over the DENR offices, doing loyalty check for the embattled secretary.

Naghirap kami to earn our civil service eligibility, tapos magpapasok ng kung sinu-sino na hindi naman eligible at hindi dumaan sa proseso. Tama ba naman iyon?” a man who looks the same age and claimed to be a career employee added.

It was learned that Lopez ordered the DENR Human Resource Division and Personnel Department to stop filling vacancies because she is bringing in more outsiders.

This was confirmed by at least two top DENR officials who also refused to be named for fear of reprisal.

As of June, it was learned that Lopez has brought in at least 40 “consultants” receiving salaries ranging from a low of P15,000 to a high of P70,000.

No Malacañang appointment

THESE do not include those who were brought in by Lopez and are now functioning or recognized by Lopez either as DENR undersecretary or assistant secretary, who receive at least P100,000 a month, but with no official appointment coming from Malacañang.

Some, if not most, of those brought in by Lopez, they said, lack civil service eligibility and training for specific tasks that require months of skills training.

They were hired as “contractuals” but occupy sensitive and key positions in the DENR.

A number of them, the protesters complained, are receiving more than what they are supposed to receive according to laws pertaining to government standard salaries for the positions they now keep.

“We are aspiring for promotion, too. The government also spent resources for a lot of training and seminars for us to be qualified to fill in vacant positions, but this is not going to happen,” another disgruntled employee said.

“What we fear the most is that one day, we will get the same order from Osec [referring to the Office of the Secretary] terminating our services. Hindi ko yata makakaya na mawalan ng trabaho,” another employee confided.

Silent no more and still unappeased and disenchanted by Lopez’s assurances last Friday, they said they plan to hold more protests, with a bigger crowd, and more placards expressing their discontent.

 

 

 


Biochar

12 April, 2017
 

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Global Biochar Market-Carbon Terra, Pacific Biochar, Vega Biofuels, Liaoning Jinhefu Group

12 April, 2017
 

The purpose of “Global Biochar Market” report is to provide the newest industry data and Biochar industry future trends, allowing consumers to identify the Biochar market Application, Type, Manufacturers, and Regions, Biochar market Forecast up to 2022.

The Biochar Market report encompasses forecasts, analysis and discussion of trade facts, Biochar market size, evaluation of market share and profiles of the famous Biochar industry players on a global and regional level.

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♦ Vega Biofuels
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♦ Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology
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Segment 3, provides the global Biochar market by regions, with sales, market revenue and share of Biochar, for each region, from 2011 to 2016;

Segment 4, shows the competitive situation of Biochar among the top competitive players, with sales, revenue, and market share in Biochar Market in 2015 and 2016;

Segment 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, evaluates the Biochar market key regions, with revenue, sales, and market share of Biochar market by key countries in these regions;

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Segment 13, 14 and 15, illustrates Biochar distributors, dealers, Biochar traders, sales channel, research findings and conclusion, appendix and data source.


Biochar Systems For Smallholders In Developing Countries

12 April, 2017
 

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Carbon Farming & Biochar Workshop @ Romulus, NY

12 April, 2017
 

Discover all events in Romulus and in the world
recommended on your interests.

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This event will showcase regional biochar research and commercial opportunities. Presenters will include Michael Hoffman, Executive Director of the Cornell Institute for Climate Smart Solutions, Johannes Lehmann, Kathleen Draper, Dale Hendricks, Andy Wells, Jeff Hallowell, and others active in the biochar community.

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The Biochar Debate Charcoal S Potential To Reverse Climate Change And Build Soil Fertility

12 April, 2017
 

File Name: The Biochar Debate Charcoal S Potential To Reverse Climate Change And Build Soil Fertility
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Does biochar stoke the soil?

12 April, 2017
 

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DENR: Biochar technology alternative livelihood for displaced Caraga miners

13 April, 2017
 

Miners and workers displaced by the closure or suspension of mining firms in the region can turn to biochar technology as an alternative source of income and livelihood, which was recently introduced by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

#BeFullyInformed

DENR: Biochar technology alternative livelihood for displaced Caraga miners

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Carbon Farming & Biochar Workshop

13 April, 2017
 

Regeneration International (http://regenerationinternational.org/events/carbon-farming-biochar-workshop/)

Date(s): 05/20/2017
Time: 9:30 am EDT

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Organized by: Brown Paper Tickets

Event Webpage: http://www.brownpapertickets.com/event/2899484

About: The workshop will review the proposed legislation and its potential impact on farmers and will include sessions led by students and faculty from Cornell University on carbon farming.

An overview of biochar benefits and uses will be provided by Kathleen Draper, owner of Finger Lakes Biochar and other researchers and entrepreneurs in the biochar field.

from 10am to 4pm on Saturday May 20th . Be on-site no later than 9:30 for registration prior to event commencement.

Location:

•If you would like to volunteer to help with the translation of this article, start here

Ante la preocupación por la agricultura industrial, la solución a nuestros problema ambientales es la Agroecología.

[ 中国 | English | Español | Français | Ελληνική | Italiano | 日本語 |  한국어 | Русский ] Author: Jack Kittredge A great deal of discussion in scientific and governmental circles has been focused recently on how to deal with greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting weather extremes they have created. Most analysts believe we must stop burning fossil fuels to prevent further increases in atmospheric carbon, and find ways to remove carbon already in the air if we want to lessen further weather crises and the associated human tragedies, economic disruption and social conflict that they bring.

“The catastrophic impacts of climate change are not only going to take place in the distant future. They are taking place now.”

A healthy global ecosystem in which regenerative agriculture and land-use practices cool the planet, feed the world, and promote public health, prosperity, peace, and democracy.


Carbon Farming & Biochar Workshop

13 April, 2017
 

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Biochar technology alternative livelihood for displaced Caraga miners » News

13 April, 2017
 

April 13, 2017, 10:01 PM

By Mike U. Crismundo

 

Butuan City – Miners and employees displaced by the closure or suspension of mining companies within the area can flip to biochar technology as an alternative source of inocme and livelihood, which was just lately launched by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

Some 14 mining companies had been both ordered closed or suspended by the DENR in Dinagat Islands, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur.

Workers and residents from different areas of the Caraga area have ventured into biochar technology launched by DENR Secretary Regina Lopez and are reaping financial dividends, DENR 13 Regional Director Dr. Charles C. Fabre mentioned.

Biochar is a charred biomass strictly from agricultural waste resembling rice hull and straw, coconut husk and shell, corn cobs, wooden trimmings, twigs produced by high-heat with very restricted oxygen.

Biochar is used as a soil enhancer and fertilizer to extend yield and can be linked to minimal carbon emissions.

“This technology can be the solution of the people in communities reeling from the effects of the suspension of the mining operation to augment their income,” the areas’ DENR chief mentioned.

He added that employees in host mining communities who had been previously depending on mining have now diverted their consideration to agriculture whereas using Biochar technology as their alternate livelihood.

“I believe that the Biochar can address environmental problems like unsanitary landfills, unsanitary livestock raising practices, unsanitary sewage disposal, green house gas emission from agriculture, greenhouse gas emission from landfills and heavy degraded land from mining.” Fabre added.

Tags: DENR, DENR: Biochar technology alternative livelihood for displaced Caraga miners, Manila, , Manila information, News at present, Regina Lopez

Source: manilabulletin


Characteristics of biochar: physical and structural properties

13 April, 2017
 

About this book


DENR: Biochar technology alternative livelihood for displaced Caraga miners

13 April, 2017
 

By Mike U. Crismundo

 

Butuan City – Miners and workers displaced by the closure or suspension of mining firms in the region can turn to biochar technology as an alternative source of inocme and livelihood, which was recently introduced by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

Some 14 mining firms were either ordered closed or suspended by the DENR in Dinagat Islands, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur.

Workers and residents from other areas of the Caraga region have ventured into biochar technology introduced by DENR Secretary Regina Lopez and are reaping economic dividends, DENR 13 Regional Director Dr. Charles C. Fabre said.

Biochar is a charred biomass strictly from agricultural waste such as rice hull and straw, coconut husk and shell, corn cobs, wood trimmings, twigs produced by high-heat with very limited oxygen.

Biochar is used as a soil enhancer and fertilizer to increase yield and is also linked to minimal carbon emissions.

“This technology can be the solution of the people in communities reeling from the effects of the suspension of the mining operation to augment their income,” the regions’ DENR chief said.

He added that workers in host mining communities who were formerly dependent on mining have now diverted their attention to agriculture while utilizing Biochar technology as their alternate livelihood.

“I believe that the Biochar can address environmental problems like unsanitary landfills, unsanitary livestock raising practices, unsanitary sewage disposal, green house gas emission from agriculture, greenhouse gas emission from landfills and heavy degraded land from mining.” Fabre added.

Tags: , , , , , ,


Does quenching matter?

13 April, 2017
 

type Exception report

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description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.

exception

net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:65) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:52) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:107) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:197) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:64) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:33) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:78) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:61) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:53) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:78) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.UrlMultiSlashFilter.doFilter(UrlMultiSlashFilter.java:33) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:34) 

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


By Albert Bates: The Biochar Solution: Carbon Farming And Climate Change

13 April, 2017
 

document to be ready in 5 seconds.


Biochar Application Essential Soil Microbial Ecology

13 April, 2017
 

File Name: Biochar Application Essential Soil Microbial Ecology
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Biochar Application Essential Soil Microbial Ecology in Audio and Ebook Format.

96 Comments

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bio char

14 April, 2017
 


How to Faux Finish Weathered Wood Grain – Pretty Handy Girl

14 April, 2017
 

Soil-Net.com – a soils educational portal developed by the National Soil Resources Institute (NSRI), the largest UK national and international centre for research and …

Turn a Craig’s List Pedestal table into a Restoration Hardware knock off with this faux weathered gray wood grain tutorial using Valspar sample paints and a few other …

Soil is a mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Soil is a natural body called the …

Review Questions and Answers; Mass Wasting. Physical Geology Home. 1. Describe how mass wasting processes contribute to the development of stream valleys.

I have a confession to make. All the wood that you saw on my art studio wall is not exactly old and salvaged. In order to have enough wood, I had to buy some new pine …

Bentonite clay: it’s useful, natural and healthy tool, but not all bentonite clays are created equal. Here’s how to pick a good one and how to use it!

Basic Concepts | Projects | Work by others | Pictures | References : Biochar Projects : Currently (April 2011) we conduct experiments to evaluate the effects of …

Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Like most charcoal, biochar is …

HO & OO Locomotives; HO/OO DCC Sound Fitted & DCC/Analogue Sound; Oxford Rail Sound Fitted Locomotives; Oxford Rail Adams Radial East Kent Railway DCC Sound …

Water and the Hydrologic Cycle As any backyard horticulturist knows, plants need good soil and water. In the course of circulating throughout …


Carborized rice hulls (bio char)

14 April, 2017
 


finished carborized rice hulls biochar

14 April, 2017
 


Biochar For Environmental Management

14 April, 2017
 

File Name: Biochar For Environmental Management
File Size: 23.8 MB
File Type: PDF / ePub
Uploaded on: 2016-02-21 05:10:00

Last checked: 2 hours 34 minutes ago!

Rating: 4.3/5 from 2955 votes.

Biochar For Environmental Management in Audio and Ebook Format.

96 Comments

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these A Hero of Our Time (Penguin Classics) I can get now!

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The North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability

14 April, 2017
 

The North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability (NCFCIS), a 501(c) (3) nonprofit sustainable farming organization has developed and employed one of the larger scale farming models in the US which focuses on the effects of biochar use on the sandy soils found throughout the Southeast coastal plain region (Southeastern North Carolina). Efficient and strategic introduction of biochar for agricultural use requires farm-scale production using locally available feedstocks.

Biochar has received a lot of interest and press as a soil amendment due to the apparent ability of the material to enhance crop productivity and sequester carbon in soil (biochar normally contains in excess of 60% carbon on a dry basis, with a very long and stable soil retention time, suggested to be in thousands of years!). While an ancient product, dating back thousands of years to use in South America, called “terra preta”, the functional and critically important characteristics of biochar are only recently beginning to be identified and understood. The refinement in the understanding of this very interesting material is literally in its infancy, and thus almost any new data can play a critical role in building an understanding that can enable this ancient product to emerge once again as an important tool in our efforts to achieve ever improving environmental sustainability for the future.

Use of biochar along with other complimentary technologies and processes relating to its use have the potential to impact the local and national economy in a positive manner, by allowing what once was deemed unusable or underutilized farmland to become productive.  Economic stimulation begins with the creation of jobs and the influx of expendable income into the marketplace. As a land-area scale-neutral component, biochar has the potential to become a catalyst that could jump start that process by helping farm operations to expand and become more profitable, creating a need for more labor and opening the door to new business opportunities related to the production, application, and marketing of amendment-based materials. It may also serve to help regulate the availability of nutrients for crops, resulting in the possibility of achieving excellent yields with reduced inputs, a point that will be made subsequently in this report.

The landscape of agriculture, especially in the Southeastern United States, is changing rapidly. Smaller family owned farms are not as prevalent as they once were, giving way to larger units depending on economies of scale to compete in commodity-based agriculture. The demise and waning popularity of tobacco production within the state of North Carolina, especially, has significantly changed the patterns of land use as well as economic viability of the rural communities in the region. 

What follows is the final report of the three-year study involving field trials utilizing biochar and presents results and insights that relate to potential benefits from biochar application as a soil amendment. This project should be considered a starting point in what should to be a modern national effort, modeled after the historically successful “Regional Research Project System” in USDA/CSRS (subsequently CSREES/REE), to apply a national need to an integrated and coordinated effort to understand and subsequently provide recommendations for when and where to most effectively use biochar as an AGRICULTURAL soil amendment. NRCS is encouraged to take the lead in developing this initiative, and the budgetary support to fund it.

A 2009 national Conservation Innovation Grant (CIG) award from USDA provided funding to enable adding biochar as one of these promising technologies. As a result, the Farm Center is now assessing biochar’s potential for improving soil conditions and agricultural productivity in practical ways to reach the widest range of rural beneficiaries. Please click here for the full report authored by Len Bull.

Please see the conclusions from the report below:

The three year trial in agricultural biochar conducted by the North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability is finished.  As you read the final report you will note some of our surprises and challenges.

But the consensus of everyone involved in this project is that biochar as an agricultural soil amendment has a bright future—and may be the driver that brings the biochar industry of clean energy, carbon sequestration and conservation into the common nomenclature of the marketplace.

The next and very important step is to take lessons learned in the sandy soils of North Carolina and translate them into a national initiative that can be regionalized to local soils.  If the beneficial impact of agricultural biochar on crops in larger field trial is not pursued it would be a disservice to farmers, conservationists and taxpayers.

Equally exciting, however, are the opportunities agricultural biochar offers in conservation and sustainable practices and agricultural entrepreneurship. Going forward biochar has implications that include:

Climate, water, food security and carbon are moving once again into discussions that will determine national policies. Agricultural bichar has a place in each of these arenas.

The North Carolina Farm Center for Innovation and Sustainability feels privileged and honored to have had the opportunity to have participated in these trials and in doing so have opened the door to finding solutions to issues critical to us all.

For more information, contact Sharon Valentine at svalentine@ncfarmcenter.org or visit the website at: www.ncfarmcenter.org.


The Biochar Solution Carbon Farming And Climate Change

14 April, 2017
 

File Name: The Biochar Solution Carbon Farming And Climate Change
File Size: 23.8 MB
File Type: PDF / ePub
Uploaded on: 2016-02-21 05:10:00

Last checked: 2 hours 34 minutes ago!

Rating: 4.3/5 from 2955 votes.

The Biochar Solution Carbon Farming And Climate Change in Audio and Ebook Format.

96 Comments

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these A Hero of Our Time (Penguin Classics) I can get now!

cooool I am so happy xD

I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook

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Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you.

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Biochar In European Soils And Agriculture

14 April, 2017
 

File Name: Biochar In European Soils And Agriculture
File Size: 23.8 MB
File Type: PDF / ePub
Uploaded on: 2016-02-21 05:10:00

Last checked: 2 hours 34 minutes ago!

Rating: 4.3/5 from 2955 votes.

Biochar In European Soils And Agriculture in Audio and Ebook Format.

96 Comments

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these A Hero of Our Time (Penguin Classics) I can get now!

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Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you.

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Reversing Climate Change by City-Tech Blogger Henry Ovalle

15 April, 2017
 

Today, by just spreading the word here on ClimateYou, I am helping out Warm Heat, a nonprofit organization based in Thailand, with a project that they have initiated to help put an end to climate change by using a method called Biochar. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment and is used as a

(Read More…)


Guiding Qi talk biochar water treatment

15 April, 2017
 

a path that involves neither quantum mechanics nor relativity but a far more fundamental result in physics called Noether’s Theorem after German mathematician Emmy Noether (1882 – 1935) who first derived it.

However, our conscious experience does assign a special time and a special place to the world. We experience the world in the HERE and NOW. Conscious experience seems to break the universal time/space symmetry of physics and hence (via Noether’s Theorem) opens the way for Mind to violate the laws of conservation of Energy and Momentum.

But perhaps human minds in their normal state exercise only a insignificant influence on Nature’s basic time/space symmetries but in Mesmeric trances, sexual transports or religious ecstasies, the powerfully experienced here/nowness of consciousness might induce extraordinary acts that violate the cherished laws of physics over and over and over again.

Thus Emmy Noether can explain St. Joseph of Cupertino.

The details are left to the student.

I feel that the past, and the present and the future is all in one state. They’re operating at different frequency levels. It isn’t the past here, the present here and the future here. We are all at one state. The past, present and future are all here. That’s why some people have deja vu….

— Qigong Grandmaster Effie P. Chow

The farther apart the keys are on a piano keyboard, the farther apart they are within this imaginary dimension; a given distance along the keyboard translates into a given distance within the dimension. You don’t see this dimension as such; to you, it’s an abstraction that captures the acoustical independence of sound waves. But it’s a remarkably fitting abstraction. Musicians call the difference between pitches a musical “interval,” which has connotations of distance, as if our brains really do think of the differences between pitches as spatial separation. AdS/CFT duality takes this abstraction literally and suggests that one of the dimensions of the space we occupy represents the energy or, equivalently, the size of waves within the underlying system.Space, x and time t do not commute, causing time motion as the embedded 4th dimension information as the “direction” of time as entropy.

Reversing the time as 5D phase-shift is the self-awareness of spacetime itself as negative entropy: alchemy based on relativized light with faster-than-light non-local “phase waves.” That noncommutative phase-space is the 5th dimension described by Paul S. Wesson, that creates the Big Bang, when the energy of the 4th dimension is infinite frequency at zero time. Turning the light around as alchemy meditation accesses the 5D phase-shift since light has no “rest mass.” Matter harmonizes with light via the reverse time superluminal phase-shift called the Law of Phase Harmony.

“…the Holy Spirit descended upon me in a manner that seemed to go through me…like a wave of electricity… Indeed it seemed to come in waves and waves of liquid love; for I could not express it in any other way. It seemed like the very breath of God.”

quoted by Dr. Bradford Kinney

The Bible represents the Spirit as giving to the mind both light and heat. It both illumines and impresses; both reveals the truth, and makes it seem real, and hence makes it effective as truth, upon the mind. Hence the fitness of the figure which on the day of Pentecost, presented the descending Spirit under the symbol of “cloven tongues like as of fire.” Hence also the figure implied in our text–“Quench not”–as if it were a candle flame,–a fire, which might be extinguished. It is the office-work of the Spirit to enlighten the intellect, and at the same time to warm the sensibilities. This is indeed a most remarkable fact, that when the Spirit of God reveals light, it is done in a manner which always warms the sensibility.

Many seem not to realize the nature of the Spirit’s operations, the possibility always of resisting, and the great danger of quenching that light of God in the soul.

Again there is, so to speak, a sort of heat, a warmth and vitality attending the truth when enforced by the Spirit. Thus we say if one has the Spirit of God his soul is warm; if he has not the Spirit, his heart is cold.

This vital heat produced by the divine Spirit may be quenched. Let a man resist the Spirit, and he will certainly quench this vital energy which it exerts upon the heart.

Charles G. Finney

http://relaxationresponse.org/

“Sri Yukteswar seldom indulged in riddles; I was bewildered. He struck gently on my chest above the heart.

My body became immovably rooted; breath was drawn out of my lungs as if by some huge magnet. Soul and mind instantly lost their physical bondage, and streamed out like a fluid piercing light from my every pore. The flesh was as though dead, yet in my intense awareness I knew that never before had I been fully alive. My sense of identity was no longer narrowly confined to a body, but embraced the circumambient atoms. People on distant streets seemed to be moving gently over my own remote periphery. The roots of plants and trees appeared through a dim transparency of the soil; I discerned the inward flow of their sap.

The whole vicinity lay bare before me. My ordinary frontal vision was now changed to a vast spherical sight, simultaneously all-perceptive. Through the back of my head I saw men strolling far down Rai Ghat Road, and noticed also a white cow who was leisurely approaching. When she reached the space in front of the open ashram gate, I observed her with my two physical eyes. As she passed by, behind the brick wall, I saw her clearly still.

All objects within my panoramic gaze trembled and vibrated like quick motion pictures. My body, Master’s, the pillared courtyard, the furniture and floor, the trees and sunshine, occasionally became violently agitated, until all melted into a luminescent sea; even as sugar crystals, thrown into a glass of water, dissolve after being shaken. The unifying light alternated with materializations of form, the metamorphoses revealing the law of cause and effect in creation.”

“Cosmic Consciousness Explained” chapter 14, Autobiography of a Yogi, Swami Yogananda

And the important thing is not that you shine light to reconstruct it. But that the information …is equally well and in fact in some sense better described, more accurately described, more precisely described, ….it’s there in that [two dimensional] film. …That was very radical because people always associated information with volume.

Leonard Susskind on the Holographic information entanglement universe. A thin sheet of reality youtube – World Science Festival

“If then all things are One, what room is there for speech? On the other hand, since I can say the word ‘one’ how can speech not exist? If it does exist, we have One and speech — two; and two and one — three(14) from which point onwards even the best mathematicians will fail to reach (the ultimate); how much more then should ordinary people fail?” – Chuang Tzu, 300 BCE

http://terebess.hu/english/chuang.html

Contextual analysis of Chuang Tzu’s critique of Hui Shi here




The Biochar Solution

15 April, 2017
 

File Name: The Biochar Solution
File Size: 23.8 MB
File Type: PDF / ePub
Uploaded on: 2016-02-21 05:10:00

Last checked: 2 hours 34 minutes ago!

Rating: 4.3/5 from 2955 votes.

The Biochar Solution in Audio and Ebook Format.

96 Comments

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these A Hero of Our Time (Penguin Classics) I can get now!

cooool I am so happy xD

I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook

wtf this great ebook for free?!

My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not!

Its very easy to get quality ebooks 😉

hahahahaha

so many fake sites. this is the first one which worked! Many thanks

wtffff i do not understand this!

Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you.

lol it did not even take me 5 minutes at all! XD


Bob 101 Episode 1 How To Apply Biochar To A Garden Youtube

15 April, 2017
 

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What's the difference, if any, between biochar and natural hardwood charcoal?

15 April, 2017
 


Does biochar stoke the soil?

16 April, 2017
 

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The National Weather Service uses 122 colors to communicate the weather. There are watches, warnings and advisories arrayed on website maps in a Crayola box worth of colors. Tornado watches come in yellow, blizzard warnings in scarlet and storms in a pinkish hue. Air-quality alerts are splashed in smoggy gray. Winter weather advisories arrive in an Easter-egg purple that

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Check out what happens when we put the Coke / Propane rocket to the test! The results are …unexpected. Coke: http://amzn.to/2cjDmmt Propane: http://amzn.to/2jbr790 Glass Cups: http://amzn.to/2oKfkp6 Red (Boxing) Gloves: http://amzn.to/2o7JPUK Endcard Links: Sugar Rockets: https://goo.gl/9Ef6y9 Ninja Stress Balls: https://goo.gl/FyiJmX Drink Can BBQ: https://goo.gl/8EJzJj Water Bottle First Starter: https://goo.gl/WXqUsk Business Inquiries: For sponsorship requests or business opportunities please contact me directly: https://www.youtube.com/thekingofrandom/about See What Else I’m Up To: Instagram: https://goo.gl/C0Q1YU Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBTheKingOfRandom Pinterest: http://bit.ly/pingrant Music by: Bird Passengers – “Fearless” www.youtube.com/birdpassengers WARNING: This video is only for entertainment purposes. If you rely on the information portrayed in this video, you assume the responsibility for the results. Have fun, but always think ahead, and remember that every project you try is at YOUR OWN RISK….

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DIARY OF ERIX SOEKAMTI…

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Mass Effect Andromeda was roasted alive at launch (we’ve all seen the GIFS). But is it really that bad? Jim wants you to shut up and find out. Written and Voiced By Jim Trinca Edited by Laura Rankin Produced by Tom Jenkins More Mashed: Don’t forget to subscribe and share with your friends! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c… Mashed end theme by: Liam Tate Hear all of our tracks here – http://youtu.be/PZdy8dhVgv4 Stay in touch with Mashed! Facebook: http://facebook.com/thisismashed Twitter: http://twitter.com/mashed Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/mashed/ Email: mashed@theconnectedset.com Thanks for watching!…

Mass Effect Andromeda was roasted alive at launch (we’ve all seen the GIFS). But is it really that bad? Jim wants you to shut up and find out. Written and Voiced By Jim Trinca Edited by Laura Rankin Produced by Tom Jenkins More Mashed: Don’t forget to subscribe and share with your friends! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c… Mashed end theme by: Liam Tate Hear all of our tracks here – http://youtu.be/PZdy8dhVgv4 Stay in touch with Mashed! Facebook: http://facebook.com/thisismashed Twitter: http://twitter.com/mashed Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/mashed/ Email: mashed@theconnectedset.com Thanks for watching!…

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Carbon Farming & Biochar Workshop

16 April, 2017
 

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Sugarcane waste turns a tidy profit for juice-maker

17 April, 2017
 

When he first started operating a sugarcane juice bar in Nyeri Town in 2014, disposal of cane bagasse was always a headache for Job Kanyi. 

He used to burn or throw away the bagasse in a nearby pit. But it took time to biodegrade and animals shun the tough fibre which is left after crushing and extraction of juice. 

Today, this problem has turned into a cash machine after it dawned on him that he could manufacture fertiliser he branded JOKA biochar and livestock supplements from the waste material.

“I started by making a small amount of supplement for my chicken as part of a pilot project lasting six months. After I reviewed production numbers, I realised there was a notable improvement,” he explains. 

Mr Kanyi then turned to commercial production, seeking to cash in on farmers’ natural desire to get the most out of their livestock or crops. He says the supplement improves digestion of feeds and absorption of the nutrients released, thereby raising output of eggs, milk and meat. 

He claims that the coop used by chicken is completely free from foul smell as the organic bio-supplement is highly absorptive and does release minimal gas upon digestion. 

Mr Kanyi sells the bio-supplement in three packages of one, two and 20 kilogrammes. A kilogramme retails at Sh100. To get maximum results, a kilogramme of the supplement is mixed with 10 kilos of feed. 

So far, reception has been encouraging but he admits that he has alot of marketing to do in order to explain to farmers exactly what benefits they stand to gain by purchasing his supplement.

He has now applied for certification from the Kenya Bureau of Standards (Kebs), an accreditation, which if received, Mr Kanyi believes will boost sales significantly. 

The entrepreneur also manufactures biochar – a type of charcoal used for agricultural use to improve the quality of soil. He prepares the fertiliser by heating bagasse carbonised at high temperatures of up to 1,000 degrees. Biochar enables soil to have more spores, creating a large surface area which is beneficial to plants. 

He has been selling the soil booster since May 2015, adding that he has earned Sh700,000 from the venture so far. A 1.5kg of the product retails at Sh150. 

Mr Kanyi, who has over 35 years’ experience in teaching and extension services, also offers advice on better sugarcane farming practices and the best types of crop to grow for juice extraction.

Upon receiving the crops from farmers, he analyzes them to determine their juice content and their sweetness level before purchasing for processing.

He says sugarcane juice has various advantages such as improving digestion, controlling blood sugar, improving sleep, boosting memory and vitality, enhancing thinking rate and reviving dwindling libido, among other benefits. 

The other reason that drove him to sugarcane processing is the fact that most people were drinking beverages made of chemicals , bringing about health complications.

This triggered the desire to come up with a drink without any health hazard. He thus embarked on sugarcane processing in 2014 when he opened shop in Nyeri town.  

Today, Mr Kanyi has greatly expanded his venture, benefitting in three different ways from the plant.

“In a good month, I sell between 1,500 and 2,000 litres of juice. A litre of this juice is Sh160,” he said.


Biochar Market Research On Gardening, Agriculture (Large Farms)

17 April, 2017
 

"The Report Biochar Market (By Application Segment — Gardening, Agriculture (Large Farms), and Household) — U.S. Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 — 2020 provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key industry participants. — MarketResearchReports.biz"

 

About Biochar Market

Biochar is a solid material that is obtained from the carbonization of biomass. It is added to soil to enhance soil quality and reduce emissions through carbon sequestration. The use of biochar for carbon sequestration is believed to offset carbon emissions from natural and industrial processes. Biochar also improves water quality by retaining the agrochemicals and soil nutrients that could have mixed with water and caused water pollution. In addition to carbon sequestration and soil amendment, sustainable biochar practices can yield products that can be used as a fuel.

Pyrolysis is a simple and a low-cost technique that can produce a wide range of products such as biochar, bio-oil, and bio-chemicals. The biochar obtained as the output of the pyrolysis process can improve soil fertility. Biochar can be obtained by either performing the slow or fast pyrolysis technique. The biochar industry in the U.S. is in the development phase with several research institutes and companies trying to develop biochar at low cost, which could prove economical to both buyers and sellers. The U.S. market for biochar includes companies that are involved in small and medium scale manufacture of biochar. These companies provide biochar for gardening, research, agriculture (large farms), and household purposes.

Get Sample Copy of this report @ http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/231645

The research study on the U.S. biochar market is designed to estimate, analyze, and forecast the market revenue of the biochar market in the U.S. It provides an in-depth analysis of the total volume and market revenue of the U.S. biochar market. This research study covers the key application segments of the biochar market in the U.S. Based on application, the market has been segmented into gardening, agriculture (large farms), and household. The market study also provides historical data, detailed analysis, and statistically refined forecast for the application segments covered herein.

View Report @ http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/analysis/231645

The market size has been estimated on the basis of indicators in the biochar industry. Furthermore, the market size for biochar has been calculated considering the volume of sales of biochar in the U.S. The study provides detailed analysis and forecast of the biochar market for the U.S. from 2014 to 2020. The current and future forecast analysis for all the application segments has been provided in terms of both volume (tons) and market revenue (USD Million), considering 2012 and 2013 as the base years. All factors such as need of biochar, consumer’s demographics, and preference for biochar over fertilizer are analyzed in the report. The report primarily focuses on the need of the client, and therefore has covered all feasible parameters and provided quantifiable data.

The U.S. biochar market research report includes market drivers, market restraints, and market opportunities, and also their impact on the growth of the biochar market over the forecast period. Furthermore, the study encompasses opportunities for market growth in the U.S. In order to compile the research report, we conducted in-depth primary interviews and discussions with numerous key opinion leaders (KOLs) and participants. As the U.S. biochar industry is in the development phase, we have relied on the responses of primary interviews with consultants and KOLs. We have also reviewed key players’ product portfolio, annual reports, press releases, and relevant documents for competitive analysis and better understanding of the biochar market in the U.S. Secondary research includes in-depth research on current trends, trade journals, Internet sources, statistical data, and technical writing from associated approach for obtaining concise data, capturing industry participants’ insights and recognizing growth opportunities.

The uniqueness of the report lies in the overall industrial description of the U.S. biochar market, which is presently a niche market and is in the development stage. The study analyzes the value chain of the U.S. biochar market. The phases in the value chain comprise feedstock procurement and preparation, transport, drying, production of biochar, transfer, distribution, and end-use of biochar. The report also provides detailed analysis of various factors influencing the U.S. biochar market by employing Porter’s Five Forces analysis. The analysis sheds light on the bargaining power of buyers and suppliers, threat from substitutes and new entrants, and the degree of competition in the U.S. biochar market. Moreover, the research study provides cost analysis of biochar, which includes qualitative and quantitative analysis of each cost component from feedstock cost to biochar transportation.

Profiles of leading companies have been provided in the U.S. biochar market report along with the list of technology providers, manufacturers, and suppliers of biochar in the U.S. market. Key participants in the U.S. biochar market include Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Biochar Supreme, LLC, Cool Planet Energy Systems, Inc., Full Circle Biochar, and The Biochar Company. The report also analyzes several other players involved in the market, including BioChar Products, CharGrow, LLC, Genesis Industries, LLC, Hawaii Biochar Products, LLC, New England Biochar, LLC, Phoenix Energy, Three Dimensional Timberlands, LLC, Tolero Energy, LLC, Vega Biofuels, Inc., and Victory Gasworks.

The U.S. Biochar Market has been segmented as below:

U.S. Biochar Market: Application Segment

Gardening

Agriculture (Large Farms)

Household

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Preface

1.1 Report Description

1.2 Research Scope

1.3 Market Segmentation

1.4 Research Methodology

Chapter 2 Executive Summary

Chapter 3 U.S. Biochar Market – Industry Analysis

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Value Chain Analysis

3.3 Market Dynamics

3.3.1 Market Drivers

3.3.1.1 Carbon sequestration property of biochar provides environmental benefits

3.3.1.2 Improved soil fertility along with food security potential

3.3.1.3 Application of biochar in waste management

3.3.2 Market Restraints

3.3.2.1 Lack of consumer awareness about benefits of biochar can restrain market growth

3.3.2.2 Technological uncertainty hinders production capacity and scaled agricultural uses

3.3.2.3 Financial constraints hampers investment in the market

3.3.3 Market Opportunity

3.3.3.1 Possibility of introduction of carbon credits on biochar usage

3.4 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

3.4.1 Bargaining Power of Suppliers

3.4.2 Bargaining Power of Buyers

3.4.3 Threat from Substitutes

3.4.4 Threat from New Entrants

3.4.5 Degree of Competition

3.5 U.S. Biochar Market: Manufacturers, Suppliers, and Buyers

3.6 U.S. Biochar Market: Cost Analysis of Biochar

3.6.1 Feedstock Cost

3.6.2 Feedstock Transportation Cost

3.6.3 OPEX, CAPEX and Storage Cost

3.6.4 Support Activities

3.6.5 Biochar Sales and Marketing

Chapter 4 U.S. Biochar Market – Application Segment Overview

4.1 U.S. Biochar Market: Application Segment Overview

4.1.1 U.S. Biochar Market Volume Estimates and Forecast, by Application Segment, 2013 & 2020, (Tons)

4.1.2 U.S. Biochar Market Volume and Revenue Estimates, and Forecast, 2012 – 2020 (Tons), (USD Million)

4.2 Gardening

4.2.1 U.S. Gardening Biochar Application Segment Market Volume and Revenue Estimates, and Forecast, 2012 – 2020 (Tons), (USD Million)

4.3 Agriculture (Large Farms)

4.3.1 U.S. Agriculture (Large Farms) Biochar Application Segment Market Volume and Revenue Estimates, and Forecast, 2012 – 2020 (Tons), (USD Million)

4.4 Household

4.4.1 U.S. Household Biochar Application Segment Market Volume and Revenue Estimates, and Forecast, 2012 – 2020 (Tons), (USD Million)

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Biochar Market Research On Gardening, Agriculture (Large Farms)

17 April, 2017
 

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About Biochar Market Biochar is a solid material that is obtained from the carbonization of biomass. It is added to soil to enhance soil quality and reduce emissions through carbon sequestration. The use of biochar for carbon sequestration is believed to offset carbon emissions from natural and industrial processes. Biochar also improves water quality by retaining the agrochemicals and soil nutrients that could have mixed with water and caused water pollution. In addition to carbon sequestration and soil amendment, sustainable biochar practices can yield products that can be used as a fuel. Pyrolysis is a simple and a low-cost technique that can produce a wide range of products such as biochar, bio-oil, and bio-chemicals. The biochar obtained as the output of the pyrolysis process can improve soil fertility. Biochar can be obtained by either performing the slow or fast pyrolysis technique. The biochar industry in the U.S. is in the development phase with several research institutes and companies trying to develop biochar at low cost, which could prove economical to both buyers and sellers. The U.S. market for biochar includes companies that are involved in small and medium scale manufacture of biochar. These companies provide biochar for gardening, research, agriculture (large farms), and household purposes.

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Thesis On Biochar

17 April, 2017
 

Phd Thesis On Biochar – toponlinefastessay.life toponlinefastessay.life/phd-thesis-on-biochar Phd Thesis On Biochar phd thesis on biochar Phd Thesis On Biochar Thesis Proposal Writing Who Wants To Write My Paper For Me Money Can Buy Health Essay Buy College Thesis On Biochar – asas.edu.pk asas.edu.pk/component/k2/itemlist/user/13118 Biochar as a strategy for sustainable land management, poverty File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat Thesis. Dissertation. Miguel Rodríguez T. 2001357. Phd Thesis On Biochar – alhanataiwan.com alhanataiwan.com/component/k2/itemlist/user/286829 Thesis. Biochar as a Geoengineering Climate Solution – ResearchGate File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat Biochar is a carbon dense solid that is produced via the pyrolysis Biochar Thesis 2012 – pvbiochar | Pioneer Valley Biochar pvbiochar.org/forum/index.php?topic=2889.0 Hi The attached file is a Masters Thesis purporting to show the effects of biochar made from char supplied by by Dynamotive on poplar grown on three types of soil. Thesis On Biochar – usanar.com usanar.com/component/k2/itemlist/user/791041 Phd Thesis On Biochar – writehelpbuyessay.downloadphd thesis on biochar PhD Research Projects Effect of biochars with varying physicochemical properties on ammonium

www.southsimcoepolice.on.ca/phd-thesis-on-biochar Message from the ChiefRichard Beazley; Specialized UnitsSouth Simcoe Police BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL forest.moscowfsl.wsu.edu//GTs/McElligott-Kristin_Thesis.pdf BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND TREE GROWTH A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Phd Thesis On Biochar | Help writing a argumentative essay www.thebullterrierclub.org/phd-thesis-on-biochar Place This includes the abstract introduction hiochar a research paper due. Inadequacy and also inhibits other custom writing service. phd thesis on biochar Really Biochar: for better or for worse? – UEA Digital Repository https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/48115 Abstract. This thesis presents biochar state of the art and investigations into the environmental benefits and potential impacts of biochar application to soil. Phd Thesis On Biochar | Can someone write my paper aftlv.com/phd-thesis-on-biochar Phd Thesis On Biochar,Generation X Essay Thesis.Buy essays on from pencils to pixels subject Phd Thesis On Biochar | Help writing a argumentative essay www.thebullterrierclub.org/phd-thesis-on-biochar Place This includes the abstract introduction hiochar a research paper due. Inadequacy and also inhibits other custom writing service. phd thesis on biochar Really The Effects of Biochar Amendment to Soil on Bioenergy Crop trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2316&context=utk THE EFFECTS OF BIOCHAR AMENDMENT TO SOIL ON BIOENERGY CROP YIELD AND BIOMASS COMPOSITION A Thesis Presented for the Master of Science Degree Thesis On Biochar – tizianacatanzani.it www.tizianacatanzani.it/component/k2/itemlist/user/33573.html Phd Thesis On Biochar – writingservicewriteessay.download An investigation of physical and chemical properties of biochar Advisor: Andrew Zimmerman, Geological Sorption Of Nitrate And Phosphate By Biochar Biology Essay https://www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/sorption-of-nitrate-and Sorption Of Nitrate And Phosphate By Biochar Biology Essay. Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015. This essay has been submitted by a student. Phd thesis on biochar » Original content – hello-sushi.de https://www.hello-sushi.de/blog.php/phd-thesis-on-biochar WriteMyEssay is an eclectic group of word engineers. Eddo, PhD Thesis, 2013 – University of East Anglia File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat This thesis presents biochar BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL forest.moscowfsl.wsu.edu//GTs/McElligott-Kristin_Thesis.pdf BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND TREE GROWTH A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Phd thesis on biochar – uludaginfo.com www.uludaginfo.com/phd-thesis-on-biochar Uludağ Kayak Merkezi – Uludaginfo Haefele, Stephan: Title: Dr: Position: Senior Research Fellow : E-mail: stephan.haefele@acpfg.com.au : Phone +61 8 the colonel British Library EThOS: Biochar : for better or for worse? ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.601067 This thesis presents biochar state of the art and investigations into the environmental benefits and potential impacts of biochar application to soil. Biochar Carbon Sequestration Dissertation www.biochar.org/joomla/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=7 Dissertation Slash and Char as Alternative to Slash and Burn – soil charcoal amendments maintain soil fertility and establish a carbon sink (click on images to download) Biochar As An Alternative to Irrigation in Extreme Drought www.academicwino.com/2015/04/biochar-alternative-to-irrigation-in Biochar may be a viable alternative to irrigation in wine regions experiencing severe drought (like Australia and California). A new study explains why.

Phd Thesis On Biochar – toponlinefastessay.life toponlinefastessay.life/phd-thesis-on-biochar Phd Thesis On Biochar phd thesis on biochar Phd Thesis On Biochar Thesis Proposal Writing Who Wants To Write My Paper For Me Money Can Buy Health Essay Buy College Thesis On Biochar – asas.edu.pk asas.edu.pk/component/k2/itemlist/user/13118 Biochar as a strategy for sustainable land management, poverty File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat Thesis. Dissertation. Miguel Rodríguez T. 2001357. Phd Thesis On Biochar – alhanataiwan.com alhanataiwan.com/component/k2/itemlist/user/286829 Thesis. Biochar as a Geoengineering Climate Solution – ResearchGate File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat Biochar is a carbon dense solid that is produced via the pyrolysis Biochar Thesis 2012 – pvbiochar | Pioneer Valley Biochar pvbiochar.org/forum/index.php?topic=2889.0 Hi The attached file is a Masters Thesis purporting to show the effects of biochar made from char supplied by by Dynamotive on poplar grown on three types of soil. Thesis On Biochar – usanar.com usanar.com/component/k2/itemlist/user/791041 Phd Thesis On Biochar – writehelpbuyessay.downloadphd thesis on biochar PhD Research Projects Effect of biochars with varying physicochemical properties on ammonium

www.southsimcoepolice.on.ca/phd-thesis-on-biochar Message from the ChiefRichard Beazley; Specialized UnitsSouth Simcoe Police BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL forest.moscowfsl.wsu.edu//GTs/McElligott-Kristin_Thesis.pdf BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND TREE GROWTH A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Phd Thesis On Biochar | Help writing a argumentative essay www.thebullterrierclub.org/phd-thesis-on-biochar Place This includes the abstract introduction hiochar a research paper due. Inadequacy and also inhibits other custom writing service. phd thesis on biochar Really Biochar: for better or for worse? – UEA Digital Repository https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/48115 Abstract. This thesis presents biochar state of the art and investigations into the environmental benefits and potential impacts of biochar application to soil. Phd Thesis On Biochar | Can someone write my paper aftlv.com/phd-thesis-on-biochar Phd Thesis On Biochar,Generation X Essay Thesis.Buy essays on from pencils to pixels subject Phd Thesis On Biochar | Help writing a argumentative essay www.thebullterrierclub.org/phd-thesis-on-biochar Place This includes the abstract introduction hiochar a research paper due. Inadequacy and also inhibits other custom writing service. phd thesis on biochar Really The Effects of Biochar Amendment to Soil on Bioenergy Crop trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2316&context=utk THE EFFECTS OF BIOCHAR AMENDMENT TO SOIL ON BIOENERGY CROP YIELD AND BIOMASS COMPOSITION A Thesis Presented for the Master of Science Degree Thesis On Biochar – tizianacatanzani.it www.tizianacatanzani.it/component/k2/itemlist/user/33573.html Phd Thesis On Biochar – writingservicewriteessay.download An investigation of physical and chemical properties of biochar Advisor: Andrew Zimmerman, Geological Sorption Of Nitrate And Phosphate By Biochar Biology Essay https://www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/sorption-of-nitrate-and Sorption Of Nitrate And Phosphate By Biochar Biology Essay. Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015. This essay has been submitted by a student. Phd thesis on biochar » Original content – hello-sushi.de https://www.hello-sushi.de/blog.php/phd-thesis-on-biochar WriteMyEssay is an eclectic group of word engineers. Eddo, PhD Thesis, 2013 – University of East Anglia File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat This thesis presents biochar BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL forest.moscowfsl.wsu.edu//GTs/McElligott-Kristin_Thesis.pdf BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS TO FOREST SOILS: EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND TREE GROWTH A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Phd thesis on biochar – uludaginfo.com www.uludaginfo.com/phd-thesis-on-biochar Uludağ Kayak Merkezi – Uludaginfo Haefele, Stephan: Title: Dr: Position: Senior Research Fellow : E-mail: stephan.haefele@acpfg.com.au : Phone +61 8 the colonel British Library EThOS: Biochar : for better or for worse? ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.601067 This thesis presents biochar state of the art and investigations into the environmental benefits and potential impacts of biochar application to soil. Biochar Carbon Sequestration Dissertation www.biochar.org/joomla/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=7 Dissertation Slash and Char as Alternative to Slash and Burn – soil charcoal amendments maintain soil fertility and establish a carbon sink (click on images to download) Biochar As An Alternative to Irrigation in Extreme Drought www.academicwino.com/2015/04/biochar-alternative-to-irrigation-in Biochar may be a viable alternative to irrigation in wine regions experiencing severe drought (like Australia and California). A new study explains why.


The Biochar Cookstove Challenge

17 April, 2017
 


Global Biochar Market

17 April, 2017
 

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18 April, 2017
 

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Bio char research papers

18 April, 2017
 


Wallowa County farmers part of biochar study

18 April, 2017
 

Wallowa County Chieftain

Published on April 18, 2017 2:14PM

Five farmers in Wallowa County are experimenting with biochar this farming season, and that may result in far-reaching benefit to the county.

In 2016-17 Wallowa Resources, a nonprofit dedicated to developing and promoting the success of rural communities, received approximately $30,000 in grants from the Sills Family Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service to examine the viability of using biochar as a soil amendment to boost agricultural production.

Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, which can endure in soil for thousands of years.

The importance of the study for Wallowa County was not only assessing the benefit of biochar to farmers, but “connecting the dots” for an economic system in the county – from forest restoration, to conversion of biomass (slash and agricultural waste) to a saleable product, to soil and crop improvement. The creation of jobs at every phase of the project is also part of the mission, said biochar project manager Matt King.

Biochar has been used in many other applications, from filtering water to absorbing dangerous chemical spills and may be key in mining remediation projects because of its ability to leach heavy metals from the soil.

“There are a whole lot of potential benefits to biochar,” said King. “The question in Wallowa County is if there is any market viability for biochar as a soil ammendment. Can we produce it at a price that farmers can afford to pay with some assistance from restoration of forests or carbon offset credits in the future?”

Those offsets and financial assistance programs are an important consideration as biochar is considered expensive.

There are many applications for biochar. As a soil augmentation, the benefits include water and fertilizer retention and reduced acidity of the soil. Some manure-based biochars have also been shown to add nitrogen to the soil, according to the Colorado State University Extension.

Among the farms joining the program this year are Woody Wolfe of Wallowa, Dave Flynn and Cory Carman’s Carmen Ranch of Wallowa, Joe Dawson’s Double D Ranch of Joseph, Mark and Anna Butterfield’s farm in Joseph and Kevin Melville of Enterprise and Joseph.

“We’re experimenting in using biochar to raise the pH rather than using lime,” Melville said. “The number-one problem we have is soil pH getting lower. As you use commercial fertilizers over time, the soil pH goes down.

Soil pH value is a measure of soil acidity or alkalinity, which directly affects nutrient availability. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 as neutral. Numbers less than 7 indicate acidity while numbers greater than 7 indicate alkalinity.

Melville said his numbers were at seven or eight and now they’re dropping down to six. “Then you start getting more aluminum and aluminum toxicity,” he said. “It’s a big deal. There are a lot of very complex problems that go on there.”

Melville is also interested in seeing a product that could be produced locally and hopes for better water retention.

“Any time you can irrigate less you save money,” he said.

For the project, the farms are treating about an acre each, King said.

“Four of those farmers are no-till, so they will use a seed drill to get the char into the ground. Butterfield tills, so we’ll be using a manure spreader there,” King said.

The crops being planted in the treated fields include alfalfa, mixed forage and wheat.

The project agrees to test the process cost-free.

“We’d like to see some enhanced yield the first year,” said King. “The value of the product comes down to the economic bottom line. We definitely expect to see increased growth, retaining of fertilizer benefits, retaining of water and other benefits.”

Since learning is the primary goal of the project, biochar may also be applied for a second year to determine the best application amount and frequency –– although studies indicate that the char will remain viable, doing its job, for up to 100 years before breaking down.

Biochar is also touted as having a carbon sequestration benefit, which is part of the equation that might, in the future, result in carbon offset credits to help pay for biochar application. However, some international studies question carbon sequestration benefits of biochar when mixed with compost or soils.

If there is success, the second step for Wallowa County participants would be determining if making biochar makes economic sense.

Integrated Biomass Resources owner/operator David Schmidt said his company has a vested interest in whether the farm trials are successful.

“We have a lot of material from both forest service and private forest land that ends up as hog fuel,” he said. “If we find a better value for this material, it’s good for everyone. But we’re just assessing its value to farmers at this point.”

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Effects of nitrogen application rate, nitrogen synergist and biochar on nitrous oxide emissions from …

18 April, 2017
 

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Contributed equally to this work with: Qiong Yi, Shuanghu Tang, Xiaolin Fan

Affiliations Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer in South Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou, China, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China

Contributed equally to this work with: Qiong Yi, Shuanghu Tang, Xiaolin Fan

tfstshu@aliyun.com.cn

Affiliations Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer in South Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou, China

Contributed equally to this work with: Qiong Yi, Shuanghu Tang, Xiaolin Fan

Affiliation College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China

Affiliations Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer in South Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou, China

Affiliations Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer in South Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou, China

Affiliations Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer in South Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou, China

Affiliations Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer in South Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou, China

Globally, vegetable fields are the primary source of greenhouse gas emissions. A closed-chamber method together with gas chromatography was used to measure the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in typical vegetable fields planted with four vegetables sequentially over time in the same field: endive, lettuce, cabbage and sweet corn. Results showed that N2O fluxes occurred in pulses with the N2O emission peak varying greatly among the crops. In addition, N2O emissions were linearly associated with the nitrogen (N) application rate (r = 0.8878, n = 16). Excessive fertilizer N application resulted in N loss through nitrous oxide gas emitted from the vegetable fields. Compared with a conventional fertilization (N2) treatment, the cumulative N2O emissions decreased significantly in the growing seasons of four plant species from an nitrogen synergist (a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide and biochar treatments by 34.6% and 40.8%, respectively. However, the effects of biochar on reducing N2O emissions became more obvious than that of dicyandiamide over time. The yield-scaled N2O emissions in consecutive growing seasons for four species increased with an increase in the N fertilizer application rate, and with continuous application of N fertilizer. This was especially true for the high N fertilizer treatment that resulted in a risk of yield-scaled N2O emissions. Generally, the additions of dicyandiamide and biochar significantly decreased yield-scaled N2O-N emissions by an average of 45.9% and 45.7%, respectively, compared with N2 treatment from the consecutive four vegetable seasons. The results demonstrated that the addition of dicyandiamide or biochar in combination with application of a rational amount of N could provide the best strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in vegetable field in south China.

Citation: Yi Q, Tang S, Fan X, Zhang M, Pang Y, Huang X, et al. (2017) Effects of nitrogen application rate, nitrogen synergist and biochar on nitrous oxide emissions from vegetable field in south China. PLoS ONE 12(4): e0175325. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175325

Editor: Dafeng Hui, Tennessee State University, UNITED STATES

Received: October 11, 2016; Accepted: March 23, 2017; Published: April 18, 2017

Copyright: © 2017 Yi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research was financially supported by the Plan Project of Science and technology, Guangdong province (2014A020208051, 2014B090904068, 2012A020100004). Both of the funders played great roles in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

As an important greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) not only plays an important role in global warming, it also contributes greatly to ozone depletion. The observational data monitored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) showed that by 2012 the average concentration of N2O increased to 325.1 ppb, which was 1.2 times higher than that in 1750 [1]. Because the warming potential of N2O is 298 times that of CO2, N2O emissions have received more attention. Agriculture contributes about 58% of total anthropogenic N2O emissions, and soils serve as the main approach of these emissions [2]. Increase levels of atmospheric N2O contribute about 6% of the overall global warming effect, with almost 80% of N2O is emitted from agricultural lands; this N2O originates from N fertilizers, soil disturbance and animal waste [3]. Over the long term, agricultural N2O emissions are projected to increase by 35%-60% by 2030; this increase is projected to be caused by increases in application nitrogen (N) fertilizer and in animal manure production [4]. Therefore, effective mitigation measures used to mitigate N2O emission from soil without sacrificing crop yield are urgently needed.

About 20% of the China’s direct N2O emission in the 1990s came from vegetable fields [5]. Vegetable crops cover about 1.35 million hm-2 in Guangdong Province ranking it fourth in the entire country, The Pearl River Delta region serves as the main vegetable production area, accounting for 37.6% of the total vegetable growing area in Guangdong Province; this region produces 32.75 million tons of vegetables per year [67]. Vegetable fields, a land use type with highly intensive use as well as a high rate of nitrogen application and frequent irrigation, are one of the most abundant land cover types that contribute greatly to greenhouse gas emissions in China [8]. Leaching and NxO emission are the primary N loss pathways in vegetable fields, especially when high N application rates are used[9]. Surface soil N and environmental conditions are crucial for determining the short-term N2O discharge during topdressing in greenhouse vegetable cultivation [10]. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and alleviate the pressure on global warming potential (GWP), scientists have shown great interest in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in recent years. Optimizing fertilizer N rates and applying nitrification inhibitors or changing from NH4+ to NO3 based fertilizers can serve as effective measures for reducing N2O emissions [1112]. The addition of liming in soil with enriched fertilizer N could reduce N2O emission, because the reduction of N2O underground is an important process that limits N2O emissions [13]. A markedly lower GWP, greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) and enhance yields were observed when using the nitrification inhibitor, nitrapyrin and biological nitrification inhibitor treatments when compared to urea and a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD) treatments in vegetable ecosystems [14]. Another research showed that the combination of chemical N fertilizer and manure with biochar (BC) at 30 Mg hm-2 provided the most effective measures for reducing N2O emissions in vegetable production [15]. The addition of BC increased soil organic carbon and total N content, vegetable yield and net ecosystem economic budget although it resulted in reduced net GWP and GHGI [1617].

The emission of N2O in vegetable fields is largely influenced by the cropping system used as well as by temperature, precipitation, fertilization, and vegetable species and so on. A simple short term comparison of vegetable greenhouse gas emissions among different cropping systems will provide inaccurate and unreasonable results. Although the dynamics of greenhouse gases emissions have been observed extensively in farmland, only very limited studies have been conducted related to technology that can be used to reduce greenhouse gases emissions using an evaluation index combined with N management in a vegetable field. Nevertheless, many studies have shown that DCD or BC are effective in reducing N2O emissions, although it remained unclear which of these two materials would provide better results. More studies should be conducted that using more appropriate evaluation criterion to analyze the distinction between DCD and BC. The seasonal dynamics of N2O fluxes were measured in a typical vegetable field planted with four vegetables grown and harvested consecutively over four growing seasons: endive, lettuce, cabbage and sweet corn. Our mainly hypotheses were that: (1) the seasonal dynamics emission fluxes and cumulative emission of N2O would be increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer in vegetable fields, (2) the N2O emission of DCD and BC treatment would be decreased when compared with conventional treatment, and (3) the yield-scaled N2O emission would be increased with the higher application of N fertilizer and the yield-scaled N2O emission of DCD and BC treatment would be reduced compared with conventional treatment. Yield-scaled N2O emission could be regard as an effective indicator to assess and balance the agricultural productivity with N2O emissions under this type of cultivation system.

A field experiment was conducted with four crops planted and harvested independently and consecutively from Apr. 2015 to Jun. 2016 (Table 1). The experiment field was located at the test base of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (23°8′52′′N, 113°20′36′′E). The region experiences a typical subtropical maritime monsoon climate with an annual mean temperature and rainfall of 22.5°C and 1517 mm, respectively. About 73.8% of all precipitation is received from March to August. The air temperature and precipitation data were obtained from nearby weather station (Fig 1, S1 Fig).

Four consecutive vegetable crops, i.e., endive (Cichorium endivia L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. ramosa Hort.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitate L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.) were cultivated from 29 April 2015 to 2 June 2016.The soil properties in the top 20 cm of the latosolic red soil at the site were as follows: pH 4.88, bulk density 1.36 g cm -3, organic carbon 20.5 g kg−1, and total N 1.29 g kg−1. The experiment consisted of six treatments: (1) no fertilizer N treatment (N0), (2) low N application rate treatment with 435 kg N ha -1 (N1), (3) conventional N application rate treatment with 870 kg N ha-1 (N2), (4) high N application rate treatment with 1305 kg N ha -1 (N3), (5) N2 plus 5% of N fertilizer synergist (N2_DCD), (6) N2 incorporated with10 Mg ha-1of biochar (N2_BC). All the plots (each plot was 10 m2) were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. According to the local practice, urea (N 46%), superphosphate (P2O5 12%) and potassium sulfate (K2O 50%) were used to maintain soil nutrient balance and crop growth. 75 kg P2O5 ha -1 and 165 kg K2O ha -1 were applied in the first three kinds of crops, although, 120 P2O5 ha−1 and 300 kg K2O ha−1 s were applied to sweet corn during the growing season. Phosphate fertilizer was applied as basal fertilization, and potash fertilizer was applied with nitrogen fertilizer in the same proportion. DCD was applied along with fertilizer N although BC was applied along with basal fertilization. The growth period of each crop type and the dominant N fertilization practices (including N application rate, time of topdressing and ratio of basal N to dress N) are shown in Table 1. According to the local watering methods, the frequency of irrigation at the early stage, especially after transplanting was relatively high. The timing and amount of irrigation was dependent on the weather conditions.

The closed-chamber method was used to determine the fluxes of N2O in each plot, and the concentrations of N2O were measured using an automated gas chromatograph (Agilent 7890B, USA) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). Gas samplings were conducted from 4 May 2015 to 28 June 2016 over 421 days. The gas collection device consisted of a chamber (0.4 m width × 0.4 m length × 0.4 m height) made of organic glass material with a stainless-steel base that was inserted into the ground. Generally, N2O flux was measured twice a week during the growing seasons. The sampling time for each chamber was 30 min in each treatment plot between 8:00 am and 12:00 am. Gas samples were collected using an injection syringe that was then taken to the laboratory as soon as possible to measure the concentration of N2O. Air temperatures outside and inside each sampling chamber were measured simultaneously with soil temperature and gravimetric moisture content at 5 cm depth for each treatment during the process of gas collection. The soil mineral nitrogen (NO3-N and NH4+-N) samples collected at important growing stages or after fertilization were analyzed with Continuous Flow Analysis (FUTURA II, Alliance, France). The vegetable yields were calculated from the edible part of first three crops and aboveground biomass of sweet corn.

The cumulative N2O emissions were calculated as the sum of daily estimates of N2O flux obtained by linear interpolation between two adjacent sampling dates, with an assumption that N2O flux measured on a sampling date was a representative of the average daily N2O emissions.

A general linear model (GLM) procedure was used for analysis of experimental data. Analysis of variance using Duncan’s new multiple at a 5% confidence level was performed on the N2O fluxes, the cumulative N2O emissions and yield-scaled N2O emissions. The correlation between N2O fluxes and the N application rate, mineral N content and N application rate was analyzed by a linear model procedure. All data were analyzed using the SAS software package for Windows (SAS 9.0).

Dynamics changes were observed in N2O emissions fluxes during the growing seasons of the four crops (Fig 2, S2 Fig). The results showed that increases in N2O fluxes were closely related to the rate of N application. The N2O emissions occurred in pulses and the peak of N2O emissions varied greatly with crop. In addition, the peak value of N2O emissions increased with an increase in the N application rate. During the growth periods for endive, lettuce and sweet corn, N2O emissions peaked at 30 days after transplanting (DAT) for all treatments, 10 DAT and 41–45 days after sowing (DAS), respectively. However, in cabbage, the N2O emissions peaked at inconsistent times, a finding that may have been caused by the relatively low emission peak and low N2O concentration.

The dotted lines in figure indicate transplanting/sowing of each crop, while the dashed arrows indicate fertilization time. N0-no fertilizer N treatment; N1-low N application rate treatment (435 kg N ha -1); N2-conventional N application rate treatment (870 kg N ha -1); N3-high N application rate treatment (1305 kg N ha -1). The bars represent the standard error of the means (n = 3).

Cumulative N2O fluxes of treatments with different N application rates for each crop growing season fluctuated greatly from 5.6 to 89.7 kg N ha -1 (Fig 3, S3 Fig). When the different crops were compared, the lettuce growing season showed the lowest cumulative N2O emissions among all N application treatments (except for the N0 treatment), accounting for less than 8.0% of total emissions from the observation periods. In contrast, the highest cumulative N2O emission occurred during the sweet corn growing season, accounted for more than 46.1% of the total emissions (except for N0 treatment) during all four cropping seasons. This result was not only caused by the high level of N fertilization, but could also be partially attributed to the change in fertilization method to furrow application of the base fertilizer in sweet corn. Clearly, the trends cumulative N2O emissions among different treatments during the growing seasons of four species were almost similar. A significant difference in cumulative N2O emissions was observed between different N application levels in each growing season (N3 > N2 > N1 > N0), which indicated that N2O emissions in vegetable fields are strongly affected by fertilizer N input. Great N application input resulted in more N2O emission.

Different letters within each growing season indicated difference among treatments at P<0.05 level by Duncan’s new multiple range test. N0-no fertilizer N treatment; N1-low N application rate treatment (435 kg N ha-1); N2-conventional N application rate treatment (870 kg N ha-1); N3-high N application rate treatment (1305 kg N ha-1). The bars represent the standard error of the means (n = 3).

The addition of DCD and BC could effectively reduce seasonal N2O emission fluxes when compared with the N2 treatment (Fig 4, S4 Fig). N2O emission peaks of N2_DCD and N2_BC from four crop growing seasons were lower than that of N2 treatment.

The dotted lines in figure mean transplanting/sowing of each crop, although the dashed arrows mean fertilization incident. N0-no fertilizer N treatment; N2-conventional N application rate treatment (870 kg N ha-1); N2_DCD-conventional N application rate treatment plus 5% of DCD, N2_BC-conventional N application rate plus incorporated with 10 Mg ha−1 of BC.

Overall, when compared with the treatment using the same amount of N fertilizer, the N2_DCD and N2_BC treatments significantly decreased cumulative N2O emissions in the observation periods by 34.6% and 40.8%, respectively. The cumulative data showed that compared with the N2 treatment, cumulative N2O emissions from the N2_DCD treatment decreased by 42.8%, 61.8%, 54.0% and 25.7% in the endive, lettuce, cabbage and sweet corn growing seasons, respectively. Meanwhile, the N2_BC treatment resulted in decreased N2O emissions by 28.4%, 53.6%, 56.9% and 44.5% in comparison with the N2 treatment for the same four crop growing seasons. Interestingly, the effects of N2_DCD and N2_BC treatments on cumulative N2O were quite different during the crop seasons of four crops grown consecutively (Fig 5, S5 Fig). In the endive season, the N2_DCD treatment resulted in significantly reduced cumulative N2O emissions when compared with the N2_BC treatment. In the lettuce and cabbage seasons, no significant differences were observed between N2_DCD and N2_BC on the reduction of the cumulative N2O emissions. Until sweet corn season, the BC treatment resulted in significantly reduced cumulative N2O emissions when compared with the N2_DCD treatment. The results indicated that the effects of BC on N2O emission reduction became more and more obvious over time.

N0-no fertilizer N treatment; N2- conventional N application rate treatment (870 kg N ha-1); N2_DCD-conventional N application rate treatment plus 5% of DCD, N2_BC-conventional N application rate plus incorporated with 10 Mg ha−1 of BC.

The yield-scaled N2O emissions from different N application rates varied greatly with crops and N applications ranging from 8.2 to 593.6 g N2O-N kg−1 N (Fig 6, S6 Fig). The yield-scaled N2O emissions in endive and sweet corn seasons were relatively higher than those of lettuce and cabbage seasons, which had the same trend of cumulative N2O emissions. This may have occurred because of the variations of climate in different seasons and the differences of the production index. The yield-scaled N2O emissions in four consecutive growing seasons increased with an increase in the N application rate (Fig 6, S6 Fig). No significant difference in yield-scaled N2O emissions was observed between the N0 and N1 treatments in the first two vegetable growing seasons. However, a significant difference was observed in yield-scaled N2O emissions between N0 and N1 in the last two vegetable growing seasons. The N3 treatment resulted in significantly increased yield-scaled N2O emissions by 1.7%, 163.6%, 93.5% and 47.4% when compared with the N2 treatments. The results indicated that the continuous application of N fertilizer, especially for the high N fertilizer treatment, resulted in the risk of yield-scaled N2O emissions.

N0-no fertilizer N treatment; N1, low N application rate treatment (435 kg N ha-1); N2-conventional N application rate treatment (870 kg N ha-1); N3-high N application rate treatment (1305 kg N ha-1). The yield here refers to edible part of a vegetable in first three crops and aboveground biomass of sweet corn. Different letters indicate significantly difference between treatments at P<0.05 by Duncan’s new multiple range test.

The yield-scaled N2O emissions from DCD and BC also varied greatly among crops ranging from 8.7 to 583.9 g N2O-N kg−1 N (Fig 7, S7 Fig). Compared with the N2 treatment, the N2_DCD treatment resulted in significantly decreased the yield-scaled N2O emissions by 48.1%, 61.4%, 56.5% and 17.6% in endive, lettuce, cabbage and sweet corn, respectively. Similarly, the application of the BC treatment also resulted in significantly reduced the yield-scaled N2O emissions by 42.2%, 56.8%, 55.0% and 28.7% in the same four crops, respectively. On average, the DCD and BC treatments resulted in decreased yield-scaled N2O-N emissions by 45.9% and 45.7% when compared with the N2 treatment, which indicated that the effects of the nitrification inhibitor (DCD) and BC on N2O emission reduction under the conditions of this experiment were quite remarkable, and the effects of BC on N2O emission reduction was better than DCD to some extent, particularly in the late crops of the test.

N0-no fertilizer N treatment; N2-conventional N application rate treatment (870 kg N ha-1); N2_DCD-conventional N application rate treatment plus 5% of DCD, N2_BC-conventional N application rate plus incorporated with 10 Mg ha−1 of BC. The yield here refers to edible part of a vegetable in first three crops and aboveground biomass of sweet corn. Different letters indicate significantly difference between treatments at P<0.05 by Duncan’s new multiple range test.

Nitrogen fertilization markedly influenced the soil N2O emission, although the effects of N fertilization were quite different in terms of nitrogen applications rates and types, crops, and seasons [19]. Both fertilization and plant types significantly altered N2O emission [20]. Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact. A change from 75 to 50 kg N hm-2 reduced the GWP per hm-2 by 18% [21]. It is usually assumed that N2O emissions will increase with an increase in the N application rate [22]. Conversely, some studies have reported that there was a nonlinear response of N2O emission to incremental additions of N fertilizer [23], and the N2O emissions exhibited the same seasonal pattern whatever the treatment and the type of crop had little impact on the level of N2O emission [24]. In this study, N2O emissions were linearly associated with the N application rate. When considering the four consecutive crops studied here, seasonal N2O emissions had strong positive correlations with N application rates for each growing season (Fig 8A, S8 Fig) and the four cropping seasons (r = 0.8878**, p<0.0001, n = 16) (Fig 8B, S8 Fig). Besides, significant difference in cumulative N2O emissions was found among crop types, which mainly attributed to the influence of soil mineral N content and temperature factor. What’s more, the residual mineral nitrogen in the vegetable fields was also closely associated with the N application rate for each growing season (Fig 8C, S8 Fig) and four cropping seasons (r = 0.7745**, p = 0.0004, n = 16) (Fig 8D, S8 Fig).

E-Endive, L-Lettuce, C-Cabbage and S-Sweet corn. Nmin-soil mineral nitrogen, the sum of NO3-N and NH4+-N. a and b indicate a significant relationship exists between N application rate and N2O emissions in each growing season and in four consecutive seasons, respectively, c and d mean a significant correlation exists between N2O emissions and Nmin in each growing season and in four consecutive seasons, respectively.

The application of nitrification inhibitors in agricultural soils is considered to be a promising approach for increasing N use efficiency and reducing N2O emissions to the environment [25]. The structure of DCD contains similar amino and imino functional groups in the NH3 structure, and this structure results in DCD in the form of substrate competition to disturb the use of ammonia oxidation on the substrate, thereby inhibiting the nitrification [26]. DCD had the most significant effect in reducing N2O emissions under the highest nitrogen application rate, and a higher rate of DCD will be more effective in reducing N2O emission [22, 27]. BC is widely used in soil improvement and allows for a reduction in carbon emissions because of its special functions and characteristics. The addition of BC into agricultural soils significantly increased soil total N, soil organic C and vegetable yield [28]. In this study, the results showed that both DCD and BC materials could effectively mitigate N2O emission fluxes and cumulative N2O emissions although the reduction mechanisms might be different for these two materials. The effects of DCD on reducing N2O emissions may attribute to the significant reduced the AOB amoA gene copy numbers especially with high nitrogen application rates [22]. However, the mechanism for N2O emission reduction of BC lies in how it affects many of the soil biogeochemical processes involved with the changes in organic carbon, nitrogen and enzymatic activities [29]. Unlike the DCD treatment, BC did not limit the availability of inorganic nitrogen to nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria; thus, the supply of ammonium and nitrate ions in the soil could not reveal inhibition of N2O emissions [30]. We also found no significant difference between the N2_BC treatment and conventional treatment in vegetable yields (data not shown). BC treatment significantly reduced accumulation of N2O emissions and yield-scaled N2O-N emissions, and this was beneficial for enhancing nitrogen use efficiency and reducing N loss caused by N2O release.

Soil moisture, air temperature and N application significantly affected N2O emissions [3132]. In addition, the N2O emissions increase when soil pH decreases, and the addition of DCD resulted in a significant decrease in total N2O emissions in the acid condition and decreased peak N2O emissions in all pH treatments [33]. High content of soil available nitrogen, especially for ammonium nitrogen, caused higher N2O emissions of vegetables when compared with winter wheat fields [3435]. The N2O emissions from soil with ammonium nitrogen fertilizer application were relatively higher than soil with nitrate nitrogen fertilizer application [36]. The present study also found an obvious correlation between peak N2O emissions and ammonium nitrogen content. The peak N2O emissions usually occurred within two weeks after the highest content of soil ammonium nitrogen (Fig 9, S9 Fig). The result indicated that an abundant accumulation of ammonium ions more likely resulted in an increase in loss of nitrous oxide gas from vegetable fields. Soil N2O emission flux and its source was closely related with the dynamic change of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate content in soil [37]. However, the WFPS in this study showed no significant correlation with N2O emissions.

N0-no fertilizer N treatment; N1-low N application rate treatment (435 kg N ha-1); N2-conventional N application rate treatment (870 kg N ha-1); N3-high N application rate treatment (1305 kg N ha-1).

In general, yield-scaled greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions provide a valuable measure for assessing the ability of management to mitigate emission without affecting by interaction management on crop productivity compared to area basis emission [38]. Therefore, the yield-scaled N2O emission can serve as an indicator to express N2O emissions in relation to crop productivity by calculating the N2O emissions per unit aboveground N uptake [18]. Yield-scaled N2O emissions changed greatly with the plantation crop species and different fertilization treatments. Besides, yield-scaled N2O emissions varied widely in agricultural soils, a level of variation that is caused by many factors, such as N source, climate, cropping system and sites [3940]. Burzaco et al. [41] showed that yield-scaled N2O-N emissions increased with N application rates. In this study, the yield-scaled N2O emissions from the intensively fertilized vegetable fields were 8.2%–593.6%. These percentages were extremely higher than other reports and may have been partially caused by the high rates of precipitation, high temperatures, concentrated cultivated pattern and so on. The total N2O emissions from treatments in this study ranged from 32.3 to 89.7 kg N hm-2, accounting for 4.8% -7.4% of the total nitrogen input. The results of the present study indicated that emissions from vegetable fields are important potential sources of China’s N2O inventory. However, large uncertainties existed in the estimation of direct N2O emissions and background emissions of N2O from vegetable fields because different cropping systems have different emission characteristics, especially for these intensively managed vegetable fields. It also showed that yield-scaled N2O emissions were 22% lower with nitrapyrin than without the inhibitor at the same level of N fertilizer, but these did not interact with N rate or timing [41]. The result of this study also showed a significant reduction in yield-scaled N2O-N emissions with nitrification inhibitor and biochar treatment by 45.9% and 45.7% respectively compared with N2 treatment. The response of yield-scaled N2O-N emissions to fertilizer N addition was positive while to the addition of DCD and BC was negative, which mainly caused by the rate of increase in N2O emission comparison to aboveground N uptake. Therefore, minimizing yield-scaled N2O-N emissions could be realized by optimizing N application rates with high yields.

In the present study, N2O emissions were linearly associated with the N application rate in vegetable fields. The N2O emissions occurred in pulses and the peak of N2O emissions varied greatly with crops and treatments. The peak value of N2O emissions increased with an increase in the N application rate. The total N2O emissions from treatments in this study ranged from 32.3 to 89.7 kg N hm−2, accounting for 4.8%–7.4% of the total nitrogen input. This finding indicated that emissions from vegetable fields are important potential sources of N2O emissions in China. Compared with the same amount of N fertilizer treatment, N2_DCD and N2_BC treatment significantly decreased cumulative N2O emissions by 34.6% and 40.8%, respectively. These results indicated that BC was better at reducing N2O emissions than DCD, particularly in the late growth stage of the four crops tested here. Yield-scaled N2O emissions varied greatly with crops under different N level treatments. Overall, this study provides insights for the effective technical measure related to inhibiting N2O emissions under field conditions in southern China. In addition, the yield-scaled N2O emissions also could be regarded as an environment parameter that can be used to evaluate N2O emission potential or calculate the N2O inventory. Furthermore, N management strategies also should be adjusted to enhance the efficiency of fertilizer use and provide for vegetable production without sacrificing yield and without the increasing N2O emissions. However, further study should be considered on the economic effects of controlling N2O emissions with the goal of providing environment friendly sustainable development.

We sincerely appreciate the editors and anonymous reviews for their critical and valuable comments to help improve this manuscript. Thanks come to my colleagues and field staff for their efforts.

  1. Conceptualization: QY SHT.
  2. Data curation: QY SHT MZ.
  3. Funding acquisition: QY SHT.
  4. Investigation: QY XH QYH.
  5. Methodology: QY SHT XLF.
  6. Project administration: SHT QY YWP.
  7. Writing – original draft: QY.
  8. Writing – review & editing: SHT XLF.

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Activating/ Charging Biochar

18 April, 2017
 


DENR has a new enterprise for the mining host communities. Biochar! Megachar!

18 April, 2017
 

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Biochar can't be used fresh. I hope they took note of that. You need to kind of "let it brew" for a few weeks before you can safely put it in soil.


biochar

18 April, 2017
 

Delicious cashews do in fact just grow on trees, but they require some work to get to the final product! Our innovative, carbon-neutral pracDilmah’s Carbon Neutral journey saw several noteworthy projects being implemented. The #Biochar Production and #Bioremediation - a researcYou are a result of what you eat, think and do...JJF is a fully dedicated athlete and does everything he can to help his body recover and he


Where to get Peat Moss and Biochar

18 April, 2017
 

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Like the diy biochar, but in my case … not quite feasible. 

 

 

itchy … looking through my notes, I found a really helpful guide I think you posted for quantities of water needed to wet peat … I read that you may have used NZ peat moss before. If I’ve got it right … have you noticed any difference between the NZ, Lithuanian and Canadian? 

i’ve used kiwi peat , which i can’t get anymore , haven’t used canadian but they say the canadian is the one to use 

i went with lithuanian cos i could choose the grade of peat , fine to coarse , 4 in total , from memory 

 

using the kiwi peat which was a fine grade i found 8lt of dry peat & 4lt of water gave you around 14lt of fluffed up hydrated peat 

 

Just wondering where everyone gets their peat moss and biochar from.

“Either you repeat the same conventional doctrines everybody is saying, or else you say something true, and it will sound like it’s from Neptune.”     Noam Chomsky

 

Just wondering where everyone gets their peat moss and biochar from.

 

last lot of peat i got was https://www.petandga…-200-litre.html

look round you’ll get it cheaper , can’t remember the importer but that’s were i got mine from , cheaper & had diff grades of peat 

 

Canadian spag peat moss  http://www.duralite.com.au/peat-moss/ was going to get this but went with the above 

 

bio-char pretty much in most places , few on ebay , cheaper to buy non activated & activate yourself by mixing with castings or 

compost & letting that sit for 2 weeks = activated , or get some fish hydrolysate opposed to fish emulsion , make a water mix by

the directions on the bottle add to the char & your activated , wet but activated 

 

if you don’t need to make a soil mix asap do the sitting in castings/compost for 2 week just work out your amounts before hand

if you need to mix asap use the fish method but remember it’s wet & your trying to evenly mix though , it will but might require more effort

 

but you have to activate the char B4 it go’s in any mix otherwise it’ll be sucking nutes faster than a plant can get at them

 

hope that helps P 

Farm supplies /produce stores will order it or nursery outlets

 

Bio char make your own

 

http://www.instructa…nd-Terra-Preta/

Farm supplies /produce stores will order it or nursery outlets

 

Bio char make your own

 

http://www.instructa…nd-Terra-Preta/

yeah , keep all your canna stems , canna biochar 

 

Like the diy biochar, but in my case … not quite feasible. 

 

 

itchy … looking through my notes, I found a really helpful guide I think you posted for quantities of water needed to wet peat … I read that you may have used NZ peat moss before. If I’ve got it right … have you noticed any difference between the NZ, Lithuanian and Canadian? 

 

Like the diy biochar, but in my case … not quite feasible. 

 

 

itchy … looking through my notes, I found a really helpful guide I think you posted for quantities of water needed to wet peat … I read that you may have used NZ peat moss before. If I’ve got it right … have you noticed any difference between the NZ, Lithuanian and Canadian? 

i’ve used kiwi peat , which i can’t get anymore , haven’t used canadian but they say the canadian is the one to use 

i went with lithuanian cos i could choose the grade of peat , fine to coarse , 4 in total , from memory 

 

using the kiwi peat which was a fine grade i found 8lt of dry peat & 4lt of water gave you around 14lt of fluffed up hydrated peat 

Is Legro blonde peat moss any good,

they make a few products, anyone using them

Is Legro blonde peat moss any good,

they make a few products, anyone using them

never used them but was looking at them the last time i brought peat 

i can’t remember why i didn’t try them out , maybe you could only buy 

by the pallet load or something , not sure 

 

looks like the forum has a new feature.


Bio char research papers

18 April, 2017
 

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Als throw 10 kg fur 7

18 April, 2017
 

Biochar, a highly porous material produced from plant waste, is mostly used in agriculture as a soil conditioner, in livestock farming as a feed supplement, and in metalworking as a reducing agent. The latest developments at the Ithaka Institute are now focusing on its use as a building material.

As als throw 10 kg fur 7 as having excellent insulating properties, improving air quality, being able to soak up moisture and protect from radiation, biochar also allows buildings to be turned into carbon sinks. Dies geschieht mittels sogenannter Pyrolyseverfahren in einem kontinuierlichen, technisch kontrollierten Prozess, der ohne Zufuhr externer Energie abläuft.

Das dabei entstehende Material als throw 10 kg fur 7 spezifische, sich auf unzählige Nano- Mikro- und Mesoporen прав wie man Gewicht in den Bauch und Taille fur 3 Tage verlieren одна Oberflächen von über m2 pro Gramm auf. Die Fähigkeit, als throw 10 kg fur 7 diesen Poren sehr wirksam Wasser zu speichern, macht die Pflanzenkohle zu einem effizienten Feuchtigkeitspuffer.

The process used is called pyrolysis. The resultant material is characterised by high specific surfaces of more als throw 10 kg fur 7 m2 per gram, als throw 10 kg fur 7 over countless nano- micro-and meso-pores. The ability of these pores to store water makes biochar a very efficient medium for storing moisture.

The pores also trap large quantities of practically immobile air; with the result that biochar constitutes one of the best currently known insulation materials. The building of the Ithaka Institute in Switzerland was the als throw 10 kg fur 7 to be restored using biochar plaster.

These properties mean that biochar is just the right material for insulating buildings and regulating humidity. This prevents not only that the air inside the rooms become too dry which is a potential cause of respiratory problems and allergies, but prevents also condensation from forming around thermal bridges and on outside walls which would lead to the formation of mold.

Biochar can be applied to the outside walls of a building using standard plaster spraying or rendering equipment. Applied at a thickness of up to 20 cm, it can be a substitute for Styrofoam. Through the use of biochar-based insulation material, houses can become very long-term carbon sinks, while at the same time providing a healthier indoor climate. And should such a house be demolished at a later date, the biochar-clay or biochar-lime plaster can be directly used as a compost supplement, thus continuing the carbon cycle in a natural way.

This web page biochar-clay plasters adsorb smells and toxins, a welcome property in kitchens and for smokers.

Alongside their als throw 10 kg fur 7 in housing, biochar-mud plasters are particularly suited for warehouses, factories and agricultural buildings as well as in schools, universities, hospitals and other rooms frequented by many people. In addition, biochar is a very efficient absorber of electromagnetic als throw 10 kg fur 7 resulting from the use of both wireless technology and mains electricity.

This mixture can be used both for spray plastering and for conventional throw-on techniques. Finely ground char should just click for source used for the top layer.

The result is an anthracite-coloured plaster source a very noble, slightly shimmering appearance. Such plaster is easy to apply, using all conventional plastering methods. Compared to lime- or cement-based plasters, the biochar-clay mixture is not irritating to the skin of those applying it, meaning that gloves and protective clothing are not needed.

Biochar can be mixed with conventional lime and cement plasters using the same ratio, and similarly used as an exterior coating. Here as well, such plaster provides good insulation, though its moisture storage capacity is reduced through the sealing of the top surface. However for plaster used als throw 10 kg fur 7, mud is als throw 10 kg fur 7 recommended base material for achieving an optimal indoor climate.

The first buildings built or refurbished using this method include a wine cellar in Valais Switzerland and the seminar rooms and offices of the Ithaka Institute. The walls of an old Valais wine cellar were sprayed with a 10 cm thick layer of clay and biochar. This massive wall coating provides not only good thermal insulation and consequently lower please click for source fluctuation, but is also a great humidity regulator.

At higher humidity levels, the walls quickly adsorb moisture, returning it to the room just as quickly when humidity levels drop. While too high a level of humidity promotes the development of harmful microbes, too low a level is also not desirable, as it als throw 10 kg fur 7 to particulate pollution, electrostatic charging of the air and the evaporation of wine in wooden barrels.

Thanks to its huge surface and porosity, the biochar in the mud plaster helps adsorb contaminants, spores and mycotoxins as well as helping to bind the gases produced during vinification. The latter aspect means that the molds and other bacteria lose their feeding grounds.

Optimal humidity and the binding of toxins are perfect for promoting healthy microflora in the cellar, protecting the wine against sensory faults. The biochar-mud plaster technology developed by the Ithaka Institute to refurbish wine cellars can also be article source for other rooms, such as food stores, animal housing or warehouses, as well as in homes, libraries, meeting rooms and schools.

In homes and offices an optimal humidity level has a great influence on the comfort and health of people spending long hours in such rooms. Office of the Ithaka Institute.

The white wall is made of als throw 10 kg fur 7 7 cm biochar-clay plaster including tubes for wall heating. Biochar-mud als throw 10 kg fur 7 can also be applied to walls made of plasterboard, as well as being used in more massive walls or for plastering over a wall heating system.

It is well suited for timber-framed walls as the biochar—clay excels in wood conservation. First tests to produce biochar bricks using cement, lime or mud as a binder are very promising. With wet bulk densities under 1. When using cement and lime, sand can be completely replaced by biochar reducing the weight of the material by factor 5 see picture with the swimming bricks. The biochar bricks are so light and aery that they swim.

This means that whole cities could become carbon sinks and, at the end of several centuries, returned to nature in the form of compost. Instead of having to use special landfill sites for getting rid of contaminated building materials, we could be seeing tomatoes and potatoes growing on the remains of demolished houses.

The photosynthetic performance of cities can easily be increased by a factor of ten. Cities can start producing and storing carbon, with the latent warmth in the water absorbed and evaporated by plants being used to provide cooling for overheated city walls.

Why not smart C3S: Carbon Capture City Storage. Als throw 10 kg fur 7 continue to work on optimizing both the product and the application methods and are developing different demonstration projects in Europe, North American and the developing world.

Our intention is to identify partners in the green building materials industry to help deploy this exciting new material and to pair them with local or regional biochar producers to ensure appropriate biochar quality and to support the biochar industry as a whole in a sustainable manner.

For enquiries about partnering on demonstration projects or rolling out our biochar based construction materials and methods, please contact the Ithaka Institute. Inthe fundamental law concerning the establishment of a recycling social system was enacted in Japan, and it was required to reuse any wastes as much as possible.

The incineration of waste woods was particularly prohibited in order to reduce the discharge of CO2 and dioxin. The total amount of waste woods mainly from construction has reached to 4. Therefore, some construction companies have switched from incineration to carbonization and intended to use the charcoal not only in agriculture but also for the humidity control of houses and buildings, because it is necessary to reduce the high humidity of buildings in Japan.

The function of charcoal for humidity control was studied intensively several decades ago 1 2. Recently the construction companies have begun to spread the charcoal bag not only over the under floor but also above the ceiling 3. Meanwhile it was also reported that the treatment was efficient to reduce asthma and atopic dermatitis by diminishing the population of molds and ticks 4 als throw 10 kg fur 7. With the development of charcoal utilization, carbonization technology is developing click the simple kiln to the automatic mass production facilities.

The newly devised carbonizers including various kinds of movable batch type kiln, rotary kiln, swing kiln and etc has been sold for the mass production of waste wood charcoal. In some cases the extra gas has been used for thermal electric power generation. At the same time, the studies to establish the industrial standards and function als throw 10 kg fur 7 carbonized materials have started, and the charcoal industry begins to be renewed in the 21st century.

Thanks to the Japanese Biochar Association 2 Abe I. Seikatu Eisei 39 6 : in Japanese 3 Kitamura T. Proceedings of 35th Annual Meeting of Japanese Society for Dermatoallergology: Allergy 55 3, 4 : Tags: Baumaterialbiochar building materialbiochar plasterbiochar-claycarbon intelligent cityclimate positive buildingklimaneutrales BauenLehmputzNutzung von PflanzenkohlePflanzenkohleSInk CityWandheizung.

Way to cite: Journal for terrior-wine and biodiversity,ISSN This entry was posted on Friday, November 15th, at see more, Nov and is filed under climate-farming. Sehr geehrte Большинство Abnehmen wirksam Apotheke никого und Herren, sehr aufmerksam habe ich Ihren Beitrag mit Lehmputz und Pflanzenkohle gelesen.

Ich bin seit 25 Jahren Lehmbauer wie schnell Gewicht zu verlieren, was Leidenschaft, wo könnte ich den solche Planzenkohle bekommen und was würde diese kosten.

Also je nach pyrolyse:. Ein drittel des im Holz gebundenen Kohlenstoffs ca. Wenn dies energetisch genutzt wird Wärme und Verstromung können fossile Brennstoffe mit einem CO2equ von etwa t kompensiert Gewicht mit einer Klammer zu verlieren. Syngasnutzung stimmt die eine Tonne CO2 also relativ gut. Wie sieht den die Rezeptur zu den versuchen von Pflanzenkohle-Ziegel und Beton aus?

Wirken eingeschlossene Stoffe der Kohle wie Wasserstoff und Schwefel nicht auf Betob zersetzend? Da ich im Ausland Häuser aus Lehm und Beton bauen möchte würde mich das Bauen mit einer Isolierenden Beton-Pflanzenkohlemischung sehr interessieren. Natürlich auch mit Pflanzenkohleziegel. Wir haben verschiedene Mischungen versucht und sind noch am Ausmessen.

Wenn die Kohle entsprechend fein gemahlen ist, können Sie für Ziegel den gesamten Sand durch das gleiche Volumen an Kohle ersetzen, also 1 Teil Der Apotheke in Preis Gruner Schlankheits-Kaffee zu 3 Teilen Kohle.

Wahlweise können Sie auch 1 Teil Zement zu 2 Teilen Sand und 1 Teil Kohle verwenden. Für Beton entsprechend mit den Anteilen an Gribkies anpassen. Gibt es da eigenen Fabriken?

Hat da jemand Patente? Wieviel Energie ist notwenig zur Herrstellung? Für die Herstellung von Pflanzenkohle gibt es einige zertifizierte Produktionsstätten z. Mit den beiden Veröffentlichungen im Ithaka Journal sollte die grundlegende Technik des Einsatzes von Pflanzenkohle als Baumaterial nicht mehr patentiert werden können, spezielle Mischungen als throw 10 kg fur 7 Anwendungen natürlich schon. In Asien gibt es einige Patente. Die Herstellung von Pflanzenkohle ist energieautonom, es wird also nur die in der Biomasse gespeicherte Energie gebraucht.

Als Ausgangsstoff können sämtliche pflanzlichen Stoffe verwendet werden. Wir sollten im Laufe des Jahres genügend Testresultate haben, um auch im Aussenbereich die Pflanzenkohle sicher zum Einsatz zu bringen.

Besten Dank und Gruss, hp Wäre sehr erfreut, zu wissen, wenn diesbezüglich verwertbare Daten Isolierwerte etc. Habe ich es richtig verstanden, dass sich ein Pflanzenkohle-Lehm-Putz auch zur Dämmung von Innenräumen eignet?

Innenraumdämmung ist ja gewöhnlich aufwändiger, wenn man Schwachstellen und Schimmelbildung vermeiden möchte. Ja, das funktioniert hervorragend für Innenräume. Der Einbau von Dampfbremsen aus Kunststoff erübrigt sich damit. Bei Verwendung von Zement würde der Feuchtigkeitstransport verhindert, insofern eignet sich Kalk besser. Wir arbeiten dran, um auch die entsprechenden bautechnischen Messungen zu präsentieren. Grüsse, hp Gibt es schon Versuche mit Fasern, Pflanzenkohle und Bindemittel?

Mail will not be published required. A dead rat, nicely buried in a cigar box so as to be surrounded at all points by an inch of charcoal powder, decays to bone and fur without manifesting any odor of putrefaction, so that it might stand on a parlor table and not reveal its contents to the most sensitive nostrils.

UnknownAuthor, The Garden, The use of biochar as building material — cities as carbon sinks. Lecture room at the Ithaka Institute. A biochar wall does not need to be black. Clay colors can even turn it into white. Wine cellar down under the Ithaka Institute.

Positive effects of biochar plaster. November um Uhr. Danke für die Angaben. December um Uhr. January um Uhr. Wird hier in Berlin leider an fast jeder Ecke gemacht. Beste Wünsche und danke im voraus für entsprechende Infos. Besten Dank und Gruss, hp. Dann will ich das im Rahmen meiner Möglichkeiten hier gerne promoten. February um Uhr. April um Uhr. June um Uhr.

Mail will not be published required. UnknownAuthor, Als throw 10 kg fur 7 Garden, Biochar — a key technology for the planet Das derzeitige Ungleichgewicht im globalen Kohlenstoff- und Stickstoffkreislauf Biochar as Building Material for Optimal Indoor Climate Just click for source Klima eines Weinkellers hat eine bisher weithin unterschätzte 55 Uses of Biochar Längst ist die Anwendung von Pflanzenkohle nicht mehr nur auf die Landwirtschaft beschränkt.

In immer Ways of Making Terra Preta: Biochar Activation Pflanzenkohle ist kein Dünger, sondern vor allem ein Trägermittel für Nährstoffe World CHARdays Das Ithaka-Institut lanciert ein globales Pflanzenkohle-Event. Weltweit sind Landwirte, Gärtner, Schulen, Biodiversität, Ökologie und Klimafarming Naturweine des Delinat-Instituts Begrünung.

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DENR wants biochar to rehabilitate mine sites

18 April, 2017
 

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) pushes for the use of biochar as one of the programs to rehabilitate mine sites. — Business Nightly, ANC, April 18, 2017

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Global Biochar Market 2017 Industry Survey Report, Challenges, Forecast 2022, Trend, Growth

18 April, 2017
 

The Global Biochar Market 2017-2022 report by QY Research offers a comprehensive assessment of the Biochar market and consists of historical data, scope, significant approaches, and statistical data of the global market. Besides these, it also includes anticipated facts that are assessed with the aid of an appropriate set of postulations and techniques.

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DENR wants biochar to rehabilitate mine sites

19 April, 2017
 

Article source: http://news.abs-cbn.com/video/business/04/18/17/denr-wants-biochar-to-rehabilitate-mine-sites

This author has not added a biography. Meanwhile Times of News has contributed 17209 posts. Click here to view them.


thesis on biochar

19 April, 2017
 

SMF – Just Installed!


Global Biochar Sales Market Report 2017 by Application, Type and Players to 2022

19 April, 2017
 

MarketResearchNest.com adds ‘’Global Biochar Sales Market Report 2017’’New report to its research database. The report spread across 124 pages with table and figures in it.

Geographically, this report split global into several key Regions, with sales (MT), revenue (Million USD), market share and growth rate of Biochar for these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering

United States

China

Europe

Japan

Southeast Asia

India

 

Global Biochar market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Biochar sales volume, Price (USD/MT), revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including

Diacarbon Energy

Agri-Tech Producers

Biochar Now

Carbon Gold

Kina

The Biochar Company

Swiss Biochar GmbH

ElementC6

BioChar Products

BlackCarbon

Cool Planet

Carbon Terra

Pacific Biochar

Vega Biofuels

Liaoning Jinhefu Group

Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy

Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology

Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)

Sonnenerde

Biokol

ECOSUS

Terra Humana

Verora

 

Browse full table of contents and data tables at https://www.marketresearchnest.com/global-biochar-sales-market-report-2017.html

 

On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume (MT), revenue (Million USD), product price (USD/MT), market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into

Wood Stover Source Biochar

Corn Stover Source Biochar

Rice Stover Source Biochar

Wheat Stover Source Biochar

Other Source Biochar

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Biochar for each application, including

Soil Conditioner

Fertilizer

Others

 

 Order a Purchase Report Copy https://www.marketresearchnest.com/purchase.php?reportid=180365

 

Major Points in Table of Contents

 

2 Global Biochar Competition by Players/Suppliers, Type and Application
2.1 Global Biochar Market Competition by Players/Suppliers
2.1.1 Global Biochar Sales and Market Share of Key Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.1.2 Global Biochar Revenue and Share by Players/Suppliers (2012-2017)
2.2 Global Biochar (Volume and Value) by Type
2.2.1 Global Biochar Sales and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
2.2.2 Global Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
2.3 Global Biochar (Volume and Value) by Region
2.3.1 Global Biochar Sales and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
2.3.2 Global Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Region (2012-2017)
2.4 Global Biochar (Volume) by Application

3 United States Biochar (Volume, Value and Sales Price)
3.1 United States Biochar Sales and Value (2012-2017)
3.1.1 United States Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2012-2017)
3.1.2 United States Biochar Revenue and Growth Rate (2012-2017)
3.1.3 United States Biochar Sales Price Trend (2012-2017)
3.2 United States Biochar Sales Volume and Market Share by Players
3.3 United States Biochar Sales Volume and Market Share by Type
3.4 United States Biochar Sales Volume and Market Share by Application

4 China Biochar (Volume, Value and Sales Price)
4.1 China Biochar Sales and Value (2012-2017)
4.1.1 China Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2012-2017)
4.1.2 China Biochar Revenue and Growth Rate (2012-2017)
4.1.3 China Biochar Sales Price Trend (2012-2017)
4.2 China Biochar Sales Volume and Market Share by Players
4.3 China Biochar Sales Volume and Market Share by Type
4.4 China Biochar Sales Volume and Market Share by Application

5 Europe Biochar (Volume, Value and Sales Price)
5.1 Europe Biochar Sales and Value (2012-2017)
5.1.1 Europe Biochar Sales and Growth Rate (2012-2017)
5.1.2 Europe Biochar Revenue and Growth Rate (2012-2017)
5.1.3 Europe Biochar Sales Price Trend (2012-2017)
5.2 Europe Biochar Sales Volume and Market Share by Players
5.3 Europe Biochar Sales Volume and Market Share by Type
5.4 Europe Biochar Sales Volume and Market Share by Application

Request a sample copy at https://www.marketresearchnest.com/requestsample.php?reportid=180365

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Global Biochar Market Research Report Forecast 2017 Analysis and Forecasts to 2022

19 April, 2017
 

 

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Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of Biochar in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
Southeast Asia
India
Global Biochar market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer; the top players including
Diacarbon Energy
Agri-Tech Producers
Biochar Now
Carbon Gold
Kina
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
ElementC6
BioChar Products
BlackCarbon
Cool Planet
Carbon Terra
Pacific Biochar
Vega Biofuels
Liaoning Jinhefu Group
Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy
Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology
Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)
Sonnenerde
Biokol
ECOSUS
Terra Humana
Verora

 

Browse full table of contents and data tables at https://www.marketresearchnest.com/global-biochar-market-research-report-2017.html

 

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Wood Stover Source Biochar
Corn Stover Source Biochar
Rice Stover Source Biochar
Wheat Stover Source Biochar
Other Source Biochar
On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate of Biochar for each application, including
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others
Order a Purchase Report Copy at https://www.marketresearchnest.com/purchase.php?reportid=179293

 

Major Points in Table of content

 

1 Industry Overview of Biochar

 

2 Industry Chain Analysis of Biochar

 

3 Manufacturing Technology of Biochar

 

4 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Biochar

 

5 Global Production, Revenue and Price Analysis of Biochar by Regions, Manufacturers, Types and Applications

 

6 Global and Major Regions Capacity, Production, Revenue and Growth Rate of Biochar 2012-2017

 

7 Consumption Volume, Consumption Value, Import, Export and Sale Price Analysis of Biochar by Regions

 

8 Gross and Gross Margin Analysis of Biochar

 

9 Marketing Trader or Distributor Analysis of Biochar

 

10 Global and Chinese Economic Impact on Biochar Industry

 

11 Development Trend Analysis of Biochar

 

12 Contact information of Biochar

 

13 New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Biochar

 

14 Conclusion of the Global Biochar Industry 2017 Market Research ReportList of Tables

 

Request a sample copy at  https://www.marketresearchnest.com/requestsample.php?reportid=179293

 

About Us:

MarketResearchNest.com is the most comprehensive collection of market research products and service Biochar on the Web. We offer reports from almost all top publishers and update our collection on daily basis to provide you with instant online access to the world’s most complete and recent database of expert insights on global industries, organizations, products, and trends.

 

Contact Us         

Mr. Jeet Jain

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2017 Forecast – Biochar Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share,Growth and Comparison of …

19 April, 2017
 

Overview

The report on the Global Biochar Market 2016 gives the overall description of the Biochar market across the globe. The current trends along with their influence are mentioned in the report. The data available in the report are examined and analysed by the industrial experts. The key factors that affect the market in positive way are mentioned in this report. Along with this, the factors that restrain the growth of the Biochar market are also mentioned. The growing opportunities that will help in grooming the market are described briefly. The challenges that the Biochar market will face in the coming years are noted in this report.

What report provides?

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In a nutshell

 

The report contains many information and numerical data. All this information within the report are represented with the help of graphs, pie charts, and pictorial diagrammatic representations. This type of representation helps the readers to understand the information provided more clearly. The validation of the data was validated using advanced methods and technology. Both top-down approach and bottom-up methods were used along with SWOT analysis. The report concludes with development trend analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis.

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Sec. Gina inaugurates Biochar project in Surigao

19 April, 2017
 

Denr secretary regina l. lopez has inaugurated the first Biochar Enterprise project of the communities in surigao del sur which is expected to relieve the retrenched workers of the mining company  following the suspension order of DENR Secretary Regina L. Lopez.

The inauguration   was held at the Ecopark in Barangay Hayanggabon in Claver, Surigao del Norte shortly after Secretary arrived at the area past 3 pm via a helicopter 

The participants of the Training on BioChar production witness the actual process of generating liquid smoke and raw biochar during their hands-on training at Ecopark.(Read More..)

Participants of the Training on BioChar Production at Ecopark, Barangay Hayanggabon, Claver, Surigao del Norte..(Read More…)

DENR pushes for Green Economy Model through the conduct of Training on BioChar production at Ecopark, Brgy.Hayanggabon, Claver, Surigao del Norte.(Read More...)

The DENR Assistant Secretary for Field Operations-Mindanao Atty. Michelle Angelica Go explains the Green Economy Model (GEM)..(Read More..)

Asec for Field Operations-Mindanao Atty. Michelle Angelica D. Go (2nd from Left)  and DENR CARAGA Top Officials..(Read More..)

DENR ASEC for Field Operations-Mindanao Atty. Michelle Go briefs DENR Caraga officials and employees of the paradigm shift of the DENR..(Read More..)

DENR Caraga OIC, Regional Director Charlie E. Fabre, Ph.D. delivered a lecture during the Usapang Dagat..(Read More..)

CHARLIE E. FABRE, Ph.D.
OIC, Regional Director

        Hotline for Field Offices

Caraga Total Land Area-1,913,842


biochar project industries

19 April, 2017
 

201354- Biochar Industries Kyogle Road Kunghur, Kunghur New South Wales the Biochar Project Australia will be hosting a day of discovery on the

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2013913-An applied research project being undertaken at Collège Boréal could enhance the way regreening is done in Sudbury , while creating opport

2011718-Biochar size matters Melanie Bennet, PhD Student talks from the heart about biochar industries she is at John Innes Centre University of Eas

biochar project kunghur is home to the most exciting biochar guru. Charmaster Dolph Cooke. we care for the planet and create biochar

Biochar Industries in Kunghur NSW Australia was the setting for this James Cook University in Australia are working on a research project where

Explore Eco At Home's board "Biochar" on Pinterest, a visual bookmarking tool that helps you discover and save creative ideas | See more about Electron

201313-Biochar Industries is the name we use for our community cooperation sustainable Industry project. Let me try and give you a quick summary of

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Especially in palm oil industries, product biochar (charcoal) will have aPlease Send the Quotation ASAP, there are 2 project aligned already of

This is a short user guide for the Biochar project Australia Stumpy combonation tlud rocket stove. You can buy them at biocharindustries.comwatch

201668-Global Biochar Industry 2016 Market Research Report provide the details about Industry Overview and analysis about Manufacturing Cost Struct

The NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI) tested a range of said the project  tested different types of biochar in different soils

biochar research from Australia’s Primary Industries Science and Research Biochar Project: Australia. Charmaster Dolph Cooke shares his years of

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This collaborative project between the NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSWbiochar. To address this question, Dr Bhupinderpal Singh has begun a long

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The federal government today announced $1.4 million for the biggest biochar research project in Australia’s history – and one of the biggest in the

German viticulture biochar project using an Australian design Black is Greenmanagement and mining, and works as a consultant to Transpacific Industries

2014825-recent trends and growth in the biochar industry.and project aspects by Transparency Market Research, Diacarbon Energy Inc and Genesis


Desmog: Introducing Biochar: Climate Change Solution or Greenwash Nightmare?

19 April, 2017
 

“Momentum on biochar as a climate salvation, for now, has reached a relative standstill. But the industry has already written the playbook for pushing its product, and should that momentum turn around in the months and years ahead, the biggest question will be: Can research confirm biochar’s potential as a climate change solution, or is it just another form of greenwashing?”

LINK

&laquo March May &raquo

KIEL EARTH INSTITUTE, Düsternbrooker Weg 2, 24105 Kiel | Tel +49 431 600 4140 | Fax +49 431 600 4102 | e-mail: info@climate-engineering.eu | Imprint


Desmog: Biochar Series

19 April, 2017
 

“In this series, DeSmog digs into the promise and peril of biochar as a solution to climate change. Authored by Steve Horn, this investigative report is the result of a years-long probe into biochar, geoengineering, and whether it can put a dent in climate change. Learn about the science — and lack thereof — supporting biochar’s carbon sequestration potential, the major players and their connections to Big Oil, and the rush to deploy large-scale biochar projects as part of questionable carbon offsets programs. Read the whole series below.”

LINK

&laquo March May &raquo

KIEL EARTH INSTITUTE, Düsternbrooker Weg 2, 24105 Kiel | Tel +49 431 600 4140 | Fax +49 431 600 4102 | e-mail: info@climate-engineering.eu | Imprint


Biochar Market Value Analysis Report 2017-2022: Global and China Trends, Growth and Key …

20 April, 2017
 

The ‘Global and Chinese Biochar Industry, 2012-2022 Market Research Report’ is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Biochar industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Biochar manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.Firstly, the report provides a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology. Then, the report explores the international and Chinese major industry players in detail.

View complete report at http://www.reportsweb.com/biochar-industry-global-and-chinese-market-research-report-2017

In this part, the report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, and 2012-2017 market shares for each company. Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Biochar industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis. The report then estimates 2017-2022 market development trends of Biochar industry. Analysis of upstream raw materials, downstream demand, and current market dynamics is also carried out. In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of Biochar Industry before evaluating its feasibility. Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2012-2022 global and Chinese Biochar industry covering all important parameters.

Request sample copy at http://www.reportsweb.com/inquiry&RW0001733215/sample

Major Points from Table of Contents

Introduction of Biochar Industry
Manufacturing Technology of Biochar
Analysis of Global Key Manufacturers
Global and Chinese Market of Biochar
Market Status of Biochar Industry
Market Forecast of Global and Chinese Biochar Industry 2017-2022
Analysis of Biochar Industry Chain
Global and Chinese Economic Impact on Biochar Industry
Market Dynamics of Biochar Industry
Proposals for New Project
Research Conclusions of Global and Chinese Biochar Industry

Inquire for discount at http://www.reportsweb.com/inquiry&RW0001733215/discount

List of Tables and Figures

Figure Biochar Product Picture
Table Development of Biochar Manufacturing Technology
Figure Manufacturing Process of Biochar
Table Trends of Biochar Manufacturing Technology
Figure Biochar Product and Specifications
Table 2012-2017 Biochar Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. List
Figure 2012-2017 Biochar Capacity Production and Growth Rate
Figure 2012-2017 Biochar Production Global Market Share
Figure Biochar Product and Specifications
Table 2012-2017 Biochar Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. List
Figure 2012-2017 Biochar Capacity Production and Growth Rate
Figure 2012-2017 Biochar Production Global Market Share
Figure Biochar Product and Specifications
Table 2012-2017 Biochar Product Capacity Production Price Cost Production Value List
Figure 2012-2017 Biochar Capacity Production and Growth Rate
Figure 2012-2017 Biochar Production Global Market Share

Contact Info:
Name: Sameer Joshi
Email:sales@reportsweb.com
Organization: ReportsWeb
Phone: +1-646-491-9876

Processed Eggs are end products produced after breaking of egg and processing the liquid…

The Fluoropolymers Market deals with the development of a fluorocarbon-based polymer with numerous solid…

The ‘Global and Chinese Biolubricants Industry, 2012-2022 Market Research Report’ is a professional and…

Copyright © 2015 A Daily News.


IT”S ALIVE! Living No-Turn Compost: BioChar

20 April, 2017
 

I understand–nobody wants a stinky mess out back that will draw vermin, or worse!

However, nobody wants to shell out for fancy compost drums or “activators” that might give you amazing compost, or might give you nothing but a gross rotting mess.

Self-described survival gardener David Goodman shows us how to do exactly that in his latest video! He uses no commercial products to build the pile–even the “bin” is harvested from his land!

Check it out, on Marjorie Wildcraft’s fantastic website, The Grow Network, or just watch here:

David shows us that in order for compost to break down property (instead of decay into a rotting mess), we need a balance of carbon and nitrogen, or browns and greens.

Ideally, you need more brown matter than green matter for your pile to compost-in-place properly. Brown matter is simply defined as something that is already dried out and lifeless.

David also adds something he calls bio-char–which is a whole ‘nother topic by itself!

Healthy soil is something that’s still underappreciated, but science shows again and again that soil is key to the world’s vitality!

Microbial action is what heats up a good compost pile, making it active, and even producing steam when you stick a shovel into it.

Adding charcoal to your compost pile is like offering the microbes in there a fantastic apartment complex to live in! You’re giving them a more permanent home than the soil itself; a place to thrive even in extreme conditions.

Raw charcoal is great to add to your compost pile, but it takes a very long time to become activated–around fifty years in many cases. 

Activated charcoal is also called bio-char or terra preta, and I’ll be writing more soon about how to create terra preta (in weeks instead of years)!

If you want to learn more about building healthy soil from the microscopic level, I highly recommend the book Teaming with Microbes: The Organic Gardener’s Guide to the Soil Food Web.

Composting doesn’t have to be complicated, labor-intensive, or even smelly–so get out there and make a no-turn compost pile this week. Your garden will thank you!


How long does pyrolysis last in a biochar retort?

20 April, 2017
 

type Exception report

message Argument ‘userAgentString’ must not be null.

description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.

exception

net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:65) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:52) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:107) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:197) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:64) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:33) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:78) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:61) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:53) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:78) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.UrlMultiSlashFilter.doFilter(UrlMultiSlashFilter.java:33) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:34) 

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


Global Biochar Market Professional Survey Report 2017

20 April, 2017
 

This report studies Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2012 to 2016, and forecast to 2022.

This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering
Diacarbon Energy
Agri-Tech Producers
Biochar Now
Carbon Gold
Kina
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
ElementC6
BioChar Products
BlackCarbon
Cool Planet
Carbon Terra
Pacific Biochar
Vega Biofuels
Liaoning Jinhefu Group
Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy
Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology
Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)
Sonnenerde
Biokol
ECOSUS
Terra Humana
Verora

By types, the market can be split into
Wood Stover Source Biochar
Corn Stover Source Biochar
Rice Stover Source Biochar
Wheat Stover Source Biochar
Other Source Biochar

By Application, the market can be split into
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want)
North America
China
Europe
Southeast Asia
Japan
India

Table of Contents

Global Biochar Market Professional Survey Report 2017
1 Industry Overview of Biochar
1.1 Definition and Specifications of Biochar
1.1.1 Definition of Biochar
1.1.2 Specifications of Biochar
1.2 Classification of Biochar
1.2.1 Wood Stover Source Biochar
1.2.2 Corn Stover Source Biochar
1.2.3 Rice Stover Source Biochar
1.2.4 Wheat Stover Source Biochar
1.2.5 Other Source Biochar
1.3 Applications of Biochar
1.3.1 Soil Conditioner
1.3.2 Fertilizer
1.3.3 Others
1.4 Market Segment by Regions
1.4.1 North America
1.4.2 China
1.4.3 Europe
1.4.4 Southeast Asia
1.4.5 Japan
1.4.6 India

2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Biochar
2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers
2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Biochar
2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar
2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Biochar

3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Biochar
3.1 Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Biochar Major Manufacturers in 2016
3.2 Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Biochar Major Manufacturers in 2016
3.3 R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Biochar Major Manufacturers in 2016
3.4 Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Biochar Major Manufacturers in 2016

4 Global Biochar Overall Market Overview
4.1 2012-2017E Overall Market Analysis
4.2 Capacity Analysis
4.2.1 2012-2017E Global Biochar Capacity and Growth Rate Analysis
4.2.2 2016 Biochar Capacity Analysis (Company Segment)
4.3 Sales Analysis
4.3.1 2012-2017E Global Biochar Sales and Growth Rate Analysis
4.3.2 2016 Biochar Sales Analysis (Company Segment)
4.4 Sales Price Analysis
4.4.1 2012-2017E Global Biochar Sales Price
4.4.2 2016 Biochar Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment)

5 Biochar Regional Market Analysis
5.1 North America Biochar Market Analysis
5.1.1 North America Biochar Market Overview
5.1.2 North America 2012-2017E Biochar Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.1.3 North America 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price Analysis
5.1.4 North America 2016 Biochar Market Share Analysis
5.2 China Biochar Market Analysis
5.2.1 China Biochar Market Overview
5.2.2 China 2012-2017E Biochar Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.2.3 China 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price Analysis
5.2.4 China 2016 Biochar Market Share Analysis
5.3 Europe Biochar Market Analysis
5.3.1 Europe Biochar Market Overview
5.3.2 Europe 2012-2017E Biochar Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.3.3 Europe 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price Analysis
5.3.4 Europe 2016 Biochar Market Share Analysis
5.4 Southeast Asia Biochar Market Analysis
5.4.1 Southeast Asia Biochar Market Overview
5.4.2 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Biochar Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.4.3 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price Analysis
5.4.4 Southeast Asia 2016 Biochar Market Share Analysis
5.5 Japan Biochar Market Analysis
5.5.1 Japan Biochar Market Overview
5.5.2 Japan 2012-2017E Biochar Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.5.3 Japan 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price Analysis
5.5.4 Japan 2016 Biochar Market Share Analysis
5.6 India Biochar Market Analysis
5.6.1 India Biochar Market Overview
5.6.2 India 2012-2017E Biochar Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.6.3 India 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price Analysis
5.6.4 India 2016 Biochar Market Share Analysis

6 Global 2012-2017E Biochar Segment Market Analysis (by Type)
6.1 Global 2012-2017E Biochar Sales by Type
6.2 Different Types of Biochar Product Interview Price Analysis
6.3 Different Types of Biochar Product Driving Factors Analysis
6.3.1 Wood Stover Source Biochar of Biochar Growth Driving Factor Analysis
6.3.2 Corn Stover Source Biochar of Biochar Growth Driving Factor Analysis
6.3.3 Rice Stover Source Biochar of Biochar Growth Driving Factor Analysis
6.3.4 Wheat Stover Source Biochar of Biochar Growth Driving Factor Analysis
6.3.5 Other Source Biochar of Biochar Growth Driving Factor Analysis

7 Global 2012-2017E Biochar Segment Market Analysis (by Application)
7.1 Global 2012-2017E Biochar Consumption by Application
7.2 Different Application of Biochar Product Interview Price Analysis
7.3 Different Application of Biochar Product Driving Factors Analysis
7.3.1 Soil Conditioner of Biochar Growth Driving Factor Analysis
7.3.2 Fertilizer of Biochar Growth Driving Factor Analysis
7.3.3 Others of Biochar Growth Driving Factor Analysis

8 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Biochar
8.1 Diacarbon Energy
8.1.1 Company Profile
8.1.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.1.2.1 Product A
8.1.2.2 Product B
8.1.3 Diacarbon Energy 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.1.4 Diacarbon Energy 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.2 Agri-Tech Producers
8.2.1 Company Profile
8.2.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.2.2.1 Product A
8.2.2.2 Product B
8.2.3 Agri-Tech Producers 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.2.4 Agri-Tech Producers 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.3 Biochar Now
8.3.1 Company Profile
8.3.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.3.2.1 Product A
8.3.2.2 Product B
8.3.3 Biochar Now 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.3.4 Biochar Now 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.4 Carbon Gold
8.4.1 Company Profile
8.4.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.4.2.1 Product A
8.4.2.2 Product B
8.4.3 Carbon Gold 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.4.4 Carbon Gold 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.5 Kina
8.5.1 Company Profile
8.5.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.5.2.1 Product A
8.5.2.2 Product B
8.5.3 Kina 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.5.4 Kina 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.6 The Biochar Company
8.6.1 Company Profile
8.6.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.6.2.1 Product A
8.6.2.2 Product B
8.6.3 The Biochar Company 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.6.4 The Biochar Company 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.7 Swiss Biochar GmbH
8.7.1 Company Profile
8.7.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.7.2.1 Product A
8.7.2.2 Product B
8.7.3 Swiss Biochar GmbH 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.7.4 Swiss Biochar GmbH 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.8 ElementC6
8.8.1 Company Profile
8.8.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.8.2.1 Product A
8.8.2.2 Product B
8.8.3 ElementC6 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.8.4 ElementC6 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.9 BioChar Products
8.9.1 Company Profile
8.9.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.9.2.1 Product A
8.9.2.2 Product B
8.9.3 BioChar Products 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.9.4 BioChar Products 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.10 BlackCarbon
8.10.1 Company Profile
8.10.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.10.2.1 Product A
8.10.2.2 Product B
8.10.3 BlackCarbon 2016 Biochar Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.10.4 BlackCarbon 2016 Biochar Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.11 Cool Planet
8.12 Carbon Terra
8.13 Pacific Biochar
8.14 Vega Biofuels
8.15 Liaoning Jinhefu Group
8.16 Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy
8.17 Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology
8.18 Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)
8.19 Sonnenerde
8.20 Biokol
8.21 ECOSUS
8.22 Terra Humana
8.23 Verora

9 Development Trend of Analysis of Biochar Market
9.1 Global Biochar Market Trend Analysis
9.1.1 Global 2017-2022 Biochar Market Size (Volume and Value) Forecast
9.1.2 Global 2017-2022 Biochar Sales Price Forecast
9.2 Biochar Regional Market Trend
9.2.1 North America 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Forecast
9.2.2 China 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Forecast
9.2.3 Europe 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Forecast
9.2.4 Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Forecast
9.2.5 Japan 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Forecast
9.2.6 India 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Forecast
9.3 Biochar Market Trend (Product Type)
9.4 Biochar Market Trend (Application)

10 Biochar Marketing Type Analysis
10.1 Biochar Regional Marketing Type Analysis
10.2 Biochar International Trade Type Analysis
10.3 Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Biochar by Region
10.4 Biochar Supply Chain Analysis

11 Consumers Analysis of Biochar
11.1 Consumer 1 Analysis
11.2 Consumer 2 Analysis
11.3 Consumer 3 Analysis
11.4 Consumer 4 Analysis

12 Conclusion of the Global Biochar Market Professional Survey Report 2017
Methodology
Analyst Introduction
Data Source

List of Tables and Figures
Figure Picture of Biochar
Table Product Specifications of Biochar
Table Classification of Biochar
Figure Global Production Market Share of Biochar by Type in 2016
Figure Wood Stover Source Biochar Picture
Table Major Manufacturers of Wood Stover Source Biochar
Figure Corn Stover Source Biochar Picture
Table Major Manufacturers of Corn Stover Source Biochar
Figure Rice Stover Source Biochar Picture
Table Major Manufacturers of Rice Stover Source Biochar
Figure Wheat Stover Source Biochar Picture
Table Major Manufacturers of Wheat Stover Source Biochar
Figure Other Source Biochar Picture
Table Major Manufacturers of Other Source Biochar
Table Applications of Biochar
Figure Global Consumption Volume Market Share of Biochar by Application in 2016
Figure Soil Conditioner Examples
Table Major Consumers of Soil Conditioner
Figure Fertilizer Examples
Table Major Consumers of Fertilizer
Figure Others Examples
Table Major Consumers of Others
Figure Market Share of Biochar by Regions
Figure North America Biochar Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
Figure China Biochar Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
Figure Europe Biochar Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
Figure Southeast Asia Biochar Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
Figure Japan Biochar Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
Figure India Biochar Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
Table Biochar Raw Material and Suppliers
Table Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Biochar in 2016
Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Biochar
Figure Industry Chain Structure of Biochar
Table Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Biochar Major Manufacturers in 2016
Table Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Biochar Major Manufacturers in 2016
Table R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Biochar Major Manufacturers in 2016
Table Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Biochar Major Manufacturers in 2016
Table Global Capacity, Sales , Price, Cost, Sales Revenue (M USD) and Gross Margin of Biochar 2012-2017
Figure Global 2012-2017E Biochar Market Size (Volume) and Growth Rate
Figure Global 2012-2017E Biochar Market Size (Value) and Growth Rate
Table 2012-2017E Global Biochar Capacity and Growth Rate
Table 2016 Global Biochar Capacity (MT) List (Company Segment)
Table 2012-2017E Global Biochar Sales (MT) and Growth Rate
Table 2016 Global Biochar Sales (MT) List (Company Segment)
Table 2012-2017E Global Biochar Sales Price (USD/MT)
Table 2016 Global Biochar Sales Price (USD/MT) List (Company Segment)
Figure North America Capacity Overview
Table North America Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (MT) of Biochar 2012-2017E
Figure North America 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price (USD/MT)
Figure North America 2016 Biochar Sales Market Share
Figure China Capacity Overview
Table China Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (MT) of Biochar 2012-2017E
Figure China 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price (USD/MT)
Figure China 2016 Biochar Sales Market Share
Figure Europe Capacity Overview
Table Europe Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (MT) of Biochar 2012-2017E
Figure Europe 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price (USD/MT)
Figure Europe 2016 Biochar Sales Market Share
Figure Southeast Asia Capacity Overview
Table Southeast Asia Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (MT) of Biochar 2012-2017E
Figure Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price (USD/MT)
Figure Southeast Asia 2016 Biochar Sales Market Share
Figure Japan Capacity Overview
Table Japan Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (MT) of Biochar 2012-2017E
Figure Japan 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price (USD/MT)
Figure Japan 2016 Biochar Sales Market Share
Figure India Capacity Overview
Table India Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (MT) of Biochar 2012-2017E
Figure India 2012-2017E Biochar Sales Price (USD/MT)
Figure India 2016 Biochar Sales Market Share
Table Global 2012-2017E Biochar Sales (MT) by Type
Table Different Types Biochar Product Interview Price
Table Global 2012-2017E Biochar Sales (MT) by Application
Table Different Application Biochar Product Interview Price
Table Diacarbon Energy Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2016 Diacarbon Energy Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 Diacarbon Energy Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table Agri-Tech Producers Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2016 Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 Agri-Tech Producers Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table Biochar Now Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2015 Biochar Now Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 Biochar Now Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table Carbon Gold Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2016 Carbon Gold Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 Carbon Gold Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table Kina Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2016 Kina Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 Kina Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table The Biochar Company Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2016 The Biochar Company Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 The Biochar Company Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table Swiss Biochar GmbH Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2016 Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 Swiss Biochar GmbH Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table ElementC6 Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2016 ElementC6 Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 ElementC6 Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table BioChar Products Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2016 BioChar Products Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 BioChar Products Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table BlackCarbon Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2016 BlackCarbon Biochar Revenue (Million USD), Sales (MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
Figure 2016 BlackCarbon Biochar Business Region Distribution
Table Cool Planet Information List
Table Carbon Terra Information List
Table Pacific Biochar Information List
Table Vega Biofuels Information List
Table Liaoning Jinhefu Group Information List
Table Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy Information List
Table Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology Information List
Table Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai) Information List
Table Sonnenerde Information List
Table Biokol Information List
Table ECOSUS Information List
Table Terra Humana Information List
Table Verora Information List
Figure Global 2017-2022 Biochar Market Size (MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Global 2017-2022 Biochar Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Global 2017-2022 Biochar Sales Price (USD/MT) Forecast
Figure North America 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Volume (MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure China 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Volume (MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Europe 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Volume (MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Volume (MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Japan 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Volume (MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure India 2017-2022 Biochar Consumption Volume (MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
Table Global Sales Volume (MT) of Biochar by Type 2017-2022
Table Global Consumption Volume (MT) of Biochar by Application 2017-2022
Table Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Biochar by Region

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NSG team in city to probe Belavatha Mystery Fire

20 April, 2017
 

Mysuru: A unit of National Security Guards (NSG) that specialises in explosives and radiation accidents is in city to probe the mystery fire that occurred at Shyadanahalli near Belavatha killing a teenager recently.

Taking the incident seriously and considering its gravity, a four-member team from the NSG has arrived in city this morning for investigation.

Police sources told Star of Mysore that the team is headed by Vishwanathan, a Superintendent of Police-ranking officer. The team is put up at RMP Guest House, Lakshmipuram.

The NSG team is expected to visit Shyadanahalli in a day or two after completing the preliminary ground work.

Police sources said that the NSG team will probe the incident independently and will have no contact with the local Police or other investigating teams.

The NSG’s primary role is to combat terrorism in whatever form and is specially equipped and trained to deal with specific situations to be used only in exceptional situations. Sources said that the team would have visited Mysuru to probe the “mystery fire” under instructions from the Central Government. It will probe the effects of radiation as the team has been trained to handle such sensitive situations.

In a report submitted to Deputy Commissioner D. Randeep, S. Rajashekar, an environmental engineer who has done his M.Tech in Chemical Engineering from Mysuru has said that biomass accumulation under the sand was the cause of fire. “Biomass dumps from nearby units that convert coconut shell into charcoal could have caused the accident,” he said.

“The affected area is only around 20 ft by 20 ft out of 4-acre plot and the area has deposits of biomass. There is a presence of carbon in the form of charcoal or bio-char which is a type of a bio-fuel. This is a low-lying area and as rainwater flows, it carries fine sand and other materials. Also there is a sewage dump that adds to the bio-mass,” he stated in his report.

As the fine sand is dumped on the biomass, there is no space for the oxygen to enter inside. “Due to summer heat, the biomass reaches a temperature of more than 100 degrees and the process is called pyrolysis where gases like methane and hydrogen are released. These gases have no escape route since fine sand is covered on it. When we throw a stone, the stone displaces the sand and makes way for the gas to escape. While escaping, the gas catches fire due to heat from the sand friction,”   Rajashekar explained.

That day, the fire started only when Harshal walked on the sand area with force, thereby disturbing the sand allowing the accumulated gases to come out due to pressure.

Supporting his findings, Rajashekar said that along with the industrial waste and other dumps, the area surrounding the incident spot is dominated by units that convert coconut shells into charcoal. “Once the charcoal is generated, powder waste is dumped in the area that leads to the accumulation of bio-char. The dumping process is going on here since months,” he said in the report.

Precautions at the site

Explaining the precautions to clear the affected site, Rajashekar said that the safe way was to provide a vent to the affected area by carefully digging holes around the site and allow the accumulated gases to escape. The soil must not be disturbed while digging and must be removed slowly.

Once the gases escape, the occurrence of fire can be eliminated and the biomass with excess heat inside must be allowed to cool down. Later, the cooled down portion of the biomass must be removed from the site and this allows further cooling of the biomass. The process must be carried out until entire biomass is completely removed from the affected site, he has stated.

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Mysuru’s favorite and largest circulated English evening daily has kept the citizens of Mysuru informed and entertained since 1978. Over the past 39 years, Star of Mysore has been the newspaper that Mysureans reach for every evening to know about the happenings in Mysuru city. The newspaper has feature rich articles and dedicated pages targeted at readers across the demographic spectrum of Mysuru city. With a readership of over 2,50,000 Star of Mysore has been the best connection between it’s readers and their leaders; between advertisers and customers; between Mysuru and Mysureans.


Commercial Grade Bulk Biochar – 40 Pound Bags

20 April, 2017
 

SF bay area >

south bay >

for sale >

farm & garden – by owner

Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


BIOchar Infused with Worm Castings

20 April, 2017
 

SF bay area >

south bay >

for sale >

farm & garden – by owner

Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


Download Biochar Systems For Smallholders In Developing Countries Leveraging Current …

20 April, 2017
 

 

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Biochar research paper

20 April, 2017
 


Biochar Market Professional Survey Global Analysis & 2022 Forecast Report

20 April, 2017
 

Read more on LinkedIn


Global Biochar Market Rising at $585.0 Mn in 2020

20 April, 2017
 

Zion Market Research has published a new report titled “Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) Market for Agriculture, Water & Waste Water Treatment and Other Applications: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2014 – 2020” According to the report, the global biochar market was valued at approximately USD 260.0 million in 2014 and is expected to reach approximately USD 585.0 million by 2020, growing at a CAGR of around 14.5% between 2015 and 2020. In terms of volume, global biochar market stood at 100 kilo tons in 2014.

Biochar is a fine-grained carbon rich product obtained by heating organic material such as wood, manure or leaves under conditions of no oxygen. Biochar can enhance soils, sequester carbon as well as provide useable energy. Biochar also have tendency to filter and retain nutrients from percolating soil water. Pyrolysis, hydrothermal conversion and gasification are simple and efficient technologies for transforming different biomass feedstocks into renewable energy products. Furthermore, biochar has ability to produce usable energy during its production while concurrently creating a carbon product, which provides sequester or store carbon and improve agriculture and other processes.

Get a copy of Sample Report: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/biochar-market-z43492#RequestSample

Based on technology, biochar market can be segmented as pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal and others. The pyrolysis technology is largest segment accounted for significant share and expected to witness fastest growth at a CAGR of over 10.0% in terms of revenue from 2015 to 2020. Gasification technology does not create stable biochar which can be used in agriculture for soil amendment. This technology segment expected to decline its market share in the years to come.

Request For Free Price Quotation: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/requestquote?reportid=43492

On the basis of application, the biochar market has been segmented into agriculture, water & waste water treatment and others. Agriculture was a major application segment of biochar market and accounted over 80% share of the global demand in 2014 and is expected to continue its dominance in global market over the forecast period. Water & waste water treatment is another major application segment and expected to exhibit significant growth on account of growing hygiene awareness and effective water infrastructure.

Know more before buying this report: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/biochar-market-z43492#InquiryForBuying

With over 50% shares in total volume consumption, North America was the largest market. North America followed by Europe and Asia Pacific region. Europe was the second largest market for biochar and accounted for around 25% shares in total volume consumption in 2014. Asia Pacific is the third largest market accounted for the significant share of total market in 2014. Latin America and Meddle East & Africa are also expected to grow at a moderate pace.

Browse the full report at: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/biochar-market-z43492

Some of the key industry players including Diacarbon Energy Inc, Vega Biofuels, Inc, Agri-Tech Producers. LLC, Hawaii Biochar Products. LLC, Biochar Products, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc, Blackcarbon A/S, Green Charcoal International, Earth Systems Pty Ltd and Genesis.

This report segments the global biochar market as follows:

Global Biochar Market: Technology Segment Analysis

Global Biochar Market: Application Segment Analysis

Global Biochar Market: Regional Segment Analysis

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Biochar demonstration held in Mendon

20 April, 2017
 

Larry and Carol Higgins of Mendon held a demonstration April 8, disposing of small branches by turning them into a multi-use invention called biochar.
Karl Kaufman, of Ecovillage, and Sheldon Smith, from Eco-Mash, explained the methods, process and the numerous uses for the product.
One of the methods created that day was the Hawaiian luau pit. The men dug a three-foot pit that was cone-shaped with a flat bottom.
Within the cavity, they placed a shallow layer of limbs and started a fire. Wood was allowed to burn until the top began to be white with ashes. The participants were then encouraged to assist in adding branches on top, forming a “cap” to close off the airflow.
“What we want to do is keep the oxygen at the base of the pit causing the fire to continue and char the wood, but not burn it,” Kaufman said. “Once we have filled the pit and it is starting to turn white, we will douse it out with water.”
It took several five-gallon buckets to extinguish the fire well enough for the group to remove the upper layers and pull the biochar from underneath. Pieces from the top were set aside for another attempt at the process later, by Higgins. The other pile outside of the hole was many small fragments of wood that had been charred forming the Biochar.
Another process demonstrated was similar to the rocket stove idea, where the heat does more of the cooking than the fire. Smith created a larger version with a barrel covering a smaller barrel which contained the matter being burned. Biochar was being formed within the inner barrel and worked a lot like the luau pit.
Participants were interested in it being used in their gardens. As compost, it has been found to be an extraordinary boost for vegetable grown. Smith found that he grew  extra-large tomatoes and Kaufman talked about his fist-sized garlic bulbs. They suggested putting biochar into a compost pile for a period of time before adding it to the garden.
Each attendee was given a handout that explained in depth what had been presented and was allowed to take  a gallon bag of biochar to try at home.

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Utilization of corn stover and pruned Gliricidia sepium biochars as soil conditioner to improve …

20 April, 2017
 

By: Rupa Matheus, Lenny M. Moy, Donatus Kantur

Key Words: Biochars, Soil organic carbon, Soil nutrient, Maize production

Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. 10(4), 1-8, April 2017.

The decreasing of land productivity for dryland farming system is mainly due to lack of soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration (C-seq) became a main issue for reducing carbon emission that affect to environment. Application of compost and biochar have proven to become a good solution for increasing soil quality and carbon storage. This research had been conducted in Timor-East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia, aims to understand the effectiveness of biochar as soil amelioration on C-sequestration, soil nutrients and maize production. Split plot factorial design (type and dosage of biochars) with three replications was used to test the hypotheses. The type of biochars were cow dung (CD), rice husks (RH), pruned G. sepium (GS) and corn stover (CS) and three levels of dosage (D1: 3 t.ha-1; D2: 6 ton.ha-1; and D3: 9 t.ha-1 ). The results showed that the GS provided the best effect on the increasing of SOC (2.09%), soil nutrient (Ntot 0.22%; P-available 11.34 ppm; K 0.62 me/100g soil), and other soil properties (CEC 28.10 me/10 g soil and reducing bulk density to 1.10 cm-3). It means GS could provide about 68.64 ton.ha-1 C-seq that still remained in the soil for the next cro GS or long time utilizations. Not only long term, this study also suggested that GS benefited for maize production (maize gain 5.88 t ha-1) at short term application. Although statically GS gave similar performance to MS but they are better than other tested biochars. As other previous studies, increasing the dosage of organic matter might affect to the increasing of soil quality and crop production.

Aslam Z,  Khalid m, Aon M. 2014. Impact of Biochar on Soil Physical Properties. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science  4(5), 280-284.

Bot A, Benites J. 2005.The importance of soil organic matter.Key to drought-resistant soil and sustained food and production. FAO Soils Buletin 80. Food and Agricukture Organization of the United Nations. Rome: 71 p.

Brochers JG, Perry DA. 1992. The influence of soil  texture  and  aggregation  on  carbon  and  nitrogen  dynamics in southwest Oregon forests and clear cuts.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22, 298-305.

Chan KY, Van Zwieten BL, Meszaros I, Downie d, Joseph S. 2008. Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendment. Australian Journal of Soil Research  45, 437-444.

Diara IW, Made Adnyana I, Putra Manuaba IB, IGA, Mas Sri Agung. 2014.  Carbon sequestration and soil quality under  organic system of  local rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety in Tabanan, Bali Indonesia.  International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) 5(3), 45-51.

Glaser B, Lehmann Zech JW. 2002. Ameliorating Physical and chemical quality of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charchoal: A review. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35, 219-230.

Glaser B, Balashov E, Haumaier L, Guggenberger G, Zech W. 2003. Black Carbon in Density Fractions of antropogenic Soil of the Brazilian Amazon region. Organic Geochem 31, 669-678.

Gomez  KA,  Gomez  AA.  1984.  Statistical  procedures for agricultural research. (2nd Edn), John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.704 p.

Hammond D, Steeg H, Van der Borg K. 2007. Upland Soil Charcoal in The West Tropical Forest of Central Guyana. Biotropica 39(2), 153-160.

Hastuti. 2003. Pengaruh Berbagai Jenis Bahan Amelioran Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Sorgum di Jawa Timur. (In Bahasa Indonesia).

http://repository.ipb.ac.id/bitstream/handle/20IVA93atr.pdf. Diakses 5 Mei 2015

Huang  Y,  Sun  WJ,  Zhang  W,  Yu  YQ.  2010.  Changes  in  soil  organic  carbon  of  terrestrial ecosystems  in  China:  A  mini  review,  Science  China Life Sciences 53, 766-775.

Ismail M, Basri AB. 2011. Pemanfaatan Biochar Untuk Perbaikan Kualitas Tanah. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (RHTP) Aceh. (In Bahasa Indonesia).

Karlen DI, Mausbach MJ, Doran JW, Cline RG, Harris RF, Schuman GE. 1997. Soil Quality: a concept. Definition and framework for evaluation (a guest editorial). Soil Science of American Journal 61, 4-10.

Komatsuzaki M, Syuaib MF. 2010. Comparison of the farming system and carbon sequestration between conventional and  organic  rice  production  in  West Java, Indonesia. Sustainability  2(3), 833-843.

Kurnia U. 1996. Kajian Metode Rehabilitasi Lahan untuk Meningkatkan dan Melestarikan Produktivitas Tanah. Disertasi Fakultas Pasca Sarjana. IPB. Bogor. (In Bahasa Indonesia).

Laird D,  Flaming P, Davis DD, Horton R, Wang B, Karlen DL. 2010. Biochar Impact on Nutrient Leaching from a Midwestern Agricultural Soil. Geoderma (2010), 436–442.

Lehmann J, Gaunt J, Rondon M. 2006.Biochar sequestration in terrestrial ecosystem. A review mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change

11, 403-427.

Nurida NL. 2006. Peningkatan Kualitas Ultisol Jasinga Terdegradasi dengan pengolahan Tanah dan Pemberian bahan Organik .Disertasi Sekolah Pascasarjana. Institut Pertanian Bogor. (In Bahasa Indonesia).

Rupa M, Lenny M,  Donatus Kantur. 2015. Pemanfaatan Biochar Limbah Pertanian sebagai bahan pembenah tanah untuk meningkatkan simpanan karbon organic tanah. kualitas tanah dan hasil jagung.Laporan akhir PHB tahun pertama (2015). Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Kupang. (In Bahasa Indonesia).

Shofiyati R, Las I, Agus F.  2010. Indonesian soil database and predicted stock of soil carbon. In: Chen ZS,  Agus  F  (Eds).  Proc.  International  workshop  on evaluation  and  sustainable  management  of  soil carbon sequestration in Asean countries. Indonesian Soil  Research  Institute  (ISRI),  Food & Fertilizer Technology  Center  for  the  Asian  and  Pacific  Region (FFTC)  and  National  Institute  for  Agroenvironmental sciences (NIAES), 73-83 p.

Topoliantz S, Ponge JF, Ballof S. 2007. Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil fertility in the tropics. Biology and Fertility of Soils 41, 15–21.

Widowati  Utomo WH,  Guritno B, Soehono LA. 2012. The Effect of biochar on the growth and N fertilizer requirement of maize (Zea mays L.) in green house experiment. Journal of Agricultural Science 4 (5), 255 – 262.

Wolf D. 2008. Biochar as a Soil Amandement: A Review of the Environmental Implications. http://orgprints.org/13268/01/biochar_a_a_soil_amedement_a-review.pdf

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Bury Your Climate March Footprint

21 April, 2017
 

Raised of $486 USD

If you are going from Boston or Cambridge to the People’s Climate March in Washington, DC, on April 29, and would like to offset the CO2 emissions of your bus trip, this project offers a visible, local, long-lasting way to bury carbon that will improve the soil to benefit trees, plants and climate in other ways. It involves biochar, a form of pure carbon made from partially burning plant matter and other biomass under controlled conditions.

The goal of the project is to purchase 2 cubic yards of biochar, put it on public display in Cambridge and then donate it for use in local gardens and yards. This amount of biochar contains 400 pounds of organic carbon and and is approximately equivalent to 36 passengers’ share of the carbon emitted on average by a diesel bus in the form of CO2 traveling 876 miles. (These calculations are shown in detail, below.)

About Biochar (from the International Biochar Initiative)

The 2,000 year-old practice of making biochar converts agricultural waste into a soil enhancer that can hold carbon, boost food security, and increase soil biodiversity, and discourage deforestation. The process creates a fine-grained, highly porous charcoal that helps soils retain nutrients and water.

Biochar is found in soils around the world as a result of vegetation fires and historic soil management practices. Intensive study of biochar-rich dark earths in the Amazon (terra preta), has led to a wider appreciation of biochar’s unique properties as a soil enhancer.

It’s possible to literally put the carbon (CO2) back in the ground. (from NextChar)

It’s not complicated. As a negative emissions technology, biochar production directly addresses climate change (also known the greenhouse-effect) by trapping carbon in a chemical (pyrolysis) process, thus reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. Furthermore, biochar addresses global food security challenges, desertification, and drought by reducing agricultural water requirements and improving soil productivity, particularly in damaged or contaminated soils. The NextChar technology stores three tons of CO2 permanently (thousands of years) for every five tons of dry biomass (wood, leaves, etc.) it processes. These metrics can be precisely measured and are generally accepted by the scientific community.

We know we can do this. We’ve done something similar before! Last fall John Pitkin, a climate activist and vice president of Green Cambridge, bought, displayed (below) and donated (see photo above) 2 cubic yards of biochar as an offset for air travel to and from Europe.

We will buy biochar, which is made by NextChar in New Hampshire, create a “carbon column” display of the Community Carbon March Offset this summer before distributing the biochar (in biodegradable bags) for burial.

1.5 cubic feet of biochar, which costs $13.50, will offset the CO2 emissions for one seat on the bus to the Climate March. Donate now to offset your trip to DC. We will invite you to see the display and, if you want, take your share of the biochar to put back in the ground in your yard or garden!

We’ll buy a 2 cubic yard “supersack” of NextChar biochar, bag it, display it and donate it for burial.

We’ll buy, display and donate another 2 cubic yards of biochar, more than enough to offset the CO2 emission of one busload of Climate Marchers going from Boston to DC!

1.5 cubic feet, about 5 gallons, of biochar for use as an amendment to improve the soil in your garden or yard.

3 cubic feet, about 10 gallons, of biochar for use as an amendment to improve the soil in your garden or yard.

4.5 cubic feet, about 15 gallons, of biochar for use as an amendment to improve the soil in your garden or yard.


BIOCHAR

21 April, 2017
 

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Biochar

21 April, 2017
 

GAINESVILLE, Fla. — A University of Florida professor has developed a quick, cheap and easy way to filter from water one of the world’s most common pollutants: arsenic. Bin Gao’s team used iron-enhanced carbon cooked from hickory chips,… Read More

GAINESVILLE, Fla. — Bin Gao, an associate professor with the University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, has been named the first recipient of the Joye Giglia Endowment Award, which recognizes research involving new technologies. The… Read More

Cutline at bottom. Click here for high-resolution image. GAINESVILLE, Fla. — Phosphate poses one of Florida’s ongoing water-quality challenges but a process developed by University of Florida researchers could provide an affordable solution, using partially burned organic matter… Read More

Click for full image. Caption at end of story. GAINESVILLE, Fla. — For hundreds of years, farmers in Brazil’s Amazon Basin have hunted through dense jungles for what is called “terra preta” — mysterious plots of super-fertile black… Read More

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Biochar project wins best International Development Project

21 April, 2017
 

| | | | | Contact

The award was given to Landell Mills for best International Development Project by British Expertise International. Landell Mills is a UK-based international development consulting firm. The project was an Asian Development Bank-administered and NDF-funded project in Nepal titled Mainstreaming Climate Change Risk Management in Development. Landell Mills was the technical assistance service provider.

The project assessed the viability for scale-up of biochar use as a strategy for addressing climate mitigation and adaptation by improving soil health, fertility and plant productivity, and resulting farm income. Biochar is charcoal fertiliser made from various kinds of waste biomass. It represents an inexpensive way to increase crop yields and holds significant environmental benefits including reduced loss of nutrients and greenhouse gas emissions.

The project was highly successful as it provided evidence from numerous field trials that urine-enriched biochar can, in three different climate zones, improve crop yields in a climate-friendly manner. Some trials showed yield increases of up to 300%.

The most appropriate technology for biochar production at the farm level in Nepal is the soil pit Kon-Tiki flame curtain kiln. Benefits include high-quality biochar production, low emissions, no need for start-up fuel, short pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap construction and operation, with no initial capital investment except labour. The technology is thus affordable for small-scale farmers in Nepal. The project showed strong scaling-up potential and included numerous lessons learnt that are valuable for all future biochar projects.

NDF congratulates Landell Mills as well as everyone involved in realising the project.

Testing the Climate Change Benefits of Biochar in Nepal
Biochar – black fertiliser for green growth
Pilot Project to Test the Climate Change Benefits of Biochar [NDF C55]

Project inception: Climate-proofing the urban poor of Vietnam »

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Braidwood forester Peter Marshall manufactures portable biochar burners mogaznewsen

21 April, 2017
 

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Distributor List

21 April, 2017
 

This Pacific Biochar distributor list includes many, but not all distributors of our biochar products:

 

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North Coast Biochar (720p, compressed)

21 April, 2017
 

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Download The Biochar Solution Carbon Farming And Climate Change Read PDF / Audiobook id …

23 April, 2017
 

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Willingness to Adopt Biochar in Agriculture: The Producer's Perspective

24 April, 2017
 

Figure 1

PDF-Document (PDF, 640 KB)

Latawiec, A.E.; Królczyk, J.B.; Kuboń, M.; Szwedziak, K.; Drosik, A.; Polańczyk, E.; Grotkiewicz, K.; Strassburg, B.B.N. Willingness to Adopt Biochar in Agriculture: The Producer’s Perspective. Sustainability 2017, 9, 655.

Latawiec AE, Królczyk JB, Kuboń M, Szwedziak K, Drosik A, Polańczyk E, Grotkiewicz K, Strassburg BBN. Willingness to Adopt Biochar in Agriculture: The Producer’s Perspective. Sustainability. 2017; 9(4):655.

Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Królczyk, Jolanta B.; Kuboń, Maciej; Szwedziak, Katarzyna; Drosik, Adam; Polańczyk, Ewa; Grotkiewicz, Katarzyna; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N. 2017. “Willingness to Adopt Biochar in Agriculture: The Producer’s Perspective.” Sustainability 9, no. 4: 655.

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Can we use Biochar as animal feed?

24 April, 2017
 


SurSur town inks MOA with DENR for biochar project

24 April, 2017
 

CANTILAN, Surigao del Sur, Apr. 24 (PIA) – The local government unit of Cantilan, Surigao del Sur recently inked a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with the Department of the Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) for the implementation of the Biochar Community Enterprise Project, primarily aimed to remediate environmental problems.

Surigao del Sur Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO) information officer Johny Natad said the signing of the MOA took place in time with the project launching held at the Ecopark of Barangay Hayanggabon, Claver, Surigao del Norte on April 18 between Cantilan Mayor Philip Pichay and DENR Secretary Regina Paz Lopez as support for the implementation of the biochar project in Surigao del Sur.

Accordingly, the project will be implemented initially in two areas: Barangay Adlay of Carascal town and Barangay Magasang of Cantilan town with Adlay Integrated Social Forestry Farmers Multipurpose Cooperative (ADISFFAMCO) and Tigpanalipod sa Katunggan nan Magasang (TIKAMA) as the participating community organizations.

The project will be expanded to the identified areas in Surigao del Sur and in Caraga region, as well under the Sustainable Integrated Area Development (SIAD) – Green Economy Model (GEM) of the agency. (JSN/PIA-Surigao del Sur)

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Beef Central beef briefs 28 Apr 2017

26 April, 2017
 

However, if you would like to share the information in this article, you may use the headline, summary and link below:

Warm oceans fuel late end to big wet season; Conagra buys meat snack business; Changes to 457 visa program must consider red meat impacts; 3D Food Printing Conference to be held next week; NSW biochar research internationally recognised; VFF lauds $4 million insurance savings for farmers; Applications open for Young Food Innovators program; Qld farmers encouraged to join new electricity tariff trials

http://www.beefcentral.com/news/beef-central-beef-briefs-28-apr-2017/

Warmer-than-normal oceans have contributed to a late end to a big wet season, according to Weatherzone. Much of the surface of the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans have been running one-to-three degrees above average, leading to extra moisture and instability. For northern Australia, this has meant not only a wetter-than-normal wet season but a late end to the season.
In Australia, flooding has been most serious due to the impacts of tropical lows and cyclones, particularly in the Northern Territory and Western Australia, but also on Queensland’s central coasts and ranges. Some of the tropics have seen more than 150 percent of their seasonal average rainfall. Parts of the Northern Territory Top End are likely to end up with their second wettest wet season on record, second only to 2010/11 when some places amassed more than 3000mm. Darwin should end up with about 2500mm for the season with help from a nearby developing tropical low during the next few days.

 

Chicago-based Conagra Brands, a leading North American branded food company, has completed the purchase of meat-based snacking businesses Thanasi Foods LLC, maker of Duke’s meat snacks, and BIGS seeds. Financial terms have not been disclosed. Duke’s is a fast-growing premium meat snack brand, with products including Duke’s Smoked Shorty Sausages and Duke’s Steak Strips and Brisket Strips. Duke’s says it is committed to making products in small batches with real, whole ingredients, fresh never-frozen pork and chicken, 100pc grassfed beef, and authentic hardwood smoke pairings. BIGS produces a line of premium, USA-grown seed snacks, including jumbo, fire-roasted in-shell sunflower seeds, sunflower seed kernels, and homestyle-roasted pumpkin seeds. “The addition of Duke’s and BIGS is another move to reshape Conagra’s portfolio to be more premium and modern,” said Sean Connolly, president and chief executive officer of Conagra Brands.

 

The Cattle Council of Australia and the Sheep Meat Council of Australia have called on the Federal Government for a considered approach to its proposal to abolish the 457 visa program to mitigate the potentially detrimental flow-on effects to Australia’s red meat industry. Cattle Council of Australia President, Howard Smith said that as Australia’s largest food manufacturer and significant employer in rural and regional areas, the meat processing sector, which directly employs more than 200,000 Australians, it is imperative for the industry to be able to overcome skill set shortages in the domestic labour market with access to international workers. “Industry has struggled to find domestic workers willing to undertake the processor related roles and has previously managed the skills shortage by accessing additional labour using the 457 visa program,” he said. “Through effective labour market policies, the Red Meat Industry Strategic Plan outlines that by 2030, from productivity benefits alone, the red meat industry can deliver an additional $2.11 billion to the Australian economy” said Mr Smith. Sheepmeat Council of Australia President,  Jeff Murray, stated that “For the sustainability of the entire red meat industry, with a processing sector that is already struggling with record energy prices and regulatory costs, it is crucial that the Federal Government carefully considers any labour market changes and the potential impact on the industries international competitiveness”.

 

The opportunities for the Australian red meat industry from 3D printing technology will be a key focus of the upcoming 3D Food Printing Conference Asia-Pacific, to be held at Monash University, Melbourne, next Tuesday, 2 May. The conference, supported by Meat & Livestock Australia (MLA), will feature a host of prominent local and international speakers to discuss the opportunities currently available and where the technology may assist the industry. Topics being discussed include custom nutrition, food design, food components, hardware and software developments and business models. The conference will also include demonstrations of 3D printed technology, including a cooking demonstration of 3D printed red meat. MLA’s Michael Lee, who is speaking at the conference, said 3D food printing represented an exciting opportunity to add value to the red meat industry by utilising secondary cuts, trim and by products that are currently not utilised fully. “These products can be used in areas such as the aged care sector, where red meat that is high in protein and nutrition can be presented in a form that is easy to chew and appetizing,” Mr Lee said. For further information or to register, visit www.3dfoodprintingconference.asia

 

Cutting-edge research from NSW Department of Primary Industries’ (DPI) has been published in the international Nature Climate Change Journal, presenting for the first time the results of 10 years’ research that shows the accumulation of carbon in soil following a single application of biochar. NSW DPI senior principal research scientist, Adjunct Professor Southern Cross University and project leader, Dr Lukas Van Zwieten said the research was conducted on the state’s north coast where biochar derived from eucalypt residues was applied in 2006 into a pasture soil managed for intensive dairy production. “We immediately saw an increase in soil carbon from the biochar, as expected, but what we didn’t expect was that soil carbon content continued to increase,” Dr Van Zwieten said. “This research demonstrates the ongoing benefits of biochar in farming systems to improve pastures and grasslands and increase farmers production and profitability.” Biochar is produced through a process known as pyrolysis which makes the organic carbon more stable to degradation. The researchers found that biochar enhanced the below-ground recovery of new root-derived carbon by 20 per cent – that is, more of the carbon photosynthesised by plants was retained in the biochar-amended soil. Importantly, the biochar also slowed down the natural breakdown of native soil organic carbon by over 5 per cent,” The research paper can be found on the Nature Climate Change website http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncli mate3276

 

Victoria’s peak farm lobby has praised a State Government commitment to scrap insurance duties on agricultural products for insurance against flood, fire and other accidental provisions The measure, expected to save farmers up to $4 million a year when insuring against damage to crops, livestock and equipment, will be formally unveiled when the State Budget is handed down next Tuesday “Insurance duty is a pain in the neck for farmers who are also paying GST on their premiums because we’re being forced to pay a tax on a tax,” Victorian Farmers Federation President David Jochinke said. “The VFF has opposed the duty for years and it’s great to see the State Government listening to the concerns of farmers because getting rid of insurance duties will relieve an unnecessary financial burden on our primary producers.” Mr Jochinke said the rising premiums and tight budgets had led some farmers to cut back their insurance policies, but that the new Budget measure would encourage a greater take-up in insurance while saving farmers money to spend on growing their businesses.

 

Young producers and supporting professionals looking to develop new high value opportunities or introduce disruptive technologies are encouraged to apply for round two of the Food Value Chain Innovators: Young Food Innovators program. The Young Food Innovators (YFI) program is a 12-month intensive, accelerated development program for young people working in the red meat, horticulture, seafood and dairy primary producer sectors. For participants in the red meat industry, the program is supported by funding from MLA Donor Company (MDC) and the Federal Department of Agriculture as part of its Rural Research and Development (R&D) for Profit Programme. The first round of the program commenced in mid-2016 and applications are now open for the second round. Drawing on market and consumer insights and using real-life industry case studies, participants in round two of the YFI program will learn how to use the latest innovation tools in a practical way. They will also undertake a major project as well as develop a new business opportunity that is not standard ‘business-as-usual’. To apply or for more information contact Stuart Quigley, Program Manager on 0419 773 007 or email: insights2innovation@mla.com.au

 

Farmers in regional Queensland have less than a fortnight left to apply to be part of a trial of off-peak and demand-based electricity tariffs. Wholesale Channels Manager Brian Elmer said Ergon Energy was recruiting up to 200 farmers to participate in three separate trials that would help in developing future tariffs for primary producers. “We aim to achieve a diverse and representative selection in each trial group to assist us better understand the potential for offering controlled load and seasonal demand tariffs as an alternative to the current transitional agricultural tariffs that expire in 2020,” he said. Mr Elmer said the first trial would involve the use of a controlled load tariff to supply key farm loads, including irrigation pumps and ancillary farm equipment. “The aim is to understand the implications for farms in switching from tariffs with power available 24/7 to a controlled load tariff with limited hours of supply at a lower price,” he said. “For the purposes of this trial, participants will be placed on Tariff 33, an economy tariff used by many households for hot water systems, pool pumps and other equipment that does not need continuous power.” Mr Elmer said the second group would trial the use of Tariff 24, a new seasonal time of use demand tariff. Mr Elmer said the first two trials would run until June next year and the third trial until June 2019. “All participants will receive a free digital meter and, at completion of the trial, they can choose to receive detailed analysis to help them transition to the most suitable tariff option,” he said. Further information about the trials is available from agriculture industry bodies, Ergon or online at ergon.com.au/agtarifftrial. Application forms are available from the same website and should be submitted by May 2, an extended deadline due to the impact of Cyclone Debbie on some farming areas.

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All Current Publications

26 April, 2017
 

Home > Research Centers and Departments > Departments > USU Extension > Current Bulletins > All Current Publications > 1740

Biochar for Forest Restoration in Western States

Factsheet

Utah State University Extension

4-2017

This fact sheet provides an overview of what biochar is, how it is produced, and how it can be used in land reclamation and for other purposes.

Apostol, Kent G.; McAvoy, Darren; Rappold, Patrick; and Kuhns, Mike, “Biochar for Forest Restoration in Western States” (2017).

Agriculture Commons

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Earth Haven | Australian made Biochar

26 April, 2017
 

When we look at the data, earthhaven.com.au has 0 rank in the world wide web. This website has Google PageRank – out of 10 maximum. earthhaven.com.au celebrates its -th birthday. This website hosted on Burlington, United States to the world. This domain registered by for on 04-27-2017. And assigned to 66.96.130.117. Further informations is provided bellow.

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Compost Tea vs EM vs Biochar #2 – Starting the Trial, Planting & Applying the Treatments!

27 April, 2017
 

Get special bonus videos, rewards & rare vegetable Seeds! https://www.patreon.com/workwithnature

In this video we will get started with our garden experiment. We are applying our treatments of E.M. ( effective microorganisms) boiled compost tea and active compost tea to our trial beds, some of which have biochar in them and some that don’t. Also we got some nice footage of compost tea and em through a microscope. We have also planted our eggplants as our chosen vegetable.

Compost Tea vs EM vs Biochar #1 — How to setup a Garden TRIAL!

Also if you are interested you can take a look at the links below.

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27 April, 2017
 


Eco Living In Action – 27-04-2017 – Biochar For Small Farm Productivity

28 April, 2017
 

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Biochar from "Kon Tiki" flame curtain and other kilns: Effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on …

29 April, 2017
 

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Affiliations Institute for Environmental Sciences (IMV), Norwegian University of Life sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway, Nepal Agroforestry Foundation (NAF), Koteshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal

Affiliation Institute for Environmental Sciences (IMV), Norwegian University of Life sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway

Affiliation Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway

Affiliation Ithaka Institute for Carbon Strategies, Ancienne Eglise 9, Arbaz, Switzerland

gco@ngi.no

Affiliations Institute for Environmental Sciences (IMV), Norwegian University of Life sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway

Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub “Eupatorium adenophorum” was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone), brick-made traditional kiln, traditional earth-mound kiln and top lift up draft (TLUD). The resultant biochars showed consistent pH (9.1 ± 0.3), cation exchange capacities (133 ± 37 cmolc kg-1), organic carbon contents (73.9 ± 6.4%) and surface areas (35 to 215 m2/g) for all kiln types. A pot trial with maize was carried out to investigate the effect on maize biomass production of the biochars made with various kilns, applied at 1% and 4% dosages. Biochars were either pretreated with hot or cold mineral nutrient enrichment (mixing with a nutrient solution before or after cooling down, respectively), or added separately from the same nutrient dosages to the soil. Significantly higher CEC (P< 0.05), lower Al/Ca ratios (P< 0.05), and high OC% (P<0.001) were observed for both dosages of biochar as compared to non-amended control soils. Importantly, the study showed that biochar made by flame curtain kilns resulted in the same agronomic effect as biochar made by the other kilns (P > 0.05). At a dosage of 1% biochar, the hot nutrient-enriched biochar led to significant increases of 153% in above ground biomass production compared to cold nutrient-enriched biochar and 209% compared to biochar added separately from the nutrients. Liquid nutrient enhancement of biochar thus improved fertilizer effectiveness compared to separate application of biochar and fertilizer.

Citation: Pandit NR, Mulder J, Hale SE, Schmidt HP, Cornelissen G (2017) Biochar from “Kon Tiki” flame curtain and other kilns: Effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on crop yield and soil chemistry. PLoS ONE 12(4): e0176378. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176378

Editor: Jorge Paz-Ferreiro, RMIT University, AUSTRALIA

Received: September 2, 2016; Accepted: April 10, 2017; Published: April 27, 2017

Copyright: © 2017 Pandit et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Data will be made available from the Dryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.8hm07. These data constitute the minimal underlying data set necessary for replication of the study.

Funding: This study was conducted with the main financial support from the Research Council of Norway (Fripro stipend 217918 to GCo). The results of this paper were further part of the Asia Development Bank project TA-7984 NEP: Mainstreaming Climate Change Risk Management in Development, financed by the Nordic Development Fund and the Government of Nepal under the administrative lead of Landell Mills Ltd, UK. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish and preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The results of this paper were further part of the Asia Development Bank project TA-7984 NEP: Mainstreaming Climate Change Risk Management in Development, financed by the Nordic Development Fund and the Government of Nepal under the administrative lead of Landell Mills Ltd, UK. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Biochar (BC) is the carbon-rich material produced by the pyrolysis of biomass i.e. heating in the partial or complete absence of oxygen [1]. Biochar is highly recalcitrant in nature unlike other forms of soil organic matter (SOM). Thus, biochar amendment to soils acts as a carbon sequestration technique which can also enhance soil fertility [13]. Agronomic benefits of biochar-amended soils can be the result of improved soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, water holding capacity, permeability, aggregation), biological properties (improved environment for microbial populations such as mycorrhizae) and chemical properties (pH, CEC and nutrient retention capacity) [411].

Various pyrolysis technologies and various feedstocks can be used to produce biochar. This may result in a large variation in resulting biochar properties [12,13] which in turn may affect biochar effectiveness for increasing soil fertility [14,15]. Low temperature pyrolysis (300–500°C) has shown increased biochar yield and carbon content whereas high temperature pyrolysis (>500°C) has revealed lower biochar yield and higher surface area with increased adsorption capacities for various compounds [16]. Research on the effect of pyrolysis technology on agronomic biochar quality has up until now been scarce. Under rural (sub)-tropical conditions, biochar has mostly been produced with medium-sized traditional kilns made of bricks or simple earth mound heaps, improved retort kilns [17,18] or top-lit up-draft (TLUD) pyrolysis units [19]. Traditional kilns can be operated using all kinds of mixed biomass feedstocks. However, pyrolysis gases such as methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosols (PM 2.5 and PM 10) are released untreated, and this leads to greenhouse gas emissions, pollutant emissions and loss of energy [20]. Improved retort kilns have features to recirculate the produced syngases into the combustion chamber, resulting in up to 75% less toxic and greenhouse gas emissions as well as higher conversion efficiency (40–50%) compared to traditional brick kiln, due to less losses of energy-rich molecules [21]. On the other hand, improved retort kilns are more costly, difficult to operate and often consume a lot of start-up biomass materials [18]. TLUD kilns burn feedstock cleanly, thereby reducing gas emissions, as the syngases are combusted largely in the flame front. If used indoors this reduces negative health impacts [22]. There are some limitations with using relatively small TLUDs as they produce so little biochar (around 300 g per run) that they are mainly useful for small-scale kitchen gardening [20]. Larger TLUDs, while generating more biochar, require significant investments and expertise in order to be operated successfully.

To circumvent such challenges, the flame curtain, open pit “Kon-Tiki” kiln was recently developed [23]. It follows the principle of pyrolyzing biomass layer after layer in an open, conically built metal kiln that is easy to operate, fast, and results in low greenhouse gas emissions [20]. It thus allows biochar production in relatively large quantities (700 to 850 L volume biochar in 4–5 hours) [2023]. The flame curtain kiln can even be operated as a simple conically shaped hole in the ground, leading to the same low emissions and similar biochar quality as the metal version, but essentially without any cost apart from the few hours of labour required to dig and prepare the soil pit [20].

Most studies on weathered soils have shown significant positive effects of biochar application on crop production; however, other studies have not shown any significant or even negative effects of biochar on crop yield [24,25]. Some examples from tropical countries on mostly acidic and weathered soils include the following. Radish yield increased significantly in biochar amended soils blended with mineral N fertilizers in pot trials, emphasizing the role of biochar in improving nitrogen use efficiency [2]. Moreover, conservation farming practice carried out with 4 tons/ha of biochar in a maize field in Kaoma, Zambia characterized by sandy acidic soils result in strong increases (0.9 ± 0.1 t ha without biochar to 3.8 ± 0.5 t ha with biochar) in crop yield [26]. Furthermore, application of biochar at 10 t ha-1 along with NPK mineral fertilizers (50g m-2) in maize, cowpea and peanut field showed an increase of 322%, 300% and 200% respectively compared with control plot (without biochar and NPK) in South Sumatra, Indonesia [7]. In contrast, field application of biochar did not show agronomic effects at four sites out of six in Zambia [26]. In seven field trials on five working farms in the UK, [27] observed positive yield effects in three trials, no effects in three trials and negative yield effects in one trial.

Recently, techniques for biochar nutrient enrichment, i.e. mixing nutrients with biochar before addition to the soil, have resulted in some promising increases in crop yield. Biochar enriched with cattle urine and amended to soil in Dhading, Nepal, increased the yield of pumpkin to 82.6 t ha-1 [28], more than 300% higher than that with only urine and 85% higher than the yield with the same amount of biochar without urine added. In another study, biochar enriched with compost nutrients by co-composting in the presence of biochar, was added to sandy soils and increased the yield of Chenopodium quinoa by 300% compared to non-enriched biochar treatments in the presence and absence of compost [29]. Biochar nutrient enrichment is probably effective due to penetration of nutrients in biochar micro- and nanopores. The pores of carbonaceous sorbents such as biochar are so narrow that water movement is restricted and an ice-like water structure is formed [30]. Earlier work has provided evidence of a relation between organic compound sorption and the nanopore volume of such matrices [30] and it is possible that a similar phenomenon could occur for nutrients in biochar. Nutrient addition to biochar has thus shown to be a promising method to enrich the biochar and render it a slow-release fertilizer. However, systematic studies on the optimal way to carry out such nutrient enrichments are lacking.

This is the first study to directly compare the agronomic effect of biochar produced from different kiln types and enriched in different ways (enriched hot biochar and enriched cooled-down biochar, as compared to non-enriched biochar where the same amount of nutrients was added separately). The study was carried out using a pot trial design in Nepal using a woody shrub as biochar feedstock. “Eupatorium adenophorum” is a promising feedstock as it is a naturally regenerating, ubiquitous, invasive woody forest shrub species locally named “Banmara” (forest killer) that is about 1–2 m high and stems up to 2 cm thick [31]. In this way, waste from an invasive species can be turned into a valuable resource for agronomic production and carbon sequestration. Biochar produced from Eupatorium feedstock has been found to meet all the requirements for premium quality based on European Biochar certificate [20]. In Nepal, average landholding size is very small and the soils can be acidic, exhibiting lower levels of C, N, P and exchangeable bases [32]. Overall, this study tested the following hypotheses: (1) Biochar produced from various kilns with different pyrolysis conditions exhibits different crop yield effects depending on kiln type, and (2) Nutrient enrichment improves the agronomic effect of biochar thereby increasing the maize biomass production.

Biochar (BC) was produced using several different types of kilns; flame curtain kilns (four sub types: deep-cone metal kiln, steel-shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone kiln), brick-made traditional kilns, traditional earth-mound kilns, and TLUD kilns. Photographs of each of these production methods are shown in the supporting information (Image A in S1 File) along with a description and principle of their operation (Description A in S1 File). The feedstock used for the generation of biochar was the woody shrub Eupatorium, which was collected from forests close to the site of pot trials at Matatirtha, Kathmandu, Nepal (N 27° 41′ 51″, E 85° 14′ 0″, altitude 1520 m). Stems were 1–2 cm thick. Eupatorium had 25% moisture content at the time of pyrolysis [20]. Elemental analysis of the Eupatorium was carried out using an EuroEA Elemental Analyzer and showed that the biomass contained 42.9% C, 1.4% H and 1.5% N. For the flame curtain kilns, Eupatorium was subjected to a maximal pyrolysis temperature of around 600°C just below the flame curtain, as measured by an Impex digital thermometer with a 60-cm temperature-resistant sensor pin [20,23] cooling down to 200–400°C as the pyrolyzing biomass was getting further and further down below the flame curtain upon the layer-by-layer addition of new feedstocks. Pyrolysis temperatures for the other kilns were lower, around 400 to 500°C before final quenching with soil or water [17]. Following the pyrolysis process which took place over a period of around 2 hours per batch, biochars produced from the deep-cone metal flame curtain kiln, steel small cone, TLUD and brick kiln were quenched or snuffed with water whereas biochar produced from the steel shielded soil pit and conical soil pit flame curtain kilns were snuffed with soil (Image A in S1 File). Weight and volume of the biochar were measured after water snuffing and soil snuffing.

Biochar was nutrient-enriched using two methods, namely hot and cold nutrient enrichment. Hot and cold nutrient enrichment refers to hot and cooled-down biochar, respectively, that were enriched with mineral fertilizers (NPK) added dissolved in water. Hot nutrient enrichment was carried out by pouring hot (200 to 400 C) biochar at the rate of 30 g and 120 g (equivalent to 1% (20 t ha-1) and 4% (80 t ha-1 biochar respectively) in 1 L dissolved nutrients in a bucket. For both biochar rates, all biochar was submerged, however, biochar for the 1% amendments was enriched in a thinner slurry (higher liquid to solid ratio) than the biochar added at a 4% rate. During hot nutrient enrichment, the biochar was cooled down from 200–400 0C to < 40 0C upon contact with the nutrient solution. The nutrient solution contained urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and potash as the source of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) respectively. Urea, DAP and potash was used at the rate of 5.11 g pot-1, 2.34 g pot-1 and 1.8 g pot-1 which is equivalent to 2.7g pot-1 N, 1.08 g pot-1 P and 1.08 g pot-1 K. The lukewarm mixture in the bucket was then stirred thoroughly for 10 minutes to ensure the biochar was well mixed with the solution. Cold nutrient enrichment was carried out using a similar method with the same volume of water and amount of NPK but adding biochar that was water quenched and cooled down beforehand. After enrichment, the bucket was sealed and the biochar allowed to rest for 10 days. The liquid remaining that was not absorbed by the biochar was later added to the respective treatment pot to ensure the same fertilizer dose addition to each respective pot.

The soil used for the pot trial was taken from a field at Rasuwa farmland (270, 59,479′ N and 850, 11.987′ E, altitude 1365m). The study was conducted on private farmland. No specific permission apart from that from the farmer was required for these locations to take the composite soil sample. The exiting field trials in Rasuwa did not involve endangered or protected species. The soil was collected from 0–30 cm depth and was well homogenized by repeated shoveling. The soil was an inceptisol (order) having low soil pH of 4.5 and base saturation of less than 50% [33].

A pot trial was carried out in order to investigate the effect of different biochars, produced using different methods and enriched in different ways (hot mineral nutrient-enriched, cold mineral nutrient-enriched and non-enriched biochar) had on soil characteristics and crop production. The pot trial was carried out in June-July 2015 in a greenhouse located in Matatirtha, Kathmandu, Nepal. The average daily temperature for the time period when the pot trial was carried out were 220 C (minimum 15 0 C and maximum 29 0 C). However, temperatures in the greenhouse were higher than those values (minimum 20 0 C and maximum 49 0 C). Nursery plant pots (25cm top diameter and 25 cm height) were filled with 3 kg dry soil. Biochar (dry or slurry, dependent on treatment) was added to the pots at two different doses; 1 and 4% biochar (approximately 20 t and 80 t biochar ha-1) based on dry soil and biochar weight and were mixed until completely homogeneous.

Seven different kiln types (7 levels), three mineral nutrient enrichment techniques (hot mineral nutrient enrichment, cold mineral nutrient enrichment and non-enrichment) each with 1% and 4% biochar dosages (6 levels) and their interaction with kiln type and nutrient enrichment techniques along with two controls illustrated 21 treatments/levels (N = 86) in total (Table 1). For biochar produced from flame curtain deep cone metal kilns and traditional brick kilns, two dosages of biochar (1% and 4% biochar) were used for hot mineral nutrient enrichment, cold mineral nutrient enrichment and non-enrichment (biochar separately added to the soil), leading to a total of 12 treatments for these production methods. For the TLUD produced biochar, the same two dosages of biochar were used, but the biochar was not enriched. For the conical soil pit, steel shielded soil pit and traditional kiln production methods, only one dosage (4%) of biochar (not enriched) was used (Table 1). In addition to these biochar additions (Table 1), two control treatments i.e. control (C1) without biochar and without NPK (non-fertilized control, n = 4) and a control (C2) with only mineral fertilizer (fertilized control, n = 5) were also used.

These biochar type consists of 19 levels (N = 77) with two additional control treatments C1 and C2 (N = 9) where all biochar amended treatments (19 levels, N = 77) were compared with these control treatments (N = 9). The numbers T1 to T21 correspond to different treatments number with its respective replications (n = 3, 4 or 5, N = 86) in parentheses.

Two maize seeds were initially sown 2 cm below the soil surface in each pot. Upon germination and emergence of two leaves (after 12 days), the smaller plant, selected based on visual observation, was removed from the pot to leave one plant for the experimental duration. Each pot was watered daily with 0.7 L (corresponding to 20 mm rainfall) water. Pots were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) comprising five blocks/replications. Pots in each block were rotated at an 8-day interval to ensure the homogeneity of the treatments. Weeding was carried out 20 d (1st weeding) and 35 d (2nd weeding) after sowing.

Maize plants were harvested after 50 d and were separated into above ground biomass (AGB which comprised the shoot) and below ground biomass (BGB which comprised the root), just above the brace roots. Both AGB and BGB fresh weight were measured immediately after harvesting. Roots were washed carefully with clean water. Plant biomass (AGB and BGB) was oven dried at 70 0C for 24 hours for dry weight analyses.

Soil samples were collected after harvesting of maize plants. Soil from all individual replicate pots was collected to make a composite sample for each of the 21 treatments. Soil analyses were conducted both prior and after the amendment of the biochar, i.e., in the presence and absence of biochar. The biochar-amended soils were analyzed after the experiment (various biochar amended treatment soils). Soil samples were oven dried at 40 0C for three days and passed through a 2mm sieve and ground (< 2mm) prior to analysis. Sieved samples were used for determining pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) and ground samples were used for total carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (CHN) analysis. Soil pH was measured in both 0.01M CaCl2 and in water (soil: solution ratio of 1:2.5 in volume basis) using an Orion 1 Ross pH electrode. Total CHN was measured by elemental analysis using an EuroEA Elemental Analyzer. For CEC measurement, NH4NO3 extractable cations were extracted by adding 25ml 1M NH4NO3 to 3g soil, gently shaken and kept overnight. The suspension was transferred to 250ml volumetric flask through the funnel with washed blue ribbon filters (Whatman 589/3) until 250ml was collected. 15ml of 1M NH4NO3 extracted solution was poured in 15ml ICP tubes (Inductively Coupled Plasma) to measure the individual exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Al3+). For H+ determinations, the 1M NH4NO3 extraction solutions (20ml) were titrated with 0.05 M NaOH.

Biochar generated from the different kilns was collected after production. Biochar samples were treated in the same way as soil samples and analyzed for pH, CEC and total CHN. BET surface area was determined by N2 adsorption at 77 K using an automated surface area analyzer. The samples were outgassed by heating at 110o C under a flow of ultrahigh purity helium at 10 cm3min-1 for 16 to 24 h prior to analysis. Isotherm data were recorded at partial N2 pressures of 0.03 to 0.7 atm. The apparent surface areas of samples were obtained from the statistical monolayer capacities of N2 from the BET plots [34]. Because of the risk of N losses as NH3, the concentration of N absorbed to the char was measured in the study. Since P and K through volatilization can be ruled out, these nutrients were not analyzed in the enriched chars. For mineral N (Nmin) analysis, (NO3 and NH4+) in char, biochar sample operating hot mineral nutrient enrichment was collected. Nmin analysis was performed through standard 2M KCl extraction methods.

Data were statistically analyzed using R software (R version 3.2.2, R commander 2.2–1) and excel. Data normality was checked prior to performing linear model ANOVA analysis. Two factor linear ANOVA model was used to explore the effect of kiln type’s biochar (7 levels) and mineral nutrient enrichment techniques (hot, cold and non-enriched) including both dosages of biochar (6 levels) and their interactions (19 levels) on maize biomass yield (dry AGB, height and node diameter) (Table 1). Biochar produced from different kiln types and three different mineral nutrient enrichment types (19 levels) were compared with non-fertilized and fertilized control treatments (2 levels) via one way ANOVA. Significant effect observed in the ANOVA were further explored through Post Hoc Tukey test to compare all the treatment means and their significance against each other on maize biomass production. Soil samples were pooled per treatment for statistical analysis where the effect of biochar amended soils i.e. 1% biochar (n = 8) and 4% biochar (n = 11) on soil pH, CEC, Ca/Al and total CHN content were compared with non-fertilized and fertilized control soils.

As earlier reported [20], average biochar yields from Eupatorium feedstock on dry weight basis and carbon basis were 19.5 ± 5.0% and 40.2 ± 10.1%, respectively (Table A in S1 File). These numbers were in the same order of magnitude as those for biochar from various other kiln techniques at various pyrolysis temperatures [3538].

Chemical analysis of biochar samples showed a consistent pH of 10.12 ± 0.19 (H2O extraction) and 9.11 ± 0.27 (CaCl2 solution), which showed that variation in pyrolysis temperature between flame curtain kilns and traditional methods did not influence the pH of biochar. On average, biochars produced from different kilns all had relatively high CECs of 133.3 ± 37.2 cmolc kg-1. Total C, H and N content of biochar samples produced from different kiln types were 73.9 ± 6.4%, 1.81 ± 0.43% and 0.74 ± 0.16% respectively. Average surface areas (SA) of biochar samples were 97 m2/g, ranging from 35.4 to 215 m2/g (Table A in S1 File). These results show that alkaline biochar with high CEC, C content and SA was produced independent of the various production methods tested in this work (the novel flame curtain, TLUD, traditional brick and earth-mound kiln).

N analysis (NO3—N) of hot nutrient-enriched biochar showed 1.08 ± 0.12 mg NO3 kg-1 biochar and 0.81 ± 0.02 mg NO3 kg-1 biochar for the biochar added at 1% and 4% respectively (Table B in S1 File). Similarly, 313 ± 5.77 mg NH4+ kg-1 biochar and 120 mg NH4+ kg-1 biochar was observed for hot nutrient-enriched biochar to be added at 1% and 4% dosages, respectively (Table B in S1 File). These Nmin contents were likely underestimated as only one singular KCl extraction was done while Kammann et al [29] and Haider et al [39] have recently demonstrated that serial KCl extractions of biochar may lead to significant higher Nmin quantities captured by biochar. Total N contents for hot nutrient-enriched biochar were 4.3% and 2.5%, respectively, for the biochar to be added at 1% and 4% dosages. Based on the amount of nutrients in the enrichment solution, it could be calculated that between 50 and 100% of the added N was retrieved in the biochar (Table B in S1 File).

The tested Rasuwa soil was sandy and acidic with low pH (4.5), CEC (12.3 cmolc/kg) and organic carbon (OC; 1.5%). Biochar-amended soils showed increased average pH (4.84 ± 0.50) compared with the fertilized control soil (4.30 ± 0.02) (Table C in S1 File). Average Al/Ca ratios after addition of 1% biochar dose (0.18 ± 0.06) and 4% biochar dose (0.03 ± 0.04) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of non-fertilized (0.30 ± 0.04) and fertilized (0.36 ± 0.08) control soils (Fig 1). Absolute exchangeable Al (III) contents of the unamended soils (0.8 to 1.0 cmolc/kg) were within the range where toxic Al effects on plant roots can be expected [6,26]. Average CEC after amendment with 1% and 4% biochar dosages were 17.1 ± 0.1 cmolc/kg and 29.5 ± 5.1 cmolc/kg, respectively, significantly higher (P< 0.05) than those of non-fertilized (11.2 ± 0.7 cmolc/kg) and fertilized (12.1 ± 0.4 cmolc/kg) control soils (Fig 1, Table C in S1 File). The increase in CEC was higher than expected on the basis of additivity, which is probably caused by the pH effect of biochar, resulting in an increase in CEC measured by extraction with non-buffered NH4NO3 solution. Also soil organic carbon (SOC) contents with the 1% biochar dose (1.9 ± 0.1%) and the 4% biochar dose (3.3 ± 0.4%) were significantly higher (P<0.001) than those of control treatments (1.5 ± 0.1%) (Fig 1). However, addition of biochar (70% C) for 1% and 4% biochar dosages to soil containing 1.5% SOC should have resulted in around 2.2% SOC and 4.3% SOC on the basis of pure additivity, which was higher than the measured values of 1.9% and 3.3% SOC, respectively. Hence, in contrast to CEC, the amount of SOC in the biochar-amended soil was less than expected on the amount of C added via the biochar. There were no significant variations between biochar properties arising from the use of different kilns. Thus, the improved soil chemical properties were the result of biochar addition irrespective of pyrolysis technique.

Biochar produced from different kiln either hot or cold mineral nutrient enrichment or non-enriched were pooled together for the statistical analysis to assess the effect of biochar dosages (1% and 4% biochar) and non/fertilized control (without biochar) on soil properties. Average CEC, OC% and Al/Ca ratio plotted on y-axis and 1% biochar dose (n = 9), 4% biochar dose (n = 11) and fertilized and non-fertilized control (n = 2) treatments were plotted against x-axis. Significance codes (a, b….) were provided based on t-test at 0.05 level of significance.

Before comparing the effect of the different types of biochar production method and the nutrient enrichment techniques on crop yield, we present the results of the overall effect of biochar amendment on maize biomass production. All biochar amended treatments (21 levels, N = 86) revealed significant effect (P<0.0001) on maize biomass production. This was expressed by both maize above ground biomass (AGB) (P<0.0001), maize height (P<0.0001) and, to a lesser extent, maize node diameter (P<0.0001). Among all biochar amended soils, AGB production increased most with 1% hot mineral nutrient enriched biochar produced from traditional brick kiln (+ 248%) and produced from deep cone metal kiln (+168%), respectively, compared with fertilized control (Fig 2). Similarly, 4% biochar produced from traditional brick kiln and deep cone metal kiln encompassing hot mineral nutrient enrichment increased AGB production to 176% and 223%, respectively, of the values of fertilized control pots (Fig 2). Average maize dry AGB production per pot as a main effect of 1% biochar dosage and 4% biochar dosage increased to 165% and 139% (P < 0.001) respectively of the values of the fertilized control soils without biochar (Fig A in S1 File). Similar trends were found for maize height and node diameter. Lowest maize biomass production (3.02 ± 0.29 g pot-1) was observed for non-fertilized control compared with biochar amended and fertilized control treatments (Fig 2, Fig 3, Table D in S1 File).

Description of treatments (T1, T2…T21) is mentioned in the Table 1 and Table D in S1 File. Sign (x) in the middle of the box plot refer to the average maize AGB of each treatments. Asterisk (*) at the top of the box plot denotes the significant difference between biochar treatments over control (C1/T20 for non-fertilized control and C2/T21 for fertilized control) treatments (*** < 0.001, ** <0.01 and * <0.05 significance). Blue color asterisk (*) represents significance level for both non-fertilized (no color fill) and fertilized control (red color box plot) whereas black color (*) only for non-fertilized control (C1/T20). Different letters above box plot (a, b, c) represent significant differences between the treatments (T1 to T21).

Maize dry AGB (g) is plotted as a function of mineral nutrient enrichment technique, along with two controls. Different letters above the bars (a, b, c) represent significant differences between mineral nutrient enrichment types and controls.

Biochar produced from seven different kiln types did not show significant variation in maize biomass production (dry AGB, height and node diameter) (Table 2). When the various kiln methods were compared to each other, maize AGB production did not show significant variation for both non-enriched biochar (produced from all seven different kiln types tested) and nutrient enriched biochar (produced from traditional brick kiln and flame curtain deep cone metal kiln; the only kiln types for which biochar enrichment was tested) (Fig D in S1 File). Thus, the agronomic effect of the flame curtain kiln biochar was similar to that of the other kiln types. On average for all kiln types, maize AGB, height and node diameter for non-enriched biochar were 4.7 ± 0.7 g, 54.7 ± 6.4 cm and 2.0 ± 0.3 cm respectively (Table D panel A in S1 File). On average for both kiln types (flame curtain and traditional brick kiln), nutrient-enriched biochar showed average maize dry AGB, height and node diameter of 8.6 ± 4.0 g, 78.5 ± 26.5 cm and 3.0 ± 0.8 cm respectively (Table E panel B in S1 File). Hence, biochar generation technique had no effect on maize biomass production, but nutrient enrichment had.

The table output corresponds to Fig D in S1 File for the effect of kiln type biochar, Fig 3 for nutrient enrichment type biochar and Fig 2 and Fig G in S1 File for the interaction between kiln type and nutrient enrichment type biochar on maize above ground biomass production (gm).

Nutrient enrichment showed significant effects (P<0.0001) on maize biomass production (Table 2). Biochar hot nutrient enrichment at 1% dosage showed increases in average maize AGB of +153% and +209% of the values observed for cold nutrient-enriched and non-enriched biochar respectively, at the same dosage of biochar and nutrients, the nutrients having been added separately for the non-enriched biochars (Fig 3). Similarly, the higher 4%-dosage hot nutrient enriched biochar showed higher (P<0.001) average AGB than the 4% non-enriched (+82%) and cold-enriched biochars (+62%)(Fig 3). The study also showed that 1% hot nutrient enriched biochar amendment gave significantly higher maize biomass (P<0.0001) than all of the 4% biochar treatments (hot nutrient enrichment, cold nutrient enrichment and non-enriched) (Fig 3). Similar trends were observed for maize height and maize node diameter (Figs E and F in S1 File). Overall, both dosages of biochar treated via hot nutrient enrichment showed significantly stronger effects on biomass yield (P<0.0001) compared to cold nutrient enriched biochar, non-enriched biochar and fertilized control treatments.

The interaction of two factors: kiln type and mineral nutrient enrichment type for both biochar dosages showed significant effects (P<0.001) on maize biomass production (Table 2, bottom row). 1% biochar hot nutrient enriched produced from flame curtain deep cone metal kiln and traditional brick kiln showed higher biomass yield (P<0.001) compared with 1% non-enriched biochar produced from flame curtain deep cone metal kiln, traditional brick kiln, steel small cone kiln and TLUD (Fig 2, Fig G in S1 File). In contrast, 1% cold nutrient enriched biochar did not show significant effect with 1% non-enriched biochar on maize biomass yield. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between 4% biochar (non-enriched) produced from various kilns and 4% cold nutrient enriched biochar but a significant difference on biomass yield was observed between 4% non-enriched biochar versus 4% hot nutrient enriched biochar produced from flame curtain deep cone metal kiln and traditional brick kiln (Fig 2, Fig G in S1 File).

In this study, the chemical properties of pure biochar produced from “Eupatorium adenophorum” via flame curtain kilns were in line with those reported by Schmidt et al, 2015 [28] that used the same feedstock and kiln type biochars qualifying for premium quality of the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). This was the first study where the agronomic effect of biochar produced by flame curtain kilns was compared to that produced via other kilns (traditional brick kiln, TLUD and earth mound kiln). Alkaline biochar (pH 9), when applied to acidic soil, was shown to improve soil chemical properties (pH, CEC and SOC) and reduce deleterious available Al concentration (Table C in S1 File). Increases of soil pH, CEC and SOC were in line with results from earlier studies on sandy and/or acidic soils [4042].

For SOC, a lower increase was observed than that expected on the basis of additivity (i.e., the amount of C added via the two biochar dosages). This may be due to one or several of these four reasons; i) heterogeneity in soil samples; ii) oxidation of biochar C; iii) leaching of soil or biochar dissolved organic carbon (DOC) [43], or iv) leaching of microscopic biochar particles [44]. Mechanisms (ii) and (iv) were favored by the green house conditions (high temperature and daily irrigation); mechanism (iii) was favored by the increase in alkalinity leading to DOC losses [43]. Biochar is commonly touted for its ability to sequester organic carbon (low C mineralization) for several years [45], however, temperature and moisture availability greatly affects the SOC retention and losses [46]. Biochar stability (CO2 sequestered over a 100 year perspective) estimated from literature H/C ratios [47] for the biochar produced from various kiln reported 78% (earth mound kilns), 77% (retort kilns) and 90% (flame curtain kilns, TLUDs, gasifiers) in accordance with differences in operation temperature being lower for earth-mound kiln and retort kilns than for other three kiln types (Table F in S1 File). Thus, freshly produced biochar is not a completely inert material and part of it is prone to oxidation in contact with soil [48]. For example, Hamer et al. reported that C losses depends on feedstock biomass type where biochar produced from corn stover and rye was decomposed more quickly than wood [49].

In this study, the maize biomass production obtained with amendments with biochar made by flame curtain kilns was not shown to be significant different from maize biomass with biochar made with the other kiln types (Table 2, Fig D in S1 File), either non-enriched or enriched. This falsified hypothesis (1), and was corroborated by the observation that kiln type did not result in significant variation in biochar characteristics such as CEC, pH and OC content [50]. Even though flame curtain kilns showed lower emission factors and higher biochar production efficiencies [20], and are operated at higher temperatures, none of the four different flame curtain kilns showed biochar chemical properties (Table A in S1 File) and crop biomass production (Fig D in S1 File) that significantly differed from those observed for biochar generated by the other kilns. In accordance with this, Deal et al [50] reported no variation in biochar characteristics (pH, CEC and OC) produced from different kiln types/pyrolysis temperatures.

Similar non-significant trends of crop yield with kiln type (different pyrolysis conditions) were observed for the biochar produced from ponderosa pine and macadamia nut feedstock under slow and fast pyrolysis types for perennial grass, Koeleria macrantha [51] and lettuce/maize corn [52], respectively. Furthermore, biochar produced from traditional kiln type (slow pyrolysis) with rice husk did not show significant effects on rice yield [53].

So far, there have not been any studies that have compared the agronomic effect of biochar produced by various kiln types. Further research on the influence of kiln type on biochar effectiveness for soil and crop yield is thus needed [54]. Soil quality and crop responses generally depend on biochar properties that in turn depend on pyrolysis temperature [55]. Biochar produced from both low and high temperature pyrolysis has shown improvement of soil chemical properties [6,9,40], however, these effects differ greatly dependent on soil mineralogy and types [56]. Without directly comparing kiln types in the same study, crop production in response to biochar produced from different kiln types operated at different temperatures has shown a wide range of effects, from positive to no differences or even negative yield effects [55]. In accordance with our findings for acid soils, meta-analysis showed that increases in crop yield upon biochar amendment were larger for acid soils than for neutral ones (26). However, in contrast to our findings, the authors reported a large variation with biochar properties and, implicitly, kiln types.

In order to investigate appropriate techniques of mineral nutrient enrichment of biochar, a pot trial was conducted where hot and cold biochar were enriched with liquid mineral fertilizer or applied separately with mineral fertilizer (non-enriched) in acidic soils, all with the same total amount of fertilizer. Nutrient enrichment could be an effective method to improve soil fertility because nutrients become reversibly trapped in the nano/micropores inside the biochar matrix where water movement is restricted, and act as a slow-release fertilizer, reducing nutrient leaching on low CEC soils [42,57]. This is the first study in which hot and cold nutrient enrichment have been compared. Hot nutrient enrichment showed better effects on crop yield than cold nutrient enrichment or separate addition of biochar and nutrients, confirming hypothesis (2).

An explanation why hot nutrient enrichment was more effective than cold nutrient enrichment can possibly be obtained by analogy with organic compound diffusion through soil and black carbon nanopores. The penetration of nutrients into biochar nanopores is most likely an activated process that probably takes place faster at increased temperatures: retarded nanopore diffusion of organic compounds is a highly activated process with activation enthalpies ranging from 60 to 100 kJ/mol [58]. This implies that the retarded pore diffusion rates, and thus the rates of nanopore penetration, increase by approximately a factor of 2 for each 10°C increase in temperature (58). Thus we speculate that pore penetration in hot biochar (e.g., between 60 and 100°C, the expected temperature range when 100–200°C hot biochar is brought into water) could be 100–10,000 times faster than that at room temperature, analogous with observations for organic molecules in black carbon pores that showed 100 times faster diffusion at 60 C than 20°C [59,60].

More research has to be done to explain the underlying nutrient enrichment mechanisms, including nutrient speciation and location on the microscopic level [61], and their effects on crop production. One of the few studies explicitly studying nutrient enrichment of biochar is by Kammann et al [29] who observed that co-composting of biochar enriched the material with nitrate and phosphate. The captured nitrate was largely protected against leaching and partly plant-available. The authors hypothesized that nitrate-water bonding in micro- and nano-pores was the mechanism of nitrate capture in biochar particles.

On the other hand, there is a significant volume of literature showing the nutrient retention ability of biochar [62]. For example, Ventura et al. [63] showed in a field experiment that NO3 leaching was reduced by 75% by the addition of 10 t ha-1 biochar, whereas NH4+ leaching was low and not influenced. Also Laird et al [64] observed that 2% biochar reduced total N and total dissolved P leaching from manure-added nutrients by 11% and 69%, respectively.

With regard to the speciation of N nutrients added to biochar, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and SEM imaging of co-composted biochars indicated the presence of iron oxide compounds and amine-NH3 on the surface and pores of the biochars (61). Changes in N functional groups on the biochar surface upon composting indicated sorption and/or reaction with other N species [61].

Based on our study, we suggest not to extinguish the hot biochar by adding NPK solution to it just after pyrolysis, since this would lead to excessive N losses as NH3 due to biochar’s alkaline reaction (NH4+ can be deprotonated to NH3, upon which gaseous losses of N can occur in combination with excessive temperature (200–400°C) (unpublished field observations). Under field conditions, NH3 losses upon the addition of urea solution to hot biochar in flame curtain kilns were observed by a strong ammonia smell. It is recommended to first dissolve the NPK in water to which hot biochar can be added after pyrolysis, when temperatures are between 100 and 200°C. These data confirm the research conducted by Schmidt et al. 2015 [28], where biochar enriched with cattle urine showed significantly increased pumpkin yields, with an increase of 300% and 85% compared with only urine treatment and separate biochar and urine addition, respectively [28].

This study also showed that 1% hot nutrient enriched biochar gave significantly higher maize biomass (P<0.0001) than all of the 4% biochar treatments (hot nutrient enrichment, cold nutrient enrichment and non-enrichment) (Fig 3). This may be due to the fact that the addition of 4% biochar (corresponding to 80 t ha-1), is a too high dosage, as has been observed before [41]. The amendment of 4% biochar is perhaps not realistic from a field perspective either and may result in too large alterations in other soil properties (physical, biological).

Biochar can be produced from the invasive plant species “Eupatorium adenophorum” using various different types of kilns. Among all kilns tested, flame curtain kilns showed the lowest gas emissions factors [20], however, the resulting biochar was observed to possess chemical properties and agronomic effect similar to those seen for biochars produced by other kiln types. A weathered soil (low pH, % C and CEC) with resulting low crop production was significantly improved resulting in increased maize biomass when biochar was amended to the soil in this greenhouse experiment. Biochar has shown improved soil chemical properties with increased soil pH, CEC, C and Ca/Al ratio in Nepalese acidic soils. The strongest effect was achieved after directly mixing the hot biochar with a nutrient (NPK) solution, rather than adding biochar and nutrients separately. Importantly, differences in agronomic and chemical quality between biochars generated by various technologies were small compared to differences between biochar nutrient enrichment methods.

Image A. Kiln types. Overview of kiln types tested in this paper.

Description A. Biochar Production Technology through different kilns.

Table A. Properties of biochar.

Table B. Nitrogen content (NO3-N and NH4-N) of hot mineral nutrient (urea) enriched biochar substrate.

Table C. Soil properties of biochar amended and control soils.

Table D. Effect of kiln type biochar enriched with and without mineral nutrients on maize biomass after 50d.

Table E. Effect of kiln type on maize biomass yield after 50 d for non-enrichment biochar and enriched biochar.

Table F. Biochar stability calculated from literature H/C–ratios.

Fig A. Effect of 1% biochar dosage and 4% biochar dosages and both fertilized and non-fertilized control on maize dry AGB (g) production.

Fig B: Effect of biochar (BC) amended soils produced from different kiln and enriched and non-enriched in various ways with 1 and 4% dosages (19 levels) vs control treatments (2 levels) on maize height.

Fig C: Effect of biochar (BC) amended soils produced from different kiln and enriched and non-enriched in various ways with 1 and 4% dosages (19 levels) vs control treatments (2 levels) on maize node diameter.

Fig D: Effect of kiln types biochar on maize dry AGB (g) production.

Fig E. Effect of hot and cold mineral nutrient enrichment and non-enrichment type’s biochar on maize height.

Fig F. Effect of hot and cold mineral nutrient enrichment and non-enrichment type’s biochar on maize node diameter.

We would like to thank Ms. Magdalena Rygalska for her technical assistance during lab work (biochar and soil characterization) in NMBU, IMV department, Norway, Dr. Vegard Martinsen during data analysis and NAF colleagues for their practical assistance during experiment.

  1. Conceptualization: GC JM SEH HPS NRP.
  2. Data curation: NRP GC.
  3. Formal analysis: NRP.
  4. Funding acquisition: GC.
  5. Investigation: NRP GC HPS.
  6. Methodology: HPS GC JM SEH NRP.
  7. Project administration: GC.
  8. Resources: GC.
  9. Software: NRP.
  10. Supervision: GC JM HPS SEH.
  11. Validation: JM SEH.
  12. Visualization: NRP.
  13. Writing – original draft: NRP GC.
  14. Writing – review & editing: GC JM SEH HPS.

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29 April, 2017
 

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An international meta-analysis on the effect of biochar on crop yield, published in Environmental Research Letters, concluded that there is no benefit in using biochar to increase fertility and crop yields in temperate zones. Adding biochar has been found to increase crop yields in low-nutrient, acidic tropical soils, and many assumed these benefits would be universal, but this analysis of more than 1,000 experiments conducted around the world showed otherwise. The study did not evaluate other potential benefits of using biochar as a soil amendment, such as managing waste, storing carbon in the soil, and being more environmentally friendly than adding synthetic chemicals to the soil. Study authors note that these benefits could still hold true in both temperate and tropical regions.

 

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Can Biochar Covers Reduce Emissions from Manure Lagoons While Capturing Nutrients?

29 April, 2017
 

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Biochar

29 April, 2017
 

WHEN: 6:30 – 8pm Monday 1 May 2017

Adrian will present solutions for biochar production from waste wood sources and discuss some recent projects using the Earth Systems CharMaker – Mobile Pyrolysis Plant.

Biochar is a form of charcoal produced from the oxygen-free pyrolysis of wood and which, even when combined with water and soil, remains stable for thousands of years. It can therefore be an important carbon store, capturing carbon from the atmosphere and ‘locking it in’ as a solid mineral-like material.

Biochar has many applications apart from carbon sequestration, including soil improvement and water retention and is increasingly popular as a soil additive to increase plant growth and crop yields.

In the news: ABC Rural: Biochar offset method needed to fix supply bottleneck

WHEN: 6:30 – 8pm Monday 1 May 2017

WHERE: McCoy Building — Fritz Loewe Theatre (entry via level 2)
University of Melbourne, Cnr Elgin & Swanston Streets, Carlton

Public transport: Take any tram on Swanston Street and get off at Stop 1, Melbourne University.

Entry to building: South side of Elgin St up the ramp and through the automatic doors.

Entry: Gold coin donation

Youtube: Missed any meetings? All discussions are posted at the BZE youtube channel — and you can see them all here.
June 5th DG TBA | July 3rd DG Ten Star Housing with Tim Adams.
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Thank you
The University of Melbourne Energy Institute (MEI) has been a Zero Carbon Australia project partner and supports BZE in bringing you this event.

Everyone is welcome to come along to the pub next door to continue the discussion after 8pm.
THANK YOU to all who have already DONATED to support the Zero Carbon Industry project!


Amazing machine makes new coal in hours

30 April, 2017
 

Your 4-day local weather forecast

I have just spent a pleasant weekend of driving to Braidwood, speaking at a biochar workshop and learning a great deal about the importance of fungi and biochar for tree growth. 

Not to mention all those extra kilometres for not paying attention to the idiocy of my electronic navigator. 

The attraction in this beautiful part of the state near Canberra was to see the launch of an Australian-made mobile charcoal maker, the Crossfire Retort, a pyrolysis machine that converts wood and bones into biochar and bonechar for use in agriculture.  

This technology runs the greenhouse system backwards by mining carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to remake (char) coal and put it in the soil. Instead of millennia, new coal can be made in hours.

The biochar is very good for the soil in two ways.

Its inert porous structure forms a great home for the bacteria and fungi necessary for plant growth. It also contains the minerals and salts that were present in the original plant material and returns these to the soil. 

Use of charcoal in agriculture is not new technology, evidence is available around the world including the Inca of the Amazon and the Maori of New Zealand.

At the conference I learnt that a pinch of biochar in the potting mix along with mycorrhizal fungi stimulates markedly the growth of pine seedlings when compared to fungi alone. 

 Recent research is confirming that biochar can double the water holding capacity of sandy soils and also accelerate the accumulation of Soil Organic Carbon in soil. 

I am looking forward to my next trip in late July to attend the Braidwood Truffle Festival. It will offer a double delight of truffle food aplenty and lectures by some of the world’s best truffle scientists.

CHECK out the top picks from our Weekender diners.

CAST your vote in the Muswellbrook Art Prize People's Choice award.

The weekend's event at Myuna Bay was the first time it has been held in the Hunter.

A Defence Force service medal that was lost at Cessnock's Anzac Day march has been returned to its …


Furfural–biochar-based formulations show synergistic and potentiating effects againstMeloidogyne …

30 April, 2017
 

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