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Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield Due to Application of Biochar and Compost of Plant …

1 March, 2017
 

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1 Available online at: DOI: /jts Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield Due to Application of Biochar and Compost of Plant Waste 1 Junita Barus Lampung Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Jl.ZA Pagar Alam 1A Rajabasa Bandar Lampung, Indonesia. Received 03 November 2015/ accepted 01 January 2016 ABSTRACT The importance to return organic matter to the soil has been widely recognized, especially to agricultural lands that are low in organic matter and nutrients contents that will decrease the productivity of food crops. This study aimed to study the effect of biochar (rice husk and corn cob biochar) and straw compost on soil chemical properties and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. The experiments were done in the laboratory and the field experiment at February July The first study was laboratory test using a randomized block design with three replicates. Soil samples were ground and sieved to obtain the less than 4 mm fraction for the incubation experiment. A five kg soil was mixtured with amandement treatments (A: control; B: Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha -1 ; C: corn cob 10 Mg ha -1 ; D: straw compost 10 Mg ha -1 ; and E. Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha -1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha -1 ; F. corn cob biochar 10 Mg ha -1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha -1 ) were filled into plastic pots. The treatments were incubated for 1 and 2 months. Soil samples measured were ph, Organic-C, Total-N, P 2 (Bray-1), K 2 O (Morgan), Na, Ca, Mg, S, and CEC. The field experiment was conducted at Sukaraja Nuban Village, Batanghari Nuban sub district, East Lampung Regency. The treatments (similar too laboratory experiment) were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Plot size was 10 m 20 m, and soybean as crop indicators. The parameters observed were plant heigh, number of branches, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, grain weight, and stover. The results of laboratory experiment showed that application of biochar and compost improve soil fertility due to the increase in soil ph and nutrient availability for plant especially P 2 and K 2 O available. The treatment of a rice husk biochar and compost mixture was better than single application to improve soil fertility and soybean yield. Apllication mixture husk biochar 10 Mg ha -1 and straw compost 10 Mg ha -1 increased grain weight about 41% compost to control. Keywords: Biochar, compost, crop waste, soil chemical properties ISSN X ABSTRAK Pentingnya pengembalian bahan organik ke dalam tanah telah diakui secara luas, terutama pada tanah dengan kandungan bahan organik dan ketersediaan hara yang rendah yang menyebabkan penurunan produktivitas tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh aplikasi biochar (dari sekam padi dan tongkol jagung) serta kompos jerami terhadap sifat-sifat kimia tanah dan hasil kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merr, terdiri dari kegiatan laboratorium dan percobaan lapangan yang dilakukan pada Februari-Juli Kegiatan pertama dilakukan di laboratorium menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Sampel tanah digiling dan diayak untuk mendapatkan fraksi < 4 mm untuk percobaan inkubasi. Tanah sebanyak 5 kg dicampur dengan bahan pembenah tanah dengan perlakuan A: Kontrol; B: Biochar sekam padi 10 Mg ha -1 ; C: Biochar tongkol jagung 10 Mg ha -1 ; D: kompos jerami 10 Mg ha -1 ; dan E: Biochar sekam padi 10 Mg ha -1 + kompos jerami 10 Mg ha -1 ; F: Biochar tongkol jagung 10 Mg ha -1 + kompos jerami 10 Mg ha -1, dimasukkan ke dalam pot plastik dan diinkubasi selama 1 dan 2 bulan. Selanjutnya diambil sampel tanah dari masing-masing perlakuan dan diukur ph, C-Organik, N-total, P 2 (Bray I), K 2 O (Morgan), Na, Ca, Mg, S, dan KTK. Percobaan lapangan dilakukan di Desa Sukaraja Nuban, kecamatan Batanghari Nuban, Kabupaten Lampung Timur. Perlakuan sama dengan kegiatan laboratorium, disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok dengan empat ulangan dengan ukuran plot adalah m, dan kedelai sebagai tanaman indikator. Parameter yang diamati adalah jumlah cabang, jumlah polong/ tanaman, jumlah biji/tanaman, berat biji dan berat brangkasan. Hasil percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi biochar dan kompos memperbaiki kesuburan tanah yang ditunjukkan oleh peningkatan ph tanah dan ketersediaan hara terutama P 2 dan K 2 O yang tersedia untuk tanaman. Aplikasi

2 2 J Barus et al.: Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield Due to Biochar Application Aplikasi campuran biochar sekam padi dan kompos lebih baik dari aplikasi tunggal untuk meningkatkan kesuburan tanah dan hasil kedelai. Aplikasi campuran biochar sekam padi 10 Mg ha-1 dan kompos jerami 10 Mg ha-1 meningkatkan bobot gabah sekitar 41% dibanding dengan kontrol. Kata Kunci: Biochar, kompos, kesuburan tanah, kedelai INTRODUCTION Dry land in Lampung is dominated by Ultisols that has parent materialis acidic sedimentary rocks, so the soil reaction is acidic and base saturation <35% (Prasetyo and Suriadikarta 2006). The other characteristics are low of organic matter content, P and K nutrient content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), as well as the soil structure is unstable (Nurida et al. 2013). The low soil organic carbon content in tropic agricultural soil is due to the rapid turnover rates of organic material as a result of high soil temperatures and moisture; especially the farmers prefer the inorganic fertilizers such as urea and NPK compound than organic fertilizers. The soils fertility significantly decline in their native carbon stock through the long-term use of extractive farming practices (Mekuria and Noble 2013). The importance to return organic matter in the soil has been widely recognized, especially plant biomass. The plant wastes are abundant around agricultural land, especially at harvest time such as rice waste (straw and rice husks). Organic waste recycling in agriculture improves the soil fertility as increase the soil organic matter (SOM) content. Various types of organic fertilizers are often used in sustainable farming systems to improve soil properties, such as biochar and compost. Biochar is produced by thermal treatment at oxygen deficiency e.g. by pyrolysis or gasification, resulting in three products: char, gas and tarry oils (Fischer and Glaser 2012). Application of biochar to soils is hypothesized to increase bio-available water, build soil organic matter, enhance nutrient cycling, lower bulk density, act as a liming agent, and reduce leaching of pesticides and nutrients to surface and ground water (Laird et al. 2009). Application of biochar improves soil fertility, and mitigate climate change (Woolf et al. 2010; Lehmann et al. 2011), increase soil water retention (Brantley et al. 2014), significantly reduced soil loss (Jien and Wang 2013), for long-term soil C sequestration (Fang et al. 2014) and has high C sequestration potential in soils as compared to wheat straw and manures (Qayyum et al. 2014; Schulz et al. 2013). Effect of biochar in soils may not be solely attribute able to its chemical characteristics but also to its reduced accessibility when involved in organomineral associations (Lehmann et al. 2011; Fang et al. 2014), application may trigger short-term improvements such as increasing microbial activity (Fischer and Glaser 2012). The increase of crops yield was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation, CEC, and increased plant-available water (Cornelissen et al. 2013). Many studies have reported the use of biochar as an amendment for crop production, influenced root growth (Olmo et al. 2015), affected above-ground biomass (in the year-3) (Jones et al. 2012), increased the dry biomass of maize (Nurida et al. 2013), and increase faba bean yield by addressing P nutrition and ameliorating Al toxicity (Van Zwieten et al. 2015). Effect of straw compost on soil properties and crop yield has been reported, it increase ph and total-n (Che Jusoh et al. 2013) moreover application of straw compost 5 Mg ha-1 increase Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) and available P (Goyal et al. 2009), as well as increase grain weight of rice 27% than control (Barus 2012). Liu et al. (2012) demonstrated a synergistic positive effect of compost and biochar mixtures on soil organic matter content, nutrient levels, and water storage capacity. Compost maturity and compost quality can influence its effect intensity on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Ideal feedstocks for composting have from 60-70% moisture content, high nutrient levels, and low lignin content. Ideal feedstocks for biochar are 10 20% moisture and high lignin content (Camp and Tomlinson 2015). This research studied the effect of biochar and compost either solely or mixed application on upland soil chemical properties and soybean yields. MATERIALS AND METHODS Biochar and Soil Preparation Rice husks and corn cobs biochar were produced through low temperature pyrolysis at ( ÚC) using drum oil which on the bottom has been fitted with cavities. Rice husk and corn cobs were burned separetely for about 6-8 hours. For composting, firstly rice straws were chopped and incubated with effective microorganisms (EM) for one month. Chemical properties of husk and corn cobs biochar, and straw compost were analyzed for ph (ph meter), Organic-C (Walkley and Black),

3 3 total-n (Kjeldahl), total-p (HCl 25%), total-k (HCl 25%), and CEC (NH 4 OAe). The soil samples (0 20 cm in depth) were collected from upland soil at Sukaraja Nuban Village, Sub district Batanghari Nuban, East Lampung Regency, at February The soil properties were ph(h 2 O) 4.89, 1.25 g kg -1 organic C (Walkley and Black method); 0.15 g kg -1 total-n (Kjeldahl); 5.60 ppm P (Bray-1),CEC 6.94 mol(+)kg -1 soil, 10.5 g kg -1 sand, 53.5 g kg -1 silt and 36 g kg -1 clay. Laboratory Experiment Soil samples were air-dried, and roots and other visible plant remains were removed. Soil samples sieved to obtain the <4 mm fraction for the incubation experiment. Then, soil samples (5 kg) were filled into plastic pots and mixture with amandement as treatments (A. unamendement/ control; B. husk biochar 2.5%; C. corn cob biochar 2.5% (w/w); D. straw compost 2.5% (w/w); E. husk biochar 2.5% (w/w) + straw compost 2.5% (w/w); F. corn cob biochar 2.5% (w/w) + straw compost 2.5% (w/w)). The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. All treatments were incubated for 1 and 2 months, then the chemical properties were analyzed as following: ph (ph meter), Organic-C (Walkley and Black), Total-N (Kjeldahl), P 2 (Bray-1), K 2 O (Morgan), Na, Ca, Mg, S, and CEC (NH 4 OAe). Soils were analyzed at the laboratory of Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology Lampung. Field Experiment The field experiment has been conducted at Sukaraja Nuban Village, Batanghari Nuban sub district, East Lampung Regency in March July The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates, whereas treatments tested were some kind of amendment, that were A: control; B: Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha -1 ; C: corn cob 10 Mg ha -1 ; D: straw compost 10 Mg ha -1 ; E: Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha -1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha -1 ; F: corn cob biochar 10 Mg ha -1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha -1. The amandements were incubated for one month after soil tillage (minimum tillage), then Soybean Varieties Anjasmoro as crop indicators was planted with planting space of cm.the plot size of each treatment was m. Anorganic fertilizers application that were urea, SP-36, and KCl, respectively as follows 50, 100, and 50 kg ha -1, applicated two weeks after planting. Measurement of plant parameters were conducted at harvest (90 days) : plant height, number of branches, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/ plant, and stover. The grain yield (kg ha -1 ) was determined based on grain weight per plot. Statistical Analysis The collected data was statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (F-Test) at level (P< 0.05) and differences in each treatment were adjudged by Tukey s test (P < 0.05) using Minitab Version 12. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The characteristic of rice husk biochar, corn cob biochar, and straw compost (n =3) are shown in Table 1. Both of biochar and compost have ph>7 and others chemical properties is quite different. Some of the previous studies are also showing ph of rice husk or corn cob biochar > 7 (Millaet al. 2013; Nurhidayati, 2014; and Abrishamkesh et al. 2015). Table 1. Chemical analysis of husk, corn cobs biochar and straw compost. Types of Analyzed Husk biochar Corn cobs biochar Straw compost ph (H 2 O) Organic-C (g kg -1 ) N-total (g kg -1 ) Na (g kg -1 ) Ca (g kg -1 ) Mg (g kg -1 ) S (g kg -1 ) Fe (g kg -1 ) Mn (g kg -1 ) Cu (g kg -1 ) Zn (g kg -1 ) CEC (Cmol(+)/kg) Total-P (g kg -1 ) Total-K (g kg -1 )

4 Table 3. The values of soil organic-c, total-n, and C/N after biochar and compost application. *)A. control; B. husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 ; C. corn cob 10 Mg ha-1; D. straw compost 10 Mg ha-1; E. husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 ; F. corn cob biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1. Table 2. The values of soil ph, available P and K, and CEC after biochar and compost application in the 1st and 2nd months. 4 J Barus et al.: Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield Due to Biochar Application

5 5 capacity (Table 2). The ameliorating effect of biochars on chemical properties of acidic soil was consistent with their chemical composition (Chintala et al. 2014; Olmo et al. 2015). Biochar produced in this study had alkaline ph (> 7) which was higher than initial soil ph before application (4.89), therefore, the mixing of biochar and soil allowed to increase soil ph (Brantley et al. 2015). Then, Nurida et al. (2013) reported that application some kinds of biochar of agricultural waste increase soil ph in the range of %. The liming effects of the biochar samples on soil acidity were correlated with it s alkalinity, a close linear correlation between soil ph and biochar alkalinity was R2 = 0.95 (Yuan and Xu 2011). Jien and Wang (2013) reported soil Total Organic Carbon (OC) contents of husk and corn cobs biochar were higher than straw compost (23.40% and % than %). The kinds of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions (temperature, holding time, etc.) may affect both stability and nutrient content availability of biochar (Novak et al. 2009, Brantley et al. 2015). According to Abrishamkesh et al.(2015), husk biochar which was produced by pyrolysis temperature of oC contained OC values of 44.24%. Then, Nurhidayati (2014), maize cob biochar which was produced a temperature of oc for about six hours contained OC values of 18.73%. Application of biochar and compost increased soil ph, available P and K, and cation exchange Table 4. Effect of biochar and compost on maximum plant heigh, number of branches, and number of pods of Soybean. Treatments A. B. C. D. E. F. Control Husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 Corn cob biochar 10 Mg ha-1 Straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 B+D CC++ D D Plant heigh (cm) a a a a a a Number of branches 3.05 a 3.55 a 2.95 a 3.30 a 3.65 a 3.15 a Number of pods b ab b ab a ab Number of Unfilled Pods 5.03 a 3.18 a 3.48 a 2.78 a 2.70 a 3.15 a Note : Using the Tukey is test and 95% Confidence, number in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different Dry Weight (Mg ha-1) A B C D E F Figure 1. Effect biochar and compost on stover and dry grain weight of Soybean. (A. control; B. husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 ; C. corn cob 10 Mg ha-1; D. straw compost 10 Mg ha-1; E. husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 ; F. corn cob biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1). : Stover weight (Mg ha-1), : Dry grains weight (Mg ha-1).

6 6 J Barus et al.: Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield Due to Biochar Application incubated by 2.5% that biochar was likely to increase soil ph after 20, 40, and 60 days. Increasing soil ph, which may affect nutrient availability, likely in this study increased the values of available P (P2O5) and K (K2O) particularly in the second month after incubation (available-p increase %, and available-k increase % than control) (Tabel 2). Biochar may modify soil nutrient availability by processes such as sorption, desorption and precipitation, which are also strongly influenced by changes in ph (Chintala et al. 2014). According to Nurida et al. (2013), effect of biochar on concentration of soil P and K-available was significantly correlated with the levels of P and K contained in some kinds of biochar on agricultural waste as correlation coefficient (r) respectively Mahmoud et al. (2009) reported that straw compost application increase potassium and phosphorus availability of tropical soil. Application of biochar and compost increase soil CEC, this is reasonable because of the increasing levels of exchangeable cations such as P and K. The highest increasing mixed application (husk biochar and compost) at second month was 23.25% compared to control. Jien and Wang (2013) reported that application of wood biochar 2.5% for 105 days incubation significantly increase soil CEC. Biochar appears to increase nutrient retention in soil at two possible mechanisms, adsorption and microbial immobilisation (Foereid 2015). Organic material generally has some adsorption capacity, so the material usually increases the adsorption capacity of soil. Moreover, the porous nature of biochar and high surface area may increase ion exchange capacity of soil. Application of biochar and compost increased soil Organic-C values, but total-n and C/N were relatively constant in the first and the second month of incubation (Table 3). Rice husk biochar mixed with compost increased Organic-C as much as 9.5% at the first month and and 8.1% at the second month. According to Nurida et al. (2013) application some kinds of biochar of agricultural waste did not significantly increase soil Organic-C. Then, Agegnehu et al explained there is a linear relationship between C content in the amendments and the SOC content at the end of the experiment. Application of biochar and compost did not significantly effect plant heigh and number of branches, but significantly increased number of pods per plant (Table 4). Treatment of mixed husk biochar and compost (E) significantly increased number of pods (increasing 55%) compared to control. Number of pod is one of yield component on soybean. According to Agegnehu et al. (2015a), there was a significant relationship (R2 = 0.96) between yield of pods and yield of grains of soybean. Application of biochar and compost decrease number of unfilled pods including the pods which were attacked by pest. Mixed of husk biochar and compost significantly increased dry grain weight and biomass of soybean compared to control, the grain weight increased about 41% (Figure 1). But, on stover weight, all treatments did not significant compared to control. The resultant change in soil nutrient status may affect both plant growth and productivity. Yield responses to biochar application will depend on the type and rate of biochar applied, as well as soil physicochemical characteristics (Agegnehu et al b). Nurida et al. (2012) reported that doses of husk biochar significantly affect dry grain and biomass of maize at Kanhapludults, Lampung. CONCLUSIONS Application of biochar and compost on acid soils improved soil fertility due to the increasein soil ph and nutrient availability especially P- and Kavailable. The treatment of mixed biochar and compost better than single application for improve soil fertility and soybean yield. Apllication to mixed husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 and straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 increased grain weight about 41% than control. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Author thanks to Professor Dermiyati, Jamalam Lumbanraja and Hamim Sudarsonoof Lampung University for their invaluable help during soil analysis, and many helpful suggestions. REFFERENCES Abrishamkesh S, M Gorji, H Asadi, GH BagheriMarandi and AA Pourbabaee Effects of rice husk biochar application on the properties of alkaline soil and lentil growth. Plant soil environt. 61: Agegnehu G, AM Bass, PN Nelson, B Muirhead, G Wright and MI Bird a. Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments: Effects on peanut yield, soil properties and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Agr Ecosyst Environ 213: Agegnehu G, MI Bird, PN Nelson and AM Bass b. The ameliorating effects of biochar and compost on soil quality and plant growth on a Ferralsol. Soil Research 53: Barus J Application of Rice Straw Compost With different Bioactivator on Growth and Yield of Rice Plant. J Trop Soil 17: doi: /jts.

7 Brantley KE, KR Brye, MC Savin and DE Longer Biochar Source and Application Rate Effects on Soil Water Retention Determined Using Wetting Curves. Open J Soil Sci 5: Camps M and T Tomlinson The Use of Biochar in Composting. International Biochar Initiative. international.org. Che Jusoh ML, LA Manaf and PA Latiff Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 10: 1-9. Chintala R, J Mollinedo, TE Schumacher, DD Malo and JL Julson Effect of biochar on chemical properties of acidic soil. Agron Soil Sci 60: Cornelissen G, V Martinsen, V Shitumbanuma, V Alling, GD Breedveld, DW Rutherford, M Sparrevik, SE Hale, A Obia and J Mulder Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia. J Agron 3: FangY, B Singh, BP Singh and E Krull E Biochar Carbon Stability in Four Contrasting Soils. Eur J Soil Sci 65: Fischer D and B Glaser Synergisms between Compost and Biochar for Sustainable Soil Amelioration. Manage Org Waste Foereid B Biochar in Nutrient Recycling The Effect and Its Use in Wastewater Treatment. Open J Soil Sci. 5: Goyal S, D Singh, S Suneja and KK Kapoor Effect of rice straw compost on soil microbiological properties and yield of rice. Indian J Agric Res 43: Jien SH and CS Wang Effects of biochar on soil properties and erosion potential in a highly weathered soil. Catena 110: Jones DL, J Rousk, GE Jones, TH DeLuca and DV Murphy Biochar-mediated changes in soil quality and plant growth in a three year field trial Soil Biol Biochem 45: Laird DA, RC Brown, JE Amonette and J Lehmann Review of the pyrolysis plat-form forco-producing bio-oil and biochar. Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 3: Lehmann J, J Gaunt and M Rondon Biochar sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11 : Lehmann J, MC Rillig, J Thies, CA Masiello, WC Hockaday and D Crowley Biochar effects on soil biota A review. Soil Biol Biochem 43: Liu J, H Schulz, S Brandl, H Miehtke, B Huwe and B Glaser Short-term effect of biochar and compost on soil fertility and water status of a Dystric Cambisol in NE Germany under field conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci. 175: Mahmoud E, M Ibrahim, P Robin, NA Corfini and M ElSaka Rice Straw Composting and Its Effect on Soil Properties. Compost Sci Util 17: Mekuria W and A Noble The Role of Biochar in Ameliorating Disturbed Soils and Sequestering Soil Carbon in Tropical Agricultural Production Systems. Applied Environ Soil Sci 2013: Milla OV, EB Rivera, W-J Huang, C-C Chien and Y-M Wang Agronomic pro per ties and characterization of rice husk and wood biochars and their effect on the growth of water spinach in a ûeld test. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 13: Novak JM, I Lima, B Xing Characterization of designer biochar prod uced at d ifferent temperatures and their effects on a loamy sand. Annals Environ Sci 3: Nurhidayati M Utilization of maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal as soil amendments for improving acid soil fertility and productivity. J Degrade Min Land Manage 2: Nurida NL, A Rachman and Sutono Potensi pembenah tanah biochar dalam pemulihan sifat tanah terdegradasi dan peningkatan hasil jagung pada Typic Kanhapludults Lampung. Buana Sains 12: Nurida NL, A Dariah and A Rachman Peningkatan Kualitas Tanah dengan pembenah Tanah Biochar Limbah Pertanian. J Tanah Iklim 37: Olmo M, R Villar, P Salazar and JA Alburquerque Changes in soil nutrient availability explain biochar s impact on wheat root development. Plant soil 399: Prasetyo and Suriadikarta Characteristic, potential and management of Ultisols for agricultural upland in Indonesia. J Litbang Pertanian 25: Qayyum MF, D Steffens, HP Reisenauer and S Schubert Biochars influence differential distribution and chemical composition of soil organic matter. Plant Soil Environ 60: Schulz H, G Dunst and B Glaser Positive effects of composted biochar on plant growth and soil fertility. Agron for Sustain Develop 33: Yuan JH and RH Xu The amelioration effects of low temperature biochar generated from nine crop residues on an acidic Ultisol. Soil Use Manage 27: Woolf D, JE Amonette, FA Street-Perrott, J Lehmann and S Joseph Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change. Nature Comm 1: 1-9. Van Zwieten L, T Rose, D Herridge, S Kimber, J Rust, A Cowie and S Morris Enhanced biological N2 fixation and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in an acid soil following biochar addition: dissection of causal mechanisms. Plant Soil 39: 7-20.


Biochar soil improver 8ltrs

1 March, 2017
 

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Bio char research papers

1 March, 2017
 

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Biochar: this DIY soil enhancer will change the way you garden forever

1 March, 2017
 

Biochar is a two-thousand year old practice that converts agricultural waste into a fine-grained, highly porous charcoal that helps soil retain nutrients and water. This process enhances soil, holds carbon, boosts food security, and can increase soil biodiversity.

Biochar can be found in soils throughout the world as a result of vegetation fires and historic soil management practices. Biochar can also be made at your own home.

 

Biochar in Soil

As a soil enhancer, biochar makes soil more fertile and can have huge benefits on your garden.

Some soil benefits include:

– reduced leaching of nitrogen into ground water

– moderating of soil acidity

– increased water retention

– increased number of beneficial soil microbes

Biochar can improve almost any soil and it has the largest impact on areas with low rainfall or nutrient-poor soils.

Biochar in Developing Countries

Biochar can reverse soil degradation and create sustainable food and fuel production in areas with severely depleted soils, scarce organic resources, and inadequate water and chemical fertilizer supplies. By making croplands more fertile for longer periods of time, biochar discourages deforestation. The production of biochar can also provide thermal energy for cooking and drying grain.

Here is how you can make biochar yourself!

Materials you need:

-Metal barrel or drum that can be tightly closed and is sturdy.

-Organic material for charring. Leaves, brambles, wood chips, hard wood, and twigs work well.

-Fire place/pit/drum

Prepare your container:

Drill very small “escape holes” into the metal containers so that there is a small outlet for gas to escape. Make sure the holes are not too large.

The Fire:

Place your container on the fire that you’ve built.

Wait

Once you’ve placed your container on the fire, wait and watch. Make sure the small holes on the container are not allowing flames inside and make sure to keep your fire stoked. Depending on the container you are using and the material you are charring, the time to char will be variable. It could take anywhere from 40 minutes to 2 hours. If you notice that the gases coming from the holes in the container are losing their white color, it may be time to remove the container from the fire.

Storage and Pulverization

Once cooled, make sure the biochar is consistent all the way through. At this point it can be pulverized into a powder or left until needed.

Ariana Marisol is an avid nature enthusiast, gardener, photographer, writer, hiker, dreamer, and lover of all things sustainable, wild, and free. Ariana strives to bring people closer to their true source, Mother Nature. She graduated The Evergreen State College with an undergraduate degree focusing on Sustainable Design and Environmental Science. Follow her adventures on Instagram.


Biochar and mycorrhizal fungi for house plants

1 March, 2017
 

Hello, I am planning on repotting my collection of peace lillys, when I repot them I’m considering adding biochar and mycorrhizal fungi to the soil medium, would there be any benefits to this?

I’ve read about using them in the garden but I can’t seem to find anything about using these with potted houseplants.

– thank you

Not necessary for indoor plants and perhaps even detrimental. The benefits that they may provide to outdoor, inground soils are accommodated by a good quality potting mix and the proper applications of a good fertilizer with a range of trace elements.

I add this to all of my plants. Well, almost all of them. Everything except for my orchids and other epiphytes that don’t grow in ordinary soil. I like to use Jobe’s Organics Fast Start. It adds many beneficial microbes to the soil, bacterial & fungal. In all the years that I’ve been doing this, I’ve never encountered any problems. In fact, quite the opposite. All of my plants do really well.

You probably already know this, but I’d thought that I’d share this excerpt about this symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi:

"Mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic relationships with plants at the root level. These fungi enshroud and, in some case, penetrate the structure of plant roots to form an intimate connection that facilitates a 2-way nutrient exchange. The mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi essentially extend the root system of their associated plants to help the plants easily draw in nutrients, minerals, and water from afar. In return, the mycorrhizal plant provides the fungus with photosynthesized sugars. The oldest plant fossils have been found with this association and it has been theorized that this relationship is what enabled plants to first come out of the oceans and onto land nearly 500 million years ago.

Today, nearly all plants still form mycorrhizal associations. The few plants that do not are considered divergent weeds that have developed alternative strategies of survival. Most all cultivated plants perform much better when associated with mycorrhizal fungi and some plants require such associations to grow at all. Thus, it is highly recommended to learn to grow mycorrhizal fungi to improve soil fertility and increase plant health and productivity."

Fertilizing our potted plants doesn’t replace this relationship. The mycorrhizal fungi don’t fertilize plants, they merely help the plants better absorb those nutrients from the soil. And in return, the plants give the fungi the sugars that they create thru photosynthesis.

I mentioned earlier that I don’t use them on my epiphytes, but that’s not because orchids don’t form symbiotic relationships with fungi. It’s just that they rely on a different form of beneficial fungi. In fact, out in the rainforests, orchid seed germination would not be able to take place without the aid of these orchid mycorrhizae. Orchid seeds have no energy reserves of their own. They need the fungi to "infect" them and provide them the energy they need in order to germinate. For the longest time, orchid growers couldn’t get their orchid seeds to grow. They would just spread them around the roots of the mother plants and hope for the best. This is why growing orchids was originally so expensive; because they could only be collected from the wild, or divided up as they got bigger. It wasn’t until this symbiotic relationship was discovered that people were finally able to breed their orchids. After this discovery, everybody was able to cultivate these plants; creating literally hundreds of thousands of hybrids in the process.


Reaseach Project for Using Biochar to Improve Anaerobic Digestion to Scale Up

1 March, 2017
 

Aerial photograph of Roeslein Alternative Energy’s Ruckman farm facility used to generate renewable natural gas from organic waste for delivery to the national pipeline. Lemont, Illinois based science and engineering research centre, Argonne National …
Source: Alternative Energy
Reaseach Project for Using Biochar to Improve Anaerobic Digestion to Scale Up
Reaseach Project for Using Biochar to Improve Anaerobic Digestion to Scale Up
Alternative Energy

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Biochar takes the pharmaceuticals out of urine

1 March, 2017
 

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Method for cleansing waste urine could see it used as a fertiliser

US researchers have demonstrated that biochar, essentially burnt plants, can remove pharmaceuticals from urine waste streams. The findings could help recycle urine into agricultural fertilisers.

Human urine is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus – just what plants need. However, human urine can also contain pharmaceuticals, the release of which cause worrying developmental effects in aquatic ecosystems, hampering its use as a fertiliser. While some wastewater treatment plants recover nutrients from urine and wastewater, they do not typically remove pharmaceuticals. Current pharmaceutical removal systems involve membranes, electrodialysis and activated carbon, but they can be costly, energy intensive and unsustainable.

Now, Avni Solanki from the University of Florida and Treavor Boyer from Arizona State University, have studied biochar, a precursor to activated carbon, to see if it could work as a viable alternative. Biochar is a cheap porous material produced by burning biomass, such as woods or grasses. Biochar’s functionality and surface charge, which depend on its source as well as the pH and composition of the wastewater, allow it to bind pharmaceuticals through π–π and electrostatic interactions. At high doses, biochar can extract more than 90% of pharmaceuticals from urine, while removing less than 20% of nitrogen and phosphorus species, with woody-based biochar performing best due to its micropores.

‘We wanted to look at a low-cost material that all countries could use [for wastewater management], whether developed or developing,’ says Solanki. They were also excited ‘to see that something this cheap with such a low environmental footprint could actually be applied for pharmaceutical removal and nutrient recovery.’

‘The idea and the results are really nice … They show that you can remove so much of the pharmaceuticals without removing much of the nutrients,’ comments Håkan Jönsson, an expert in environmental engineering from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. While Mahesh Ganesapillai, an expert in waste management and nutrient recovery from VIT University, India, comments that the work ‘is a step in the direction of nutrient recovery from human urine providing experimental results that could help validate urine-diverting sanitation systems’.

This article is free to access until 12 April 2017

A A Solanki and T Boyer, Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2017, DOI: 10.1039/c6ew00224b

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Reaseach Project for Using Biochar to Improve Anaerobic Digestion to Scale Up

1 March, 2017
 

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has developed technology that synergistically uses two waste biomass streams to generate two bioproducts and enhance the process of anaerobic digestion.

Aerial photograph of Roeslein Alternative Energy's Ruckman farm facility used to generate renewable natural gas from organic waste for delivery to the national pipeline. 

Lemont, Illinois based science and engineering research centre, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has developed technology that synergistically uses two waste biomass streams to generate two bioproducts and enhance the process of anaerobic digestion.

According to the organisation, the digestion of wastewater can be improved sludge by incorporating biomass-derived, carbon-sequestering char within the digester, thus creating pipeline-quality renewable natural gas while using the remaining biosolids for a high-quality fertiliser.

With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) totaling $1.5 million over three years, researchers at ANL said they have been able to develop and de-risk this technology, which is now ready for scale-up.

Biochar, charcoal derived from plant material, is created in processes such as gasification and pyrolysis, which also produce energy in the form of syngas or liquid fuels.

ANL said that it has demonstrated success using biochar from gasification of agricultural waste such as both corn stover and waste wood sources.

Anaerobic digestion usually creates biogas that is mainly a combination of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, and extra steps are required to upgrade the biogas to renewable natural gas by removing the CO2 and other contaminants.

However, according to ANL by adding biochar directly to the anaerobic digester sequesters the CO2 and creates a biogas stream that is more than 90% methane and less than 5 parts per billion hydrogen sulfide, thus reducing the need for upgrading steps.

The biochar was also said to improve many of the operating conditions for anaerobic digestion, and furthermore, it is nutrient-rich, so the digestate left after the process is completed can serve as a high-quality fertilizer.

With the success of this research, ANL said that it is preparing to scale up the technology with St. Louis, Missouri based Roeslein Alternative Energy (RAE)which  owns and operates renewable energy production facilities that convert agricultural and industrial wastes, along with biomass feedstocks to renewable natural gas and sustainable co-products.

The company plans to perform field demonstrations during 2017 and drive the commercialisation of the technology. It is hoped that ANL’s technology could dramatically improve the economics of anaerobic digestion projects.

ANL said that the reduction of upgrading steps alone could make many smaller biogas projects become profitable. The technology was also claimed to further reduce capital and operating expenses by improving digester conditions and producing fertilizer, which would provide even greater economic benefit.

The project at ANL is part of BETO’s work to fund research, development, and demonstration of waste to energy technologies for sustainable, cost-competitive biofuels and bioproducts from cellulosic biomass.

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The importance of nano-porosity in the stalk-derived biochar to the sorption of 17β-estradiol and …

1 March, 2017
 

Natural estrogens in greenhouse soils with long-term manure application are becoming a potential threat to adjacent aquatic environment. Porous stalk biochar as a cost-effective adsorbent of estrogen has a strong potential to reduce their transportation from soil to waters. But the dominant adsorption mechanism of estrogen to stalk biochars and retention of estrogen by greenhouse soils amended with biochar are less well known. Element, function groups, total surface area (SAtotal), nano-pores of stalk biochars, and chemical structure of 17β-estradiol (E2, length 1.20 nm, width 0.56 nm, thickness 0.48 nm) are integrated in research on E2 sorption behavior in three stalk-derived biochars produced from wheat straw (WS), rice straw (RS), and corn straw (CS), and greenhouse soils amended with optimal biochar. The three biochars had comparable H/C and (O + N)/C, while their aromatic carbon contents and total surface areas (SAtotal) both varied as CS > WS > RS. However, WS had the highest sorption capacity (logK oc), sorption affinity (K f ), and strongest nonlinearity (n). Additionally, the variation of Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity (Q 0) was consistent with the trend for SA1.2-20 (WS > RS > CS) but contrary to the trend for SAtotal and SA<1.2 (CS > WS > RS). These results indicate that pore-filling dominates the sorption of E2 by biochars and exhibits “sieving effect” and length-directionality-specific via H-bonding between –OH groups on the both ends of E2 in the length direction and polar groups on the inner surface of pores. After the addition of wheat straw biochar, the extent of increase in the sorption affinity for E2 in the soil with low OC content was higher than those in the soil with high OC content. Therefore, the effectiveness for the wheat straw biochar mitigating the risk of E2 in greenhouse soil depended on the compositions of soil, especially organic matter.


Man admits to running $54M green-energy Ponzi scheme

2 March, 2017
 

A Georgia man admitted Thursday that he ran a $54 million Ponzi scheme built on false promises of green energy technology that would turn trash into fuel and "carbon-negative" housing developments, neither of which were ever fully developed.

Troy Wragg pleaded guilty in federal court in Philadelphia on Thursday to conspiracy and securities fraud. His college girlfriend, Amanda Knorr, pleaded guilty last year, while Wayde McKelvy, a 54-year-old securities salesman from Colorado, is scheduled to go on trial in September.

The scam allegedly ran from 2005 until 2009, even after the Securities and Exchange Commission filed a civil lawsuit against Wragg and Knorr’s Pennsylvania-based Mantria Corp. They were ordered in 2012 to pay $37 million each.

Two months before the SEC civil lawsuit, the company was publicly recognized for its stated commitment to "help mitigate global warming" by former President Bill Clinton’s Clinton Global Initiative. The company was cited for its plans to develop the biochar technology that it said would sequester carbon dioxide and reduce emissions in developing countries. Wragg appeared on stage with Clinton at the event in September 2009.

Assistant U.S. Attorney Robert Livermore wrote in court filings that the company didn’t set out to defraud investors but began lying after the Pennsylvania-based company began having financial problems.

"When Mantria began to experience financial problems early on, little lies to keep Mantria afloat begat bigger lies which begat even bigger lies until Mantria was nothing but a hollow shell of what was promised to investors," Livermore wrote.

Prosecutors say the trio lied to investors, saying their "biochar" technology and "carbon-negative" housing in Tennessee made millions of dollars, but they had almost no earnings, and the three used the money to repay earlier investors and kept some for themselves.

McKelvy, who prosecutors say has never been licensed to sell securities, raised money through his Speed of Wealth seminars in Colorado, Las Vegas and elsewhere, including one that featured a speech from former Broncos quarterback John Elway.

McKelvy allegedly told investors that Mantria was the next Microsoft and that it was "on the cusp of a revolutionary technology that’s going to change the world, and you guys can benefit from it by putting money in and getting stinkin’ wealthy."

Prosecutors say the housing developments that Mantria told investors would serve as collateral were never finished — the sites lacked drinking water and some may have contained unexploded artillery shells. Mantria then promised returns of more than 500 percent based on trash-to-fuel technology they said they had orders to sell.

The company had a site testing the production of biochar in Dunlap, Tennessee, but prosecutors say the company never had a patent for the technology to sell the systems and lied about how much it was producing.


Two years out of Temple, he built a $54 million Ponzi scheme

2 March, 2017
 

 Jeremy Roebuck covers federal courts and law enforcement.

With little more than a Temple University degree and access to a few acres of Eastern Tennessee highlands, Troy Wragg built a revolutionary real estate and energy firm that attracted more than $54 million in financial backing.

At least that’s what he told his investors.

In truth, the 35-year-old admitted Thursday, even as his Bala Cynwyd-based Mantria Corp. was promising to make its backers “stinkin’, filthy rich,” the company was bleeding millions of dollars a quarter.

Its groundbreaking green-energy technology was simply a pipe dream, he told U.S. District Judge Joel H. Slomsky. And his patch of Tennessee land — which the company once billed as the state’s “largest master planned community” — remained nothing more than a strip-mined wasteland, home to a World War II-era test firing range.

Wragg “portrayed Mantria as the next Microsoft – a company which would change the world and make every investor fabulously wealthy,” Assistant U.S. Attorney Robert J. Livermore wrote in court filings. He was “able to raise such fantastic sums because [he] presented a fantasy world to prospective investors.”

With his guilty plea Thursday to charges including conspiracy and securities fraud, Wragg, who graduated from Temple in 2005 with a degree in business administration, became the second defendant to admit his role in the financial fiasco surrounding Mantria’s 2009 collapse. 

His college girlfriend and Mantria co-founder, Amanda Knorr, 33, pleaded guilty last year. Their co-defendant, Wayde McKelvy, a 54-year-old unlicensed securities salesman from Colorado and Mantria’s pitchman to investors, is scheduled to stand trial in September.

Their 2015 indictment came six years after the Securities and Exchange Commission filed suit against the company in Colorado, shut down the firm, and obtained a court order barring its principals from raising new funds. Various people linked to the company and its associated entities have agreed to a $6 million settlement with investors.

Wragg said little in court Thursday, answering routine questions from Slomsky as he entered his plea. He is likely to face a prison term of up to about 20 years under federal sentencing guidelines.

His lawyer, Joseph D. Mancano, did not immediately return requests for comment after the proceedings.

According to court filings, Wragg saw McKelvy as a lifeline for Mantria as it struggled under the weight of the 2008 collapse of the real estate market.

Prosecutors have painted the Colorado man as a shameless huckster who lured investors to Mantria in flashy seminars he called “Speed of Wealth” clubs and promising yields as high as 484 percent.

He hired celebrities, including NFL Hall of Fame player John Elway, to draw crowds while selling them on the company’s projects, such as its purported 4,500-home development in Tennessee and a $3.2 million plant in Dunlop, Tenn., devoted to the production of “biochar,” a green-energy charcoal substitute made from environmental waste.

Investors could “get paid just by owning land and spreading this stuff [biochar] all over your field, because this stuff pulls the toxins out of the atmosphere,” McKelvy is quoted in court filings as telling potential investors in a May 2009 seminar.

But both projects were far from what company officials described, Wragg admitted Thursday. The biochar plant never generated significant sales.

The real estate development consisted of little more than some roads, one model home, and a gate. The land lacked access to potable water and may have contained unexploded artillery shells.

“Like many who end up running Ponzi schemes, Wragg didn’t set out to defraud investors,” Livermore wrote in court filings. “When Mantria began to experience financial problems early on, little lies to keep Mantria afloat begot bigger lies which begot even bigger lies until Mantria was nothing but a hollow shell of what was promised to investors.”

Wragg is expected to be sentenced after McKelvy’s trial. 

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High Quality Biochar Briquette Extruder Machine

2 March, 2017
 

Home>Products>New Products>High Quality Biochar Briquette Extruder Machine

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 <h2>Briquette extruder machine</h2>

   The briquette extruder machine is not only the most technical  content  equipment  of 

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The Hengjun charcoal machine had achieved a new breakthrough in charcoal system stick field in 2010. Now we have put 4 varieties of system stick machines: practical multi-function charcoal machinehigh efficiency and  energy  saving  system  stick  machine

gear transmission charcoal machine and the low consumption high yield charcoal whichbrought from South Korea technology. These four kinds of products can have a stable 

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and the key components of promote shaft, molding tube etc adopt special wearresistantmaterial prescription, precision casting, durable.The cooperation degree, compact degree, wear-resisting degree between promote  shaft  and  inside  set  of  cannon muzzles 

have a high promotion. The benefits of the new type charcoal machine are high output, low energy consumption, compact and durable, etc

The finished charcoal sticks diameter ranges from 40cm to 80cm which provides a guarantee for qualified carbon. 

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Baixar biochar workshop part 2 why to make biochar

2 March, 2017
 

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Biochar

2 March, 2017
 


Vega Biofuels to Provide Biochar to Alaska's Legal Cannabis Industry – GlobeNewswire

2 March, 2017
 

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Vega Biofuels to Provide Biochar to Alaskas Legal Cannabis Industry

2 March, 2017
 

NORCROSS, Ga., March 02, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink:VGPR) announced today that it has signed a five year Agreement to provide the Companys Biochar to legal cannabis growers in Alaska.  The state of Alaska is the most recent state to legalize both medical and recreational cannabis use.

The Agreement with AK Provisions, Inc. located in Anchorage is Vegas largest single order for Biochar.  Biochar is a highly absorbent specially designed charcoal-type product primarily used as a soil enhancement for the agricultural industry to significantly increase crop yields. Biochar offers a powerfully simple solution to some of todays most urgent environmental concerns. The production of Biochar for carbon sequestration in the soil is a carbon-negative process.  Biochar is made from timber waste using torrefaction technology and the Companys patent pending manufacturing machine.  When put back into the soil, biochar can stabilize the carbon in the soil for hundreds of years.  The introduction of biochar into soil is not like applying fertilizer; it is the beginning of a process.  Most of the benefit is achieved through microbes and fungi.  They colonize its massive surface area and integrate into the char and the surrounding soil, dramatically increasing the soils ability to nurture plant growth and provide increased crop yield.

AK Provisions, Inc. plans to use Vegas Biochar in its own grow facilities as well as market the product to other growers throughout the state of Alaska through a reseller agreement with Vega Biofuels.  The initial order is for 75 super sacks of Biochar.  Each super sack holds approximately 400 pounds.  Indoor grow facilities harvest their plants four times per year and start with new soil each time. 

?By the pound, Biochar is much more profitable to the Company than our Bio-coal energy product and will have a noticeable impact on the Companys bottom line.  The products are similar but each has its own unique qualities, stated Michael K. Molen, Chairman/CEO of Vega Biofuels, Inc.  ?We sell Bio-coal by the ton and Biochar is sold by the pound.  Growers in other states are reporting significant increases in their crop yields when using Biochar as their soil enhancement.  We plan to use the AK Provisions model as we increase our marketing efforts in other states that have recently approved growing legal cannabis.  Our goal is to have the first shipment to Anchorage in time for AK Provisions first planting this spring.

For plants that require high potash and elevated pH, Biochar can be used as a soil amendment to significantly improve yield. Biochar can improve water quality, reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching, reduce soil acidity, and reduce irrigation and fertilizer requirements. Biochar was also found under certain circumstances to induce plant systemic responses to foliar fungal diseases and to improve plant responses to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. The various impacts of Biochar can be dependent on the properties of the Biochar, as well as the amount applied. Biochar impact may depend on regional conditions including soil type, soil condition (depleted or healthy), temperature, and humidity. Modest additions of Biochar to soil reduces nitrous oxide N2O emissions by up to 80% and eliminates methane emissions, which are both more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.

About Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink: VGPR):

Vega Biofuels, Inc. is a cutting-edge energy company that manufactures and markets a renewable energy product called Bio-Coal and a soil enhancement called Biochar, both made from timber waste using unique technology called torrefaction.  Torrefaction is the treatment of biomass at high temperatures under low oxygen conditions.  For more information, please visit our website at vegabiofuels.com.   

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements are not a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by, which such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time the statements are made and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainty and other factors that may cause our results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this press release.

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Legal Cannabis Market Shows Strength

2 March, 2017
 

NEW YORK, March 2, 2017 /PRNewswire/ —

Based on the performance of the legal cannabis market over the last two years, it is arguably one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Regulated cannabis sales in North America totaled $6.9 billion in 2016, a 30 percent increase from 2015. Sales are projected to increase to $21.6 billion by the year 2021 representing a 26 percent compound annual growth rate, according to a report by Arcview Market Research. The market, due to successful legalization campaigns, is attracting entrepreneurs and businesses, expanding its reach across a wider spectrum. Vega Biofuels Inc. (OTC: VGPR), Hemp Inc. (OTC: HEMP), Cannasys Inc. (OTC: MJTK), Greengro Technologies Inc. (OTC: GRNH), Green Cures & Botanical Distribution Inc. (OTC: GRCU

As a result, the legal cannabis market is creating an impressive amount of new jobs. A new report from New Frontier Data projects that by 2020 the legal cannabis market will create more than a quarter of a million jobs. This is more than the expected jobs from manufacturing, utilities or even government jobs, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. “These numbers confirm that cannabis is a major economic driver and job-creation engine for the U.S. economy,” said Giadha Aguirre De Carcer, CEO of New Frontier Data.

Vega Biofuels Inc. (OTC: VGPR) announced today that it has signed a five year agreement to provide the Company’s Biochar to legal cannabis growers in Alaska. The state of Alaska is the most recent state to legalize both medical and recreational cannabis use.

The Agreement with AK Provisions, Inc., located in Anchorage is Vega’s largest single order for Biochar. Biochar is a highly absorbent, specially designed charcoal-type product, primarily used as a soil enhancement for the agricultural industry, to significantly increase crop yields. Biochar offers a powerfully simple solution to some of today’s most urgent environmental concerns. The production of Biochar for carbon sequestration in the soil is a carbon-negative process. Biochar is made from timber waste using torrefaction technology and the Company’s patent pending manufacturing machine. When put back into the soil, biochar can stabilize the carbon in the soil for hundreds of years. The introduction of biochar into soil is not like applying fertilizer; it is the beginning of a process. Most of the benefit is achieved through microbes and fungi. They colonize its massive surface area and integrate into the char and the surrounding soil, dramatically increasing the soil’s ability to nurture plant growth and provide increased crop yield.

AK Provisions, Inc. plans to use Vega’s Biochar in its own grow facilities, as well as market the product to other growers throughout the state of Alaska, through a reseller agreement with Vega Biofuels. The initial order is for 75 super sacks of Biochar. Each super sack holds approximately 400 pounds. Indoor grow facilities harvest their plants four times per year and start with new soil each time.”

“By the pound, Biochar is much more profitable to the Company than our Bio-coal energy product, and will have a noticeable impact on the Company’s bottom line. The products are similar but each has its own unique qualities,” stated Michael K. Molen, Chairman/CEO of Vega Biofuels, Inc. “We sell Bio-coal by the ton and Biochar is sold by the pound. Growers in other states are reporting significant increases in their crop yields when using Biochar as their soil enhancement. We plan to use the AK Provisions model as we increase our marketing efforts in other states that have recently approved growing legal cannabis. Our goal is to have the first shipment to Anchorage in time for AK Provisions’ first planting this spring.”

Hemp Inc. (OTC: HEMP) reports that Alaska is on track to legalize industrial hemp. Hemp said due to ‘growing pressure to diversify’ its economy, Alaska may soon join the ranks of states to legalize industrial hemp. “There have been previous legislative attempts to legalize hemp in Alaska. While met with disinterest then, I believe there’s a strong possibility this industrial hemp bill will pass now. Alaskans are aware of the need to diversify their state’s economy. This is all part of the rippling effect I mentioned yesterday and the day before yesterday: Arizona, New Mexico, and now Alaska is on its way to legalization. It’s time for hemp to make its rightful return to the American landscape. Which state is next?” said Chief Executive Officer of Hemp, Bruce Perlowin.

Cannasys Inc. (OTC: MJTK) is a technology solutions, marketing, and branding company in the regulated cannabis industry. Its core products are delivered ‘software as a service’ to facilitate point-of-purchase transactions, customer relationship marketing solutions, and regulated cannabis laboratory information management systems. CannaSys plans to develop, acquire, and build strategic relationships with other businesses in order to bring additional solutions to market, in both established and developing medical and recreational cannabis states.

Greengro Technologies Inc. (OTC: GRNH) is a provider of eco-friendly green technologies with specific domain expertise in indoor and outdoor agricultural science systems, serving both the consumer and commercial farming markets. It brings together community and commerce through the growth and distribution of healthy, nutritious foods and vital medicines backed by science and technology. Customers include restaurants, community gardens, small and large scale commercial clients. Greengro Technologies also provides design, construction and maintenance services to large grow and cultivation operations and collectives in the medical and recreational marijuana sectors.

Green Cures & Botanical Distribution Inc. (OTC: GRCU) develops, produces & distributes premium hemp based products in two divisions: Original Hollywood Hemp™ and Iconic Beverages™. Original Hollywood Hemp™ offers Hemp activated Health, beauty, skin care, hair care, spices, fashion, food products and beverages with the active ingredients of hemp. Iconic Beverages™: Beverage division includes in development of Hemp infused and no hemp infused beverages which will feature iconic celebrities with exclusive licenses owned by and its shareholders. The company has announced that the company is now Depository Trust Company (DTC) eligible.

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Vega Biofuels to Provide Biochar to Alaska's Legal Cannabis Industry – GlobeNewswire

2 March, 2017
 

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Vega Biofuels, Inc. (VGPR: OTC Pink Current) | Vega Biofuels to Provide Biochar to Alaska&rsquo

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Vega Biofuels to Provide Biochar to Alaska's Legal Cannabis Industry

2 March, 2017
 

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NORCROSS, Ga., March 02, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Vega Biofuels, Inc.(OTCPink:VGPR) announced today that it has signed a five year Agreement to provide the Company’s Biochar to legal cannabis growers in Alaska.  The state of Alaska is the most recent state to legalize both medical and recreational cannabis use.

The Agreement with AK Provisions, Inc. located in Anchorage is Vega’s largest single order for Biochar.  Biochar is a highly absorbent specially designed charcoal-type product primarily used as a soil enhancement for the agricultural industry to significantly increase crop yields. Biochar offers a powerfully simple solution to some of today’s most urgent environmental concerns. The production of Biochar for carbon sequestration in the soil is a carbon-negative process.  Biochar is made from timber waste using torrefaction technology and the Company’s patent pending manufacturing machine.  When put back into the soil, biochar can stabilize the carbon in the soil for hundreds of years.  The introduction of biochar into soil is not like applying fertilizer; it is the beginning of a process.  Most of the benefit is achieved through microbes and fungi.  They colonize its massive surface area and integrate into the char and the surrounding soil, dramatically increasing the soil’s ability to nurture plant growth and provide increased crop yield.

AK Provisions, Inc. plans to use Vega’s Biochar in its own grow facilities as well as market the product to other growers throughout the state of Alaska through a reseller agreement with Vega Biofuels.  The initial order is for 75 super sacks of Biochar.  Each super sack holds approximately 400 pounds.  Indoor grow facilities harvest their plants four times per year and start with new soil each time. 

“By the pound, Biochar is much more profitable to the Company than our Bio-coal energy product and will have a noticeable impact on the Company’s bottom line.  The products are similar but each has its own unique qualities,” stated Michael K. Molen, Chairman/CEO of Vega Biofuels, Inc.  “We sell Bio-coal by the ton and Biochar is sold by the pound.  Growers in other states are reporting significant increases in their crop yields when using Biochar as their soil enhancement.  We plan to use the AK Provisions model as we increase our marketing efforts in other states that have recently approved growing legal cannabis.  Our goal is to have the first shipment to Anchorage in time for AK Provisions’ first planting this spring.”

For plants that require high potash and elevated pH, Biochar can be used as a soil amendment to significantly improve yield. Biochar can improve water quality, reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching, reduce soil acidity, and reduce irrigation and fertilizer requirements. Biochar was also found under certain circumstances to induce plant systemic responses to foliar fungal diseases and to improve plant responses to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. The various impacts of Biochar can be dependent on the properties of the Biochar, as well as the amount applied. Biochar impact may depend on regional conditions including soil type, soil condition (depleted or healthy), temperature, and humidity. Modest additions of Biochar to soil reduces nitrous oxide N2O emissions by up to 80% and eliminates methane emissions, which are both more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.

About Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink:VGPR):

Vega Biofuels, Inc. is a cutting-edge energy company that manufactures and markets a renewable energy product called Bio-Coal and a soil enhancement called Biochar, both made from timber waste using unique technology called torrefaction.  Torrefaction is the treatment of biomass at high temperatures under low oxygen conditions.  For more information, please visit our website at vegabiofuels.com.   

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements are not a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by, which such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time the statements are made and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainty and other factors that may cause our results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this press release.

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Biochar and Water Demonstation

2 March, 2017
 

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Waste Biomass Beneficiation & Job Creation Solution

3 March, 2017
 

Biomass beneficiation solution: Vuthisa Biochar Retort

The basic Vuthisa Biochar Retort (Kiln Kit) consists of:

Vuthisa Technologies developed Energy Efficient (EE) Emission Reducing (ER) kilns. This innovation is significant in two ways. Firstly, biomass left in-field following harvesting operations emits large quantities of methane and other non-CO2 gases that contribute to global warming due to aerobic digestion. Secondly, the kilns have an after burning technique that reduces the emission of greenhouse gasses by about 80% when compared to open fire or kilns without an after burning system. This was researched by an independent party, Airshed.

What is Biochar? Biochar can be distinguished from charcoal—used mainly as a fuel—in that a primary application is used as a soil amendment (organic fertiliser) with the intention to improve soil functions and to reduce emissions from biomass that would otherwise naturally degrade to greenhouse gases. The Vuthisa retort can also produce charcoal and charcoal fines, but made in a more environmentally friendly manner. The use of the word Biochar in this write-up also refers to charcoal produced in the Vuthisa kiln.

The resultant biochar from renewable biomass is not only a carbon sink but offers benefits in terms of retaining moisture & nutrients and providing habitat for good microorganisms, especially mycorrhizae. There is a great need to move away from fossil energy dependent processes for manufacturing fertilisers. It takes about as much energy to make the nitrogen fertilizer for an acre of corn (150 lbs) as it takes to drive a car 600 miles, because it is made using natural gas and other chemical processes that require energy. Our biochar production process only requires fossil fuel to execute short-hauling and transportation activities of the end product, which will not contain any chemical constituents.

Alternative types of kilns like the “earth kiln” and the “brick and/or cement kilns“ have prohibitive disadvantages for making charcoal and therefore biochar. The earth kiln is very labour intensive and besides that, it pollutes much more as there is no after-burning mechanism or the capability to produce biochar in a bonafide retort system. The brick or cement kilns are relatively expensive, take significant time to construct and are also permanent structures.  The Vuthisa kilns are portable. They can be flat-packed and exported and assembled on site and due to their circular design can be repositioned by rolling it.

Greenhouse gasses are only reduced if the correct kiln is used. In 2001, Pennise et al. conducted research on the emissions from traditional kilns, measuring CH4, CO2, N2O, CO, NO, NOx, PM, PAH and VOC emissions. The global warming potential (GWP) is measured in CO2-equivaltents and various pollutants have a much higher GWP than CO2 itself. Pennise et al. states that products of incomplete combustion (PIC) are most harmful in terms of GWP. Depending on the kiln, the emissions can contain up to 13% of PICs. In the EEP funded pilot project “Vuthisa Biochar Initiative”, emission research was done by the independent South African company “Airshed”. It measured the emissions from the kiln produced by Vuthisa, comparing it to the findings presented by Pennise et al., 2001. The following conclusion was drawn:

“Vuthisa Technologies uses after-burning to reduce emissions. The US EPA states that afterburning is estimated to reduce PM, CO and VOC emissions by at least 80%. PM, CO, CH4, VO and PAH emissions reported include an 80% reduction. The CO2 emission rate includes additional CO2 as a result of the conversion of CO and CH4 (23xGWP). The additional CO2 as a result of the conversion of other organic compounds are assumed to be immaterial.”

Organic waste ferments and primarily emits methane into the open atmosphere. Processing it into charcoal prevents this. Emission composition strongly depends on the material as well as the circumstances like temperature, humidity and availability of oxygen. Vuthisa was assisted by world renowned biochar expert Dr Hugh McLaughlin in determining the kiln size, number of internal retorts to be used, length of flue stack and general operating procedures to achieve good quality biochar. Further to his input John Hofmeyr introduced the trilobe concept (pictured above) to pyrolise small diameter feedstock such as sawdust.

Ultimately the South African Government wants to alleviate poverty by assisting entrepreneurs to employ and train a skilled workforce that can eventually branch out to produce the biochar/charcoal as part of Community Based Organisations and Vuthisa would secure the market. Vuthisa Technologies was registered with the Fibre Processing & Manufacturing SETA and Ngaphakathi Professionals have so far trained 40 course attendees in the art of manufacturing charcoal and Biochar using Vuthisa kilns and received certificates. The kiln has much potential as a potential learning tool.

The market potential for waste management solutions is large. Besides straightforward timber logging and saw mill companies, also agro-residues like cotton stalks, rice husks, peanut shells, sawdust, coffee, tea and floriculture residues as well as invasive aquatic weeds are suitable to turn into charcoal or charcoal dust that can be pressed into charcoal briquettes. In South Africa reside 9,000 maize farmers, 4,000 wine estates and 1,500 sugarcane producers which are only the large scale farms. Further to that there are thousands of tea estates, saw mills, timber companies and various grain and oilseed farms in South Africa. The disposal of this agricultural waste goes at a cost because it has to be transported and also a disposal fee has to be paid. Converting the biomass into charcoal or biochar on the spot is a very attractive option. Due to shortened cycle times (4 to 12 hours) small diameter feedstock (commonly found in landfills) that typically turns to ash in larger kilns and prolonged burns can now successfully be carbonised.

This project has very good replication possibilities. Despite much progress, many Southern African countries, including South Africa, experienced the global economic crisis with a recession looming (Statistics SA, 2014). It has affected economic growth over the last four years, prompting a deceleration in rate of economic growth in South Africa. In our view value adding or processing waste streams into products of high value can lessen that impact. The demand for Biochar and charcoal produced efficiently is certainly growing. We envisage that the following industries (around the world) could benefit from having a simple biochar kiln on site to either utilise the biochar or to sell it: Small subsistence farmers, Commercial farmers, Poultry farmers, Working for Water Implementing Agents, Landfill sites, Sawmills, Tobacco companies and Water Treatment plants to name a few. The latter has special significance. The South African government also has a favourable tax arrangement in place for companies that hire workers to process methane emitting waste.

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UBC Okanagan research leading to green solutions

3 March, 2017
 

KELOWNA – A team of researchers at UBC Okanagan is working on unique ways to recycle materials that would otherwise be thrown into the landfill.

The team creates ways to recycle materials so they can be useful again. An example is biochar, which is a byproduct of land remediation.

“Essentially it is paralyzed wood, burned to the absence of oxygen,” composite research laboratory manager Bryn Crawford says. “We’ve taken away the sand and gravel you would normally find in concrete and replaced it with this biochar,” Crawford says. “Now, I’m left with this lighter product, which is even able to float, plus a lot of carbon is able to be trapped.”

They still have to test the strength of the new material to see what uses it could be applied to, but sidewalks could be an option.

They are also looking at fiberglass because there is little to no impact on performance and it makes the fiberglass cheaper to produce.

Crawford says replacing those fillers with biochar is a method of carbon sequestration. Up to 200 kilograms of carbon could be trapped in a boat made of composite laminate using this method, he says.

“It’s all about looking for these value-adding streams for companies trying to develop local supply chains and novel products, as well as trying to find ways to reduce waste as much as we can,” Crawford says.

Abbas Milani is an engineering professor and the Kelowna-node coordinator of the composite research network. He says B.C. is behind in biocomposite research, with Alberta leading the way in provincial funding.

However Milani does say there is a lot of interest in the budding technology.

“Everyone is excited because at the end of the day we’re trying to make things more environmentally friendly and that creates excitement," he says.

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double retort

3 March, 2017
 


Biochar – A Soil Building Climate Change Solution

3 March, 2017
 

Source: Biochar — A Soil Building Climate Change Solution

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Vega Biofuels to Provide Biochar to Alaska's lawful cannabis Industry

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pyrolysis sawdust bamboo briquettes biochar ball making machine of Coal Powder Briquette …

3 March, 2017
 

Home>Products>Coal Powder Briquette Machine>pyrolysis sawdust bamboo briquettes biochar ball making machine

wooden case

 pyrolysis sawdust bamboo briquettes biochar ball making machine 

Brief Introduction of Briquetting machine

Briquetting machine can be used to suppress pulverized coal, iron powder, coking coal, aluminum, iron, tin oxide, carbon powder, coal powder, slag, gypsum, tailings, sludge, kaolin clay, activated carbon, and at the end of the coke powder, powder, waste, waste residue, is widely used in refractory material, power plants, metallurgical, chemical, energy, transportation, heating and other industries, after pressing ball mechanism for forming materials, energy conservation, environmental protection, convenience of transportation, improve the utilization of waste, has the good economic efficiency and social benefits.

The raw materai  for Briquetting machine

coke fines, charcoal powder, carbon black, iron ore fines, mineral powder, metal dust, cast iron dust, mill scale, manganese ore fines, fluorite powder, gypsum powder, ferrosilicon powder, and phospho gypsum powder, nickel alloy, blast furnace ash, converter dust, coal gangue, Kaolin clay, MgO, NPK, graphite, oil shale, potash fertilizer, urea fertilizer, sea sand powder etc.

Parameter for Briquetting machine

 Model

 Pressing roll diameter(mm)

 Caoacity(t/h)

Power(kw)

Reduction gear 

HY290

 290

 1-3

 5.5-7.5

ZQ350A

HY360

 360

 4-6

 11-15

 ZQ350A

HY 430

 430

 6-8

 11-15

 ZQ400A

HY 500

 500

 7-9

 18.5-30

 ZQ650A

HY500-3

 500

 10-11

 45

  ZQ650A

HY500-4

 500

 11-12

 55

  ZQ650A

HY650

 650

 10-15

 30-37

 ZQ750A

HY750

 750

 15-20

 45-75

 ZQ850A

HY 850

 850

 20-25

 75-90

 ZQ1000A

HY 1000

 1000

 25-38

 90-132

ZQ1250A

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Biochar and Water Demonstation – Permie Flix

4 March, 2017
 

Video post. Source: Biochar and Water Demonstation – Permie Flix


Biochar Production

4 March, 2017
 

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Application of biocharin rice productivity and nitrogen run-off control

4 March, 2017
 

Error:

1 International Workshop on Production and Application of Biochar in China s Agriculture Application of biocharin rice productivity and nitrogen run-off control Weixiang Wu, Min Yang, Yuxue Liu, Da Dong, Qibo Feng, Minmin Zhou College of Environment and Resource Science, Zhejiang University Sept, 2011

2 Current situation of soil quality in China Low organic matter content: average 1% in China Large area of middle and low yield arable land Lack of nutrients Arable land of different yield in Zhejiang (2006) Intensive cropping system is one of the most important reasons.

3 N-fertilizer 4800 Produ. rate Year (Zhu & Chen, 2004) Nitrogen fertilizer (10 4 ton) Production rate (kg/ha) Increasing rate Decade Nitrogen fertilizer VS food production (China Statistical Yearbook, 2008) b Y=A+bX

4 Run-off nitrogen fertilizer & water eutrophication Crop Sown area ( 10 8 hm 2 ) Consumption of chemical Fertilizer (kg/hm 2 ) Amount of N run-off ( 10 4 t/a) Rice Vegetable Nitrogen run-off rate from paddy field: 30-70%

5 A new technology? Reduce nitrogen run-off pollution Improve soil quality Increase crop yield Carbon sequestration

6 Biochar Temperature residence time oxygen feedstock Great porosity Large surface area High stability High capability of adsorption Retain nutrients Reduce fertilizer used Improve soil productivity

7 Equipment for rice straw biochar production (small scale) Rice straw/bamboo Biochar

8 Facility for producing biochar and biochar-based slow release fertilizer Carbonization equipment Grinder Waste gas treatment Control System Waste/heat recovery unit Conveyor Suction device Cutting Machine (Patent Application No: )

9 kg/d of rice straw biochar Rice straw production facilities in pilot scale

10 Rice straw biochar Temperature ( ) Time (h)

11 Facility for producing slow release fertilizer Yield: kg/h

12 Slow release fertilizers 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# Raw materials Common N fertilizers Rice straw biochar Bentonite (Patent Application No: )

13 Release rate of slow release fertilizer samples 24h(%) 7d(%) 10d(%) 14d(%) 28d(%) 1# # # # # The 5# sample meets the China criterion that Release rate of slow release fertilizer < 15% in 24hrs and <80% in 28d.

14 Physiochemical property of bamboo and rice straw charcoal Packing density (g cm -3 ) ph CEC (cmol kg -1 ) BET SA (m 2 g-1 ) Pore Volume (cm 3 g-1 ) Bamboo char(bc) Straw char(sc) BC SC 0.16 D iffe r e n tia l P o r e V o lu m e (c m 3 g – 1 ) a b Pore Width (nm) c d Pore size distribution curves of biochar SEM photos of biochar (a b: bamboo char; c d: straw char )

15 Adsorption capacity of biochar BC SC q e (mg/g) C e (mg/l) Equilibrium adsorption isotherm of NH + 4 -N N on bamboo and rice straw char Rice straw char exhibited a much higher adsorption capacity for NH 4+ -N than bamboo char at 25.

16 Stability of rice straw biochar Micrographs of biochar in ancient paddy soil

17 Evaluation of biochar amendment on nitrogen retention and leaching characteristic Bamboo charcoal: 0.5% N fertilizer: 400 kg N ha -1

18 Effect of biochar amendment on NH 4+ -N concentration in the leachate of soil columns at different depth * * * * * * 1 0 cm cm C K N N B * * * * NH4 + -N (mg L -1 ) c m cm Tim e (d ) Addition of BC could significantly reduce NH 4+ -N concentration in leachate from 10 cm depth within the first 7 days. However, it was in reverse from 7 to 28 days during the experiment. No significant difference in leachate NH 4+ -N concentration was observed until day 49 at 20 cm depth.

19 Effect of biochar amendment on cumulative losses of NH 4+ -N from soil columns at different depths CK N NB cm 20 cm 15 * * NH 4 + -N (mg column -1 ) * * * * * cm cm Time (d) Application of BC can reduce cumulative losses of NH 4+ -N via leaching by 15.2% at 20 cm within 70 days observation. (Water Air Soil Pollut. 2010, 213:47 55.)

20 Influence of biochar (SC and BC) amendment on rice productivity Heading Control Rice straw biochar 1% Maturity CK: control; BC: bamboo char; SC: rice straw char; CKU: urea; BCU: BC + urea; SCU: SC + urea;

21 CK BC SC CKU BCU SCU SRU CK BC SC CKU BCU SCU SRU Heitht (cm) ab ab ab aba bcc c c c cd d b bc b a bc ab cd c d bc a ab a a a a a a a Seedling Booting Heading Maturing Stages of rice development Effect of rice straw biochar on rice height

22 10 8 c c b CK BC SC CKU BCU SCU a ab b ab bc c a abc abc Yield(t/ha) Time Effect of biochar on rice yield over 2 years field experiment (experiment set in 2009) CK: control; BC: bamboo char; SC: rice straw char; CKU: urea; BCU: BC + urea; SCU: SC + urea; Average increasing rate: SC %(Compared to CK); SCU % (Compared to CKU).

23 Influence of rice straw biochar on nitrogen fertilizer input reduction SC 1%straw char + CK CK general amount of fertilizer SCL 1%SC + 10% less of CK Second field experiment set in 2010

24 Influence on concentration of NH 4 + -N, NO 3 – -N in surface water NH4 + -N(mg/L) * * CK BC SC SCL RS SRF1 SRF2 Treatment CK: general amount of fertilizer (180kg N/ha) BC: bamboo char(1%) + CK (180kg N/ha) SC: straw char (1%) + CK (180kg N/ha) SCL: straw char(1%) +less CK(162kg N/ha) RS: rice straw(1.3%) + CK (180kg N/ha) SRF1: charcoal coated slow released fertilizer1 (180kg N/ha) SRF2: charcoal coated slow released fertilizer2 (180kg N/ha)

25 13.5% 7.14% 15.1% 10.3% Gloss fresh Yield(t/ha) cd ab bc cd a d ab CK BC SC SCL RS SR1 SR2 Treatment Effect of biochar and biochar-based based slow released fertilizer on rice yield (experiment set in 2010)

26 Conclusions Biochar might be used as an ideal amendment for retarding vertical movement of NH 4+ -N and minimizing the nitrogen loss through leaching. Biochar amendment in paddy field is able to significantly increase rice productivity and reduce N fertilizer input. Thus, it may prevent N fertilizer run-off from paddy field. Rice straw biochar-based slow released fertilizer can not only increase rice productivity, but also reduce N fertilizer run-off from paddy field. Rice straw biochar with proper properties might be and ideal material for improving low fertility paddy field.

27 Perspectives 1 Optimizing biochar??? Characteristics Function Soil-biochar-crop interaction 70 1h 2h 3h 5h CEC(cmol/kg) Temperature( ) H/C O /C

28 2 Mechanisms and technology development for N run-off control in agriculture Biochar??

29 3 Risk Assessment? a b Biochar concentration Biochar concentration c d Comet assay Biochar concentration Biochar concentration Distributions and mean levels of DNA damage caused by biochar. (a) Tail length; (b) Tail moment; (C) Oliver tail moment; (d) Tail DNA (*: p<0.05; **: p<0.01 as compared to the control)

30 Acknowledgments: National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province National Critical Project for Science and Technology on Water Pollution Prevention and Control Thanks for your attention!


Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia

4 March, 2017
 

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1 Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia Biochar 15 ton/ha Biochar 5 ton/ha Forskningsrådet NorGlobal (Globmek) Prosjekt Sluttrapport, mars 2014 Norwegian Research Council Norway Global. Environment, Energy, Climate Project Final report, March 2014 NGI report no

2 2 The consortium The consortium: First row (from left): Theeba Manickam, MARDI, Malaysia; Neneng Nurida, ISRI, Bogor. Second row: Jan Mulder, NMBU (formerly UMB), Norway; Henrik Lindhjem, NINA, Norway; Rolf Vogt, University of Oslo, Norway; Gijs Breedveld, NGI, Norway; Magnus Sparrevik, NGI; Nsamba Kisiki, UniKL, Malaysia; Verania Andria, UNDP, Indonesia; Abdul Razak, MARDI. Third row: Åse Sørensen, Norges Vel, Norway; Hans Peter Arp, NGI; Gerard Cornelissen, NGI; Rob Bachmann, UniKL; Vanja Alling, NGI; Sarah Hale, NGI. Missing: Vegard Martinsen, NMBU; Alex Heikens, UNICEF (earlier at UNDP); Jubaedah, ISRI; Andreas Lislerud Smebye, University of Oslo. Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

3 Table of contents 3 Table of contents 4 Summary 5 Biochar in Indonesia and Malaysia 8 Win 2: Biochar improves soil fertility 13 Win 5: Biochar as an energy production technique 15 Tying together the biochar wins: Implementation in a case study at Sulawesi 18 Conclusion on biochar in Indonesia and Malaysia 19 The road further: Developments in 2014 and beyond 20 Spinoff projects 24 Project output

4 4 Summary Summary Biochar is the charcoal product obtained when biomass (preferably organic waste, not wood) is heated without access to oxygen (pyrolysis). Most of the biochar matrix is likely stable when mixed into soils, and thus represents carbon that is actively removed from the short-lived carbon cycle and thus contributes to climate change mitigation. Biochar combines a number of important wins such as: i) climate change mitigation: carbon sequestration and reduction of other GHG emissions (mainly N 2 O), ii) soil fertility improvement, iii) pollutant immobilization, iv) waste management and v) energy production. In this project we investigated two of these wins in an Indonesian/Malaysian context: soil fertility improvement and biochar technology/ energy production. In addition, physical and chemical properties of biochar were evaluated. General fi ndings: Co-synthesis of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during biochar production has often been reported as a potential impediment to biochar implementation. We found however, that for 60 biochars, PAH contents were low and so strongly bound that they were almost unavailable for uptake in plants and soil organisms. We also investigated potential undesired co-effects of biochar on soil biota in a biochar-soil system, and found that these were modest. In addition, earthworms preferred biochar over other soil amendments (activated carbon and an iron-based metal sorbent) in avoidance tests. Soil fertility improvement: In pot trials in Kalimantan, (Indonesia) hardly any biochar effect on rice and maize growth was found for acid sulphate and peat soils. In contrast, positive biochar effects were seen for clay soil in West-Timor and oxisol in Sulawesi (both Indonesia). Biochar technology: An upscale Belonio top-lit updraft gasifi er was developed and used to prepare biochar for fi eld trial applications in Malaysia. In Sulawesi clean cooking stoves run on biochar generated by improved retort kilns were implemented. Life-cycle and cost-benefi t analysis: these analyses were centered around our case study in the village of Ngata Toro in Sulawesi. The most important fi nding of both these analyses was that soil amendment for improved soil fertility is a better way to use biochar than burning it as briquettes for cooking purposes. The main reasons are that i) polluting gases generated during biochar production are not offset by carbon sequestration in the briquetting alternative, and ii) briquetting is much more labor-intensive than applying biochar to agricultural soil. This research project has paved the way for large-scale implementation of biochar in Indonesia. The biochar will be prepared using environmentally-friendly retort kilns, and mainly applied to degraded lands where yield increases can be expected. In addition, this project has led to several spinoff projects in other countries: Nepal (biochar from an ubiquitous weed, spontaneous farmer adoption), Zambia (maize biochar in conservation farming), Tanzania (rice husk biochar used as soil amendment, made in retort kilns where energy is used for bread baking by housewife groups) and Uganda (village electrifi cation by gasifi cation with biochar as by-product). Figure 1 Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

5 Biochar in Indonesia and Malaysia 5 Biochar in Indonesia and Malaysia Biochar, the principle Biochar is the charcoal product obtained when biomass (preferably organic waste, not wood) is heated without access to oxygen (pyrolysis). In contrast to other organic materials, most of the biochar matrix is probably stable for hundreds to thousands of years when mixed into soils, and thus represents carbon that is actively removed from the short-lived carbon cycle. Biochar combines a number of important benefi ts (fi gure 2) such as: i) climate change mitigation: carbon sequestration and reduction of other GHG emissions (mainly N 2 O), ii) soil fertility improvement, iii) pollutant immobilization, iv) waste management and v) energy production. Energy production Waste management Mitigation of climate change Soil improvement and landuse Mitigation of pollutant emission Figure 3: Cartoon showing the principle: by pyrolysis (heating without air) biochar is generated that sequesters carbon in the soil [from Lehmann, Nature 2007]. of the gas have been reported. The most probable mechanism to explain this is a combination of a ph effect (biochar having an alkalizing effect, see below) and an additional mechanism such as strong biochar sorption of nitrous oxide followed by reduction of N 2 O to N 2 with biochar-sorbed organic molecules serving as electron donor. Figure 2: The fi ve wins of biochar. Win 1: Climate change mitigation: Carbon sequestration Plants assimilate CO 2 from the air through photosynthesis and accumulate the C as biomass. When pyrolyzing this biomass to biochar, around half of the biomass C is returned to the air as CO 2. Around 40% of total biomass C is sequestered, i.e. locked up for long periods, as biochar (the remaining 10% is more labile and degraded). This is illustrated in fi gure 3. Reduction of N 2 O emissions Biochar also inhibits the emission of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O), where up to 90% (lab trials) and 70% (fi eld trials) reductions in the release Win 2: Biochar improves soil fertility Many soils are acidic due to the leaching of base cations and/or their agricultural use that removes nutrients. Biochar is rich in alkaline components (Ca, Mg, K), and this may contribute to the neutralization of soil acidity and to a decrease in the solubility of phytotoxic metals such as aluminum in soils. In addition, biochar can bind and release nutrients (N, P, K, Ca) and could therefore reduce nutrient leaching to the subsoil in weathered, low-cation exchange capacity soils. The third benefi cial effect that biochar could have on soil chemistry and physics is that it retains water in soils with low plant-available water, as well as helping to drain water in fl ood-prone agricultural systems. This could also provide a climate change adaptation strategy in areas that are becoming drier and/or more prone to fl ooding due to global climate change.

6 6 Biochar in Indonesia and Malaysia Win 3: Organic pollutant sequestration by biochar Contamination of soil with legacy pesticides such as DDT and persistent pollutants such as PAHs is still a billion-euro problem throughout the world. Such organic pollutants can be immobilized by strong binding to biochar added to the soil in small (1-5%) dosages. Studies indicate extremely strong sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds and pesticides to non-activated biochar (i.e., biochar that has not undergone a process with steam or chemical activation to increase pore volume). Biochar revenues, when biochar is used as a soil enhancement, need to be compared to biochar direct economic value as a fuel. We carried out such an evaluation in Sulawesi, Indonesia, and clearly observed that a briquetting alternative is inferior to a soil amendment alternative, both in a life cycle (LCA) analysis and a cost-benefi t (CBA) analysis on a household level. Biochar contains some toxicants such as PAHs and dioxins as well as heavy metals. In the present project we investigated whether PAHs and dioxins in biochars really are a problem. Wins 4 and 5: Waste management and energy production Biochar can be used as one solution to manage agricultural waste, as the waste material is burnt, and this simultaneously utilizes the energy produced for useful purposes. For example, a positive climate change mitigation effect and an improved management of waste is felt when methane emissions from decaying organic waste are avoided. We investigated wins 2 (soil fertility) and 5 (energy production) in the current project. Project case study sites: Acid sulfate soils in South-East Asia Globally there are about 24 million hectares of so-called acid-sulfate soil (thiolic fl uvisols), of which 20 million are found in South-East Asia (mainly Indonesia, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Malaysia). The main characteristic of such soils is a near-surface pyrite layer. When pyrite (FeS 2 ) is exposed to air, e.g. upon drainage of formerly inundated lands, the sulfi des are oxidized to Fe(III) Debated biochar issues There are also a number of perceived and actual disadvantages connected to the use of biochar; Competition for land use ( land grabbing ), between biomass for biochar and biomass for food production. It should hereby be emphasized that no food biomass, but only organic waste or weeds, should be advocated for use as the biochar feedstock. Figure 4: Degraded acid sulphate soil in Kalimantan, Indonesia. The potential for increased deforestation as soon as farmers discover that biochar is benefi cial for soils could pose a problem. On the other hand, soil quality improvement could potentially reduce the need for additional deforestation, and thus the pressure to open new forest. It is not easy to convince farmers to apply a technique that involves new and unfamiliar practices. Figure 5: Acidic rice paddy, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

7 Biochar in Indonesia and Malaysia 7 sulfates, whereby sulfuric acid is generated. This process creates soil acidifi cation, rendering these soils only marginally suitable for agriculture: the concentration of Al, Fe and Mn can reach levels toxic to crops. Often soil ph is as low as 4, forcing the farmers to cut the forest and open new land for agriculture*. One of the aims of the current project was to investigate the possibility of biochar amendment to overcome the acidity of acid sulphate soils. * These issues are illustrated in fi gures 4, 5 and 7. Figure 6: Indonesia – many areas of fertile volcanic soil, but also large swaths of degraded acidic landsof degraded, acidic soil where biochar could be of use. Figure: 7 Stream colored by iron leaching due to low ph, Kalimantan, Indonesia.

8 8 Win 2: Biochar improves soil fertility Win 2: Biochar improves soil fertility Biochar s physical and chemical properties Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs): an impediment for biochar implementation? An area of little investigation thus far within biochar research is the formation of PAHs during the production of biochar and their signifi cance if biochar is added to soil. To address this, a suite of 60 biochars from many different research groups and created using various different controlled and less controlled processes were quantifi ed for their total and freely available PAH and dioxin content. The concentration of total PAHs, as shown in fi gure 8, ranged from 0.07 μg g -1 to 3.27 μg g -1 for biochars produced via slow pyrolysis and was dependent on biomass source and pyrolysis temperature and time. These concentrations fall well below soil risk assessment standards. Concentrations of bioavailable PAHs, shown in fi gure 9, and measured using passive samplers, ranged from 0.17 ng L -1 to 10.0 ng L -1 for the slow pyrolysis biochars which is lower than concentrations reported for relatively clean urban sediments. Total dioxin concentrations were low (up to 92 pg g -1 ) and bioavailable concentrations were below the analytical limit of detection. From such an extensive study we were able to conclude that native PAHs and dioxins should not pose a problem when biochar is added to soil, since their concentrations are low and they are very strongly bound to the biochar matrix and are thus not bioavailable. 4,5 4,0 3,5 Total PAH concentration (μg/g) 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 HW LPP DDM 300 DDM 400 DDM 500 DDM 600 FW 300 FW 400 FW 500 FW 600 PMW 300 PMW 400 PMW 500 PMW 600 CS 350 CS 450 CS 550 EFB VESTO EFB NTS EFB TLUD CCS TLUD CCS 3 stone WS RWSD 500 RWSD 840 O 250 O 400 O 650 P 250 P 400 P 650 G 250 G 400 G 650 OA 250 OA 400 OA 650 PA 250 PA 400 PA 650 GA 250 GA 400 GA 650 PW 250 PW 350 PW 500 PW 600 PW 700 PW 800 PW 900 SG 250 SG 350 SG 500 SG 600 SG 700 SG 800 SG second 15 mins 30 minutes Xmins 1 hour 3 hours 8 hours Zambia charcoal dust Zambia corn cob Indonesia mixed Indonesia husk Kenya corncob Kenya corn stover Kenya sawdust Pyrolysos Pyrolysis time 3-4 hours Figure 8: Total contents of PAHs in biochars measured by exhaustive extractions. All PAH concentrations were below the maximum tolerable risk for soils (8 μg g -1 ), with the exception of one biochar produced via gasifi cation. Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

9 Win 2: Biochar improves soil fertility 9 Bioavailable PAH concentration (ng/l) 12,0 10,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 2,0 HP-Heartland Pine (gasifi cation) HW – Mixed hardwood (flash pyrolysis) LLP – Lodgepole pine (modern slow pyrolysis) DDM – Digested dairy manure (modern slow pyrolysis) FW – Food waste (modern slow pyrolysis) PMW – Paper mill wate (modern slow pyrolysis) CS – Corn stover (modern slow pyrolysis) WS – Wheat straw (microwave) RWSD – Rubber wood sawdust (modern slow pyrolysis) O – Oak (modern slow pyrolysis, muffle furnace) P – Pine (modern slow pyrolysis, muffle furnace) G – Grass (modern slow pyrolysis, muffle furnace) OA – Oak aged (modern slow pyrolysis followed by leaching with distilled water) PA – Pine aged (modern slow pyrolysis followed by leaching with distilled water) GA – Grass aged (modern slow pyrolysis followed by leaching with distilled water) PW – Pine wood (modern slow pyrolysis) SG – Switch Grass (modern slow pyrolysis) Zambia charcaol dust – mixed savannah vegetation (traditional kiln, slow pyrolysis) Zambia stover – corn (traditional kiln, slow pyrolysis) Indonesia mixed – forest (traditional kiln, slow pyrolysis) Indonesia husk – rice (drouble drum, slow pyrolysis) Kenya corncob, cornstover and sawdust (traditional 3 stone fire) 0,0 Pyrolysis time HP HW LPP DDM 300 DDM 400 DDM 500 DDM 600 FW 300 FW 400 FW 500 FW 600 PMW 300 PMW 400 PMW 500 PMW 600 CS 350 CS 450 CS 550 WS RWSD 500 RWSD 840 O250 O400 O650 P250 P400 P650 G250 G400 G650 OA250 OA400 OA650 PA250 PA400 PA650 GA250 GA400 GA650 PW 250 PW 350 PW 500 PW 600 PW 700 PW 800 PW 900 SG 250 SG 350 SG 500 SG 600 SG 700 SG 800 SG second 15 mins 30 minutes 1 hour 3 hours 8 hours Zambia charcoal dust Zambia stover Indonesia mixed Indonesia husk Kenya corncob Kenya corn stover Kenya sawdust 3-4 hours Figure 9: The bioavailable PAH concentration in biochars (the concentration of PAHs that is able to leach from the biochar), measured by state-of-the-art passive samplers. The maximum tolerable risk for water systems is 500 ng L -1 and all biochars with the exception of the biochar produced via gasifi cation had concentrations below this. This is due to low total PAH concentrations in combination with strong binding. Biochar affects the soil system through changes in dissolved organic matter leaching The dissolved organic matter fraction in soils plays an important role in the soil ecosystem as it infl uences processes such as microbial activity and nutrient retention capacity. However, the way in which dissolved organic matter can be affected by biochar has not been extensively studied. Organic matter functions as an important pool of nutrients made available to plants through decomposition processes. In addition, organic matter can coat soil particles providing a surface where nutrients can exchange or sorb instead of leach out of the soil. When biochar is added to soil, both physical and chemical properties of the soil itself are altered and the fate of organic matter is also changed accordingly. In order to understand this further we investigated the abundance and composition of dissolved organic matter in biochar amended soils with respect to changes in soil properties. Figure 10: Test setup used in the dissolved organic carbon leaching experiments.

10 10 Win 2: Biochar improves soil fertility One weathered acidic Indonesian soil and one rich temperate ph-neutral agricultural Norwegian soil were mixed with biochar (10% dry weight) and the composition of dissolved organic matter released was analyzed. A cacao shell biochar from Indonesia was chosen for the experiments, which was produced at slow pyrolysis at 350 C. Control batches were used with only soil or only biochar. Our experiments showed that biochar lead to a release of dissolved organic matter, especially in the weathered Indonesian soil, (fi gure 11). As the weathered soil was acidic, additions of biochar increased the ph by three units, from 4 to 7, compared to batches with only soil, and this ph effect was far less strong in the temperate rich soil (increase from 6 to 7). A ph increase leads to dissolution of soil organic matter. Dissolved Organic Carbon (mg C/L) Only soil Only biochar Soil and biochar mix Figure 11: Biochar releases dissolved organic matter from the soil. The same amount of soil and biochar gives far more dissolved organic matter when mixed together compared to analysis of each constituent separately, probably due to biochar increasing soil ph. Secondary effects of biochar on soil biota If biochar is to be used as an amendment to contaminated soils in order to sequester harmful pollutants or improve soil fertility, then it is important to ascertain the effects of the biochar on the native soil biota. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to evaluate the secondary ecotoxicological effects of biochar, two activated biochars, and one metal-binding soil amendment material. To this end, a non-polluted agricultural soil was amended with 0.5, 2 and 5 % of the four amendments; powder activated biochar, (PAC), granular activated biochar, (GAC), corn stover biochar and ferric oxyhydroxide powder all of which have previously been proven to sequester pollutants in soil. All amendments had a deleterious effect on the growth of the worm A. caliginosa when compared to the unamended soil, except the 0.5 % amendment of biochar, (fi gure 12). In avoidance tests, E. fetida preferred biochar compared to all other amendments including the unamended soil, (fi gure 13). It was concluded that biochar had variable but never strongly deleterious effects on the organisms studied here, and thus is promising for the use of biochar as a soil amendment in the fi eld. 0 Weathered soil Rich soil % weight gain 0-20 *** *** *** -40 *** *** *** -60 *** *** *** *** *** Figure 12: Weight gain of the worm A. caliginosa with and without amendment. All amendments had a deleterious effect on the growth of the worm A. caliginosa when compared to the unamended soil, except the 0.5 % amendment of biochar. Unamended PAC 0.5 % PAC 2.0 % PAC 5.0 % GAC 0.5 % GAC 2.0 % GAC 5.0 % Biochar 0.5 % Biochar 2.0 % Biochar 5.0 % Ferric oxyhydoxide 0.5 % Ferric oxyhydoxide 2.0 % Ferric oxyhydoxide 5.0 % Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

11 Win 2: Biochar improves soil fertility 11 Soil without amendment (all amendments tested against each other) Soil with amendment (all amendments tested against each other) Primary Number Comparison Number amendment of worms amendment of worms Biochar 2% 13 ± 3 *** Unamended 8 ± 2 Biochar 2% 16 ± 4 *** Ferric oxyhydroxide 2% 5 ± 3 Biochar 2% 13 ± 1 *** GAC 2 % 7 ± 1 Biochar 2% 17 ± 2 *** PAC 2% 5 ± 1 Figure 13: Avoidance test with 20 earthworms, where soil + biochar was on one side, and unamended soil, or soil with SOIL 20 worms were added and allowed to move between the two sides SOIL + BIOCHAR other amendments (activated carbon or the metal sorbent iron oxyhydroxide) was on the other side. Biochar-amended soil was preferred over all other amendments as well as unamended soil. *** indicates statistically signifi cant results at the 0.05 confi dence level. Soil fertility in pot trials (Kalimantan, Indonesia) Pot trials have been carried out at the Institute of Swampland Agriculture, Banjar Baru, Indonesia. Within the pot trial 2 different soils, a peat soil and a mineral acid sulphate soil were tested and two different crops grown. The soils were selected because acid sulphate soils are a main problem in Indonesia and a theme of the project, and peat soils are relevant for the study area of Kalimantan. The tests showed slight positive effects of biochar on crop growth (maize and rice; around 20% increase in growth) for the peat soil (fi gure 14), but not for the acid sulphate soil. The results point in the direction that often the exchangeable acidity of acid sulphate soils is too high for the biochar to neutralize acidity (because these are young soils with a high content of marine clays). This acid sulphate soil had a cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 28 cmol c /kg and the peat soil of 20 cmol c /kg, mostly occupied by acidic cations. Therefore the focus of the project was moved away from acid sulphate soils to acidic sandy soils and (degraded) oxisols, where biochar can have a much stronger effect on soil fertility. In the fi eld test in an oxisol in Sulawesi, a 50% increase of yield upon the amendment of biochar was indeed shown (see next section). Peat soil Acid sulphate soil Plant height Plant height B5 + NPK B15 + NPK B5 + ½ NPK Control + NPK 0 B5 + NPK B15 + NPK B5 + ½ NPK Control + NPK Figure 14: Plant height in the presence and absence of biochar; B5 denotes 0.5% biochar, B15 denotes 1.5% biochar, NPK denotes fertilizer, and ½ NPK denotes half the recommended dose of fertilizer. 1.5 % biochar plus full recommended fertilizer was the optimal treatment.

12 12 Win 2: Biochar improves soil fertility The improvement of soil fertility in field trials (Sulawesi and West-Timor, Indonesia) Field trials were linked to ongoing large programs led by UNDP. One trial was carried out in a compact clay (vertisol) area in Oebola, West-Timor (NTT province), where UNDP will link the NorGlobal project activities with a climate adaptation program. The most interesting fi nding from this trial was that biochar can help to drain compact clay soil during heavy rainfall in the monsoon season, (fi gures 16 and 17). The second trial has been set up in Ngatotoro, Sulawesi, using maize- and cacao-biochar amended to a degraded oxisol with only limited nutrient holding capacity (limited CEC). Biochar was produced using with medium-size drum kilns. Key fi ndings from the trial are an increase of agricultural production following biochar application (10 ton/ha) compared to a control plot, (fi gure 18). The application of biochar may allow one more planting season to be obtained each year. Figure 15: Field site in Indonesia. Figure 16: Heavy clay, West-Timor: Inundation problems during the short, intense rainy season. Indications of improved draining capacity through biochar were observed and will be substantiated further through column and fi eld tests. Maize yield (ton/ha) A1D0 A1D1 A1D2 A1D3 A2D0 A2D1 A2D2 A2D3 First experiment (2012) Residue experiment (2013) % water freely drained frim soil , % biochar added to heavy clay soil Figure 17: West-Timor: Increase in the freely drained water content (between pf 0, saturation point, and pf 2, fi eld capacity) in heavy clay soil with increasing amount of biochar added. Figure 18: Maize yield with various biochar treatments, West- Timor. D1,2,3 are various dosages of biochar, showing higher yield than D0 (no biochar). Residue experiment means that no new biochar was added and the long-term effect of a onetime application were investigated. The effect of the biochar was sustained through the second growth season. A1D0 = basin without biochar (control) A2D0 = 20 cm deep line without biochar (control) A1D1 = basin with biochar 5 ton/ha A2D1 = 20 cm deep line with biochar 5 ton/ha A1D2 = basin with biochar 10 ton/ha A2D2 = 20 cm deep line with biochar 10 ton/ha A1D3 = basin with biochar + organic fertilizer (5 ton/ha) A2D3 = 20 cm deep line with biochar + organic fertilizer (5 ton/ha) Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

13 Win 5: Biochar as an energy production technique 13 Win 5: Biochar as an energy production technique Biochar technology development Biochar generation through pyrolysis is an exothermic process and energy is generated. The amount of energy generated is around 50% of that generated in complete combustion. The aim of this section of work was to investigate technologies for optimal biochar generation in the context of Indonesia and Malaysia. Several technologies exist to generate biochar; 1. Household-scale cooking stoves, so called TLUDs (Top-Lit Up-Draft stoves), that will generate biochar and use the energy produced for cooking. Advantages are that they are clean, avoid premature deaths caused by indoor emissions, fuel-effi cient and reduce deforestation. The pyrolysis products methane and carbon monoxide (CO) are combusted in TLUDs. 2. Medium-scale traditional technologies, such as earth-mound kilns, brick kilns or simple covered holes in the ground. The disadvantage of such methods is that emissions of syngases containing particulate matter below 10 μm (PM10), methane and CO are relatively signifi cant and biochar yields are relatively low (20-30%). 3. Medium-scale improved retort technologies, where the syngases are led back into the combustion chamber and combusted. This leads to lower deleterious gas emissions and higher biochar conversion effi ciencies of 40-50%. 4. Modern large-scale technologies, where optimal use of energy and maximal recovery of bio-oil generated in the processes are achieved. In addition emissions are minimal. The assumption of using technologically advanced equipment for biochar production for rural tropical settings is probably too optimistic, given the economic status of small-scale farmers. Improved cooking stoves, clean retort kilns, or even electricity producing gasifi ers can be more realistic options for replacing primitive traditional kilns (fi gure 19). Figure 19: Biochar generation technologies for tropical rural conditions. Left to right: improved clean biochar-generating Peko Pe cooking stove (Zambia), Improved retort kiln (Zambia), traditional brick kiln (Zambia), electricity/biochar-generating gasifi er (Uganda) and Adam retort kiln constructed for this project (Indonesia). In improved retort kilns the syngases formed during pyrolysis (methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, smoke) are led back into the combustion chamber and combusted, leading to lower deleterious gas emissions and higher conversion effi ciency.

14 14 Win 5: Biochar as an energy production technique Biochar technology development in Malaysia The case study investigated within this section of the project was the development of an up-scaled version of the Belonio, a Top-Lit Up-Draft stove. Using rice husks as the feedstock for the production of biochar, the TLUD was optimised in order to produce the best quality biochar. Rice husks constitute 23 % of the biomass waste in Malaysia and they are the waste product following the rice milling process. A part of the rice husk is gasifi ed at the rice mill using cyclone furnaces which generate heat that can be used to dry the rice grains. The byproduct rice husk char can then be used in agricultural processes to improve soil fertility. The small scale Belonio was used as the basis for trials investigating the optimal settings for biochar production. A large scale device was then constructed, as shown in fi gure 20, and the most optimal parameters identifi ed from the small scale Belonio used in the up-scaled version. In forthcoming fi eld tests, we will compare the agronomic quality of this rest product from rice mills to biochar made in the upscale Belonio stove. Clean Cooking Facilities in Indonesia In the project area at Sulawesi, Indonesia, where we performed our most extensive case study, all of the households used fi rewood as the primary energy supply for cooking activities using three-stone fi res. Such practices can affect the health of children who are vulnerable to respiratory diseases. An alternative use of biochar is as a clean energy source. Biochar briquettes used as fuel can substitute fi rewood and in combination with a clean stove, have been proven to reduce smoke and harmful gas production. UNDP provided training in the preparation of biochar briquettes, both with regard to biochar production technology and briquette making. The project also introduced clean stoves, (fi gure 21), that can be run on biochar briquettes. A total of 200 stoves were given to the local community. The clean stoves were made of clay and were easy to operate. Figure 20: Electrically powered Belonio rice husk gasifi er (left) and its upscaled version (right- used for production of 600 kg biochar for a fi eld test). Figure 21: Clean cooking stoves introduced in Sulawesi. They are not biochar-generating stoves, but clean stoves that can cook food on biochar briquettes made by medium-sized clean retort technology. Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

15 Tying together the biochar wins: Implementation in a case study at Sulawesi 15 Tying together the biochar wins: Implementation in a case study at Sulawesi Community involvement in Sulawesi The local community was interested in the story of biochar application from other areas such as Zambia (see end of report). The local farmers were enthusiastic to apply biochar to corn, rice, and cocoa fi elds. Women groups were engaged in the biochar briquetting process. Biochar produced from a kiln was mixed with cassava fl our serving as a glue and the briquettes were made. The potential of the briquettes to establish small business corporations was evaluated. The local community was encouraged to accept the novel concept of biochar use as soil fertilizer and/or fuel briquette source. maize. The results showed an approximate 50% increase in harvest yield upon the addition of 5 ton/ha biochar. The effect of biochar amendment on crop growth was also investigated at Sulawesi. Cacao shell was used as the feedstock for biochar and the crop grown was Figure 22: Explaining the concept to farmer s collective, Oebola, West-Timor. Community Consultation prior to start Training on how to make biochar Application of biochar to soil Training on making biochar briquettes Introduction of clean stove Results Results Results Results Community acceptance Zero conflicts Appropriate technology being introduced Increase community capacity Diversify livelyhood options Increase productivity Longer planting season, adaptive to dry season GHG emission reduction through carbon sequestration Increase community capacity Community business Additional household income Local stovemaker business Access to clean cooking Reduce health risk for women Figure 23: Biochar application in Sulawesi, June 2012.

16 16 Tying together the biochar wins: Implementation in a case study at Sulawesi Life-Cycle and Cost-Benefit analysis of biochar implementation (Sulawesi, Indonesia) In order to come to an integrated assessment of biochar in a real world setting it is important to investigate the overall positive and negative impacts of the use of biochar. This can be done through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost benefi t analysis (CBA). LCA accounts for all positive and negative impacts that a certain activity brings along, including all indirect effects. developing countries) where biochar may have substantial local agricultural benefi ts and provide global climate benefi ts at the same time. However, there are also challenges in scaling up the production of biochar using waste materials. More modern kilns will need to be constructed and operated in order to make the process more effi cient and cleaner. The village of Ngata Toro in central Sulawesi was chosen for closer scrutiny. In the area surrounding this village cocoa shell waste is abundant, (fi gure 24), and currently lies in piles on the ground around the cocoa trees. Two small initiatives for utilizing this waste have been implemented: 1. Briquetting: Collecting cocoa waste and using kilns to produce biochar using kilns that could later be made into briquettes for clean cooking stoves (currently under limited distribution); or 2. Soil fertility enhancement: Using the same biochar for application as soil enhancer for fallow and bad quality soils around the village for e.g. increased maize production. An analysis was carried out combining the methods of LCA and CBA to investigate the environmental impacts and net benefi ts to society from these two options. An LCA accounts for all positive and negative impacts that a certain activity generates. Both the LCA and the CBA found that the best option would be to use the biochar for soil enhancement. The results are illustrated in fi gures 27 and 28. In the case of soil amendment, the negative environmental impacts from biochar production and the related production costs were outweighed by the positive effects of carbon sequestration to the soil and the economic value of the increased agricultural production. The use of biochar as briquettes for cooking fuel yielded negative net effects in both the LCA and CBA, even when positive health effects from reduced indoor air pollution were included. Thus, although the briquetting alternative combined with increased distribution of clean cooking stoves created some reduction in indoor air emissions and potentially better health, there were still high costs related to the production of briquettes. We concluded it is therefore better to utilize the biochar for soil enhancement. Figure 24: Preparing biochar from cacao shells using simple technology, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Collection of feedstock Production of biochar Briquetting Soil amendment Cooking use Agricultural products These results are applicable to a fairly large number of rural villages in Indonesia (and potentially other Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

17 Tying together the biochar wins: Implementation in a case study at Sulawesi 17 Figure 25: The analysis revealed that briquetting was not a sustainable solution, neither when the biochar was made in a simple kiln nor in a retort kiln. Figure 26: Briquetting in Ngata Toro, Sulawesi. Relative impact (ecopoints) Biochar for fuel briquettes Biochar as soil amendment Cost and benefits (USD 2012) Biochar for fuel briquettes Biochar as soil amendment 150 Climate Change impacts Particulate matter emission Land impacts Remaining categories Sum 600 Investment costs Production costs Health effects Climate effects Other Econ. benefits Net benefits Figure 27: Impacts in ecopoints for the two alternative uses of biochar (briquetting vs. soil amendment). Positive ecopoints represent negative impacts over a whole life cycle, and vice versa. Climate change impacts, health effects from particulate matter emissions, land impacts and remaining categories are highlighted in the fi gure. Negative values mean reduction of impact, i.e. an improvement compared to today s situation, whereas positive values represent larger impacts than today. The results showed a signifi cantly larger environmental impact of the use of biochar to produce briquettes for cooking purposes. The main reason for this is that the production of biochar is associated with emissions of particles, methane, and carbon monoxide. When adding biochar to soil, these negative impacts are more than compensated by biochar s carbon sequestration potential (the positive-impact orange bar under climate change impacts ). When using biochar briquettes for cooking purposes, the carbon sequestration/climate change mitigation effect is missed (negative-impact green bar under climate change impacts ). Figure 28: Cost-benefi t analysis: Annual costs (positive numbers on y-axis) and benefi ts (negative numbers on y-axis, bars pointing up) per household for the two biochar alternatives (US dollar 2012). The fi gure divides the effects into investment costs, costs of biochar production and briquetting, indoor and outdoor health effects, climate effects and economic benefi ts from increased maize production and fuel benefi ts in terms of saved wood collection time. Negative values mean benefi ts (or savings), positive values are cost. Biochar as soil amendment comes out as generating a net benefi t, whereas biochar use as briquettes results in a net cost, mainly because it involves much work to prepare the briquettes (large green bar under production costs ).

18 18 Conclusion on biochar in Indonesia and Malaysia Conclusion on biochar in Indonesia and Malaysia Biochar has been touted as providing numerous environmental, agronomic and social benefi ts. Here we investigated the use of biochar to improve the quality of soil and to generate energy in a rural tropical setting. In the laboratory part of this project, we found that neither the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nor possible detrimental effects on soil biota, provide major hindrances for the application of biochar in agricultural soils. However, the presence of (heavy) metals in biochar may remain an issue, and we only investigated one biochar in our biota study. We also found that biochar can have a major impact on dissolved, labile organic matter release from soils. A negative side effect of this may be that soil organic matter leaches away more quickly. A positive side effect may be that more substrate for denitrifi cation is present, possibly leading to reduced emissions of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. The interplay between these effects remains to be seen. Possible impacts of the project for communities in rural tropical settings include: 1. Degraded land in Indonesia and Malaysia could be made more agriculturally productive for agriculture with biochar (11 million ha is considered degraded land): Local communities using sub-arid dry land distributed in the eastern part of Indonesia may get an extra (second) planting season if they apply biochar in agriculture land (the West-Timor case). Commonly, farmers in this area only produce one crop per year. In addition, acidic land could be more productive when alkaline biochar is added to it. 2. More households in Indonesia have access to clean cooking facilities (31 million households have no access). The 60 villages that are actively involved in the continuation of this project consist of on average 70 households and as a result 4200 households will be exposed to the possibility of using biochar to improve soil quality or to use as fuel briquettes. However, our cost benefi t and life-cycle analyses revealed that biochar amendment to soil is a more sustainable and fi nancially attractive option than biochar briquettes. This project has led to among others a spinoff project in Zambia (see next chapter). At fi rst glance, biochar seems to have better prospects in the poor soils of Africa than in the somewkat less degraded soils of Indonesia/ Malaysia (we also observed stronger effects on harvest yield in Zambia than in Indonesia). However, we also found implementation of biochar in Zambia is extremely challenging, since farmers on these degraded soils are so poor that they do not have any investment possibilities for biochar technology. In Indonesia/ Malaysia, many soils are so degraded that biochar still has a positive effect on agriculture. However, the soils are not so bad that the farmers are too destitute to invest in pyrolysis technology. Therefore a low middleincome country such as Indonesia might, somewhat counterintuitively, be better suited for biochar implementation than a low-income country such as Zambia. Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

19 The road further: Developments in 2014 and beyond 19 The road further: developments in 2014 and beyond In both Indonesia and Zambia, the aim is to scale up biochar implementation in the coming years. In Zambia the fi rst goal is to reach 60 communities on the sandy soils of Western Zambia, where biochar has the strongest agronomic effect (see next section). In Indonesia the initiative is with UNDP, who have started biochar introduction in several villages in East Nusa Tenggara and Central Sulawesi provinces. It is now expanding to villages in South Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua Provinces. Scale-up strategy The project has provided a scale up strategy to promote biochar application for wider use and in more villages in Indonesia. The strategy is to: 1. Use clean retort technology to prepare biochar for soil amendment and/or briquette making. In each case, a proper cost-benefi t analyses needs to be done, and the actual agronomic effect of the biochar on the particular soil and on the particular crop needs to be tested. 2. Collaboration with Alliance of the Indigenous People of the archipelago (AMAN) to scale up activity to reach 100 villages around the Indonesia archipelago. 3. Collaboration with the private company and banking sector to facilitate capital for micro fi nance institution working with biochar production and application business. 4. Make a strategy to fi t with UN-Global Environmental Fund funding priorities in order to get more support on this activities. Figure 29

20 20 Spinoff projects Spinoff projects Biochar in conservation farming in Zambia An important additional project jointly led by NGI and NMBU (formerly UMB) is one in Zambia that was started in December This project is fi nanced by Norad and the Norwegian Embassy in Zambia. This funding was obtained as a direct incentive from Norad and used to support the Zambia initiative. Thus this project provides an important spinoff from the NorGlobal project described in this report. The main aim of the project is to investigate the potential of organic waste biochar to sequester carbon and improve the fertility of weathered, light-texture, acidic Zambian soils. Biochar amendment is exclusively combined with Conservation Farming (CF). In CF only % of the land is tilled by hoe basin digging. Therefore CF and biochar are a favorable combination, since less biochar is needed to obtain the same effectiveness as with conventional tillage, (fi gure 30). In Zambia, fi eld tests were performed at 18 sites in 2012, in collaboration with the University of Zambia and the Conservation Farming Unit (CFU) that coordinates farming practices for 200,000 farmers. This means that the use of biochar to improve the quality of soil, if effective, can be quickly implemented among thousands of farmers in Zambia. The main fi ndings of this project to date include; 1. Harvest results of the fi eld trials with 19 farmers in Mongu, Mkushi and Kaoma, indicate a strong increase in maize harvest in the sandy soils of Mongu and Kaoma ( %) as illustrated in fi gure 31. For groundnuts no clear harvest effects were observed. Biochar had no signifi cant effect on nutrient content (quality) of maize grains, maize stover and groundnuts. Biochar did not have a signifi cant effect on available nutrient concentrations in soil either. We conclude that the positive ph effect and water retention effect are the probable reasons for the positive agronomic effect of biochar in Mongu and Kaoma. Long-term effects: in consecutive seasons hardly any positive effect of biochar on maize yield was observed. This could be the result of biochar dispersion during hoe basin opening and/or biochar leaching to the subsoil. 2. Providing enough feedstock for biochar production is a challenge for biochar implementation. To address this concern, three solutions were investigated in Mkushi and Kaoma: i) pigeon peas intercropping; ii) Gliricidia windbreaks; iii) use some of the maize stems as feedstock. Pigeon peas, (shown in fi gure 32), proved to be the most promising alternative: in Kaoma and Mkushi the stems of the pigeon peas could provide 1-5 tons/ ha biochar per year. In addition, the shedding of nitrogen-containing leaves will further amount to the resilience of the maize-pigeon pea system. 3. Biochar production technology: a retort kiln, shown in fi gure 33, built in Chisamba (Agroforestry Field Station) yielded high-quality biochar of both pigeon pea stems and corn cobs (both with carbon contents around 70%). The main disadvantage of the retort kiln is that it is far too costly for farmers in Zambia. Thus brick kilns or other simple technologies such as a covered hole in the ground, seem the best possibility for implementation, even though they are less clean with respect to exhaust gases. Another alternative is a so-called double drum which is simple but still has a retort possibility. Three brick kilns were constructed by farmers in Mkushi from locally available free materials. Clean cooking stoves were also endeavored. The disadvantage of the household stoves is that they generate little biochar and cannot be used to prepare the traditional maize dish nshima. Figure 30: Biochar application in planting basins, Mongu, Zambia. Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

21 Spinoff projects 21 Figure 32: Pigeon peas are used as a feedstock along with maize cobs. They grow fast and shed nitrogen-rich leaves, increasing soil fertility. Maize biochar 4 ton/ha Control without biochar Charcoal dust 4 ton/ha Figure 31: Maize in sandy soil at Kaoma, Zambia, in combination with conservation farming using hoe-dug planting basins. Biochar is very effective at 4 ton/ha rates, since biochar and fertilizer are up-concentrated in the planting basins where most of the plant roots are. Figure 33: Retort kiln deployment in Chisamba, Zambia. Electrification and biochar generation in Uganda Project partner Norges Vel has been involved in implementing biowaste gasifi cation systems in Uganda. Biochar is an important by-product from the gasifi cation units which produces electricity. The project Sustainable Renewable Energy Businesses in Uganda is funded by the Nordic Climate Facility (NCF) and is a cooperation between Norges Vel, Makerere university, the Indian company Husk Power Systems, the operator Pamoja Energy, as well as others. In Uganda, the fi rst bioenergy-based system was implemented as a pilot system in 2012 (32 kw gasifi cation system called Husk Power System ), see fi gure 35. The system is located in Tiribogo village 30 km from Kampala. An operator for the pilot sells electricity to the community, and the biochar produced is currently used to make bioenergy briquettes for cooking. It is also possible to use this technology to produce biochar that could be used for soil improvement.

22 22 Spinoff projects Figure 34: Biochar from gasifi cation in Uganda. Figure 35: Husk Power system for biochar and electricity generation, Uganda. Biochar and baking bread in Tanzania In Tanzania, a combination of producing biochar and using the heat for baking bread has provided an interesting spin off project funded by the Nordic Climate Fund (NCF). Rice husks comprise around fi fty percent of the rice grain and are considered as a waste problem, often left to rot in big piles, burnt or dumped in rivers or forests and therefore releasing carbon to the atmosphere. In this project From waste to local business development and vigorous soil, illustrated in fi gure 36, rice husks are being used as a resource for rural income generation, enterprise development and increased rice productivity. Through the use of adapted technology rice husks are being carbonized to make biochar while the excess heat produced in the carbonization process is recovered and utilised as a fuel for running local bakeries/cafés/catering fi rms. These bakeries are run by entrepreneurial women groups, thereby leading to employment, local income generation and women empowerment. The project is expected to bring increased capacity among smallholder members of 18 Village Producer Associations in Kilombero, Mbarali and Iringa-Rural districts. Figure 36: Concept of combination of biochar making and using the heat for bread baking in an improved retort kiln. Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014

23 Spinoff projects 23 Biochar in Nepal: from forest killer to forest saver In Nepal one large agricultural problem is the overgrowth of forest areas by a weed called Eupatorium, or Forest Killer, ( banmara in Nepalese), shown in fi gure 37. Within this spin off project fi nanced by the Research Council of Norway (FriPro program project ), Eupatorium has been used as the biochar feedstock in fi eld trials at Dhading, (fi gure 38), west of Kathmandu, and Rasuwa, (fi gure 39), north of Kathmandu, Nepal, in degraded ultisols (sandy and loamy). This is the fi rst time such a weed has been used as a biochar feedstock. Preliminary results are very promising as harvests have been doubled through the addition of biochar to the soil. Farmers have started to adopt biochar practice after just one season. In 2014, a mechanistic pot trial will be started with the same soils in order to ascertain important knowledge about why such effects were observed. Figure 38: Weighing harvest yield in Dhading, Nepal, by PhD student Naba Raj Pandit. A retort kiln used to produce biochar in a cleaner fashion has been built in Kathmandu and will be used to produce high-quality biochar in an environmentally friendly manner. Figure 37: Forest killer / Eupatorium, a plant overgrowing forest throughout the country, is used as biochar feedstock in Nepal. Figure 39: Setting up fi eld trials in Rasuwa, Nepal.

24 24 Project output Project output Media dissemination 24. februar 2014 Hovedkategorier kultur samfunn helse jord og skog miljø teknologi hav og fiske næringsliv Finn fram bakgrunn meninger spør en forsker multimedia nytt fra akademia kortnytt blogg – Vi får en sterk vinn-vinn-situasjon: Man lagrer karbon istedenfor å slippe det ut i atmosfæren, og konseptet forbedrer samtidig livsvilkårene for de fattigste bøndene på de dårligste jordene, sier teknisk sjef for prosjektet, Gerard Cornelissen. Vil lage biokull av risskall – Kan redusere Indonesias utslipp tilsvarende Norges samlede CO2-utslipp i fjor, hevder norske forskere. aftenposten.no Økte avlinger og bedre klima Norske forskere har blandet inn biokull i jordsmonnet på seks ulike maisåkre i Zambia, og resultatene er oppsiktsvekkende: Avlingene ble opptil firedoblet, og klimagassutslippene ble redusert. Bjarne Røsjø I samarbeid med BR Media Norges Geotekniske Institutt Kjell Hauge Informasjonssjef Torsdag 01. mars 2012 kl. 05:00 Hvis metoden får stor utbredelse i Zambia, kan hele nasjonen bli klimanøytral ved å satse på biokull fra maiskolber. I Zambia har cirka av til sammen 1,3 millioner landbrukshusholdninger begynt å bruke en ny dyrkingsmetode som kalles bærekraftig presisjonsjordbruk (conservation farming). Metoden har gitt svært gode resultater, og avlingene har til dels økt så kraftig at mange bønder har kunnet ta steget ut av den ekstreme fattigdommen. Forskerne Gerard Cornelissen og Magnus Sparrevik tror nå at det naturvennlige jordbruket i Zambia Tema Landbruk Geofag Planteverden Bærekraftig presisjonsjordbruk i Zambia: Det naturvennlige jordbruket i Zambia handler om å dyrke større avlinger med mindre arbeidsinnsats. Bøndene pløyer ikke lenger hele åkeren, men graver isteden ut små groper som de planter i. På den måten blir bare en tidel av jorda forstyrret, slik at erosjon og utlekking av næringsstoffer blir kraftig redusert. I tillegg blir blader og stengler liggende igjen på bakken for å danne et beskyttende muldlag, og bøndene driver vekselbruk der nitrogenfikserende vekster som peanøtter og soyabønner veksler med for eksempel mais. Det nye jordbrukets mest kjente ansikt er bonden Elleman Mumba, som dyrker mais og jordnøtter på en liten åker i Shimabala sør for geoforskning.no baerekraftig-presisjonsjordbruk-i-zambia Torsdag Uke 09 GEO365 Geologi.no Nyhetsbrev Tips oss Stab Om geoforskning.no Meny Ved å blande inn biokull laget av avgnagde maiskolber (til høyre) i jorda, oppnådde forsøksbøndene i Zambia opp til fire ganger bedre avlinger. Maisraden på midten av bildet har ikke fått tilført biokull i jordsmonnet., mens de to radene til høyre og venstre viser resultatet med biokull som "gjødsel" i jorda. Vil redusere klimagassutslipp med avgnagde maiskolber Norske forskere oppnår oppløftende resultater i tre-i-ett-prosjekt som på samme tid hjelper folk ut av fattigdom, reduserer klimagassutslipp og avskoging. Nyheter – Klima og CO2 Bærekraftig presisjonsjordbruk i Zambia 07. mars 2012 Skrevet av Kjell Hauge og Bjarne Røsjø, NGI aftenposten.no html#.uw8fku2ybcs Forbrenning av organisk materiale uten tilførsel av oksygen fører til at det dannes kull. Dette ser ut som forkullede maiskolber, men består av nesten helt rent karbon. Foto: NGI Home About Us IBI Staff IBI Board Contact Us Join Log-In Ved å blande biokull i jordsmonnet kan avlingene bli opptil firedoblet, samtidig som klimautslippene blir redusert. Les mer om biokull her. Men det stopper ikke med det. Ny dyrkingsmetode kan bidra ytterligere til større avlinger og på den måten løfte flere bønder ut av fattigdommen. PROFILE: BIOCHAR FIELD TRIALS IN ZAMBIA, INDONESIA, MALAYSIA AND NEPAL AS WELL AS NEW BIOCHAR CHARACTERIZATION RESEARCH FROM A TEAM IN NORWAY Updated reports on the group’s work in Zambia in 2011 and 2012 are now available. The Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) have a truly global research agenda with biochars for use in soils as well as laboratory research on biochar characterization. In the last two years, the team has set up biochar projects in Zambia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Nepal working with farmers to carry out in-depth field trials on the effect of biochars in local soils especially in poor acidic sandy soils. They are also working with local groups to produce biochars on site with available feedstocks using various production systems. In addition, laboratory work has been and is continuing to be carried out in Norway on nutrient availability, the stability of biochar, and the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins in biochar. forskning.no The team projects are led by Prof. Gerard Cornelissen, Prof. Jan Mulder, Dr. Sarah Hale, Prof. Gijs Breedveld, and Dr Magnus Sparrevik and the postdocs are Dr. Vanja Alling and Dr. Vegard Martinsen. Five PhD students will start in the near future in Norway, Indonesia, Zambia, Nepal and Malaysia to specifically carry on this research. For all the field trial work, there is a set step-by-step project format to ensure that these field trials are set up following project guidelines. biochar-international.org March le/zambia_ fi eld_trials_and_research Biochar on acidic agricultural lands in Indonesia and Malaysia, Final report, NFR , 2014


High Efficiency Biochar Machine

5 March, 2017
 

Home>Products>Charcoal Making Machine>High Efficiency Biochar Machine

High Efficiency Biochar Machine
1. Outside package: Standard export wooden cases. Inner package: stretch film
2. As customer need

Contact: Ms.Alice
Skype: dhella63

Mobile: 008613838255120
WhatsApp/Viber: 008613838255120

QQ:  2974204665

Our Carbonization furnace, which this furnace is ideal equipment for biomass material (such as coconut shell, wood logs, wood briquettes, bamboo, crop straw and stalk etc.) to have anoxic distillation carbonization. Due to its rational structure, the furnace only needs small quantity of heat consumption.

 

It adopted Superheated Stream cooling system, thus can speed up the cooling process, which also greatly increase carbonizing ratio (increased from about 88% to 99%) improve the quality of charcoal, and reduce the production cycling time (from 24 hours to 6 hours).

 

Its horizontal condenser can retrieve much wood tar.

1> Heating process: after putting the inner baskets into the furnace, we need to heat the furnace up to 80-120mins, the temperature get around 300-330 ℃,it will produce the gas(CH4,C2H4) or biomass waste as fuel, at this time, we stop heating

2> Carbonizing process: after doing the sealing work, the materials inside begin to pyrolysis, it will produce gas at this period, so we need heating in this process, the carbonization time is often around 8-12hours

3> Cooling process: after carbonizing, we need to take the inner basket out, let it cool by natural way, cooling time is often around 8-10 hours. Cooling time is longer, it is better for stove quality

4> After taking the inner basket out, we need to put another basket inside, this is the cycling process.

Main Materials can be all kinds of biomass: Fruit Husk, Wood Scraps and Crop Stalks:

Fruit Husk—Rice husk, Coconut shell, Peanut shell, Sunflower seed husk, Palm kernel shell etc.

Wood Scraps—Wood sawdust, Wood scraps, Wood shavings, Wood chips, Tree branch, Bamboo scraps etc.

Crop Stalks—Plants straw, Crop residues, Soybean straw, Wheat straw, Cotton straw, Corn stalks, Sorghum stalk, etc.

1.No smoke, no pollution, no spark, high efficiency

2.Easy to operate and maintain

3.Could continuously work 24 hours, energy saving

4.Have purification system, could deal with smoke and tar oil

5.Environment-friendly, High carbonization rate

Our carbonization furnaces with different characteristics, designed for various raw material from our customers. Please contact me and inform your requirements, we will provide you the best solution accordingly.

We believe there always one type carbonization furnace for you.

We have 21 years manufacturing experience and had started to expand our exporting experience more than one year. Our factory is specialized in charcoal machinery, briquette machinery, mining equipment and farm equipment etc.

Pre-sale:

After-sale:

ASK: 1. How does carbonization stove make charcoal?

Answer:

The surface of wood (bamboo, wood briquette, nut shell, etc.) will ignite spontaneously in the hypoxic condition. And this spontaneous combustion will produce heat. This heat and the external heat source will heat the stove at the same time, when the temperature reach 280 degree, the chemical structure of the wood will be changed by the high-temperature, and after long time heating, changing and decomposing, then we will get the black charcoal, combustible gas, and wood tar. This model furnace will use the fume extraction tube to recycle all the combustible gas and smoking from the entire heat source.

 

ASK: 2. Why it is no pollution?

Answer:

1. Smoking purification system are used for purify the smoking (can not burning) and filter the wood tar. The smoking through the purification system will become water vapor, and it will not pollute the air.

2. When during the process of carbonizing, there will be some smoke. (can be burning) the smoke can return to the furnace through tube for purifying, after purification, the combustible smoking can be flow into the heating room of the main furnace for heating the stove again.

 

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Organic Soil Conditioner, 3oz Biochar with Microbials, PermaMatrix BSP Foundation

5 March, 2017
 

Transform ordinary dirt into nutrient-rich soil when you incorporate PermaMatrix BSP Foundation soil conditioner into your garden, planter pots, or lawn. This 3 oz. can of soil builder combines minerals, humeric compounds, carbon, and micro-biological elements together to create and maintain sustainable soil.


Biochar effects on phenotypic characteristics of “wild” and “sickle”

5 March, 2017
 

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DENR issues guidelines providing livelihood for mining communities

5 March, 2017
 

THE Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) has issued policy guidelines for two major programs designed to provide mining communities with sustainable livelihood opportunities while protecting the environment.

In line with her promise to give sustainable livelihood programs to affected mining communities, Environment Secretary Regina Paz L. Lopez signed Department Administrative Orders (DAO)  2017-02 and  2017-05.

DAO 2017-02 calls for the formulation and implementation of a six-year Sustainable Integrated Area Development (SIAD) Action Plan by the government, civil society and the private sector, while DAO 2017-05 gives the guidelines on the implementation of the Biochar Program, an initiative that uses the SIAD approach.

An environmental advocate, Lopez defines SIAD as “an approach, a strategy and a guiding philosophy that weaves environmental considerations with social justice and human development”.

Lopez said the SIAD strategy aims to apply area-based interventions and concepts on its natural resources development programs, including the Enhanced National Greening Program (eNGP), and integrated island development.

The eNGP is a massive reforestation program of the government that doubles as investments toward sustainable community enterprise.

SIAD will cover, but is not limited to, river basins and watersheds and will be initially implemented in 29 priority sites and expansion areas identified by the DENR.

“Beginning this year, SIAD will be implemented in other areas of the Philippines as long as the implementers follow our guidelines and the principles behind this strategy,” Lopez said.

SIAD is pursuant to the provisions of the 1987 Constitution on the policy of the State “to protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature” and on the “promotion of social justice and human rights, including the commitment to create economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance.”

“This strategy is also in response to the clamor of the Filipino people for a system of governance that will finally reverse centuries’ worth of human suffering, environmental desolation, societal discrimination, moral hazard and historical injustice toward activating the full potential of the Philippines within the next 15 years,” Lopez said.

Lopez said the Biochar Program calls for the wise utilization of abundant agricultural waste materials into marketable products created by rural communities for green energy, soil enhancement, mine revegetation, and a host of environmental products and services, making it a remarkable climate-change mitigation technology with poverty alleviation through community enterprise.

Biochar is charred biomass strictly from agricultural waste like rice hull and straw, bagasse, pili shell, mango seed, coconut husk and shell and corn cobs, which are produced by high heating with very limited oxygen. Lopez clarified that cutting of trees to serve as raw materials for biochar is “strictly prohibited.”

 Jonathan L. Mayuga, Rea Cu


phd thesis on biochar

5 March, 2017
 


Bio char research papers

5 March, 2017
 


Biochar and Water Demonstation – Permie Flix

5 March, 2017
 

Video post.

Source: Biochar and Water Demonstation – Permie Flix

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Biochar Market to Reach $923.56 Million with 15.8% CAGR Forecast to 2022

6 March, 2017
 


Biochar Market to Reach $923.56 Million with 15.8% CAGR Forecast to 2022

6 March, 2017
 

Some of the key players of the Biochar market include 3R ENVIRO TECH Group , Agri-Tech Producers, ARSTA Eco, Biochar Products, Inc., Biochar Supreme LLC

PUNE, INDIA, March 6, 2017 /EINPresswire.com/ — Global Biochar Industry

Global Biochar market is accounted for $3303.8 million in 2015 and is expected to reach $923.56 million by 2022 growing at a CAGR of 15.8%. The increasing government initiatives and stringent government regulations regarding the agriculture productivity had given rise to the market of Biochar. Carbon sequestration property, waste management potential and improved soil fertility & crop yield are some of the factors driving the market. However, financial barriers, technological constraints and lack of consumer awareness are the factors hampering the market.

Try Sample Report @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/674260-biochar-global-market-outlook-2016-2022

Batch pyrolysis kiln segment is expected to witness rapid growth owing to high yield coupled with high carbon content and stability. It is one of prominent technology to produce high-quality product. Agriculture segment is accounted for the dominant share of the market due to increasing use of Biochar in the crop yielding process. North America is dominating the world owing to the growth in organic farming, followed by Europe.

Some of the key players of the Biochar market include 3R ENVIRO TECH Group , Agri-Tech Producers, ARSTA Eco, Biochar Products, Inc., Biochar Supreme LLC, Blackcarbon, Carbon Gold, Clean Fuels B.V., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc. , Earth Systems, Full Circle Biochar, Genesis Industries, Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd. , Phoenix Energy, The Biochar Company and Vega Biofuels, Inc..

Applications Covered:
• Energy based
o Sources for Power Plant
o Electricity Generation
• Non-Energy based
o Agriculture
o Carbon Sequestration
o Household
o Forestry
o Gardening
o Mine Reclamation
o Other Non-Energy based

Technologies Covered:
• Batch pyrolysis kiln
• Continuous pyrolysis kiln
• Gasifier and cookstove
• Microwave pyrolysis
• Other Technologies

Feedstocks Covered:
• Agriculture Waste
• Animal Manure
• Biomass Plantation
• Forestry Waste

For Detailed Reading Please visit WiseGuy Reports @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/reports/674260-biochar-global-market-outlook-2016-2022

Manufacturing processes Covered:
• Fast & Intermediate Pyrolysis
• Slow Pyrolysis
• Gasification
• Other Manufacturing Processes

Regions Covered:
• North America
o US
o Canada
o Mexico
• Europe

What our report offers:
— Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments
— Market share analysis of the top industry players
— Strategic recommendations for the new entrants
— Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets
— Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)
— Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations
— Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends
— Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments
— Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements

If you have any enquiry before buying a copy of this report @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/enquiry/674260-biochar-global-market-outlook-2016-2022

Some Major Points from Table of content:

Table of Contents

10 Key Developments
10.1 Agreements, Partnerships, Collaborations and Joint Ventures
10.2 Acquisitions & Mergers
10.3 New Product Launch
10.4 Expansions
10.5 Other Key Strategies

11 Company Profiling
11.1 3R ENVIRO TECH Group
11.2 Agri-Tech Producers
11.3 ARSTA Eco
11.4 Biochar Products, Inc.
11.5 Biochar Supreme, LLC
11.6 Blackcarbon
11.7 Carbon Gold
11.8 Clean Fuels B.V.
11.9 Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc.
11.10 Diacarbon Energy Inc.
11.11 Earth Systems
11.12 Full Circle Biochar
11.13 Genesis Industries
11.14 Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd.
11.15 Phoenix Energy.
11.16 The Biochar Company,
11.17 Vega Biofuels, Inc.

Continued…..

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6 March, 2017
 

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Wheat straw biochar-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron for removal of trichloroethylene from …

6 March, 2017
 

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Affiliation State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P.R. China

Affiliation State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P.R. China

Affiliation State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P.R. China

xlwang@ecust.edu.cn (XLW); yuyunjiang@scies.org (YJY)

Affiliations State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P.R. China, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P.R. China

Affiliation Center of Environmental Health Research, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou, P.R. China

Affiliation State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P.R. China

Affiliation State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P.R. China

Affiliation School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China

xlwang@ecust.edu.cn (XLW); yuyunjiang@scies.org (YJY)

Affiliation Center of Environmental Health Research, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou, P.R. China

This study synthesized the wheat straw biochar-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron (BC-nZVI) via in-situ reduction with NaBH4 and biochar pyrolyzed at 600°C. Wheat straw biochar, as a carrier, significantly enhanced the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) by nZVI. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of TCE removal by BC-nZVI (1.079 h−1) within 260 min was 1.4 times higher and 539.5 times higher than that of biochar and nZVI, respectively. TCE was 79% dechlorinated by BC-nZVI within 15 h, but only 11% dechlorinated by unsupported nZVI, and no TCE dechlorination occurred with unmodified biochar. Weakly acidic solution (pH 5.7–6.8) significantly enhanced the dechlorination of TCE. Chloride enhanced the removal of TCE, while SO42−, HCO3 and NO3 all inhibited it. Humic acid (HA) inhibited BC-nZVI reactivity, but the inhibition decreased slightly as the concentration of HA increased from 40 mg∙L-1 to 80 mg∙L-1, which was due to the electron shutting by HA aggregates. Results suggest that BC-nZVI was promising for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater.

Citation: Li H, Chen YQ, Chen S, Wang XL, Guo S, Qiu YF, et al. (2017) Wheat straw biochar-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron for removal of trichloroethylene from groundwater. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0172337. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172337

Editor: Jorge Paz-Ferreiro, RMIT University, AUSTRALIA

Received: March 7, 2016; Accepted: February 4, 2017; Published: March 6, 2017

Copyright: © 2017 Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: The author, HL, received the funding jointly provided by National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number: 41273109, 51378208, 51578240), http://www.nsfc.gov.cn/; the National key research and development plan (2016YFC0206200), http://service.most.gov.cn/; Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (grant number: NCET-13-0797), http://www.moe.gov.cn/; Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation (grant number: 141077), http://www.cutech.edu.cn/cn/index.htm; Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (14ZZ059), http://www.shmec.gov.cn/; Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal of Science and Technology Commission (grant number: 15DZ1205804), http://www.stcsm.gov.cn/; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WB1313008, WB1516015, WB1616012), http://www.moe.edu.cn/. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Trichloroethylene is a widespread and persistent contaminant of groundwater which poses a serious threat to groundwater environmental safety and human health[1]. Removal of TCE from groundwater is a challenging task considering the complex subsurface environment. Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has been effectively used to degrade halogenated organic compounds since 1994[2]. Recently, ZVI research has shifted to the nanoscale material[3], because ZVI is easily passivated and has a relatively slow reaction rate due to its large size[4]. In contrast, nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has high dechlorination rates and transform chlorinated solvents completely without accumulation of chlorinated byproducts[5,6]. However, there are still many factors that limit the application of nZVI, such as poor stability, poor mobility and potential ecotoxicity[7].

The biggest challenge facing the use of nZVI is its tendency to agglomerate, due to its high surface energy and magnetic interaction[8], which severely limits its stability and mobility in groundwater environments[9].

The main approaches for reducing nZVI aggregation include coating with organic polymer materials, including guar gum[10], carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC)[11] and polyacrylic acid (PAA)[12], and inorganic adsorbent material, including sepiolite[13], smectite[14], alginate bead[15] and activated carbon[9,16]. Activated carbon materials can not only effectively decrease nZVI aggregation, but also rapidly increase the concentrations of contaminants in the micro environments surrounding nZVI because of its adsorption capacity[17]. Although activated carbon immobilizes nZVI and improves the TCE removal efficiency, its preparation consumes a lot of energy. An environmentally friendly support for nZVI with high adsorption capacity at a low cost would be highly desirable.

Biochar, a charcoal produced by heating biomass under anoxic conditions, attracts growing interest as a promising and environmentally-friendly support and adsorbent material[18]. Biochar has a porous structure and a large specific surface area and also possesses large numbers of oxygen-containing functional groups that are formed during the pyrolysis process. These characteristics suggest biochar may be used as an alternative to activated carbon to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals from fluids, such as Cu, pesticides and chlorophenol[1922]. Recently, biochar produced from soybean stover, peanut shells and pine needles at various temperatures has been used to remove TCE from aqueous solutions[23,24]. The raw biomass and pyrolysis temperature significantly affect TCE adsorption[23]. On the other hand, biochar has also been used to immobilize (i.e., to disperse and stabilize) nanoparticles[2527]. For example, Yan et al.[25] prepared nZVI supported by rice hull biochar and used it as a persulfate activator to enhance the removal of TCE from aqueous solutions. Devi et al.[28,29] also prepared two magnetic biochar composites, one with nZVI and the other with Ni-ZVI for efficiently adsorbing and dechlorinating pentachlorophenol in effluent. However, further studies of nZVI supported by different types of biochar are required to determine the ability to remove TCE in the contaminated groundwater.

In this study, the adsorption and dechlorination of TCE by biochar-supported nZVI (BC-nZVI) were investigated in comparison with that of the activated carbon supported nZVI (AC-nZVI). The effect factors on reactivity of the BC-nZVI composites were explored, including pH of solution, the presence of common anions and humic acids.

Wheat straw was purchased from a farmer in Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, China. Commercial available activated carbon was obtained from the Shxh Carbon Corporation (Shanghai, China). Deionized water was obtained from East China University of Science and Technology (Shanghai, China). The oxygen was removed by purging with pure nitrogen gas. Ethanol (99.7%), ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (99.0%), sodium borohydride (96%), n-hexane (97.0%), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (98.5%), sodium acetate (99.0%), TCE (99.0%), sodium chloride (99.5%), sodium sulfate (99.0%), sodium nitrate (99.0%) and sodium bicarbonate (99.0%) were obtained from Lingfeng Chemical Reagent Co. Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Phenanthroline (99%) was obtained from Huzhen Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Sodium hydroxide (96%) and hydrochloric acid (30%) were obtained from Tianlian Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Fulvic acid (≥90%) was obtained from Bailingwei Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). All chemicals were analytical grade.

Biochar was produced by pyrolyzing fresh wheat straw at 600°C. Briefly, wheat straw was ground and sieved to give a powder with particles with diameters<1.0 mm. The powdered material was pyrolyzed at 600°C for 2 h in a tube furnace with a nitrogen atmosphere. The heating rate was 5°C∙min-1. Once the temperature reached 600°C, the temperature was maintained for 2 h to allow complete carbonization to occur. The biochar was cooled, treated with 1 M HCl for 12 h, and washed three times with deionized water (200 mL per 1 g biochar) to remove impurities. The cleaned biochar was dried at 75°C and stored in a drying chamber containing silica gel.

The nZVI particles were prepared by reducing FeSO4·7H2O with NaBH4, following a procedure similar to Su et al.[30]. Critical conditions include excess NaBH4 to ensure thorough reduction of Fe2+ and 2:3 ratio of water to ethanol to ensure uniform nanoparticles. BC-nZVI was prepared by suspending 1.5 g biochar in 100 mL of 0.25 M FeSO4·7H20 in 2:3 (v/v) water:ethanol in a tree-neck flask. The solution was stirred at 700 rpm. Particles of nZVI were deposited on biochar surfaces and in pores by adding, dropwise (2 drops∙s-1), 100 mL of 0.55 M NaBH4 (pH 11) with vigorous stirring. The mixture was stirred an additional 30 min. The resultant BC-nZVI was washed with deoxygenated deionized water three times to remove inorganic ions and with ethanol to remove the water, and stored in an anaerobic chamber. The whole process was carried out under a nitrogen atmosphere. The mass ratio of nZVI to biochar was approximately 1:1. The AC-nZVI was prepared in the same way.

TCE removal experiments were conducted in a 150 rpm incubator shaker at room temperature (20±1°C) in the dark. BC-nZVI, BC, AC-nZVI and AC were added (0.1 g∙L-1) to 100 mL serum bottles containing 100 mL aqueous solution including 30 mL TCE (pH 7.0). Each bottle was immediately sealed with a polytetrafluoroethylene stopper and an aluminum cap. Sample was collected using a glass syringe at each specified time interval and immediately passed through a 0.22 mm membrane filter. The filtered sample was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the TCE concentration. TCE removal experiment was performed in triplicate to determine the reproducibility.

For analysis of aqueous TCE, a 0.5 mL sample was added in a 5 mL brown bottle containing 1.5 mL n-hexane. Then the bottle was placed on a vortex shaker at 2000 rpm for 3 min. For analysis of TCE adsorbed on the composite, the residual material was obtained by filtering the solution and immediately placed in 5 mL brown bottles containing 1.5 mL n-hexane and extracted for 5 min on a vortex shaker[31]. The TCE concentrations in the n-hexane extracts were determined by an Agilent 7890 gas chromatograph (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) equipped with an electron capture detector and a DB-VRX capillary column (60 m×0.25 mm×1.4 μm film thickness; Agilent Technologies). Samples were injected at a 20:1 split ratio. Respective temperatures of the injection port and detector were 260°C and 240°C. The carrier gas was ultrapure nitrogen and the flow rate was 20 mL∙min-1. The temperature was programmed to increase from 45°C to 190°C at 12°C∙min-1, which was maintained for 2 min.

Surface area, total pore volume and pore diameter of BC-nZVI were measured using a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyzer (ASAP 2010; Micrometrics, Norcross, GA, USA). Surface morphology and surface elemental compositions of BC-nZVI were determined using a field emission-scanning electron microscope (S-3400N; Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The crystal structures and crystallinity of BC-nZVI before and after reaction were characterized by X-ray diffraction (D/MAX-2550 VB/PC; Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan) with a 10°to 80° scanning range. Surface functional groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry.

Concentrations of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the aqueous phase were determined by UV spectrophotometer (UV1800; Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), using the phenanthroline method[32]. The Cl concentrations in the aqueous phase were determined by ion chromatography using an ICS 1000 system (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The pH was measured with a pH electrode.

Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 software. An analysis of the data using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with between- and within-subject factors was conducted for each experiment. A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to analyze the TCE removal kinetics, with Time (0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 160, 210 and 260 min) as the within-subjects factor and Group (control, nZVI, AC, BC, AC-nZVI and BC-nZVI) as the between-subjects factor. A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to analyze the effect of pH on TCE removal, with Time (0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 160 min) as the within-subjects factor and pH (4.4, 5.7, 6.8 and 9.8) as the between-subjects factor. A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to analyze the effect of humic acid on TCE removal, with Time (0, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min) as the within-subjects factor and HA concentration (0, 1, 5, 10, 40 and 80 mg∙L-1) as the between-subjects factor. We further analyzed significant main effects and interactions (p<0.05) in the factorial ANOVAs using Least Significant Difference post hoc tests.

The specific surface areas of BC-nZVI and AC-nZVI were smaller than those of biochar and activated carbon (Table 1). This was attributed to loaded nZVI which had a much lower surface area than BC or AC. Pore volumes of BC-nZVI and AC-nZVI also were smaller than those of BC or AC. The average pore diameter of BC-nZVI was sufficient for entry of TCE contaminants.

The surface morphologies of the biochar, fresh BC-nZVI and exhausted BC-nZV are shown in Figure A in S1 File. It showed that the wheat straw biochar had a rough and porous surface (Figure A1 in S1 File), which provided the suitable sites to support nZVI. The nZVI particles that were immobilized on the biochar were well dispersed (Figure A2 in S1 File) and the biochar became a large sheet-like structure as a result of infiltration of water and stirring vigorously during preparation process. The nZVI particles dispersed on the biochar were hard to distinguish after reacting with TCE (Figure A3 in S1 File), because nZVI particles were oxidized during the reaction.

The major XRD peak at 2θ = 44.7° in the XRD pattern of the fresh BC-nZVI (Fig 1) confirmed that ZVI had formed on the biochar surfaces[29]. Significant peaks at 2θ = 35° and 2θ = 57° appeared after the reaction with TCE, indicating the formation of magnetite (Fe3O4) on the nZVI surfaces. The peak at 2θ = 28.7° was due to KCl contained in the biochar.

The FT-IR bands between 1500 cm-1 and 1700 cm-1 were attributed to C = C and C = O stretch vibrations (Figure B in S1 File). After the reaction with TCE, the sizes of the C = C and C = O peaks decreased, because TCE was adsorbed to the pore in BC-nZVI particles.

More than 90% of TCE was removed within 200 min by BC-nZVI, AC-nZVI, BC and AC, while only about 55% of TCE was degraded by bare nZVI (Fig 2). Pseudo-first-order rate constants for TCE removal (kobs,TCE) were: BC-nZVI>AC-nZVI>BC>AC>nZVI. The repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects of Time (F8,96 = 10523.9, P<0.01) and Group (F5,12 = 756.1, P<0.01) and a significant Time × Group interaction (F40,96 = 577.8, P<0.01). TCE removal was enhanced by supporting nZVI due to the greater adsorption capacity of the BC than the AC seems a usual finding. Biochar had a greater adsorption capacity than AC, attributable to its abundant pore structure.

A, TCE removal kinetics by BC-nZVI, AC-nZVI, nZVI, BC and AC; B, Changes in the Cl concentration during the TCE removal process; C, TCE mass balance taking into account sorbed, aqueous phase and dechlorinated TCE after 15 h; D, Removal of TCE by the BC-nZVI in the successive treatments.

More Cl was released from TCE in the aqueous phase by BC-nZVI and AC-nZVI than nZVI alone, showing better performance for TCE dechlorination. Chloride release was maximum when BC-nZVI was used, as a result of the greater adsorption capacity of biochar. Mass balance calculations revealed that 88% and 81% of TCE were absorbed by biochar and activated carbon, respectively, within 15 h. Only 11% of the TCE was dechlorinated by nZVI, while 79% and 62% of TCE were dechlorinated by BC-nZVI and AC-nZVI, respectively. Results indicated both adsorption and dechlorination during the removal process and the BC-nZVI composite exhibited superior performance. As were shown in Table 1, the higher BET surface area of BC-nZVI and AC-nZVI than nZVI led to the higher adsorption performance of them than nZVI alone. Further, the BC-nZVI and AC-nZVI composite decreased the aggregation of nZVI, which increased the dechlorination reactivity of nZVI.

The long-term performance of the BC-nZVI composite was evaluated by repeating TCE removal experiments in the solution. As is shown in Fig 3D, 30 mg∙L-1 TCE was removed by the BC-nZVI in a 2.7 h cycle. Almost 100% of the TCE can be removed even when the BC-nZVI was used in a fifth cycle, although the removal rate was slightly lower in the fourth cycle. The BC-nZVI therefore maintained its TCE removal efficiency for 15 h, indicating that the nZVI immobilized on the biochar exhibited high reactivity and stability during TCE removal.

A, Effect of the initial solution pH on the removal of TCE by the BC-nZVI; B, Cl concentrations in solutions with different initial pH values; C, Fe2+ concentrations in solutions with different initial pH values; D, Fe3+ concentrations in solutions with different initial pH values.

TCE removal efficiency reached 90% at pH 4.4, 5.7 and 6.8, but was less efficient at pH 9.8 (Fig 3A). The highest removal rate appeared at pH 5.7, followed by the rate at pH 6.8. The rate constants (kobs,TCE) were in an order of pH 5.7>pH 6.8>pH 4.4>pH 9.8. The repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant effects of Time (F6,48 = 9010.8, P<0.01), pH (F3,8 = 10.0, P<0.01) and significant interaction of Time × pH (F18,48 = 14.4, P<0.01).

The initial pH of the solution significantly influenced the dechlorination of TCE by BC-nZVI (Fig 3B). A weakly acidic solution condition (pH 5.7–6.8) allowed TCE to be dechlorinated effectively. It was speculated that H+ in a weakly acidic solution reacted with the iron oxide on the nZVI surfaces, thereby providing more and more reaction sites. However, the dechlorination efficiency decreased greatly at a lower pH (<4), because a large proportion of the nZVI reacted with H2O[33]. Less dechlorination under highly alkaline conditions (pH 9.8) was due to the accumulation of iron oxide on nZVI surfaces, which prevented the reaction of TCE with ZVI.

Changes in the concentrations of Fe2+ (Fig 3C) and Fe3+ (Fig 3D) in the solution were examined. The Fe2+ concentration increased when the initial pH decreased, which was not consistent with the dechlorination of TCE. It inferred that the Fe2+ in aqueous phase produced not only through the dechlorination of TCE by nZVI, but also through reactions between nZVI and water. The Fe3+ precipitated as Fe(OH)3 and other iron oxides on the surface of nZVI, so the measurement of Fe3+ in solution was difficult because of the low solubility product constant (Ksp) of Fe(OH)3 at room temperature (1.1×10−36).

Effects of the anions (Cl, SO42−, NO3 and HCO3) on TCE removal by BC-nZVI were evaluated (Figure C in S1 File and Table A in S1 File). Removal rate constants increased slightly with increasing Cl concentrations. Chloride might increase dechlorination by removing the oxide coating the nZVI[34].

All of the presence of HCO3, SO42−, and NO3 decreased the reactivity of BC-nZVI. The rate constants decreased in the order of control>HCO3>SO42−>NO3. The rate constant was smaller in the presence of 0.5 mM HCO3 than that without any anions, which attributed to the generation of carbonate precipitates on the surface of nZVI[35]. SO42− also negatively affected the BC-nZVI reactivity and the inhibition increased with concentration. Inhibition by SO42− likely resulted from the formation of inner-sphere complex on the nZVI surface by SO42−[36]. NO3 exhibited the strongest inhibitive effect with the rate constant decreased to 0.650 h-1 when the NO3 concentration increased to 20 mM, which was much lower than that without any anions. Previous research has shown that NO3 reduced by obtaining electrons from the iron surface[37], thus the competition for reactive sites might contribute to the significant inhibition of NO3 to TCE removal by BC-nZVI.

Humic acid inhibited TCE removal by BC-nZVI (Fig 4A). The kobs,TCE decreased with increasing HA concentration from 0–80 mg∙L-1. This observation was consistent with the previous study of Tseng et al. [31] that the HA competed with contaminants for reactive sites. The repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant effects of Time (F5,60 = 6522.3, P<0.01) and HA concentration (F5,12 = 41.9, P<0.01) and significant interaction of Time × HA concentration (F25,60 = 28.2, P<0.01).At a low HA concentration (0–1 mg∙L-1), TCE dechlorination was similar to that without HA (Fig 4B), while the inhibition increased significantly when the HA concentration increased from 1 to 40 mg∙L-1. The high concentration of the HA likely blocked the biochar pores significantly to inhibit the adsorption and dechlorination of TCE by BC-nZVI. Interestingly, the inhibition decreased when the HA concentration was increased to 80 mg∙L-1. Humic acid molecules tended to aggregate at high concentrations (40–80 mg∙L-1) and the aggregates might act as electron shuttles to enhance TCE dechlorination[38].

A, Effect of HA on the removal of TCE by BC-nZVI at different HA concentrations; B, Cl concentrations in solutions with different HA concentrations.

Wheat straw biochar, an economical material, enhanced TCE removal and dechlorination by nZVI. TCE was likely removed by the BC-nZVI through a combination of adsorption by the biochar and subsequent dechlorination by the nZVI. A BC-nZVI composite was prepared that efficiently removed TCE at pH 5.7–6.8, in the presence of chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate anions, and at low HA concentrations. HA became inhibitory as concentration was increased, but HA aggregates appeared to facilitate dechlorination at the highest concentration tested. Nitrate had little effect at low concentrations but competed for electrons at higher concentrations. The mobility and lifetime of BC-nZVI should be investigated in subsurface environments and the effect on microbial activity needs to be evaluated. Because the nZVI particles could disrupt the membranes or alter membrane potential, microbial toxicity should be clear before underground injection. The present findings demonstrate the potential of the BC-nZVI for remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater.

This work was supported jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41273109, 51378208, and 51578240), the National key research and development plan (2016YFC0206200), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-13-0797), the Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation (141077), the Innovation Program of the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (14ZZ059), the Innovation Program of the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission (15DZ1205804), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WB1313008, WB1516015, WB1616012). We also would like to thank the anonymous referees for their helpful comments on this paper.

  1. Conceptualization: HL XLW YJY YQC.
  2. Data curation: HL YQC.
  3. Formal analysis: HL YQC.
  4. Funding acquisition: HL.
  5. Investigation: HL YQC.
  6. Methodology: HL YQC XLD YFQ.
  7. Project administration: HL XLW.
  8. Resources: HL YJY XLD.
  9. Software: HL YQC SG.
  10. Supervision: HL XLW YJY YDL SG.
  11. Validation: HL XLW YJY YDL.
  12. Visualization: HL YQC.
  13. Writing – original draft: HL YQC.
  14. Writing – review & editing: HL YQC SC.

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Biochar Market $585.0 Million Value Will Climb Throughout the Year by 2020

6 March, 2017
 

This press release was orginally distributed by SBWire

Deerfield Beach, FL — (SBWIRE) — 03/06/2017 — Zion Market Research has published a new report titled "Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) Market for Agriculture, Water & Waste Water Treatment and Other Applications: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2014 – 2020" According to the report, the global biochar market was valued at approximately USD 260.0 million in 2014 and is expected to reach approximately USD 585.0 million by 2020, growing at a CAGR of around 14.5% between 2015 and 2020. In terms of volume, global biochar market stood at 100 kilo tons in 2014.

Request Sample Report: bit.ly/2kVJPU6

Biochar is a fine-grained carbon rich product obtained by heating organic material such as wood, manure or leaves under conditions of no oxygen. Biochar can enhance soils, sequester carbon as well as provide useable energy. Biochar also have tendency to filter and retain nutrients from percolating soil water. Pyrolysis, hydrothermal conversion and gasification are simple and efficient technologies for transforming different biomass feedstocks into renewable energy products. Furthermore, biochar has ability to produce usable energy during its production while concurrently creating a carbon product, which provides sequester or store carbon and improve agriculture and other processes.

Based on technology, biochar market can be segmented as pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal and others. The pyrolysis technology is largest segment accounted for significant share and expected to witness fastest growth at a CAGR of over 10.0% in terms of revenue from 2015 to 2020. Gasification technology does not create stable biochar which can be used in agriculture for soil amendment. This technology segment expected to decline its market share in the years to come.

Browse the full "Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) Market for Agriculture, Water & Waste Water Treatment and Other Applications: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Segment, Trends and Forecast, 2014 – 2020" report at www.marketresearchstore.com/report/biochar-market-z43492

biochar marketOn the basis of application, the biochar market has been segmented into agriculture, water & waste water treatment and others. Agriculture was a major application segment of biochar market and accounted over 80% share of the global demand in 2014 and is expected to continue its dominance in global market over the forecast period. Water & waste water treatment is another major application segment and expected to exhibit significant growth on account of growing hygiene awareness and effective water infrastructure.

With over 50% shares in total volume consumption, North America was the largest market. North America followed by Europe and Asia Pacific region. Europe was the second largest market for biochar and accounted for around 25% shares in total volume consumption in 2014. Asia Pacific is the third largest market accounted for the significant share of total market in 2014. Latin America and Meddle East & Africa are also expected to grow at a moderate pace.

Do Inquiry before buying: bit.ly/2ksur0f

Some of the key industry players including Diacarbon Energy Inc, Vega Biofuels, Inc, Agri-Tech Producers. LLC, Hawaii Biochar Products. LLC, Biochar Products, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc, Blackcarbon A/S, Green Charcoal International, Earth Systems Pty Ltd and Genesis.

This report segments the global biochar market as follows:

Global Biochar Market: Technology Segment Analysis

Pyrolysis
Gasification
Hydrothermal
Others

Global Biochar Market: Application Segment Analysis

Agriculture
Water & Waste Water Treatment
Others

Global Biochar Market: Regional Segment Analysis

North America
U.S.
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Asia Pacific
China
Japan
India
Latin America
Brazil
Middle East and Africa

About Zion Research
Zion Research is a market intelligence company providing global business information reports and services. Our exclusive blend of quantitative forecasting and trends analysis provides forward-looking insight for thousands of decision makers. Zion Research experienced team of Analysts, Researchers, and Consultants uses proprietary data sources and various tools and techniques to gather, and analyze information. Our business offerings represent the latest and the most reliable information indispensable for businesses to sustain a competitive edge.

Each Zion Research syndicated research report covers a different sector — such as pharmaceuticals, chemical, energy, food and beverages, semiconductors, med-devices, consumer goods and technology. These reports provide in-depth analysis and deep segmentation to possible micro levels. With wider scope and stratified research methodology, our syndicated reports strive to serve the overall research requirement of clients.

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Vega Biofuels Agrees To Provide Biochar To Legal Cannabis Growers in Alaska

6 March, 2017
 

NORCROSS, Ga., (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) –The Agreement with AK Provisions, Inc. located in Anchorage is Vega’s largest single order for Biochar. Biochar is a highly absorbent specially designed charcoal-type product primarily used as a soil enhancement for the agricultural industry to significantly increase crop yields. Biochar offers a powerfully simple solution to some of today’s most urgent environmental concerns.

The production of Biochar for carbon sequestration in the soil is a carbon-negative process.  Biochar is made from timber waste using torrefaction technology and the Company’s patent pending manufacturing machine.  When put back into the soil, biochar can stabilize the carbon in the soil for hundreds of years. 

The introduction of biochar into soil is not like applying fertilizer; it is the beginning of a process.  Most of the benefit is achieved through microbes and fungi.  They colonize its massive surface area and integrate into the char and the surrounding soil, dramatically increasing the soil’s ability to nurture plant growth and provide increased crop yield.

AK Provisions, Inc. plans to use Vega’s Biochar in its own grow facilities as well as market the product to other growers throughout the state of Alaska through a reseller agreement with Vega Biofuels.  The initial order is for 75 super sacks of Biochar.  Each super sack holds approximately 400 pounds.  Indoor grow facilities harvest their plants four times per year and start with new soil each time.

“By the pound, Biochar is much more profitable to the Company than our Bio-coal energy product and will have a noticeable impact on the Company’s bottom line.  The products are similar but each has its own unique qualities,” stated Michael K. Molen, Chairman/CEO of Vega Biofuels, Inc. 

“We sell Bio-coal by the ton and Biochar is sold by the pound.  Growers in other states are reporting significant increases in their crop yields when using Biochar as their soil enhancement.  We plan to use the AK Provisions model as we increase our marketing efforts in other states that have recently approved growing legal cannabis. Our goal is to have the first shipment to Anchorage in time for AK Provisions’ first planting this spring.”

For plants that require high potash and elevated pH, Biochar can be used as a soil amendment to significantly improve yield. Biochar can improve water quality, reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching, reduce soil acidity, and reduce irrigation and fertilizer requirements. Biochar was also found under certain circumstances to induce plant systemic responses to foliar fungal diseases and to improve plant responses to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens.

The various impacts of Biochar can be dependent on the properties of the Biochar, as well as the amount applied. Biochar impact may depend on regional conditions including soil type, soil condition (depleted or healthy), temperature, and humidity. Modest additions of Biochar to soil reduces nitrous oxide N2O emissions by up to 80% and eliminates methane emissions, which are both more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.

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Characterization of KOH modified biochars from different pyrolysis temperatures and enhanced …

6 March, 2017
 

Poplar biochars from pyrolysis at temperatures of 300, 500 and 700 °C were modified with KOH and characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm studies. Adsorption experiments were carried out on the modified biochars to remove tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The results showed that KOH modification could increase or decrease TC adsorption onto biochars depending on the different pyrolysis temperatures. Maximum adsorption capacities (qe,m) of TC in modified biochar from a low pyrolysis temperature of 300 °C increased up to 21.17 mg g−1 relative to 4.30 mg g−1 in unmodified biochar of 300 °C (final TC concentrations were 8.83 and 25.70 mg L−1, respectively). In contrast, qe,m decreased from 7.37 and 11.63 mg L−1 to 4.97 and 7.13 mg L−1 in biochars from higher pyrolysis temperatures of 500 and 700 °C with and without modification, respectively, even with an increase in SBET. The adsorption ability of biochar can remain over a wider range of pH in modified biochar relative to unmodified biochar. Further analysis indicated that there was a strong linear regression relationship between qe,m and total functional oxygen groups using Bohem titration (n = 6, R2 = 0.84), whereas no significant relationship was observed between qe,m and SBET in this experiment. The result suggested that KOH modification of biochar from a low pyrolysis temperature can enhance TC adsorption and can be used over a wide range of pH, which may be a good choice for disposal of organic pollutants in aqueous solution.


Lopez sets ball rolling for biochar program

6 March, 2017
 

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Perfect quality sawdust charcoal furnace/biochar charcoal powder making kiln of sawdust …

6 March, 2017
 

Home>Products>sawdust carbonization machine>Perfect quality sawdust charcoal furnace/biochar charcoal powder making kiln

standard container for packing one set sawdust charcoal furnace

Perfect quality sawdust charcoal furnace/biochar charcoal powder making kiln

1. Main data: 

2. Introduction:

This machine can change the sawdust to the charcoal powder directly. The finished product is widely used in firework working, charcoal briquette extruding, mosquito-repellent incense producing, activated carbon manufacturing and used in clinical at the same time.

3. Working process:

Sawdust carbonization manufacturing process are: primary screening sawdust of different sizes to eliminate bigger impurity, then drying the materials to be 8-12% water content, and make carbonization in the end.

4. Advantages:

5. The final products can be used:

1) Make the charcoal stick briquette:

2) Make the charcoal ball briquette:

3) Make the shisha charcoal machine:

Gongyi xiaoyi Mingyang Machinery Plant is located in Zhengzhou City,which is the biggest manufacturing base of charcoal making machinery. And we are the one of the earliest and largest manufacturers of renewable fuel & energy equipment and related machinery. After 15 years development, now our company becomes an independent economic entity with the integration of science, engineering and trading department. Our products are widely accepted in both domestic and world markets, and also are exported to more than 30 countries, such as England, Russia, Sweden, Poland, Iran, Sudan, South Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam,etc. We have lots of experience to export and cooperate with all over the world, and we also sincerely welcome you to come to our factory to visit and watch our products and factory.

We have many kinds of certifications, famous in domestic and overseas, such as ISO Approved, CE Approved, SGS, BV and other certifications in our country. Such as Alibaba certifications, Made-in China, etc. You can find our factory and watch our products in many websites, We win in the strength, win in the quality and win in the service. This is why our clients choose us.

1. Pre-sale service: according to your special needs, design and manufacture products for you, provide you with project design, process design, purchase program.

2. On sale: accompany you to check the performance of the machine.

3. After-sale service: we will send engineers to install the equipments to put them into use as soon as possible, commissioning and training operators on site.

1. Contact me first and make a deal;

2. Sign order and then pay the down payment;

3. Receive the down payment, we arrange our factory to produce the machines;

4. After finished the manufacturing, we test, examine the machines;

5. The last step is to transport the machines to your country port. The whole line is finished.

Sales Manager: Ms. Bella Ren

Cellphone: 008615039052281

Skype: bella616919

Wechat: 008615039052281

Whatsapp: 008615039052281

京ICP证 040089号 京公网安备11010802017131

We will find the most reliable suppliers for you according to your description.

Be contacted easily by perfecting the information.

Thank you for your enquiry and you will be contacted soon.


CE ISO wood charring stove/biochar carbonizing furnace/palm kernel shell charcoal carbonized …

6 March, 2017
 

Home>Products>charcoal carbonization furnace>CE ISO wood charring stove/biochar carbonizing furnace/palm kernel shell charcoal carbonized kiln

wood charring stove can be packed in the standard container

CE ISO wood charring stove/biochar carbonizing furnace/palm kernel shell charcoal carbonized kiln

1. Feedback from our clients:

2. Main data of the wood charring stove:

capacity

t/24h

temperature

degree

3. Introduction of wood charring stove:

This carbonization furnace is the cylinder shape. And this model stove consists of outer stove, inner stove, and fume extraction tube, smoking purification tank and hoisting equipment. The surface of wood (bamboo, wood briquette, nut shell, etc) will ignite spontaneously in the hypoxic condition. And this spontaneous combustion will produce heat. This heat and the external heat source will heat the stove at the same time, when the temperature reach 280 degree, the chemical structure of the wood will be changed by the high-temperature, and after long time heating, changing and decomposing, then we will get the black charcoal, combustible gas, and wood tar. This model furnace will use the fume extraction tube to recycle all the combustible gas and smoking from the entire heat source.

4. What kinds raw material can be used to make the charcoal by using wood charring stove:

Wood log, tree, tree branch, wood briquette, coconut shell, palm nutshell, Walnut Shell, Macadamia nutshell, bamboo, and other nut shell or hard raw material.

5. Purification tank of our wood charring stove:

The purification tank is the important part in our carbonization furnace, which can purify the smoke efficiently and specially now, many countries ask to protect the environment, and no smoke. So, this furnace purification tank is your best choice to make charcoal.

1. Make sure the material size is within 3-5mm, If not in this scope, choose one kind of crusher is necessary according to your raw material;

2. Make sure the material moisture content is within 8-12%, If not in this range, it’s necessary to use one drying machine according to your raw material moisture content

3. Finished the two steps below, this step is to make the wod briqquette machine which under high temperature and pressure and use the screw propreller and heating ring and forming tube to make the briquette. The briqquette can be square, pentagon and hexagon. So please tell me first which shape you prefer;

4. This step is to make charcoal briquette by using the carbonization. And the charcoal briquette is widely used in many fields, such as BBQ, home heating, industrial boiler etc with high heating value. So this is your best choice to choose this line.

For packing the wood charring stove, we use the standard container; and if just for one set QHL-1, we pack them in the ponchos.

Gongyi xiaoyi Mingyang Machinery Plant is located in Zhengzhou City,which is the biggest manufacturing base of charcoal making machinery. And we are the one of the earliest and largest manufacturers of renewable fuel & energy equipment and related machinery. After 15 years development, now our company becomes an independent economic entity with the integration of science, engineering and trading department. Our products are widely accepted in both domestic and world markets, and also are exported to more than 30 countries, such as England, Russia, Sweden, Poland, Iran, Sudan, South Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam,etc. We have lots of experience to export and cooperate with all over the world, and we also sincerely welcome you to come to our factory to visit and watch our products and factory.

We have many kinds of certifications, famous in domestic and overseas, such as ISO Approved, CE Approved, SGS, BV and other certifications in our country. Such as Alibaba certifications, Made-in China, etc. You can find our factory and watch our products in many websites, We win in the strength, win in the quality and win in the service. This is why our clients choose us.

1. Pre-sale service: according to your special needs, design and manufacture products for you, provide you with project design, process design, purchase program.

2. On sale: accompany you to check the performance of the machine.

3. After-sale service: we will send engineers to install the equipments to put them into use as soon as possible, commissioning and training operators on site.

1. Contact me first and make a deal;

2. Sign order and then pay the down payment;

3. Receive the down payment, we arrange our factory to produce the machines;

4. After finished the manufacturing, we test, examine the machines;

5. The last step is to transport the machines to your country port. The whole line is finished.

Sales Manager: Ms. Bella Ren

Cellphone: 008615039052281

Skype: bella616919

Wechat: 008615039052281

Whatsapp: 008615039052281

京ICP证 040089号 京公网安备11010802017131

We will find the most reliable suppliers for you according to your description.

Be contacted easily by perfecting the information.

Thank you for your enquiry and you will be contacted soon.


Download Full Paper

6 March, 2017
 

In-depth data on over 20 million PubMed citations and scientific publication authors


Biochar Market to Reach $923.56 Million with 15.8% CAGR Forecast to 2022

6 March, 2017
 

Source: https://agriculture.einnews.com/rss/xABa2jrzMjYEkak5

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley.

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s.


Biochar Systems For Smallholders In Developing Countries Leveraging Current Knowledge And …

7 March, 2017
 

Reservas e Encomendas

21 715 30 58


53'Biochar/Classic

7 March, 2017
 

• 53’Biochar/Classic Carbon + UV:: Effect mix of Accepted & Disputed by Western Mainstream(WM) • ■ 53’Biochar/Classic Carbon + UV:(calling “Classic Carbon” here to differentiate with section 55’Nanocarbon) Largest promotor is Biochar specific type NGOs that are internationally networked with some mainstream backing: (biochar-international+), There are significant underexplored effects(often not water related) in mainstream biochar, yet there is further large effect gap between those and some of fringe group biochar production & usage method • eg: Material purpose sorted & treated 600-1200°C solid wood carbon is each used for different applications”: difference of porous honeycomb size, structure durability, thru or nonthru pores etc. Their commercialized claim(not really water related) effect and durability seem superior to Activated Carbon- likely at least partly due to the way it is used(Maruko-Denshi, NaraTanka +),. • WM promoted biochar can be produced from biomass by pyrolysis without generating CO2(unlike SuperCritical water decomposition), which has economical incentives around its sequestering. Activated Carbon filter is a part of widely used standard water treatment system, especially at fine filtration at last stage of public drinking water production.. linkedin.com/in/newnatureparadigm – Ben Rusuisiak, Vancouver BC, Canada 250

• 53’Biochar/Classic Carbon + UV: continued 2 • WM Accepted effect: P2(water filter): Removal of certain organic chemicals(eg hydrocarbon related) & non organic(eg chlorine) as absorption filter Granular Activated Carbon(GAC)/Pulverized Activated Carbon(PAC). Often a part of various filter system, Grass roots or biochar movement NGO group promotes use of biochar for water filter by usually offered by “non-mainstream” type or DIY focused suppliers(Wesionline, Nextchar, Terra-Char+), • Activated Carbon is a major part in std process of mixed hydrocarbon & other contaminant removal from water, or commercialized for general water filter. Some of larger producers of solid wood biochar might be selling “top grades” to some of “fringe” group high price bidders(Haycarb, Fujian Yuanli, Carbon activated corp+): they don’t value coal or nonsolid wood biomass based ones. • WM (only occasionally) disputed effect: O2(Hydroxyl production): Waste water treatment as decomposing element in addition to filtering effect of biochar: (Carbon-terra eu.+), P2(Bioenhancing effect): Some companies claim high grade solid wood biochar based filter actually increase “vitalization” effect of water: (Hitousui, N-t-c jp+): This seem to have wide range of degree depended on raw material for biochar and processing method. 251

Effektive, Niedrige Kosten, Nicht S

ABSTRACT: This presentation covers

• QUALIFICATION OF INFORMATION

• 66 Under utilized Water Technol

• 66 Under utilized Water Technol

• 1‘Crystallization: continued

• 2’Pulsed Power : Effect Accep

• 3’KDF: Effect mix of Accepted

• 5’Citric Acid: Effect mix of

>”>• 6‘Ozone: continued 2 • –>>

• 7‘UV: continued2 • WM Accep

• 8‘Aeration, Aerobic Bacteria,

• 8‘Aeration, Aerobic Bacteria,

• 8‘Aeration, Aerobic Bacteria,

• 8‘Aeration, Aerobic Bacteria,

• 9’SuperCritical Water: Effect

• 9’SuperCritical Water: contin

• 10‘Sonic, Its Cavitation, Aco

• 10‘Ultrasonic, Sonic Cavitati

• 10‘Ultrasonic, Sonic Cavitati

• 11’Hydrodynamic cavitation: E

• 11’Hydrodynamic cavitation: c

• 12’Spiral Vortex flow: Effect

• 12’Spiral Vortex/flowform: co

• 13’Nanobubble: continued 2

• 13’Nanobubble: continued 4

• 13’Nanobubble: continued 6

• 14’Photocatalytic: continued

• 14’Photocatalytic: continued

• 14’Photocatalytic: continued

• 14’Photocatalytic: continued

• 15’EDI & CDI: continued 2 •

• General Electrolysis Introducti

• General Electrolysis Introducti

• General Electrolysis Introducti

• General Electrolysis Introducti

• 16’Electrolysis Alkaline wate

• 16’Electrolysis Alkaline wate

• 16’Electrolysis Alkaline wate

• 17’Electrolysis Acid water: c

• 17’Electrolysis Acid water: c

• 18’Electrolysis Alkaline-Acid

• 18’Electrolysis Alkaline-Acid

• 18’Electrolysis Alkaline-Acid

• 18’Electrolysis Alkaline-Acid

• 18’Electrolysis Alkaline-Acid

• 20’Electro phoresis: Effect m

• 20’Electro phoresis, Electro

• 21’Fulvic Acid: Effect mix of

• 22’Nano Material Used Filter:

• 22’Nano Material Used Filter/

• 23’Plasma activated water(PAW

• 23’Plasma activated water(PAW

• 24’Electrolytic Metal Alloy +

• 24’Electrolytic Metal Alloy +

• 25’Electrostatic treatment: E

• 25’Electrostatic treatment: c

• 26’Electric field, EM pulse:

• 26’Electric field, EM pulse:

• 26’Electric field, EM pulse:

• 27’Time variant Magnetic Fiel

• 27’Time variant Magnetic Fiel

• 27’Time variant Magnetic Fiel

• 27’Time variant Magnetic Fiel

• 27’Time variant Magnetic Fiel

• 27’Time variant Magnetic Fiel

• 27’Time variant Magnetic Fiel

• 27’Time variant Magnetic Fiel

• 28’”Catalytic water”, “

• 28’”Catalytic water”, “

• 28’”Catalytic water”, “

• Phase catalyst type water comme

PHASE CHANGE CATALYST TYPE WATER –

• 28’”Catalytic water”, “

• 28’”Catalytic water”, “

• 28’”Catalytic water”, “

• 28’”Catalytic water”, “

>”>• 29’HHO: continued 2 • —>>

• 30’EM:& other Micro-organism

• 30’EM:& other Micro-organism

• 31’Torsion field/Subtle field

• 31’Torsion field/Subtle field

• 31’Torsion field/Subtle field

• 31’Torsion field/Subtle field

• 33’Mineral/BioCeramic treated

• 33’Mineral or BioCeramic/FIR-

• 33’Mineral or BioCeramic/FIR-

• 33’Mineral or BioCeramic/FIR-

• 33’Mineral or BioCeramic/FIR-

• 33’Mineral or BioCeramic/FIR-

• 33’Mineral or BioCeramic/FIR-

• 33’Mineral or BioCeramic/FIR-

• 34’Vacuum Freezing/Ice Freezi

• 34’Vacuum Freezing/Ice Freezi

• 36’Water jet: Effect Accepted

• 37’Water emulsion: continued

• 37’Water emulsion: continued

• 37’Water emulsion: continued

• 37’Water emulsion: continued

• 63’Other “Anomalous Process

• 63’Other “Anomalous Process

• 63’Other “Anomalous Process

• 63’Other “Anomalous Process

• 63’Other “Anomalous Process

• 63’Other “Anomalous Process

• 63’Other “Anomalous Process

• 64’Plant Polymer applied to w

• 64’Plant Polymer applied to w

• 65’Rain related Weather Modif

• 65’Precipitation related Weat

• 65’Precipitation related Weat

• 65’Precipitation related Weat

• 65’Precipitation related Weat

• 65’Precipitation related Weat

• 66’Atomospheric Water Generat

• END OF PRESENTATION • Next 13

First tech effect comparison 1-1 1

First tech effect comparison 1-3 23

First tech effect comparison 2-2 12

Second effect comparison 1-1 34 35

Second effect comparison 1-3 56 57

Second effect compared 2-2 46 47 48

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Magazine: Effektive, Niedrige Kosten, Nicht Sehr Bekannt, Umweltfreundliche Wassertechnologien Für Die Zukunft (Zusammenfassung in Deutsch)


Marie Curie Early Stage Researcher in Synergies in Seqential BioChar

7 March, 2017
 

We have an opening for a Research Assistant (Early-Stage Researcher) position to work towards a Ph. D. degree as part of the GreenCarbon (‘Advanced Carbon Materials from Biowaste: Sustainable Pathways to Drive Innovative Green Technologies) Marie Curie Innovative Training Network, a 4-year international collaborative research training project coordinated by the University of Zaragoza (http://greencarbon-etn.eu/project/). This is a high-profile position that offers exceptional benefits ideally suited for top graduates.

This position is based in the School of GeoSciences at the University of Edinburgh. You will join a broad, dynamic research team at the UK Biochar Research Centre with interests including biomass pyrolysis, biochar production and characterisation, biochar applications, bioenergy, and chemistry. You will be expected to work with other investigators of the network, both in Edinburgh and at the other GreenCarbon network institutions.

The post is available from 1st June 2017 for 36 months and the latest start date for the post is 1st October 2017. Enrolment in a PhD programme at the School of Geosciences and study towards a doctoral degree is an essential part of this position.

Closing Date: 27 March 2017 at 5pm GMT

For further particulars and to apply for this post please click on the ‘apply’ button below

Type / Role:

Subject Area(s):

Location(s):

Scotland

Show all PhDs for this organisation …


Bamboo Wood Vinegar

7 March, 2017
 

Biogro certified as an organic input.  

It is also certified as an organic input by the IMO according to regulations of the USDA.

 

pH

2.7~3.1

Soluble tar

<0.5%

Density/(g.cm-3)

1.01~1.05

Acetic acid equivalent

6%

Appearance

reddish-brown liquid

 

 

 

 


Global Biochar Market will value at around $585.0 Million By 2020

7 March, 2017
 

The report covers forecast and analysis for the biochar market on a global and regional level. The study provides historic data of 2014 along with a forecast from 2015 to 2020 based revenue (Kilo Tons) (USD Billion). The study includes drivers and restraints for the biochar market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the biochar market on a global level.

In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view on the biochar market. To understand the competitive landscape in the market, an analysis of Porter’s Five Forces model for the biochar market has also been included. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein technology segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness.

The study provides a decisive view on the biochar market by segmenting the market based on technology, application and regions. All the segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market is estimated from 2014 to 2020. Based on technology the market is segmented into pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal and others. Key applications segment include agriculture, water & waste water treatment and others. The regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa with its further bifurcation into major countries including U.S. Germany, France, UK, China, Japan, India and Brazil.

The report also includes detailed profiles of end players such as Diacarbon Energy Inc, Vega Biofuels, Inc, Agri-Tech Producers. LLC, Hawaii Biochar Products. LLC, Biochar Products, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Technologys Inc, Blackcarbon A/S, Green Charcoal International, Earth Technologys Pty Ltd,  and Genesis. The detailed description of players includes parameters such as company overview, financial overview, business and recent developments of the company.

This report segments the global biochar market as follows:

Global Biochar Market: Technology Segment Analysis

Global Biochar Market: Application Segment Analysis

Global Biochar Market: Regional Segment Analysis


BIOCHAR AMENDMENT GREATLY REDUCES RICE Cd UPTAKE IN A CONTAMINATED PADDY …

7 March, 2017
 

Error:

1 BIOCHAR AMENDMENT GREATLY REDUCES RICE Cd UPTAKE IN A CONTAMINATED PADDY SOIL: A TWO-YEAR FIELD EXPERIMENT Liqing Cui, Linqing Li, Afeng Zhng, Genxing Pn,, * Dndn Bo, nd Andrew Chng b A field experiment ws conducted on the effect of biochr (BC) mendment on Cd uptke by rice (Oryz stiv L.) in contminted pddy in 2009 nd BC ws pplied s bsl soil mendment before rice trnsplnttion in 2009 t rtes of 0, 10, 20, 40t h -1, nd rice yield nd Cd uptke were monitored in both 2009 nd The BC mendment significntly incresed soil ph by units in 2009 nd units in 2010, nd decresed CCl 2 extrcted Cd in soil by 32.0%-52.5% in 2009 nd 5.5%-43.4% in 2010, respectively. Under BC mendment t 10, 20, 40 t h -1, rice grin Cd concentrtion ws observed to be reduced by 16.8%, 37.1%, nd 45.0% in 2009 nd by 42.7%, 39.9%, nd 61.9% in 2010, while the totl plnt Cd uptke ws found to decrese by 28.1%, 45.7%, nd 54.2% in 2009 nd by 14.4%, 35.9%, nd 45.9% in 2010, respectively. Such effect of BC mendment on reducing Cd plnt uptke hs profound implictions mong those using bioresources for field ppliction. Finlly, BC mendment in combintion with low Cd cultivrs my offer bsic option to reduce Cd levels in rice s well s to reduce greenhouse gs emissions in rice griculture in contminted pddies. Keywords: Biochr; Cd; Rice pddy; Contminted soil; Metl mobility; Soil mendment Contct informtion: : Institute of Resources, Ecosystem nd Environment of Agriculture, Nnjing Agriculturl University, 1 Weigng, Nnjing, Chin; b: Deprtment of Environmentl Sciences, University of Cliforni Riverside, CA92521, USA. *Corresponding uthor: INTRODUCTION As toxic element, cdmium (Cd) cn cuse serious dysfunctions in humn orgns, especilly in liver nd kidney (Rectlá et l. 2010). The biovilbility of Cd in griculturl soils hs been gret helth concern due to the potentil risk through exposure of gro-food produced in Cd-contminted fields (Chney et l. 2004). In prticulr, this my become severe in cid soil res with mrginl deficiencies of the essentil nutrients such s Zn, Fe, nd C. This my led to enhncement of Cd bsorption, orgn ccumultion, nd retention of dietry Cd intke (Reeves et l. 2008). Countermesures for reducing Cd vilbility nd plnt Cd uptke nd blncing minerl nutrition with Zn, C, nd Fe in food s well s phytoremedition hve been recommended for preventing potentil Cd risks from food exposure in griculturl soils (Chney et l. 2007; Reeves et l. 2008). Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

2 Rice hs been of prticulr concern s Cd helth risk through food exposure by subsistence diet consumers (Chney et l. 2005). Potentil dverse consequences would be mgnified under cultivtion of high-yielding super-rice cultivrs grown in contminted cid rice pddies under intermittent moisture conditions, which my llow high Cd relese from Cd-bound sulfides upon dringe due to higher biomss production, thick nd sturdy stems, vigorous root system, incresed hrvest index, nd high productive tiller percentge (Gong et l. 2006; Zhng et l. 2009c). A lrge re of Chin s croplnds hs been reported to hve Cd contmintion in recent soil pollution survey, which rised prticulr criticl for South Chin (Zhng et l. 2000; Teng et l. 2010). In fct, excessive levels of Cd in rice grins smpled from South Chin rice res were lredy reported (Zhng et l. 2009). Yet, rice pddies subject to Cd contmintion pper to hve expnded for the lst decde due to irrigtion with wste wter from municipl sewge nd mining tiling s well s chemicl fertiliztion in South Chin (Du et l. 2009). This is supposed to rise the uptke nd rice grin ccumultion of Cd nd, in turn, the lredy existing helth risks for subsistence diet frmers of South Chin. Therefore, reducing Cd mobility nd plnt uptke would be n urgent demnd for sfe rice production in Chin. Phytoremedition of Cd-contminted fields, generlly considered s low input technique to remove, trnsform, or ssimilte toxic chemicl from contminted site, would need long time before low-cd rice could be produced (Peng et l. 2009). Other physico-chemicl extrction techniques re costly nd hve hd limited use in seriously contminted soil without prcticl crop production, nd minly t the scle of lb experiments (Chen et l. 1995; Peters, 1999; Di Plm et l. 2005; Kuo et l. 2006; Udovic et l. 2009; Zhng et l. 2010b). Techniques for stbilizing metls my be more effective in reducing Cd mobility nd plnt uptke in rice pddies with low-level of Cd contmintion, s they re generlly cost-effective nd beneficil for improving physico-chemicl nd biologicl properties of contminted soil (Mench et l. 2003; Mdejón et l. 2006). There hve been number of reports of field trils to reduce Cd vilbility nd plnt Cd uptke using physicochemicl pproches. These my led to removl of vilble metls or trnsformtion of less hrmful specition t significnt mount of mendment input nd/or period of time of ppliction (Zhou et l. 2004; Aboulroos et l. 2006; Mullign et l. 2001; Chen et l. 2006). Alkline mendments used s stbilizing gents in modertely nd slightly contminted soil my hve good effects on reducing metl mobility by incresing the soil ph nd enhncing metl binding to soil prticles, but such pproches re not lwys cost-effective for the lrge mount used for meliortion (Filius et l. 1998; McBride. 1989). In recently study, Zhng et l. (2009b) reported tht use of clcium mgnesium phosphte in mounts 0.7, 1, nd 1.3 t h -1 significntly decresed grin Cd concentrtion, while soil ph ws incresed nd rice yield ws not ffected under mendment tretments compred to no tretment. However, the Cd level of rice grin under the tretments in high mount ws still beyond the stte guideline limit. Recently, ppliction of biochr in griculture soil hs been dopted s n option for enhncing soil C stock nd mitigting greenhouse gs emission from world croplnd (Roberts et l. 2010). BC contins lrge mount of highly reclcitrnt orgnic mteril in more or less lkline rection (Lehmnn et l. 2006; Hossin et l. 2010), which would benefit reduction in metl mobility in soils. Experiments using BC s soil mendment Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

3 in contmintion soils hve been reported. In short lb incubtion study, Gomez-Eyles et l. (2011) observed significnt reduction in vilble Cd nd Cu nd n increse in soil ph fter BC mendment for 1-2 months, nd Nmgy et l. (2010) lso found significntly decresed vilbility of Cd nd Pb with BC ppliction in pot experiment. Likewise, in microcosmic study, Beesley et l. (2011) could trce the reduction in Cd nd Zn concentrtion in the lechtes from the soil column mended with biochr. Similrly, Beesley et l. (2010) reported significntly decresed Cd nd Zn concentrtions in pore wter fter the soil ws mixed with BC. Therefore, there my be potentil of using BC to reduce Cd vilbility in contminted soils. However, there hve not yet been ny reports of field study in contminted rice pddies. Therefore, the llevition of excessive Cd in rice grins due to contminted soil hs become mjor concern of rice griculture in South Chin. The purpose of this study is to ddress the efforts of biochr mendment on soil Cd vilbility, plnt uptke, nd grin Cd level in contminted rice pddy nd discuss the potentil ppliction of BC in rice griculture in Cd-contminted rice res. EXPERIMENTAL Field Experiment Site A field experiment for llevition of Cd uptke in rice grin using biochr s soil mendment ws initited in The experimentl site ws locted in Yifeng villge (31º24.434’N, 119º41.605’E), Yixing Municiplity, Jingsu, Chin nd ws conducted in rice frm tht hd been contminted with hevy metls from metllurgy plnt in tht vicinity since the 1970s. The sttus of multi-metl contminted nd high grin Cd level of the rice grown in the field ws lredy reported by Liu et l. (2006). The pddy soil of the frm belongs to Ferric-ccumulic Stgnic Anthrosols (Gong 1999). The locl climte ws humid subtropicl with men nnul temperture nd precipittion of 22 C nd 1100 mm, respectively. The rice frm hd been cultivted trditionlly under rottion of rice nd winter whet. Experiment Design Four tretments of biochr mendment were designed s C0, C1, C2, nd C3 t ppliction rtes of 0 (s control), 10, 20, nd 40 t h -1, respectively. Biochr s soil mendment ws spred on the surfce nd then thoroughly mixed by mnul plowing fter the whet hrvest in My of The biochr tretments were plowed by mchine in Tretment plots with n re of 4 m 5 m ech were lid out in rndomized complete block design. For rice production, seed of trditionl locl rice cultivr, Wuyunjing-19 in 2009 nd Wuyunjing-23 in 2010, were directly seeded in ech plot in lte My, nd clcium biphosphte, potssium chloride, nd ure were pplied s bsl fertilizers t 125 kg P 2 O 5 h -1 nd 125kg K 2 O h -1, 120 kg N h -1 respectively. Totl N fertilizer t 300 kg N h -1 ws pplied both in 2009 nd The wter regime nd N fertiliztion mngement were performed following conventionl prctices by the locl frmers. The experiment ws performed in triplictes. Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

4 Biochr used in the field experiment ws produced from whet strw by the Snli New Energy Compny, Henn, Chin. The biochr ws produced by pyrolysis t 350 to 550 C using verticl kiln mde of refrctory bricks, with which 35% of strw biomss ws converted to biochr. The produced biochr ws ground to pss 2 mm sieve. The bsic property of biochr used nd soil re listed in Tble 1. Tble 1. Bsic Properties of Topsoil (0 to 15 cm) of the Studied Rice Pddy before Experiment nd Biochr Amended ph (H 2 O) SOC (g kg -1 ) Totl N (g kg -1 ) Totl P (g kg -1 ) Totl K (g kg -1 ) CEC (cmol kg -1 ) Totl Cd (mg kg -1 ) Topsoil Biochr Soil Smpling nd Anlysis Topsoil smples were rndomly collected for bsic property nlysis before the field experiment in 2009 nd fter the rice hrvest both in 2009 nd For smpling, three undisturbed core smples t depth of 0 to 15 cm were collected in n S shped wy, respectively, from ech plot using n Eijkelkmp core smpler (Netherlnds). After shipping to the lb, ll soil smples were removed of plnt detritus nd ny visible frgments, ground, nd sieved to pss 2 mm sieve fter ir-drying t room temperture t lb. All soil nlysis ws conducted following the procedures described by Lu (2000). Soil ph ws mesured using Mettler Toledo Sevenesy precision ph meter (Switzerlnd) in soil-to-solution rtio of 1:2.5. Totl Cd contents were determined by digesting the g soil (further ground nd sieved to pss 0.15 mm sieve) with mixed solution of HF, HNO 3, HClO 4 (10: 2.5: 2.5, V: V: V) t 100 C for 60 min nd further t 250 C until the smple ws concentrted to n pproximte volume of 2 ml in the PTFE (polyfluortetrethylene) crucibles. Three regent blnk smples were lso digested in ech btch of digestion. A certified reference mteril of sediment GBW (0.13 ± 0.04 mg kg -1 Cd) from the Ntionl Centre for Certificte Reference Mterils, Chin ws used s internl stndrd in ech ptch of digestions, nd the Cd recovery ws between 81.2% nd 125.5%. Soil vilble Cd ws nlyzed by extrcting with 0.01 mol L -1 CCl 2. Cd concentrtion in these solutions ws determined with Flme Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS, TAS-986, Persee, Chin). Plnt Smpling nd Anlysis On hrvest, rice yield ws directly mesured by weighing ll the grins hrvested in ech plot. Three composite plnt smples were rndomly collected from ech plot t the ripening stge on the 23rd of October in both yers. After shipping to the lb, the smples were wshed to remove soil prticles first with tp wter nd further with deionized wter. Ech plnt smple ws then seprted into roots, shoots, nd grin. They were first dehydrted in n ir-convection oven t 105 C for 30 min nd further dried to constnt weight t 60 C for nother 48 h (Lu 2000). The dried smples were crushed, mixed, nd homogenized, then stored in ir-tight polyethylene bgs prior to chemicl nlysis. A portion of g of plnt sub-smple ws digested in 100 ml digestion Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

5 flsk with 10 ml mixed solution of HNO 3 nd HClO 4 (8:2, V:V), then heted to complete the digestion on n electric heting plte digester. Three regent blnk smples nd three certified plnt reference mterils GBW (0.14 ± 0.06 mg kg -1 Cd) nd GBW (0.087±0.005 mg kg -1 Cd) from the Ntionl Centre for Certificte Reference Mterils, Chin were inserted in ech bth used for digestion. Cd in the digest ws determined with Grphite Furnce Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS; SpectrAA 220Z, Vrin, USA). The recovery of Cd ws in the rnge of 86.5% to 122.1%. Dt Processing nd Sttistics All dt were expressed s mens plus or minus one stndrd devition. Differences between the tretments were exmined using two-wy nlysis of vrince (ANOVA). All sttisticl nlyses were crried out using SPSS, version13.0 (SPSS Institute, USA, 2001). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Soil Cd Mobility Dt of soil ph chnges under biochr tretment re presented respectively in Tble 2. As result of the lkline rection of biochr used, compred to the soil itself, biochr mendment significntly incresed soil ph over the control in similr rte of 0.01unit per ton of mended BC in both yers. Menwhile, soil orgnic crbon (SOC) content ws consistently incresed t rte of 0.42g kg -1 per ton of mended BC in both yers. Tble 2. Chnges in Soil ph nd SOC Following BC Amendment Tretment Soil ph (H 2 O) SOC (g kg -1 ) 2009 C0 6.07±0.01c 21.25±0.31d C1 6.22±0.01b 23.44±0.41c C2 6.29±0.09b 28.81±0.60b C3 6.40± ± C0 5.89±0.04c 21.55±0.36c C1 6.13±0.01b 23.70±3.04bc C2 6.24± ±4.96b C3 6.27± ±2.51 Different low cse letters represent significnt difference between the tretments in single yer. As shown in Tble 3, soil Cd mobility ws much decresed under biochr ppliction in both yers. The concentrtion of CCl 2 extrcted Cd in soil ws significntly decresed by 32.0%, 39.2%, nd 52.5% in 2009 nd by 5.3%, 43.4%, nd 39.8% in 2010 respectively under C1, C2, nd C3 tretments. As reltively smll pool of the totl Cd, exchngeble Cd did show significnt difference between two yers under single BC tretment. However, DTPA extrcted Cd exerted similr lrge pool of totl Cd cross the BC tretments in the contminted soil. While the extrctbility of DTPA seemed function of the stbility of metl-dtpa chelte, it did become smller in Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

6 single BC tretment, especilly under high rte of 40 t h -1, in 2010 thn in 2009 following the BC ppliction. This my indicte existence of some tightly bound Cd by BC mteril, which could not be identified with CCl 2 extrction. Tble 3. Chnge in Cd Mobility in Soil Following BC Amendment CCl 2 DTPA Tretments C0 1.73±0.22A 1.52±0.21A 14.00±1.92A 15.02±2.03A C1 1.17±0.24bA 1.44±0.15A 13.64±2.45A 11.20±1.46bA C2 1.05±0.31bA 0.86±0.20bA 13.98±3.65A 11.78±0.35bA C3 0.82±0.09cA 0.91±0.05bA 11.78±2.17A 7.73±0.01cB Different low cse nd cpitl letters represent significnt difference between the tretments in single yer nd between the yers for single tretment, respectively. Cd Uptke nd Prtitioning in Plnt Tissues Tble 4 lists the totl plnt Cd uptke, Cd concentrtion, nd prtitioning in plnt tissues under biochr mendment tretments. Totl plnt Cd uptke rnged from g h -1 nd g h -1 under BC mendment t 40 t h -1 to g h -1 nd g h -1 under no BC mendment in 2009 nd 2010, respectively. Compred to no BC mendment, totl plnt Cd uptke ws significntly decresed by 28.1%, 45.7%, nd 54.2% in 2009 nd by 14.4%, 35.9%, nd 45.9% in 2010, respectively under C1, C2, nd C3 tretments. Rnging from 39.5 mg kg -1 to 71.5 mg kg -1, root Cd concentrtion ws multiple-fold s much s the soil totl nd showed smller decresing trend with BC rtes thn totl plnt Cd uptke. However, there were no significnt differences in Cd prtitioning (t mostly 40%) in underground tissues between BC tretments or between the yers. These indicted no profound effect of BC tretment on Cd trnsloction from root to shoots. Tble 4. The Cd Plnt Uptke, Cd Concentrtion, nd Prtitioning in Plnt Tissues under Biochr Amendment (n =3, men ± S.D.). Cd in plnt tissue (mg kg -1 ) nd the Tret Yer ment Totl Cd uptke (g h -1 ) prtitioning (%,in brcket) Underground Aboveground C ±13.66A 71.53±9.50A (34.5) 15.20±0.63A (65.5) ±25.92B 66.39±4.83A (40.1) 9.42±0.77B (59.9) C ±12.48bA 54.29±7.44bA (44.7) 9.00±0.79bA (55.3) ±5.89bB 48.63±1.69bA (43.3) 8.30±0.50bA (56.7) C ±31.02cA 48.05±11.97bA (44.2) 6.34±0.80cA (55.8) ±16.24bA 48.89±8.28bA (38.7) 7.68±1.82bA (61.3) C ±27.28cA 39.49±2.63bA (40.5) 5.40±1.70cA (59.5) ±12.84bA 52.03±0.85bA (45.3) 6.99±1.04bA (54.7) The different letters in column indicte significnt difference between the tretments in single yer (p < 0.05). Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

7 Rice Grin Yield nd Grin Cd Dt in Fig. 1 showed no significnt differences in rice grin yield between the tretments in single yer or between the yers, though the grin yield of 7 t h -1 on verge ws little lower in the contminted field compred to tht reported by Zhng et l. (2010) in n uncontminted djcent field. 10 Rice grin yield (t h -1 ) C0 C1 C2 C3 Biochr mendment tretment Fig. 1. Chnge in rice yields with biochr tretment (Blnk, in 2009; Shded, in 2010). The br bove the block represents the stndrd devition of three replictes, different letters bove the blocks indicte significnt differences (p<0.05) between the biochr tretments. 4.0 Unpolished rice Cd (mg kg -1 ) b b b b b b 0.0 C0 C1 C2 C3 Biochr mendment tretment Fig. 2. Chnge in Cd concentrtion of unpolished rice with biochr tretment (Blnk, in 2009; Shded, in 2010). The br bove the block represents the stndrd devition of three replictes, different letters bove the blocks indicte significnt differences (p<0.05) between the biochr tretments. Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

8 Figure 2 presents dt for unpolished rice Cd concentrtion of the hrvested rice in both yers. Rice grin Cd concentrtion under no BC mendment ws s high s 3.15 mg kg -1 nd s 1.67 mg kg -1 in 2009 nd 2010, respectively. However, it ws reduced to 2.62, 1.98, nd 1.73 mg kg -1 in 2009 nd to 0.96, 1.00, nd 0.64 mg kg -1 in 2010, respectively under C1, C2, nd C3 tretments compred to no BC mendment. On verge, grin Cd ws decresed t rte of g kg -1 in 2009 nd g kg -1 in 2010 per ton of BC mendment. A gret reduction in grin Cd clculted in contrst to no mendment is seen t 16.8%, 37.1%, nd 45.0% in 2009 nd t 42.7%, 39.9%, nd 61.9% in 2010 under BC mendment of 10, 20, nd 40 t h -1 respectively. In ddition, more profound effect of biochr ppliction in reducing grin Cd level ws observed in the subsequent yer of 2010 with different cultivr. DISCUSSION This experiment showed significnt effects of biochr mendments on reducing rice grin Cd uptke in the contminted cidic rice pddy. In n djcent similr field, Zhng et l. (2009b) reported lrge rnge of decrese in rice grin Cd by16.6%, 22.6%, nd 66.6% under ppliction of clcium-mgnesium phosphte (CMP) of ph (H 2 O) 9.3 t 0.67, 1.00, nd 1.33 t h -1, respectively. Comprtively, BC effects on reducing rice Cd (Fig. 2) were seen to be much greter thn CMP t rtes beyond 1 t h -1. However, Gry et l. (2006) reported tht plnt Cd uptke by metl tolernt plnt ws reduced by 68.5% nd 69.8%, nd by 73.8% nd 60.7% in the first yer nd the subsequent yer fter ppliction of lkline red mud t high rtes of 60 nd 100 t h -1, respectively. Using pot experiments, cyclonic shes (CA) t very high rte of 5% (c. 150 t h -1 ) were seen to reduce Cd uptke by phytoccumultor t 52% (Ruttents et l. 2010). In field study using poultry compost with ph (H 2 O) 7.1, Sto et l. (2010) reported reduction in lef Cd t 37% under high rte of 75 t h -1. Comprtively, BC effect on reducing Cd uptke could be seen to be very profound nd convincing mong the relevnt technologies using recycled bioresource mterils. Plnt Cd uptke is generlly controlled by Cd mobility in soil, which is in turn highly dependent on soil ph nd orgnic mtter content (Suve et l. 2000). As in the cse of red mud (Gry et l. 2006), of cyclonic shes (Ruttens et l. 2010), nd of CMP (Zhng et l. 2009b), the effects of mendments on reducing metl mobility nd plnt uptke were minly ttributed to the incresed soil ph s result of the lkline rection of the mteril dded in lrge mount. In this study, totl plnt Cd uptke s mesure of Cd biovilbility ws found correlting both with soil ph nd orgnic crbon content for the individul yers (Fig. 3). While there existed significnt negtive correltion of CCl 2 -extrctble Cd with ph for both yers (dt not shown), the correltion of rice Cd with CCl 2 -extrctble Cd ws vlid only in 2009, the first yer of BC mendment (Fig. 4A). Notbly, in the subsequent yer fter BC mendment significnt strong correltion ws observed with DTPA (Fig. 4 B). These results exerted strong interctive effects of ph nd SOM on Cd mobility, nd plnt uptke. DTPA extrction ws tenttively proposed to mesure the pool of metl to relese from soil solid phse into solution through forming cheltes, which ws generlly ccepted s indictive of ccessibility to Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

9 plnt root uptke (Amcher 1996). Accordingly, higher DTPA extrctbility refers to smller frction of bound metls. In this study, the gret increse in SOC (Tble 2) following BC mendment could hve enhnced the binding nd ging cpcity for mobile Cd, thus exerting stronger control on Cd biovilbility to rice in the subsequent yer. BC contins lrge mount of such functionl groups s COO – ( COOH) nd O – ( OH) with lrge orgnic molecules, which re responsible for binding metl nd then stbilized in solid phse (Yun et l. 2011). Such cpcity could be gretly enhnced s totl SOC ws incresed to 28.8 nd 33.5 g kg -1 under BC mendments t high rtes of 20 nd 40 t h -1. On the other hnd, the exchngeble pool of Cd ws strongly ffected by the ph increse under BC mendment, nd this would ccount for the dominnt decrese in Cd uptke nd rice grin concentrtion in the first yer. Therefore, the present study demonstrtes sustining effect of BC mendments on reducing rice grin Cd concentrtion in the contminted field, which involves decresing Cd chemicl mobility through incresed soil ph minly in the first yer nd strongly enhncing metl stbiliztion through gretly incresed SOM in soil minly in the subsequent yer following BC mendments. 350 Totl Cd uptke by plnt (mg kg -1 ) y = x R 2 = 0.93 y = x R 2 = 0.96 y = x R 2 = 0.87 y = x R 2 = Soil ph(h 2 O) Soil orgnic crbon(g kg -1 ) Fig. 3. Correltion of totl plnt Cd uptke with soil ph nd orgnic crbon content (, 2009;, 2010) Unpolished rice Cd (mg kg -1 ) y = 1.59x R 2 = CCl 2 extrcted Cd (mg kg -1 ) A B y = 0.14x R 2 = DTPA extrcted Cd (mg kg -1 ) Fig. 4. Unpolished rice Cd s function of CCl 2 extrcted Cd in 2009 (A) nd of DTPA extrcted Cd in 2010 (B) Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

10 The observed decrese in rice grin Cd concentrtion ws more profound in the subsequent yer with lterntive cultivrs, though rice grin yield ws not ffected. There ws no significnt difference observed in Cd prtitioning between BC tretments in single yer, suggesting no remrkble BC effect on decresing Cd prtitioning between root nd grin. This seems to disgree with Hrris et l. (2001), who suggested tht Cd trnsloction from root to shoot cn be restricted under BC tretment, thus limiting Cd ccumultion in grin by controlling the size of root nd shoot Cd pools ble to remobilize to the grin. By contrst, the Cd rtio of root to grin (clculted from dt in Tble 4 nd Fig. 2) rnged from 20.7 to 24.3 in 2009 nd from 40.0 to 81.3 in 2010, being much greter in 2010 thn in Moreover, Cd prtitioning in root nd shoot ws 91.8% nd 91.6% in 2009 nd 96.3% nd 97.5% in 2010 under BC mendment t 20 t h -1 nd 40 t h -1, respectively. Thus, decresed prtitioning of Cd in rice grin my prtly explin the greter extent to which rice grin Cd ws reduced while the totl plnt uptke of Cd ws incresed in the subsequent yer of 2010 with n lterntive cultivr. The effect of cultivrs on Cd uptke nd prtitioning were well demonstrted in our previous studies (Li et l. 2005; Shi et l. 2007). With this low Cd prtitioning, in cultivrs Wuyunjing-23 rice grin Cd ws reduced under BC mendment t 40 t h -1 s low s 0.6 mg kg -1 compred to 3.15 mg kg -1 with Wuyunjing-19 under no BC tretment. Thus, BC mendment in combintion with low Cd cultivrs breeding would offer bsic option to grow low Cd rice in contminted pddies; this hs been identified s n urgent need with regrd to Chin s rice griculture nd risks to humn helth due to Cd (Gong nd Pn 2006). It hs been widely recognized tht BC mendment cn benefit griculturl production through improving soil qulity nd soil helth, s well s by decresing N 2 O emissions in griculture (Lehmnn nd Rhodon.2006), s shown in number of field studies (Asi et l. 2009; Rondon et l. 2007; Mjor et l. 2010). Our previous studies with BC mendment showed significnt beneficil effects on rice yield, greenhouse gses mitigtion, nd N use efficiency in uncontminted rice fields (Zhng et l. 2010). It is lredy well known tht biochr ppliction in griculture would hve net C negtive effect by conversion of the crop residue into reclcitrnt C form, thus offsetting greenhouse gs (GHGs) emission from N consumption nd voiding burning (Roberts et l. 2010). The present study further evidenced remrkble effect of BC mendment on reducing rice grin Cd in contminted rice pddy. Therefore, it is urged to dopt BC mendment s key option to reduce rice Cd s well s to reduce net GHGs emission in rice griculture of Chin, prticulr need for those res with Cd contmintion in South Chin. CONCLUSIONS Biochr showed high efficiency to reduce rice Cd content in long-term contminted pddy for t lest two yers, while grin yield ws not observed to be ffected. Combintion of BC mendment with low Cd cultivr breeding cn offer bsic option to reduce rice Cd content s well s reduce GHGs emission in rice griculture, prticulrly in the cidic Cd-contminted fields. Of course, long term effects on soil helth nd potentil off-setting effects under BC mendment deserve further field monitoring studies. Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

11 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study ws prtilly supported by the Ministry of Science nd Technology of Chin under grnts 2008BAD95B13-1 nd 2006BAD17B06, nd n overse prtnership progrm from the Ministry of Eduction of Chin (MS2010NJND046). REFERENCES CITED Aboulroos, S. A., Hell, M. I. D., nd Kmel, M. M. (2006). Remedition of Pb nd Cd polluted soils using in situ immobiliztion nd phytoextrction techniques, Soil Sediment. Contm. 15, Amcher, M.C. (1996). Nickel, cdmium nd led, In: Methods of Soil Anlysis, Prt 3-Chemicl Methods, Soil Science Society of Americ, Inc., Mdison, Wisconsin, USA Asi, H., Smson, B. K., Stephn, H. M., Songyikhngsuthor, K., Homm, K., Kiyono, Y., Inoue, Y., Shiriw, T., nd Horie, T. (2009). Biochr mendment techniques for uplnd rice production in Northern Los: 1. Soil physicl properties, lef SPAD nd grin yield, Field Crop Res. 111, Beesley, L., nd Mrmiroli, M. (2011). The immobilistion nd retention of soluble rsenic, cdmium nd zinc by biochr, Environ. Pollut. 159, Beesley, L., Moreno-Jiménez, E., nd Gomez-Eyles, J. L. (2010). Effects of biochr nd greenwste compost mendments on mobility, biovilbility nd toxicity of inorgnic nd orgnic contminnts in multi-element polluted soil, Environ. Pollut. 158, Chney, R. L., Angel, J. S., McIntosh, M. S., Reeves, P, G., Li, Y. M., Brewer, E. P., Chen, K. Y., Roseberg, R. J., Perner, H., Synkowski, E. C., Brodhurst, C. L., Wng, S., nd Bker, A. J. M. (2005). Using hyperccumultor plnts to phytoextrct soil Ni nd Cd, Z. Nturforsch 60C, Chney, R. L., Angle, J. S., Brodhurst, C. L., Peters, C. A., Tppero, R. V., nd Sprks, D. L. (2007). Improved understnding of hyperccumultion yields commercil phytoextrction nd phytomining technologies, J. Environ. Qul. 36, Chney, R. L., Reeves, P. G., Ryn, J. A., Simmons, R. W., Welch, R. M., nd Angle, J. S. (2004). An improved understnding of soil Cd risk to humns nd low cost methods to phytoextrct Cd from contminted soils to prevent soil Cd risks, BioMetls 17, Chen, S. B., Zhu, Y. G., nd M, Y. B. (2006). The effect of grin size of rock phosphte mendment on metl immobiliztion in contminted soils, J. Hzrd. Mter. 134, Chen, T. C., nd Hong, A. (1995). Chelting extrction of led nd copper from n uthentic contminted soil using N-(2-cetmido) iminodicetic cid nd S- crboxymethyl-l-cysteine, J. Hzrd. Mter. 41, Di Plm, L., Ferrntelli, P., nd Medici, F. (2005). Hevy metls extrction from contminted soil: Recovery of the flushing solution, J. Environ. Mnge. 77, Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

12 Du, Q., Chen, M., Zhou, R., Cho, Z., Sho, G., nd Wng, G. (2009). Cd toxicity nd ccumultion in rice plnts vry with soil nitrogen sttus nd their genotypic difference cn be prtly ttributed to nitrogen uptke cpcity, Rice Sci. 16, Filius, A., Streck, T., nd Richter, J. (1998). Cdmium sorption nd desorption in limed topsoils s influenced by ph: Isotherms nd simulted leching, J. Environ. Qul. 27, Gomez-Eyles, J. L., Sizmur, T., Collins, C. D., nd Hodson, M. E. (2011). Effects of biochr nd the erthworm Eiseni fetid on the biovilbility of polycyclic romtic hydrocrbons nd potentilly toxic elements, Environ. Pollut. 159, Gong, W., Li L., nd Pn, G. (2006). Cd uptke nd ccumultion in grins by hybrid rice in two pddy soils: Interctive effect of soil type nd cultivrs, Environ. Sci. 21, (in Chinese). Gong, W., nd Pn, G. (2006). Issues of grin Cd uptke nd the potentil helth risk of rice production sector of Chin, Sci. Technol. Rev. 24, (in Chinese). Gong, Z. T. (1999). Chinese Soil Txonomy, Chin Science Press, Beijing, (in Chinese). Gry, C. W., Dunhm, S. J., Dennis, P. G., Zho, F. J., nd McGrth, S. P. (2006). Field evlution of in situ remedition of hevy metl contminted soil using lime nd red-mud, Environ. Pollut. 142, Hrris, N. S., nd Tylor, G. J. (2001). Remobiliztion of cdmium in mturing shoots of ner isogenic lines of durum whet tht differ in grin cdmium ccumultion, J. Exp. Bot. 52, Hossin, M. K., Strezov, V., Chn, K. Y., Ziolkowski, A., nd Nelson, P. F. (2010). Influence of pyrolysis temperture on production nd nutrient properties of wstewter sludge biochr, J. Environ. Mnge. 92, Kuo, S., Li, M. S., nd Lin, C. W. (2006). Influence of solution cidity nd CCl 2 concentrtion on the removl of hevy metls from metl-contminted rice soils, Environ. Pollut. 144, Lehmnn, J., Gunt, J., nd Rondon, M. (2006). Bio-chr sequestrtion in terrestril ecosystems A review, Mitig. Adpt. Strteg. Globl Chnge 11, Lehmnn, J., nd Rhodon, M. (2006). Biochr soil mngement on highly-wethered soils in the humid tropics, In: Biologicl Approches to Sustinble Soil Systems, Uphoff, N. (Ed.), CRC Press, Boc Rton, FL, Li, Z. W., Li, L.Q., Pn, G. X., nd Chen, J. (2005). Biovilbility of Cd in soil-rice system in Chin soil type versus genotype effects, Plnt Soil 271, Liu, H., Li, Y., Li, L., Jin, L., nd Pn, G. (2006). Pollution nd risk evlution of hevy metls in soil nd gro-products from n re in the Tihu Lke region, J. Sf. Environ. 6, (in Chinese). Lu, R. K. (2000). Methods of inorgnic pollutnts nlysis, In: Soil nd Agro-chemicl Anlysis Methods, Agriculturl Science nd Technology Press, Beijing, Mdejón, E., Mor, A. P., Felipe, E., Burgos, P., Cbrer, F. (2006). Soil mendments reduce trce element solubility in contminted soil nd llow regrowth of nturl vegettion, Environ. Pollut. 139, Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

13 Mjor, J., Rondon, M., Molin, D., Rih, S. J., nd Lehmnn, J. (2010). Mize yield nd nutrition during 4 yers fter biochr ppliction to Colombin svnn oxiso, Plnt Soil 333, McBride, M. B. (1989). Rections controlling hevy metl solubility in soils, Adv. Soil Sci. 10, Mench, M., Bussiere, S., Boisson, J., Csting, E., Vngronsveld, J., Ruttens, A., De Koe, T., Bleeker, P., Assunco, A., nd Mnceu, A. (2003). Progress in remedition nd revegettion of the brren Jles gold mine spoil fter in situ tretments, Plnt Soil 249, Mullign, C. N., Yong, R. N., nd Gibbs, B. F. (2001). An evlution of technologies for the hevy metl remedition of dredged sediments, J. Hzrd. Mter. 85, Nmgy, T., Singh, B., Singh, B.P. (2010). Influence of biochr ppliction to soil on the vilbility of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, nd Zn to mize (Ze mys L.), Aust. J. Soil Res. 48, Peng, S., Zhou, Q., Ci, Z., nd Zhng, Z. (2009). Phytoremedition of petroleum contminted soils by Mirbilis Jlp L. in greenhouse plot experiment, J. Hzrd. Mter. 168, Peters, R. W. (1999). Chelnt extrction of hevy metls from contminted soils, J. Hzrd. Mter. 66, Rectlá, L., Sánchez, J., Arbelo, C., nd Scristán, D. (2010). Testing the vlidity of Cd soil qulity stndrd in representtive Mediterrnen griculturl soils under n ccumultor crop, Sci. Totl Environ. 409, Reeves, P. G., nd Chney, R. L. (2008). Biovilbility s n issue in risk ssessment nd mngement of food cdmium: A review, Sci. Tot. Environ. 398, Roberts, K. G., Gloy, B. A., Joseph, S., Scott, N. R., nd Lehmnn, J. (2010). Life cycle ssessment of biochr systems: Estimting the energetic, economic, nd climte chnge potentil, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, Rondon, M., Lehmnn, J., Rmírez, J., nd Hurtdo, M. (2007). Biologicl nitrogen fixtion by common bens (Phseolus vulgris L.) increses with biochr dditions, Biol. Fertil. Soils, 43, Ruttens, A., Adriensen, K., Meers, E., De Vocht, A., Geebelen, W., Crleer, R., Mench, M., nd Vngronsveld, J. (2010). Long-term sustinbility of metl immobiliztion by soil mendments: Cyclonic shes versus lime ddition, Environ. Pollut. 158, Sto, A., Tked, H., Oyngi, W., Nishihr, E., nd Murkmi, M. (2010). Reduction of cdmium uptke in spinch (Spinci olerce L.) by soil mendment with niml wste compost, J. Hzrd. Mter. 181, Suve, S., Hendershot, W., nd Allen, H. E. (2000). Solid solution prtitioning of metls in contminted soils: Dependence on ph, totl metl burden, nd orgnic mtter (TOC), Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, Shi, J., Li, Z. W., Gong, W. Q., nd Pn, G. (2007). Uptke nd prtitioning of Cd nd Zn by two non -hybrid rice cultivrs in different growth stges: Effect of cultivrs, soil type nd Cd spike, Asin J. Ecotoxicol. 2, Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),

14 Teng, Y., Ni, S., Wng, J., Zuo, R., nd Yng, J. (2010). A geochemicl survey of trce elements in griculturl nd non-griculturl topsoil in Dexing re, Chin, J. Geochem. Explor. 104, Udovic, M., nd Lestn, D. (2009). Pb, Zn nd Cd mobility, vilbility nd frctiontion in ged soil remedited by EDTA leching, Chemosphere 74, Yun, J. H., Xu, R. K., nd Zhng, H. (2011). The forms of lklis in the biochr produced from crop residues t different tempertures, Bioresour. Technol. 102, Zhng, A., Cui, L., Pn, G., Li, L., Hussin, Q., Zhng, X., Zheng, J., nd Crowley, D. (2010). Effect of biochr mendment on yield nd methne nd nitrous oxide emissions from rice pddy from Ti Lke plin, Chin, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 139, Zhng, J., nd Hung, W. (2000). Advnces on physiologicl nd ecologicl effects of cdmium on plnts, Act Ecol. Sinic. 20, (in Chinese). Zhng, L., Li, L., nd Pn, G. (2009). Vrition of Cd, Zn nd Se contents of polished rice nd the potentil helth risk for subsistence-diet frmers from typicl res of South Chin, Environ. Sci. 30, Zhng, L., Li, L., Pn, G., Cui, L., nd Hu, Z. (2009b). Effects of phosphorus nd folir zinc fertilizers on reducing grin Cd concentrtion of rice grown in polluted pddy, Ecol. Environ. Sci. 18, (In Chinese). Zhng, Y., Tng, Q., Zou, Y., Li, D., Qin, J., Yng, S., Chen, L., Xi, B., nd Peng, S. (2009c). Yield potentil nd rdition use efficiency of "super" hybrid rice grown under subtropicl conditions, Field Crops Res. 114, Zhng, W., Hung, H., Tn, F., Wng, H., nd Qiu, R. (2010b). Influence of EDTA wshing on the species nd mobility of hevy metls residul in soils, J. Hzrd. Mter. 173, Zhou, Q. X., nd Song, Y. F. (2004). Remedition of Contminted Soils: Principles nd Methods, Science Press, Chin, Beijing (In Chinese). Article submitted: Mrch 20, 2011; Peer review completed: My 8, 2011; Revised version received nd ccepted: My 14, 2011; Published: My 17, Cui et l. (2011). Biochr in soil vs. Cd in rice, BioResources 6(3),


Mitigating biochar phytotoxicity via lanthanum (La)

7 March, 2017
 

Biochar (BC) produced from oak sawdust by slow pyrolysis was investigated to check the potential inhibition to early growth of tomato for phytotoxicity assessment. An inverted-U-shaped dose-response relationship between BC dosage and seed germination/seedling growth can be observed. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50), based on the inhibition rate of root and stem length, was 65.7 and 74.0 g kg−1, respectively. At the highest BC dosage of 80.0 g kg−1, germination rate, root, and shoot length were notably inhibited by 34.9, 62.3, and 62.2% compared with their corresponding controls (without BC). Fluorescence intensity, indicating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in leaf and root, was 177.7 and 344.5% higher than the control. Similar results on H2O2 content in leaf and root were observed as well. Besides, membrane leakage from the leaf and root cells was 2.1- and 1.3-fold higher than the corresponding controls. These results proved that BC exhibited significant phytotoxicity in the early growth stage of tomato. Unlike BC, the inhibitions on seed germination and seedling growth, the ROS accumulation, and the plasma membrane damage were not obvious with increasing La-BC dosage. These results indicated that BC phytotoxicity can be greatly mitigated by La involvement in pyrolysis, which was potentially associated with the reduced organic compounds and free radicals in La-BC. Besides, bio-available La in La-BC was partially involved in mitigating the phytotoxicity.


IDA Nepal Bio-Char Project team wins Coca-Cola Foundation award

7 March, 2017
 

Research

Tokyo Tech News

Prizes

Students

We visited Nepal for about two weeks in the summer of 2016. After conducting experiments on bio-char production in the rural village of Chandanpur, we surveyed relevant governmental organizations, NGOs, and households. Finally, we organized a workshop to provide information regarding the benefits of bio-char over traditional fuel wood, and demonstrated the process of bio-char production utilizing locally available bio-waste. The workshop boasted a huge number of female participants. Based on these experiments and surveys, we will continue improving our activities for the welfare of society.

IDA gave me an opportunity for creating ideas and developing a project to solve the indoor air pollution problem in my home county, Nepal. I have had first-hand experiences of this problem by burning firewood in conventional cook stoves. I am grateful to the Coca Cola Foundation for their financial contribution and my teammates in the Nepal Charcoal Project for exerting their utmost efforts to make this project successful. Beside the Nepal Charcoal Project, IDA currently runs many other projects in other countries as well. For the students who aspire to make a tangible contribution to society, IDA is a great platform. Please join us in the challenge of applying your innovative ideas for the betterment of society.

International Development Academy

Email ida.tokyotech@gmail.com


Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

7 March, 2017
 

Fredrik Bajers Vej 5
P.O.Box 159 DK-9100 Aalborg
Denmark
Phone: 9940 9940

Mail: aau@aau.dk
CVRnr: 29102384
EAN


DENR allots P4B for families to be displaced by mine closure | SunStar

7 March, 2017
 

THE government will earmark P4-billion worth of investment that is expected to benefit 30,000 households, which could be affected by the mine closure in three provinces, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) said Tuesday.

Environment Secretary Gina Lopez assured that her order to close mining projects would not result in job losses that could adversely affect the lives of residents dependent on mining for their livelihood.

“It is incumbent upon us in government to provide alternatives for our citizens who are affected by our policies. We want to protect the environment, and want to show that we can save lives and provide livelihood at the same time,” said Lopez.

According to Lopez, the DENR together with ten other government line agencies are prepared to invest close to P4 billion to provide employment opportunities for 25,000 to 30,000 households in the provinces of Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, and Dinagat Islands.

The other agencies include the Department of Labor and Employment, the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Science and Technology, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, the Department of Interior and Local Government, the Department of Trade and Industry, the Philippine Coconut Authority, the Department of Public Works and Highways, and the Department of Social Welfare and Development.

“We have a very good, very doable plan that will provide employment in the short and long term, jobs that do not involve mining activities that will damage our much-needed watersheds,” explained the DENR chief.

Short-term employment opportunities include reforestation, desilting of agricultural land, napier and bamboo farming, livestock raising, and biochar manufacturing.

Biochar is a powerful soil enhancer that holds carbon and makes soils more fertile. It can boost food security, discourage deforestation and preserve cropland diversity. Biochar systems can reverse soil degradation and create sustainable food and fuel production in areas with severely depleted soils, scarce organic resources, and inadequate water and chemical fertilizer supplies.

Medium and long-term jobs, on the other hand, will be generated by the manufacture of charcoal briquettes, ecotourism activities, infrastructure, and agro-post harvest processing.

Lopez stressed that “providing economic opportunities and protecting the environment are not mutually exclusive.”

“It is not one or the other; we can and should do both at the same time, because we cannot sacrifice the welfare of future generations to meet short-term economic objectives.”

She added that even experts from the Mineral Policy Center based in Washington, D.C. have referred to water as “mining’s most common casualty.”

“Any competent scientist will tell you that mining affects fresh water through the heavy use of water in processing ore, and through water pollution from discharged mine effluent and seepage from tailings and waste rock impoundments,” explained Lopez.

Lopez said she hoped legislators and fellow cabinet secretaries “look at the issue of protecting our watersheds in the long term because we could face a very, very serious problem with water many years down the road.”

A study conducted by the think tank World Resources Institute (WRI) said in late 2015 that the country is in danger of experiencing water scarcity in 23 years. The study predicts the Philippines will experience a “high” degree of water shortage in the year 2040.

The Philippines is ranked 57th out of 167 countries that will likely be a water-stressed country in 2040. The study defines water stress as “the ratio between total water withdrawals and available renewable surface water at a sub-catchment level.” (SDR/SunStar Philippines)

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Global Fine Biochar Powder Market 2017 – Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now …

7 March, 2017
 

The report studies Fine Biochar Powder in Global market Professional Survey 2017 : Size, Share, Trends, Industry Growth, Opportunity, Application, Production, Segmentation, Cost Structure, Company Profile, Product Picture and Specifications during the Forecast period by 2022

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The report further focuses on the leading industry players that will steer the course of the Fine Biochar Powder market through the forecast period. Each of these players is analyzed in detail so as to obtain details pertaining to their product/services, recent announcements and partnerships, investment strategies and so on. A detailed segmentation evaluation of the Fine Biochar Powder market has been provided in the report. Detailed information about the key segments of the market and their growth prospects are available in the report. The detailed analysis of their sub-segments is also available in the report. The revenue forecasts and volume shares along with market estimates are available in the report.


Biochar and bioenergy production for climate change mitigation

7 March, 2017
 

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1 Biochar and bioenergy production for climate change mitigation Peter Winsley Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, P O Box 2526, Wellington The world will increasingly depend on renewable energy with low or zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper explores how science and the economic rules of the game might realize the potential for the pyrolysis co-production of biochar and bio-oil to mitigate net GHG emissions while achieving other economic and environmental benefits. This pyrolysis process produces a high carbon biochar that can be sequestered almost permanently in soil, and energy that substitutes for fossil fuels. It is carbon negative, that is, it allows an ever-increasing carbon sink to be built up in soil. Biochar can reduce emissions of nitrous oxide and leaching of nitrates into water. It can also lift agricultural productivity through its effect on soil structure, microbiota and nutrient availability. Background In the late 19 th century, European explorers in the Amazonia found patches of dark, high fertility soils amidst the highly weathered and acidic oxisols in the region. These soils were termed terra preta (dark soils) and they were created by indigenous people who incorporated biochar into them. Terra preta soils are very high in carbon, with soil structures and microbial activity that improve nutrient availability and plant growth. The biochar was made by smouldering biomass at moderate temperatures in the absence of oxygen, leaving charred vegetation that was then dug into the soil. The addition of biochar led typically to a doubling of crop production in these soils compared with unimproved soils nearby. Although it is accepted that terra preta soils were created by the addition of biochar it is still not clear whether this fully explains their high crop productivity. Plant-available phosphorus and other nutrient content in the soils may result from other human inputs such as animal manures, and plant and fish wastes. The slash and char methods in the Amazonia must be distinguished from slash and burn agricultural practice. Slash and char sequesters around 50% of the initial carbon in the biomass, compared to the 3% or so from burning (Lehman et al. 2006). carbon from burnt (as opposed to pyrolysed) plant material is labile and is largely mineralised to carbon dioxide within a matter of months or a few years. While some carbon in biochar may well decay over the shorter term, biochar is a highly stable and long-term form of carbon sequestration overall, because charcoal is inert and resistant to biochemical breakdown. Terra preta soils are up to several thousand years old. The average age of black carbon buried in deep-sea sediments has been found to be up to years greater than the age of other organic carbon such as humic substances (Masiello & Druffel 1998). Charcoal from volcanic eruptions has been dated back over years. The terra preta soils are believed to have formed over periods of as little as years. They range in depth from 0.5 to 2 metres. A hectare of 1 metre-deep terra preta soil contains around 250 tonnes of carbon as opposed to 100 tonnes in unimproved soils from similar parent material. The soil horizons within which carbon is stored may be far deeper in terra preta than in other soils, with a horizon enriched in organic matter that is up to 2 metres deep compared with average profiles of about cm in other soils. A ceiling has yet to be found to the amount of carbon a terra preta soil can sequester, although it is assumed that there will be a ceiling and it will be influenced by factors such as the underlying geology. Soil sequestration of carbon through biochar offers a means of mitigating climate change while delivering other economic and environmental benefits. These benefits can include the restoration of degraded soils. Benefits from biochar depend on a clear understanding of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Carbon and nitrogen cycles Carbon and nitrogen are circulated between the atmosphere, soil, and water. Carbon dioxide is fixed by plants and nitrogen by bacteria. The soil carbon pool is made up of different types of carbon with different turnover times. Labile carbon, as occurs in the microbial biomass, has a turnover time of about 1 5 years, humic carbon may turn over in decades, and inert organic matter such as charcoal may decay over thousands of years. Humic substances contain both carbon and nitrogen, so that soils acting as net sinks for carbon are also acting as sinks for nitrogen. Every tonne of carbon lost from soils adds 3.67 tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Soils losing carbon are also losing nitrogen, including nitrous oxide and other forms. Humus improves soil structure, moisture retention, and microbial activity. As soils approach nitrogen saturation, and plants are unable to take it up, the risk of nitrates and nitrates Peter Winsley was Manager of Policy and Strategy at the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology from 1990 to He is currently Director of Strategy Development at MAF responsible for forward-looking analysis and policy development on key strategic issues relevant to the agriculture and forestry industries. He also leads MAF s Sustainable Development flagship project. Peter holds a BA (Hons) in English literature, a Master s degree in industrial economics (with distinction) and a PhD in management (his thesis being in the management of industrial innovation). He also has a diploma in business administration and a diploma in social sciences (economics). Peter may be contacted at

2 leaching into waterways increases. Lifting the carbon:nitrogen ratio in soils has the effect of increasing nitrogen retention and therefore reducing nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching. Adding biochar to soil may prevent or limit the anaerobic production of nitrous oxide. Biochar and bio-oil from pyrolysis When biomass is burnt in the absence of oxygen, pyrolysis occurs and the biomass can be turned into a liquid ( bio-oil ), a gas and a high-carbon, fine-grained residue: biochar. Biochar has been made from grasses, woody material, straw, corn stover, peanut shells, olive pits, bark, sorghum, and sewage wastes. However, experimentation with biochar and bio-oil has typically been on wood because of its consistency as a material and its relatively low ash content. Pyrolysis can involve a range of different processes, including bubbling fluidised bed, rotating cone reactors, and mechanical or centrifugal ablative processes. Some of these processes are quite new and are still being refined. Other approaches to pyrolysis may also be developed. Pyrolysis involves trade-offs between the production of biochar, bio-oil and gas, and the process can be calibrated to maximise the output of different products, depending on economic factors. This is illustrated in Table 1. The energy used in the above processes is provided by the biomass itself in the form of gas and other byproducts. There are important challenges in reducing the costs of these processes, and there is extensive international research under way on them. Biochar and its potential uses While lump charcoal is a valuable product for industrial processes such as iron- and steel-making, biochar is finely ground charcoal with some similarities to activated charcoal. Lump charcoal has very limited ability to adsorb substances in the liquid or gas phase and that is why activation of charcoal is required to remove tarry materials which block the structure of the pure carbon skeleton of the charcoal. This vastly increases the surface area of the porous carbon skeleton, providing large numbers of sites where molecules of other substances can be held. This is the basis for activated charcoal, and also explains something of the role biochar plays in relation to soil microbiota processes. Biochar offers an extremely high surface area to support microbiota that catalyse processes that, among other things, reduce nitrogen loss and increase nutrient availability for plants. Biochar to sequester carbon Wood has a carbon content of about 50%, whereas biochar has a carbon content of about 70 80%, which can be permanently sequestered in soil. Over and above this, biochar may have the potential to increase atmospheric carbon dioxide uptake in the form of glomalin, a major component of humus produced by plant mycorrhizal fungi. However, this possibility needs further research. Biochar to reduce nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching Biochar can reduce nitrogen fertiliser requirements and nitrous oxide emissions (Baum & Weitner, 2006). New Zealand soils have a finite ability to store nitrogen and nitrogen-saturated soils create risks of nitrogen leaching into waterways and being discharged to the atmosphere. However, a soil with a high carbon:nitrogen ratio usually has a greater capacity to store nitrogen and thereby reduce nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching. The carbon:nitrogen ratios of different land uses are set out in Table 2. Biochar is an excellent support material for Rhizobium inoculants (Lal & Mishra 1998), and application of sufficient volumes of biochar could also reduce nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching from New Zealand soils. This is extremely important, as nitrous oxide is a potent and long-lasting greenhouse gas that creates substantial Kyoto Protocol liabilities, while nitrification of waterways is another major form of environmental damage from agriculture. Although there may be a high initial cost of incorporating biochar in soils, it is a one-off cost with a permanent benefit. There is reference in the literature to the ability of biochar to reduce methane emissions from soil, but this has yet to be substantiated. Biochar to lift soil and crop productivity The carbon in biochar does not directly provide nutrients to plants. However, it improves soil structure and water retention, enhances nutrient availability, lowers acidity, and reduces the toxicity of aluminium to plant roots and soil microbiota. Biochar may help reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals and endocrine disruptors in some production systems and may therefore have potential in bioremediation. Some of the microbiological processes associated with biochar may be relevant to organic farmers with interests in the performance of high-carbon soils. Productivity gains from biochar are well documented from terra preta soils and use of charcoal as a soil improver has been Table 1: Typical product yields (dry wood basis) obtained by different modes of wood pyrolysis. Mode Conditions Bio-oil Biochar Gas Fast Moderate temperatures (500 C) for 1 second 75% 12% 13% Intermediate Moderate temperatures (500 C) for seconds 50% 20% 30% Slow (carbonisation) Low temperature, (400 C), very long solids residence time 30% 35% 35% Gasification High temperature, 800 C, long vapour residency time 5% 10% 85% Source: International Energy Agency 2007

3 Table 2: Organic matter carbon:nitrogen ratios in New Zealand. Land use Mean C:N ratio Number of sites Plantation forestry Indigenous forestry Tussock grassland Horticulture and orchards Arable crop Mixed crop Sheep-beef pasture Dairy pasture Source: SURLI, documented in Japan at least as far back as the 17 th century. Modern experimental research demonstrates that biochar application can substantially lift the productivity of crops such as soybeans, sorghum, potatoes, maize, wheat, peas, oats, rice and cowpeas. Such productivity gains also depend, however, on factors such as soil and crop type, char concentrations, and nutrient levels, so optimal applications would need to be tailored to local conditions. Evidence suggests that significant productivity gains are possible at application rates as low as 0.4 to 8 tonnes of carbon per ha, but at extremely high applications crop productivity may actually drop due to nitrogen limitation. There is evidence that legumes will thrive under high biochar applications, perhaps because their nitrogen-fixing ability enables them to compensate for limited nitrogen availability in the soil. This might suggest some potential for New Zealand s clover-based pasture systems. Biochar for fertiliser production Much synthetic fertiliser is currently produced by using natural gas to synthesise ammonia using nitrogen from the air, but this releases one molecule of carbon dioxide for each molecule of ammonia produced. Conventional urea-based fertilisers, made from this ammonia, also have other adverse environmental impacts when used inappropriately. Combining ammonia, carbon dioxide and water in the presence of biochar forms a solid, ammonium bicarbonate fertiliser, inside the pores of the char. This nitrogen-enriched char can be incorporated into the soil, where it serves three purposes: as a carbon store, as nitrogen fertiliser, and as a biologically active soil enhancer. Iowa State University and Eprida * are among the leaders in this field. Properties and potential uses of bio-oil Bio-oil is a complex liquid produced as part of biomass pyrolysis. It has only 42% of the energy content of fuel oil on a weight basis and 61% on a volumetric basis. Technical challenges with bio-oil include low volatility, high viscosity, coking, corrosiveness, and instability. Technical standards need to be developed for it. The presence of water in bio-oil lowers its heating value but improves its flow characteristics, which is beneficial for * See combustion (pumping and atomisation). It also lowers nitrous oxide emissions. Bio-oil can be used as a basis for higher-value extracts and by-products, for example acetic acid, resins, food flavourings, agrichemicals, fertilisers, and emission-control agents. There is extensive commercial and academic work under way to produce bio-oil through pyrolysis, with leading organisations including Dynamotive, * in Ontario, Canada BEST Technologies, research units at the State University of Iowa, RTI Canada, IWC Germany, Aston University, UK, VTT in Finland, and the NREL in the USA. Bio-oil could only replace diesel as transport fuel if it is upgraded and work is under way internationally on this. Approaches include using mild oxidation with ozone and full deoxygenation, either through hydro-treating or catalytic vapour cracking. However, the economics of this are not currently attractive. Alternatively, although bio-oil is not miscible with hydrocarbons, it can be emulsified with diesel oil with the aid of surfactants. This means it could be used as a diesel oil extender, although both surfactants and the emulsification process are expensive. It is possible to gasify bio-oil and to then synthesise highquality transport fuels, but a substantial scale of operation is needed to justify the high cost of a processing operation and this in turn means high transport costs for diffuse biomass resources. Bio-oil is easy to transport and it would be possible for a network of smaller-scale or mobile pyrolysis plants to produce it for transport to a centralised plant for gasification and synthesis into transport fuels. Such a plant would produce substantial volumes of biochar as well, although valuing this is problematic. Mobile pyrolysis plants have been designed that not only convert biomass into bio-oil, biochar, and gas, but also use the energy from the gas to power the process, with no other energy needed. With existing technology, bio-oil is best used directly (or with minor modifications) as process heat (including greenhouse heating) and in stationary engines, although electricity generation may be the most promising option. Potential for biochar and bio-oil co-production in New Zealand Biochar could be made from residues from plantation forestry harvesting. However, there are costs in collecting diffuse residues, and waste streams from processing are already used directly in process heat or have other valued uses. One opportunity is short-rotation growing or coppicing of poplar, willow, or eucalypts on low-value land. Such production regimes also have potential for bioremediation of contaminated land. On erosion-prone hill country such regimes might prevent * See See See

4 carbon loss (since plants grow more slowly on eroded soil and soil loss reduces carbon sequestration in both plants and soil). However, production and harvesting costs on steeper land may be excessive. Willow (Salix) plantations in Sweden produce for up to 30 years and can yield 7 11 tonnes of dry biomass per ha per year (Svebio 2004). Cloned eucaplyts in Brazil can produce 40 tonnes of dry biomass per hectare per year growth rates that would seem impossible in New Zealand. Production (as a rough estimate) of around tonnes dry mass per hectare per year might be achievable in New Zealand, and application of advanced plant breeding technology may lift this further. The balance between biochar and bio-oil would be driven by relative prices, and pyrolysis processes are flexible enough to adapt to these (see Table 1). While dollar values can be placed on bio-oil, the value of biochar for carbon sequestration, reduced nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions, and higher agricultural productivity is still speculative at this stage. However, biochar may become increasingly attractive with rising concern about climate change, the negotiation of new post-kyoto Protocol rules, and commercially-driven pressures to reduce the life-cycle net greenhouse gas impact of our major export products. Some skeptical questions There is no magic bullet to mitigate climate change, and a very wide array of technologies needs to be developed or more widely deployed to address it. On a large enough scale, it seems that biochar and bio-oil co-production could help address New Zealand s climate change and water quality problems, lift agricultural productivity, reduce the costs of imported fossil fuels and contribute to phasing out use of fossil fuels in electricity generation and industrial process heat. The ability of one process to help address so many different New Zealand problems suggests, of course, that it is too good to be true and skeptical questions need to be asked: Do we know enough about the science? The basic scientific and technical underpinnings for biochar and bioenergy co-production are in place, but outstanding technical issues include: optimising wood feedstock production, harvesting, drying and grinding; choosing from fluidised bed, rotating cone, or mechanical or centrifugal ablative pyrolysis processes for further development; finding the best R&D paths to upgrade the use of bio-oil to make it a suitable substitute for diesel (unless it is used directly for electricity generation or process heat); scientific validation and ongoing fine-tuning of the environmental and agricultural productivity benefits of biochar. We need to know more about New Zealand soils, biomass production regimes, and pyrolysis processing before we could optimise the biochar opportunity. There will be a need to finetune all stages of the production and use of biochar, since biochars can be very different in their nutrient component, carbon levels, and ph, so crops and soils will respond differently. However, innovation does not need perfection and optimisation it simply requires doing better than the status quo. People were making steel for hundreds of years before they learnt how to make it in terms of perfect scientific understanding. It would be possible to spend decades researching biochar and achieving process optimisation in its manufacture and application. However, many of these issues are being addressed in overseas research that we do not need to duplicate. If biochar can be commercialised in New Zealand, supporting scientific research could be drawn on to improve the technology and its fitness for purpose. What are the net energy balances from biochar and bio-oil? Biofuel production using pyrolysis can produce a biochar byproduct which sequesters around 30.6 kg carbon for each GJ of energy produced (Lehman et al. 2006). There would need to be a careful life-cycle analysis of all fossil fuel use in feedstock production and processing and biochar making and application before we could measure the net gains in both energy and carbon balance terms. Would biochar applications be suited to New Zealand soils? Many New Zealand soils are acidic and some have problems of aluminium toxicity, conditions amenable to biochar application. However, many soil profiles are shallow and this might limit the depth to which biochar can be added. This suggests that for some New Zealand soils an upper ceiling of carbon sequestration might be reached much sooner than in the case of terra preta soils. It is unclear what volume of biochar would be needed to make a difference to crop productivity and reduced nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching. In overseas cropland trials, typically 10 tonnes per hectare are applied. However, many of our pasture soils are quite shallow and this suggests that smaller volumes of biochar might be effective if added only to the top few centimetres of soil. The stability of biochar in soil will be affected by the specifics of the biochar process and its tailoring to local soil conditions. Likewise, the ceiling for carbon sequestration in soil will be heavily dependent on local soil conditions. Over time, we would learn to tailor biochar applications to different soil types and other conditions. Soil carbon sequestration and New Zealand s position on the Kyoto Protocol Addressing climate change involves the management of carbon flows between the atmosphere and terrestrial and ocean systems. Over 80% of organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is in soil rather than biomass (IPCC 2000). The Kyoto Protocol Article 3.4 allows for the recognition of enhanced soil carbon sequestration. However, New Zealand did not include this in its

5 Kyoto commitments because of a view that New Zealand soils in total may have been losing carbon. This exclusion has meant that little effort has gone into the potential for understanding and enhancing soil carbon sequestration, whereas a lot of effort has gone into forestry carbon sequestration because of its recognition within Kyoto Article 3.3. It should, however, be noted that a landowner converting forest plantations to dairy pasture can use Article 3.3 to offset carbon losses in the above ground carbon pool by sequestering biochar in the soil carbon pool. This means that every tonne of carbon dioxide added as biochar would reduce deforestation liabilities. This could be incorporated into New Zealand s inventory and it could well be included in the design of a domestic deforestation regime, possibly as a component of an emissions trading regime. It is also possible that biochar incorporation in soils could at least partly substitute for lime and fertiliser inputs that are applied when forests are converted to pastures. It is very likely that some means will be found of earning economic benefits from soil carbon sequestration. The grey market for carbon credits could be used, and increased soil carbon in New Zealand agriculture could help ward off threats to our exports from food miles and carbon labelling arguments. Progress with soil carbon sequestration might also be reflected in negotiation of any second Kyoto Protocol commitment periods, or in post-kyoto or alternative agreements. Economics of biochar and bio-oil An important economic constraint will be the volume and cost of biomass feedstock. A vibrant forest processing industry would substantially improve the economics of both pyrolysis and energy from wood pellets and wood chips. It is possible that costs could drop with new technology, for example biological processing, or using advances that spin-off from cellulignin or from ligno-cellulosic research. Only when the environmental benefits of biochar are recognised and valued, and entrepreneurs invest in it, will costs and prices be fully discovered, and technological innovation drive down costs and improve product and process performance. Bio-oil research after the 1970s oil shocks focused on transport fuel and largely considered the fine char by-product as waste. However, this waste becomes valuable when markets recognise its environmental benefits and so future pyrolysis research may focus on optimising biochar rather than bio-oil. An advantage of biochar is that it is one of the few technologies to address climate change that creates net economic as well as environmental benefits. In contrast, carbon capture and storage (CCS) from coal involves a net financial and energy loss and no compensating commercial benefits. Economic studies have been done on the biochar option overseas. Baum & Weitner (2006) contend that production and application costs of biochar may be fully recovered, even in the absence of a carbon market, based solely on crop production benefits and fertiliser cost savings. However, this would be highly dependent on soil type and production system variables. Lehman et al. (2006) contend that the most promising strategy for cropping of biomass as feedstock for biochar production is the concurrent production of bio-fuels by pyrolysis. They conclude that biofuel production using pyrolysis has great potential to generate electricity at a profit in the long term, and at a lower cost than any other biomass-to-electricity system. Envirochem (2006) concludes that a 100 tonne per day bio-oil plant that includes carbon credits for reduced fossil fuel use would only be economic if it used residue from processing that did not involve harvesting costs, for example if processing waste was used. This study focused on bio-oil displacing fossil fuel use, and did not place a value on other environmental benefits. Some New Zealand scientists estimate that extra organic matter in soils is worth $NZ per ha per year in increased milk solids production (Landcare Research 2005). This study estimated that soils depleted in organic matter took years to recover and the accumulated lost production was worth $518 1,239 per hectare. This value was calculated as times lower than the environmental value of the organic matter as a store of carbon and nitrogen, which varied between $22,963 and $90,849 depending on soil, region, valuation placed on credits, and so on. If anything like these figures are supported in prototype development and trials (and if value is placed on the bioenergy by-product), the economics of biochar seem very attractive. One way of discovering the economics of biochar and bio-oil co-production would be factoring in as notional or proxy prices the economic benefits of net carbon sequestration, reduced nitrous oxide emissions, and (in sensitive catchments such as Lake Taupo) reduced nitrate leaching. Based on these proxy prices, tenders could be called to deliver a commercial operation involving production of feedstock and its processing, and the marketing of biochar and bio-oil. Such an approach would help unleash industrial and scientific innovation and, over time, the property rights and institutional rules of the game would catch up with the innovation, and proxy prices would become real prices. Possible ways forward New Zealand is a biologically based economy with a lot of under-utilised industrial expertise and entrepreneurial spirit. There are a range of opportunities to progress biochar and bioenergy co-production and sequestration for its economic and environmental benefits. These opportunities typically involve convergence of technical information across traditional industry sector boundaries. Only business and scientific entrepreneurs are close enough to the market and science to identify and exploit these opportunities. Some of this entrepreneurship might come from state-owned enterprises as well as private businesses. It is up to industry and science to choose the best way forward. However, to make the potential real, the following is an illustrative approach. Biochar and bio-oil co-production could be based on dedicated fast-rotation or coppicing hardwood forestry located on low-value land. To minimise transport costs

6 this would need to be close to land that generates high nitrous oxide and nitrate leaching externalities. Dairy land in parts of Canterbury, the Waikato and Taupo catchments might be examples. Biochar could be applied very selectively to specific parts of farms carrying high nitrogen loadings, such as from urine patches. Pyrolysis processing would need to be close to lines connections for distributed generation opportunities through bio-oil electricity generation. Biochar is likely to be relevant to intensive arable and horticultural soils and perhaps even to small niches such as compost blends for home gardening applications. There are many other alternative (and probably superior) options that better informed scientists and business people may be able to identify. Concluding comment Biochar and bio-energy co-production is now technically feasible. It could be commercially profitable in New Zealand if we recognised economically its environmental benefits in soil carbon sequestration, reduced nitrous oxide emissions and reduced nitrate leaching into waterways. There is a need for publicly funded research support, including the validation and optimisation of biochar s crop productivity benefits. Commitments need to be in place for emissions trading or other means of valuing environmental benefits. Over time, measuring soil carbon sequestration and nitrous oxide reductions from biochar would need to be exact enough to uphold property rights and to comply with any relevant international agreements. The rules around distributed generation must be supportive of use of bio-oil (as well as other renewables) for electricity generation from dispersed sites. In climate change mitigation, and in creating new economic opportunities for sectors such as forestry, New Zealand needs some runs on the board. References Baum, E.; Weitner, S Biochar application on soils and cellulosic ethanol production. Clean Air Task Force, Boston, Massachusetts. Envirochem Services Inc Identifying environmentally preferable uses for biomass resources. Report prepared for British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range and British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Vancouver. International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Biomass Pyrolysis. IEA Bioenergy (www.ieabioenergy.com). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Land use, Land-use change and Forestry. IPCC Special Report. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. 375 pp. Lal, J. K.; Mishra, B Flyash as a carrier for Rhizobium inoculant. Journal of Research (Birsa Agricultural University) 10: Lehmann, J.; Gaunt, J.; Rondon, Marco Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems A review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: Masiello, C.A.; Druffel, E.R.M Black carbon in deep-sea sediments. Science 280: Landcare Research Sustainable Land Use Research Initiative (SLURI) Soil Horizons 12. landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/soilhorizons/ SoilHorizIssue12Sept2005.pdf Svebio (Swedish Bioenergy Association) Focus Bioenergy. Energy crops: a resource for development. Publication 4, 2004, SVEBIO, Stockholm. 10


Biochar Systems For Smallholders In Developing Countries Leveraging Current Knowledge And …

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aged earthworm casting compost with biochar

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Vega Biofuels Receives Purchase Order to begin Biochar Shipment to Alaska's Legal Cannabis …

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Valero Energy Corp (VLO.N), the largest U.S. refiner, expects to get hit with a half-billion-dollar bill in the second half of the year thanks to the rising cost of meeting government mandates to blend biofuels.

#VicioJPV ya disponible en todas las plataformas digitales: http://smarturl.it/jpv-vicio Sigue a Juan Pablo Vega en YouTube: https://goo.gl/LXBkQP http://juanpablovega.com Sigue a JPV en Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/JPVegaOficial Habla con él en Twit

The Canadian cannabis industry has continued to be a bright spot for cannabis investors and 2017 has already provided investors with strong investment returns.This sub-sector of the cannabis industry has been on fire since July 2016 with the increased inte

JUNEAU, Alaska (AP) — The board regulating Alaska’s fledgling legal marijuana industry started a two-day meeting Wednesday during which it is expected to approve licenses for the state’s first retail marijuana outlets. The state’s Marijuana Control Board a

Before the market closed yesterday, shares of Emblem Corp. (EMC.V) (EMMBF) were halted at the request of the company.The halt was due to the announcement of an engagement letter with PI Financial on behalf of a syndicate of underwriters that includes Canac

3rd Annual Croptoberfest™ 2016“Central Washington’s Cannabis Festival” Hosted by: Evergreen Industries SPCwww.evergreen.industries/croptoberfest/ November 19th, 2016Yakima, WA  Introduction Croptoberfest™ 2016 will be hosted November 19th in the heart of d

Alaska voted to legalize recreational weed in 2014

Possibly the unlikeliest customer of all became the first person to legally buy marijuana in Alaska’s largest city.

The makers of prescription painkillers have adopted a 50-state strategy that includes hundreds of lobbyists and millions in campaign contributions to help kill or weaken measures aimed at stemming the tide of prescription opioids, the drugs at the heart of

Alaska board mulls marijuana use in retail stores – posted in Cannabis News and Legislation : Alaska board mulls marijuana use in retail stores   Mark Theissen  | The Associated Press Published on  Feb. 1, 2017     JUNEAU, Alaska — Alaska brothers James an

It almost makes all the work we did scouring Twitter for photos seem completely irrelevant. HIGH TIMES fan Rogelio Vega (Supa Pilot Roc Vega) sent us a photo of his intricately detailed front piece, which takes weed enthusiasm to the next level and is tota

Killah Vega es un nombre reconocido en la escena valenciana y española por su implicación en la cultura, promoviendo el Hip Hop

ANCHORAGE, Alaska (AP) — The owners of Frozen Budz have high hopes now that they’ve received Alaska’s first retail marijuana license. Destiny Neade, co-owner of the Fairbanks business, received a round of applause from the audience after she won unanimous

The Anchorage Cannabis Business Association (ACBA) would like to invite you to participate in a FREE Job Fair on Saturday, January 21, 2017 at the Crowne Plaza Hotel in Anchorage, Alaska. In bringing our industry together with purpose and design at this ev

By now, investors most likely know that the Canadian cannabis industry is leading the global cannabis movement. Investors probably know that companies levered to this growth opportunity significantly outperformed the market in 2016.However, did you know th

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Herbal Outfitters’ grand opening comes two years after recreational pot use was legalized in Alaska.

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The global cannabis industry is fastest growing industry in the world and this rapid growth has led the formation of new businesses and opportunities.Take a step back and think about how far this industry has come in such a short period. Now, think about w

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Vega Biofuels Receives Purchase Order to begin Biochar Shipment to Alaska's Legal Cannabis …

8 March, 2017
 

NORCROSS, Ga., March 08, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink:VGPR) announced today that it has received the first Purchase Order from the Five Year Agreement previously announced to provide the Company’s Biochar product to legal cannabis growers in Alaska. The state of Alaska is the most recent state to legalize both medical and recreational cannabis use.

Vega Biofuels recently announced that it had signed a Five Year Agreement to provide the Company’s Biochar to AK Provisions, Inc., located in Anchorage. Biochar is a highly absorbent specially designed charcoal-type product primarily used as a soil enhancement for the agricultural industry to significantly increase crop yields. Biochar offers a powerfully simple solution to some of today’s most urgent environmental concerns. The production of Biochar for carbon sequestration in the soil is a carbon-negative process. Biochar is made from timber waste using torrefaction technology and the Company’s patent pending manufacturing machine. When put back into the soil, Biochar can stabilize the carbon in the soil for hundreds of years. The introduction of Biochar into soil is not like applying fertilizer; it is the beginning of a process. Most of the benefit is achieved through microbes and fungi. They colonize its massive surface area and integrate into the char and the surrounding soil, dramatically increasing the soil’s ability to nurture plant growth and provide increased crop yield.

This first order will be used by AK Provisions, Inc. at its own facility currently under construction in Anchorage. AK Provisions plans to use Vega’s Biochar in its own grow facilities, as well as market the product to other growers throughout the state of Alaska through a reseller agreement with Vega Biofuels.

“We are happy to provide our product to the booming cannabis business in Alaska,” stated Michael K. Molen, Chairman/CEO of Vega Biofuels, Inc. “When mixed with normal soil, our Biochar product provides the perfect environment for any agricultural crop, not just cannabis. We plan to expand the reseller model to other states where we’ve had interest from growers. You can’t argue with the results. Biochar holds valuable nutrients in the soil instead of washing them away when watering, and then releases the nutrients as the plant grows, thus increasing the plant’s yield. We have side-by-side test pictures that we’ve taken of various crops grown with Biochar and will post these on our website in the next few days.”

Biochar can improve water quality, reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching, reduce soil acidity, and reduce irrigation and fertilizer requirements. Biochar was also found under certain circumstances to induce plant systemic responses to foliar fungal diseases and to improve plant responses to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. The various impacts of Biochar can be dependent on the properties of the Biochar, as well as the amount applied. Biochar impact may depend on regional conditions including soil type, soil condition (depleted or healthy), temperature, and humidity. Modest additions of Biochar to soil reduces nitrous oxide N2O emissions by up to 80% and eliminates methane emissions, which are both more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.

About Vega Biofuels, Inc.

(OTCPink:VGPR):

Vega Biofuels, Inc. is a cutting-edge energy company that manufactures and markets a renewable energy product called Bio-Coal and a soil enhancement called Biochar, both made from timber waste using unique technology called torrefaction. Torrefaction is the treatment of biomass at high temperatures under low oxygen conditions. For more information, please visit our website at vegabiofuels.com.   

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements are not a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by, which such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time the statements are made and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainty and other factors that may cause our results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this press release.

CONTACT: Vega Biofuels, Inc.: 800-481-0186

info@vegabiofuels.com

vegabiofuels.com

@vegabiofuels


Biochar research paper

8 March, 2017
 

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Biochar research paper

8 March, 2017
 

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Vega Biofuels Receives Purchase Order to begin Biochar Shipment to Alaska's Legal Cannabis …

8 March, 2017
 


Synergies in Sequential Uses of Biochar

8 March, 2017
 

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Biochar takes the pharmaceuticals out of urine

8 March, 2017
 

Written by Jeremy Allen for Chemistry World

Method for cleansing waste urine could see it used as a fertiliser

US researchers have demonstrated that biochar, essentially burnt plants, can remove pharmaceuticals from urine waste streams. The findings could help recycle urine into agricultural fertilisers.

Human urine is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus – just what plants need. However, human urine can also contain pharmaceuticals, the release of which cause worrying developmental effects in aquatic ecosystems, hampering its use as a fertiliser. While some wastewater treatment plants recover nutrients from urine and wastewater, they do not typically remove pharmaceuticals. Current pharmaceutical removal systems involve membranes, electrodialysis and activated carbon, but they can be costly, energy intensive and unsustainable.

Now, Avni Solanki from the University of Florida and Treavor Boyer from Arizona State University, have studied biochar, a precursor to activated carbon, to see if it could work as a viable alternative

 

Read the full article in Chemistry World.

Pharmaceutical removal in synthetic human urine using biochar
Avni Solanki and Treavor H. Boyer
Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2017
DOI: 10.1039/C6EW00224B


Biochar Industry: Overview, Opportunities, In-Depth Analysis and Forecasts, Outlook

8 March, 2017
 

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Global Biochar Market will value at around $585.0 Million By 2020

8 March, 2017
 

 

 

The report covers forecast and analysis for the biochar market on a global and regional level. The study provides historic data of 2014 along with a forecast from 2015 to 2020 based revenue (Kilo Tons) (USD Billion). The study includes drivers and restraints for the biochar market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the biochar market on a global level.

In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view on the biochar market. To understand the competitive landscape in the market, an analysis of Porter’s Five Forces model for the biochar market has also been included. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein technology segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness.

The study provides a decisive view on the biochar market by segmenting the market based on technology, application and regions. All the segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market is estimated from 2014 to 2020. Based on technology the market is segmented into pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal and others. Key applications segment include agriculture, water & waste water treatment and others. The regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa with its further bifurcation into major countries including U.S. Germany, France, UK, China, Japan, India and Brazil.

The report also includes detailed profiles of end players such as Diacarbon Energy Inc, Vega Biofuels, Inc, Agri-Tech Producers. LLC, Hawaii Biochar Products. LLC, Biochar Products, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Technologys Inc, Blackcarbon A/S, Green Charcoal International, Earth Technologys Pty Ltd,  and Genesis. The detailed description of players includes parameters such as company overview, financial overview, business and recent developments of the company.


Lopez's game plan at confirmation hearing: 'Tell the truth'

8 March, 2017
 

MANILA, Philippines – After postponing the hearing at least twice, the Commission on Appointments (CA) will finally deliberate the confirmation of Environment Secretary Gina Lopez on Wednesday, March 8.

A day before the hearing, Lopez told reporters that members of the powerful CA should make decisions based on the common good and not “based on your pocket” which she called “morally wrong.”

“My worry is that there are some CA members that are into mining – that’s a bit scary. And in fact, the head of the Commission on Appointments in Congress is himself a miner, they own 5 mines, so I hope he makes a decision based on the common good and not on business,” she said, referring to San Juan City Representative Ronaldo Zamora.

Asked if she thinks CA members with mining interests should inhibit themselves from voting, Lopez answered: “I feel that’s the right thing to do because they have business interests which goes against my advocacy. It’s not right.”

Lopez knows her fate before the CA is uncertain, but her only strategy come Wednesday is to tell the truth.

“I believe in the power of truth, service, and the common good, and the people are with me. I just go to my Facebook, grabe (it’s amazing), I have 6 million views. I know the people are with me,” she added.

On Tuesday, March 7, President Rodrigo Duterte also made the case for Lopez when he asked the CA to listen to his environment secretary.

“I’m not saying I’m against mining per se, that I’m against big mining. Far from that actually. I know that we need the dollars, but somehow we have to look at the other way and a different perspective,” he said.

The President hopes the country can “strike a happy compromise” when it comes to mining, “but more on the side of protecting the public interest.”

Duterte has time and again expressed his support for Lopez, even reappointing her as secretary when the CA bypassed her in 2016.

As of Tuesday, there are already 23 sworn oppositions to Lopez’s confirmation:

There are also 12 who filed their sworn expressions of support to oppose Lopez’s closure order of mining operations in the country:

In February, the Chamber of Mines also formally opposed Lopez’s confirmation following her department’s decision to close down 23 mines and suspend 5 others.

Some of her critics decry the mining audit’s supposed lack of due process, but Lopez and other environment officials have insisted otherwise.

Results of mining audit

During a February 6 Rappler Talk interview, Lopez revealed that the team in charge of the mining audit recommended to impose fines on concerned mining companies, while she wanted closures and suspensions.

“They themselves say that there are violations. Where we differed was the action taken. I wanted to close and I wanted to suspend, and they wanted to fine. You’ll just fine? I mean the rivers are red, they’re in a watershed, and you’ll just fine? What are you doing?” she explained.

To address criticism on transparency, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) even showed reporters piles of documents related to the mining audit in at least two instances.

A 39-page report of the technical review committee was also made available on the DENR website.

According to the DENR, each mining firm’s audit findings clearly state which violations of these laws, rules, and regulations were committed:

Meanwhile, the Mining Industry Coordinating Council’s technical working group said its review of the mining closures will be finished in 3 months.

Plan for mining communities

Lopez revealed on February 14 that she asked for the deferral of her February 15 CA hearing because she wants to come up first with a plan for mining communities affected by her recent decisions.

Two weeks later on February 28, she presented a P3.94-billion ($78.28 million) proposal that involves 11 government agencies in assisting 25,000 to 30,000 households affected by the mining closures.

It was estimated that around P875 million ($17.39 million) of the P3.94 billion will be used as investment for livelihood and job generation.

The DENR said that based on rehabilitation and reinvestment in the area of the closed mines, its emergency program can be targeted to generate about P200 million ($3.97 million) of community income per month by the end of two years.

Immediate livelihood (1-2 months): biochar potting mix, biochar activated planning mix, liquid smoke-EM plant growth mix, vermicomposting, re-vegetation/reforestation work, desilting of agricultural land, desilting of river

Short-term livelihood (3-6 months): wildlings/seeds/seedling, nursery establishment, continuous re-vegetation, continuous river dredging, agri-land productivity boosting, new crops (napier, bamboo, etc.), introduction of hog and chicken raising, preparation of eco-tourism sites, biochar manufacturing

Medium-term livelihood (6-18 months): manufacturing of charcoal briquettes, agro post harvest processing, manufacturing biochar product for sale, ecotourism jobs, others (infrastructure building, etc.)

Long-term livelihood (18 months onward): food, charcoal briquette, feeds manufacturing, etc.; manufacturing of biochar environment product for district, livelihood/jobs from increased production (seasonal), infrastructure projects, ecotourism projects, others within district of closed mines

Whether or not Lopez will be able to present this plan to the CA on Wednesday remains to be seen.

CA voting

According to neophyte Senator Manny Pacquiao – chair of the CA committee on environment and natural resources – there are members of the commission who are opposed to Lopez’s confirmation, most of them from the House of Representatives contingent.

At the Senate, Pacquiao and Senator Alan Peter Cayetano already expressed their willingness to listen to both Lopez and her oppositors, while Senators Loren Legarda and Joseph Victor Ejercito have publicly declared their support for the environment secretary.

Ahead of Wednesday’s hearing, the CA approved new rules to allow, upon a motion, secret voting on appointments. The secret ballot, according to CA assistant majority leader and Senate Majority Leader Vicente Sotto III, would allow members to follow their “conscience vote.”

Lopez has stood her ground ever since she ordered the mining closures and suspensions. She said she won’t stop doing the right thing just to please the CA, and even urged the powerful body to consider her “experience and sincerity” as top criteria in deliberating on her confirmation.

She may have many supporters backing her, but it’s still up to a chosen few – the 25 members of the powerful CA – whether or not Lopez will keep her post as the Philippines’ environment secretary. – Rappler.com

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What Does Obamacare Uncertainty Mean For You?

9 March, 2017
 

March 9, 2017

House Republicans unveil the American Health Care Act, their replacement for the Affordable Care Act. WebMD tells how your health insurance coverage may be affected.

WebMD Health

Building healthy soil to produce the most nutritious and most richly flavored food in our gardens is no small accomplishment, especially if gardens have challenging soil conditions to begin with. One powerful agricultural tool that can propel our soil health forwards in a hurry is biochar – a type of char used for agricultural purposes. This deceptively simple substance has unique structural and electrical properties that produce incredible benefits in our gardens. These include as much as doubling water-retention while improving water flow in sandy and clayey soils; swelling soil biology and activating its many functions; and improving nutrient holding-capacity by an eye-watering 20 times that of already healthy, loamy soil. If that were not enough, biochar is also essentially permanent, lasting thousands of years in the soil.

Biochar for Home Gardeners details how to

Biochar is perhaps best known as the magic ingredient that an ancient South American civilization used to transform their hopeless clay ground into one of the richest soils on the planet. If it can do this, properly made and applied biochar is sure to improve gardeners’ yields and the nutritional content of their crops together with heightening the beloved garden-grown aroma and flavor.

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State of Our Nation's Soil Health and Biochar

9 March, 2017
 

By Dennis Enright and Annie Broadfoot

A tag team talk that looks at the new direction of Soil and Health and its strengthening partnership with Biogro plus the many uses of Biochar! Biochar is one tool for mitigating the impact of global warming and an important ingredient in seed raising mixes being put to the test by farmers in Thailand.

Friday 4 November| 12 noon | Free Admission
Information Centre, lower Botanic Garden
Presented in partnership with Otago Polytechnic

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Biochar: Putting Carbon Underground

9 March, 2017
 

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A short documentary about how we can efficiently store carbon underground and do something against Climate Change while making plants grow better.

Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet!


Wet weather makes amending soil more difficult

9 March, 2017
 

Our temperatures warm significantly in the first half of March. We may have some chilly nights but all danger of frost has passed. Before setting out transplants and planting seeds of summer vegetables and flowering annuals, we need to prepare the soil at least two weeks ahead, especially when adding any sort of sterilized manure. Manure products, which should be sterilized to kill weed seeds and disease pathogens, contain urea which can act as excess nitrogen if not allowed to dissipate thoroughly before planting. Excess nitrogen can burn tender transplant roots.

With this year’s above average rainfall, the process of amending and turning the soil might be a little different.

Wet soil is not easy to work and amendments don’t mix in well. Pick up a handful of the soil in the planting bed and give it a squeeze. If the clump is too wet to hold together and your hand is covered with mud, the soil is too wet to work. Wait another week or two (of dry weather) to attempt to dig in amendments. When a clump of your soil holds its form when squeezed, you should be able to work in amendments.

Amendments improve soil texture, water retention, and add nutrients and beneficial micro organisms. New research show that plants growing in well-amended soil require less fertilizer and less water.

To determine your soil type, dig a one foot hole and fill it with water. Time how long it takes the water to drain out of the hole. If it takes more than 20 minutes, you probably have clay soil or perhaps a layer of hardpan underneath the topsoil; if it takes less than five minutes you have really sandy soil. Your garden may have patches of both clay and sandy soils and hopefully a patch or two of sandy loam, the ideal soil.

Clay soil is amended with gypsum or gypsite to keep the clay molecules from binding together. Sandy soil is better able to hold water and nutrients when amended with compost or humus. A two-inch layer of organic compost or humus turned in twice a year will significantly improve soil quality within two years.

Other types of soil amendments are often recommended as miracle products. Some work well; some don’t . Recent research at UC Davis shows that biochar which is the end product of burning agricultural waste works to raise pH levels and improve soil texture. Our pH levels in the Fresno/Clovis area are high; we need to add sulfur which lowers pH levels. Also, adding biochar back into plantings of the original crop type gives better results-so amending the soil in almond orchards with biochar made from burned almond hulls has greater benefit. The research also shows that the micro organisms and beneficial bacteria contained in products sold as organic fertilizers and amendments often have a short shelf life. And that many micro organisms and beneficial fungi are picky about which plant’s roots they will attach to.

Try to find the freshest compost or humus, perhaps from your own compost pile. Experiment with amendments and brands, make notes, and continue to amend even healthy soil.

Note: check the soil around your drought-tolerant plants for excess moisture. Pull mulches away from overly wet root zones to allow the soil to dry.

Send Elinor Teague plant questions at etgrow@comcast.net or features@fresnobee.com


Willow to become a climate pioneer – biochar for soil improvement, composting and industrial …

9 March, 2017
 

Biochar research in Finland only started in the early 2000s, but great strides have been taken since then. The best raw material for biochar seems to be willow, and the first production facilities of willow-based biochar will start some time in March or April this year.

The use of biochar is based on the fact that it is able to sequester almost anything it comes into contact with – that is, water, gases, nutrients as well as toxins.

This sequestration ability is based on the porosity of biochar. The porosity can be regulated, but a typical example would be that one gram of biochar can have a surface of 200 square metres.

Mr. Ilmo Kolehmainen, one of the founders and a shareholder of the Willow Partners company shows me some granules of biochar with a diameter of 2–3 millimetres. When I squeeze them, they feel elastic.

When biochar is mixed with crushed stone and a tree is planted in the mixture, the tree will start to grow. “Trees are kind of stupid in that they will normally absorb anything that happens to be near their roots,” says Kolehmainen.

The City of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, spent ten years to study the use of biochar in seedbeds. “Now they use all the biochar they can lay their hands on, 1,500 tonnes annually. The seedbeds will typically include 15 percent of biochar, with concrete waste making up the rest,” says Kolehmainen.

Biochar-based seedbeds not only make the city greener, but also retain rainwater, which then provides nutrients for the plantations. In this way, problematic stormwater is turned into useful irrigation water and there is no need to collect it and lead it into large treatment plants.

Biochar absorbs anything — nitrogen, phosphorus, Escherichia coli bacteria, or PCB. The most astonishing thing about it is that after a seedbed is established, it will basically last forever. This is because biochar is not degraded or consumed when it is used.

Depending on its porosity, biochar can be regulated to absorb nutrients, chemicals, water or gases. “It is just like choosing the features of the car you are buying. Biochar can even be trimmed to absorb just one chemical element,” says Kolehmainen.

The properties can be regulated during the preparation of the raw material, during the production phase and at the post-processing stage. “You might want to add metals into the process, and that will change everything. Hot-water treatment after production blows up the surface of biochar, and again everything is changed,” says Mr. Kari Tiilikkala, Research Professor at the Natural Resources Institute Finland.

Biochar is manufactured by pyrolysis. In the process, the cells of the willow are drained, which leads to a porous and very sturdy structure.

Maybe the best thing about biochar is that it is practically ever-lasting – it cannot even be burned. Thus, it is a way to permanently decrease atmospheric carbon.

“To learn to produce biochar has required an enormous amount of research, and it netted quite a few laughs to begin with. But at the moment, the number of research publications is increasing rapidly,” says Kolehmainen.

The production of biochar sequesters carbon in at least two ways: at first in the willow roots, which sequester as much carbon as the visible parts of the tree, and secondly in the biochar made of the above-ground parts.

For the production to be feasible, plenty of raw material is needed. The most promising areas in Finland are the willow plantations established in used-up peat production areas. “In this way, peat producers could become producers of environmental services,” says Kolehmainen.

Willow cultivation can be mechanized on extensive, flat peatlands. 13,000 plants are planted per hectare. The first crop may be harvested in 2–3 years, when the willows have reached a height of several metres and can be cut. Cutting them later is not possible, because the cutting machines can only deal with thicknesses of up to six centimetres.

After that the plantation is fertilized by spreading the fertilizer only at the root of the stems. “The principle is not to use more fertilizers than are used in agriculture. Otherwise we run the risk that some of the fertilizers will leach into waterways,” Kolehmainen points out.

After the first cutting, the stumps produce 5–6 new shoots. The next crop will be ready for harvesting in 2–3 years. The same plants can be cultivated for 20–30 years.

Kolehmainen calculates that the payback period is 6–8 years. The annual revenue could be around EUR 350 per hectare, as opposed to about EUR 100 in forestry, for example.

The revenue is based on the price obtainable for willow to be used for energy generation. “However, we expect that the revenue from biochar will be higher. And you can gain that money every three years from each hectare,” says Kolehmainen.

Willow is harvested in winter, at a point when the ground is still frozen but the snow cover has become thin enough not to hamper the cutting machine.

The production potential is defined by strict constraints. The area annually released from peat production in Finland is 2,500–3,500 hectares. One biochar production facility requires a total willow cultivation area of something like 1,600 hectares at a reasonable distance and not split into too many small plots.

The Willow Partners’ turnover last year was some EUR 150,000, and the expectations for this year are two million and a positive result. “That would be pretty good, bearing in mind that this is only our third year of activity,” says Kolehmainen.

“Last year, the cultivation area was 100 hectares, this year we will have 200 hectares more, and after that we aim to have another 300 hectares each year, so that in five years the area would be 1,500 hectares,” says Kolehmainen.

Contact information of Willow Partners company

 

For soil improvement
As a soil improvement agent, biochar absorbs nutrients and water and makes the soil more friable. However, owing to the large amounts needed it is not likely to be practicable in agriculture, but it is already increasingly used in greenhouses and gardens.

As composting additive
Mixing 5–30 percent by volume of biochar in compost will reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases, such as nitrogen, and improve the nutrient value of the compost. Eventually biochar in the compost will finally contribute to soil improvement as well.

In biogas production
In biogas production, biochar accelerates the decomposing process, stabilizes the decomposing matter and increases the biogas yield. When the decomposing residue is used as fertilizer, the biochar in it again ends up improving the soil.

In soil decontamination and wastewater treatment
In soil decontamination and wastewater treatment, the role of biochar is to absorb toxic elements or nutrients and release them to plants, where they will be accumulated.

In filtration technology
Filtration might be the most profitable use of biochar. Using biochar, it is possible to separate either desirable or undesirable chemical elements from liquids or gases in industrial processes.

Freshwater production
Globally, the greatest potential lies in the desalination of sea water. The world is facing a massive shortage of freshwater and biochar could help in combating this. Finland’s contribution could be the provision of know-how.

 


Biochar Market Size, Share, Analysis, Report and Forecast to 2022

9 March, 2017
 

Submit the press release

According to Stratistics MRC, the Global Biochar market is accounted for $330.38 million in 2015 and is expected to reach $923.56 million by 2022 growing at a CAGR of 15.8%. The increasing government initiatives and stringent government regulations regarding the agriculture productivity had given rise to the market of Biochar. Carbon sequestration property, waste management potential and improved soil fertility & crop yield are some of the factors driving the market. However, financial barriers, technological constraints and lack of consumer awareness are the factors hampering the market.

Batch pyrolysis kiln segment is expected to witness rapid growth owing to high yield coupled with high carbon content and stability. It is one of prominent technology to produce high-quality product. Agriculture segment is accounted for the dominant share of the market due to increasing use of Biochar in the crop yielding process. North America is dominating the world owing to the growth in organic farming, followed by Europe.

Some of the key players of the Biochar market include 3R ENVIRO TECH Group , Agri-Tech Producers, ARSTA Eco, Biochar Products, Inc., Biochar Supreme LLC, Blackcarbon, Carbon Gold, Clean Fuels B.V., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc. , Earth Systems, Full Circle Biochar, Genesis Industries, Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd. , Phoenix Energy, The Biochar Company and Vega Biofuels, Inc..

For More, Please Visit: http://www.strategymrc.com/report/biochar-market

Applications Covered:
• Energy based
o Sources for Power Plant
o Electricity Generation
• Non-Energy based
o Agriculture
o Carbon Sequestration
o Household
o Forestry
o Gardening
o Mine Reclamation
o Other Non-Energy based

Technologies Covered:
• Batch pyrolysis kiln
• Continuous pyrolysis kiln
• Gasifier and cookstove
• Microwave pyrolysis
• Other Technologies

Feedstocks Covered:
• Agriculture Waste
• Animal Manure
• Biomass Plantation
• Forestry Waste

Manufacturing processes Covered:
• Fast & Intermediate Pyrolysis
• Slow Pyrolysis
• Gasification
• Other Manufacturing Processes

Regions Covered:
• North America
o US
o Canada
o Mexico
• Europe
o Germany
o France
o Italy
o UK
o Spain
o Rest of Europe
• Asia Pacific
o Japan
o China
o India
o Australia
o New Zealand
o Rest of Asia Pacific
• Rest of the World
o Middle East
o Brazil
o Argentina
o South Africa
o Egypt

What our report offers:
— Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments
— Market share analysis of the top industry players
— Strategic recommendations for the new entrants
— Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets
— Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)
— Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations
— Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends
— Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments
— Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements

For More, Please Visit: http://www.strategymrc.com/report/biochar-market

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Vega Biofuels Receives Purchase Order to begin Biochar Shipment to Alaskas Legal Cannabis …

9 March, 2017
 

NORCROSS, Ga., March 08, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink:VGPR) announced today that it has received the first Purchase Order from the Five Year Agreement previously announced to provide the Companys Biochar product to legal cannabis growers in Alaska. The state of Alaska is the most recent state to legalize both medical and recreational cannabis use.

Vega Biofuels recently announced that it had signed a Five Year Agreement to provide the Companys Biochar to AK Provisions, Inc., located in Anchorage. Biochar is a highly absorbent specially designed charcoal-type product primarily used as a soil enhancement for the agricultural industry to significantly increase crop yields. Biochar offers a powerfully simple solution to some of todays most urgent environmental concerns. The production of Biochar for carbon sequestration in the soil is a carbon-negative process. Biochar is made from timber waste using torrefaction technology and the Companys patent pending manufacturing machine. When put back into the soil, Biochar can stabilize the carbon in the soil for hundreds of years. The introduction of Biochar into soil is not like applying fertilizer; it is the beginning of a process. Most of the benefit is achieved through microbes and fungi. They colonize its massive surface area and integrate into the char and the surrounding soil, dramatically increasing the soils ability to nurture plant growth and provide increased crop yield.

This first order will be used by AK Provisions, Inc. at its own facility currently under construction in Anchorage. AK Provisions plans to use Vegas Biochar in its own grow facilities, as well as market the product to other growers throughout the state of Alaska through a reseller agreement with Vega Biofuels.

?We are happy to provide our product to the booming cannabis business in Alaska, stated Michael K. Molen, Chairman/CEO of Vega Biofuels, Inc. ?When mixed with normal soil, our Biochar product provides the perfect environment for any agricultural crop, not just cannabis. We plan to expand the reseller model to other states where weve had interest from growers. You cant argue with the results. Biochar holds valuable nutrients in the soil instead of washing them away when watering, and then releases the nutrients as the plant grows, thus increasing the plants yield. We have side-by-side test pictures that weve taken of various crops grown with Biochar and will post these on our website in the next few days.

Biochar can improve water quality, reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching, reduce soil acidity, and reduce irrigation and fertilizer requirements. Biochar was also found under certain circumstances to induce plant systemic responses to foliar fungal diseases and to improve plant responses to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. The various impacts of Biochar can be dependent on the properties of the Biochar, as well as the amount applied. Biochar impact may depend on regional conditions including soil type, soil condition (depleted or healthy), temperature, and humidity. Modest additions of Biochar to soil reduces nitrous oxide N2O emissions by up to 80% and eliminates methane emissions, which are both more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.

About Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink:VGPR):

Vega Biofuels, Inc. is a cutting-edge energy company that manufactures and markets a renewable energy product called Bio-Coal and a soil enhancement called Biochar, both made from timber waste using unique technology called torrefaction. Torrefaction is the treatment of biomass at high temperatures under low oxygen conditions. For more information, please visit our website at vegabiofuels.com.   

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements are not a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by, which such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time the statements are made and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainty and other factors that may cause our results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this press release.

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Phd Thesis On Biochar

10 March, 2017
 

هونام گستر

A.Freddo, PhD Thesis, 2013 – University of East Anglia This thesis presents biochar state of the art and investigations into the environmental benefits of my PhD have been essential in the completion of this thesis. Crombie2014.pdf – Edinburgh Research Archive – The University of (e.g. PhD, MPhil, DClinPsychol) at the University of Edinburgh. Biochar – synergies between carbon storage, environmental functions and renewable energy. Case2013.pdf – Edinburgh Research Archive – The University of (e.g. PhD, MPhil, DClinPsychol) at the University of Edinburgh. Please note the effect of biochar addition on soil N transformations and N2O emissions within. Application of fast pyrolysis biochar to a loamy soil – DTU Orbit For example, the incorporation of FP-biochar (10 wt%) in a sandy loam soil .. This PhD thesis is submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the  The effects of biochar or activated carbon amendments on the fate of Thesis submitted to Newcastle University in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August, 2013 biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in biochar and activated carbon amended sandy soil. The Impact of Wood Biochar as a Soil Amendment in Aerobic Rice PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL (2015) Keywords: tropical Savannah, biochar, soil fertility, aerobic rice, grain yield, N2O emission  Carbon storage and sequestration under different land uses with a on biomass crops. PhD thesis, University of Warwick. potential to sequester C in soil as biochar is a promising option to promote longterm sequestration of C 

Biochar as a Geoengineering Climate Solution – ResearchGate

Biochar is a carbon dense solid that is produced via the pyrolysis of organic materials for application Extensive. Adriana Downie – PhD Thesis – Page 2 of 308  Interactions between different types of biochar and soil – TDX and soil microbial activity: the effects on the dynamics of labile organic matter and the behaviour of some pesticides. Giovanna Battistina Melas. Ph. D. Thesis. The Effect of Gasification Biochar on Soil Carbon Sequestration, Soil Publication: Research › Ph.D. thesis However, the effects of biochar on soil quality and plant growth differed according to the biochar properties and the soil  Biochar as a soil amendment and productivity stimulus for 3 Feb 2015 Wróbel-Tobiszewska, A (2014) Biochar as a soil amendment and productivity stimulus for Eucalyptus nitens plantations. PhD thesis, University  Stability of biochar and its influence on the dynamics of soil properties Stability of biochar and its influence on the dynamics of soil properties : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of  INFLUENCE OF BIOCHAR AMENDMENT ON THE – N2Africa This thesis is my original work and has not been presented for award of a (CIAT-Maseno) and Sam Mathu (IITA-PhD student) for their technical advice, moral  Soil Physical Characteristics of an Aeric Ochraqualf amended with Incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils has been proposed as a potential best management practice (BMP) Nicholas Basta, PhD (Committee Member) Student Researchers – SED – Soil Ecosystem Dynamics Meaghan is currently completing her PhD thesis part-time. She is collecting soil samples and greenhouse gases in biochar amended soils to evaluate the 

Effects of Biochar on the Abundance of Three Agriculturally

The counts of all three bacteria are however lower in the biochar treated soils than the Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, 13-28. [Citation  Effects of biochar on soil processes, soil functions and crop growth 6 Dec 2013 When applied to soil, biochar is claimed to have positive effects on soil properties Therefore the overarching aim of this PhD research was to get a better year: 2013; type: dissertation; publication status: published; subject. PhD Students – Environmental Biogeochemistry Group My work is focused on the effects of biochar and nanoparticles on the plant the Spanish Government to work on my Ph.D. thesis at IDAEA -CSIC (Barcelona). Testing the Effects of Biochars on Crop Yields and Soil – OPUS 21 Apr 2015 Doctor of Natural Sciences Title of dissertation: Testing the Effects of Biochars on Crop Yields Second doctor advisor and reviewer: Prof. “Assessing Kiln-Produced Hardwood Biochar for Improving Soil Recently, biochar has been touted as having many potential uses as a soil amendment for improving soil This dissertation describes 4 projects within the same 3-year field study with the cumulative purpose of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD

منوی اصلی

بخش آموزش

سبد خرید

سفارشات

 

هونام گستر در سال 1390 با هدف ارائه خدمات، قطعات و مدارات الکترونیک فعالیت خود را آغاز کرده است و هم اکنون با گسترش دامنه فعالیت های خود با ارائه محصولات الکترونیکی و انتشار مطالب علمی و آموزشی سعی در پاسخگویی به نیاز های کشور دارد.

با تشکر مدیریت


Phd thesis on biochar

10 March, 2017
 

Gre scored essays

CSIRO PUBLISHING Soil Research Click to zoom Graduates College of Agricultural Sciences Oregon State University Mu Feng graduate of the Bioenergy Minor program at OSU

Phd thesis biomass combustion Related Post of Phd thesis biomass combustion Effects of Biochar on the Abundance of Three Agriculturally Scientific Research Publishing Figure Total viable count CFU g of Sulphate reducing bacteria at different incubation periods Treatments and Notations C Control M Soil Rice Biochar Organic waste recycling in agriculture Organic waste recycling in agriculture WordPress com List of Ph D Ongoing F CSIRO Publishing Materials f Figure Viable count of Bradyrhizobium at different incubation periods Treatments and Notations C Control M Soil Rice husk biomass

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Biochar Production, Characterization, and Applications

10 March, 2017
 

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Carbon Gold Biochar Soil Improver 1Kg from YouGarden.com

10 March, 2017
 

Carbon Gold Biochar Soil Improver 1Kg

There is increasing evidence of the benefits to sol structure of adding BioChar to your soil, and carbon Gold are pioneers in this area. The 1 kg tube of Grochar is ideal to use as a compost additive or to treat soil in a small garden or vegetable plot. This unique biochar complex supercharges your soil by delivering more nutrients and speeding up plant growth — and reduces your carbon footprint. it combineS carbon-rich biochar with a blend of bacteria and fungi for your soil. You can add it straight to your soil or mix it with your favourite potting and seed compost. When you use Grochar in your garden you will find that the soil structure and improved fertility result in stronger, healthier plants.

Category: Compost
Price: GBP6.99

view offer from YouGarden.com


Global Biochar Market 2017 By Top Players – Biochar Now, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon …

11 March, 2017
 

Global Biochar Market 2017, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biochar market globally, providing basic overview of Biochar market including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure, Biochar Market report provides development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures. Biochar market size, share and end users are analyzed as well as segment markets by types, applications and companies.

Download Sample Report @ http://www.fiormarkets.com/report-detail/18365/request-sample

The research report, titled Market Research Report on Biochar, presents crucial information and statistical data about the Biochar market with respect to the world. The market report provides an overall analytical study of the Biochar market, taking growth drivers, restraints, and future prospects into account. The prevalent trends and opportunities are also discussed in this study.

The report analyzes the global Biochar market on the basis of various key segments based on the product types, applications, and end users. The regional markets for Biochar are also considered for the analysis, the results of which are utilized to predict the performance of the Biochar market the globe during the period from 2017 to 2020.

Each of the market verticals of the Biochar industry are qualitatively as well as quantitatively analyzed to present a comparative assessment of the market. Basic information such as the definition, the industry chain feeding the market, and the policies are also discussed in the report.

The products available in the market are studied on the basis of their manufacturing chain, product pricing, and the profit they generate. In-depth analysis is then performed on the various regional markets for [], examining the production volume and efficiency of the Biochar industry in the world. The demand and supply statistics for Biochar as well as the growth figures experienced by the Biochar market are also presented for each regional market in this report.

Access Full Report @ http://www.fiormarkets.com/report/2017-2022-global-top-countries-biochar-market-report-18365.html

Various analytical tools are applied in the analysis on the Biochar market to achieve an accurate understanding of the market players into the potential development of this market. These tools include feasibility analysis, investment return analyses, as well as SWOT analysis of the major market players.

Table Of Content

2017-2022 Global Top Countries Biochar Market Report
1 Biochar Market Overview
2 Global Biochar Sales, Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Manufacturers
3 Global Biochar Sales, Revenue (Value) by Countries, Type and Application (2012-2017)
4 Global Biochar Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis
5 North America Biochar Sales, Revenue (Value) by Countries, Type and Application (2012-2017)
6 Latin America Biochar Sales, Revenue (Value) by Countries, Type and Application (2012-2017)
7 Europe Biochar Sales, Revenue (Value) by Countries, Type and Application (2012-2017)
8 Asia-Pacific Biochar Sales, Revenue (Value) by Countries, Type and Application (2012-2017)
9 Middle East and Africa Biochar Sales, Revenue (Value) by Countries, Type and Application (2012-2017)
10 Biochar Manufacturing Cost Analysis
11 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
12 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
13 Market Effect Factors Analysis
14 Global Biochar Market Forecast (2017-2022)
15 Research Findings and Conclusion
16 Appendix
16.1 Methodology
16.2 Analyst Introduction
16.3 Data Source

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Intro to Biochar Class, plus Bundling Work Party – Evergreen, MT

11 March, 2017
 

type Exception report

message Argument ‘userAgentString’ must not be null.

description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.

exception

net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:65) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:52) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:111) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:197) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:64) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:33) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:78) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:61) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:53) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:78) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.UrlMultiSlashFilter.doFilter(UrlMultiSlashFilter.java:33) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:34) 

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


Global Biochar Market Analysis

11 March, 2017
 

Global Biochar Market 2017, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biochar ..


Online Book Biochar for Environmental Management

11 March, 2017
 


Biochar(s)

11 March, 2017
 

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impact of biochar amendment on soil ph of orthic

11 March, 2017
 

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Impact Of Biochar Amendment On Soil Ph Of Orthic Luvisol can be very useful guide, and impact of biochar amendment on soil ph of orthic luvisol play an important role in your products. The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the impact of biochar amendment on soil ph of orthic luvisol gets a brief glance, maybe a once over, but it often tends to get discarded or lost with the original packaging.


Biochar with Ed Revill @ Ashfield Community Enterprise Ltd (ACE)

11 March, 2017
 

Discover all events in Llandrindod Wells and in the world
recommended on your interests.

Try it now, it’s free!

How to build stable soil carbon on farms, gardens or allotments. Reversing the causes of climate change by enriching soil: – Carbon capture, learning about soil carbon keys. – Modelling landscapes for soil carbon enrichment. – Full Cycle Biochar, plus baking sourdough bread in biochar producing ovens. Workshop fee £20 per person. Call, pm or email for more information or book through the website.

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Biochar compound fertilizer increases nitrogen productivity and economic benefits but decreases …

12 March, 2017
 

Biochar compound fertilizer increases nitrogen productivity and economic benefits but decreases carbon emission of maize production

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Biochar compound fertilizer increases nitrogen productivity and economic benefits but decreases carbon emission of maize production

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Influence of elevated soil temperature and biochar application on organic matter associated with …

12 March, 2017
 

The effects of biochar amendments under elevated soil temperatures on the dynamics of soil organic matter are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of biochar application and elevated soil temperature on the amount and composition of organic matter (OM) associated with soil fractions of different OM turnover rates. Samples were taken from four treatments of the Hohenheim Climate Change Experiment with the factors temperature (ambient or elevated by 2.5 °C, initiated in 2008) and biochar (control and 30 t ha−1Miscanthus pyrolysis biochar, corresponding to approximately 12.4–13.9 g biochar kg−1 soil, applied in 2013) in two depths (0–5 and 5–15 cm) in August 2014. Microbial biomass C (Cmic) and basal respiration were analyzed within an incubation experiment. Aggregate-size fractions were separated by wet-sieving and the free light (fLF), occluded light (oLF) and heavy fractions were isolated by density fractionation. All fractions were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), δ13C and by infrared spectroscopy. Cmic was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased by elevated temperature in both depths and no biochar-C was found in the microbial biomass.

The effects of biochar amendments under elevated soil temperatures on the dynamics of soil organic matter are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of biochar application and elevated soil temperature on the amount and composition of organic matter (OM) associated with soil fractions of different OM turnover rates. Samples were taken from four treatments of the Hohenheim Climate Change Experiment with the factors temperature (ambient or elevated by 2.5 °C, initiated in 2008) and biochar (control and 30 t ha−1Miscanthus pyrolysis biochar, corresponding to approximately 12.4–13.9 g biochar kg−1 soil, applied in 2013) in two depths (0–5 and 5–15 cm) in August 2014. Microbial biomass C (Cmic) and basal respiration were analyzed within an incubation experiment. Aggregate-size fractions were separated by wet-sieving and the free light (fLF), occluded light (oLF) and heavy fractions were isolated by density fractionation. All fractions were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), δ13C and by infrared spectroscopy. Cmic was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased by elevated temperature in both depths and no biochar-C was found in the microbial biomass.


Bio char research paper

12 March, 2017
 


Biochar research paper

12 March, 2017
 

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12 March, 2017
 

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Biochar Soil/ Compost

12 March, 2017
 

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Biochar Global Sales Market 2016 by Manufacturers – BioChar Products, Vega Biofuels …

12 March, 2017
 

Global Biochar Market 2017, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biochar market globally, providing basic overview of Biochar market including Definitions, Classifications, Applications and Industry chain structure, Biochar Market report provides development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures. Biochar market size, share and end users are analyzed as…

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Biochar(s) – Permie Flix

12 March, 2017
 

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Biochar Supreme, LLC

12 March, 2017
 


Richard Stein: Suggests biochar to enrich soil

13 March, 2017
 

I agree with the comments in the March 10 article in the Home section, “Stop treating your soil like dirt.”

I agree with most of the suggestions, but an additional one that I and my associates have found valuable is the use of biochar. It is an ancient technique practiced centuries ago by natives of the Amazon who enriched their soil and developed a flourishing agriculture.

This is made by heating biomass (farm waste, wood waste, etc.) in the absence of air that converts it to this soil additive that increases its productivity for years. It is effectively taking the carbon from the carbon dioxide that is consumed by growing biomass during photosynthesis and adding it to the soil where it benefits agriculture and remains there for many years. I, my relatives and neighbors have been very pleased with its use in enriching soil for gardening.

An excellent source of information is the web page of the International Biochar Initiative at www.biochar-international.org/ where one can obtain descriptions of its preparation and successful use.

Richard Stein

Amherst

Daily Hampshire Gazette
115 Conz Street,
Northampton, MA 01061
413-584-5000

© 2016 Daily Hampshire Gazette


biochar

13 March, 2017
 
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Vega Biofuels Scores High Returns from Alaskan Legal Cannabis Grower

13 March, 2017
 

Vega Biofuels has signed a five year Agreement to provide its wood waste based Biochar to legal cannabis growers in Alaska.

Norcross, Georgia based Vega Biofuels, (OTCPink:VGPR) has signed a five year Agreement to provide its wood waste based Biochar to legal cannabis growers in Alaska. 

The company explained that the state of Alaska is the most recent state to legalise both medical and recreational cannabis use and that the greement with AK Provisions, located in Anchorage is its largest single order for Biochar.  

Biochar is a highly absorbent specially designed charcoal-type product primarily used as a soil enhancement for the agricultural industry to significantly increase crop yields.

According to Vega the production of Biochar for carbon sequestration in the soil is a carbon-negative process. It is made from timber waste using the company’s patent pending torrefaction technology. 

When put back into the soil, biochar is claimed to stabilise the carbon in the soil for hundreds of years. The company said that the introduction of biochar into soil is not like applying fertiliser; it is the beginning of a process. 

Benefits
Most of the benefit is achieved through microbes and fungi. They colonise its massive surface area and integrate into the char and the surrounding soil, dramatically increasing the soil’s ability to nurture plant growth and provide increased crop yield.

For plants that require high potash and elevated pH, Biochar can be used as a soil amendment to significantly improve yield.

Biochar is also claimed to improve water quality, reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching, reduce soil acidity, and reduce irrigation and fertilizer requirements.

Vega added that the materials was also found under certain circumstances to induce plant systemic responses to foliar fungal diseases and to improve plant responses to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens.

However, the various impacts were said to be dependent on the properties of the Biochar, as well as the amount applied, regional conditions including soil type, soil condition (depleted or healthy), temperature, and humidity.

Modest additions of Biochar to soil are claimed to reduce nitrous oxide N2O emissions by up to 80% and eliminates methane emissions, which are both more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.

High Returns
AK Provisions, Inc. plans to use Vega’s Biochar in its own grow Indoor grow facilities which harvest their plants four times per year and start with new soil each time. 

The company will also market the product to other growers throughout the state of Alaska through a reseller agreement with Vega Biofuels. 

The initial order is for 75 super sacks of Biochar. Each super sack holds approximately 400 pounds (180kg), 

“By the pound, Biochar is much more profitable to the Company than our Bio-coal energy product and will have a noticeable impact on the Company’s bottom line. The products are similar but each has its own unique qualities,” commented Michael K. Molen, Chairman/CEO of Vega Biofuels, Inc. 

“We sell Bio-coal by the ton and Biochar is sold by the pound. Growers in other states are reporting significant increases in their crop yields when using Biochar as their soil enhancement,” he added.

“We plan to use the AK Provisions model as we increase our marketing efforts in other states that have recently approved growing legal cannabis,
 concluded Molen.

Read More
ISWA Blog: How Waste Can Help Protect Top Soil
As we leave 2015, the United Nations Year of Soil, behind us, ISWA President David Newman explains the role of waste managers in ensuring soils remain healthy, water retaining carbon sinks.

Biowaste Gasification Process Traps Carbon in Soil Amendment
A gasification process developed by Energy Quest, Inc.  – a Nevada based specialist in the development of alternative energy and fuels – has produced Biochar from agricultural wastes.

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Global Biochar Market-Kina, ElementC6, Carbon Gold, Vega Biofuels

13 March, 2017
 

Global Biochar Market report 2017 is an in-depth research on the current situation of the Biochar industry.

The Scope of the Biochar research report:

Enquire Here Before Purchasing The Global Biochar Market Report with TOC: https://market.biz/report/global-biochar-market-gir/29647/#inquiry

Global Biochar Market Segment By Key Players/Manufacturers
— Agri-Tech Producers
— BioChar Products
— Biochar Now
— BlackCarbon
— Carbon Gold
— Carbon Terra
— Cool Planet
— Diacarbon Energy
— ElementC6
— Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy
— Kina
— Liaoning Jinhefu Group
— Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology
— Pacific Biochar
— Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)
— Swiss Biochar GmbH
— The Biochar Company
— Vega Biofuels

Global Biochar Market Segment By Type
— Corn Stove Source Biochar
— Rice Stove Source Biochar
— Wheat Stove Source Biochar
— Wood Source Biochar
— Other Stove Source Biochar

Global Biochar Market Segment By Applications
— Fertilizer
— Soil Conditioner
— Others

Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis cover up
1. North America Biochar Market (Canada, Mexico and USA).
2. Latin America Biochar Market (Middle and Africa).
3. Biochar Market in Europe (Germany, France, Italy, UK and Russia).
4. Asia-Pacific Biochar Market (South-east Asia, China, India, Korea, and Japan).

Request Sample Biochar market Research Report at https://market.biz/report/global-biochar-market-gir/29647/#requestforsample

The report (Biochar market) focuses on worldwide major leading Biochar industry players, which further includes information like company profiles, Biochar price, Company’s Biochar market revenue etc. Growth prospects of the overall Biochar industry have been presented in the report. However, to give a detailed view of the readers, detailed geographical segmentation within the globe Biochar market has been covered in this study. The key regions along with their revenue forecasts are included in the report.

Report on (Biochar Market Report) mainly covers 15 Topics acutely display the global Biochar market.

Topic 1, to describe Biochar market Introduction, Scope of the product, Biochar market overview and market opportunities, Biochar market risk, market driving force;

Topic 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and Biochar market share by key countries in these regions;

Topic 7, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Biochar, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;

Topic 8, analyzes the top manufacturers of Biochar, with sales, revenue, and price of Biochar, in 2016 and 2017;

Topic 9 and 10, shows the Biochar market by type and application, Biochar market share, with sales and growth rate by type, application, from 2012 to 2017;

Topic 11, Biochar market forecast, by regions, application and type, with revenue and sales, from 2017 to 2022;

Topic 12, to display the competitive situation among the top leading manufacturers, with sales, revenue and Biochar market share in 2016 and 2017;

Topic 13, 14 and 15, to describe Biochar sales channel, distributors, dealers, traders, Conclusion and Research Findings, data source and appendix;


Avocado – Biochar Trial

13 March, 2017
 

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The increased microbial activity in the soils after biochar incor

13 March, 2017
 

The increased microbial activity in the soils after biochar incorporation was demonstrated by an increase in MBC content throughout incubation duration, except for the date of 21 d (Fig. 3). The presence of hyphae at the interface between the biochar and the soil particles (Fig. 4d) also further proved the facilitation of microbial activities by biochar incorporation into the soils. Barthés and Roose (2002) indicated that soil loss correlated negatively with stable macroaggregate GSK1210151A in vivo (> 0.2 mm) content (r = 0.99, p < 0.01) in topsoils under a given simulated rainfall intensity (60 mm h− 1). Moreno-de las Heras (2009) found that

the addition of organic matter to form stabilized soil aggregates reduced the potential of soil erosion. As a whole, this study showed that the incorporation of biochar into highly weathered soil clearly improved the physical properties of the soil, and reduced the potential for soil erosion. Annabi et al. (2011) further indicated that organic amendments that were more resistant to mineralization showed improved stabilization of macroaggregates than organic additives that decomposed

easily. Biochar prepared from the waste wood of white lead trees through find more slow pyrolysis is an acid-neutralizing material for highly weathered soils, and is a potential source of nutrients. The persistent characteristics of the biochar ensure long-term benefits for the soils. Our incubation experiments showed that wood biochar not only improved the chemical and biological properties of the soil, including increasing soil pH, CEC, BS, and microbial Oxalosuccinic acid activity, but also improved the physical properties of the soil, such as Bd, Ksat, aggregate stability, and erosion resistance. These results suggest that the addition of wood biochar effectively improved poor soil characteristics in highly-weathered soil, and reduced soil losses. The results of this study

could be used to avoid rapid soil degradation in subtropical and tropical regions. The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of the Republic of China, Taiwan for financially supporting this research under contract no. NSC 94-2313-B-020-016. “
“The authors regret that the paper published by Torri et al. (2012) contains some typing errors: i.e. “
“The publisher regrets that there were errors in the affiliation information and Table 1 caption. The correction affiliation is mentioned above and the correct text for Table 1 is represented below. aCoarse sand = 250–2000 μm, Fine sand = 50–250 μm, Silt = 2–50 μm, Clay = < 2 μm. The publisher would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. "
“Dan H. Yaalon passed away in the morning of Jan 29, 2014. I lost a dear friend, loyal colleague, and a sound professional authority.


Richard Stein: Suggests biochar to enrich soil

14 March, 2017
 


Cool Terra delivers promising yield increase in independent trials

15 March, 2017
 


Warm Heart Interviews Farmers in Phrao, Thailand.

15 March, 2017
 


Used for produce BBQ wood briquette carbonization furnace

16 March, 2017
 

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16 March, 2017
 


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17 March, 2017
 

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Product Description 18-5-12 plus Bamboo Biochar Perfect for bamboo care, this time release fertilizer combined with 30% Bamboo Biochar as a soil conditioner. After 20 years of trials, this is the best fertilizer we have found to allow .

Seekfertilizer.com SEEK Organic Bamboo Power BBP No.1 is a Bamboo Biochar based, organic fertilizer. The product composition is based on soil biology requirements, the physical properties of bamboo charcoal and some .

Bamboo Biochar Bio-Organic Fertiliser 25kg 0 reviews Write a review Share IF YOU REQUIRE 2 OR MORE BAGS, PLEASE CONTACT US FOR CHEAPER BULK FREIGHT RATE. Product Code: BB225 Availability: In Stock .

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Organic fertilizer plus bamboo biochar did not significantly affect EC. Applying bamboo biochar significantly increased the total carbon content, organic matter, available phosphorus and available potassium in soil. On the contrary .

Wholesale bamboo biochar organic fertilizer-bio fertilizer -natural fertilizer,$ 110.00 Organic FertilizerManuren.Source from Shijiazhuang Hanhao International Trading Limited on Alibaba.com. MENU Alibaba.com On Alibaba ; ; .

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Biochar Overview Biochar is defined simply as charcoal that is used for agricultural purposes. It it created using a pyrolysis process, heating biomass in a low oxygen environment. Once the pyrolysis reaction has begun, it is self .

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Make your own Biochar, biochar TLUD gassifier

17 March, 2017
 

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Biochar For Environmental Management Science Technology And Implementation Read …

17 March, 2017
 

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18 March, 2017
 

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20 March, 2017
 

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20 March, 2017
 

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21 March, 2017
 


Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology

21 March, 2017
 

Environmental Science and Technology,. the implementation of improved land management.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China, Soil and Water Science Department, and Agricultural and.Implementation science is. and national environment to. is to close the gap between science and service by improving the science and practice of implementation.

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Global Biochar Market to Record CAGR of 14.5% from 2014 to 2020

22 March, 2017
 

Deerfield Beach, FL — (SBWIRE) — 03/22/2017 — Zion Research has published a new report titled “Biochar (Pyrolysis, Gasification, Hydrothermal and Others Technology) Market for Agriculture, Water & Waste Water Treatment and Other Applications: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2014 – 2020” According to the report, the global biochar market was valued at approximately USD 260.0 million in 2014 and is expected to reach approximately USD 585.0 million by 2020, growing at a CAGR of around 14.5% between 2015 and 2020. In terms of volume, global biochar market stood at 100 kilo tons in 2014.
Biochar is a fine-grained carbon rich product obtained by heating organic material such as wood, manure or leaves under conditions of no oxygen. Biochar can enhance soils, sequester carbon as well as provide useable energy. Biochar also have tendency to filter and retain nutrients from percolating soil water. Pyrolysis, hydrothermal conversion and gasification are simple and efficient technologies for transforming different biomass feedstocks into renewable energy products. Furthermore, biochar has ability to produce usable energy during its production while concurrently creating a carbon product, which provides sequester or store carbon and improve agriculture and other processes.
Get a copy of Sample Report: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/biochar-market-z43492#RequestSample

Based on technology, biochar market can be segmented as pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal and others. The pyrolysis technology is largest segment accounted for significant share and expected to witness fastest growth at a CAGR of over 10.0% in terms of revenue from 2015 to 2020. Gasification technology does not create stable biochar which can be used in agriculture for soil amendment. This technology segment expected to decline its market share in the years to come.
On the basis of application, the biochar market has been segmented into agriculture, water & waste water treatment and others. Agriculture was a major application segment of biochar market and accounted over 80% share of the global demand in 2014 and is expected to continue its dominance in global market over the forecast period. Water & waste water treatment is another major application segment and expected to exhibit significant growth on account of growing hygiene awareness and effective water infrastructure.
Browse the full report at: http://www.marketresearchstore.com/report/biochar-market-z43492
With over 50% shares in total volume consumption, North America was the largest market. North America followed by Europe and Asia Pacific region. Europe was the second largest market for biochar and accounted for around 25% shares in total volume consumption in 2014. Asia Pacific is the third largest market accounted for the significant share of total market in 2014. Latin America and Meddle East & Africa are also expected to grow at a moderate pace.
Some of the key industry players including Diacarbon Energy Inc, Vega Biofuels, Inc, Agri-Tech Producers. LLC, Hawaii Biochar Products. LLC, Biochar Products, Inc., Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc, Blackcarbon A/S, Green Charcoal International, Earth Systems Pty Ltd and Genesis.
This report segments the global biochar market as follows:
Global Biochar Market: Technology Segment Analysis
PyrolysisGasificationHydrothermalOthers
Global Biochar Market: Application Segment Analysis
AgricultureWater & Waste Water TreatmentOthers
Global Biochar Market: Regional Segment Analysis
North AmericaU.S.EuropeGermanyFranceUKAsia PacificChinaJapanIndiaLatin AmericaBrazilMiddle East and Africa
About Zion ResearchZion Research is a market intelligence company providing global business information reports and services. Our exclusive blend of quantitative forecasting and trends analysis provides forward-looking insight for thousands of decision makers. Zion Research experienced team of Analysts, Researchers, and Consultants uses proprietary data sources and various tools and techniques to gather, and analyze information. Our business offerings represent the latest and the most reliable information indispensable for businesses to sustain a competitive edge.
Contact US:Joel John3422 SW 15 Street, Suit #8138Deerfield Beach, Florida 33442United StatesToll Free: +1-855-465-4651 (USA-CANADA)Tel: +1-386-310-3803Email: sales@marketresearchstore.comWebsite: http://www.marketresearchstore.com

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BIOCHAR WEEKEND WORKSHOP – APRIL 8 – 9 – ORCAS ISLAND

22 March, 2017
 

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net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:65) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:52) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:107) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:197) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:64) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:33) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:78) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:61) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:53) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:78) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.UrlMultiSlashFilter.doFilter(UrlMultiSlashFilter.java:33) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:34) 

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


Biochar for your Garden and the Planet

23 March, 2017
 

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BioChar's Buzzing and Cool Planet's $20M cap raise is feeding it

23 March, 2017
 

In Colorado, Cool Planet has closed on $19.3 million in Series A financing and note conversion to commercialize its Cool Terra and Cool Fauna engineered biocarbon products. This latest round of funding was led by Agustín Coppel and North Bridge Venture Partners.

All together, Cool Planet has raised nearly $30 million in the last 18 months. And the company’s become so focused, they might as well divest the E from their brand — it’s more like Cool Plant, if just for now.

Engineered biocarbon? Elsewhere on Planet Earth, it’s called BioChar — but high-end purveyors like to get away from the iffy reputation that some unscrupulous producers have gained for BioChar products released during the Wild Wild West period for the sector.

Cool Terra’s Engineered Biocarbon platform helps to increase crop yields through improved soil health by providing a long-lasting environment to nurture beneficial microbes in the soil. Here’s the theory: “the product, produced through a patented process, also helps the soil retain water and keep nutrients in the root zone for a longer period of time.”

According to the Cool Planeteers, more than 70 independent field trials conducted in 2016 demonstrated that Cool Terra works with a variety of crops, as well as turf and nursery plants in different types of soils. In addition to commercial sales of Cool Terra in 2017, Cool Planet is planning more than 100 additional third-party field trials.

The company is also developing additional offerings including Cool Fauna, a product that has significant potential in animal health and nutrition applications.

The company will be focusing on supporting and selling the product in specialty-crop agriculture and in the turf, nursery, and landscape markets.

Right now, if you look at the Cool Planet website, there’s a 5 quart sampler size, suitable for a small home garden, a 1 cubic foot bag which can cover up to 300 sq feet of lawn or turf, and a 1.3 cubic yard “Supersack” that covers up to a quarter acre of lawn or field. Quantities for large-scale production agriculture — there’s a call-in for specific volumes.

The blend rate? 1/2 cup per plant, or up to 2% by volume, blended into the top 4 inches of soil.

The price at Amazon for the 5 quart jug is $17.45, and it’s getting rave reviews — holding a 4.7/5 star rating on Amazon, with 78% of customers giving it 5 stars.

We spotted these on Amazon.com:

So far so good. I met a CoolTerra sales rep named Peter at an event. The ratio he recommends is 1:4. One part Biochar to 4 parts soil. He also said to concentrate the product in the top 4 inches of soil. He also said that the product does not breakdown so this will not need to be replenished. This drought is stressing our plants. By using the CoolTerra and shade cloth we are getting a handle on water conservation in our semi arid area in Ventura County California. We have raised beds. I bought 50 pound bags of the CoolTerra. I used about half a bag in a 4×4 foot raised bed. No more adding peat moss or vermiculite or perlite ever again.
K. C. Ellis

I added this biochar to one section of a bed of kale and chard planted in sandy soil. The plants with the biochar are noticeably bigger and more vibrant after a few weeks. Quite remarkable. In a separate bed I combined biochar and coir with fertilizer, blood meal and compost. The plants have exploded with life. Unbelievable!
Andre Untiedt

This stuff works great, I mixed it into my strawberry bed and growth took off. Keeps soil airy and fertile but without the clover and other weeds you get from manure. I’m going to do the rest of my garden now.
Anonymous

There are a whole bunch of products out on the market these days. These are available in smaller sizes from Amazon.

PermaMatrix BSP Grow — 5 lbs for $34.95
Green Texan Organic Farms Biochar Soil Amendment, 2.5 Gallons for 17.99
Biogize-Char Organic Biochar Blend – 5 Gallons for $25.95
Mirimichi Green CarbonizPN Soil Enhancer 25 lb. bag for $39.95
Soil Reef Gardeners Blend. $47.95 for a cubic foot bag

California’s Greenest Biochar Box — 17.5 lbs for $44.95
California’s Greenest Go Bloom Juice [BIOCHAR ACTIVATOR — 1 quart for $34.99
Wakefield Biochar Soil Conditioner — 1 Cu/Ft Box (7.5 gallons) for $41.99 or 1 gallon for $17.99
New Hampshire Biochar from the Charcola Group — 5 gallons for $19.99

Overall, the retail average is coming in at $2.52 per pound, or $1.58 per liter ($5.97 per gallon), and Cool Planet and Wakefield are at the high end of volumetric pricing, at $3.69 and $4.76 per liter, respectively.

Some unusual applications include:

OurPets Switchgrass Natural Cat Litter with Biochar, 10 pounds for $22.46. At
Or even, make your own. The BioCharlie (Biochar Making Log) is available for $69.95.

There’s demand, all right. You can bet on that. Pricing is coming in, at small volumes, at about 2-3X the price of a fuel product — considering that we are looking at what has been traditionally been considered a waste product left over from a pyrolysis process after the gas and oil are extracted, that’s relatively amazing.

At $2.52 per pound for a small retail size, we’re looking at probably something like $2000-$3000 per ton at commercial volumes, and after subtracting as much as half of that for all the wholesale and retail partners, we’ll have to see how Cool Planet and its competitors establish a market where they can make venture returns.

If you follow the world of Mexican retailing, the Coppel name will stand out. The five Coppel brothers control the $4.6B (sales) Coppel empire in retailing, banking and real estate. The signature asset is the 1,000 strong Coppel chain of department stores aimed at expanding consumer credit wider among Mexico’s middle- and lower-income populations. According to Bloomberg, the brothers also control a @275M family office investment portfolio.

The company has already partnered with Helena Chemical, J.R. Simplot, Triangle Chemical Company and AG RX to distribute Cool Terra to the production agriculture and turf, nursery and ornamental markets, as well as select distributors that are specific to the TN&O market.

The Simplot distribution partnership gives Cool Terra access to a network of over 90 retail locations in the West and Midwest. Already, Cool Planet has 35 retail locations in California.

Simplot has also joined Cool Planet’s newly-formed Soil Health Advisory Council (SHAC). The purpose of the council is to help Cool Planet explore and maximize opportunities to utilize Cool Terra Engineered Biocarbon as a means of improving the health of soils while also serving as a carrier and an organic structural environment for microbial and nutrient-based solutions.

Fed at low levels in traditional feed rations, Cool Planet says that “Cool Fauna has the potential to help increase weight gain, bind toxins in feed, and reduce methane from enteric fermentation. The porous nature of our Engineered Biocarbon product could deliver some of the same benefits that activated carbon has been known to provide in both humans and animals.”

Among these?

Cool Fauna and Cool Terra are both showing promise to improve sustainability for the entire farm/ranch system. Placed into animal bedding material, Cool Terra can help address environmental issues in large poultry, dairy and feedlot operations by helping to reduce volatiles and odor while still capturing valuable nutrients like nitrogen. The nitrogen-rich animal manure/litter, which will already contain Cool Fauna if fed to the animal or Cool Terra if placed into the bedding material or compost pile, can then be spread onto the field. The end result? The amount of necessary fertilizer could be reduced, and soil health and crop yield are improved. The entire systems approach is described in the other uses of Cool Terra.

Barry Rowan, Cool Planet’s chief financial officer and a veteran of multiple startup and public companies, highlights this as a notable achievement particularly given the slowdown in ag tech investment. AgFunder recently reported that investment in the sector declined by 30 percent in 2016.

“The Coppel Family and North Bridge continue to show their confidence in Cool Planet. They’ve supported us through our research phase and remain valued partners as we continue commercialization of Cool Terra and development of Cool Fauna,” said Rowan.

Jim Loar, an ag industry veteran who joined Cool Planet in early 2016 as president and CEO, believes this latest funding round comes at the right time to successfully launch Cool Terra.

“Our trials demonstrated that Cool Terra significantly improved yields for the fruit, vegetable, grass and legume crops, as well as turf and nursery plants,” said Loar. “We’ve done the research, proven the effectiveness and built the partnerships. Cool Terra is poised to make a significant impact in the ag and TN&O sectors.”

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Introducing Biochar: Climate Change Solution or Greenwash Nightmare?

24 March, 2017
 

After years of investigating biochar, which promoters have touted as a potential climate change fix, DeSmog is releasing its findings on the science, claims, and controversy surrounding this approach to sequestering carbon. 

Biochar is the product of plant or animal products (biomass) undergoing pyrolysis, a high-heat chemical reaction, to convert the carbon-containing biomass to a stable, non-decomposing form of charcoal. Introduced to mainstream audiences in a Time Magazine article from December 2008, biochar as a climate geoengineering technology has hit a number of peaks and valleys since then. In that time, its best chances at reaching commercial scales so far have failed, according to a new DeSmog report, Biochar: Climate Change Solution or False Hope?

Biochar’s failure to date is due to a number of reasons, such as the lack of scientific consensus surrounding its ability to sequester carbon indefinitely, the vast amounts of land needed to produce biochar at a large enough scale to affect the climate, and the lack of legislative or regulatory frameworks required for investment in commercial-level production. 

DeSmogBlog exists to clear the PR pollution that is clouding the science on climate change. The DeSmogBlog Project began in January 2006 and quickly became the world’s number one source for accurate, fact based information regarding global warming misinformation campaigns. TIME Magazine named DeSmogBlog in its “25 Best Blogs of 2011” list. Articles and stories published by DeSmogBlog Project were reprinted by the New York Times DotEarth, Huffington Post, Daily Kos, ThinkProgress, and Treehugger, to name a few. DeSmogBlog has won the Canadian Public Relation Society’s Leadership in Communication award, and was voted Canada’s “Best Group Blog” by their peers. The DeSmogBlog team is led by Jim Hoggan, founder of James Hoggan & Associates, one of Canada’s leading public relations firms. By training a lawyer, by inclination a ski instructor and cyclist, Jim Hoggan believes that integrity and public relations should not be at odds – that a good public reputation generally flows from a record of responsible actions. His client list includes real estate development companies, high tech firms, pharmaceutical, forest industry giants, resorts and academic institutions. He is also a Board Member of the David Suzuki Foundation.

New research has identified a chemical link that plays a vital role in the repair of cellular DNA, with researchers hoping that the new results can lead to a breakthrough in age-related health problems and cancers. The chemical is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a cellular signalling molec …

There’s not much happening in the 2017-18 budget in terms of new spending according to Paul Wells’ March 22, 2017 article for TheStar.com, This is the 22nd or 23rd federal budget I’ve covered. And I’ve never seen the like of the one Bill Morneau introduced on Wednesday [March 22, 2017]. No …

Canaccord Genuity analyst Neil Maruoka says ProMetic Life Science’s (TSX:PLI) recent financing news is a positive but doesn’t completely solve the company’s financing needs. This morning, ProMetic announced that existing shareholder Thomvest Asset Management will loan the company $25-million …

US Politics The Senate confirmation hearings for President Donald Trump’s Supreme Court nominee, Neil Gorsuch, have often been obscured by one controversy after another, from the Republican effort to repeal the Affordable Care Act to revelations that the FBI is actively investigating possible lin …

After years of investigating biochar, which promoters have touted as a potential climate change fix, DeSmog is releasing its findings on the science, claims, and controversy surrounding this approach to sequestering carbon.  Biochar is the product of plant or animal products (biomass) underg …

The solar system may get a lot more crowded if one group of astronomers has it their way. Meeting this week at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston, Texas, scientists from around the world are set to debate the fate of Pluto —planet or dwarf planet?— and with it determine how w …

“The federal government will devote $1.8-billion more to culture and recreation spending over the next decade, “modernize” the Broadcasting Act and Telecommunications Act, and spend more on official and Indigenous languages, according to the budget delivered on Wednesday by Finance Minister Bil …

We’re just three months into 2017 and there has already been a wealth of news citing cybersecurity attacks targeting large organizations, government, and financial institutions here in Canada. With news of leaks and possible hacks making headlines daily, it seems as though the onslaught of these …

Despite polls showing that 71% of Canadians would not have voted for the measure, Canada’s Parliament, with the strong backing of Justin Trudeau’s Liberal government, passed a motion this week 201 to 91 that critics say singles out Islam for special protection. Tabled by Muslim liberal MP Iqra Khal …

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DeSmogBlog

24 March, 2017
 

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Make your own biochar furnace!

25 March, 2017
 


Make your own biochar furnace!

25 March, 2017
 


biochar-international.org

26 March, 2017
 

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Biochar-international.org

27 March, 2017
 

The website seems to have a good online reputation based on the report below.

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Research paper on soil erosion

27 March, 2017
 

Soil erosion is one of the major concerns of modern agriculture throughout the world. This large increase in land under irrigation occurred at the same time as an exponential jump in human population, and increases in both are greatest in the arid and sub-arid regions of the Earth…. [tags: essays research papers] – Effect of Organic Farming on Soil Nutrients and Structure Works Cited Missing Since the 1970s, the agribusiness and agrochemical industries have been aware of a growing problem: as the global population soars, soils around the world are becoming less suitable for farming as a result of erosion, nutrient depletion, and structural degradation. A soil scientist must use the scientific method; the process of hypothesis, testing hypothesis with experiments, drawing conclusions, and retesting hypothesis to explain variations in soil properties. Frost heave has a number of effects upon the soil and upon structures supported by the soil which make it an important process to understand. Katrinus Deluxe, a Lomandra longifolia, strengthened the soil by 366%. [tags: Spatial Interrelationships, Slope, Soil] – What is Soil Erosion. Soils are often found under desert pavements and they play an important role in the evolution of pavements (Mc Fadden et. In the past there have been several theories as to the formation pavements and soil development beneath them…. They play an important role in erosion control, weed control, soil conservation and soil health. Agricultural activities are the one of the main causes of soil degradation…. A short outline about 1-2 pages are needed on 17th April. [tags: Soil Soils Agricultural Essays] – The Effects of Grazing and Trampling Behaviors of Large-Sized Livestock on the Formation and Weathering Patterns of Soils Introduction Walter Coppinger, a Professor of Geosciences at Trinity College in San Antonio and long-time observer of Montana geology, was the first person to describe to me the many problems of the western rangelands that have developed out of the over-grazing of cattle. Essay offers help with college and university assignments, services related to essay writing and fast turnaround times. To develop an effective treatment for a contact-contaminated soil or other waste, it is necessary to understand its physical and chemical characteristics, including the distribution of the contaminants…. Additionally, atomic absorbtion and atomic emission spectroscopy were compared and and atomic absorbtion was found to be 1.89 times as sensitive as atomic emission…. The main soil erosion is due to the top soil being blown away by heavy winds and also being carried away by rain water and floods.

Crop rotation is one of the most important management practices in a sustainable agriculture system, both as a means of conserving soil and of maintaining its fertility…. [tags: Science Chemistry Essays] – Composting and the Benefits and Limitations of its Use as Soil Amendment Composting is widely-known as an environmentally sustainable method of recycling food scraps and garden/yard clippings. The cultivar or true plant or turf name will always immediately follow the species name enclosed in single quotation marks. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission, except for 3D graphics for the purpose of using in CAD software and the downloadable photos for the purpose of showing clients images. I strongly agree with Sommer & Schlichting, 1997 quote “Studying soils along a slope is one of the simplest, yet most elegant ways to discern spatial interrelationships between soil and topography”. [tags: drainage, organisms, chemical substances] – Microorganisms Although they are small microorganisms have a humungous impact in the structure of soil and plant formation. In order to investigate this, trial experiments were initially carried out in order to determine the most effective method of assessing a section of the dunes and obtaining results. Irrigation water is used to maintain crop productivity, so drought conditions need not occur to induce irrigation measures. [tags: Environment Nature Essays] – Feedback Effects of Soil Carbon Cycling in Northern Ecosystems Global warming will be greatest in mid-continental North America and Eurasia, where temperatures are predicted to increase 4 – 12_C during the winter and 2 – 6_ C in summer (Kasischke et. This warming will shift the boreal forest, bog, and tundra biomes that dominate these areas northward as much as 500 km in the first hundred years of warming (Toward…1988, qtd. Alaskan studies indicate that these changes are already influencing ecosystem function and carbon balance in northern ecosystems (Grulke et al…. Soil is one of the most valuable natural resources available to us. Numerous industries are faced with the the challenge of cleaning up the soil…. Soil conservation is very essential to reap the above benefits. Lateritic soils are also characterized by their low soil fertility. [tags: plant development, alkalinity of soil] – Introduction. From p H 7 to 0 the soil is progressively more acidic and from p H 7 to 14 the soil is progressively more alkaline or basic…. [tags: Soil Soils Agricultural Agriculture Papers] – An Investigation To Show The Varying Amounts Of Microbial Decay Caused By The Amounts Of Water Added to Soil Aim: Our aim is to find the best type of soil for microbial decay. They consist of flat or sloping surfaces where stones are closely packed angular or rounded, and generally exhibit low relief (Mabbutt, 1977). The highly trained professional customer support specialists can answer any question you might have regarding your order, and are happy to help with academic assignments.

It has to be done in two ways a) Soil erosion prevention b) Soil pollution prevention. [tags: Nutrition, Soil, Growth] – “The world’s rainforests could completely vanish in a hundred years at the current rate of deforestation.” Says National Geographic. Visible – Near Infrared (NIR) wavelengths offers the ability to monitor landscape process that are controlled by several surface parameters (Jacob et al., 2002; Price, 1992). *Based on a number of later calculations and shear tests and compared to Empire, then extrapolated into the previous format. [tags: grasslands, livestock, equine population] – Farming in Canada is a backbreaking occupation. Yet not all vegetation is native to its location today. Horses that graze on optimally managed pasture will obtain improved health and sustain a good condition, compared to horses grazing on poorly managed pasture (Undersander & Antoniewicz 1997, p.1). Somewhere in the process of a fire the soil it travels over is effected…. Irrigation simply provides supplemental precipitation that may not be achieved through natural processes, i.e. Basically, leaching is described as passing additional water through a medium to remove unwanted materials…. Several vegetation indices have been developed using the linearity of the NIR versus red reflectance as an indication of the green biomass…. Every day, farmers and ranchers around the world develop new, innovative strategies to produce and distribute food, fuel and fiber sustainably. Ground covers such as green manures, straw mulching and geo-textiles are being tested, together with more usual agricultural land management methods such as herbicides, ploughing and no-tillage. This Essay Soil Erosion and Conservation and other 62,000 term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on Review Autor: reviewessays • July 15, 2011 • Essay • 1,418 Words (6 Pages) • 946 Views SOIL EROSION AND CONSERVATION Erosion Erosion is the removal of soil particles by the motion of wind or water. In all cases, the impacts of human activity are indelibly linked to desertification. Quantifying the strengthening of soil by commonly used landscape plants and turf | 800KB IMPORTANT FACT ABOUT PLANT & TURF NAMES: In this website, the genus species and cultivar are listed like this example: Dianella caerulea ‘DCNC0’ is the PBR and cultivar name. [tags: Environment Agriculture Agricultural Essays] – Controlling Soil Fertility Approximately 2 billion hectares of land, 17% of the total vegetated area of the earth has been degraded for agricultural purposes since 1945 (Oldeman et al., 1990). (1990) classify about half of this degraded area as still permitting agricultural use, but with greatly reduced productivity, and in the rest no agriculture is deemed possible. Various factors are responsible for the difference in soil characteristics and pattern along a slope.

Liquids and solvents can leak into the soil causing contamination. [tags: microorganisms, fungi, bacteria] – Plants, trees, and other similar organisms constitute the community of a forest. Follow as the outline format and deliver the paper on 17th April. About the SOIL EROSION project, I suggest to choose some famous projects to discuss, for example, the collapse of the whole building in Shanghai not long ago. Product of muscovite weathering is illite which under humid condition this product alters to montmorillonite. Visit SARE’s Topic Rooms for in-depth resources on important topics in sustainable agriculture, including: The many benefits of cover crops are increasingly appreciated among farmers. We will be happy to discuss your initial ideas and the rubric before you would order the paper to ensure that the writer will deliver the work as if it was completed by you. Soil and some seeds were sterilized and grown for twenty one days before root length, root width, and number of leaf parameters was tested…. Proceedings Third World Congress of Conservation Agriculture. Without soil there would have been no trees and plants on the earth. Soil erosion is considered to be one of the major concerns of agriculture throughout the world today. The lack of fires can cause new plant communities to invade an area .

Understanding soil hydrophobicity is important to soil scientists and land managers because it directly affects runoff and erosion. The regular occurrence of fires can keep one plant community dominate, like oak savannas. This may consist of alluvium, moraine and volcanic ash or lava. п‚Ñž Thus it affects the productivity of the land, п‚Ñž This decreases the production of food, feed, fiber, and fuel. Roosevelt’s goal when he became president was to improve the economy and environment, and to help raise America from the depression…. Let me explain, to prevent the 9/11 attack we need to go back to 1998. In 1940 there were 95 M ha in irrigation while by 1989 there were over 280 M ha (van Schilfgaarde, 1994). The actual composition of these various components within soil has a big influence on the porosity; i.e., the composition affects the movement of water into and through the soil (Mc Cauley, 2005), and the movement of water into and through soil is absolutely necessary for productive crops, and healthy ecosystems. The word “hydroponics’;, however, is comparatively new. [tags: essays research papers fc] – Soil Washing Soil washing is generally considered a media transfer technology. For example the obvious influences such as the amount of soil and the amount of water added to it will certainly limit how much water the soil can hold and the amount able to pass through…. Two hundred and fifty five topsoil samples (0- 20 cm) in a study area of 6800 km² were collected….


Mar 27, 2017

28 March, 2017
 

Cool Planet has raised $19.3 million for its pivot to biochar. Bioengineering venture Cool Planet raised $100 million…

Tracy Saxton, who was the investment director for the Roche Venture Fund and for SV Life Sciences Advisers, has closed…

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Rising global demand for water and the decline in reliable supplies means higher prices. That should drive a growing…

The small financial technology, or fintech, sector in the Middle East is expected to grow from about 100 startups in…

The Malthusian apocalypse predicted in 1968’s Population Bomb by Paul Ehrlich came and went. There is broad consensus…

Pope Francis may be only the world’s third-greatest leader (behind Theo Epstein and Jack Ma, according to Fortune),…

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One-step preparation and application of magnetic sludge-derived biochar on acid orange 7 …

28 March, 2017
 

Magnetic sludge-derived biochar (MSDBC) was synthetized via a one-step co-precipitation method and conducted as a novel heterogeneous catalyst of persulfate (PS) activation for the oxidative removal of acid orange 7 (AO7). The porous structure and large surface area benefits the enrichment of the pollutant, while abundant Fe3O4 species and oxygen-containing functional groups promoted the generation of oxidative radicals, thus leading to the remarkable performance of AO7 removal. MSDBC also exhibited good stability with low iron leaching and consistent efficiency in reusability experiments. Radical scavenger experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance studies identified SO4˙ and OH˙ as the dominant oxidative radicals. The magnetic properties and feasible preparation method of MSDBC guaranteed the stability, which was evidenced in detail by the satisfactory reusability performance and low iron leaching during the degradation process. Distinguished from other PS based advanced oxidation processes, acidic conditions favored AO7 removal, while two halide irons Cl and Br could promote AO7 removal by MSDBC/PS system. The current outcomes demonstrated our approach of converting solid waste into stable, cheap and multifunctional biochar as a feasible resource utilization method, and was highly suggestive to the treatment of both wastewater and sewage sludge.


EMEA

29 March, 2017
 

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Bio char research papers

31 March, 2017
 


New biochar model scrubs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

31 March, 2017
 

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Researchers discover high-def electron pathways in soil

31 March, 2017
 

April 1, 2017

All plants need electrons to aid biological and chemical tasks. Cornell scientists have discovered a new high-definition system that allows electrons to travel through soil farther and more efficiently than previously thought.

“Microorganisms need electrons for everything they do. If they consume nutrients or spew out methane or expel carbon dioxide – for any living, biological process – they need electrons,” said Tianran Sun, postdoctoral researcher in soil and crop sciences and lead author of the paper that appears March 31 in Nature Communications.

Like large volumes of electricity that flow from Niagara Falls throughout upstate New York, electrons convey through soil via carbon. “We weren’t aware of this high-definition soil distribution system transporting electrons from far away. It’s not kilometers, it’s not meters, but centimeter distances that matter in soil,” said Johannes Lehmann, professor of soil science.

In fact, amending the soil with pyrogenic carbon – known as biochar – brings high definition to the electron network. In turn, the electrons spur conductive networks and growth, said Sun.

“Previously we thought there were only low-performing electron pathways in the soil – and now we’ve learned the electrons are channeled through soil very efficiently in a high-performing way,” said Lehmann.

Lehmann and the members of his laboratory had struggled to understand why microorganisms thrived in the presence of biochar. The group removed soil phosphorus, making the environment inhospitable. They ruled out water and nutrients. They discarded the use of biochar as a food source because microorganisms cannot consume much of it. Through Sun’s background in environmental chemistry, the scientists found that microorganisms may be drawn to electrons that the biochar can transport.

 “These results will lead to a better understanding of microbial responses in soil and microbial metabolism, including long-term effects on greenhouse gas emissions,” Sun said.

In addition to Lehmann and Sun, who published “Rapid Electron Transfer by the Carbon Matrix in Natural Pyrogenic Carbon,” the paper’s other authors are Barnaby Levin, doctoral student in materials science; doctoral student Juan Guzman, biological and environmental engineering; Akio Enders, technician, soil and crop sciences; David Muller, professor of applied and engineering physics; and Lars Argenent, professor, University of Tübingen, Germany.

Lehmann credits cross-disciplinary work with finding this idea. “I could not have completed this work without Tianran Sun’s chemistry expertise, nor without Lars Angenent’s microbiology expertise, or David Muller’s or Barnaby Levin’s physical knowledge of carbon structure,” said Lehmann. “They played a big part.”

The National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture funded this research.

Blaine Friedlander

607-254-8093

bpf2@cornell.edu

Melissa Osgood

607-255-2059

mmo59@cornell.edu


1a) Because of this porosity, higher amounts of biochar in the t

31 March, 2017
 

1a). Because of this porosity, higher amounts of biochar in the treated soil increased the habitat for microbes to grow. Joseph et al. (2010) indicated that most of biochar has a high concentration of macro-pores that extends from the surface to the interior, and Selleckchem Androgen Receptor Antagonist minerals and small organic particles might accumulate in these pores. Few studies have been published

on the influences of biochar on the physical properties of soils (Atkinson et al., 2010). In addition to improved chemical properties of the soils, our results indicated a particularly significant improvement in the physical properties of the highly weathered soil. The results indicated a significant decrease in Bd, and an increase in porosity, Ksat, and the MWD of soil aggregates in the biochar-amended soils, even at the low application rate (2.5%) after incubation of 105 d (Table 2). During the incubation duration, the values of Bd kept higher in the biochar-amended soils 3-MA nmr than in the control after 21 d. Before 21 d, the rapid increase

in the control’s Bd might be caused by gradual infilling of clays into pores of the soil, which reflected that the incubated soils are stable and approached field condition after 21 d. For the biochar-amended soils, physical dilution effects might have caused reduced Bd levels, which agreed with Busscher et al. (2011) who indicated that increasing total organic carbon by the addition of organic amendments in soils could significantly decrease Bd. Furthermore, the decrease in Bd of the biochar-amended soils appears to have also been the result of alteration of soil aggregate sizes, as shown by Tejada and Gonzalez (2007) who amended the following soils by using organic Idoxuridine amendments in Spain. In our study, micromorphological observations of the amended soils indicated the flocculation of soil microaggregates after the addition of biochar (Fig. 4a; b). The porosity could also be effectively improved by application of the biochar and hydraulic conductivity as well.

Asai et al. (2009) indicated that the incorporation of biochar into rice-growing soils changed the pore-size distribution, which increased water permeability. Regarding the porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the amended soils, we considered the redistribution of the proportion of soil aggregate sizes to be a critical factor in influencing the physical and chemical properties of the soil (Table 2). The incorporated biochar could function as a binding agent that connects soil microaggregates to form macroaggregates. The oxidized biochar surface, which included hydroxyl groups and carboxylic groups, could adsorb soil particles and clays (Fig. 4c) to form macroaggregates under acidic environments. Our incubation study showed that the biochar-amended soils seemed to have larger soil aggregates than the control after 21 d although significant difference of MWD was just found after 63 d between the amended soils and the control.


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