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The interfacial behavior between biochar and soil minerals and its effect on biochar stability

1 February, 2016

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Biochar

1 February, 2016

Marine Bio Char

1 February, 2016

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Iowa researchers seek to develop emerging energy technology

1 February, 2016


Aquaponics farm born in dorm, now a teaching, growing space

1 February, 2016


Butchering Biomass: How to Use Every Part of a Cedar Tree

1 February, 2016


Getting to know your food

1 February, 2016


Cecilia Sundberg – African Biochar

1 February, 2016

Why biochar? charcoal soil C sequestration + Improved soil fertility Less climate impact + Poverty reduction Can this be r...Research questions charcoal soil C sequestration + Improved soil fertility ? ? ? ? Less climate impact + Poverty reduction...Biochar and smallholder farmers in Kenya www.slu.se/bio-char- kenya Biochar and smallholder farmers in Kenya www.slu.se/bio-char- kenya Pyrolysis and combustion engineering Soil scienceAgronomy Agronomy Agroforestry Life Cycle Assessment Economics Natural Re...Air quality – Public health Energy Food security Climate change Waste management Forest management Farm management www.siani.se/expert-groups/african-biochar Cecilia Sundberg - African BiocharCecilia Sundberg - African BiocharCecilia Sundberg - African BiocharCecilia Sundberg - African BiocharCecilia Sundberg - African BiocharCecilia Sundberg - African BiocharCecilia Sundberg - African BiocharHow Much Further Will Internet Stoc...Node.js and The Internet of ThingsMastering The Fourth Industrial Rev...How To Build A High Converting Mark...11 Habits to Nurture Self-ConfidenceChina's economy: slowing distorted ...Published on Feb 01, 2016

 

 

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pre-columbian artifacts|pre-columbian artifacts for sale|pre-columbian art for sale

1 February, 2016

The Miraflores region is one of the most popular areas to visit. It offers countless Cliffside home gardens as possible stroll in. About travelers look at the parks to check out the various todays sculptures truth be told there. If you feel a tad bit more daring, you may also paraglide otherwise observe para-gliders. There are numerous that paraglide off the cliffs furthermore trip the ocean winds.Biochar try generated by pyrolysis concerning biomass and it’s also a form of charcoal. Its thought that materials was developed with some sort of Pre-Columbian Amazonians. It was found that Pre-Columbian Amazonians developed this materials with smoldering agricultural spend inside big trenches. Biochar is always employed by Europeans inside very early days, whom called that it terra preta de Indio. Its just used for enhancing soil high quality concerning agricultural purpose. Just as occasion passed away, this soil high quality booster became very popular in agriculture globe and it’s also completely the very best substitute for compound fertilizers. Researchers are finding down that Biochar might safeguard crops after couple of soil-borne diseases. There are lots of more factors which have prepared this natural soil high quality booster popular in agricultural globe.Biochar concerning Carbon SequestrationScientists believe biochar might greatly aid in mitigating climatic adjustment by using carbon sequestration. This method try achieved concerning generating the best long-term storing concerning atmospheric carbon dioxide to mitigate international warming as well as climatic adjustment which are responsible for that it. Biochar try the best bright ray concerning hope for most experts, who’re carrying out researches to protect the surroundings from adjustment due to international warming. Global warming is much like one alarm for the individual globe to get rid of techniques that aren’t inside synchronize utilizing the ecosystem, as well as biochar is one of the ideal solutions with this problem. Researchers believe carbon sequestration as well as biochar might greatly aid in catching atmospheric carbon dioxide, which is necessary to safeguard planet from impact concerning international warming.

It is actually, but interesting that the beginning to history, that’s, the date when written historic documents became a helpful educational site, may be the date marking the end to prehistory. Plus it varies at region inside region. Like, at Egypt its generally accepted which prehistory finished about 3800 BCE, on the other hand at New Guinea the prehistoric age culminated in very early many years of the twentieth century.Such very early inhabitants of this Americas underway agricultural procedures, raising maize having ears concerning lengths various starting two – five cms to even ten -15 cms. Different plants grown up through consumers were potatoes, pumpkins, tomatoes and/or avocadoes. That not many suitable species were available, there were not many livestocks. Concerning meat, but the guinea pig was raised in the Andes. Maize had been taken from Mexico in the fifteenth century CE towards the Mississippi embayment and/or is grown up just as excellent agricultural crop generally there, nevertheless even more developments weren’t potential because of the arrival of this Europeans at that time. That Incas grew potatoes, as the Aztecs farmed cocoa used in chocolates. If the Europeans arrived in united states, countless Natives there were semi-nomadic tribes concerning hunter gatherers. Others belonging to agricultural and/or sedentary societies formed new tribes or even confederations in retaliation inside European colonization. Among them, the known teams were pre-columbian pottery the Apache, the Cherokee, the Sioux, the Iroqouis while the Mohegan. That Iroquois contained several sub-groups love Mohawk, Oneida, Seneca, Cayuga, Onandaga and/or later, the Tuscarora tribe. That Inuits tend to be the later choice inside these teams. There have been countless pre-Columbian sedentary societies in today’s day usa, not politically complex and/or technologically advanced level whilst the Mesoamerican civilizations straight down south were.

At Algeria, cave paintings concerning every day life as part of central North Africa are found in Tassili-n-Ajjer, north concerning Tamanrasset plus in other areas used per vivid then realistic way. People artwork dating back to 6 : 10,000 many years are developed by hunters for the Caspian amount of that Neolithic Age roaming up to as part of tall grasslands saturated in gigantic buffaloes, elephants, rhinoceros then hippopotamus. Such animals tend to be no longer based in the area which is this time arid then almost like per desert. People cave paintings tend to be accurate documentation concerning prehistoric African customs.Normally, the definition of pre-Columbian is used inside suggest the great native civilizations of Americas, specially those of Mesoamerica : of Aztec then Maya then of Andes, Moche then Chibcha civilizations.

Indigenous Australian Aboriginal rock and bark paintings indicate the best vigorous social trade aided by the neighbouring islands associated with continent while additionally the introduction of practices like dug-out canoe and items like cigarettes and pipes concerning smoking it. Intermarriage and migration amongst descendants to Malaya folk as part of Australian Aboriginal communities and vice versa triggered purchase to Macassan phrase as part of Aboriginal languages including, Balanda concerning White individual.The fires, but created a lot more dramatic alterations in all fauna than this did into the flora. Megafauna, thought as types considerably bigger than all people, completely disappeared whilst the lesser types fared little improve. It’s estimated that sixty various vertebrates became extinct, such as the Diprotodon types, large marsupial herbivores carefully resembling hippos. The list associated with vanished incorporate a few flightless birds, carnivorous kangaroos, lizards to 5 metres size, one tortoise because of the proportions to a small car an such like…how made it happen extinctions take place keeps one matter to conjecture. Maybe it’s fire, searching, environment change as a combination of almost all. Specialist, but agree totally that it was human interference of just one friendly or another what speeded upwards the process. Climate change, as soon as considered to be all likely trigger, is no much longer inside favour. Inside lack of spacious herbivores, all understorey vegetation spent my youth unchecked rapid recycling to soil nutritional elements because of the dung stopped and consequently there clearly was most ready fuel establish. Will fires burned hotter, altering all situation most.

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pre-columbian artifacts|pre-columbian artifacts for sale|pre-columbian art for sale

1 February, 2016

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The presence of charcoal as part of archaeological excavations suggests it fire had been an integral part of their Australian landscape always. The incidence of fires greater when the hunter gatherer inhabitants started deploying it in order to frighten separated animals plus to create a new flush of vegetation in order to attract plant eaters. In addition they started fires in order to lose and/or open up impenetrable forests. This one led to densely grown up areas becoming most available sclerophyll forests and/or available forests turning into pre-columbian figure grasslands. There Was Clearly your profusion of fire-tolerant types, somewhat, sheoaks, euclypts, acacia and/or grasses.It seems initial rhythmic percussive noise ended up being produced by clapping concerning arms, by hitting stones together and so on. Theoretically, tunes can be traced towards the Oldowan period associated with Palaeothic time period, on anthropological then archaeological occasion when stone apparatus were 1st utilized by hominids. Work noises just like pounding concerning seeds then roots into meals can be thought to be rhythmic sounds created by very early people.

Biochar is actually generated by pyrolysis out of biomass and it’s also a type of charcoal. It is thought that this materials was invented simply by ones Pre-Columbian Amazonians. It’s been found that Pre-Columbian Amazonians produced this one materials simply by smoldering agricultural waste at big trenches. Biochar had been furthermore utilized by Europeans at very early circumstances, who called this terra preta de Indio. It is pretty much employed for enhancing dirt excellence of agricultural purpose. Since duration passed, this one dirt excellence enhancer became quite popular within the agriculture globe and it’s also certainly the best alternative to compound fertilizers. Researchers have found down that Biochar will safeguard plants off some soil-borne conditions. There are numerous a lot more facets that have has made this one natural dirt excellence enhancer prominent within the agricultural globe.Biochar For Carbon SequestrationScientists believe biochar will immensely assist in mitigating climatic modifications through carbon sequestration. This technique is actually achieved of generating the best long-term space of atmospheric co2 inside mitigate world wide warming and climatic modifications being responsible for this. Biochar is actually the best bright ray out of expect countless experts, who’re carrying out researches to guard the environmental surroundings from the modifications caused by world wide warming. Worldwide warming is like an alarm for the human globe to stop techniques that aren’t at sync because of the ecosystem, and biochar is amongst the better options because of this problem. Researchers believe carbon sequestration and biochar will immensely assist in catching atmospheric co2, which is essential to safeguard world from the effect out of world wide warming.

However, satellite imagery and oceanographic studies pill current information signifying your civilisation flourished even while far return while the 9000 BC. It has in addition become understood and discovered which a tradition to Indian heavy metal art goes back in order to 40 : 50,000 years.The Mayan Calendar therefore the Aztec Solar Calendar legends are definitely fascinating to men and women around the globe. You can find good copies of these at wall oral plaque format in GlobalHomeAccents.com, which come at historical descriptive cards. They render unique and also worthwhile gift suggestions. Desire for will Mayan Calendar has exploded tremendously due to reports that the world does end may December 21, 2012. The very last day’s will Maya extende lifetime count, your day markings the conclusion to one 5000 season period. If you are in search of very good one conversation part, then this is certainly it.

The term became somewhat free in the twentieth century when the boundary anywhere between background interpretation of created plus dental documents as well as other procedures became less rigid. Actually, historians currently depend additional concerning evidence at many areas plus don’t commonly limit themselves on historical duration plus created, dental otherwise any other symbolically encoded sourced elements of correspondence. Furthermore, the word ‘history’ was increasingly used in host to ‘prehistory’ to spell it out specific passages of the time, such as for instance reputation for the planet earth, reputation for on Universe, etc. Anyhow, on difference keeps crucial that you countless scholars, especially in on social sciences. Scientists primarily peering inside Peoples prehistory have always been prehistoric archaeologists plus real anthropologists whom usage excavation, geographic study, plus scientific research to show plus interpret the type plus behavior of pre-literate plus non-literate individuals.

In the Iron age, anthropomorphic sculptures were has made, like Warrior out of Herschlanden and also the statue after Glauberg, Germany. Maybe consuming all traditional globe caused by trade, all Hallstatt designers within the very early Iron Age preferred desgns out of abstract and/or geometreical nature. The curvilinear and/or elaborate creative type was created inside very early Iron Age European countries inside one centre on Rhine valley which spreading all over the continent very quickly. Ostentatious residing became the way in which of this rich chieftains after the traditional tradition, and/or wine drinking after richly ornamented bronze cups became standard. In the Celtic community, everyone often regularly feast and/or take in together, and/or creative expressions began to bloom inside dishes, knives, cauldrons and/or that another vessels. Tools and/or horse-riding gears were besides embellished, and also the ornamentatinos have mythical and/or relegious elements that motif inside stylized and/or naturalistic types. Construction out of megalithic monuments continued, that illustrated within the current carved limestone pillars of this place in Entremont inside France. Torc or even twisted metal necklaces became a personal wear, and/or introduction out of coins supplied sufficient scope of creative experimentation. Ones coins were, however, badly has made copies of this Greecian and/or Roman coins, however the Celtic exuberance ended up being greatly there. Burying one person/warrior inside their chariot ended up being one practice inside China within the 1200 BCE all Celts did hence on known Waldalgesheim webpages within the Rhineland a lot afterwards, and made flagons and/or bronze plaques among reclining individual figures inside what’s referred to as Celtic or even Los Angeles Tene type. Ones bronze plaques as well as others have curvy and/or natural designs, presumably following the traditional tendril habits. It creative type prevailed inside estern European countries and that can be viewed within the art and/or architecture out of Roman villas. Areas wherein oman impact not reached, about famously, Ireland and/or Northumbria it afterwards Iron age rtisic tradition showed up afterwards and/or continued greatly within the historic duration.

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The effects of biochar and compost amendments on copper immobilization

2 February, 2016


IBI Welcomes Three New Board Members

2 February, 2016

Robert Brown is the Anson Marston Distinguished Professor of Engineering and Gary and Donna Hoover Chair in Mechanical Engineering at Iowa State University (ISU). He is the founding director of ISU’s Bioeconomy Institute. He has been recognized by Biofuels Digest as one of the “Top 100 People” in bioenergy for four consecutive years since 2010.

Kathleen Draper is the US Director for the Ithaka Institute for Carbon Intelligence, a non-profit, open source organization focused on the use of biochar in climate farming, agroforestry as well as other industrial uses of biochar. She is one of the founders and editors of the Biochar Journal and frequently writes about a wide variety of biochar research topics. She has a Master’s degree in Managing for Sustainability. Prior to becoming involved with the biochar world, she worked for an international consulting firm working on various internal and external areas including project and knowledge management, human resources, and more.

Genxing Pan is a Science Leader in the study of agriculture and climate change at Nanjing Agricultural University, China. His primary specialty is applied biogeochemistry of carbon cycling and carbon sequestration and dynamics in agro-ecosystems focusing on rice paddies of China, of which the most recent focus includes long-term monitoring of soil organic matter accumulation in agro-ecosystems. He leads an interdisciplinary group working on greenhouse gases emissions from croplands and mitigation countermeasures as well as on mitigation of climate change impacts on agriculture. Additionally, his group leads the research and technology development for biochar and specific agricultural applications.


BIOCHAR *SALE* Soil Amendment

2 February, 2016

 

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Bio Char

2 February, 2016

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Biochar-amended potting medium reduces the susceptibility of rice to root-knot nematode infections

2 February, 2016


carbon gold biochar

2 February, 2016

Impact of Biochar on Crop Yields; … Home / GroChar Soil Improver. …

Carbon Gold is the world’s leading biochar company with a range of Soil Association approved GroChar peat-free composts, soil improver and fertiliser.

Carbon Gold, a UK-based company, is working to fill what they see as a market demand for a small-scale transportable kiln that can utilize a variety of feedstocks.

Carbon Gold: Working with Cacao Farmers in Belize to Create a Rotating Biochar Production and Utilization System

Carbon Gold. 818 likes · 7 talking about this. Driving the biochar revolution! Soil Association approved, peat-free growing range for gardeners,…

This Soil Association approved Carbon Gold Biochar Seed Compost is the growing medium all seeds and gardeners alike have been waiting for; packed

Turning charcoal into Carbon Gold … to offset the damaging emissions from their flights or cars will soon be able to pay Carbon Gold to make biochar on their …

Apr 05, 2014· Locally produced biochar. Photo: Carbon Gold. Cacao seedlings in the nursery – raised in biochar-enriched soil. Photo: Carbon Gold. Carbon Gold’s …

Biochar: Black Gold or Just Another Snake Oil Scheme? by Rachel Smolker – September 18, 2013. There’s little basis for claims that biochar could solve our …

Carbon Gold was set up in 2008 by Craig Sams. Craig is the founder of Green & Black’s and the former Chairman of the UK’s Soil Association.

I am the founder of Carbon Gold Ltd., a biochar company in Bristol, England. Biochar is plant matter, wood mostly, roasted until it’s black and crumbly.

Jul 31, 2009· Image via Carbon Gold. Today the world’s first biochar methodology has been published for public consultation by the Voluntary Carbon Standard. This ground …

The carbon-rich biochar in Soil Association approved GroChar BioChar Concentrated Soil improver helps keep carbon in the soil for up to 50 years with

There is increasing evidence of the benefits to sol structure of adding BioChar to your soil, and carbon Gold are pioneers in this area. The

BIOCHAR – Agriculture’s Black Gold? Hal Collins, USDA-ARS Vegetable and Forage Crops Unit 24106 N. Bunn Rd. Prosser WA 99350 The Promise of BIOCHAR:

There is increasing evidence of the benefits to sol structure of adding BioChar to your soil, and carbon Gold are pioneers in this area. The

Craig Sams hopes to make biochar a household word. As the founder o Carbon Gold, a company that makes and sells biochar, a form of charcoal that when buried in the …

Cool Planet: can biochar fertilize soil and help … that’s gold. … – a product made from a carbon-rich substance called “biochar” that is supposed to …

Cool Planet: can biochar fertilize soil and help … that’s gold. … – a product made from a carbon-rich substance called “biochar” that is supposed to …

What’s more, Carbon Gold is incredibly resistant to decomposition. So much so, … High grade charcoal (biochar) acts as a soil supplement and carbon capture;

Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon …

Apr 08, 2013· Biochar: a slow-burn success Biochar could help you get more from your plants and save the planet at the same time. What’s the secret?

Products. Rural Tree Planting; Urban Tree Planting; Artificial Turf; Green Screens; Ground Reinforcement; Fertilisers; Soils & Growing Media; John Chambers Wildflower …

Carbon Gold Cacao Trees with Biochar produce Fruit sooner than the trees that have no Biochar. Biochar Web Seminar Oct. 31, 2014. Matt Kieffer is presenting a web …

This is the Carbon Gold techie blog. Posted on July 11, 2011 by carbongold. … Carbon Gold Biochar Kiln Blog Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, or activated coal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area …

Make the most of this offer from Carbon Gold on their biochar Soil Improver and get your trees, shrubs and fruit trees off to a great start this autumn.

This company says its microwave technology drives better gold recovery from some ores while using less energy, … and bio-char as well, and … carbon. Biochar …

Biochar sustainably increases crop yields and sequesters historical carbon dioxide emissions.

Organic chocolate manufacturer Green & Black’s is pioneering biochar, a new carbon-storage strategy. Dominic Lowe, managing director of chocolate maker Green …

The UK’s leading manufactured topsoil Green-tree is now available incorporated with Carbon Gold’s enriched biochar. Green-tree topsoil is manufactured from …

xinhai mineral processing EPC provides mine owners with one-stop services including mineral beneficiation test, mine design, etc.. Xinhai is committed to solving the problems of mineral processing plant such as budget overspending, schedule delaying, disputes of the manufacturers, etc.


Biochar as a soil improver

2 February, 2016

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Co-Pyrolysis of Biomass with Phosphate Fertilizers to Improve Biochar Carbon Retention, Slow

3 February, 2016

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Biochar

4 February, 2016

Biochar es carbón vegetal empleado como enmienda para el suelo. Como la mayoría de los carbones, biochar está hecho a partir de biomasa a través pirolisis. Biochar está bajo investigación como una forma de secuestrar carbono para producir emisiones negativas de dióxido de carbono.[1] Por lo tanto, este sistema tiene el potencial de ayudar a mitigar el cambio climático a través del secuestro de carbono.[2] [3] Biochar puede incrementar la fertilidad en suelos ácidos (suelos con bajo pH), incrementar la productividad agrícola y brindar protección contra algunas enfermedades foliares y edáficas.[4] Además, biochar ayuda a reducir la presión que se viene ejerciendo sobre los bosques.[5] Biochar es un material estable, rico en carbono, y puede perdurar en el suelo por miles de años.[1]

Se cree que los indígenas precolombinos de la Amazonia usaron biochar para mejorar la productividad de sus suelos. Lo producían aplicando combustión latente con sus desechos agrícolas (por ejemplo, cubriendo biomasa ardiente con tierra)[6] en fosas or trincheras.[7] Los colonizadores europeos lo llamaron “terra preta de indio”.[8] Siguiendo observaciones y experimentos, un equipo de investigadores en la Guayana francesa teorizaron que la lombriz de tierra amazónica Pontoscolex corethrurus era la agente principal en el proceso de pulverización e incorporación de los restos de carbón a la capa mineral del suelo.[9]

El término ‘biochar’ fue acuñado por Peter Read para definir al carbón usado como mejora del suelo.[10]

Biochar es un residuo alto en carbono y de grano fino que hoy en día es producido a través de modernos procesos de pirolisis, que es una descomposición directa de la biomasa por medio del calor y en ausencia de oxígeno, lo cual evita la combustión, para obtener una serie de productos sólidos (biochar), líquidos (biocombustible) y gaseosos (gas sintetizado). El rendimiento específico de la pirolisis depende de las condiciones del proceso, como la temperatura, y puede ser optimizado para producir tanto energía como biochar.[11] Temperaturas de 400–500 °C (752–932 °F) producen más carboncillo, mientras que temperaturas sobre 700 °C (1,292 °F) favorecen el rendimiento de los componentes líquidos y en gas para combustible.[12] La pirolisis ocurre más con temperaturas más altas, tipicamente requieren segundos en lugar de horas. Pirolisis de altas temperaturas también son conocidas como gasificación, y primordialmente producen gas sintetizado.[12] Los rendimientos típicos son 60% de biocombustible, 20% de biochar, and 20% gas sintetizado. Por comparación, pirolisis lentas pueden producir sustancialmente más carboncillo (~50%). Una vez iniciados, ambos procesos generan energía neta. Para entradas típicas, la energía requerida para correr un pirolizador ‘rápido’ es de aproximadamente el 15% de la energía que sale.[13] Plantas modernas de pirolisis pueden usar el gas sintetizado que generan por medio del mismo proceso pirolítico y sacar de 3 a 9 veces la cantidad de energía necesaria para su funcionamiento.[7]

El método amazónico de fosa y trinchera [7] no produce ni bio-combustible ni gas sintetizado y libera una gran cantidad de CO2, carbono negro, entre otros gases de invernadero (GEIs) (y potencialmente, toxinas) hacia el aire. Los sistemas a escala comercial procesan desechos agrícolas, subproductos del papel e incluso desechos municipales y típicamente eliminan estos efectos secundarios al capturar y emplear los productos líquidos y gaseosos.

En un sistema centralizado, toda la biomasa en una región es llevada a una planta central procesamiento. Alternativamente, cada agricultor o grupo de agricultores pueden operar un kiln de baja tecnología. Finalmente, un camión equipado con un pirolizador puede moverse de un lugar a otro para pirolizar biomasa. La potencia del vehículo viene de la corriente de gas sintetizado stream, mientras que el biochar permanece en la finca. El biocombustible es enviado a una refinería o sitio de almacenamiento. Factores que influencian la escogencia del tipo de sistema incluyen el costo del transporte de los subproductos sólidos y líquidos, la cantidad de material que va a ser procesado y la capacidad de alimentar directamente al tendido eléctrico.

Para cultivos que no son exclusivamente para producción de biochar, la proporción de residuo/producto (PRP) y el factor de colección (FC) -el porcentaje de residuos que no se emplean para otras cosas-, miden la cantidad aproximada de materia prima que puede ser obtenida por pirolisis tras cosechar los productos primarios. Por ejemplo, Brasil cosecha aproximadamente 460 millones de toneladas (MT) de caña de azúcar anualmente,[14] con un PRP de 0.30 y un FC de 0.70 en apices foliares de caña de azúcar que normalmente son quemados en el campo.[15] Esto traduce aproximadamente 100 MT de residuo annual que podría ser pirolizado para generar energía y crear aditivos para el suelo. Si se añadiera el bagazo (desechos de la caña) (PRP=0.29 FC=1.0), que por el contrario es ineficientemente quemado en calderas, se incrementaría el total hasta 230 MT de materia prima para pirolisis. Sin embargo, algunos residuos de las plantas deben permanecer en el suelo para evitar incremento en los costos y emisiones provenientes de los fertilizantes nitrogenados.[16]

Las tecnologías de pirolisis para procesamiento de biomasa foliar producen tanto biochar como gas sintetizado.[17]

De manera alternativa, la depolimerización termo-catalítica que utiliza microondas, recientemente ha sido usada de manera eficiente para convertir materia orgánica en biochar a escala industrial, produciendo ~50% de carboncillo.[18] [19]


1

4 February, 2016

 

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Videos

4 February, 2016

Mother Earth® Sugar Load™ Heavy Brix Molasses™ is a rich source of carbohydrate for beneficial microorganisms, making it excellent for the use in compost tea stimulation. Watch the video to learn more!

Mother Earth® BioChar is a fast and easy way to boost the performance of new soil and can improve the effectiveness of compost teas and mycorrhizial products. Watch this video to learn more about the features and benefits of Mother Earth® BioChar!


Submit an abstract to the 3rd Asia Pacific Biochar Conference

4 February, 2016

3rd Asia Pacific Biochar Conference (APBC 2016)

We are excited to announce the opening of abstract submissions for the 3rd Asia Pacific Biochar Conference entitled “A Shifting Paradigm towards Advanced Materials and Energy/Environment Research” which will be held in Gangwon province, Korea on October 19-23, 2016. The online abstract submission is now open at the website (http://apbc2016.exordo.com/login) from February 1 to March 31, 2016.

Special issues in the outstanding journals possibly including Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability will be arranged along with the APBC 2016.

• 24 special sessions are arranged.
• Abstract submission from February 1 to March 31, 2016.
• Maximum 2 abstracts for each registered author.
• Early online registration will be available from March 1, 2016.

You can visit the APBC 2016 website for more information or you can submit your abstract directly

Please kindly share this announcement with your colleagues and encourage them submitting outstanding abstract/s to the APBC 2016.

On behalf of

Conference Chairman:
Yong Sik Ok, PhD, Full Professor, Director
Honorable Ambassador of Gangwon Province
Korea Biochar Research Center
Kangwon National University, Korea

Co-Chairman:
Hailong Wang, PhD, Professor
School of Environmental and Resource Sciences
Zhejiang A & F University, China

Yoshiyuki Shinogi, PhD, Professor
Division of Agro-environmental Sciences
Kyushu University, Japan

Longbin Huang, PhD, Principal Research Fellow
Centre for Mined Land Reclamation
The University of Queensland, Australia

Zueng-Sang Chen, PhD, Chairman, Distinguished Professor
Working Group on the Remediation of Soil and Groundwater Pollution of Asian and Pacific Region
Department of Agricultural Chemistry
National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Honorable Chairman:
Johannes Lehmann, PhD, Professor (Chairman of the IBI Board)
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Cornell University, USA

Makoto Ogawa, PhD, Professor, President (Organizer of 2nd APBC)
Osaka Institute of Technology
Japan Biochar Associate, Japan

Qimei Lin, PhD, Professor (Organizer of 4th International Biochar Congress)
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences
China Agricultural University, China


The Backyard Biochar Retort Kiln

5 February, 2016


Sorption of Arsenic onto Ni/Fe Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH)

5 February, 2016

Biochar is carbon-enriched material that has being investigated for use as a remediation agent for environmental contaminants. However, in order for biochar to see practical use for metal removal, it has to be modified to improve its sorption efficiency. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are robust sorbents for removal of a wide array of contaminants. Thus, two LDH-biochar composites were produced by 1) pyrolysis of Ni/Fe-LDH-modified pine feedstock (NFMF), and 2) precipitation of LDHs onto pristine biochars (NFMB). Both composites were characterized and tested for their ability to remove arsenate [As(V)] from aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses suggested that Ni/Fe-LDH had layered structure that was anchored on the carbonaceous surface in both NFMF and NFMB. Maximum As(V) sorption capacity of NFMF and NFMB (1.56 g kg-1 and 4.38 g kg-1, respectively) was greatly enhanced over that of the unmodified one. The results, such as increased sorption at lower solution pH, indicated that electrostatic attraction and surface complexation with hydroxyl (-OH) groups were the main As(V) sorption mechanisms for both sorbents. The good stability and As(V) sorption make Ni/Fe-LDH modified biochars high-potential sorbents for environmental remediation.


Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management – Universitas Brawijaya

5 February, 2016

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Biochar

5 February, 2016

Utilization of oil palm empty bunches waste as biochar-microbes for improving availibity of soil

5 February, 2016

Universitas Brawijaya – © 2016


Before you put in a new lawn…..Add BIOCHAR

6 February, 2016

 

Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


Biochar – Amazon Secret Rediscovered

7 February, 2016

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Phd thesis on biochar, Papers on racism, Thesis for wutherin

7 February, 2016

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Cost Benefit Analysis Of The Biochar

8 February, 2016


Biochar Conference in Corvalis Aug 22-25

8 February, 2016

Many of us have greatly enjoyed past North American Biochar conferences, and now it is back and in Oregon in August. Registration opens soon, but meanwhile, you can find out more at:

http://usbi2016.org/registration/

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Flint’s water crisis, and biochar

8 February, 2016

type Exception report

message Argument ‘userAgentString’ must not be null.

description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.

exception

net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:64) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:51) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:111) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:196) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:57) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:32) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:70) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:56) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:67) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:33)

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


Biosolid and Biochar increasing tree growth article – Page 2

8 February, 2016

Ensuring the future of white-tailed deer, wildlife habitat & our hunting heritage. 1.800.209.DEER


NParks takes soil research seriously

8 February, 2016


How to grind biochar quantities?

8 February, 2016

type Exception report

message Argument ‘userAgentString’ must not be null.

description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.

exception

net.sf.qualitycheck.exception.IllegalNullArgumentException: Argument 'userAgentString' must not be null. 	net.sf.qualitycheck.Check.notNull(Check.java:2507) 	net.sf.uadetector.UserAgent$Builder.<init>(UserAgent.java:63) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:198) 	net.sf.uadetector.parser.AbstractUserAgentStringParser.parse(AbstractUserAgentStringParser.java:39) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.isOnMobileDevice(MobileStatus.java:64) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.MobileStatus.getMobileRequest(MobileStatus.java:51) 	net.jforum.context.web.WebRequestContext.<init>(WebRequestContext.java:111) 	net.jforum.JForum.service(JForum.java:196) 	javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) 	org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JForumFilter.doFilter(JForumFilter.java:57) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.JSessionIDFilter.doFilter(JSessionIDFilter.java:32) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doChain(UrlFilter.java:70) 	com.javaranch.jforum.url.UrlFilter.doFilter(UrlFilter.java:56) 	net.jforum.util.legacy.clickstream.ClickstreamFilter.doFilter(ClickstreamFilter.java:52) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.executeFilter(JpaFilter.java:59) 	net.jforum.JpaFilter.doFilter(JpaFilter.java:48) 	com.javaranch.jforum.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilter(CsrfFilter.java:67) 	net.jforum.JForumExecutionContextFilter.doFilter(JForumExecutionContextFilter.java:39) 	net.jforum.JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(JForumRequestCharacterEncodingFilter.java:33)

note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


1939 Nimbus Wood-chip-powered Motorcycle; Bio-char-Bikers’ Dream

9 February, 2016

This is a motorcycle that is fueled by a biomass gasifier. Heating biomass in a restricted supply of air produces an energy-rich gas that can be used to supply heat or to run engines.

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Biochar Market Will Grow Rapidly Owing To Enhanced Demand In Agricultural Sector Till 2022

9 February, 2016

The biochar market had 1,000 kilo ton by size in 2014 and is anticipated a steep raise over the forecast period. This is mainly due to the requirement from agriculture segment in countries like Australia, Canada, U.S., and Germany. It has the capability to augment plant growth and fertility of soil is estimated to major feature due to increasing organic food requirement and rising population globally.

Full research report on boichar market analysis:
http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/biochar-market

Biochar market is anticipated to boost in future due to rising importance in essential nutrients provided by the livestock farming. Consumption of meat in excess is going to help expand the market over the future. Project for large scale gasification is supported by the government which is expected to encourage the biochar market.

A major challenge to the growth of the market is lack of awareness of long term benefit by the consumer. Besides, technological restriction and financial obstruction are anticipated to hold-back growth of the market over the future. However, increasing requirement of organic farming and food is anticipated to unlock new path for the producers.

The market is divided into technology, applications, and regions. Revenue wise the Pyrolysis technology is anticipated quick rise at CAGR more than 11% from 2015 to 2022 due to stability, more carbon content, and more yield. It is very good technology for effectively and efficiently producing produce of good quality. Huge biomass reactors use Gasification technology for power and energy generation.

Request for sample of this research report:
http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/biochar-market/request

Technologies other than these two are acid hydrolysis, hydrothermal carbonizer, and cooking stove. In 2014, agriculture was the biggest section and had more than 85% share of the market. Poultry, cattle, and meat production farming is included in livestock farming contributing a large portion of agricultural consumption overall. Water treatment and its facilities are among the other applications.

Rising usage of biochar with superb properties of carbon carrier is going to fuel the requirement. Increasing organic food segment because of growing health concerns of consumer is anticipated to encourage requirement.

North America dominated the global market in 2014 and is anticipated to grow significantly due to rising demand of organic food along with high meat consumption. Europe followed the market with more than 24% volume. Australia is anticipated a stable growth due to increasing companies and awareness regarding advantage & benefits of the products.

Some of the major companies are Biochar Supreme, Weyerhaeuser, LLC, and Georgia-Pacific.

View more reports of this category by Grand View Research at:
http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry/agrochemicals-and-fertilizers


About Grand View Research

Grand View Research, Inc. is a U.S. based market research and consulting company, registered in the State of California and headquartered in San Francisco. The company provides syndicated research reports, customized research reports, and consulting services. To help clients make informed business decisions, we offer market intelligence studies ensuring relevant and fact-based research across a range of industries, from technology to chemicals, materials and healthcare.

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Biochar for Eucalyptus forestry plantations

10 February, 2016

Wrobel-Tobiszewska, A and Boersma, M and Adams, P and Singh, B and Franks, S and Sargison, J, Biochar for Eucalyptus forestry plantations, Acta Horticulturae, 1108 pp. 55-61. ISSN 0567-7572 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1108.7

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Massive Tree Farms May Be a Really Bad Climate Idea

10 February, 2016

 

World-wide tree plantations, soil modification or bioenergy crops could add to the planetary harm of global warming, scientist warns.

 

 

 

 

A worker lays out biochar to dry in the sun before it is packed at the Eco Fuel Africa factory in Lugazi on January 29, 2013. One way to keep carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere is to sequester it in soil by plowing biochar, a form of charcoal, into agricultural plots.

PUBLISHED Wed Feb 10 13:15:00 EST 2016

To meet the Paris climate deal’s goal of deep greenhouse gas cuts, nations appear to be relying on costly, possibly harmful large-scale projects to suck carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, says a new paper with sobering calculations of the risks.

“The Paris agreement shows where we want to go — the brave new world of a balanced carbon budget — but not how to get there,” says Phil Williamson, environmental scientist at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom and science coordinator for the U.K. government’s Natural Environment Research Council.

Williamson warned in a commentary Wednesday in Nature that even seemingly beneficial approaches like tree planting could wreak havoc if they are implemented on the massive scale required to limit the increase in average global temperature to below 2° Celsius.

“There’s a lot of optimism based on the assumption it will all be all right, because sometime in the future, we’re going to be able to remove the carbon,” Williamson said in a phone interview. “Well, that’s actually going to be more trouble and more expensive than if you face up to the problem now.” He said research is urgently needed on the consequences of these massive carbon removal projects, which he says are essentially geoengineering projects by another name.

Paris negotiators did not specifically discuss carbon removal, but Williamson argues their deal implicitly relies upon large-scale mitigation projects, because nations are not on track to cut fossil fuel burning enough to meet the pact’s targets.

For example, he offers stark numbers on the potential impact of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)—or the growing of crops, from grasses to trees, that can be burned at power stations for electricity while the carbon emitted is captured and stored. Williamson calculates that for the cuts envisioned under the Paris deal, crops solely for carbon removal would have to be planted on 430 million to 580 million hectares (1,060 million to 1,440 million acres) of land—about one third of the total arable land on the planet, or half the land area of the United States.

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Such dependence on BECCS could cause a loss of terrestrial species at the end of the century perhaps worse than the losses resulting from a temperature increase of about 2.8 °C above pre-industrial levels, Williamson wrote.

He also analyzed the possible impact of techniques to increase carbon sequestered in soil—for example, by plowing biochar, a form of charcoal, into agricultural plots. If millions of acres of soil were darkened by application of biochar—as would be required to achieve deep carbon cuts—the albedo, or reflectivity, of the soil would be reduced, increasing the Earth’s heat absorption significantly.

An alternative would be to add pulverized reflective rock-like silicate to the soil surface. But it entails a huge amount of rock. To cut 50 parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere (a 12 percent decrease from current levels), countries would need to apply one to five kilograms per square meter of silicate rock each year to as much as 45 percent of the Earth’s land surface area, mostly in the tropics, Williamson wrote. The volume of rock mined and processed would have to exceed the amount of coal currently produced worldwide, at a cost of more than $60 trillion, with environmental degradation of adjacent water systems.

Ken Caldeira, an atmospheric scientist at the Carnegie Institution for Science who has long argued for increased efforts to develop carbon removal technologies, notes that he and others who have been working on geoengineering also advocate the cutting of carbon emissions as deeply and as rapidly as is practicable. “But [we] are concerned that even our best efforts may not suffice to avoid dangerous climate change,” Caldeira said.

Indeed, in a new study published this week in Nature Climate Change, researchers at Oregon State University and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory found that the longer-term sea level rise impacts due to climate change will continue well past the 21st century. Given the long time scales of the carbon cycle, the authors said reducing emissions slightly or even significantly is not sufficient.

“To spare future generations from the worst impacts of climate change, the target must be zero – or even negative carbon emissions – as soon as possible,” said Peter Clark, Oregon State paleoclimatologist.

Caldeira said increased research into the impact of carbon dioxide removal would be a good thing, but it shouldn’t take away from investment in promising technologies such as solar power.

Williamson previously led scientific research reviews for the UN Convention on Biological Diversity on one geoengineering proposal: ocean fertilization with iron to increase its ability to store carbon. Initial optimism about that idea faded, he said, after research showed the potential costs and unintended consequences to marine life.

“If you’re a government or a policy maker, it’s always easier to put these decisions out to the future,” he said. “The risk is that then it will be too late.”

The story is part of a special series that explores energy issues. For more, visit The Great Energy Challenge.

On Twitter: Get more environment and energy coverage at NatGeoEnergy.

Comment on This Story


How to Use Biochar

10 February, 2016


Stormwater Treatment

11 February, 2016

Green infrastructures such as rain garden, green roofs, and bioinfiltration systems are increasingly being used in urban areas to harvest stormwater for reuse or groundwater replenishment, but the fate of stormwater contaminants in these systems is not well understood. In particular, it is not clear if these systems could sustainably remove contaminants during extreme events. These treatment systems are traditionally designed to increase infiltration of stormwater runoff. Although they have shown to remove some of the stormwater contaminants, many contaminants pass through the system and go on to contaminate the receiving water resource. In particular, bacteria in stormwater or urban runoff cause widespread contamination of surface water and groundwater. The study under this category aims to improve the design of bioinfiltration system to achieve better bacterial removal.

To learn more about the stormwater research conducted at the center for ReInventing the Nation’s Urban Water Infrastructure (ReNUWIt), where I worked previously, see the video below:

Collaborators:

Selected publications in this category are provided below.

Engineering solutions to improve bacterial removal from stormwater

This study examined the mechanism of bacterial removal in bioinfiltration system during intermittent infiltration of stormwater. The results show that intermittent flow can mobilize some of the attached bacteria from traditional bioinfiltration geomedia, thereby making the bioinfiltration system as a net source (instead of a sink) of bacteria. Increasing saturation and augmenting bioinfiltration geomedia with iron oxide coated sands increase removal and decrease detachment of bacteria during intermittent infiltration of stormwater, although iron oxide coated sands become ineffective in the presence of dissolved organic carbon. This work is published at Environmental Science and Technology herePDF.

Biochar for stormwater treatment: Effect of intermittent flow and dissolved organic carbon

This study examined the use of biochar—a low cost, carbonaceous engineered geomedia derived from waste biomass—to improve the bacterial removal capacity of bioinfiltration system. The results show that addition of small quantity of biochar not only improved bacterial removal capacity of bioinfiltration systems but also decreased the remobilization of the attached bacteria during intermittent infiltraiton of stormwater. Unlike iron oxide coated sand, biochar consistently removed nearly 90% of bacteria from stormwater in the presence of dissolved organic carbon. The study also revealed the mechanism of bacterial removal in biochar. This work is published at Water Research herePDF.

Biochar for stormwater treatment: Effect of infiltration rate, initial bacterial concentration, biochar particle size, and presence of compost

This work shows that bacterial removal capacity of biochar-augmented bioinfiltration systems could remain high despite increases in infiltration rate (or rainfall intensity) and bacterial loading. However, a decrease in biochar particle size and presence of compost significantly reduced bacterial removal. Thus, for biochar to be effective adsorbent, biochar size should be small, and it should be applied without compost. This work is published at Environmental Science and Technology here.  PDF.

Biochar for stormwater treatment: Effect of physical and chemical weathering

This work examined whether the bacterial removal capacity of biochar-augmented bioinfiltration systems would remain consistent as the biochar weathers during intermittent exposure to stormwater under dry-wet and freeze-thaw cycles. Biochar particles were mobilized during intermittent infiltration of stormwater, but the mobilization depended on temperature and antecedent conditions. Chemical weathering (or exposure to natural organic carbon in stormwater) decreased bacterial removal capacity of the bioinfiltration system partly due to exhaustion of attachment sites by NOM adsorption, but intermediate drying cycle helped replenish some of the attachment sites. Overall, these results indicate that physical weathering has a net positive effect on bacterial removal by biochar-augmented biofilters. This work is published at Water Research herePDF.

Acknowledgements

The studies were supported through by the U.S. National Science Foundation-funded Engineering Research Center for Re-inventing the Nation’s Urban Water Infrastructure (Grant# EEC-1028968).

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Black is Green portable biochar production unit

12 February, 2016


Result Cost Benefit Analysis Of The Biochar

13 February, 2016


Result Biochar Applications To Soil

13 February, 2016


Feeds von Blogs

13 February, 2016

Es gibt auf der Welt eine Menge von Web-Sites (oft Blogs) mit Neuigkeiten zur Biokohle. Hier bekommt man bequem einen Überblick. Angezeigt werden jeweils die drei neuesten Einträge.

Ithaka-Journal | Uni Helsinki Biochar team | Biochar Finnlnd | Energy Farmers Australia | IBI Blog | IBI Newsbrief |

Mit einem monatlichen Klima-Abo von 27 Euro pro Person könnte Deutschland klimaneutral werden. Wie das möglich wäre, haben wir nach dem Erdbeben in Nepal mit der Anlage von Waldgärten zu demonstrieren begonnen. Auch haben wir in mehreren Dörfern erdbebensichere […]

8000 Jahre lang galt fast überall auf der Welt die Fruchtbarkeit der Böden als Gabe der Götter. In China aber war es die Pflicht der Bauern, Fürsten und Beamten, die Bodenfruchtbarkeit zu schützen und zu fördern. Nur so gelang es, im am dichtesten besiedelten Land […]

Gern wird gestritten, wo die Wiege des Weines stand. In Georgien, der Türkei, China oder gar im Wallis? Doch nicht jeder Traubenkern oder Weinstein in einem Steingefäß sind schon Beweis oder auch nur Hinweis auf die Herstellung von Wein. Denn aus Trauben lassen sich noch ganz andere […]

[…]

[…]

[…]

[…]

[…]

[…]

An Austrian biochar producer Sonnenerde has been selected of all the companies in Austria as the Austrian Champion for the European Business Award. This is great success for the biochar friends worldwide!Now it is possible for everyone to vote for them and if lucky, biochar would get an […]

The field of biochar is changing rapidly and the newest developments and ideas are exchanged in conferences. I have listed a selection of both previous and upcoming conferences to this site and will try to keep this list up to date. If you know a conference that is not yet listed here, but should […]

The biochar research has grown almost exponentially within the past ten years:Similarly, the industry is growing globally (large-scale European examples being the Sonnenerde in Austria and RPK Hiili OY in Mikkeli, Finland). While Sonnenerde is already a well-known  producer of growth media, […]

This exciting piece of equipment is the kind of machinery I was envisioning a few years back.Combining heat, power and biochar production in a mobile construction is one of my long term dreams.&nbs […]

This awesome contraption chrystalizes my idea of biochar making. The mobile biochar kiln by Energy Farmers Australia […]

I don’t know this guy (yet) but he seems to have an interest in biochar just like me. Ville Karttunen, pleased to meet you. […]

Background We were approached to investigate the potential to produce macadamia shell biochar from our process. After discussions we were sent 2 bulka bags (approx. 1000kg) of macadamia shell from Queensland. Production of macadamia shell biochar was conducted on the 27/7/2015. Macadamia shell has […]

We are very pleased to announce that we have received funding from Innovation Centre WA to conduct biochar emission testing on our pyrolysis process. The biochar emissions testing is very important in the commercialisation of our technology and will provide invaluable feedback going forward. We are […]

We are pleased to announce that our application to the Northern Agricultural Catchments Council (NACC) to run biochar trials has been successful. The primary aim of the biochar trials is to demonstrate potassium response to the application of wheat straw biochar to soil in a cereal crop. Australian […]

 

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AgriChar: towards a carbon-negative agriculture University of Helsinki Biochar team

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Review Article Biochar Production From

14 February, 2016
 

Activating biochar

15 February, 2016


Gallery of Ibi Board And Advisory Committee International Biochar

15 February, 2016

© 2015 mbak venda.


review article biochar production from

16 February, 2016


Anion exchange capacity of biochar

17 February, 2016


0 comments

18 February, 2016

Mitch Andre Garcia’s Chem Feeds 2008-present

Some images have been reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry. (RSC’ RSS Policy)
Other images have been reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society. (ACS’ RSS Policy)
Few images have been reproduced with pending permission of Wiley-VCH. ()


Pollen Could Help Create New Power Source

18 February, 2016

The process involved pyrolysis, which entails heating biological material to an extent where it becomes carbon. Popular Science reports this makes the pollen become a “pollen-shaped biochar” since the material doesn’t actually combust.

Next, oxygen heats up the biochar to boost the anode’s energy storage capacity.

Bee pollen and cattail pollen were tested. The first one is comprised of different pollen types while the second variant has the same uniform shape, according to Futurity.

Results indicated these pollen anodes had a flexible charging rate. A 10-hour span caused a full charge whereas one hour initiated only half a full charge.

The scientists plan on testing these components in a functional fuel-cell battery soon. This experiment was published in the journal Scientific Reports.

View the discussion thread.


The Outside Story: To Boost Plant Growth, Growers Enrich Soils with Biochar

19 February, 2016

By Meghan McCarthy McPhaul

At this time of year, many a gardener’s daydreams turn to the springtime promise of sprouting plants. Seed catalogs start arriving in the mail months before the soil will be thawed and drained enough for planting, and we use this downtime to plan for the coming season.

At Green Fire Farm in Peacham, Vermont, Michael Low is also planning, not only for this year’s crops, but for biochar to help those crops grow. He harvests about 50 cords of low-grade wood each year on his 67-acre homestead, and turns the wood into his own version of black gold.

Biochar is charcoal used for agricultural purposes. Its advocates laud its potential to retain soil nutrients, sustain moisture levels in both drought and heavy rain conditions, and sequester carbon in the ground. For evidence of biochar’s usefulness, they point to the terra preta of the Amazon region, where biochar-enriched soils have maintained high fertility for thousands of years.

For Low, making biochar is a way to create a value-added product and to improve the productivity of the land. In early spring, when many of his neighbors are sugaring, he loads wood into his Adam retort, a brick kiln measuring four feet tall by five feet wide by nine feet long. Through the process of pyrolysis (thermochemical decomposition without oxygen), the retort gradually cooks all the moisture from the wood. Volatile gases are released and cycled back through the kiln, heating it to temperatures higher than 900 degrees. After several hours, what remains in the chamber is bone dry charcoal. As a final step, Low inoculates this biochar with a blend of microbes beneficial to soil health.

Low incorporates biochar into nearly every aspect of the farm, disking it into reclaimed pastures, working it into the soil of the vegetable gardens and fruit orchards, and adding it to the dirt around tree seedlings. He even mixes it into his animals’ fresh bedding pack. Old bedding, containing straw and biochar mixed with manure, is recycled as fertilizer.

What he can’t use, he sells. Low makes about 50 cubic yards of biochar each year, and sells about half of that under his label, Vermont Biochar. He has both local and online customers.

While Vermont Biochar is a one-man business, biochar production is being studied by a variety of interests, from commercial landscapers to large-scale farmers. For example, a multi-year study in Quebec indicated that long-term use of biochar as a soil amendment could enhance grazing plants for dairy cows, and indirectly, increase milk production. Bartlett Tree Experts, an international landscaping company with several locations in New England, has found that incorporating biochar into tree and shrub plantings seems to increase resistance to disease, improve retention of soil moisture, and prompt greater growth.

Just as there are many potential uses for biochar, there is also more than one way to make it. For example, a neighbor of Michael Low, Jock Gill, has been experimenting with pyrolysis using micro-gasifiers.

These stoves turn biomass – in Gill’s case, locally produced wood pellets – into charcoal while also producing heat for cooking. The timing of the pyrolysis process depends on the amount of pellets used. Gill generally aims for about 45 minutes – enough time to cook “whatever is on the menu.” Each cooked meal also results in about 200 grams of charcoal. Gill mixes this with 600 grams of compost, lets it all sit for a few weeks, and applies the mixture to his family’s garden beds.

Gill has what he called a “tin cannery” in his back yard, and he endeavors to share the simple usefulness of micro-gasifiers with anyone willing to learn. He has improvised pyrolysis stoves from tin cans, altered Weber grills, even large trash cans. “It’s not high-tech. It’s not dramatic,” he said about his back yard tinkering. “You can make a stove on your own, it’s useful, and you end up with a product you can use in your gardens.”


U.S.-FocUSed Biochar report

21 February, 2016


New hope for tackling ash dieback as researchers claim charcoal treatment makes trees more

21 February, 2016

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Monday 22 February 2016

A fungal disease that is strangling the life out of Britain’s 80 million ash trees could be thwarted by the discovery of a natural soil treatment.

A newly developed “enriched biochar”, which combines a purified form of charcoal with fungi, seaweed and worm casts could help ash trees resist devastating ash dieback, according to research by tree and shrub care company Bartlett Tree Experts.

A study by the company’s research labs on 2,000 established ash trees over three years in Essex found that while a third of the established trees monitored have become infected with Chalara, none of the 20 trees which had enriched biochar applied to their roots were hit.

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Chalara ash dieback, which could kill millions of ash trees, was first identified in the UK in 2012 and experts fear it could have the same devastating impact on the country’s woodlands and landscape as Dutch elm disease in the 1970s.

The threat was felt to be so grave that the government convened a Cobra meeting — normally reserved for national emergencies — to discuss the problem.

Dr Glynn Percival, head plant physiologist at the Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory, said: “While we cannot claim this to be a cure for ash dieback, we are clear that it has a beneficial impact.

“We will need to run further trials to be clear on its qualities to prevent the disease taking hold, but this is an important discovery and we believe using enriched biochar could help improve the survival prospects for the UK’s ash trees.”

He added that the biochar, which has been developed by company Carbon Gold in collaboration with Bartlett, could also have positive benefits for protecting trees from other significant diseases.

The Hymenoscyphus fraxineus fungus strips trees of their leaves or weakens them to the point where they are easily killed by other pathogens. About 90 per cent of trees die in areas where it is established.

The study, funded by Bartlett and the University of Reading, originally aimed to evaluate enriched biochar as a natural boost to tree health.

The Woodland Trust, which is involved in studies to find natural resistance to Chalara in ash trees as part of its work against the disease, said the results from the biochar trial “seemed promising”.

Nick Atkinson, conservation adviser for the Trust, said: “European ash is an important native species in the UK and we could see the loss of many millions of individual trees over the coming years, which will have a huge impact on the wildlife they support.

“Whilst there is hope that some trees will prove to be naturally tolerant to the ash dieback fungus, anything that can help stack the odds is welcome and these findings do seem promising.

“We would welcome further research to build on Dr Percival’s work, in particular to look at the effect of biochar soil amendments on mature trees, which play host to many species and cannot simply be replaced overnight.”

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Bio char Kiln Fabrication and Operation

23 February, 2016

1122 Patapsco Building | University of Maryland | College Park, MD 20742-6715


Johannes Lehmann Biochar Beyond Zero

25 February, 2016

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small biochar grinder mill

25 February, 2016

9 Jun 2011 , feasibility study researching the environmental, social and economic value of a biochar business , substrates should pass through a wood chipper and a “hammer mill” in order to create smaller piec , Chipper/Grinder,.

Methods In this study, we used a small scale mobile pyrolysis system manufactured by Biochar , Both mill residues were preprocessed prior to the conversion through chipping, grinding, and screening to less than 3-inch particle size The.

Another way to do this, which also takes care of the dust problem, is to use an immersion blender to grind it Put it in a bucketful of , Keep dropping the sledge into the drum and that will crush the biochar small in no time It does ten.

24 Nov 2011 , Forged biochar-coke is such a product and is produced in an energy efficient manner via the processes , This is advantageous in rapid intense combustion, but combustion of small particles rapidly depletes the , There wo.

7 Sep 2010 , small piec ? Re-extrusion of plastics ? Cryogenic grinding plastics to powder fillers ? Commonly used in , Bio Char Stage 3 Process Complete ?Hydrocarbon fumes can be burnt as Syngas ?Light crude contains various,.

Another way to do this, which also takes care of the dust problem, is to use an immersion blender to grind it Put it in a bucketful of , Keep dropping the sledge into the drum and that will crush the biochar small in no time It does ten.

by the addition of biochar it is still not clear whether this fully , for a network of smaller-scale or mobile pyrolysis plants to , and grinding; ? choosing from fluidised bed, rotating cone, or mechanical or centrifugal ablative pyr.

21 Dec 2014 , In Thailand and Korea, they use a small tabletop charcoal hibachi for thinly sliced meat and vegetabl , We fine-grind the char, using a coffee grinder at the last stage, reducing it to a fine, feathery powder This will.

14 Jul 2015 , Do emissions tests and compare with other small-property batch production methods like TLUDs and retorts , Too much moisture in the biochar can clog the mill when grinding, and too little causes dust Moisture content of.

6 May 2013 , Mr Gilmore, during the second section of the class, showed us his grinder that he uses to make the charcoal a uniform size for gasification , and that if is very important, we use well managed wood lots and industrial wa.

system at a sawmill to convert mill residues into biochar Our financial analysis , Forest and mill residues are a promising source of biomass feedstock for the production of bioenergy, biofuels , In this study, we used a small scale mo.

Here’s a small example: by treating your septic system as an ecosystem, can save you hundreds of dollars a year , you will have to put it in after the soap is cured: you french mill the soap, which is basically grinding it up after i.

1 Jul 2014 , Once Will and Abe bring the wood to the kiln area, it is chopped to a smaller size The kiln uses , Low and Brent use a simple chipper-shredder to grind the biochar into the perfect consistency for use in soils , effec.

grinder Bob cutting an old radio tower into smaller pieces for the new retort/kiln bean Beans at 5 weeks: without biochar on the left; with biochar on , At that time, Josiah was working with a local mill in exchange for wood to build h.

1 Aug 2014 , analyzed and published in aggregated form later this year in our 2014 State of the Biochar Industry Report The survey should , centers; assembly requires a small arc welder and circular grinder/cutter Each piece weighs.

6 Jun 2012 , Tim requested that improved process to reduce mature switchgrass and pine needles into small particles roughly 2-3 , identified for the grinding stage included a hammermill, modified blender, grain mill, and paper shredder,.

30 Mar 2013 , Here is my charcoal (biochar) crusher made from a meat grinder and a low rpm gear motor Works pretty well, and doesn’t jam up much if you use a plate with l,.

18 Jun 2008 , Plugged pug mill makes perfect biochar grinder , Grinding Biochar The Mad Generalist SubscribeSubscribedUnsubscribe 96 Loading, Loading, Working, Add to Want to watch this again later? Sign in to add this video.

I made some garden beds, some without biochar and some with[30%]about 2 months ago , not much difference in , “high speed grain mill” and belt powered “high speed mill” that should do a nice job for smaller quantiti.

CHAPTER 1 Potential of biochar to reduce anionic nutrient leaching loss from soil , relatively small amounts of carbonyl and carboxyl O, and a prominent peak at 1590 cm – 1 , which we , ground in a puck mill for two minut Dia.

This document was produced to assist in the development and testing of small pyrolysis plants and provides advice on , the main components of a pyrolysis plants include: pre-processing equipment (eg grinding, drying, chipping, siev.

16 Apr 2013 , biochar may be contained in the stable aromatic structure of the biochar, as indicated by TGA-MS, and not , aromatic structure [3,4]; however, a small fraction of biochar, especially if produced at lower , A ball mill.

In addition to a biochar production demonstration on Monday evening, you may want to come network during a first-ever Biochar , based on the feedstocks used and production temperatures; Post-pyrolysis actions, such as grinding, composting.

16 Feb 2011 , Large-scale farmers grind biochar into a powder to make it easier to apply with their machinery, but studies have , their biochar so that it’s easy to apply with their machinery, but on the small scale, crushing biocha.

The effect of biochar and crop veil on growth and yield of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentus Mill) in Jos, North central Nigeria Rahila , Data werecollected using systematic random sampling technique by creating small plots of 25 by 12.

Customer service, parts available and warranties are all important in deciding where to buy your mill, we provide them all! , Pellet Pros is offering the average person a way to produce their own pellets with our smaller pellet mills at a.

, residues, including wood chips, corn stover, rice or peanut hulls, tree bark, paper mill sludge, animal manure, and recycled organics, for instance , Gasification systems produce smaller quantities of biochar in a directly-heated rea.

12 Aug 2014 , Background: Biochar from pyrolysis of biomass amended in soils to improve nitrogen use efficiency for , for soil amendment of biochar at high rates could be challenged with cost-effectiveness for small-scale farm.

deforestation Low-cost, small-scale biochar production improves garden, farm and forest productivity, while it provides energy to cook food, dry grain or heat a greenhouse With an engine or turbine, biochar production can grind grain or m.

So I’m designing something that will grind biochar down into smaller bits Aiming for 1/4 inch or less Now, I’d like to be able to do this on a prett,.

A thread in the Sustainable Alternatives forum, titled More on Biochar, , the charcoal when it’s brought over here to grind, Josiah uses scrap from a mill that makes hardwood flooring (among other stuff) , Bob (DH) made a small.

, residues, including wood chips, corn stover, rice or peanut hulls, tree bark, paper mill sludge, animal manure, and recycled organics, for instance , Gasification systems produce smaller quantities of biochar in a directly-heated rea.

18 Jun 2008 , Plugged pug mill makes perfect biochar grinder , Grinding Biochar The Mad Generalist SubscribeSubscribedUnsubscribe 96 Loading, Loading, Working, Add to Want to watch this again later? Sign in to add this video.

Registration is OPEN, though we only have a few slots left!!! After reading through the information below, scroll down to register Biochar School Appropriate Technology for Small Farms November 7-11, Swallow Valley Farm, Valley Ford, CA,.

Learn more about its multiple benefits and what this young naturalist learned when she decided to investigate it , After the biochar was made, I crushed it into two particle sizes using a coffee grinder and sieves of 63, 250, and 2,000.

16 Feb 2011 , Large-scale farmers grind biochar into a powder to make it easier to apply with their machinery, but studies have , their biochar so that it’s easy to apply with their machinery, but on the small scale, crushing biocha.

5 Jan 2011 , Before making this grinder see Making Charcoal Grinder Analysis Shows making a mill to grind charcoal, part one Plans found at , EZ Way to Crush Biochar Prior to Innoculation – Duration: 8:01 by marthale7 1,143 views,.

, is the reduction in the average particle size of biomass through chipping, shredding, crushing and grinding in mills Communition to small particle size is necessary prior to the production of pellets and briquettes and also in some ,.

Registration is OPEN, though we only have a few slots left!!! After reading through the information below, scroll down to register Biochar School Appropriate Technology for Small Farms November 7-11, Swallow Valley Farm, Valley Ford, CA,.

Copyright © 2015. Shanghai Jieke (Jack) Machinery Co., Ltd.


Jagannath K The Natural Farmer Tropics 15 Food Forest With Biochar Hugelkultur

27 February, 2016

Discover your favorite version of Jagannath K The Natural Farmer Tropics 15 Food Forest With Biochar Hugelkultur

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Pasadena Grows: Biochar

27 February, 2016

Where else can you get this much daily news and information about Pasadena? | 101,823 monthly readers | 21,110 email subscribers | 34,627 Social Media followers

Pasadena Grows, Pasadena Public Library’s Hill Avenue Branch gardening club, will host a program on biochar on Saturday, March 5 from 10:30 a.m. to 12 noon at 55 S. Hill Avenue. Biochar, a high carbon content and porous composition helps to improve your soil, enhancing the nutrient availability and enabling the soil to retain water and nutrients longer, all while helping to combat global climate change. Participants will learn how to make it from brush and other hard-to-compost organic material.

Presented by Michael Wittman, founder of Third Planet Energy, Inc., a California biofuel company and The Blue Sky Enterprise, an alternative energy consultation and supply company.

For more information, contact Jean Penn at (626) 744-7260 or jpenn@cityofpasadena.net.

Pasadena Now has been published daily since April, 2004 and is among the very oldest continously operated community news websites in the U.S.

Pasadena Now strives to publish a full spectrum of news and information articles in service to the entire community. The publication will remain free to readers and will not erect paywalls.

Pasadena Now strives to provide factual, unbiased reporting. Our opinion section is open to all.

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Activities Done In A Paddy Field

28 February, 2016

A field study of 2 consecutive rice growing cycles. Biochar production and application from crop straw had been proposed as one effective countermeasure to mitigate climate change.

We conducted a 2- year consecutive field experiment in 2. Biochar was amended in 2.

CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2. O) were monitored with closed chamber method at 7 days interval throughout the whole rice growing season (WRGS) both in 2. The results showed that biochar amendment increased rice productivity, soil p.

H, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen but decreased soil bulk density in both cycles of rice growth. Soil respiration observed no significant difference between biochar amendment and the corresponding control both in the first and second cycle, respectively. However, biochar amendment decreased nitrous oxide emission but increased methane emission in both cycles. No significant difference in carbon intensity of rice production (GHGI) and global warming potential (GWP) were observed between the biochar amendment at the rate of 1. GWP and GHGI was increased by 3. However, in the second cycle, both of overall GWP and GHGI were observed significantly decreased under biochar amendment as compared to control, ranging from 7.

The biochar effect intensity on global warming potential were observed from −2. However, the biochar effect intensity on C intensity of rice production was observed from −1. Therefore, biochar effect on reducing the overall C intensity of rice production could become stronger in the subsequent cycles than that in the first cycle though a consistently strong effect on reducing N2. O emission in a single crop cycle after biochar amendment. Nevertheless, these effects were not found in proportional to biochar amendment rates and a high rice yield but lowest C intensity was achieved under biochar amendment at 1.

The dread day, then, having arrived, and the duke having ordered a spacious stand to be erected facing the court of the castle for the judges of the field and the. Welcome to the home of Windsong Standard Poodles. We are located in the San Francisco Bay area of California, and have had AKC registered standard poodles as members.

Copyright © 2. 01. Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

Early life and sporting achievements. Robert Blair ‘Paddy’ Mayne was born in Newtownards, County Down, the second youngest of seven children. The Mayne family were. A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice. Paddy cultivation should not be confused with cultivation of deep water rice.

Paddy field – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia”Wet rice” redirects here. For the porridge dish, see Congee. Two paddy fields in Khulna, Bangladesh.

Planting in paddy fields in Nepal. Farmer planting rice in Cambodia.

A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquaticrice. Paddy cultivation should not be confused with cultivation of deep water rice, which is grown in flooded conditions with water more than 5.

Genetic evidence shows that all forms of paddy rice, both indica and japonica, spring from a domestication of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon that first occurred 8,2. South of the Yangtze River in present- day China.[1] However, the domesticated indica subspecies currently appears to be a product of the introgression of favorable alleles from japonica at a later date, so that there are possibly several events of cultivation and domestication.[2] Paddy fields are the typical feature of rice farming in east, south and southeast Asia. Fields can be built into steep hillsides as terraces and adjacent to depressed or steeply sloped features such as rivers or marshes. They can require a great deal of labor and materials to create, and need large quantities of water for irrigation. Oxen and water buffalo, adapted for life in wetlands, are important working animals used extensively in paddy field farming.

During the 2. 0th century, paddy- field farming became the dominant form of growing rice. Hill tribes of Thailand still cultivate dry- soil varieties called upland rice.[3] Paddy field farming is practiced in Cambodia, Bangladesh, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos, Northern Italy, the Camargue in France,[4] the Artibonite Valley in Haiti, and Sacramento Valley in California. Paddy fields are a major source of atmospheric methane and have been estimated to contribute in the range of 5. Studies have shown that this can be significantly reduced while also boosting crop yield by draining the paddies to allow the soil to aerate to interrupt methane production.[7] Studies have also shown the variability in assessment of methane emission using local, regional and global factors and calling for better inventorisation based on micro level data.[8]The word “paddy” is derived from the Malay word padi, rice plant.[9]History[edit]. Paddy and Hay in Mysore, India.

Business Analytics Team the analytical heartbeat of Paddy Power Online Business Analytics team: the analytical heartbeat of Paddy Power Online.

Archaeologists generally accept that wet- field cultivation originated in China. The earliest paddy field found, dates to 6.

BP (Before Present) or c. BCE, based on carbon dating of grains of rice and soil organic matter found at the Chaodun site in Kunshan County.[1. At Caoxieshan, a site of the Neolithic Majiabang culture, archaeologists excavated paddy fields.[1.

Some archaeologists claim that Caoxieshan may date to 4. BC.[1. 2][1. 3] There is archaeological evidence, that unhusked rice was stored for the military and for burial with the deceased, from the Neolithic period to the Han Dynasty in China.[1. There are ten archaeologically excavated rice paddy fields in Korea. The two oldest are the Okhyun and Yaumdong sites, found in Ulsan, dating to the early Mumun pottery period.[1.

Paddy field farming goes back thousands of years in Korea. A pit- house at the Daecheon- ni site yielded carbonized rice grains and radiocarbon dates, indicating that rice cultivation in dry- fields may have begun as early as the Middle Jeulmun Pottery Period (c. BC) in the Korean Peninsula.[1. Ancient paddy fields have been carefully unearthed in Korea by institutes such as Kyungnam University Museum (KUM) of Masan. They excavated paddy field features at the Geumcheon- ni Site near Miryang, South Gyeongsang Province.

The paddy field feature was found next to a pit- house that is dated to the latter part of the Early Mumun Pottery Period (c. BC). KUM has conducted excavations, that have revealed similarly dated paddy field features, at Yaeum- dong and Okhyeon, in modern- day Ulsan.[1. The earliest Mumun features were usually located in low- lying narrow gullies, that were naturally swampy and fed by the local stream system. Some Mumun paddy fields in flat areas were made of a series of squares and rectangles, separated by bunds approximately 1. Mumun Period rice farmers used all of the elements that are present in today’s paddy fields, such as terracing, bunds, canals, and small reservoirs. We can grasp some paddy- field farming techniques of the Middle Mumun (c.

BC), from the well- preserved wooden tools excavated from archaeological rice fields at the Majeon- ni Site. However, iron tools for paddy- field farming were not introduced until sometime after 2. BC. The spatial scale of paddy- fields increased, with the regular use of iron tools, in the Three Kingdoms of Korea Period (c.

AD 3. 00/4. 00- 6. The first paddy fields in Japan date to the Early Yayoi period [3. BC – 2. 50 AD].[2. The Early Yayoi has been re- dated, and it appears that wet- field agriculture developed at approximately the same time as in the Korean peninsula.[citation needed]Philippines[edit]In the Philippines, the use of rice paddies can be traced to prehistoric times, as evidenced in the names of towns such as Pila, Laguna, whose name can be traced to the straight mounds of dirt that form the boundaries of the rice paddy, or “Pilapil.”[2. New Activate Windows 7 Crack 2016 – Download and Reviews 2016.

Vietnam[edit]Wet rice cultivation in Vietnam dates back to the Neolithic Hoa Binh culture and Bac Son culture.[2. Culture[edit]Top 2. China. 20. 4. 3. India. Indonesia. 69. 0. Vietnam. 43. 7. Thailand. Bangladesh. 33. 9. Myanmar. 33. 0. Philippines.

Brazil. 11. 5. Japan. Pakistan. 9. 4. Cambodia. United States. 9. Korea. 6. 4. Egypt. Nepal. 5. 1. Nigeria. Madagascar. 4. 0. Sri Lanka. 3. 8. Laos.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization. Although China’s agricultural output is the largest in the world, only about 1. About 7. 5% of the cultivated area is used for food crops. Rice is China’s most important crop, raised on about 2.

Most rice is grown south of the Huai River, in the Yangtze valley, the Zhu Jiang delta, and in Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan provinces. Rice appears to have been used by the Early Neolithic populations of Lijiacun and Yunchanyan in China.[2. Evidence of possible rice cultivation from ca.

BP has been found, however it is still questioned whether the rice was indeed being cultivated, or instead being gathered as wild rice.[2. Bruce Smith, an archaeologist at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C., who has written on the origins of agriculture, says that evidence has been mounting that the Yangtze was probably the site of the earliest rice cultivation.[2. In 1. 99. 8, Crawford & Shen reported that the earliest of 1. AMS or radiocarbon dates on rice from at least nine Early to Middle Neolithic sites is no older than 7. BC, that rice from the Hemudu and Luojiajiao sites indicates that rice domestication likely began before 5.

BC, but that most sites in China from which rice remains have been recovered are younger than 5. BC.[2. 4]During the Spring and Autumn Period (7. BC), two revolutionary improvements in farming technology took place.

One was the use of cast iron tools and beasts of burden to pull plows, and the other was the large- scale harnessing of rivers and development of water conservation projects. Sunshu Ao of the 6th century BC and Ximen Bao of the 5th century BC are two of the earliest hydraulic engineers from China, and their works were focused upon improving irrigation systems.[2. These developments were widely spread during the ensuing Warring States period (4. BC), culminating in the enormous Du Jiang Yan Irrigation System engineered by Li Bing by 2. BC for the State of Qin in ancient Sichuan. During the Eastern Jin (3. Northern and Southern Dynasties (4.

In circa 7. 50, 7. China’s population lived north of the river Yangtse, but by 1. China’s population lived south of the river Yangtse. Such large- scale internal migration was possible due to introduction of quick- ripening strains of rice from Vietnam suitable for multi- cropping.[2.

Localities in China which are famous for their spectacular rice paddies are Yuanyang County, Yunnan, and Longsheng County, Guangxi. India has the largest paddy output in the world and is also the fourth largest exporter of rice in the world. In India, West Bengal is the largest rice producing state.[2. Paddy fields are a common sight throughout India, both in the northern gangetic plains and the southern peninsular plateaus.

Paddy is cultivated at least twice a year in most parts of India, the two seasons being known as Rabi and Kharif respectively. The former cultivation is dependent on irrigation, while the latter depends on Monsoon. The paddy cultivation plays a major role in socio- cultural life of rural India. Many festivals such as Onam in Kerala, Bihu in Assam, Sankranthi in Andhra Pradesh, Thai Pongal In Tamil Nadu, Makar Sankranti in Karnataka, Nabanna in West Bengal celebrates harvest of Paddy. Kaveri delta region of Thanjavur is historically known as the rice bowl of Tamil Nadu and Kuttanadu is called the rice bowl of Kerala. Indonesia[edit]Water buffalos were formerly used to plough muddy paddy fields in Indonesia although the use of mechanised methods, such as small powered ploughs, has become much more common in recent years. Prime Javanese paddy yields roughly 6 metric tons of unmilled rice (2.

When irrigation is available, rice farmers typically plant Green Revolution rice varieties allowing three growing seasons per year. Since fertilizer and pesticide are relatively expensive inputs, farmers typically plant seeds in a very small plot. Three weeks following germination, the 6–8 inch stalks are picked and replanted at greater separation, in a backbreaking manual procedure. Rice harvesting in Central Java is often performed not by owners or sharecroppers of paddy, but rather by itinerant middlemen, whose small firms specialize in harvesting, transport, milling, and distribution to markets.


Biochar The Science Behind The Hype

29 February, 2016


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