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Biochar Market Overview, Segmentation & Competitive Landscape by Focusing On Top Key …

1 January, 2018
 

The report, titled “Global Biochar Market.” The report on the global market offers an elaborate assessment of key drivers and restraints, emerging trends, notable opportunities, prominent business use cases, and recent technological advancements. The research presents a thorough insight into the market share and size of various types of lucrative avenues, and competitive landscape.

This report studies Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2012 to 2017, and forecast to 2022.

Top Key Vendors:

Biogrow Limited,Biochar Farms,Anulekh,GreenBack,Carbon Fertilizer,Global Harvest Organics LLC

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The report offers a fundamental overview of the Global Biochar Market. It includes definitions, product specifications, classification, and applications of the global market. The study also comprises an industry chain analysis and an industry overview of the major regions and their status in the global market.

The next section of the report analyzes the development plans and policies, manufacturing process, and product cost structure of the Biochar market. The report specifically focuses on the leading regions and manufacturers engaged in the production of consumer devices along with the analysis of the competitive landscape, development trends, and prime regions status of development. The report also contains information such as company profiles, product specification and picture, production capacity, cost, revenue, and gross profit margin.

The report profiles the key market players which are dominant in the global Biochar market. It also provides essential information about leading companies, such as product specification, financial overview, business overview, contact information, and recent developments. The list of figures provided in the table of content has mentioned all of the statistical representations of the market offered in the report.

On the basis of geographical regions, the Global Biochar Market is segmented broadly into Latin America, Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Asia Pacific. The global market is still in its exploratory stage in most of the regions but it holds the promising potential to flourish steadily in coming years. The major companies investing in this market are situated in Canada, U.K., and the US, India, China and some more countries of Asia Pacific region. Consequently, Asia Pacific, North America, and Western Europe are estimated to hold more than half of the market shares, collectively in coming years.

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The research report profiles the players and offers a detailed report about the competitive landscape present in the global Biochar market. Additionally, the report also includes a Porter’s five forces analysis, which examines the threat of the new entrants, the bargaining power of buyers and suppliers, and the intensity of the competitive rivalry. The report also discusses the business and marketing strategies likely to be implemented by these in the coming few years.

In the concluding divisions of the report, the manufacturers responsible for increasing the sales in the ­ Biochar Market have been presented. These manufacturers have been analyzed in terms of their manufacturing base, basic information, and competitors. In addition, the technology and product type introduced by each of these manufacturers also form a key part of this section of the report.

Table of Content:

Global Biochar Market Research Report 2017-2022

Chapter 1 Global Biochar Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact

Chapter 3 Competition by Manufacturer

Chapter 4 Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2017-2022)

Chapter 5 Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2017-2022)

Chapter 6 Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Market Forecast (2017-2022)

Chapter 13 Appendix

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Application of biochar to sewage sludge reduces toxicity and improve organisms growth in sewage …

1 January, 2018
 

Impact of co-application of biochar with sewage sludge to soil on toxicity was investigated.

Application of biochar to sewage sludge increased the immobilization of nutrients in soil.

Application of biochar to sewage sludge reduced toxicity of sludge-amended soil.

Impact of co-application of biochar with sewage sludge to soil on toxicity was investigated.

Application of biochar to sewage sludge increased the immobilization of nutrients in soil.

Application of biochar to sewage sludge reduced toxicity of sludge-amended soil.

The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the physicochemical properties and toxicity of soil amended with sewage sludge (10 tdw/ha) or sewage sludge (10 tdw/ha) with biochar addition (2.5, 5 or 10% of sewage sludge). The study was carried out as a field experiment over a period of 18 months. Samples for analysis were taken at the beginning of the experiment as well as after 6, 12 and 18 months. The study investigated toxicity of the unamended soil, sewage sludge-amended soil and sewage sludge-amended soil with biochar addition towards Folsomia candida (collembolan test) and Lepidium sativum (Phytotoxkit F). Moreover, toxicity of aqueous extracts obtained from the tested soils towards Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®) and Lepidium sativum (elongation test) was determined.

The study showed that addition of biochar to the sewage sludge and soil reduced leaching of nutrients (mainly phosphorus and potassium) from the amended soil. Biochar significantly reduced sewage sludge toxicity, exhibiting a stimulating effect on the tested organisms. The stimulating effect of biochar addition to the sewage sludge persisted throughout the entire experiment. Apart from the remediatory character of biochar, this is also evidence of its fertilizing character. In the tests with L. sativum (leachates and solid phase) and V. fischeri (leachates), increasing the rate of biochar in the sewage sludge increased root growth stimulation (L. sativum) and bacteria luminescence (V. fischeri). However, increasing biochar rate decreased F. candida reproduction stimulation, which could have been an effect of reduced nutrient bioavailability due to the biochar.

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Ad hoc biochar kiln using a bath tub

1 January, 2018
 

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exception

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note The full stack trace of the root cause is available in the Apache Tomcat/7.0.57 logs.


Soil Reef Gardeners Blend. Ready To Use Biochar Blend. The #1 Selling Biochar Brand On The …

1 January, 2018
 

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Activated Carbon Market Growth Analysis, Share, Demand by Regions, Types and Analysis of Key …

2 January, 2018
 

Activated Carbon Market 2022 presents critical information and factual data about the Europe Activated Carbon Market, providing an overall statistical study of this market on the basis of market drivers, market limitations, and its future prospects.

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbon activates, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. Activated is sometimes substituted with active. Due to its high degree of micro porosity, just one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 500 m2, as determined by gas adsorption. An activation level sufficient for useful application may be attained solely from high surface area; however, further chemical treatment often enhances adsorption properties. Activated charcoal is considered to be the most effective single agent available Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal and increasingly, high-porosity bio char.

Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers: Calgon Carbon Corporation, Cabot(Norit), CECA, Jacobi Carbons (OSAKA GAS), Carbotech, Ingevity (MWV), Donau Chemie Group, CPL Carbon Link, KURARY, Silcarbon Aktivkohle, Eurocarb, Sorbent, EUROQUARZ    And More……

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Scope of the Report:

This report focuses on the Activated Carbon in Europe market, especially in Germany, UK, France, Russia, and Italy. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, countries, type and application.

Activated Carbon Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers

Activated Carbon Market Segment by Type, covers: Powdered Activated Carbon, Granular Activated Carbon, Extruded Activated Carbon, Other

Activated Carbon Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into:  Water Treatment, Industrial Processes , Food & Beverage, Pharma, Other

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Key questions answered in the report:

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2 January, 2018
 

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Biochar-based potting soil recipe

2 January, 2018
 

By Kai Hoffman-Krull

An article in the January 2018 issue of Growing for Market references the author’s biochar-based potting mix. Here’s the recipe.

We and one other farm on Waldron Island, Washingon, called Nootka Rose, have been experimenting with using biochar in our seed-starting soil. We’re finding that it can make up to about a quarter of our mix. We got our mix from Nootka Rose, so here it is:

For the fertilizer, we use:

For the worm castings made up of 1/3 biochar, the char is added to the worm bin. So 1/3 of the material going into the bin is char. You need to keep supplying them with plenty of food, as they don’t eat the char, but the char serves as a great medium for the worms to move around in, and keeps the worm castings from getting slimy.

Being able to make a quarter of our potting soil from our forest has been a financial game-changer for us, and is providing a truly quality product. And it only takes one burn to make all the charcoal you’d ever need for a spring planting season. The best part—you get to go hang out by a huge fire a few times each winter. A bonfire is not the worst way to spend a cold day.

Kai Hoffman-Krull runs a market garden with his wife Sarah on Waldron Island, located in the San Juans off the coast of Washington State. Starting with raw forested land four years ago, they integrate vegetable and fruit cultivation with wild foraging to supply their farmers market stand and restaurant accounts on neighboring islands. Kai studied soil science at the Yale Farm and Forestry School, and served as a manager of the Yale Farm from 2010-2012. He spends most of his current days developing the farmstead’s water system, building structures, and knowing he should care more about weeding.

 

For the link to an article about the author’s participation in an on-farm trial of biochar, click here.

For the author’s article about making and using biochar, see the January 2018 issue of Growing for Market.

Copyright Tomatero Publications Inc. All rights reserved. No portion of this article may be copied in any manner for use other than by the subscriber without permission from the publisher. 


Granular Biochar Market Trends & Forecast to 2023- Industry Analysis by Geographical Regions …

2 January, 2018
 

Granular Biochar Market Status and Trend Report offers a comprehensive analysis and an exhaustive analysis of the existing state of the Granular Biochar industry. The report starts with a basic Granular Biochar market overview. In this introductory section, the report incorporates analysis of definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure.

Granular Biochar Market: Type wise segment: –

Wood Source Biochar
Corn Source Biochar
Wheat Source Biochar
Rice Source Biochar
Others

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Granular Biochar Market: Applications wise segment: –

Animal Husbandry
Soil Improvement
Environmental Protection
Energy Production
Industrial Applications

Granular Biochar Market Segment by Manufacturers: —

Diacarbon Energy
Agri-Tech Producers
Biochar Now
Carbon Gold
Kina
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
ElementC6
BioChar Products

….and more

A complete analysis of the competitive landscape of the Granular Biochar market is provided in the report. This section includes company profiles of market key players. The profiles include contact information, gross, capacity, product details of each firm, price, and cost are covered.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Report at:  https://www.absolutereports.com/11391469

Granular Biochar market research report sheds light on Foremost Regions like:

— North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)

— Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia, Spain and Benelux)

— Asia Pacific (China, Japan, India, Southeast Asia and Australia)

— Latin America (Brazil, Argentina and Colombia)

— Middle East and Africa

Key questions answered in Granular Biochar Market Report include:

Analysis of Price, Cost, Gross Margin:

This section of the Granular Biochar market report includes analysis of gross margin, cost and price.

No. of Pages: 156

Price of Report: $3680 (Single User License)

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Biochar Marketing Strategy

2 January, 2018
 

Biochar Market is predicted to discover Vigorous Growth by 2021. This report focuses on the leading key players with global perspective with a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biochar Industry. Global Biochar market research report of 111 Pages provides important market strategies and Latest trends with discussion of market consumption, major drivers, restraints and market share forecasted to 2021

The Biochar market report includes the forecasts, analysis and discussion of important industry trends, market size, market share estimates and profiles of the leading industry players.

Browse TOC and Charts & Tables of Biochar Market Research Report available at- https://www.absolutereports.com/10723205   

Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.

Key Players Leading Biochar Market Worldwide:

Biochar Market Split by Product Application:

Biochar Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with sales (consumption), revenue, market share and growth rate like: USA, Europe Union, Japan, China, India, South East Asia.

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Further, Biochar Market report also takes into account the past price of 2011-2021 and future price of 2016-2021 as per the supply-demand relation along with perspectives and Biochar market forecasts. Additionally, the Biochar Market report also discusses the data on deals (distributors) and buyers, providing a holistic insight into the supply chain and sales details of Biochar Market.

Major Table of Contents Covered in Biochar Market Report (2011-2021): By Product Type, Market, Players and Regions-Forecast to 2021

Chapter 1 About the Biochar Industry 
1.1 Industry Definition and Types
1.1.1 Wet Scrubber
1.1.2 Other
1.2 Main Market Activities
1.3 Similar Industries
1.4 Industry at a Glance

Chapter 2 World Market Competition Landscape
2.1 Biochar Markets by Regions
2.1.1 Region Name
2.1.2 Market Revenue (M USD) and Growth Rate 2011-20212.1.3 Sales and Growth Rate 2011-2021
2.1.4 Major Players Revenue (M USD) in 2016
2.2 World Biochar Market Analysis
2.2.1 World Biochar Market Revenue and Growth Rate 2011-2016
2.2.2 World Biochar Market Consumption and Growth rate 2011-2016
2.2.3 World Biochar Market Price Analysis 2011-2016

Chapter 3 World Biochar Market share
3.1 Major Production Market share by Players
3.2 Major Revenue (M USD) Market share by Players
3.3 Major Production Market share by Regions in 2016, Through 2021
3.4 Major Revenue (M USD) Market share By Regions in 2016, Through 2021

Chapter 4 Supply Chain Analysis
4.1 Industry Supply chain Analysis
4.2 Raw material Market Analysis
4.2.1 Raw material Prices Analysis 2012-2016
4.2.2 Raw material Supply Market Analysis
4.2 Manufacturing Equipment Suppliers Analysis
4.3 Production Process Analysis
4.4 Production Cost Structure Benchmarks
4.5 End users Market Analysis
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Chapter 5 Company Profiles
5.1 Company Name
5.1.1 Company Details (Foundation Year, Employee Strength and etc.)
5.1.2 Product Information (Picture, Specifications and Applications)
5.1.3 Revenue (M USD), Price and Operating Profits

Chapter 6 Globalisation & Trade
6.1 Business Locations
6.2 Supply channels
6.3 Marketing strategy
6.4 Barriers to Entry

Chapter 7 Distributors and Customers
7.1 Major Distributors and contact information by Regions
7.2 Major Customers and contact information by Regions

Chapter 8 Import, Export, Consumption and Consumption Value by Major Countries
8.1 USA
8.2 Germany
8.3 China
8.4 Japan
8.5 India

Chapter 9 World Biochar Market Forecast through 2021
9.1 World Biochar Demand by Regions Forecast through 2021
9.2 World Biochar Price(by Regions, Types, Applications)Analysis Forecast through 2021
9.3 World Biochar Revenue (M USD)(by Regions, Types, Applications) Forecast through 2021
9.4 World Biochar Market Analysis
9.4.1 World Biochar Market Revenue and Growth Rate 2011-2016
9.4.2 World Biochar Market Consumption and Growth rate 2011-2016
9.4.3 World Biochar Market Price Analysis 2011-2016

And Continued…

In the end, World Biochar market research report provides important market strategies and Latest trends with discussion of market Globalisation & Trade, Competition Landscape, Distributors and market share along with future prospects till 2021

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Social-Spider Optimization Algorithm for Improving ANFIS to Predict Biochar Yield

2 January, 2018
 


Social-spider optimization algorithm for improving ANFIS to predict biochar yield

2 January, 2018
 


Biochar production and applications in soil fertility and carbon sequestration

3 January, 2018
 

 


Agenda for technical sessions of 2018 IBCE released

3 January, 2018
 

BBI International recently announced the agenda for the technical sessions of the 11th annual International Biomass Conference & Expo, North America’s largest and fastest growing biomass conference, taking place April 16-18 at the Cobb Galleria Centre in Atlanta, Georgia. The 2018 agenda—featuring four comprehensive tracks—is tightly focused on leading edge developments in the biomass industry, from feedstock cultivation, harvest and storage to conversion technology, project finance and regulatory guidance.

The 2018 main program will include nearly 30 panels and more than 100 speakers, including 90 technical presentations, all within the structured framework of four informative tracks:

Track 1: Pellets & Densified Biomass
Track 2: Biomass Power & Thermal
Track 3: Biogas & Waste-to-Energy
Track 4: Advanced Biofuels & Biobased Chemicals

“The International Biomass Conference & Expo has set the high expectation of covering all things biomass in a large number of sessions presented by industry leaders. This year’s agenda is no different. Whether attendees manage a biomass boiler that serves a couple of buildings or they broker cargo vessels full of wood pellets, there are panel discussions they’ll find valuable,” says Tim Portz, vice president of content for BBI International. “We’re always excited to begin the proceedings at the International Biomass Conference & Expo with a conversation with biomass association executives. This has become a tradition our attendees count on every year. I think this year will find interest in the discussion at an all-time high as conference attendees will want to hear where the industry is moving based on decisions put in place by the current administration.”   

BBI International also announced one of two pre-conference events taking place on April 16, titled the Biomass Carbonization & Torrefaction Summit.  The Summit is a one-day, intensive conversation about the promise of upgrading biomass streams via torrefaction or the production of biochar and the markets that await the developers and producers who can scale-up and efficiently manufacture commercial volumes of these products. Attendees can expect conversations about downstream energy markets and the program’s inclusion of biochar will introduce new market segments to a biomass audience more familiar with traditional power or heat markets.

The second pre-conference event will focus on material handling and will include a shared tradeshow with the Biomass Carbonization & Torrifaction Summit during April 16.

To view the technical session agenda for the International Biomass Conference & Expo, visit www.BiomassConference.com.

 

 


Biochar Market Supply, Consumption, Cost and Profit analysis and forecast to 2022

3 January, 2018
 

Biochar Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biochar Industry. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process of whole Enterprise Biochar market.

Short Detail About Biochar Market Report: “Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.”

Top Manufacturer Included in Biochar Market:  Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6 , BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra, Pacific Biochar, Vega Biofuels, Liaoning Jinhefu Group, Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy, Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology, Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)     And More……

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Biochar Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers:  North America (USA, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy),Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia),South America, Middle East and Africa

Biochar Market Segment by Type, covers: Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar

Biochar Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into: Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

Scope of the Biochar Market Report: This report focuses on the Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Biochar Market Research Report @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/10385329   

Key questions answered in the report:

The Biochar market analysis report speaks about the growth rate of Biochar market in 2022 manufacturing process, key factors driving the Global Biochar market, sales, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Biochar Market, distributors, traders and dealers of Biochar Market.

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Next part of Biochar Market Research Report contains additional information like key vendors in Biochar Market space, Biochar Market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the Global Biochar Market, opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Biochar Market. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process.

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Biochar Market – Overall Progression Of Industry & Forecast 2017

3 January, 2018
 

Global Biochar Market: Snapshot

The global biochar market is observing a significantly high rise in its valuation, thanks to the increasing preference for organic food among consumers across the world. The ability of biochar to improve the fertility of soil and enhance the growth of plants has surfaced as the main factor behind the growth of this market. Currently, synthetic and several other bio-based fertilizers are dominating the agricultural scenario, globally. However, the awareness about the benefits of biochar is spreading gradually among farmers and agriculturists, thereby, creating massive opportunities for further growth of this market in the coming years.

The global market for biochar includes both organized and unorganized manufacturers of biochar. Emerging countries, such as Japan, Brazil, China, and Mexico report of a prominent amount of biochar production from the unorganized sector, primarily manufactured by villagers in association with research institutes and various non-governmental support groups. However, the number of the organized players is anticipated to increase substantially in these countries over the next few years, thanks to the escalating demand for organic food, worldwide.

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The full potential of biochar is yet to be realized in the agricultural sector and is projected to surface as a particularly important factor in the overall progression of the food sector in the near future. Water treatment is projected to emerge as an important application area of biochar in the years to come, especially in developing economies.

Global Biochar Market: Overview

Biochar is a time-honored soil amendment practice and also a fine solution to climate change effects. Regions with insufficient supply of chemical fertilizers, organic resources, and water can significantly benefit from this highly porous and fine-grained charcoal. Along with bioenergy, it can displace fossil fuel usage and sequester carbon in well-balanced soil carbon pools to tackle climate change. Biochar has won worldwide appreciation for its unique soil enhancing properties with the widespread prominence of the Amazon’s biochar-rich dark lands.

Global Biochar Market: Key Trends

With a substantial rise in population size, organic food has drew in a lot of demand, owing to which the biochar market is expected to invite a handsome growth. The credit for this growth could be given to biochar’s propensity for improving plant development and soil fertility. The improving agricultural industry in different nations such as Australia, Germany, Canada, and the U.S. is anticipated to aggravate the demand for biochar. As a result, the global market is predicted to record a healthy growth over the coming years.

Large-scale gasification projects receiving support from Europe and North America governments and the increasing performance of organic farming are projected to put the world biochar market is a good position. The rise in meat consumption and growing significance of biochar in livestock farming benefiting with key nutrients are forecasted to set the tone for the market.

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The growth in the global biochar market could be impeded on account of technological and financial barriers. Besides this, the ignorance of consumers on the part of biochar’s long-term advantages is foretold to delay the market growth. Howbeit, a considerable expansion of the market is expected to occur as organic food and farming open up new opportunities.

Global Biochar Market: Market Potential

Biochar possesses a massive potential to reduce the proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, in fact, virtually every greenhouse emission. This could be an epic breakthrough in the elimination of climate-warming black carbon. Capable of enduring the test of time for survival, this super charcoal can sequester carbon dioxide many times longer than trees. For producers which operate in areas where labor cost is economical but maintenance expenditure is large, biochar production could be ideal. This is because of the simple and low-priced equipment required to convert soy hay and other wastes into biochar. In a way, the biochar market is deemed to be a great medium to minimize the gap between smart business and smart environmentalism.

Global Biochar Market: Regional Outlook

The biochar sector is envisaged to be developed at a telling rate on the back of regions such as Europe and North America, registering an elevating rise in the count of small and medium scale manufacturers. A steady progress is foreseen to be witnessed by Australia as the awareness about the advantages and benefits of biochar escalates across the country. Followed by Europe, North America is prognosticated to record a dominant share in the global biochar market. Producers of biochar can also find opportunities in other markets such as Asia Pacific and Rest of the World.

Global Biochar Market: Competitive Landscape

Players in the biochar market receive support from companies supplying pyrolysis technology and wood pellets and residue. Phoenix Energy, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis, and 3R ENVIRO TECH Group are some of the top firms involved in the pyrolysis technology business. Wood pellets and residue are primarily provided by timber businesses such as West Fraser, Georgia-Pacific, and Weyerhaeuser. Out of the prominent biochar players in the international market, Biochar Supreme, LLC is prophesied to make the cut. The analysts anticipate the market to own a fragmented character.

Read Comprehensive Overview of Report @

https://www.tmrresearch.com/biochar-market

The study presents reliable qualitative and quantitative insights into:

Market segments and sub-segments

Market trends and dynamics

Supply and demand chain of the market

Market valuation (revenue and/or volume)

Key trends/opportunities/challenges

Forces defining present and estimated future state of the competitive landscape

Technological developments

Value chain and stakeholder analysis

The regional analysis covers:

North America

Latin America

Europe

Asia Pacific

Middle East and Africa

The vast market research data included in the study is the result of extensive primary and secondary research activities. Surveys, personal interviews, and inputs from industry experts form the crux of primary research activities and data collected from trade journals, industry databases, and reputable paid sources form the basis of secondary research. The report also includes a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the market, with the help of information collected from market participants operating across key sectors of the market value chain. A separate analysis of macro- and micro-economic aspects, regulations, and trends influencing the overall development of the market is also included in the report.

Highlights of the report:

A detailed analysis of key segments of the market

Recent developments in the market’s competitive landscape

Detailed analysis of market segments up to second or third level of segmentation

Historical, current, and projected future valuation of the market in terms of revenue and/or volume

Key business strategies adopted by influential market vendors

Outline of the regulatory framework surrounding and governing numerous aspects of the market

Growth opportunities in emerging and established markets

Recommendations to market players to stay ahead of the competition

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Biochar Market Features, Grow Pricing, Resources and Revenue to 2025

3 January, 2018
 

The global market for biochar is its nascent stages. However, this condition is not forecasted to demotivate its shareholders in terms of generating revenues. The market is projected to present lot of opportunities on account of its wide range of applications in fields of remediation of greenhouse gases, soil amendment, and production of energy. Some of the key players in the global market for bichar include names such as Vega Biofuels, Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd, Phoenix Energy, Biochar Supreme LLC, Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Full Circle Biochar, Diacarbon Energy Inc., Genesis Industries LLC, Earth Systems Bioenergy, Pacific Biochar, CharGrow, LLC, and Cool Planet Energy Systems. In a recent development, a company based out in Kansas, Smart Terra Care, is trying to acquire a site at Warren County to set up a plant that would be able to produce thermally treated biochar from municipal sewage sludge, food and wood scraps, and waste from paper manufacturing. The representative of the company met with the authorities from the Warren Washington Counties Industrial Development Agency with a proposal of project worth US$12 million.

The global market for biochar is expected reach an overall valuation of US$14.751 bn by the end of year 2025. This growth of the market is a significant jump from an initial valuation of mere US$444.2 thousand in the year 2016. This growth of the global market for biochar is expected to be achieved with the help of an impressive CAGR of 14.5% over the course of the given forecast period of 2017 to 2025. Numerous universities such as Aberystwyth University, Federal Rural University of Amazon, Massey University, and University of East Anglia are among the top institutes that are working towards the activities of research and development pertaining the production of biochar and may even redefine the overall future of the global market in the coming years of the forecast period. As far as the contribution of the domestic players in the overall international market is concerned, the high concentration of producers can be found in North America. These small companies in the region are completely embedded into the overall value chain of the regional biochar market, starting from the stage of production to the commercialization.

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What Factors are Propelling Growth of Global Biochar Market?

The global market for biochar is gaining a lot of attraction due to number of factors such as its increasing sue for enhancing the condition of soil and the growing demand for organic food all across the globe. In addition to this, strict regulations imposed by governments for the preservation of soil and the advantages of waste management are also some of the other key factors that are helping in driving the overall growth of the global market for biochar. Furthermore, the investments in the market are also on the rise due to production of bio-fuels, growing concerns about the environment and the subsequent need to cut down the hazardous effects of the greenhouse gases. The availability of economical feedstock and proper management of waste disposal are also helping in propelling the development of the global market over the course of the given forecast period.

What Factors may Pose Problems for Market Growth?

However, there are some factors that might impede the growth of the market in the coming years and may stop it from reaching its full potential. One of the key restraining factors for the growth of the global market for biochar is the economical barriers in several developing regions. In addition to this, the general lack of awareness among consumers in these countries is also slowing down the development of the global market.

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Biochar: Creating a Valuable Soil Amendment from Woody Waste Material

3 January, 2018
 

Looking for a person? Try the campus directory.

This class will teach you how to make biochar from woody material such as slash from fuel reduction projects & orchard trimmings.  Some of this class will be in the field; dress accordingly.

Location:  OSU Extension Auditorium, 569 Hanley Rd, Central Point. 

Cost: $10/person, $15 couple. Pre-registration required; see www.extension.oregonstate.edu/sorec/forestry for details. 

Oregon State University
1500 SW Jefferson St.
Corvallis, OR 97331

541-737-1000

Contact us with your comments and questions

Copyright @2016 Oregon State University
Disclaimer


Activated Carbon Market: Evolving Technology, Trends And Industry Analysis 2022

4 January, 2018
 

Activated Carbon Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Activated Carbon Industry. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process of whole Enterprise Activated Carbon market.

Short Detail About Activated Carbon Market Report: Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbon activates, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. Activated is sometimes substituted with active. Due to its high degree of micro porosity, just one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 500 m2, as determined by gas adsorption. An activation level sufficient for useful application may be attained solely from high surface area; however, further chemical treatment often enhances adsorption properties. Activated charcoal is considered to be the most effective single agent available Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal and increasingly, high-porosity bio char.

Top Manufacturer Included in Activated Carbon Market:  Calgon Carbon Corporation, Cabot(Norit), CECA, Jacobi Carbons (OSAKA GAS), Carbotech, Ingevity (MWV), Donau Chemie Group, CPL Carbon Link, KURARY, Silcarbon Aktivkohle, Eurocarb, Sorbent, EUROQUARZ     And More……

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Activated Carbon Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers:  North America (USA, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy),Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia),South America, Middle East and Africa

Activated Carbon Market Segment by Type, covers: Powdered Activated Carbon, Granular Activated Carbon, Extruded Activated Carbon, Other

Activated Carbon Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into: Water Treatment, Industrial Processes , Food & Beverage, Pharma, Other

Scope of the Activated Carbon Market Report: This report focuses on the Activated Carbon in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

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Key questions answered in the report:

The Activated Carbon market analysis report speaks about the growth rate of Activated Carbon market in 2022 manufacturing process, key factors driving the Global Activated Carbon market, sales, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Activated Carbon Market, distributors, traders and dealers of Activated Carbon Market.

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Next part of Activated Carbon Market Research Report contains additional information like key vendors in Activated Carbon Market space, Activated Carbon Market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the Global Activated Carbon Market, opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Activated Carbon Market. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process.

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Global Granular Biochar Market Professional Survey Report 2017-2022

4 January, 2018
 

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Granular Biochar Market Production, Consumption, Export and Import, Revenue, Price Trend by …

4 January, 2018
 

Granular Biochar Market report presents a detailed analysis of the industry by size, growth rate, key players, regions, product types & applications. Granular Biochar Market report evaluates key factors that affected market growth and with the help of previous figures this report elaborates current scenario and forecast of Granular Biochar industry.

The Granular Biochar market report offers a complete assessment of the industry. The projections included in the report have been determined utilizing demonstrated research philosophies and presumptions. Thusly, the exploration report fills in as a vault of examination and data for each feature of the market, including Regional markets, methodology, types, and applications. In a word, this report will help buyer to establish a panorama of industrial development and characteristics of the Granular Biochar market.

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The report starts with a basic Granular Biochar market overview. It also acts as a vital tool to industries active across the value chain and for new entrants by enabling them to take advantage of the opportunities and develop business strategies.

Granular Biochar Market by Product types: Wood Source Biochar, Corn  Source Biochar, Wheat  Source Biochar, Others, and Market Split by Applications: Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others.

Top Key Vendors in Granular Biochar Market Report: The Biochar Company, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Diacarbon Energy, BlackCarbon, Carbon Terra, Agri-Tech Producers, BioChar Products, ElementC6, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Cool Planet, Kina,

Granular Biochar Market Dynamics:

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Along with Granular Biochar Market research analysis, buyer also gets valuable information about global Production and its market share, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin, Supply, Consumption, Export, Import volume and values for following Regions:

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This report gives Granular Biochar Industry Analysis and Forecast considering Market Value and Volume by type, applications and Regions for next five years. The report also provides New Project Feasibility Analysis, Industry Barriers, New Entrants SWOT Analysis and Suggestions on New Project Investment in Granular Biochar Market.

Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight from 2017-2022(forecast) of Granular Biochar industry covering all important parameters.

 

Granular Biochar Market report presents a detailed analysis of the industry by size, growth rate, key players, regions, product types & applications. Granular Biochar Market report evaluates key factors that affected market growth and with the help of previous figures this report elaborates current scenario and forecast of Granular Biochar industry.

The Granular Biochar market report offers a complete assessment of the industry. The projections included in the report have been determined utilizing demonstrated research philosophies and presumptions. Thusly, the exploration report fills in as a vault of examination and data for each feature of the market, including Regional markets, methodology, types, and applications. In a word, this report will help buyer to establish a panorama of industrial development and characteristics of the Granular Biochar market.

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The report starts with a basic Granular Biochar market overview. It also acts as a vital tool to industries active across the value chain and for new entrants by enabling them to take advantage of the opportunities and develop business strategies.

Granular Biochar Market by Product types: Wood Source Biochar, Corn  Source Biochar, Wheat  Source Biochar, Others, and Market Split by Applications: Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others.

Top Key Vendors in Granular Biochar Market Report: The Biochar Company, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Diacarbon Energy, BlackCarbon, Carbon Terra, Agri-Tech Producers, BioChar Products, ElementC6, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Cool Planet, Kina,

Granular Biochar Market Dynamics:

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This report gives Granular Biochar Industry Analysis and Forecast considering Market Value and Volume by type, applications and Regions for next five years. The report also provides New Project Feasibility Analysis, Industry Barriers, New Entrants SWOT Analysis and Suggestions on New Project Investment in Granular Biochar Market.

Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight from 2017-2022(forecast) of Granular Biochar industry covering all important parameters.

 

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CHAR Technologies Ltd. Announces Acquisition of The Altech Group

4 January, 2018
 

January 04, 2018 08:43 ET

TORONTO, ONTARIO–(Marketwired – Jan. 4, 2018) –

Not for distribution in the United States or through United States wire services.

CHAR Technologies Ltd. (“CHAR“) (TSX VENTURE:YES) is pleased to announce that it has closed its previously announced acquisition of the Altech Group (“Altech“), which is comprised of Altech Environmental Consulting Ltd. and Altech Technologies Systems Inc. Altech provides solutions to environmental engineering challenges. Founded in 1986, Altech has 12 employees and a diverse and stable client base. CHAR acquired all of the outstanding shares in both Altech Environmental Consulting Ltd. and Altech Technology Systems Inc. (the “Purchased Shares“). Altech shareholders received an aggregate of 4,523,810 in common shares of CHAR as well as $150,000 in cash in exchange for the Purchased Shares.

Bill White, Chairman of CHAR stated that, “The acquisition of the Altech Group adds over 30 years of experience in environmental technologies and professional engineering consulting” and that “Altech provides CHAR with a growth catalyst to move much of our engineering design in-house, while at the same time allows us to greatly expand our technology solutions offering for industrial clean air and clean water.”

CHAR brings the shareholders of Altech a succession plan and an opportunity to realize value at an optimal time. According to Alexander Keen, Founder and CEO of Altech, “CHAR brings an exciting future for Altech. Our joint efforts going forward will bring tremendous opportunities.”

The new joint enterprise plans to commercialize a new cleantech solid fuel branded “CleanFyre”. This product is a GHG neutral coal replacement, generically referred to as biocoal. CleanFyre will allow large industrial customers the ability to greatly reduce their GHG emissions without significant capital expenditures. According to Andrew White, CEO of CHAR, “CleanFyre will leverage both Altech’s experience and expertise, and CHAR’s platform pyrolysis technology, the same technology used to create SulfaCHAR, to create a solution with strong market pull and significant growth opportunity.”

About CHAR

CHAR is in the business of producing a proprietary activated charcoal like material (“SulfaCHAR“), which can be used to removed hydrogen sulfide from various gas streams (focusing on methane-rich and odorous air). The SulfaCHAR, once used for the gas cleaning application, has further use as a sulfur-enriched biochar for agricultural purposes (saleable soil amendment product).

Forward-Looking Statements

Statements contained in this press release contain “forward-looking information” within the meaning of Canadian securities laws. When considering these forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the risk factors and other cautionary statements in CHAR’s MD&A dated August 29th, 2017 and available under CHAR’s profile on www.sedar.com.

Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

TORONTO, ONTARIO–(Marketwired – Jan. 4, 2018) –

Not for distribution in the United States or through United States wire services.

CHAR Technologies Ltd. (“CHAR“) (TSX VENTURE:YES) is pleased to announce that it has closed its previously announced acquisition of the Altech Group (“Altech“), which is comprised of Altech Environmental Consulting Ltd. and Altech Technologies Systems Inc. Altech provides solutions to environmental engineering challenges. Founded in 1986, Altech has 12 employees and a diverse and stable client base. CHAR acquired all of the outstanding shares in both Altech Environmental Consulting Ltd. and Altech Technology Systems Inc. (the “Purchased Shares“). Altech shareholders received an aggregate of 4,523,810 in common shares of CHAR as well as $150,000 in cash in exchange for the Purchased Shares.

Bill White, Chairman of CHAR stated that, “The acquisition of the Altech Group adds over 30 years of experience in environmental technologies and professional engineering consulting” and that “Altech provides CHAR with a growth catalyst to move much of our engineering design in-house, while at the same time allows us to greatly expand our technology solutions offering for industrial clean air and clean water.”

CHAR brings the shareholders of Altech a succession plan and an opportunity to realize value at an optimal time. According to Alexander Keen, Founder and CEO of Altech, “CHAR brings an exciting future for Altech. Our joint efforts going forward will bring tremendous opportunities.”

The new joint enterprise plans to commercialize a new cleantech solid fuel branded “CleanFyre”. This product is a GHG neutral coal replacement, generically referred to as biocoal. CleanFyre will allow large industrial customers the ability to greatly reduce their GHG emissions without significant capital expenditures. According to Andrew White, CEO of CHAR, “CleanFyre will leverage both Altech’s experience and expertise, and CHAR’s platform pyrolysis technology, the same technology used to create SulfaCHAR, to create a solution with strong market pull and significant growth opportunity.”

About CHAR

CHAR is in the business of producing a proprietary activated charcoal like material (“SulfaCHAR“), which can be used to removed hydrogen sulfide from various gas streams (focusing on methane-rich and odorous air). The SulfaCHAR, once used for the gas cleaning application, has further use as a sulfur-enriched biochar for agricultural purposes (saleable soil amendment product).

Forward-Looking Statements

Statements contained in this press release contain “forward-looking information” within the meaning of Canadian securities laws. When considering these forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the risk factors and other cautionary statements in CHAR’s MD&A dated August 29th, 2017 and available under CHAR’s profile on www.sedar.com.

Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

CHAR Technologies Ltd.
Andrew White
(647) 968-5347
andrew.white@chartechnologies.com

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Global Granular Biochar Market 2017 Top Companies – Swiss Biochar GmbH, Biochar Now, Agri …

4 January, 2018
 

Download Free Sample Report @ https://www.qymarketinsights.com/report-detail/6122/request-sample

The data from 2012 to 2016 which has included in the report forecasts until 2022 that makes the report an invaluable resource for industry executives, product managers, analysts, consultants, marketing, sales, and other people looking for key industry data in available document format with clearly presented tables and graphs. The report will generate detailed analysis mainly on above questions and in-depth research on the processing environment, current and future development trend, and market size of the industry in 2017 so as to make comprehensive organization and understanding on the competition situation and development trend of Granular Biochar market and assist industrialists and investment organization to perceive development course of Granular Biochar market.

The aim behind this report is to help individuals, organizations or industries in their decision making process by providing organized report. These reports contains in-depth market research studies i.e. market share analysis, industry analysis, information on products, countries, market size, trends, business research details and much more. The report also provides global and regional market intelligence exploration, a 360-degree market view which includes statistical forecasts, competitive landscape, all-inclusive segmentation, key trends, and strategic recommendations.

The research provides answers to the following key questions:
What will be the market size and the growth rate in 2022?
What are the crucial factors driving the global Granular Biochar market?
What are the key market trends affecting the growth of the Granular Biochar market?
Who are the key market players and what are their strategies in the Granular Biochar market?
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What trends, challenges and barriers are influencing its growth?
What are the key consequences of the five forces analysis of the Granular Biochar market?

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Additional information provided in the report:
Furthermore, considering that the global economy is ever-changing depending upon several factors is important to observe that our report contains data that are not only conducted regarding CAGR forecasts but it also analyzes the key parameters such as yearly market growth in order to have complete information about the future of the market worldwide. The other key feature included in this report is the analysis of the revenue forecasts of all the important regions and applications, which is in terms of dollars.


Biochar Market Report 2016-2023

4 January, 2018
 

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The growing demand for organic food and increasing usage for soil fertility are the major factors pushing the market uphill. But lack of awareness might restraint the growth in the coming years.

Furthermore, the report quantifies the market share held by the major players of the industry and provides an in-depth view of the competitive landscape. This market is classified into different segments with detailed analysis of each with respect to geography for the study period 2016-2023. The comprehensive value chain analysis of the market will assist in attaining better product differentiation, along with detailed understanding of the core competency of each activity involved. The market attractiveness analysis provided in the report aptly measures the potential value of the market providing business strategists with the latest growth opportunities.

The report also covers the complete competitive landscape of the worldwide market with company profiles of key players such as Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, ArSta Eco, Biochar Products, Inc., Biochar Supreme, LLC, Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc., Diacarbon Energy Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis, Phoenix Energy, The Biochar Company, Vega Biofuels, Inc. and others. Geographically, this market has been segmented into regions such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East & Africa. The study details country-level aspects based on each segment and gives estimates in terms of market size.

Major Table Of Contents:

1. Introduction

2. Executive Summary

3. Market Analysis

4. Biochar Market Analysis By Technology

5. Biochar Market Analysis By Application

6. Biochar Market Analysis By Geography

7. Competitive Landscape Of The Biochar Companies

8. Company Profiles Of The Biochar Industry (Company Overview, Financial, Major Products & Recent Development)

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Sustainable solutions

4 January, 2018
 

California forests have a tree problem.

Due to overgrowth density—coupled with die-offs due to bark beetles and the relative dearth of back-country fires over previous decades—huge areas of mountain acreage sit littered with twigs and dry husks, tinderboxes ready to spark. That message was delivered at the latest Butte County Forest Advisory Committee meeting, held Dec. 18 in Paradise.

Stephen Feher has a solution.

Feher champions biochar production: the making of soil-enriching charcoal through low-emission burning. A retired aerospace engineer who teaches at Butte College and heads a sustainability group, Feher sees biochar production not only as a means to reduce wildfire fuels but also to reduce greenhouse-gas discharge.

At the invitation of Peggy Moak, the county treasurer-tax collector who’s part of the Forest Advisory Committee, Feher made a half-hour presentation on the practice. He explained the science, processes he’s developed with his students and broader applications of biochar.

Moak, who’d seen him speak to the Yankee Hill Fire Safe Council, said she felt “it would be a worthwhile presentation for our board to hear.”

The Forest Advisory Council reports both to the Board of Supervisors and the Federal/State Land Use Coordinating Committee; Moak sits on the latter and serves as liaison between the two committees. She sees Feher’s idea as “still in some of the infancy stages” but ripe for further consideration by the county’s Tree Mortality Task Force.

“They’re looking for ways to utilize the trees and the woody debris that we have in the county, related to the bug-kill problem and the drought,” Moak said. “So there may be some way that his project could be utilized effectively.”

In a presentation separate from and preceding Feher’s, the region’s forest and fire adviser out of UC Davis documented forest overgrowth. Dr. Kate Wilkin showed photos of an Upper Ridge ranger station shot nearly a century apart; the thicker concentration of large pines in modern times was glaring. She also showed photos of woodlands naturally contoured by lightning-strike fires and those laden with vegetation and deadwood.

Responding to the forest crisis, Gov. Jerry Brown authorized increased logging, targeting the timber for biomass fuel; and Cal Fire this year increased its use of controlled burns.

Feher sees his form of controlled burns as a more efficient, more ecological answer.

Why send logs to mills—via diesel-powered trucks—for biomass instead of creating biochar on the spot?

“It’s hopeless to remove all that wood from the forest,” he told the committee. While the U.S. Forest Service currently has machines to reduce the emissions of combustion, the most mobile units cost $50,000 each and the largest, three times that much.

Feher’s biochar production technique utilizes top-down burning. Instead of placing the kindling and ignition source at the bottom of the pile, as most people do when lighting a fire, Feher’s flames start at the apex. The result is a fire with less smoke and carbon dioxide, plus residue richer in carbon and soil amendments.

How does this work?

The scientific term is pyrolysis. As the flames move down and the ashes collapse upon the unburnt wood, the fire becomes starved of oxygen. It’s still burning hot, around 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit, so it doesn’t extinguish.

“Most of the heat of the fire breaks up the carbohydrates of the wood and burns off more easily as flammable hydrogen,” he explained.

Hydrogen and oxygen combine to form H20 (water). Top-down fires tend to emit more water vapor—and the smoke they do give off has a characteristic blue tinge—and less carbon dioxide than other fires.

Feher and students at Butte College have experimented with top-down burning in rice-cookers from Asia, in metal dumpsters and on the ground. They validated the process while finding they produce a yield of biochar ranging between 25 percent and 30 percent of the preburn mass.

Since 2011, Feher has received two grants from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the work at Butte College. He’s pursuing another. Feher also travels internationally with his wife, Elisabeth, for the work they do through the nonprofit they run out of their Paradise home, the Sustainable Community Development Institute.

Feher became interested in biochar as an offshoot of an earlier fascination: disposing of agricultural field matter in an eco-friendly way. (In fact, his tests with top-down fires in cookers used rice hulls.) He’d moved to Paradise in 2001 after marrying Elisabeth, a fellow native of Hungary, following an extensive engineering career that took him to Seattle, San Diego and points overseas.

With his “retirement project”—biochar production—he told the CN&R that his “primary intent is to spread the word that we need to take care of the forest waste, the biomass that is accumulating alarmingly in the underbrush in the forest; and the best way I see, just like with agricultural waste, is to turn it into biochar by some economically viable means, which means without big machines and transportation.”

After speaking to the Forest Advisory Committee, he said he felt “encouraged that there’s some movement going on that will eventually help the situation.”

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How to Manufacture Biochar from Woody Biomass

4 January, 2018
 

Biochar, a soil amendment made from woody biomass like branches and small-diameter trees, presents an opportunity for landowners to convert forest thinnings to a high-value product. Removing excess biomass from dense, crowded San Juan forests is an important way to increase fire resilience and improve ecological health. This workshop will cover all the tips and tricks San Juan County landowners have discovered to successfully and safely manufacture optimal biochar.

This workshop is the third in a three-part series on woody biomass in the San Juans. You may also be interested in our February 24th workshop, Thinning Overstocked Stands for Health and Productivity, and our April 28th workshop, Measuring Timber and Woody Biomass in San Juan Forests.

All forest owners are encouraged to attend!
For more information, go to: www.nnrg.org/sanjuans

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Forage Media

Photos: Kai Hoffman-Krull; Matt Freeman-Gleason

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Global Biochar Market 2017 by Manufacturers, Trends, Growth, Forecast to 2022

4 January, 2018
 

Research that justifies your business requirement

The Biochar Research Report describe Industry Introduction, Product Scope, Market Overview, Opportunities, Market Risk, Driving Force. Global Market analyze by top manufacturers, by regions, by type and application. The report will include the qualitative and quantitative analysis with market estimation over 2018 – 2023 and compound annual growth rate (CAGR) between 2017 and 2022.

This report studies the Biochar market, Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment.

Scope of the Report:
This report focuses on the Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers
Cool Planet
Biochar Supreme
NextChar
Terra Char
Genesis Industries
Interra Energy
CharGrow
Pacific Biochar
Biochar Now
The Biochar Company (TBC)
ElementC6
Vega Biofuels

Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers
North America (USA, Canada and Mexico)
Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)
Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)
South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.)
Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

Market Segment by Type, covers
Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar
Other Stove Source Biochar

Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into
Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer
Others

There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the global Biochar market.

Chapter 1, to describe Biochar Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;

Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Biochar, with sales, revenue, and price of Biochar, in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Biochar, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;

Chapter 10 and 11, to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2012 to 2017;

Chapter 12, Biochar market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2017 to 2022;

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Biochar sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

1 Market Overview
1.1 Biochar Introduction
1.2 Market Analysis by Type
1.2.1 Wood Source Biochar
1.2.2 Corn Stove Source Biochar
1.2.3 Rice Stove Source Biochar
1.2.4 Wheat Stove Source Biochar
1.2.5 Other Stove Source Biochar
1.3 Market Analysis by Applications
1.3.1 Soil Conditioner
1.3.2 Fertilizer
1.3.3 Others
1.4 Market Analysis by Regions
1.4.1 North America (USA, Canada and Mexico)
1.4.1.1 USA Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.1.2 Canada Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.1.3 Mexico Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.2 Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)
1.4.2.1 Germany Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.2.2 France Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.2.3 UK Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.2.4 Russia Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.2.5 Italy Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.3 Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)
1.4.3.1 China Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.3.2 Japan Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.3.3 Korea Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.3.4 India Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.3.5 Southeast Asia Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.4 South America, Middle East and Africa
1.4.4.1 Brazil Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.4.2 Egypt Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.4.3 Saudi Arabia Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.4.4 South Africa Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.4.4.5 Nigeria Market States and Outlook (2012-2022)
1.5 Market Dynamics
1.5.1 Market Opportunities
1.5.2 Market Risk
1.5.3 Market Driving Force

2 Manufacturers Profiles
2.1 Cool Planet
2.1.1 Business Overview
2.1.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.1.2.1 Type 1
2.1.2.2 Type 2
2.1.3 Cool Planet Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.2 Biochar Supreme
2.2.1 Business Overview
2.2.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.2.2.1 Type 1
2.2.2.2 Type 2
2.2.3 Biochar Supreme Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.3 NextChar
2.3.1 Business Overview
2.3.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.3.2.1 Type 1
2.3.2.2 Type 2
2.3.3 NextChar Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.4 Terra Char
2.4.1 Business Overview
2.4.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.4.2.1 Type 1
2.4.2.2 Type 2
2.4.3 Terra Char Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.5 Genesis Industries
2.5.1 Business Overview
2.5.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.5.2.1 Type 1
2.5.2.2 Type 2
2.5.3 Genesis Industries Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.6 Interra Energy
2.6.1 Business Overview
2.6.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.6.2.1 Type 1
2.6.2.2 Type 2
2.6.3 Interra Energy Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.7 CharGrow
2.7.1 Business Overview
2.7.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.7.2.1 Type 1
2.7.2.2 Type 2
2.7.3 CharGrow Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.8 Pacific Biochar
2.8.1 Business Overview
2.8.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.8.2.1 Type 1
2.8.2.2 Type 2
2.8.3 Pacific Biochar Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.9 Biochar Now
2.9.1 Business Overview
2.9.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.9.2.1 Type 1
2.9.2.2 Type 2
2.9.3 Biochar Now Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.10 The Biochar Company (TBC)
2.10.1 Business Overview
2.10.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.10.2.1 Type 1
2.10.2.2 Type 2
2.10.3 The Biochar Company (TBC) Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.11 ElementC6
2.11.1 Business Overview
2.11.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.11.2.1 Type 1
2.11.2.2 Type 2
2.11.3 ElementC6 Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)
2.12 Vega Biofuels
2.12.1 Business Overview
2.12.2 Biochar Type and Applications
2.12.2.1 Type 1
2.12.2.2 Type 2
2.12.3 Vega Biofuels Biochar Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

3 Global Biochar Market Competition, by Manufacturer
3.1 Global Biochar Sales and Market Share by Manufacturer
3.2 Global Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Manufacturer
3.3 Market Concentration Rate
3.3.1 Top 3 Biochar Manufacturer Market Share
3.3.2 Top 6 Biochar Manufacturer Market Share
3.4 Market Competition Trend

4 Global Biochar Market Analysis by Regions
4.1 Global Biochar Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Regions
4.1.1 Global Biochar Sales by Regions (2012-2017)
4.1.2 Global Biochar Revenue by Regions (2012-2017)
4.2 North America Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
4.3 Europe Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
4.4 Asia-Pacific Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
4.5 South America Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
4.6 Middle East and Africa Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)

5 North America Biochar by Countries
5.1 North America Biochar Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries
5.1.1 North America Biochar Sales by Countries (2012-2017)
5.1.2 North America Biochar Revenue by Countries (2012-2017)
5.2 USA Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
5.3 Canada Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
5.4 Mexico Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)

6 Europe Biochar by Countries
6.1 Europe Biochar Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries
6.1.1 Europe Biochar Sales by Countries (2012-2017)
6.1.2 Europe Biochar Revenue by Countries (2012-2017)
6.2 Germany Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
6.3 UK Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
6.4 France Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
6.5 Russia Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
6.6 Italy Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)

7 Asia-Pacific Biochar by Countries
7.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries
7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Biochar Sales by Countries (2012-2017)
7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Biochar Revenue by Countries (2012-2017)
7.2 China Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
7.3 Japan Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
7.4 Korea Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
7.5 India Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
7.6 Southeast Asia Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)

8 South America Biochar by Countries
8.1 South America Biochar Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries
8.1.1 South America Biochar Sales by Countries (2012-2017)
8.1.2 South America Biochar Revenue by Countries (2012-2017)
8.2 Brazil Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
8.3 Argentina Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
8.4 Columbia Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)

9 Middle East and Africa Biochar by Countries
9.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries
9.1.1 Middle East and Africa Biochar Sales by Countries (2012-2017)
9.1.2 Middle East and Africa Biochar Revenue by Countries (2012-2017)
9.2 Saudi Arabia Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
9.3 UAE Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
9.4 Egypt Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
9.5 Nigeria Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)
9.6 South Africa Biochar Sales and Growth (2012-2017)

10 Global Biochar Market Segment by Type
10.1 Global Biochar Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
10.1.1 Global Biochar Sales and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
10.1.2 Global Biochar Revenue and Market Share by Type (2012-2017)
10.2 Wood Source Biochar Sales Growth and Price
10.2.1 Global Wood Source Biochar Sales Growth (2012-2017)
10.2.2 Global Wood Source Biochar Price (2012-2017)
10.3 Corn Stove Source Biochar Sales Growth and Price
10.3.1 Global Corn Stove Source Biochar Sales Growth (2012-2017)
10.3.2 Global Corn Stove Source Biochar Price (2012-2017)
10.4 Rice Stove Source Biochar Sales Growth and Price
10.4.1 Global Rice Stove Source Biochar Sales Growth (2012-2017)
10.4.2 Global Rice Stove Source Biochar Price (2012-2017)
10.5 Wheat Stove Source Biochar Sales Growth and Price
10.5.1 Global Wheat Stove Source Biochar Sales Growth (2012-2017)
10.5.2 Global Wheat Stove Source Biochar Price (2012-2017)
10.6 Other Stove Source Biochar Sales Growth and Price
10.6.1 Global Other Stove Source Biochar Sales Growth (2012-2017)
10.6.2 Global Other Stove Source Biochar Price (2012-2017)

11 Global Biochar Market Segment by Application
11.1 Global Biochar Sales Market Share by Application (2012-2017)
11.2 Soil Conditioner Sales Growth (2012-2017)
11.3 Fertilizer Sales Growth (2012-2017)
11.4 Others Sales Growth (2012-2017)

12 Biochar Market Forecast (2017-2022)
12.1 Global Biochar Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2017-2022)
12.2 Biochar Market Forecast by Regions (2017-2022)
12.2.1 North America Biochar Market Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2.2 Europe Biochar Market Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2.3 Asia-Pacific Biochar Market Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2.4 South America Biochar Market Forecast (2017-2022)
12.2.5 Middle East and Africa Biochar Market Forecast (2017-2022)
12.3 Biochar Market Forecast by Type (2017-2022)
12.4 Biochar Market Forecast by Application (2017-2022)

13 Sales Channel, Distributors, Traders and Dealers
13.1 Sales Channel
13.1.1 Direct Marketing
13.1.2 Indirect Marketing
13.1.3 Marketing Channel Future Trend
13.2 Distributors, Traders and Dealers

14 Research Findings and Conclusion

15 Appendix
15.1 Methodology
15.2 Analyst Introduction
15.3 Data Source

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Fine Biochar Powder Market-Focus on Major Industries & Applications-and expected to Grow …

5 January, 2018
 

 

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Correction to: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and production unit on formation of selected PAHs …

5 January, 2018
 

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research


Adsorption of methyl orange dye onto biochar adsorbent prepared from chicken manure

5 January, 2018
 

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In this work, the biochar adsorbent (CMC) was prepared from the pyrolysis (600 °C, 120 min) of chicken manure for the removal of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution, and its physicochemical properties were characterized by SEM and FTIR. The experimental parameters including agitation speed, initial solution pH, biochar dosage and contact time on the adsorption properties of MO from aqueous solution onto CMC were investigated in batch experiments. The kinetic adsorption of different initial concentration could be accurately described by the pseudo-second-order model and the overall rate process was apparently influenced by external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion. Furthermore, the Langmuir isotherm model showed a better fit with equilibrium data (R2 > 0.99), with the maximum adsorption capacity of 39.47 mg·g−1 at 25 °C. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of MO onto CMC was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results of this study indicated that CMC could be used as a promising biomass adsorbent material for aqueous solutions containing MO.

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biochar adsorbent

5 January, 2018
 

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Fax: +44 (0)20 7654 5555
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CHAR acquires Altech Group, plans to produce biocoal

5 January, 2018
 

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“CleanFyre will leverage both Altech’s experience and expertise, and CHAR’s platform pyrolysis technology, the same technology used to create SulfaCHAR, to create a solution with strong market pull and significant growth opportunity,” CHAR CEO Andrew White said in a news release.

CHAR currently produces SulfaCHAR, which can be used to removed hydrogen sulfide from gas streams with a focus on methane-rich and odorous air. SulfaCHAR can also be used as a sulfur-enriched biochar for agriculture.

Altech – an environmental consulting company and provider of air pollution control and water treatment technology – currently has 12 employees. CHAR acquired all of the outstanding shares in both Altech Environmental Consulting Ltd. and Altech Technology Systems Inc.

“The acquisition of the Altech Group adds over 30 years of experience in environmental technologies and professional engineering consulting,” CHAR chairman Bill White said in the release. “Altech provides CHAR with a growth catalyst to move much of our engineering design in-house, while at the same time allows us to greatly expand our technology solutions offering for industrial clean air and clean water.”

Alexander Keen, founder and CEO of Altech, said in the release, “CHAR brings an exciting future for Altech. Our joint efforts going forward will bring tremendous opportunities.”



Biochar could benefit anaerobic digestion of animal manure

5 January, 2018
 

,

Dr. Hyun Min Jang, AgriLife Research environmental engineer (left), and Dr. Eunsung Kan,

The frontrunners in the global biomethane gas market, according to one of the reports by Transparency Market Research, are CNG Services Ltd., Planet Biogas Global GmbH,

Nic Kite grew up on a small farm in Nemaha County, and has fond memories of going to livestock auctions with his grandfather, where they’d survey everything from a heifer’s

When a federal inspection team inadvertently released three million gallons of heavy metal-laden waste from a century-old, defunct gold mine near Silverton, Colorado into

It’s 2028. Your kids make cultured cheese in cheap bioreactors for lunch; you eat sushi made with lab-grown shark meat for dinner. Throughout the day, a sensor embedded in

HARRISBURG, Pa. (AP) – A half-ton (0.45 metric tons) of butter has been transformed into a sculpture celebrating Pennsylvania’s dairy industry and heralding the start of

HARRISBURG, Pa. — A half-ton of butter has been transformed into a sculpture celebrating Pennsylvania’s dairy industry and heralding the start of the state’s 102nd Farm

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HARRISBURG, Pa. — A half-ton of butter has been transformed into a sculpture celebrating Pennsylvania’s dairy industry and heralding the start of the state’s 102nd Farm Show. Agriculture Secretary Russell Redding says the sculpture unveiled Thursday highlights the careers and roles the

Consumers focusing on cutting down the animal based dairy products have started preferring packaged vegan food. Packaged vegan food are prepared without the use of any animal based ingredients resulting in low fat and cholesterol. Increasing number of people are now a days turning vegan because of their love and compassion toward animals and the environment. One of the major

A recent front-page article describing Big Island Dairy’s new milk bottling plant ignores the other major product that the dairy won’t be putting in new labeled containers: its cow poop (“Big Island Dairy to process its own milk, bypassing Meadow Gold,” Star-Advertiser, Dec. 4, 2017). With more than 1,400 mature milking cows, and more than 1,000 other calves and heifers, Big

The Greatest Hits is a compilation album by rock band Texas, released on June 14, 2005. The album peaked at number one in the UK, becoming the band’s third album to do so. It has been certified 6x Platinum by the British Phonographic Industry for UK sales of 1,934,608 copies. 00:00 ►I Don’t Want A Lover 05:00 ►In Demand 09:24 ►Say What You Want 13:17 ►Summer Son 17:21 ►Inner Smile 21:09 ►So In Love With You 25:25 ►Black Eyed Boy 28:41 ►So Called Friend 32:26 ►Everyday Now 36:44 ►In Our Lifetime 40:48 ►Halo 44:56 ►Guitar Song 48:47 ►Prayer For You 53:05 ►When We Are Together 56:28 ►Put Your Arms Around Me 1:01:02 ►Say What You Want (All Day Every Day) ℗ 2005 Mercury Records Limited….

The Greatest Hits is a compilation album by rock band Texas, released on June 14, 2005. The album peaked at number one in the UK, becoming the band’s third album to do so. It has been certified 6x Platinum by the British Phonographic Industry for UK sales of 1,934,608 copies. 00:00 ►I Don’t Want A Lover 05:00 ►In Demand 09:24 ►Say What You Want 13:17 ►Summer Son 17:21 ►Inner Smile 21:09 ►So In Love With You 25:25 ►Black Eyed Boy 28:41 ►So Called Friend 32:26 ►Everyday Now 36:44 ►In Our Lifetime 40:48 ►Halo 44:56 ►Guitar Song 48:47 ►Prayer For You 53:05 ►When We Are Together 56:28 ►Put Your Arms Around Me 1:01:02 ►Say What You Want (All Day Every Day) ℗ 2005 Mercury Records Limited….

An incisive, contrary and witty gaze on the Lone Star State. With a Texan in the White House, espousing Texan values, Christopher Hitchens’ investigation is a chance to see what Texas stands for, what this tells us about America today and what this means for the rest of the world. Hitchens’ odyssey takes him to meet oil legend Boon Pickens, singing legend Kinky Friedman and writers Larry McMurtry and John Graves. It also finds him patrolling the Mexican border with the Border Police boat patrol, on a shooting range with some redneck vigilantes, in a contretemps with a trainer at a football match and kitting himself up as a cowboy. All this in search of the heart, mind and spirit of Texas. He finds a state that is effectively a nation. A place where to be called a cowboy – as George Dubya happily is – is no insult. Where the Texan attitude is defiant – not caring about public opinion or power and believing it is better to fight than to run. A place that believes in little government, low taxes and the right to own a gun. But a place also of mythology – where the Alamo represents the spirit of Texas, even though it was a defeat – a fact of which most Texans are ignorant. A place that espouses the image of the buccaneering businessman, battling against the elements, but in reality is an economy that has the government ranged on its side and looks like capitalism everywhere. For Hitchens, Texas is uniquely battling against the forces of globalisation to maintain its identity. Are we likely to live in a Texan world? He thinks not – Texas has enough on its plate, staying Texan. …

An incisive, contrary and witty gaze on the Lone Star State. With a Texan in the White House, espousing Texan values, Christopher Hitchens’ investigation is a chance to see what Texas stands for, what this tells us about America today and what this means for the rest of the world. Hitchens’ odyssey takes him to meet oil legend Boon Pickens, singing legend Kinky Friedman and writers Larry McMurtry and John Graves. It also finds him patrolling the Mexican border with the Border Police boat patrol, on a shooting range with some redneck vigilantes, in a contretemps with a trainer at a football match and kitting himself up as a cowboy. All this in search of the heart, mind and spirit of Texas. He finds a state that is effectively a nation. A place where to be called a cowboy – as George Dubya happily is – is no insult. Where the Texan attitude is defiant – not caring about public opinion or power and believing it is better to fight than to run. A place that believes in little government, low taxes and the right to own a gun. But a place also of mythology – where the Alamo represents the spirit of Texas, even though it was a defeat – a fact of which most Texans are ignorant. A place that espouses the image of the buccaneering businessman, battling against the elements, but in reality is an economy that has the government ranged on its side and looks like capitalism everywhere. For Hitchens, Texas is uniquely battling against the forces of globalisation to maintain its identity. Are we likely to live in a Texan world? He thinks not – Texas has enough on its plate, staying Texan. …

Watch the official video to Say What You Want by Texas…

Watch the official video to Say What You Want by Texas…

See the official video to Summer Son by Texas…

See the official video to Summer Son by Texas…

See the official video to Inner Smile by Texas…

See the official video to Inner Smile by Texas…

Music video for Texas’ new single ‘The Conversation’. The track is taken from the new album ‘The Conversation’ released 20th May and available to pre-order now http://smarturl.it/conversationdeluxe http://www.texas.uk.com https://www.facebook.com/texastheband https://twitter.com/texastheband…

Music video for Texas’ new single ‘The Conversation’. The track is taken from the new album ‘The Conversation’ released 20th May and available to pre-order now http://smarturl.it/conversationdeluxe http://www.texas.uk.com https://www.facebook.com/texastheband https://twitter.com/texastheband…

Bitconnect is the newest way to build and grow your Bitcoin assets by bot trading on the blockchain. Sign up now and see what everyone is raving about. http://bit.ly/bitconnectuk We now use Discord to communicate to our community instead of emails. You can download it here: https://discordapp.com/ Join our interactive Discord network: http://bit.ly/bitconnectdiscord Team Smurf, your access to our private channel is: http://bit.ly/teamsmurf Bitconnect Calculators are no longer available to those who wish to purchase them. We thank the 4000 people who paid $10 for a copy in 2017. Our calculator is now a dedicated App and is an exclusive to our loyal members who sign up under our team. Not in Bitconnect yet? You can join our exclusive team at: http://bit.ly/bitconnectuk…

Bitconnect is the newest way to build and grow your Bitcoin assets by bot trading on the blockchain. Sign up now and see what everyone is raving about. http://bit.ly/bitconnectuk We now use Discord to communicate to our community instead of emails. You can download it here: https://discordapp.com/ Join our interactive Discord network: http://bit.ly/bitconnectdiscord Team Smurf, your access to our private channel is: http://bit.ly/teamsmurf Bitconnect Calculators are no longer available to those who wish to purchase them. We thank the 4000 people who paid $10 for a copy in 2017. Our calculator is now a dedicated App and is an exclusive to our loyal members who sign up under our team. Not in Bitconnect yet? You can join our exclusive team at: http://bit.ly/bitconnectuk…

Official video for ‘Can’t Control’ by Texas. Taken from the new album ‘Jump On Board’ Out Now: https://texasmusic.lnk.to/JoBID Ltd signed prints available here: https://texasmusic.lnk.to/storeID Follow Texas: http://www.texas.uk.com/ https://www.facebook.com/texastheband https://twitter.com/texastheband http://vevo.ly/yEw7zc…

Official video for ‘Can’t Control’ by Texas. Taken from the new album ‘Jump On Board’ Out Now: https://texasmusic.lnk.to/JoBID Ltd signed prints available here: https://texasmusic.lnk.to/storeID Follow Texas: http://www.texas.uk.com/ https://www.facebook.com/texastheband https://twitter.com/texastheband http://vevo.ly/yEw7zc…

The government both left and right are in on this….

The government both left and right are in on this….

See the official video to ‘In Demand’ by Texas!…

See the official video to ‘In Demand’ by Texas!…

Learn about the 254 counties of the state of Texas with this fun educational music video for children and parents! Brought to you by Kids Learning Tube! Support Kids Learning Tube by becoming a Patreon today at the link below! You can vote for the video of the week, get your name int he credits and support something you believe in! https://www.patreon.com/kidslearningtube I’d love to thank my Patreon supporters: Jonah Baran, Akash Deshmukh, Brayden Ching, Philip Segal, Declan Ocean, Isla and Mia, Parker Templeton, Matthew Leache, Jaxon Gish, Matt B, Maxwell Shapiro, Jesse Guzelyurt, Sajel Patel, Mauro Johnson, The Richards/Steele Family, Jake Milan. You all do so much to keep Kids Learning Tube alive! KLT Website: https://kidslearningtubeshop.com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/kidslearningtube Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/c/kidslearningtube Tweet Us: https://twitter.com/learningtube Instagram: https://instagram.com/kidslearningtube Add us on Google+: https://plus.google.com/+KidsLearningTube iTunes: http://itunes.apple.com/album/id1192890817?ls=1&app=itunes Music: Copyright 2015, 2016, 2017 Kids Learning Tube Video: Copyright 2015, 2016, 2017 Kids Learning Tube Lyrics: There’s 254 Counties in the Texas We’re the 2nd largest state in the continental US Anderson, Andrews Angelina Aransas Archer Armstrong Atascosa Austin’s Large Bailey, Bandera, Bastrop, Baylor, Bee Bell Bexar And Blanco you just saw Borden Bosque Bowie Brazoria Brazos Brewster Briscoe And Brooks Y’all Brown Burleson Burnet Caldwell Calhoun Callahan Cameron Camp is swell Carson C…

Learn about the 254 counties of the state of Texas with this fun educational music video for children and parents! Brought to you by Kids Learning Tube! Support Kids Learning Tube by becoming a Patreon today at the link below! You can vote for the video of the week, get your name int he credits and support something you believe in! https://www.patreon.com/kidslearningtube I’d love to thank my Patreon supporters: Jonah Baran, Akash Deshmukh, Brayden Ching, Philip Segal, Declan Ocean, Isla and Mia, Parker Templeton, Matthew Leache, Jaxon Gish, Matt B, Maxwell Shapiro, Jesse Guzelyurt, Sajel Patel, Mauro Johnson, The Richards/Steele Family, Jake Milan. You all do so much to keep Kids Learning Tube alive! KLT Website: https://kidslearningtubeshop.com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/kidslearningtube Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/c/kidslearningtube Tweet Us: https://twitter.com/learningtube Instagram: https://instagram.com/kidslearningtube Add us on Google+: https://plus.google.com/+KidsLearningTube iTunes: http://itunes.apple.com/album/id1192890817?ls=1&app=itunes Music: Copyright 2015, 2016, 2017 Kids Learning Tube Video: Copyright 2015, 2016, 2017 Kids Learning Tube Lyrics: There’s 254 Counties in the Texas We’re the 2nd largest state in the continental US Anderson, Andrews Angelina Aransas Archer Armstrong Atascosa Austin’s Large Bailey, Bandera, Bastrop, Baylor, Bee Bell Bexar And Blanco you just saw Borden Bosque Bowie Brazoria Brazos Brewster Briscoe And Brooks Y’all Brown Burleson Burnet Caldwell Calhoun Callahan Cameron Camp is swell Carson C…

Texas is hands down one of the funnest states in all of America… I mean, what’s not to love about Texans?! They make great food, they know how to have a good time, and they are the most hospitable people in the world! Here are our Top 10 must do’s while your in The Lone Star State! FOLLOW US and SUBSCRIBE for more: Snap: @sundayfundayz Like: https://www.facebook.com/sundayfundayz Follow: http://twitter.com/sundayfundayz Insta: http://instagram.com/highonlifeco Vine: https://vine.co/sundayfundayz Pics: https://www.flickr.com/photos/sundayf… Blog: http://sundayfundayz.com/ Merch: http://highonlife.co/ Subscribe to our vlog channel: https://www.youtube.com/highonlifeSFZ Subscribe to our music channel: https://www.youtube.com/HighOnLifeSound…

Texas is hands down one of the funnest states in all of America… I mean, what’s not to love about Texans?! They make great food, they know how to have a good time, and they are the most hospitable people in the world! Here are our Top 10 must do’s while your in The Lone Star State! FOLLOW US and SUBSCRIBE for more: Snap: @sundayfundayz Like: https://www.facebook.com/sundayfundayz Follow: http://twitter.com/sundayfundayz Insta: http://instagram.com/highonlifeco Vine: https://vine.co/sundayfundayz Pics: https://www.flickr.com/photos/sundayf… Blog: http://sundayfundayz.com/ Merch: http://highonlife.co/ Subscribe to our vlog channel: https://www.youtube.com/highonlifeSFZ Subscribe to our music channel: https://www.youtube.com/HighOnLifeSound…

Texas issues a cease and desist order to Binconnect! Finally someone somewhere is doing something about this! I am NOT a fan of Bitconnect, no one can give you 100% return without STEALING FROM OTHER PEOPLE. Article: https://cointelegraph.com/news/texas-regulator-orders-bitconnect-to-cease-and-desist-marketing-securities Coinigy Link: https://www.coinigy.com/?r=6cdf267e Website: Real-crypto.com BTC Donations: 19ocWzUYSc46hnxWbXercGwcKN9FcRi6bv ETH Donations: 0xAaC5ef4e7a9b095b879DA6D98E0a24D25D57ecE2…

Texas issues a cease and desist order to Binconnect! Finally someone somewhere is doing something about this! I am NOT a fan of Bitconnect, no one can give you 100% return without STEALING FROM OTHER PEOPLE. Article: https://cointelegraph.com/news/texas-regulator-orders-bitconnect-to-cease-and-desist-marketing-securities Coinigy Link: https://www.coinigy.com/?r=6cdf267e Website: Real-crypto.com BTC Donations: 19ocWzUYSc46hnxWbXercGwcKN9FcRi6bv ETH Donations: 0xAaC5ef4e7a9b095b879DA6D98E0a24D25D57ecE2…

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V


Australia New Zealand Biochar Conference 2017: Conference Proceedings

5 January, 2018
 

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Biochar could benefit anaerobic digestion of animal manure

5 January, 2018
 

STEPHENVILLE – New research by Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists shows biochar has potential to make anaerobic digestion of animal manure a more efficient method to rid farms of waste while producing methane for energy.

Biochar is a man-made charcoal material composed of agricultural wastes including manure, crop residues and forage grasses. It can be used as sustainable fertilizers and to filter a broad range of contaminants, including antibiotics, pesticide and hormones in wastewater and water, as well as to capture greenhouse and odorous gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia. 

“Effects of dairy manure-derived biochar on psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestions of dairy manure” by Dr. Hyun Min Jang, AgriLife Research environmental engineer, Dr. Yong-Keun Choi, Tarleton State University researcher and Dr. Eunsung Kan, AgriLife Research chemical and environmental engineer in Stephenville, was published recently in Biosource Technology.

The article discusses the potential of using biochar as an accelerating material to make anaerobic digestion of dairy manure more efficient in bioreactors for enhancing breaking down wastes and producing methane gas.

The current management of animal farm manure includes applying waste to croplands, Kan said. Current methods often generate odors and greenhouse gases and can cause ecological problems downstream, such as algae blooms and contaminated groundwater.

“The value of the new research is that manure can be a problem source, and anaerobic digestion using biochar serves to dispose of manure while producing methane to power the farm and possibly be sold to local utilities,” he said.

Kan said manure is a very rich source for bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion, which includes fermentative and methane-producing bacteria, for converting manure to methane in biogas and volatile organic acids.

Methanogenic bacteria are of particular interest to Kan because of their potential to produce methane gas at a rate that could power a farm. However, methanogenic bacteria were found to be the rate-limiting factor for anaerobic digestion due to their sensitive responses to operating conditions such as temperature and pH levels.

Kan said the bioreactors used to perform anaerobic digestion of the waste – digestors – only work well when environmental conditions are good for both bacteria types.

“Sometimes environmental conditions make it difficult to operate anaerobic digestion at dairy farms in areas such as Wisconsin or Texas where weather variabilities are extreme,” he said. “This would make the process inconsistent and difficult to control.”

Anaerobic digestion of manure results in low pH and other undesirable conditions in the bioreactor,  which slow down or inhibit methanogenic bacterial growth and metabolism when operating conditions aren’t optimal, Kan said.

Jang, the principal author, researched how the use of biochar could overcome these operating problems.

Manure-derived biochar is alkaline with a pH of 8-9, Kan said, and can act as an excellent buffer to maintain the optimum pH for methanogenic bacteria, which is around pH 7. It contains high levels of nutrients and minerals to support high bacterial growth, while its high carbon contents enrich the microbial community associated with anaerobic digestion.

Kan and Jang have tested low biochar-to-manure ratios so far with promising results. Dairy manure mixed with no biochar and 0.1-1 percent biochar showed that adding biochar increased methane production by approximately 40 percent and reduced the production time to achieve target biogas production by 50-70 percent.

“It decreased the lag phase, which is the time that elapses before production starts, and cut the biogas production time in half each time we added more biochar,” he said. “Production time is a significant factor for a dairy with say 1,000 cows that produce 8,000 kilograms of dry manure each day, but reducing the digestion time also means the size of the anaerobic bioreactor reduces by half.”

Reducing the retention time and footprint of the digestors would mean lower initial investment cost, water consumption, utility costs, operating costs and land requirements, Kan said.

But Kan said more research is needed to understand the changes in microbial communities with biochar and to determine the optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion of manure before researchers can build a scale version that can be tested and eventually applied to scale for a working dairy.

Kan believes current technology – lagoons for dairy manure management – could be upgraded to anaerobic digesters covered and mixed with biochar. Using biochar in upgraded anaerobic lagoons would enhance biogas production and shorten treatment time while capturing greenhouse and odorous gases.

He said there are good indications that researchers could optimize conditions then move to a pilot test on a dairy within the next few years.

“There are good indications that biochar will make anaerobic digestion a viable solution for more efficient management of animal manure with easier operations than conventional anaerobic digestions,” he said. “When we optimize conditions and move to the test phase on a dairy then we will know what capital investment and footprint would be necessary to build sustainable digestors that can meet the disposal needs and then apply that to other operations based on their capacity.”

 

-30-

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The Technological Future of Biochar Technology Market by Focusing On Top Key Vendors …

5 January, 2018
 

The report, titled “Global Biochar Technology Market.” The report on the global market offers an elaborate assessment of key drivers and restraints, emerging trends, notable opportunities, prominent business use cases, and recent technological advancements. The research presents a thorough insight into the market share and size of various types of lucrative avenues, and competitive landscape.

This report studies Biochar Technology in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2013 to 2018, and forecast to 2023.

Top Key Vendors:

Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics LLC

Get Sample Copy @
http://www.qyreports.com/request-sample/?report-id=59530

The report offers a fundamental overview of the Global Biochar Technology Market. It includes definitions, product specifications, classification, and applications of the global market. The study also comprises an industry chain analysis and an industry overview of the major regions and their status in the global market.

The next section of the report analyzes the development plans and policies, manufacturing process, and product cost structure of the Biochar Technology market. The report specifically focuses on the leading regions and manufacturers engaged in the production of consumer devices along with the analysis of the competitive landscape, development trends, and prime regions status of development. The report also contains information such as company profiles, product specification and picture, production capacity, cost, revenue, and gross profit margin.

The report profiles the key market players which are dominant in the global Biochar Technology market. It also provides essential information about leading companies, such as product specification, financial overview, business overview, contact information, and recent developments. The list of figures provided in the table of content has mentioned all of the statistical representations of the market offered in the report.

On the basis of geographical regions, the Global Biochar Technology Market is segmented broadly into Latin America, Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Asia Pacific. The global market is still in its exploratory stage in most of the regions but it holds the promising potential to flourish steadily in coming years. The major companies investing in this market are situated in Canada, U.K., and the US, India, China and some more countries of Asia Pacific region. Consequently, Asia Pacific, North America, and Western Europe are estimated to hold more than half of the market shares, collectively in coming years.

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http://www.qyreports.com/enquiry-before-buying/?report-id=59530

The research report profiles the players and offers a detailed report about the competitive landscape present in the global Biochar Technology market. Additionally, the report also includes a Porter’s five forces analysis, which examines the threat of the new entrants, the bargaining power of buyers and suppliers, and the intensity of the competitive rivalry. The report also discusses the business and marketing strategies likely to be implemented by these in the coming few years.

In the concluding divisions of the report, the manufacturers responsible for increasing the sales in the ­ Biochar Technology Market have been presented. These manufacturers have been analyzed in terms of their manufacturing base, basic information, and competitors. In addition, the technology and product type introduced by each of these manufacturers also form a key part of this section of the report.

Table of Content:

Global Biochar Technology Market Research Report 2018-2023

Chapter 1 Global Biochar Technology Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact

Chapter 3 Competition by Manufacturer

Chapter 4 Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2018-2023)

Chapter 5 Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2018-2023)

Chapter 6 Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Market Forecast (2018-2023)

Chapter 13 Appendix

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Biochar Chemical Composition, Soil Applications & Ecological Impacts

5 January, 2018
 

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Biochar affects the dissolved and colloidal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn and their …

5 January, 2018
 

Biochar (BC) treated soil showed a wider range of EH and pH than the untreated soil.

Biochar increased dissolved Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, particularly under oxic conditions.

Cadmium was abundant in the colloidal and Cu in the dissolved fraction.

Biochar increased dissolved Cd, Ni, Zn and in particular Cu under oxic conditions.

The phytoavailability of the elements was higher than their potential mobility.

Biochar (BC) treated soil showed a wider range of EH and pH than the untreated soil.

Biochar increased dissolved Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, particularly under oxic conditions.

Cadmium was abundant in the colloidal and Cu in the dissolved fraction.

Biochar increased dissolved Cd, Ni, Zn and in particular Cu under oxic conditions.

The phytoavailability of the elements was higher than their potential mobility.

There is a lack of knowledge on the effects of biochar (BC) on the release dynamics of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in different phases of soil under systematic change of redox potential (EH). We aimed to elucidate the impact of pre-definite EH on the release dynamics of dissolved and colloidal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn as well as their phytoavailability and potential mobility in the solid-phase of a mining soil treated with rice hull biochar (S + BC) compared to non-treated soil (S). The influence of EH-dependent changes of soil pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved aromatic carbon (DAC), Fe, Mn, SO42 −, and Cl on the elements release was also determined. The experiment was conducted stepwise from reducing (− 30 mV in S and − 12 mV in S + BC) to oxidizing (+ 218 mV in S and + 333 mV in S + BC) conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm system.

Biochar-treated soil exhibited a wider range of EH and a lower pH than the non-treated soil. Dissolved concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, SO42 −, and DAC increased under oxic conditions in the non-treated and biochar-treated-soils, which might be due to the decline of pH, and/or sulfide oxidation. Cadmium was more abundant in the colloidal fraction, while Cu, Mn, and DOC were more abundant in the dissolved fraction. Nickel, Zn, and Fe distributed almost equally in both fractions. Biochar increased the dissolved concentration of Cd, Ni, Zn and in particular Cu under oxic conditions. However, the biochar did not significantly affect the colloidal fraction of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The phytoavailability of the studied elements was higher than the potential mobility. We conclude that increasing the dissolved concentrations of the elements under oxic conditions might increase their release and transfer into the groundwater and the food chain which should be harmful for the environment.

These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors.

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This article has not been cited.

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Biochar could benefit anaerobic digestion of animal manure

5 January, 2018
 

STEPHENVILLE – New research by Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists shows biochar has potential to make anaerobic digestion of animal manure a more efficient method to rid farms of waste while producing methane for energy.

Dr. Hyun Min Jang, AgriLife Research environmental engineer (left), and Dr. Eunsung Kan, AgriLife Research chemical and environmental engineer, both in Stephenville, are working with biochar to find an efficient way to rid farms of animal waste via anaerobic digestion. (Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service photo by Adam Russell)

Biochar is a man-made charcoal material composedof agricultural wastes including manure, crop residues and forage grasses. It can be used as sustainable fertilizers and to filter a broad range of contaminants, including antibiotics, pesticide and hormones in wastewater and water, as well as to capture greenhouse and odorous gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia.

‘Effects of dairy manure-derived biochar on psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestions of dairy manure’ by Dr. Hyun Min Jang, AgriLife Research environmental engineer, Dr. Yong-Keun Choi, Tarleton State University researcher and Dr. Eunsung Kan, AgriLife Research chemical and environmental engineer in Stephenville, was published recently in Biosource Technology.

The article discusses the potential of using biochar as an accelerating material to make anaerobic digestion of dairy manure more efficient in bioreactors for enhancing breaking down wastes and producing methane gas.

The current management of animal farm manure includes applying waste to croplands, Kan said. Current methods often generate odors and greenhouse gases and can cause ecological problems downstream, such as algae blooms and contaminated groundwater.

‘The value of thenew research is that manure can be a problem source, and anaerobic digestion using biochar serves to dispose of manure while producing methane to power the farm and possibly be sold to local utilities,’ he said.

Kan said manure is a very rich source for bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion, which includes fermentative and methane-producing bacteria, for converting manure to methane in biogas and volatile organic acids.

Methanogenic bacteria are of particular interest to Kan because of their potential to produce methane gas at a rate that could power a farm. However, methanogenic bacteria were found to be the rate-limiting factor for anaerobic digestion due to their sensitive responses to operating conditions such as temperature and pH levels.

Kan said the bioreactors used to perform anaerobic digestion of the waste – digestors – only work well when environmental conditions are good for both bacteria types.

‘Sometimes environmental conditions make it difficult to operate anaerobic digestion at dairy farms in areas such as Wisconsin or Texas where weather variabilities are extreme,’ he said. ‘This would make the process inconsistent and difficult to control.’

Anaerobic digestion of manure results in low pH and other undesirable conditions in the bioreactor, which slow down or inhibit methanogenic bacterial growth and metabolism when operating conditions aren’t optimal, Kan said.

Jang, the principalauthor, researched how the use of biochar could overcome these operating problems.

Manure-derived biochar is alkaline with a pH of 8-9, Kan said, and can act as an excellent buffer to maintain the optimum pH for methanogenic bacteria,which is around pH 7. It contains high levels of nutrients and minerals to support high bacterial growth, while its high carbon contents enrich the microbial community associated with anaerobic digestion.

Kan and Jang have tested low biochar-to-manure ratios so far with promising results. Dairy manure mixed with no biochar and 0.1-1 percent biochar showed that adding biochar increased methane production by approximately 40 percent and reduced the production time to achieve target biogas production by 50-70 percent.

‘It decreased the lag phase, which is the time that elapses before production starts, and cut the biogas production time in half each time we added more biochar,’ he said. ‘Production time is a significant factor for a dairy with say 1,000 cows that produce 8,000 kilograms of dry manure each day, but reducing the digestion time also means the size of the anaerobic bioreactor reduces by half.’

Reducing the retention time and footprint of the digestors would mean lower initial investment cost, water consumption, utility costs, operating costs and land requirements, Kan said.

But Kan said more research is needed to understand the changes in microbial communities with biochar and to determine the optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion of manure before researchers can build a scale version that can be tested and eventually applied to scale for a working dairy.

Kan believes current technology – lagoons for dairy manure management – could be upgraded to anaerobic digesters covered and mixed with biochar. Using biochar in upgraded anaerobic lagoons would enhance biogas production and shorten treatment time while capturing greenhouse and odorous gases.

He said there are good indications that researchers could optimize conditions then move to a pilot test on a dairy within the next few years.

‘There are good indications that biochar will make anaerobic digestion a viable solution for more efficient management of animal manure with easier operations than conventional anaerobic digestions,’ he said. ‘When we optimize conditions and move to the test phase on a dairy then we will know what capital investment and footprint would be necessary to build sustainable digestors that can meet the disposal needs and then apply that to other operations based on their capacity.’

-30-

Texas A&M AgriLife Research published this content on 05 January 2018 and is solely responsible for the information contained herein.
Distributed by Public, unedited and unaltered, on 05 January 2018 16:24:07 UTC.

Original documenthttps://today.agrilife.org/2018/01/05/biochar-benefit-anaerobic-digestion-animal-manure/

Public permalinkhttp://www.publicnow.com/view/46098AF4A1FA6FF5A9A4D9BBA03443401EF65912


Biochar Market Key Players, Growth, Analysis, 2017 – 2025

6 January, 2018
 

Albany, NY — (SBWIRE) — 01/05/2018 — The global market for biochar is its nascent stages. However, this condition is not forecasted to demotivate its shareholders in terms of generating revenues. The market is projected to present lot of opportunities on account of its wide range of applications in fields of remediation of greenhouse gases, soil amendment, and production of energy. Some of the key players in the global market for bichar include names such as Vega Biofuels, Inc., Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd, Phoenix Energy, Biochar Supreme LLC, Agri-Tech Producers, LLC, Full Circle Biochar, Diacarbon Energy Inc., Genesis Industries LLC, Earth Systems Bioenergy, Pacific Biochar, CharGrow, LLC, and Cool Planet Energy Systems. In a recent development, a company based out in Kansas, Smart Terra Care, is trying to acquire a site at Warren County to set up a plant that would be able to produce thermally treated biochar from municipal sewage sludge, food and wood scraps, and waste from paper manufacturing. The representative of the company met with the authorities from the Warren Washington Counties Industrial Development Agency with a proposal of project worth US$12 million.

Request Sample Report @ https://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=2863

The global market for biochar is expected reach an overall valuation of US$14.751 bn by the end of year 2025. This growth of the market is a significant jump from an initial valuation of mere US$444.2 thousand in the year 2016. This growth of the global market for biochar is expected to be achieved with the help of an impressive CAGR of 14.5% over the course of the given forecast period of 2017 to 2025. Numerous universities such as Aberystwyth University, Federal Rural University of Amazon, Massey University, and University of East Anglia are among the top institutes that are working towards the activities of research and development pertaining the production of biochar and may even redefine the overall future of the global market in the coming years of the forecast period. As far as the contribution of the domestic players in the overall international market is concerned, the high concentration of producers can be found in North America. These small companies in the region are completely embedded into the overall value chain of the regional biochar market, starting from the stage of production to the commercialization.

What Factors are Propelling Growth of Global Biochar Market?

The global market for biochar is gaining a lot of attraction due to number of factors such as its increasing sue for enhancing the condition of soil and the growing demand for organic food all across the globe. In addition to this, strict regulations imposed by governments for the preservation of soil and the advantages of waste management are also some of the other key factors that are helping in driving the overall growth of the global market for biochar.

Read Report Overview @ https://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/biochar-market.html

Furthermore, the investments in the market are also on the rise due to production of bio-fuels, growing concerns about the environment and the subsequent need to cut down the hazardous effects of the greenhouse gases. The availability of economical feedstock and proper management of waste disposal are also helping in propelling the development of the global market over the course of the given forecast period.

What Factors may Pose Problems for Market Growth?

However, there are some factors that might impede the growth of the market in the coming years and may stop it from reaching its full potential. One of the key restraining factors for the growth of the global market for biochar is the economical barriers in several developing regions. In addition to this, the general lack of awareness among consumers in these countries is also slowing down the development of the global market.

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Cheap Deals On Biochar Production Equipment Available For Purchase

6 January, 2018
 

Does your business produce a considerable amount of biochar? This can be a very popular product in many countries. Also called charcoal by some businesses, this is a product that is utilized worldwide. The whole process of making biochar is really super easy for those who have a pyrolysis machine. It can create biochar from a variety of materials which will include straw, bamboo, sawdust, and even palm kernels. For those who have been seeking a reliable company to purchase one of those biochar plants from, listed here is a brief breakdown of how they work and to find the very best biochar production equipment on the market.

How These Machines Can Produce Biochar

The procedure of making charcoal or biochar is very simplistic while you are by using a pyrolysis machine. As previously mentioned, they utilize many different materials that can be chemically broken down into components, among which is the biochar. In case you have use of material where trees were harvested, coconut shells, rice hulls, sugarcane, or inorganic materials like plastic or rubber, this is often split up into multiple components. As soon as they are heated to your certain temperature, the machines will be able to extract bio oil, biofuel, as well as the biochar that your enterprise is selling: http://carbonizationfurnace.com/biochar-production-equipment.html.

Where To Start Seeking Pyrolysis Plants

To discover a business which is selling the best pyrolysis machines, you need to search on the internet for companies that were achieving this for quite some time. In recent times, an emphasis on recycling has grown to be very prominent generally in most countries all over the world. However, additionally there is a monetary reason behind entering this industry. Waste materials are produced constantly, but a lot of them are either burned or buried, an issue that will never allow you to generate any profits in any way. However, once these different materials are divided with a pyrolysis machine, and sold to buyers, you will start to see a rise in your monetary gains. When you search on the internet, you will discover many different businesses that sell the products. You have to compare the prices they are selling them for and then try to find some information about every one of these businesses. Reliable companies with inexpensive price points are the ones that you will need to consider, and you may eventually find one that can provide the best deal.

Purchasing biochar production equipment for sale is incredibly easy as a result of Internet. You will see what companies are selling in numerous countries in just minutes. By evaluating the items that they are selling, along with the prices they are charging, you have to have no trouble making the correct choice. You will be able to have a fantastic deal from a company that can ship this equipment for your needs in a very reasonable length of time. Once it can be fully operational, and you are producing biochar regularly and building a profit, you will see why this market is continuing to grow.


Biochar: The Oldest New Thing You've Never Heard Of: Wae Nelson at TEDxOrlando

6 January, 2018
 

Food-matters,

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      Welcome to Transition Studies.  To prosper for very much longer on the changing Earth humankind will need to move beyond its current fossil-fueled civilization toward one that is sustained on recycled materials and renewable energy. This is not a trivial shift. It will require a major transition in all aspects of our lives.
      This weblog explores the transition to a sustainable future on our finite planet. It provides links to current news, key documents from government sources and non-governmental organizations, as well as video documentaries about climate change, environmental ethics and environmental justice concerns.
      The links are listed here to be used in whatever manner they may be helpful in public information campaigns, course preparation, teaching, letter-writing, lectures, class presentations, policy discussions, article writing, civic or Congressional hearings and citizen action campaigns, etc. For further information on this blog see:  About this weblog. and How to use this weblog.

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Sawdust biochar application to rice paddy field: reduced nitrogen loss in floodwater accompanied …

6 January, 2018
 

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Synopsis and Evaluation of Biochar Activities in Ethiopia – Schemes for Potential Biochar Systems

6 January, 2018
 

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6 January, 2018
 


(GD) Biochar Systems for Smallholders in Developing Countries

6 January, 2018
 

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State of the Art of Biochar Systems in the Tropics with a Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa

6 January, 2018
 

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Influence of Pyrolytic Biochar on Settleability and Denitrification of Activated Sludge Process

6 January, 2018
 


The best biochar workshop I've seen…

7 January, 2018
 

This is a 5 part presentation on everything you need to know about biochar. Worth every minute!

Biochar workshop part 1


Biochar Application: Essential Soil Microbial Ecology by Dr. T. Komang Ralebitso

7 January, 2018
 

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Lead removal by a magnetic biochar derived from persulfate-ZVI treated sludge together with one …

7 January, 2018
 

Bioresource technology, ISSN: 1873-2976, Vol: 247, Page: 463-470

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Commercial Grade Bulk Biochar

7 January, 2018
 

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SHACKLEY, SIMON (EDT)/ RUYSSCHAERT

7 January, 2018
 

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BIOCHAR SOLUTIONS much loved ebooks

7 January, 2018
 


Information Regarding Biochar Production Equipment

8 January, 2018
 

Your Company

9th Floor, Building of Central China Electronic Commerce Port,Nansanhuan Rd and Daxue Rd,Erqi District,Zhengzhou, China

Phone: 8617839909611

Emailsales@mswrecyclingplant.com

Map & Directions

Have you been searching for biochar production equipment for sale to your company? You may have a considerable amount of organic waste that you would want to convert into this marketable material. Charcoal happens to be needed, and based upon your location on the planet, this can be among the most lucrative companies that you add up. Using pyrolysis machines, it can be easy to produce plenty of biochar each and every year. You just need to look for a supplier for such machines which is reputable, plus offers competitive prices for these.

Where Should You Really Begin Looking For Biochar Machines?

Biochar machines are getting to be more prevalent. You are able to produce this product if you have an adequate availability of organic material including sawdust, or you may also produce this using plastic or rubber. The biochar machine that you simply purchase will be specifically made of these materials. If you have a huge enough volume of it, you could discover yourself creating a substantial income. You simply must find somebody that is willing to buy it. When you are inside an area where biochar is on the go, you will likely not be able to make enough to take care of the orders. By searching on the web, you will find several different businesses that produce these machines annually. You just might get a fantastic deal, especially on older models.

How Can Biochar Machines Work?

Biochar machines or plants are really unique with their design. Initially, there is a conveyor belt that can go ahead and take material that has been chipped up, sending it in the pyrolysis reactor. Within the reactor, this product will likely be superheated until it starts to break down. It does not burn because every one of the oxygen has been removed. This process will even create a number of other byproducts. You may end up getting bio oil and biofuel. These materials have been in a vapor form which will condense right into a liquid form which can also be sold to the people that use these items.

The Way To Get Great Deals On Biochar Machines

You can search on the net for various businesses that sell them. You will likely see several inside the Orient which often get the lowest prices and machines. They may be industry leaders, in charge of the vast majority of pyrolysis plants and machines that are sold worldwide. They may be small enough for businesses that have got a limited supply of materials to process. Also you can put money into large pyrolysis plants that can produce a lot of this material every day. The largest companies tend to have the ideal prices and that is certainly where you will be in order to save the most money.

These details about biochar production equipment should offer you a few tips on where to start seeking these machines. Whether you require a small pyrolysis machine, or perhaps an entire pyrolysis plant, you will see several that are offered. If you have a lot of plastic, rubber, or organic material from harvesting, you must purchase one of these the instant you can. This will be an incredibly lucrative part of your company, even when you have never used one of them before.

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Biochar Market Supply, Consumption, Cost and Profit analysis and forecast to 2022

8 January, 2018
 

Global Biochar Market report provide emerging opportunities in the market and the future impact of major drivers and challenges and, support decision makers in making cost-effective business decisions. The Biochar industry report assesses key opportunities in the market and outlines the factors that are and will be driving the growth.

“Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.”

Biochar Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis coversNorth America (USA, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy),Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia),South America, Middle East and Africa

Top Manufacturer Included in Biochar Market:  Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6 , BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra, Pacific Biochar, Vega Biofuels, Liaoning Jinhefu Group, Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy, Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology, Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)     And More……

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Biochar Market Research Report @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/10385329  

Biochar Market Segment by Type, covers: Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar

Biochar Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into: Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

Study on Table of Contents:

Scope of the Biochar Market Report: This report focuses on the Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Ask for sample Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10385329

Other Major Topics Covered in Biochar market research report are as follows:

There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the global Biochar market.

Chapter 1, to describe Biochar Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;

Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Biochar, with sales, revenue, and price of Biochar, in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Biochar, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;

Chapter 10 and 11, to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2012 to 2017;

Chapter 12, Biochar market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2017 to 2022;

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Biochar sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source

The Biochar market analysis report speaks about the growth rate of Biochar market in 2022 manufacturing process, key factors driving the Global Biochar market, sales, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Biochar Market, distributors, traders and dealers of Biochar Market.

Limited Period offer, 12% Discount on Biochar Market, Request at: https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-discount/10385329

Next part of Biochar Market Research Report contains additional information like key vendors in Biochar Market space, Biochar Market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the Global Biochar Market, opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Biochar Market. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process.

Purchase Biochar Market Report at $ 3480

(SUL) @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/10385329

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Backyard Biochar: Top Lit Open Burn

8 January, 2018
 

2015 fall backyard burn, hemlock overlook swim bike run photo (sbrp). 2016 fall backyard burn, lake fairfax swim bike run photo (sbrp). 2017 fall backyard burn, pohick bay swim bike run photo (sbrp). 2013 fall backyard burn @lake fairfax swim bike run photo (sbrp).


Biochar Fertilizer Market Overview, Growth Opportunities, Market Demands, Industry Analysis …

8 January, 2018
 

The Biochar Fertilizer market Report presents in-depth analysis of the current Biochar Fertilizer trends, market size, drivers, Biochar Fertilizer opportunities, challenges, and problems as well as key market segments. The report primarily focuses on many critical points and trends of the industry which are useful for our esteemed clients. Further, in the Biochar Fertilizer market report, various definitions and classification of the Biochar Fertilizer industry, applications and chain structure are discussed. In continuation with this data Biochar Fertilizer report also covers the marketing strategies followed by Biochar Fertilizer players, distributors analysis, Biochar Fertilizer marketing channels, potential buyers and Biochar Fertilizer development history.

Major classifications are as follows: Organic Fertilizer, Inorganic Fertilizer, Compound Fertilizer

Major applications are as follows: Cereals, Oil Crops, Fruits and Vegetables

Ask for Sample Report for in depth information @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/11032742 

After the basic information, the global Biochar Fertilizer Market study sheds light on the Biochar Fertilizer technological evolution, Market trends and dynamics, acquisition, innovative Biochar Fertilizer business approach, new launches and Biochar Fertilizer revenue. In addition, the Biochar Fertilizer industry growth in distinct regions and Market size & shares, are enclosed within the report. The Biochar Fertilizer study also incorporates new investment feasibility analysis of Biochar Fertilizer.

Key Points in Report:

Major companies are as follows: Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics LLC, , , ,

Do You Have Any Query or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry Expert @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/11032742

Key questions answered in the report:

Purchase Complete Report at $3500 (SUL) @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/11032742

Overall the Biochar Fertilizer report offers a whole consequential Analysis of the parent Biochar Fertilizer market , key tactics followed by leading Biochar Fertilizer industry Players and upcoming segments. Former, current and forecast Biochar Fertilizer Industry analysis in terms of volume and value along with research conclusions which exponentially accelerate your business and helps the new aspirants to inspect the forthcoming opportunities in the Biochar Fertilizer Industry.

 

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environment

8 January, 2018
 

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Learn about Biochar, an Environmental Superstar, at NASA's Langley Research Center

8 January, 2018
 

Press Release From: Langley Research Center
Posted: Monday, January 8, 2018

A little-known way to get your garden growing — and promote a healthier planet —will be discussed at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

Langley scientist Doris Hamill will give a lecture Tuesday, Jan. 9, at 2 p.m. in the center’s Pearl Young Theater entitled “Biochar – Environmental Superstar” as part of NASA Langley’s Colloquium and Sigma Series Lectures. Hamill will also give the same talk Tuesday, Jan. 9, at 7:30 p.m. at the Virginia Air & Space Center in Hampton, Virginia.

Biochar, which is charcoal used as a soil amendment, has an interesting origin. Most approaches to the global warming problem concentrate on reducing the rate at which greenhouse gases are added to the atmosphere, with the ultimate hope of moving to a “carbon-free” future in which we are no longer adding them at all.

But these solutions cannot undo the damage that has been done by three hundred years of removing carbon from geological sequestration to cycle through the atmosphere, biosphere and oceans. To reverse this damage, carbon must be withdrawn from the cycle and sequestered in an inert state for hundreds or thousands of years.

About 20 years ago, discoveries in the Amazon rain forest showed that primitive people already had an approach to doing just that. They were making and using a material now called biochar, an inert form of carbon made using simple materials – woody biomass – and a simple, carbon-negative process.

Biochar can sequester this carbon in Earth’s soils, and when it does, the soils become more productive, require less chemical amendments, and even filter harmful materials from percolating groundwater. While there is a dedicated community of biochar enthusiasts, it has not yet become well enough known to live up to its potential. This lecture will describe biochar, its history and its virtues, and also describe how it can be made and used simply by almost anyone.

Hamill is a scientist with degrees in physics and biophysics who has spent her career managing technology development. She began as an Air Force officer and became a program manager with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. At Oceaneering Space Systems, she managed the development of a commercial life-support system for firefighters. At Spacehab, she managed the commercial research portfolio for space experiments. Since 2003, she has been with NASA Langley in several technology management roles. She has promoted biochar to various interest groups in the Hampton Roads region for 10 years.

Interested media members who wish to attend the lecture at NASA Langley may contact news chief Michael Finneran at 757-864-6110 or michael.p.finneran@nasa.gov by noon Tuesday, Jan. 9.
NASA Langley’s Colloquium and Sigma Series Lectures provide monthly talks and demonstrations related to science and technology.

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Study suggests biochar could significantly improve anaerobic digester performance

8 January, 2018
 

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Biochar could benefit anaerobic digestion of animal manure

8 January, 2018
 


Biochar could benefit anaerobic digestion of animal manure

8 January, 2018
 


Biochar Fertilizer Market: Focus on Deriving Business-rich Information from Raw Data Compelling …

8 January, 2018
 

A comprehensive analysis of the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market is been done in this intelligence report. It includes the investigations done on the past progress, ongoing market scenarios, and future prospects. An accurate data of the products, strategies and market shares of leading companies in this particular market is mentioned. This report presents a 360-degree overview of the competitive scenario of the Global market. The report further projects the size and valuation of the Global market in the coming forecast period. The report also presents a thorough qualitative and quantitative data affecting to the projected impact of these factors on market’s future growth prospects.

Top Key Vendors:

Biogrow Limited,Biochar Farms,Anulekh,GreenBack,Carbon Fertilizer,Global Harvest Organics LLC

Get Sample Copy of this Report:

http://qyreports.com/request-sample?report-id=59530

Biochar is an essential soil amendment as it removes all toxic elements and sand pollutants from the soil. It prevents soil leeching, fertilizer runoff and maintains the moisture level of the soil.  It also protects the crops during draughts and floods. Presently, synthetic and other bio-based fertilizers dominate the agricultural sector. But, led by several initiatives the awareness is spreading gradually amongst the farmers to include it into agricultural activities. Thus, creating huge avenues for market growth in coming years.

According to the research report, the Global market for Biochar Fertilizer Market is witnessing a continual rise in its valuation with the advancement in technologies, which is impacting the consumer behavior and, accordingly, their purchasing patterns to a great extent. In addition to this, the rising penetration of internet and the surge in mobile surfing are anticipated to boost the demand for Biochar Fertilizer across the world, states the research report.

For more Enquiry on this Report:

http://qyreports.com/enquiry-before-buying?report-id=59530

On the basis of geographical regions, the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market is segmented broadly into Latin America, Global, the Middle East and Africa, and Asia Pacific. The Global market is still in its exploratory stage in most of the regions but it holds the promising potential to flourish steadily in coming years. The major companies investing in this market are situated in Canada, U.K., and the US, India, China and some more countries of Asia Pacific region. Consequently, Asia Pacific, North America, and Western Global are estimated to hold more than half of the market shares, collectively in coming years.

This statistical surveying research study presents an all-inclusive evaluation of the global market for Biochar Fertilizer, taking various industry parameters, such as the capacity of production, product pricing, demand, supply, and sales dynamics, returns on investments, and the growth rate of the overall market into consideration.

In the last sections of the report, the manufacturers responsible for increasing the sales in the Biochar Fertilizer Market have been presented. These manufacturers have been analyzed in terms of their manufacturing base, basic information, and competitors. In addition, the technology and product type introduced by each of these manufacturers also form a key part of this section of the report.

Get Discount on this report:
http://www.qyreports.com/ask-for-discount/?report-id=59530

Table of Content:

Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Research Report 2018-2023

Chapter 1 Biochar Fertilizer Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact

Chapter 3 Competition by Manufacturer

Chapter 4 Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2018-2023)

Chapter 5 Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2018-2023)

Chapter 6 Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Market Forecast (2018-2023)

Chapter 13 Appendix

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crushing bio grinding

8 January, 2018
 

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BIOCHAR BELOW COST MUST SELL

8 January, 2018
 

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westside-southbay >

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Biochar– crushed

8 January, 2018
 

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Carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized ZnO/biochar nanocomposites

8 January, 2018
 

Biochar(BC)-supported nanoscaled zinc oxide (nZO) was encapsulated either with (nZORc/BC) or with no (nZOR/BC) sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet (UV)-visible-near infrared spectrophotometry revealed that nZO of 16, 10, and 20 nm with energy band gaps of 2.79, 3.68 and 2.62 eV were synthesized for nZOR/BC, nZORc/BC and nZO/BC, respectively. The Langmuir isotherm predicted saturated sorption of methylene blue (MB) was 17.01 g kg−1 for nZORc/BC, over 19 times greater than nZOR/BC and nZO/BC. Under UV irradiation, 10.9, 61.6, 83.1, and 41.6% of MB were degraded for nZORc/BC, nZO/BC, nZOR/BC and BC. The scavenging experiment revealed hydroxyl radical dominated CMC degradation. Exogenous CMC (2 g L−1) increased MB sorption from 10.6% to 73.1%, but decreased MB degradation from 80.7% to 41.1%, relative to nZOR/BC. Thus, CMC could increase MB sorption by electrostatic attraction and other possible mechanisms. The compromised MB degradation may be ascribed to reduced availability of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals to degrade MB, and increased band gap energy of ZnO.

 


VIdeo: Biochar

8 January, 2018
 

Video: Biochar an organic charcoal

Doris Hamill talks about Biochar. Biochar is an organic charcoal that has an incredible range of environmental benefits – removing heavy metals from soils, enriching farmland, filtering groundwater, sequestering carbon from the carbon cycle that causes global warming. Monday, Jan. 8, 2018.

Doris Hamill talks about Biochar. Biochar is an organic charcoal that has an incredible range of environmental benefits – removing heavy metals from soils, enriching farmland, filtering groundwater, sequestering carbon from the carbon cycle that causes global warming. Monday, Jan. 8, 2018.

Doris Hamill talks about Biochar. Biochar is an organic charcoal that has an incredible range of environmental benefits – removing heavy metals from soils, enriching farmland, filtering groundwater, sequestering carbon from the carbon cycle that causes global warming. Monday, Jan. 8, 2018.


Biochar: An Emerging Panacea for Remediation of Soil Contaminants from Mining, Industry and …

8 January, 2018
 

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Abstract

Mine tailings, waste rock piles, acid mine drainage, industrial wastewater, and sewage sludge have contaminated a vast area of cultivable and fallow lands, with a consequence of deterioration of soil and water quality and watercourses due to the erosion of contaminated soils for absence of vegetative cover.

High concentrations of toxic elements, organic contaminants, acidic soils, and harsh climatic conditions have made it difficult to re-establish vegetation and produce crops there.

Recently, a significant body of work has focussed on the suitability and potentiality of biochar as a soil remediation tool that increases seed emergence, soil and crop productivity, above ground biomass, and vegetation cover on mine tailings, waste rock piles, and industrial and sewage waste-contaminated soils by increasing soil nutrients and water-holding capacity, amelioration of soil acidity, and stimulation of microbial diversity and functions.

This review addresses: i) the functional properties of biochar, and microbial cycling of nutrients in soil; ii) bioremediation, especially phytoremediation of mine tailings, industrial waste, sewage sludge, and contaminated soil using biochar; iii) impact of biochar on reduction of acid production, acid mine drainage treatment, and geochemical dynamics in mine tailings; and iv) treatment of metal and organic contaminants in soils using biochar, and restoration of degraded land.


Biochar Market 2018 | Global Survey and Trend Research

8 January, 2018
 

Global Biochar Market Analysis 2011-2017 and Forecast 2018-2023

Global Biochar Market Analysis Report studies latest Biochar industry trends, development aspects, market gains and Biochar industry scenario during the forecast period (2018-2023). The fundamental overview of Biochar industry, key market segments, product description, Biochar applications are presented in this report. Global Biochar Market report provides the details related to fundamental Biochar overview, development status, technological advancements, market dominance and market dynamics. The past data pertaining to Biochar industry along with present and forecast market scenario will drive useful business decisions.

Global Biochar Market Report includes top Biochar manufacturers along with their company profile, Biochar growth aspects, opportunities and threats to the market development. Global Biochar report lists the details related to demand and supply, consumption ratio, sales margin, production capacity, cost analysis and factors affecting the growth of Biochar. This report presents the Biochar industry analysis from 2011-2017 and then provides forecast details from 2018-2023. An up-to-date Biochar industry details related to industry events, import/export scenario, market share is covered in this report.

Global Biochar Market report evaluates the market on basis of key regions like North America (U.S., Canada, Mexico), Europe (Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, Spain etc.), South America (Brazil, Argentina etc.), Asia-Pacific (China, India, Japan, Southeast Asia etc.), Middle East & Africa (Saudi Arabia, South Africa etc.). A complete analysis of Biochar Strengths and risk factors of the market development will provide the way for determining the investment feasibility.

Do inquiry here for more information and for Sample Copy of report:-http://marketdesk.us/report/global-biochar-market-2017-99s/1765/#requestForSample

Companies Covered:-

Diacarbon Energy
Agri-Tech Producers
Biochar Now
Carbon Gold
Kina
The Biochar Company
Swiss Biochar GmbH
ElementC6?
BioChar Products
BlackCarbon
Cool Planet
Carbon Terra
Pacific Biochar
Vega Biofuels
Liaoning Jinhefu Group
Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy
Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology
Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)

Product Application’s covered:-

Soil Conditioner
Fertilizer

Product Type covered:-

Wood Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Rice Stove Source Biochar
Wheat Stove Source Biochar
Other Stove Source Biochar

Read More about report details and table of Content here :- http://marketdesk.us/report/global-biochar-market-2017-99s/1765/#toc

Global Biochar market studies the market driving forces, limiting factors to the market growth, all the qualitative and quantitative data related to Biochar industry. All the relevant points related to Biochar  industry performers, competitive market scenario, segmented analysis, consumer volume, Biochar manufacturing cost, and innovative strategies followed by key players are evaluated in this report.


BioChar 1 Cu. Ft. Bag

8 January, 2018
 

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Methods and systems for the co-generation of gaseous fuels, biochar, and fertilizer from biomass …

9 January, 2018
 

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 61/521,357 filed Aug. 8, 2011, and 61/680,114, filed Aug. 6, 2012, each of which is incorporated by reference as if disclosed herein in its entirety.

In 2010, it was reported that fossil fuels accounted for 80-90% of global energy consumption, and they will continue to be the predominant source of energy for the foreseeable future, considering that they are still the most abundant and affordable source of energy. Rapid economic growth in developing countries such as China and India will further amplify the increasing demand for fossil fuels. Unfortunately, fossil fuel resources are not uniformly distributed in the world, and thus many nations depend on importation for much of their fuel supply. The utilization of fossil fuels also results in the emission of many environmentally detrimental byproducts, including greenhouse gases. Therefore, the issues of energy security and imbalances in the global carbon cycle brought about by anthropogenic carbon emissions have prompted much investigation into new sustainable fuel and energy generation paradigms. Achieving a sustainable energy pathway requires both a multifaceted technological solution and the use of various energy sources. In particular, the development of efficient energy conversion schemes is desired for alternative feedstocks, rather than simply applying conventional fossil energy conversion technologies to them.

As an alternative energy resource, biomass is a feedstock that is renewable, carbon neutral, diverse, and diffusely spread throughout the world. In the United States, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicts that energy consumption from biomass will increase 2.9% annually from the period of 2009 to 2035, comprising 4.6% of U.S. energy consumption by 2035. For the developing world, which the EIA is projecting to have an 84% increase in energy demand versus a 14% increase for the developed world by 2035, biomass is a crucial energy resource. In 2001, nearly 50% of Africa’s total primary energy supply was from biomass and waste. Biomass will therefore be an important energy feedstock for decades to come; however, it must be utilized in a sustainable and efficient manner.

As biomass is a very low energy density feedstock, thermochemical pathways have been developed to increase its energy density. One pathway is through the conversion of biomass to biocrude via pyrolysis. Biomass feedstocks can also be converted into a synthesis gas, i.e., carbon monoxide and hydrogen, through conventional or supercritical gasification processes, the latter being more well-suited to biomass feedstocks with greater than 35 wt % moisture content. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis can then be employed to make hydrocarbon fuels from the synthesis gas. Most of these thermochemical processes can be made to be highly flexible, allowing for a range of fuels to be made from a wide variety of biomass feedstocks. However, there has been less investigation into processes where biomass can be utilized as a feedstock in a local, distributed generation scheme, one that does not require increasing the energy density of the feedstock through fuel conversion to make fuel transportation feasible. Distributed biomass conversion is particularly attractive for the developing world and rural communities, as many of these regions lack the infrastructure necessary for a large scale grid. The aforementioned thermochemical conversion technologies, such as gasification and pyrolysis, can also be scaled down into small units, but due to their high operating temperatures and pressures, the main difficulties of their distributed small-scale deployment will lie in the need for skilled operators and the issue of safety. Therefore, the development of a biomass conversion scheme that can safely be operated at lower temperature and pressure is desired.

Several studies have been conducted to investigate one-step hydrogen production methods from biomass primarily through the addition of alkaline and alkaline earth hydroxides, which transfer the carbon in the biomass to a stable, solid carbonate while producing hydrogen. Thus, unlike gasification and pyrolysis where both carbon and hydrogen remain in the fuel streams, this technology allows for inherent carbon management by fixing carbon in a solid carbonate matrix while maximizing hydrogen production. Unfortunately, known processes involve an energy-intensive pretreatment process to improve mass transfer during the reaction, which entails the impregnation of an aqueous NaOH solution onto biomass, followed by the evaporation of excess water. Therefore, the overall energetics of the biomass conversion is not sustainable.

Others have investigated hydrogen conversion from cellulose using an ionic catalyst containing a base. These solid-solid cellulose systems achieved as high as 60% hydrogen conversion; however, with this approach, carbon monoxide concentration in the gaseous product stream was as high as 700 ppm under similar reaction conditions. While these types of schemes do not require the need for the aqueous NaOH solution-based pretreatment process, their catalyst preparation step did necessitate the removal of water. It was reported that greater conversions to hydrogen are observed as the sodium content in the catalyst is increased.

Another known technology converts biomass to hydrogen but requires a NaOH solution and the subsequent removal of water from the system. The removal of water is very energy intensive so that overall it would not be environmentally sustainable.

In methods and systems according to the disclosed subject matter, biomass is mixed and reacted with alkali metal hydroxides, such as KOH, NaOH, and LiOH, to form hydrogen and small amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide. Rather, the carbon from the biomass goes to a solid alkali carbonate. For example, the following is the reaction for hydrogen production from cellulose via alkaline hydrothermal treatment:
C6H10O5(s)+12NaOH(s)+H2O(g)→6Na2CO3(s)+12H2(g).
The produced alkali carbonate can be calcined to recover the hydroxide while the pure stream of carbon dioxide formed can be easily sequestered via a number of carbon storage techniques. In some embodiments, in addition to hydroxides, nickel and/or iron based catalysts are mixed with biomass to facilitate the conversion of biomass to hydrogen.

The drawings show embodiments of the disclosed subject matter for the purpose of illustrating the invention. However, it should be understood that the present application is not limited to the precise arrangements and instrumentalities shown in the drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of methods and systems according to some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter;

FIG. 2 is a chart of a method according to some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter; and

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a nanoparticle ionic material according to some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter.

Referring now to FIG. 1, aspects of the disclosed subject matter include a system 100 for converting a biomass 102 to hydrogen 104 and carbon dioxide 105.

System 100 includes a pretreatment module 106 for mixing at least one of a dry solid or liquid hydroxide 108 and one or more catalysts 110 with biomass 102 to form a biomass mixture 112. In some embodiments, catalysts 110 include nickel and iron. In some embodiments, hydroxide 108 is an alkali metal hydroxide or their solutions, e.g., such as one of KOH, NaOH, LiOH, and a combination thereof. In some embodiments, basic ionic liquids or other organic solvents are used as a hydroxide source.

System 100 includes an alkaline hydrothermal treatment reactor 114 in fluid communication, e.g. via a conduit 116, with pretreatment module 106. Biomass mixture 112 and water vapor, i.e., steam, is heated in alkaline hydrothermal treatment reactor 114 until hydroxide 108 and biomass 102 react to produce hydrogen 104 and a carbonate 118.

System 100 includes a hydroxide regeneration reactor 120 in fluid communication, e.g. via a conduit 122, with alkaline hydrothermal treatment reactor 114. Carbonate 118 produced in alkaline hydrothermal treatment reactor 114 is calcined or undergoes double displacement reactions in hydroxide regeneration reactor 120 to produce carbon dioxide 105 and a hydroxide 124. Carbon dioxide 105 is produced by releasing it from carbonate 118 during the calcining process. Carbon dioxide 105, which is sequestration-ready, is collected and typically stored at a carbon storage module 126 via in-situ or ex-situ mineral carbonation. In some embodiments, hydroxide 124 is recycled to alkaline hydrothermal treatment reactor 114 and/or pretreatment module 106 via a conduit 127. By using steam, instead of a liquid hydroxide system, the energy requirement for hydroxide regeneration is minimized.

System 100 includes an energy generation module 128 including a fuel cell 130 that utilizes at least a first portion 132 of hydrogen 104 to generate electrical energy 134. In some embodiments, at least a second portion 136 of hydrogen 104 is collected and stored.

Referring now to FIG. 2, some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter include a method 200 of converting a biomass to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. At 202, a dry solid or liquid hydroxide is mixed with a biomass to form a biomass mixture. In some embodiments, the biomass is one of algae, haematococcus pluvialis, farming residues, and other materials containing cellulose or glucose. There is no need for an energy-intensive drying process of biomass, and thus wet biomass materials can directly be used. In some embodiments, the dry solid or liquid hydroxide is an alkali metal hydroxide, e.g., KOH, NaOH, LiOH, Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the dry solid or liquid hydroxide is a liquid base such as an ionic liquid or a basic organic solvent. Typically, but not always, an amount of the hydroxide is selected so that the generation of carbon monoxide produced when the hydroxide and the biomass react is minimized. In some embodiments, the amount of the hydroxide is selected so that a stoichiometric ratio of the hydroxide to the biomass is about 1:1. In some embodiments, the stoichiometric ratio of the hydroxide to the biomass is as much as about 10:1. Depending on the selection of the hydroxide, i.e., ammonium based, one of the byproducts could be the fertilizer.

In some embodiments, one or more catalysts, e.g., nickel or iron-based, are also mixed with the biomass at 202. In some embodiments, the catalysts will be directly embedded on to the biomass particles. In some embodiments, the catalysts will be loaded inside inorganic nanofibers, e.g., silica, alumina, carbon, etc. Referring now to FIG. 3, in some embodiments, the catalysts include nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) 300, each of which includes a nanoparticle core 302 and molecular organic polymeric corona 304. Nanoparticle core 302 typically includes at least one of nickel and iron, but can include other materials that facilitate the conversion of biomass to hydrogen.

Referring again to FIG. 2, at 204, water vapor, i.e., steam is injected into the biomass mixture and it is heated until the hydroxide and the biomass react to produce hydrogen and carbonate. In some embodiments, the biomass mixture is heated to about 200 to about 300 degrees Celsius and at ambient pressure. In some embodiments, a temperature of about 250 degrees Celsius is maintained during the heating process. At 206, the carbonate is calcined to produce carbon dioxide and a hydroxide. At 208, the hydrogen produced is transferred to a fuel cell. At 210, the fuel cell is used to generate electricity. At 212, the carbon dioxide produced is stored, e.g., via in-situ or ex-situ mineral carbonation.

Methods and systems according to the disclosed subject matter offer benefits over known technologies. Due to issues of environmental sustainability associated with anthropogenic carbon emission and energy security, there is a strong interest to develop a new generation of energy conversion technologies that utilize domestic energy sources. As a feedstock, biomass represents a major potential for the sustainable generation of energy worldwide because it is a widespread and carbon neutral resource. However, biomass has a much lower energy density as compared to fossil fuels. For this reason, in order for energy generation schemes involving biomass to be viable, they must be implemented within close proximity to the feedstock. Therefore, a small distributed energy generation system that can be operated without special training is an ideal solution to the biomass conversion technologies. This approach will bring about a great paradigm shift in energy generation and utilization since this will allow conventional energy consumers to become energy producers. The public will be able to make decisions on how energy is generated and how a scope of environmental sustainability can be incorporated into the energy conversion technology.

One of the main benefits of technology according to the disclosed subject matter is that chemical conversion can be achieved at temperatures of about 200 to about 300 degrees Celsius and ambient pressure, which is significantly lower than gasification, i.e., greater than 700 degrees Celsius at up to 10 MPa, or pyrolysis, i.e., 370 to 530 degrees Celsius at 0.1-0.5 MPa, conditions. The moderate reaction conditions of the methods and systems according to the disclosed technology make the design of a compact reactor for a distributed energy generation system feasible.

Biomass including biogenic wastes is one of the important energy resources for the sustainable future. Therefore, there are a number of biomass related technologies being developed to convert biomass into fuels, e.g., gasification and pyrolysis. However, due to the low energy density of biomass, the development of such technologies can be limited by the transportation distance. Also, a large scale centralized energy conversion technology requires large capital investment which will slow down its commercial deployment. Technology according to the disclosed subject matter eliminates the problem of large capital investment so that the commercialization of such technology will be much easier and faster. Furthermore, due to the same reason, smaller businesses can now become energy producers while the traditional energy sector was led by only the large energy companies.

Technology according to the disclosed subject matter of converting biomass into biofuels and biopower allows rural areas to leapfrog to the next-generation energy infrastructure while avoiding the current fossil energy based system. With the compact size and low cost of biomass, this technology provides benefits ranging from a reduction in oil dependence to a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions or even to a creation of negative emissions. Most of the biomass is low in energy density making it undesirable to transport the biomass long distances before it is converted to high value energy sources. Thus, the biorefining systems according to the disclosed subject matter, which are compact and mass-producible, are suitable for small rural and farm-scale applications while ensuring the maximum efficiency in energy extraction from biomass. They are able to cogenerate H2 and electricity for various applications including domestic and transportation uses. Technology according to the disclosed subject matter can equip farmers and local communities with systems that offer energy with improved environmental sustainability. Since the units are designed to be compact, the initial capital investment may be very small compared to conventional power plants.

The proposed project is transformational, since the alkaline hydrothermal treatment of biomass is a new concept that has not been fully developed. Since the process itself requires relatively low operating temperature and pressure and an anticipated low initial capital investment, once developed, the technology according to the disclosed subject matter can be implemented in rural areas at a rapid pace. Technology according to the disclosed subject matter offers the opportunity to change the energy infrastructure from current large-scale power generation to small distributed forms and will provide much needed energy and environmental sustainability.

Although the disclosed subject matter has been described and illustrated with respect to embodiments thereof, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that features of the disclosed embodiments can be combined, rearranged, etc., to produce additional embodiments within the scope of the invention, and that various other changes, omissions, and additions may be made therein and thereto, without parting from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

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Biochar Market Development and Trends Forecasts Report 2017-2022

9 January, 2018
 

Biochar Market 2022 report has Forecasted Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) in % value for period for Biochar market, that will help investor to take decision based on futuristic chart. Report also includes key players in Biochar market.
Get Sample PDF of Biochar Market report at 
https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/11210719

The Report Comprises of Various Company Profiles of Fundamental Market Players of Biochar Market

With thorough market segment in terms of different Countries, this report divides the market into a few key countries, with sales (consumption), revenue, market share, and growth rate of the market in these countries over the forecast period 2017-2022.

For Any Query or Customised Report, Contact Our Expert at: https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/11210719 

 The Biochar Market to grow at a substantial Compound Annual Growth Rate during the forecast period 2017-2022.

 Geographical Segmentation of Biochar Market:

 The Report highlights key market dynamics of sector. Various definitions and classification of the industry, applications of the industry and chain structure are given. The current market scenario and future prospects of the sector also have been studied. Additionally, prime strategical activities in the market, which includes product developments, mergers and acquisitions, partnerships, etc., are discussed.

The research report offers answers to several important questions related to the growth of the Biochar market. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed, and overall research conclusions are offered. In a word, the report provides major statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market. 

Ask for Sample of Biochar market research report at: https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/11210719

Major Table of Contents of Mentioned in the Report 2017-2022

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VIdeo: Biochar

9 January, 2018
 


20152023 World Biochar Market Research Report by Product Type, EndUser / Application and …

9 January, 2018
 

All Topics Biotechnology Biotech Business Biotech Products Cancer Cardiovascular Dermatology Drug Discovery Endocrinology Gastroenterology Immunology Infectious Diseases Mental Health Neurology Obstetrics Orthopedics Public Health Respiratory Rheumatology Urology
  Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you

Summary

Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygenlimited environment. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils low pH soils, increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soilborne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.

This report includes market status and forecast of global and major regions, with introduction of vendors, regions, product types and end industries; and this report counts product types and end industries in global and major regions.

Market Segment as follows:

By Region / Countries

North America U.S., Canada, Mexico

Europe Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, Spain etc

South America Brazil, Argentina etc

Middle East Africa Saudi Arabia, South Africa etc

By Type

Wood Source Biochar

Corn Stove Source Biochar

Rice Stove Source Biochar

Wheat Stove Source Biochar

Other Stove Source Biochar

By EndUser / Application

Soil Conditioner

Fertilizer

Others

By Company

Diacarbon Energy

AgriTech Producers

Biochar Now

Carbon Gold

Kina

The Biochar Company

Swiss Biochar GmbH

ElementC6

BioChar Products

BlackCarbon

Cool Planet

Carbon Terra

Pacific Biochar

Vega Biofuels

Liaoning Jinhefu Group

Hubei Jinri EcologyEnergy

Nanjing Qinfeng Cropstraw Technology

Seek BioTechnology Shanghai

Original Article: 20152023 World Biochar Market Research Report by Product Type, EndUser / Application and Regions / Countries [Report Updated: 18122017] Prices from USD $2800

Fertility
Fertility is the ability of a couple to conceive, but can related to specifically the man or woman. Various reasons can cause a couple to be infertile, and due to the strong desire of these patients to have <!–LGfEGNT2Lhm–>children, a range of …

Biotechnology – Biotech
"using living things to create products or to do tasks for humans" About Biotechnology – Biotech Biotechnology is the practice of using plants, animals and micro-organisms such as bacteria, as well as biological processes – such as the ripen…


NASA Langley scientist touts biochar: an 'environmental superstar'

9 January, 2018
 

Link:


Online Premium Biochar Market – Global Structure, Size, Trends, Analysis and Report 2018

9 January, 2018
 

Main manufacturers/suppliers of Biochar worldwide, with company and product introduction, position in the Biochar market

Market status and development trend of Biochar by types and applications

Cost and profit status of Biochar, and marketing status

Market growth drivers and challenges

Browse full table of contents and data tables at

www.marketresearchnest.com/Biochar-Global-Market-Status-and-Trend-Report-2013-2023.html

The report segments the global Biochar market as:

Global Biochar Market: Manufacturers Segment Analysis (Company and Product introduction, Biochar Sales Volume, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin):

• Diacarbon Energy

• Agri-Tech Producers

• Biochar Now

• Carbon Gold

• Kina

• The Biochar Company

• Swiss Biochar GmbH

• ElementC6

• BioChar Products

• BlackCarbon

• Cool Planet

• Carbon Terra

• Pacific Biochar

• Vega Biofuels

• Liaoning Jinhefu Group

• Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy

• Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology

• Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)

• Sonnenerde

• Biokol

• ECOSUS

• Terra Humana

• Verora

Global Biochar Market: Regional Segment Analysis (Regional Production Volume, Consumption Volume, Revenue and Growth Rate 2013-2023):

• North America

• Europe

• China

• Japan

• Rest APAC

• Latin America

Request a sample copy at

www.marketresearchnest.com/report/requestsample/292399

Global Biochar Market: Type Segment Analysis (Consumption Volume, Average Price, Revenue, Market Share and Trend 2013-2023):

• Wood Stover Source Biochar

• Corn Stover Source Biochar

• Rice Stover Source Biochar

• Wheat Stover Source Biochar

• Other Source Biochar

Global Biochar Market: Application Segment Analysis (Consumption Volume and Market Share 2013-2023; Downstream Customers and Market Analysis)

• Soil Conditioner

• Fertilizer

• Others

This research study involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources. The research process involved the study of various factors affecting the industry, including the government policy, market environment, competitive landscape, historical data, present trends in the market, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, opportunities, market barriers and challenges. The following illustrative figure shows the market research methodology applied in this report.

All possible factors that influence the markets included in this research study have been accounted for, viewed in extensive detail, verified through primary research, and analyzed to get the final quantitative and qualitative data. The market size for top-level markets and sub-segments is normalized, and the effect of inflation, economic downturns, and regulatory & policy changes or other factors are not accounted for in the market forecast.

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BioChar

9 January, 2018
 

use the following search parameters to narrow your results:

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The Biochar Reddit

Biochar – a name for charcoal when it is used for particular purposes, especially as a soil amendment. Like all charcoal, biochar is created by pyrolysis of biomass. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration to produce negative carbon dioxide emissions.

Wikipedia: Biochar

Also see /r/BiocharVideos for videos on biochar

Related Reddits

/r/AgriChar

/r/Agriculture

/r/AgriScience

/r/AgriTech

/r/Agronomy

/r/Algae

/r/AnaerobicDigestion

/r/Aquaculture

/r/BackYardChickens

/r/Bees

/r/BeeKeeping

/r/BiocharVideos

/r/BioDynamic

/r/Biofuel

/r/Biology

/r/Biomass

/r/Bioscience

/r/BlackSoldierFly

/r/Coal

/r/Composting

/r/Crops

/r/Drought

/r/Environment

/r/FactoryFarms

/r/Farm

/r/Farming

/r/FoodSovereignty

/r/ForestGardening

/r/Forests

/r/Forestry

/r/Gardening

/r/Gasification

/r/Geoengineering

/r/Geothermal

/r/GMO

/r/Graphene

/r/Grasslands

/r/Green

/r/Greenhouse

/r/Greenhouses

/r/Homestead

/r/Horticulture

/r/HydroElectric

/r/Hydrology

/r/Hydroponics

/r/InternationalDev

/r/Irrigation

/r/Livestock

/r/LivingOfftheLand

/r/Microbiome

/r/Miscanthus

/r/Mycoremediation

/r/Mycology

/r/NaturalGas

/r/Organic

/r/OrganicFarming

/r/OrganicGardening

/r/Permaculture

/r/Pollinators

/r/Poultry

/r/Pyrolysis

/r/Rainforests

/r/Reforestation

/r/Renewables

/r/RenewableEnergy

/r/SeedSaving

/r/Seedstock

/r/Soil

/r/Soils

/r/Solar

/r/SuburbanFarming

/r/Switchgrass

/r/SynGas

/r/UrbanAgriculture

/r/UrbanFarming

/r/Vermiculture

/r/Waste

/r/Wastewater

/r/Water

/r/Wetlands

/r/Wind

/r/WindEnergy

/r/WoodGas

And Check Out the Big List of Related Reddits

Outside Reddit Sites

International Biochar Initiative

US Biochar Initiative

European Biochar Research Network

UK Biochar Research Centre

Cornell University Agriculture

Illinois Biochar Group

The Biochar Solution

BioChar.net

Biochar.info

BioChar Project.org

What is Biochar?

UC Davis Biochar Database

Important article(s)

Rice U scientists: Cooking temperature determines whether 'biochar' is boon or bane to soil

Highlights

• Ten biochars differing in composition were evaluated in a rumen in vitro assay.

• Methane emissions were only reduced by 5% compared to control incubations.

• Ammonia concentrations were reduced by biochar and the reduction was dependant on source material and process temperature.

Abstract

The effects of different biochars on in vitro rumen gas production and fermentation characteristics were investigated using a two (biochar inclusion level, 10 and 100 g biochar/kg substrate) x two (process temperature, 550 or 700 °C) × five (biomass source, Miscanthus straw, oil seed rape straw, rice husk, soft wood pellets or wheat straw) factorial design.

The amount of biochar included in incubations had no effect on in vitro fermentation.

Overall, inclusion of biochar reduced total gas production to 0.96 (P < 0.001) and methane (CH4) production to 0.95 (P < 0.001) of that in control (no added biochar) incubations.

There were no differences in gas or CH4 production between the biomass sources used to produce biochar but total gas (P = 0.058) and CH4 (P = 0.010) production were slightly greater when biochar was produced at 700 rather 550 °C.

Addition of biochar to incubations did not change total amounts of volatile fatty acids (VFA) or acetic acid produced during in vitro fermentation; however, the amounts of propionate (0.94; P < 0.001) and butyrate (0.96; P = 0.021) were reduced when biochar was added to incubations.

Process temperature had no effect on VFA produced; however, total VFA and the amounts of acetic and butyric acids produced were influenced by biochar biomass source.

Ammonia concentrations at the end of incubations were overall 0.84 of control concentrations (P < 0.001)when biochar was added.

Both process temperature and biochar biomass source influenced ammonia concentrations which were greater for biochar produced at 700 than 550 °C; concentrations were lowest for biochar produced from Miscanthus straw and greatest for rice husk with oil seed rape straw, soft wood pellets and wheat straw intermediate.

Adding biochars with a range of compositions to in vitro assays produced only small reductions in CH4 production.

However, the absence of any negative effects of biochar coupled with the observed reduction in ammonia concentrations makes it possible that including biochar in livestock feed could be a practical means of applying biochar to pasture and soil.


Biochar could benefit anaerobic digestion of animal manure

9 January, 2018
 

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9 January, 2018
 

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9 January, 2018
 

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Soil Related Industries

9 January, 2018
 


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10 January, 2018
 

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Midwest Biochar – Poultry Litter Amendment

10 January, 2018
 

kansas city >

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farm & garden – by owner

Avoid scams, deal locally Beware wiring (e.g. Western Union), cashier checks, money orders, shipping.


Vega Biofuels : to Add Biochar Powder to its Products to Be Sold on Amazon

10 January, 2018
 

Vega Biofuels to Add Biochar Powder to its Products to Be Sold on Amazon

Demand Coming From Hydroponic Grow Facilities

Norcross, Georgia January 10, 2018, Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink: VGPR) announced today that as a result of interest from hydroponic growers, the Company has created a Biochar Powder product that will be sold through the Company’s recently announced agreement with Amazon to market Vega’s products on its website, amazon.com. The Company is currently designing the Biochar Powder packaging and plans to have it available online during the first quarter of 2018.

Vega Biofuels recently announced that it has entered into a Reseller Agreement to provide the Company’s Biochar product to legal cannabis growers. The Reseller Agreement will also cover the Company’s new Biochar Powder product. By also making our products available on Amazon, growers from all over the world will have access to the same super soil enhancement that the larger commercial growers currently use.

Biochar is a highly absorbent specially designed charcoal-type product primarily used as a soil enhancement for the agricultural industry to significantly increase crop yields. Biochar offers a powerfully simple solution to some of today’s most urgent environmental concerns. The production of Biochar for carbon sequestration in the soil is a carbon-negative process. Biochar is made from timber waste using torrefaction technology and the Company’s patent pending manufacturing machine. When put back into the soil, Biochar can stabilize the carbon in the soil for hundreds of years. The introduction of Biochar into soil is not like applying fertilizer; it is the beginning of a process. Most of the benefit is achieved through microbes and fungi. They colonize its massive surface area and integrate into the char and the surrounding soil, dramatically increasing the soil’s ability to nurture plant growth and provide increased crop yield.

“This move is a direct result of requests that we’ve received from hydroponic growers,” stated Michael K. Molen, Chairman/CEO of Vega Biofuels, Inc. “Our Biochar Powder works in water the same way as our other Biochar products. The Biochar Powder will be sold in smaller bags than our other products. We will add the Powder to the list of products currently marketed through reseller agreements and we are proud to have our Biochar products sold through Amazon.”

Biochar can improve water quality, reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching, reduce soil acidity, and reduce irrigation and fertilizer requirements. Biochar was also found under certain circumstances to induce plant systemic responses to foliar fungal diseases and to improve plant responses to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. The various impacts of Biochar can be dependent on the properties of the Biochar, as well as the amount applied. Biochar impact may depend on regional conditions including soil type, soil condition (depleted or healthy), temperature, and humidity. Modest additions of Biochar to soil reduces nitrous oxide N2O emissions by upto 80% and eliminates methane emissions, which are both more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.

About Vega Biofuels, Inc. (OTCPink: VGPR):

Vega Biofuels, Inc. is a cutting-edge energy company that manufactures and markets a renewable energy product called Bio-Coal and a soil enhancement called Biochar, both made from timber waste using unique technology called torrefaction. Torrefaction is the treatment of biomass at high temperatures under low oxygen conditions. For more information, please visit our website at vegabiofuels.com.

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements are not a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by, which such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time the statements are made and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainty and other factors that may cause our results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this press release.

DATASOURCE: Vega Biofuels, Inc.

CONTACT: Vega Biofuels, Inc.: 800-481-0186[email protected]vegabiofuels.com @vegabiofuels

Vega Biofuels Inc. published this content on 10 January 2018 and is solely responsible for the information contained herein.
Distributed by Public, unedited and unaltered, on 10 January 2018 22:54:02 UTC.

Original documenthttp://vegabiofuels.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Vega-PR-1-10-18.pdf

Public permalinkhttp://www.publicnow.com/view/62C63EAE3AC70E42DA3B5781FCE410EB214FF9CA


Global Biochar Market Size 2018 ElementC6, Biochar Now, Kina and Cool Planet

10 January, 2018
 

Global Biochar Market Research 2018 presents the in-depth assessment of Biochar Industry including a competitive analysis of top market players, Biochar Business growth, consumption volume, Biochar market drivers and restraints, future roadmap for the new beginner in planning their Biochar business strategies. Furthermore, Biochar Report includes analysis of market ups and downs of past five years and forecasts Biochar sales investment information from 2017 to 2022.

Biochar Report maps the useful details which are based on Production region, Biochar top manufacturers, product type and applications will Provide the Simplified view of Biochar Industry. The significant presence of numerous regional and local vendors Biochar market is hugely competitive. The Biochar Report helps to acknowledge annual revenue of top leading players, Biochar business methods, company profile and their beneficence to the Global Biochar Market share. The Biochar Research is attached to essential information such as graphs and tables to figure out new trends in the market.

Sample PDF Copy of Global Biochar Market Report at https://market.biz/report/global-biochar-market-2017-mr/154863/#requestforsample

Geographically, Biochar Report is based on several topographical regions according to Biochar import and export ratio of the region, production and consumption volume, Biochar market share and growth rate of Biochar Industry. Major regions impact on Biochar business such as North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa.

Major Key Industries in Global Biochar Market are

Cool Planet
ElementC6
Kina
Biochar Now
The Biochar Company
Vega Biofuels
Liaoning Jinhefu Group
Diacarbon Energy
Pacific Biochar
Agri-Tech Producers
Carbon Gold
BioChar Products
Carbon Terra
Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy
Swiss Biochar GmbH
Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology
Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai)
BlackCarbon

Biochar market study based on Product types

Rice Stove Source Biochar
Corn Stove Source Biochar
Wood Source Biochar

Biochar industry Applications Overview

Fertilizer
Soil Conditioner

The Key Players in Biochar industry are expected to top on to these market opportunities to penetrate the global Biochar market. Biochar market size and revenue of top leading players is appraised using Bottom-up approach. In addition, Biochar report Provides details about raw material analysis, Biochar downstream buyers, development trends, Technical advancement in Biochar business, demand and supply ratio will help emerging Biochar players taking useful business decisions.

Inquiry before buying Global Biochar Market report here https://market.biz/report/global-biochar-market-2017-mr/154863/#inquiry

* Biochar Report gives detailed analysis changing market dynamics.

* Biochar Report gives pin Point analysis on various factors driving and restraining Biochar business growth.

* Technological advancements in Biochar industry to analyze market growth rate.

* Anticipated Biochar market growth is based on analysis of past and the current size of Biochar industry from 2012 to 2017.

Chapter 1 describe Biochar report essential market surveillance, Product cost structure, and analysis, Biochar Market size and scope Forecast From 2017 to 2022. Although, Biochar market gesture, Factors influence the growth of Biochar business also in-depth study of emerging and existing market holders.

Chapter 2 display top manufacturers of Biochar market with sales and revenue and market share. Furthermore, Biochar report analyses the Import and Export Scenario of Biochar Industry, Demand and Supply ratio, labor cost, Biochar raw material supply, Production cost, marketing sources, and downstream consumers of Biochar market.

Chapter 3, 4, 5 analyses Biochar report competitive analysis based on product type, their region wise consumption and import/export analysis, the compound annual growth rate of Biochar market and Forecast study from 2017 to 2022.

Chapter 6 gives an in-depth study of Biochar business channels, Biochar market investors, Traders, Biochar distributors, dealers, Biochar market opportunities and risk.

Browse More Related Reports at http://therealfact24.com/category/chemicals-and-materials/

 

Roberts is a content writer and SEO analyst at prudour since last five years. He has key interest and deep knowledge in market research. Before he started content writing he experimented with various occupations: computer programming, dog-training, scientificating… But his favorite job is the one he’s now doing full-time writing romance.


Scientists discover why biochar fertilizers work so well

10 January, 2018
 

It’s a process that is as old as humankind taming fire and growing crops. The practice of returning carbon to the soil through charcoal (called “biochar” when put into the ground) from fires has been known for centuries to have a positive effect on plant growth.

Now, thanks to some work done at the Canadian Light Source in Saskatoon, advocates of using biochar know the reason why charcoal works so well in capturing and releasing nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus slowly into the soil to improve crop yields over an entire growing season and beyond. The findings could lead to the creation of an organic slow release fertilizer with significantly better performance than current agricultural management practices.

The answer researchers from Europe got in a trip to the CLS beamlines was not the one that everyone had previously presumed.  Instead of the old assumption that oxidization of biochar enabled the storage and release of nutrients for crops, team leader Nikolas Hagemann says the CLS allowed researchers to see the actual pathway.  Martin Obst, one of Hagemann’s collaborators and frequent user of the CLS, used the soft X-ray spectromicroscopy beamline to get a picture at the molecular level so they could see how other nutrients such as composted manure clung to the biochar due to size and shape of the carbon molecules. Incorporated into soil, the biochar is slow to give up the nutrients clinging to it.

Hagemann, an environmental scientist based in Switzerland, worked with a team of researchers from several European, American and Australian institutes who are part of a worldwide effort to apply a more rigorous scientific approach to the use of biochar. 

They see this form of carbon having the potential to improve crop yields in both developed and developing countries, especially in tropical soils in Africa and South America where historically fire pit residues and other forms of biochar were proven to boost crop yields.

“Prior to this, we had no real idea of what happens in the soil with biochar,” Hagemann explained.

“It turns out the driving factor is absorption by the plant root system thanks to an organic coating which is the result of co-composting manure with the biochar. The roots of the plant like the biochar because it slowly realizes the nitrogen in the manure.”

Biochar is the scientific name for something that most everybody has experienced if they have stared into a campfire at night. Hagemann says you can see the blue flames of gases in wood burning off in the combustion process.  But inside the wood where the oxygen can’t get to, the wood cellulose is turned into a hard carbon as it heats up without oxygen. 

The result for the environment is a simple but valuable form of carbon sequestration through agriculture in a process that can be either high tech or low tech.  In high tech production of biochar, the carbon char is what remains after external heat drives off a gas such as methane.  In low tech applications, the biochar is left over from simple household cooking processes once used in Europe and North America and still in use in the developing world. 

Hagemann says advocates of biochar know that composting the biochar along with organics such as cow manure can also take place in an enclosed vessel or in a less technical composting system. A paper published late this year following the team’s visit to the CLS points out that farmers can gain benefits in yield even if the application of manure-infused biochar is as low as half a tonne per hectare.

Hagemann is particularly interested in a project that the Ithaka Institute is doing in Nepal with 60 local farmers using biochar in more than 140 different test fields, substantially improving yields. 

In a practical sense, the European researcher is hoping what was learned at the CLS will result in new ways of creating biochar-based fertilizers that exploit the mechanism by which biochar releases other nutrients over time into soil.

“We want to continue this work on the technical side of things to create this organic fertilizer and work to bring down what is now a very expensive process,” he said.

The article, “Organic coating on biochar explains its nutrient retention and stimulation of soil fertility,” was published in Nature Communications.

-30-

Story by Murray Lyons

Hagemann, Nikolas, Stephen Joseph, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Claudia I. Kammann, Johannes Harter, Thomas Borch, Robert B. Young et al. "Organic coating on biochar explains its nutrient retention and stimulation of soil fertility." Nature Communications 8, no. 1 (2017): 1089. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-01123-0

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Char Technologies Ltd. Announces Acquisition of the Altech Group

10 January, 2018
 

CHAR Technologies Ltd. (“CHAR”) (YES:TSXV) recently announced that it has closed the acquisition of  the Altech Group (“Altech”), which is comprised of  Altech Environmental Consulting Ltd. and Altech Technologies Systems Inc.  Altech provides solutions to environmental engineering challenges.  Founded in 1986, Altech has 12 employees and a diverse and stable client base.  CHAR acquired all issued equity in both Altech Environmental Consulting Ltd., and Altech Technology Systems Inc.  Altech shareholders received 4,523,810 in common shares of CHAR as well as $150,000 in cash.

Bill White, Chairman of CHAR stated that, “The acquisition of the Altech Group adds over 30 years of experience in environmental technologies and professional engineering consulting” and that “Altech provides CHAR with a growth catalyst to move much of our engineering design in-house, while at the same time allows us to greatly expand our technology solutions offering for industrial clean air and clean water.”

CHAR brings the shareholders of Altech a succession plan and an opportunity to realize value at an optimal time.  According to Alexander Keen, Founder and CEO of Altech, “CHAR brings an exciting future for Altech. Our joint efforts going forward will bring tremendous opportunities”.

The new joint enterprise plans to commercialize a new cleantech solid fuel branded “CleanFyre”.  This product is a GHG neutral coal replacement, generically referred to as biocoal.  CleanFyre will allow large industrial customers the ability to greatly reduce their GHG emissions without significant capital expenditures.  According to Andrew White, CEO of CHAR, “CleanFyre will leverage both Altech’s experience and expertise, and CHAR’s platform pyrolysis technology, the same technology used to create SulfaCHAR, to create a solution with strong market pull and significant growth opportunity.”

About CHAR

CHAR is in the business of producing a proprietary activated charcoal like material (“SulfaCHAR”), which can be used to removed hydrogen sulfide from various gas streams (focusing on methane-rich and odorous air).  The SulfaCHAR, once used for the gas cleaning application, has further use as a sulfur-enriched biochar for agricultural purposes (saleable soil amendment product).

About Altech Group

Altech is a full-service engineering and consulting firm providing energy, environmental, and health and safety services to clients.  Altech specializes in corporate management systems, energy and environmental audits and assessments, contaminated site investigation and remediation, health & safety management, training, and industrial hygiene.  Established in 1986, Altechemploys multi-disciplinary professionals including energy and environmental engineers, scientists, hydrogeologists, geologists, and technicians committed to providing our clients the highest quality service and integrated solutions for business and the environment.


Biochar Fertilizer Market 2017: Production, Sales, Supply, Demand, Analysis & Forecast To 2022

10 January, 2018
 

Biochar Fertilizer Market report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. It also provides granular analysis of the market share, Sales and Consumption Status, segmentation, Industry Production, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Biochar Fertilizer Market 2011-2021 research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biochar Fertilizer Industry.

The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Biochar Fertilizer manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Biochar Fertilizer Market.

Major Key Contents Covered in Biochar Fertilizer Market: Introduction of Biochar Fertilizer with development and status. Manufacturing Technology of Biochar Fertilizer with analysis and trends. Analysis of Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Key Manufacturers with Company Profile, Product Information, Production Information and Contact Information. Analysis of Global and Chinese Biochar Fertilizer market Capacity, Production, Production Value, Cost and Profit Analysis Biochar Fertilizer Market with Comparison, Supply, Consumption and Import and Export. Biochar Fertilizer market Analysis with Market Status and Market Competition by Companies and Countries. 2016-2021 Market Forecast of Global Biochar Fertilizer Market with Cost, Profit, Market Shares, Supply, Demands, Import and Export. Trending factors influencing the market shares of APAC, Europe, North America, and ROW? Biochar Fertilizer Market Analysis of Industry Chain Structure, Upstream Raw Materials, Downstream Industry.

Ask for sample report http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/11049232

Then, the report explores the international and Chinese major Biochar Fertilizer market players in detail. In this part, the report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, and 2011-2016 market shares for each company.

After the basic information, the report sheds light on the production. Production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Biochar Fertilizer Market Sales growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.

Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Biochar Fertilizer market including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis.

Biochar Fertilizer Market Report Also Covers Proposals for New Project includes:

Any Specific Requirements? Ask to our Industry Expert @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/11049232

The report then estimates 2016-2021 market development trends of Biochar Fertilizer market. Analysis of upstream raw materials, downstream demand, and current market dynamics is also carried out. In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of Biochar Fertilizer market before evaluating its feasibility.

Table and Figures Covered in This Report:

Biochar Fertilizer Product Picture. Development of Biochar Fertilizer Manufacturing Technology. Manufacturing Process of Biochar Fertilizer. Company Biochar Fertilizer Product and Specifications. Company Biochar Fertilizer Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. List. Global Biochar Fertilizer Key Manufacturers Capacity Share List. Biochar Fertilizer Market Global Supply and Consumption. Import and Export of Biochar Fertilizer

Then, the report focuses on global major leading Biochar Fertilizer Market players with information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials, and downstream consumer’s analysis is also carried out. What’s more, the Global Biochar Fertilizer Market development trends and marketing channels are analysed.

 

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Clean energy venture lands equity, capital commitment

10 January, 2018
 

Waste gasification company Aries Clean Energy has secured more than $21 million in equity as well as a $25 million commitment to help it capitalize on a promising pipeline for its small-scale plants.

The new equity has come from Thompson Machinery, which helped launch the venture as PHG Energy in 2010, as well as several members of the Thompson family. New to the picture — and pledging to help fund plant construction — is Boston-based Spring Lane Capital, a private equity firm that focuses on the energy, water, food and waste industries.

Aries CEO Greg Bafalis told the Post the financing, which BNP Paribas helped arrange, will let his team push on with contracts it expects to close in the coming months. La Vergne-based Aries’ plants take wood and municipal waste that can’t be recycled or digested and uses a high-temperature thermo-chemical process to produce a synthetic gas as well as high-carbon biochar.

“This is a new technology […] and still a learning curve for our customers and communities,” Bafalis said. “This funding lets us get out there and do multiple projects, to show how it works.”

Aries in the fall of 2016 commissioned what it says is the world’s largest downdraft gasifier in Lebanon. At capacity, the facility can process up to 64 tons of waste daily and produce up to 420 kilowatts of electricity. Lebanon officials are using that energy to help power their wastewater treatment facility.

Bafalis said Aries, which gets its revenues from tipping fees for the material it takes in as well as by selling its energy, can generate high-teens rates of return on its projects. There also are still big efficiency gains to make, he added, primarily by pumping synthetic gas directly into a generator rather than using heat transfer.

With the new equity and Spring Lane’s capital commitment, he expects to be able to launch and finance five or six projects — each with a total cost of $25 million to $30 million — in the next two to three years. Around the country, he said, his team has identified more than 1,000 potential customers, most of them mid-sized communities like Lebanon. If things go according to plan, Aries’ local team of 20 could double in the next five years.


Living Web Farms offers electrical skills workshop for farmers and homesteaders, Jan. 13

10 January, 2018
 

Press release from Living Web Farms:

Greenhouses, home heaters, switches, and pumps — electrical systems control all these aspects and more of some of the things you commonly take for granted. If you’re a homeowner, farmer or homesteader, an understanding of how automated electrical systems work helps you learn how technology effects you, and how to use it to your advantage.

On Saturday, Jan 13, the Biochar crew at Living Web Farms will lead a workshop on basic electrical skills, focused on automated control systems that one might commonly find on the farm and homestead. Workshop lead instructor Dan Hettinger shares that the motivation for the event is to “teach people to become more resilient by becoming better practitioners of sensible technology.”

The class will explore the basics of control systems, and attendees will learn a new set of tools and vocabulary for understanding the world of controls. Skipping complicated electrical theory, participants will gain an introductory knowledge to some very common components and how they fit into a complete controls system. Building on that knowledge, students will also learn electrical safety, basic troubleshooting and design for applications around the farm, from greenhouse environmental controls to irrigation timers, switches and more.

Register online.

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Global Biochar Market Growth(CAGR) by 2022: Agri-Tech Producers, Carbon Gold, Biochar Now …

10 January, 2018
 

The reports includes global Biochar market drivers, challanges, constraints, opportunities, investment potential, leading technologies, future guidelines, Biochar industry player profile, regulatory ecosystem and plans. The report also delivers market size forecasts for Biochar market. The forecasts are further mentioned in the top segment of Biochar market. This report lists out some of the major key trends that are expected to influence the overall Biochar market development and also presents market statistics to study predominant market trends. In this report, Biochar market is segmented on the basis of application, type, end use and regions. In addition, the report presents detailed information regarding major revenue generating regions of Biochar market.

The report profiles some of the major players in present in Biochar market. The detailed evaluation of key players is available in this report. This report global Biochar market sheds light on how these companies are targeting the emerging markets of different regions. Latest strategic mergers, procurements, partnerships and collaborations happening in Biochar market have been included in the report. The bottom-up approach is applied to evaluate the total market estimates, on the basis of end-use Biochar industry and region.

Enquire for Biochar report here: http://emarketresearch.us/global-biochar-market-2017-2022/#Inquiry-Before-Buying

The Biochar market report is categorized on the basis of distinct geographical segments, leading manufacturers, various applications and different types.

Leading players involved in the global Biochar market includes Vega Biofuels, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company, Liaoning Jinhefu Group, Cool Planet, Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology, Carbon Terra, BioChar Products, Diacarbon Energy, Pacific Biochar, BlackCarbon, Carbon Gold, Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai), ElementC6, Kina and Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy.

Type wise analysis divides global Biochar market into  Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar and Wood Source Biochar.

Application wise analysis classifies the global Biochar market into  Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner.

Major developments, supply chain statistics of Biochar and recent market activities will help existing market players as well as new entrants in devising Biochar market business strategies and to achieve their intended business objectives. The report is an accurate and quality research study on Biochar market. This report is established on the information and interviews conducted with Biochar manufacturers and their consumers with demand-side research. The amalgam of checks and balances combined with involving the players in the industry offers a clear and accurate picture of the entire Biochar market.

Access Full Report Details: http://emarketresearch.us/global-biochar-market-2017-2022/#Request-Sample

Global Biochar industry research report covers following data points:

Chapter 1: In this chapter, the Biochar market overview, objective, product definition, classification, cost, share and Biochar growth rate from 2012-2022 is covered. The Biochar market segmentation, product type, and major producing regions along with their growth rate, market drivers, Biochar market dynamics, constraints and growth opportunities are covered in this segment.

Chapter 2: This chapter covers, Biochar industry upstream raw material, major Biochar business players, production cost, labour cost, downstream consumer analysis and market channel analysis.

Chapter 3 and Chapter 4: These chapters provide Biochar market study based on product type, manufacturer, application and region. Under these segments, Biochar market share, growth type, downstream buyer’s application and market overview presented in detail.

Chapter 5 and Chapter 6: The Biochar market briefs and focuses on regions like North America, Middle East & Africa, Japan, China, Europe and South America. key details related to consumption volume, Biochar import/export details, gross surplus analysis (2012-2017) and production capacity are briefed in this report.

Chapter 7 and Chapter 8: This sections conducts SWOT analysis and Biochar market status of these regions. All the leading players of Biochar, their competitive profile information, market share, product description, target consumers and market positioning are covered.

Chapter 9 and Chapter 10: This segment covers global Biochar market forecast, size, share, value, volume by application and type. Additionally, The Biochar information referring to the key segments like consumption and market size forecast is covered in this report.

Chapter 11, 12 and 13: This segment interprets the feasibility study, which will characterize the Biochar investment scope, industry hurdles, treasured research findings, appendix, data sources and discussion guide.

The Biochar report analyses the supply, sales, production and market status comprehensively and also carries out SWOT analysis.

Browse more category related reports here: http://perfectanalyst.com/category/market-reseach/Chemical-Research/

Socorro writes about research techniques and has a lot of working experience with international companies. She has extensive experience developing marketing, corporate communications, and public relations materials in a variety of fields including finance, business, human resources, chemical, healthcare and consumer technology.


Biochar, a Valuable Soil Carbon Negative Supplement for Soil Environment, to Witness a CAGR of

10 January, 2018
 

Biochar is a variant of charcoal with high carbon content produced by the process of pyrolysis. Biochar enhances the soil fertility, quality and nutrient retention, resulting in increased productivity along with high crop yield. Biochar reduces the carbon emissions from both natural and industrial purposes … …read more


Crusher Biochar Charcoal

10 January, 2018
 

You can get the price list and a GBM representative will contact you within one business day.

“Each year we must convert enough biomass (organic waste) into biochar (charcoal) … Biochar Crusher (Appropedia.org) A crusher for some types of biochar, …

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Biochar, a Valuable Soil Carbon Negative Supplement for Soil Environment, to Witness a CAGR of …

10 January, 2018
 

NEW YORK, Jan. 10, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — The global biochar market is expected to witness a CAGR of 14.18%, and is projected to reach USD 2,607.41 million by 2023. Factors propelling the growth of the biochar market are improved soil fertility and crop yield, natural carbon sequestration property of biochar, increased government initiatives and stringent environment regulations and waste management potential.

The report segments Biochar market by Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household), by Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Forestry Waste, Animal Manure, Biomass Plantation), by Technology (Microwave Pyrolysis, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Continuous Pyrolysis Kiln, Gasifier and Cookstove, Others), by Manufacturing Process (Gasification, Fast and intermediate Pyrolysis, Slow Pyrolysis, Others), by Type (Fine Biochar Powder, Granular Biochar, Big Chip Biochar), by Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Rest of the World (RoW)). The report studies the global biochar market over the forecast period (2017-2023).

Browse full research report with TOC on “Global Biochar Market Outlook, Trend and Opportunity Analysis, Competitive Insights, Actionable Segmentation & Forecast 2023at:   https://www.energiasmarketresearch.com/global-biochar-market-outlook/

Biochar is a variant of charcoal with high carbon content produced by the process of pyrolysis. Biochar enhances the soil fertility, quality and nutrient retention, resulting in increased productivity along with high crop yield. Biochar reduces the carbon emissions from both natural and industrial purposes through carbon sequestrations. This in turn, influences the conservation of climate. Biochar is comparatively reliable to the environment than the forest char which is produced by forest fire causing environment pollution, greenhouse gasses and deforestation. Biochar enriches the quality of water as it is capable of absorbing in the soil nutrients and the agrochemicals which otherwise get mixed with the utilizable water.

Key Findings of the Global Biochar Market Report

InvestorCorner
The global initiatives to promote the activities that allow sustainable use of resources are providing new avenues for the investment in the biochar market. Biochar is ancient concept to convert agricultural waste to useful soil supplement. The commercialization of biochar have taken place recently. A significant amount of market capitalization is held by medium and large manufacturers. In developing companies the unorganized sector have contributed to the manufacturing and consumption of biochar. Further, the gas and liquid produced during the conversion of biomass to biochar draws special attention of investors to generate business from the power production. Moreover, the utilization of biochar for water treatment is being developed and is expected to be commercialized on a large scale in near future. Wide spread applications of biochar have drawn the attention of the investors and is expected to scale up the investments from the organized sector in the near future.

Regional Insight

The development of North American biochar market is governed by rise in significant number of medium and large scale manufacturers.  The governing bodies in the region lobby the use of biochar as a way to enhance soil fertility, productiveness and climate change. The agriculture and the gardening sector in North America now prefers the use of biochar to other soil supplements.

Asia-Pacific is fast capitalizing on the biochar market. The government in the region is framing policies to include biochar in the carbon offset initiatives. The Australian government has taken the lead in providing financial benefits to the farmers that incorporate biochar in their farming practices. Further, the Australian government is planning to link its carbon farming initiative to the European Union Trading Scheme so that emitters in Europe can offset their emission by sequestering carbon emission in the Australian agriculture sector. Similar initiatives to promote the utilization of biochar are being developed globally. A number of organizations are scaling up promoting the use of biochar, the most prominent being international biochar initiative. The organizations have taken up the task to include biochar in the carbon offset programs among the member countries.

About Energias Market Research Private Limited

Energias Market Research launched with the objective to provide in-depth market analysis, business research solutions, and consultation that is tailored to our client’s specific needs based on our impeccable research methodology.

With a wide range of expertise from various industrial sectors and more than 50 industries that include energy, chemical and materials, information communication technology, semiconductor industries, healthcare and daily consumer goods, etc. We strive to provide our clients with a one-stop solution for all research and consulting needs.

Our comprehensive industry-specific knowledge enables us in creating high quality global research outputs. This wide-range capability differentiates us from our competitors.

Contact:

Manas Nagi

Business Development Manager

For any queries email us: info@energiasmarketresearch.com

Call us: +1-716-239-4915

Visit: https://www.energiasmarketresearch.com 


Biochar, a Valuable Soil Carbon Negative Supplement for Soil Environment, to Witness a CAGR of …

10 January, 2018
 

NEW YORK, Jan. 10, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — The global biochar market is expected to witness a CAGR of 14.18%, and is projected to reach USD 2,607.41 million by 2023. Factors propelling the growth of the biochar market are improved soil fertility and crop yield, natural carbon sequestration property of biochar, increased government initiatives and stringent environment regulations and waste management potential.

The report segments Biochar market by Application (Gardening, Agriculture, Household), by Feedstock (Agriculture Waste, Forestry Waste, Animal Manure, Biomass Plantation), by Technology (Microwave Pyrolysis, Batch Pyrolysis Kiln, Continuous Pyrolysis Kiln, Gasifier and Cookstove, Others), by Manufacturing Process (Gasification, Fast and intermediate Pyrolysis, Slow Pyrolysis, Others), by Type (Fine Biochar Powder, Granular Biochar, Big Chip Biochar), by Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Rest of the World (RoW)). The report studies the global biochar market over the forecast period (2017-2023).

Browse full research report with TOC on “Global Biochar Market Outlook, Trend and Opportunity Analysis, Competitive Insights, Actionable Segmentation & Forecast 2023at:   https://www.energiasmarketresearch.com/global-biochar-market-outlook/

Biochar is a variant of charcoal with high carbon content produced by the process of pyrolysis. Biochar enhances the soil fertility, quality and nutrient retention, resulting in increased productivity along with high crop yield. Biochar reduces the carbon emissions from both natural and industrial purposes through carbon sequestrations. This in turn, influences the conservation of climate. Biochar is comparatively reliable to the environment than the forest char which is produced by forest fire causing environment pollution, greenhouse gasses and deforestation. Biochar enriches the quality of water as it is capable of absorbing in the soil nutrients and the agrochemicals which otherwise get mixed with the utilizable water.

Key Findings of the Global Biochar Market Report

InvestorCorner
The global initiatives to promote the activities that allow sustainable use of resources are providing new avenues for the investment in the biochar market. Biochar is ancient concept to convert agricultural waste to useful soil supplement. The commercialization of biochar have taken place recently. A significant amount of market capitalization is held by medium and large manufacturers. In developing companies the unorganized sector have contributed to the manufacturing and consumption of biochar. Further, the gas and liquid produced during the conversion of biomass to biochar draws special attention of investors to generate business from the power production. Moreover, the utilization of biochar for water treatment is being developed and is expected to be commercialized on a large scale in near future. Wide spread applications of biochar have drawn the attention of the investors and is expected to scale up the investments from the organized sector in the near future.

Regional Insight

The development of North American biochar market is governed by rise in significant number of medium and large scale manufacturers.  The governing bodies in the region lobby the use of biochar as a way to enhance soil fertility, productiveness and climate change. The agriculture and the gardening sector in North America now prefers the use of biochar to other soil supplements.

Asia-Pacific is fast capitalizing on the biochar market. The government in the region is framing policies to include biochar in the carbon offset initiatives. The Australian government has taken the lead in providing financial benefits to the farmers that incorporate biochar in their farming practices. Further, the Australian government is planning to link its carbon farming initiative to the European Union Trading Scheme so that emitters in Europe can offset their emission by sequestering carbon emission in the Australian agriculture sector. Similar initiatives to promote the utilization of biochar are being developed globally. A number of organizations are scaling up promoting the use of biochar, the most prominent being international biochar initiative. The organizations have taken up the task to include biochar in the carbon offset programs among the member countries.

About Energias Market Research Private Limited

Energias Market Research launched with the objective to provide in-depth market analysis, business research solutions, and consultation that is tailored to our client’s specific needs based on our impeccable research methodology.

With a wide range of expertise from various industrial sectors and more than 50 industries that include energy, chemical and materials, information communication technology, semiconductor industries, healthcare and daily consumer goods, etc. We strive to provide our clients with a one-stop solution for all research and consulting needs.

Our comprehensive industry-specific knowledge enables us in creating high quality global research outputs. This wide-range capability differentiates us from our competitors.

Contact:

Manas Nagi

Business Development Manager

For any queries email us: info@energiasmarketresearch.com

Call us: +1-716-239-4915

Visit: https://www.energiasmarketresearch.com 

Energias Market Research

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Biochar Market Overview with detailed analysis, emerging players, Competitive landscape …

10 January, 2018
 

HTF MI published a new industry research that focuses on Biochar market and delivers in-depth market analysis and future prospects of Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Biochar market. The study covers significant data which makes the research document a handy resource for managers, analysts, industry experts and other key people get ready-to-access and self-analyzed study along with graphs and tables to help understand market trends, drivers and market challenges. The study is segmented by Application/ end users [Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer & Others], products type [Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar & Other Stove Source Biochar] and various important geographies like North America (USA, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) & Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)].

Get Access to sample pages @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/sample-report/877597-global-north-america-europe-and-asia-pacific-south-america-middle-east-and-africa-biochar-market

This report studies the Biochar market, Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment.

The research covers the current market size of the Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Biochar market and its growth rates based on 5 year history data along with company profile of key players/manufacturers. The in-depth information by segments of Biochar market helps monitor future profitability & to make critical decisions for growth. The information on trends and developments, focuses on markets and materials, capacities, technologies, CAPEX cycle and the changing structure of the Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Biochar Market.

The study provides company profiling, product picture and specifications, sales, market share and contact information of key manufacturers of Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Biochar Market, some of them listed here are Cool Planet, Biochar Supreme, NextChar, Terra Char, Genesis Industries, Interra Energy, CharGrow, Pacific Biochar, Biochar Now, The Biochar Company (TBC), ElementC6 & Vega Biofuels. The market is growing at a very rapid pace and with rise in technological innovation, competition and M&A activities in the industry many local and regional vendors are offering specific application products for varied end-users. The new manufacturer entrants in the market are finding it hard to compete with the international vendors based on quality, reliability, and innovations in technology.

Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Biochar (Thousands Units) and Revenue (Million USD) Market Split by Product Type such as Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar & Other Stove Source Biochar. Further the research study is segmented by Application such as Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer & Others with historical and projected market share and compounded annual growth rate.

There are 15 Chapters to display the Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Biochar market.

Chapter 1, to describe Definition, Specifications and Classification of Biochar, Applications of Biochar, Market Segment by Regions;
Chapter 2, to analyze the Manufacturing Cost Structure, Raw Material and Suppliers, Manufacturing Process, Industry Chain Structure;
Chapter 3, to display the Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Biochar, Capacity and Commercial Production Date, Manufacturing Plants Distribution, R&D Status and Technology Source, Raw Materials Sources Analysis;
Chapter 4, to show the Overall Market Analysis, Capacity Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Analysis (Company Segment), Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment);
Chapter 5 and 6, to show the Regional Market Analysis that includes North America (USA, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) & Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa), Biochar Segment Market Analysis (by Type);
Chapter 7 and 8, to analyze the Biochar Segment Market Analysis (by Application) Major Manufacturers Analysis of Biochar;
Chapter 9, Market Trend Analysis, Regional Market Trend, Market Trend by Product Type [Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar & Other Stove Source Biochar], Market Trend by Application [Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer & Others];
Chapter 10, Regional Marketing Type Analysis, International Trade Type Analysis, Supply Chain Analysis;
Chapter 11, to analyze the Consumers Analysis of Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Biochar;
Chapter 12,13, 14 and 15, to describe Biochar sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

Enquire for customization in Report @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/enquiry-before-buy/877597-global-north-america-europe-and-asia-pacific-south-america-middle-east-and-africa-biochar-market

What this Research Study Offers:

Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Biochar Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments
Market share analysis of the top industry players
Strategic recommendations for the new entrants
Market forecasts for a minimum of 5 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets
Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)
Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations
Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends
Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments
Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements

Buy this research report @ https://www.htfmarketreport.com/buy-now?format=1&report=877597

Reasons for Buying this Report
This report provides pin-point analysis for changing competitive dynamics
It provides a forward looking perspective on different factors driving or restraining market growth
It provides a six-year forecast assessed on the basis of how the market is predicted to grow
It helps in understanding the key product segments and their future
It provides pin point analysis of changing competition dynamics and keeps you ahead of competitors
It helps in making informed business decisions by having complete insights of market and by making in-depth analysis of market segments

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Global Biochar Market 2017 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022

10 January, 2018
 

This report studies the Biochar market, Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment.

 

Scope of the Report:

This report focuses on the Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

 

Get PDF Sample of Biochar Market Report@ http://orbisresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/2022671

 

Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers

 

Browse Full Report with TOC: http://orbisresearch.com/reports/index/global-north-america-europe-and-asia-pacific-south-america-middle-east-and-africa-biochar-market-2017-forecast-to-2022

 

Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers

 

Market Segment by Type, covers

 

Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into

 

Place Purchase Order for this Report@ http://orbisresearch.com/contact/purchase/2022671

 

There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the global Biochar market.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

1 Market Overview

2 Manufacturers Profile

3 Global Biochar Market Competition, by Manufacturer

4 Global Biochar Market Analysis by Regions

5 North America Biochar by Countries

6 Europe Biochar by Countries

7 Asia-Pacific Biochar by Countries

8 South America Biochar by Countries

9 Middle East and Africa Biochar by Countries

10 Global Biochar Market Segment by Type

11 Global Biochar Market Segment by Application

12 Biochar Market Forecast (2017-2022)

13 Sales Channel, Distributors, Traders and Dealers

14 Research Findings and Conclusion

15 Appendix

 

List of Tables:

Figure Biochar Picture

Table Product Specifications of Biochar

Figure Global Sales Market Share of Biochar by Types in 2016

Table Biochar Types for Major Manufacturers

Figure Wood Source Biochar Picture

Figure Corn Stove Source Biochar Picture

Figure Rice Stove Source Biochar Picture

Figure Wheat Stove Source Biochar Picture

Figure Other Stove Source Biochar Picture

Table Biochar Sales Market Share by Applications in 2016

Figure Soil Conditioner Picture

Figure Fertilizer Picture

Figure Others Picture

Figure USA Biochar Revenue (Value) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)

Figure Canada Biochar Revenue (Value) and Growth Rate (2012-2022)

Figure Mexico Biochar Revenue (Value) and Growth Rate (2012-2022), and more…

 

About Us:                                                                   

Orbis Research is a single point aid for all your Market research requirements. We have vast database of reports from the leading publishers and authors across the globe. We specialize in delivering customised reports as per the requirements of our clients. We have complete information about our publishers and hence are sure about the accuracy of the industries and verticals of their specialisation. This helps our clients to map their needs and we produce the perfect required Market research study for our clients.

 

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Biochar amendment for batch composting of nitrogen rich organic waste

10 January, 2018
 

Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59°C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process. Owing to addition of 5% biochar as a bulking agent in composting mixture, the final product from composting, total nitrogen increased by 45% compared to the other trials, and free air space decreased by 39% and was found to be within recommended range from literature studies. Considering temperature, degradation rate and nitrogen transformation the amendment of 5% biochar is recommended for hydrilla verticillata composting.

 


Biochar

10 January, 2018
 

Perfect for any garden or pot, this rich mixture provides long-lasting carbon rich nutrients for any soil.

We are currently working to make this page more informative. Please come back soon.

We are a team of passionate people whose goal is to improve everyone’s life through environmentally sound products. We provide great products & services for home, business, and government.

Our products are sourced from timber that would have otherwise not been re-used. Instead, we utilize every part of each tree we obtain.


Grant proposals sought for biochar project

10 January, 2018
 

The Great Plains Biochar Initiative, a partnership between the Nebraska Forest Service, the Kansas Forest Service and private industry, recently announced grant funding opportunities for developing biochar usage in the region.

Interest in biochar, a carbon-rich organic product, has increased substantially over the past several years. Biochar has multiple uses, ranging from soil amendment to water filtration. The biochar grants will provide up to $5,000 in funding for biochar production and use projects and are available to individuals, businesses and organizations.

“We are excited to see what kinds of creative projects people will develop,” said Heather Nobert, forest product marketing coordinator with the Nebraska Forest Service. “Currently, biochar is being incorporated into livestock operations, compost operations, and is being studied for its benefits to crop yields in Nebraska’s panhandle. The sky is the limit with biochar.”

With the challenges and pressures amongst Great Plains producers increasing, biochar is increasingly turned to as a low-cost option in addressing soil degradation and water retention, among other challenges.

Learn more about the grants. For additional information, contact Nobert at 402-782-1453.


Wood Gasifier, Biochar; Aussie Flu; Fermentation; Ocean Freezing

11 January, 2018
 

Exploring more alternative energy solutions: wood gasifiers and biochar retorts. Australian Flu raging. News: Sahara covered with snow. Ocean freezing in Massachusetts. Heavy snowfall disrupts 2 million in China.

Full Episode 29 show notes with all links on wiki:
http://wiki.iceagefarmer.com/wiki/IAF_Podcast_Episode_29

Start taking daily steps NOW towards radical self-sufficiency so that you can thrive in the Grand Solar Minimum!

http://IceAgeFarmer.com
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Please consider supporting my work on http://patreon.com/IceAgeFarmer
One time donations: http://paypal.me/IceAgeFarmer

IAF Wiki references:
http://wiki.iceagefarmer.com/wiki/Wood_Gasifier
http://wiki.iceagefarmer.com/wiki/Biochar
http://wiki.iceagefarmer.com/wiki/Fermentation

Action Jackson’s Wood Gasification for GSM writeup:
http://iceagefarmer.com/docs/Energy/WoodGasifier/

Fiskfarm’s channel:
https://www.youtube.com/user/fiskfarm/videos

Fred writes in with ground report from Toronto:
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/fourteen-cold-hard-facts-about-torontos-frigidweather/article37491737/

Download (mp3): AudioPlayer.setup(“http://www.iceagefarmer.com/wp-content/plugins/simple-audio-player/player/player.swf”, { width: 290 });

AudioPlayer.embed(“audioplayer_2414”, {soundFile: “http://iceagefarmer.com/podcast/20180110-iaf-podcast-029.mp3”, titles: “ice age farmer”, autostart: “no”, loop: “no”, animation: “yes”, remaining: “yes”, noinfo: “no”, initialvolume: “70”, buffer: “5”, encode: “no”, checkpolicy: “no”, rtl: “no”, width: “100%”, transparentpagebg: “no”, bg: “E5E5E5”, leftbg: “CCCCCC”, lefticon: “333333”, voltrack: “F2F2F2”, volslider: “666666”, rightbg: “B4B4B4”, rightbghover: “999999”, righticon: “333333”, righticonhover: “FFFFFF”, loader: “009900”, track: “FFFFFF”, tracker: “DDDDDD”, border: “CCCCCC”, skip: “666666”, text: “333333”});

MEDIA NARRATIVE:

Media is struggling to contain people’s curiosity. Headlines from JUST ONE SOURCE, the times .co.uk:

“Global Cooling is not worth shivering about”

https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/global-cooling-is-not-worth-shivering-about-pmdn8gp07

No link between snowfall in the Sahara and a new Ice Age

https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/no-link-between-snowfall-in-the-sahara-and-a-new-ice-age-89c2h0xq6

Other referenced links:

Sahara covered in snow:

https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/901733/Sahara-Desert-snow-Ain-Sefra-Algeria-pictures-photos

143 lives taken by extreme cold spell in India

http://www.thebigwobble.org/2018/01/cold-in-india-claims-143-lives-as.html

Massive 7.8 Earthquake in Honduras

http://www.news.com.au/technology/environment/78-magnitude-quake-off-coast-of-honduras/news-story/08947b8632c65924da1b47f8ac6a8360

2.1 million people disrupted by heavy snowfall in China

https://watchers.news/2018/01/08/heavy-snowfall-affects-2-3-million-people-kills-21-and-destroys-700-homes-china/

13,000 tourists trapped in resort by ~1m snow:

Heavy snowfall traps 13,000 tourists

Aussie flu spreading like wildfire:

‘Aussie flu’ outbreak set to get WORSE as ‘super spreader’ kids go back to school — and half aren’t vaccinated

Hundreds of motorists trapped in their cars in Spain, army sent in to rescue:

https://www.thelocal.es/20180108/big-freeze-continues-across-spain-with-30-regions-on-alert

(1) to cultivate agricultural products for livelihood;

(2) to derive value from or profit from.


biochar

11 January, 2018
 

Medias attached with hashtag: #biochar on Instagram

Bárbara Samartini Q. Alves

Taking care of my spinach!! Spinach is one of the plants that absorbs the most cadmium from the soil, so I am using the 5 best biochars that I selected in the lab, in different application rates and comparing to compost. I want to see if they effectively reduce cadmium uptake by spinach. Cadmium is a heavy metal and is toxic even in small doses. If my research succeeds I will be able to help farmers to grow cleaner and healthier spinach, and possibly other vegetables as well, and thus, preventing further contamination of the food chain!! Wish me luck!!! 🙂 #biochar

🅴🅰🆂🆃 🅰🆅🅴🅽🆄🅴 東アベニュー

GO GREEN💚 #biochar

Researchers Avi & Arden

And just like that, my journey in the lab begins. It’s time to heal the land! My thesis project, take a deep breath, is “ Analytical Characterization of Biochar’s from PNW Native and Invasive feedstocks”. My invasive feedstock list (so far): 1. Holly 2. English Ivy 3. Himalayan Blackberry 4. Scotch Broom I’ll update you on the Native Biochar feedstock. But first we want to deal with the invasive species that the average farmer in the PNW has to deal with on an annual basis. Farm waste turned into soil amendments. Closed loop farm systems. We will be determining the CEC, bulk density, porosity, sorption rate, CO2 respiration rate (microbial mineralization) and a host of other fun stuff!!!!! But for now check out this Biochar feedstock I made out of local organically grown alfalfa straw. Beautiful black magic please repair our soil?!? 😉 . . . #biochar

Anuttara Yoga

@growinggardensdelray (@get_repost) ・・・ Come check out @growinggardensdelray @humanhomestead BioChar Workshop this Saturday 12pm-3:30pm @anuttarashala. Workshop is free for Garden Share Members or $20 for individuals. Can purchase tickets on Eventbrite or at the event. 🌱 🌱 #biochar

Chem D x I95 and TK x SFV early in bloom. Room full of gas this round including SFV, D kush, skywalker, gg4, and dogwalker. #biochar

bio365soil

Great re-soil-utions! Another wonderful graphic by the UC Davis grad students @soil.life ・・・ #biochar

ROTBLOC

Great time and tour with Integrated Biomass Resources 🌲www.integratedbiomass.com, a lumber post mill in Wallowa, Oregon selling poles and firewood forging new markets for greater sustainable solutions and resources in 2018.🌲Jeff Morrell would be proud 😉 @osupress @u.s.forestservice @u.s.forestservicecentralafrica #biochar

MainStem

We are proud to offer Miller Soils for all your growing needs! There are many professionally formulated blends to choose from and custom blends available. Miller Soils utilizes only the finest quality ingredients and responsibly sourced virgin wood for biochar production! Call us today for a quote. @miller_soils_llc #biochar

Bevan Lowery

Daily biochar experimentation pic/video! Shaker experiment time! #biochar

LatAm Bioenergy™

Conoces nuestro #Biochar ?

growing gardens delray

Come check out @growinggardensdelray @humanhomestead BioChar Workshop this Saturday 12pm-3:30pm @anuttarashala. Workshop is free for Garden Share Members or $20 for individuals. Can purchase tickets on Eventbrite or at the event. 🌱 🌱 #biochar

growing gardens delray

Come check out @humanhomestead BioChar Workshop this Saturday 12pm-3:30pm @anuttarashala. Workshop is free for Garden Share Members or $20 for individuals. Can purchase tickets on Eventbrite or at the event. 🌱 🌱 #biochar

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Does biochar affect the availability and chemical fractionation of phosphate in soils?

11 January, 2018
 

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Organic Biochar

11 January, 2018
 

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Earthshine Soil Booster with Biochar 2 lbs

11 January, 2018
 

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INOH Adds Pedigreed Industry Professional to its Advisory Committee as it Maps Out its Revenue …

11 January, 2018
 

[ACCESSWIRE]

NEW YORK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / January 11, 2018 / In Ovations Holdings, Inc. (OTC PINK: INOH), in conjunction with its new Biochar division is pleased to welcome Mr. Josh Turner as its new Director of Sales and Marketing. Mr. Turner possesses a diverse background in the sciences with undergraduate degrees in biology and chemistry as well as a graduate degree in biology. Mr. Turner was involved in research on growing plants on the International Space Station among his many published research projects.

Mr. Turner, in introducing himself to INOH shareholders stated, “I have been cultivating and breeding novel cannabis strains for almost two decades. Most recently:

As a cultivation manager, Mr. Turner has been using biochar in his soil mixes for almost a decade. Mr. Turner continued, “It is one of the most under-used and least explored of all of the available soil amendments available to growers. Therefore, it has one of the greatest potentials for revenue generating growth as an ancillary product to the cannabis industry. Uses range from extremely large commercial farms of hundreds of acres to the small scale home medicinal grower. It is a versatile product that can be used as a carbon source for filters, soil amendments, clone and propagation mediums, and numerous other uses.”

One of the most significant improvements the legal cannabis industry needs to make is reduction in its carbon footprint. As more attention is given to the large amounts of energy consumed by indoor cannabis cultivation facilities, companies will be pressured to focus on more sustainable production models. Biochar can help to improve cannabis cultivation facilities’ sustainability in several ways: filter wastewater that is often laden with hazardous contaminants, improve and reduce fertilizer usage, and make waste soils reusable.

For large scale outdoor farms, biochar can greatly improve a farm’s production by improving soil quality. Soil amendments are one of the largest startup expenses for cannabis farms. By showing farm managers that adding biochar to their soil will greatly improve soil tilth and overall soil quality, farms are likely to continue to invest in biochar thus reducing their overall expenses on downstream fertilizer products. Research has shown that biochar: keeps soil/compost moist and aerated, promoting increased biological activity, biochar increases nitrogen retention, biochar improves soil/compost maturity and humic content, and biochar improves plant growth. Using the available data and by performing some simple side-by-side growth trials, it will be simple to provide scientific evidence to the cannabis industry that biochar is a must have in their overall cultivation plans.

Mr. Turner further stated, “I hope to be able to contribute to INOH’s rapid growth by helping to build a consortium of industry professionals to support product development and sales. I will be prospecting, identifying, and fostering new qualified opportunities for our team by utilizing my industry knowledge and contacts.”

Innovation Holding’s CEO, Mark Goldberg, added, “With almost two decades of cannabis industry experience, Mr. Turner can help develop INOH customer relationships, modify the way we communicate with target businesses, and raise the bar for an excellent sales experience relative to the biochar products.”

Mr. Goldberg stated, “We anticipate that Mr. Turner’s vast knowledge and industry contacts will allow us to target strategic accounts and help make them loyal biochar product consumers. With the addition of Mr. Turner’s to the In Ovations team, we expect to see vision and prescience that leads directly to real, top line, revenue growth for our BioChar division.”

We plan to add additional 2018 information and guidance regarding revenues and other corporate developments in the near future. We want to wish all a happy and healthy New Year and we thank you for your support.

FORWARD-LOOKING DISCLAIMER

This press release may contain certain forward-looking statements and information, as defined within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and is subject to the Safe Harbor created by those sections. This material contains statements about expected future events and/or financial results that are forward-looking in nature and subject to risks and uncertainties. Such forward-looking statements by definition involve risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from the statements made herein.

In Ovations Holdings, Inc. does not grow, process, sell, or distribute any products that are in violation of the United States Controlled Substances Act (US.CSA).

In Ovations Holdings
Email: inovationsholdingsinc@gmail.com
Website: www.inovationsholdings.com
Facebook: InOvationsHoldings
Twitter: @inohotc

Aquarius Brands™
The Conservation Company™
12260 SW 53rd Street, Suite 603
Cooper City, Florida, 33330, USA
Email: RGoldstein@AquariusBrands.org
www.AquariusBrands.org
www.AtmosphericWaterSolutions.com

Seychelle Environmental Technologies, Inc.
http://www.seychelle.com

Dr. Kenneth Hughes
ken@miltonhvac.com

Gary Williams
spydoctorgary@gmail.com

SOURCE: In Ovations Holdings, Inc.

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Stockholm has a full menu of biochar uses

11 January, 2018
 

Check out his story in Biochar Journal on how Stockholm, Sweden has worked on the challenge of healthy urban and suburban trees using biochar. https://www.biochar-journal.org/en/ct/77


biochar production equipment

11 January, 2018
 

British Biochar Foundation 2014 … He also discussed biochar production and emissions and how these relate to the BQM … BIOCHAR PRODUCING EQUIPMENT. View. …

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 1 (2): 150-155 150 Small Scale Biochar Production Technologies: A Review

British Biochar Foundation 2014 Conference: … He also discussed biochar production and emissions and how these relate to the BQM … BIOCHAR PRODUCING EQUIPMENT. View.

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biochar production equipment,crusherasia.com Biochar Production Units,International Biochar Initiative . Equipment for making biochar can be as simple as a primitive …

Conversion of biomass to biochar can be a way of taking a waste material and turning it into something … Design and development of biochar production equipment;

Equipment for making biochar can be as simple as a primitive campfire or as complex as a modern bio-refinery. The basic process is called pyrolysis.

Beston charcoal making machine has adopted advanced technology, … Best Techniques For Finding Affordable Biochar Production Equipment Available For Purchase …

Conversion of biomass to biochar can be a way of taking a waste material and turning it into something … Design and development of biochar production equipment;

Our production method is low tech, yet has been tested and rated as the best low emission farm-scale method in Australia by the leading biochar equipment makers!

The production of biochar as an output is not a … the biochar produced can be applied by the currently used machinery for tilling the soil or equipment used to …

BIOCHAR – Agriculture’s Black Gold? Hal Collins, USDA-ARS … Feedstocks for Biochar Production * Not all organic biomass is suitable for producing biochar

Larger Scale Pyrolizers. … Sustainable Biochar production from forestry … a new technological approach for charcoal production, the “POLIKOR” family of equipment.

The so-called biochar production equipment has adopted this advanced biochar production technology and has been equipped with related mature devices.

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This biochar production machine makes almost any biomass into biochar quickly and efficiently. As simple as a wood stove, yet novel, it uses a cylindrical, bas

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Current Information About Biochar Production, Dec 06, 2017· Have you been searching for biochar production equipment for sale for your company?

We sell clean, low-cost technology to make biochar from forest by-products.

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Global Biochar Market Projected to Reach US$14751.8 thousand by 2025

11 January, 2018
 

Request a Free Sample Report @ www.mrrse.com/sample/589

incrementing from its evaluated worth of US$444.2 thousand in 2016, the global biochar market is projected to experience a CAGR of 14.5% during the forecast period of 2017 to 2025 and reach a valuation of US$14,751.8 thousand by 2025. Some of the key factors driving the demand in the global biochar market are: rising demand for organic food, growing application in soil enhancement, benefits pertaining to waste management, stringent government regulatory for soil preservation, investment in the bio-fuels sector, and increasing environmental concerns. Conversely, lack of consumer awareness and higher cost as opposed to chemical alternatives are a few challenges faced by the global biochar market.

Agriculture Sector and Waste Management Leading Application Segments

Based on feedstock used for the production, the global biochar market has been segmented into woody biomass, agricultural waste, animal manure and others, including rice, coconut, sugarcane, corn, cereals, and bamboo. In 2016, wood biomass segment accounted for nearly the half of the overall demand in the global biochar market. Wood waste that is converted into biochar is used as valuable soil amendment product. Improving the health and quality of soil is a high priority in forestry, agriculture, and gardening. Biochar is not only economical, but is also ecofriendly.  It improves the soil fertility as well as increases nutrient and water retention and reduces soil acidity.

The global biochar market gains second most prominent demand in terms of feedstock used for production from agricultural waste. Referred as magnetic biochar, as it exhibits good magnetic property with high surface area and significant morphology, these products have wide application as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment and polymer. Animal based manure constitutes very small market share as feedstock on the global biochar market. Depending upon its properties, biochar has various soil benefits including soil carbon sequestration and enhancement, increases water holding capacity, enhances cation exchange capacity, crop nutrient etc. Application-wise, the global biochar market has been categorized into agriculture, forestry, electricity generation, and climate change mitigation. In 2016, agriculture was the leading consumer of biochar, reflecting its growing usage for soil amendment and carbon sequestration in the agricultural sector.

Outlook Complete Report with Table of Content @ www.mrrse.com/biochar-market


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11 January, 2018
 

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Global Biochar Market Growth(CAGR) by 2022

11 January, 2018
 

Global Biochar Market Growth(CAGR) by 2022: Agri-Tech Producers, Carbon Gold, Biochar Now

The reports includes global Biochar market drivers, challanges, constraints, opportunities, investment potential, leading technologies, future guidelines, Biochar industry player profile, regulator…

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Asia Pacific Biochar Market is poised to reach USD 640 million by 2021

11 January, 2018
 

The Asia Pacific Biochar Market was worth USD 310 million in 2016 and estimated to be growing at a CAGR of 15.7%, to reach USD 640 million by 2021. Biochar is a type of fine-grained charcoal rich in carbon and is procured by igniting organic mass in an oxygen free environment. It is mostly used as a soil additive as it enhances the soil quality which leads to larger growth of plants. The high CAGR of this market is due to and increasing food demand and decreasing soil quality due to excessive use of chemical fertilisers.

Biochar improves the quality of soil by the addition of rich nutrients and mineral. It offers advantages like absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. It can be used for absorbing greenhouse gas CO2 leading to global warming. It has nutrient retaining capacity from flowing water. While producing biochar, it generates energy which is used for other purposes. It prevents soil erosion and is water absorbing.

The Asia Pacific Biochar market driving factors are agricultural sector requiring more Biochar, rigorous environmental regulations, rising usage of biochar as food stock, rising demand for organic farming and its use as waste management material among others. A few setbacks that this market has are lack of awareness and its high price. However the awareness seems to improve rapidly. 

The Asia Pacific Biochar market is segmented by application into agriculture, gardening, households and others. Agriculture dominates the market having the largest market share of around 45% and is also the fastest growing segment. By technology, the market is divided into microwave pyrolysis, continuous pyrolysis, batch pyrolysis kiln, gasifier, hydrothermal, cook stove and others. By manufacturing the market is segmented into gasification, pyrolysis and others. Biochar is mostly produced by pyrolysis, hence it has the largest market share in this segment. By feedstock the market is divided into agricultural waste, forestry waste, animal manure and biomass plantations.

Asia Pacific Biochar Market Geographical Analysis

·        China                             

·        India                              

·        Japan                            

·        South Korea                               

·        Australia                      

Asia Pacific Biochar Market Leaders’ Analysis       

·        Biochar Products Inc.                                                                          

·        Diacarbon Energy Inc.                                                                        

·        Agri-Tech Producers LLC                                                                    

·        Genesis Industries                                                                 

Green Charcoal International                              


The Latest Developments About Biochar That You…

11 January, 2018
 

If Charcoal is used as an amendment of soil it is called Biochar. Bio char comes in the form of solid which is very stable and contains very high carbon content and can push endurance of soil for elongated periods of time. Similar to charcoal biochar is derived from biomass through the process of pyrolysis. It is yet to be scientifically determined that biochar can be used for the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Through carbon sequestration, it has the power to control greenhouse gases which in turn helps moderate the climatic conditions. It can also help soils with low acid content and increases crop yield.

Biochar helps soil fertility due to following two factors:

Biochar can help soil by elevating productivity and also inhibits the microbial issues by protecting the soil. Because of the property of carbon sequestration bio char can help reduce the carbon dioxide emissions, nitrous oxide while consuming and producing energy.

The two properties adsorption and stability are helpful in attacking the most immediate environmental hiccups such as:

Most of the benefits of Bio char are due to porous nature of it. It is proved that biochar is most effective in possessing water and nutrients. Recent technological studies have produced the results that it can also help reduce leaching and increase the productivity of crops that need soil with less acidic content and high potash content. It is hygroscopic in nature which means it can retain water content or nutrients that are water soluble. This is because of its highly porous nature and surface area.

Biochar consists of higher capacity for cationic exchange. It can maintain a stable crystal lattice structure. It has a higher organic content which aids in the growth of plants. It can be prepared by the process called pyrolysis which means heating a substance in a limited supply of oxygen. During this process as biomass is combusted, it releases a lot of biofuels and energy as byproducts. Manufacturing of Biochar is regarded a carbon negative process which aids the carbon sequestration. One of the byproducts which are a chemical energy called synthetic gas which mostly consists of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas. Synthetic gas is combustible and can release energy on a large basis. One of the other byproducts is bio-oil which is also a fuel itself.

Preparing Biochar is an ancient process so any farmer with a manageable amount of biomass can prepare a required amount of biochar for his needs. It can reduce the emission of nitrates and phosphates into the soil.

Bio-oil comprises of a complex mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons with a better portion of water. Bio-oil is attracting the businesses because of the way it is transportable, storable, and a potential substitution of diesel or fuel oil in stationary applications that include boilers, heaters, motors, and turbines for this and upcoming generations. Nonetheless, it can’t be utilized straightforwardly as a vehicle fuel unless it is overhauled, which is usually possible yet costly. Bio-oil can be a source of various crucial substance items, for example, acetic acid, sugars, resins, food flavors, slow discharge manures, adhesives, and additives.

Global Biochar market is segmented into agrarian waste, woody biomass,  animal fertilizers, and others. By application, biochar market is classified into electricity generation, farming, forestry, and others. Regional segmentation of Biochar market comprises of North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa (MEA).

In several life-threatening diseases, the blood plasma becomes deficient in the essential proteins. The Blood Plasma protein enables the blood to perform several vital functions like clotting and also protect the body against diseases by providing it immunity.

Lack of essential proteins in the blood plasma implies reduced the ability of the blood plasma to perform its functions. The therapy for treating the plasma protein deficiency includes supplying the body with external proteins through the oral pathway or through injected pathways.

Several life-threatening diseases can make the body lose its ability to manufacture all the vital plasma proteins. Several medical conditions can result in severe bleeding. Due to protein deficiency or blood loss, the blood plasma is not able to perform several functions.

There are different types of plasma therapy depending upon the plasma function affected.

Plasma coagulation therapy improves blood clotting and is administered for bleeding disorders due to trauma, liver disease, hemophilia A and B and Von Willebrand disease.

Plasma immunoglobulins therapy is administered to increase the ability of blood to neutralize foreign particles like bacteria and virus. Immunoglobulins therapy is used in the treatment of primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases and autoimmune disorders and in CIDP and ITP.

Plasma hyperimmune therapy is administered for increasing the ability of the blood plasma to prevent and treat certain infections and diseases caused by them including Rabies, tetanus, hepatitis as well as in RH negative pregnancy and liver transplantation and surgeries.

Plasma Alpha-1 Proteinase therapy is administered for increasing the ability of the blood to protect tissues from the enzymes secreted by inflamed cells. Alpha-1 Proteinase therapy is used for the treatment of genetic disorder like Alpha-1 Antitrypsin deficiency which causes severe lung and liver diseases.

Plasma Albumin therapy is administered during cardiac surgery and for treatment of liver diseases and infections of severe nature. Albumin therapy is an emergency and surgical therapy and is also used for treating shocks and severe burns.

Plasma C1 esterase therapy is applied for treating a rare heredity condition called heredity angioedema. C1 esterase therapy increases the blood’s ability to control protein C1 found in the blood thus reducing life-threatening edema attacks.

The Plasma Protein Treatment market is showing a growing trend which is being attributed to both the supply and demand side of the market.

On the supply side Plasma protein extraction technology has now become simpler and less expensive hence there is more supply or availability of proteins derived from blood plasma. Also, more and more people are donating blood from which therapists are deriving plasma proteins. Safety and convenience are encouraging more and more people to donate their blood for therapeutic purposes. Doctors can prescribe a particular therapy when they are sure of its adequate supply, and hence the supply further generates the demand.

On the demand side, the incidence of life-threatening diseases are on the rise. But the good news is that through plasma therapy people with blood plasma deficiencies are now getting replenished by external protein supply derived from the blood of the donors. Earlier when protein therapy was scarce, affected patients would have to suffer due to the deficiency and could not live long. Availability of protein therapy derived from plasma is enabling the affected patients to recover from the deficiency. The deficient plasma supplied with external proteins is able to perform the vital body functions important for survival.

The Global Plasma Protein Treatment market is growing at the rate of 8.97 % CAGR. In 2016 the worth of the world plasma protein therapy market was 20,157.1 million USD. By 2021 the market is expected to cross 33,612.4 million USD. The growth is being evinced in the developed as well as the developing regions of the world. The developed regions are realizing supply-driven growth due to advancement in technology and discovery of newer applications of plasma therapy.

Biomarkers Market – An Overview

Biomarkers or biological markers are often referred to indicators that give a fair analysis of the biological conditions of living organisms. It can be used to indicate the presence of certain conditions or symptoms that might escape the regular diagnosis.

The Biomarkers are used to examine the physiological processes, pathogenic processes, or even a response to a particular therapeutic drug. Used mostly in scientific fields, these biological markers have found widespread usage in medicine as well. Be it a radioactive isotope to identify the perfusion of the cardio-vascular muscles or simply detecting antigens in the blood; these markers play an important role in every aspect.

Body temperature, the pigmentation of the mucous et al. are natural biomarkers. Similar functions are carried out by these artificial biomarkers, which play a key role in detecting the issues which otherwise would have escaped a pathological test or a specialist’s diagnosis. If an individual had been working in an environment that has been exposed to nuclear radiation or any circumstance where the impact is undesirable by the body, biomarkers could help identify those with ease.

Different systems such as cardiovascular systems, neurological systems, respiratory systems, excretory systems et al. respond to different biomarkers. These make detection of diseases easier without resorting to any major invasive processes. Biomarkers can be used individually or in combination depending on the process.

Various measurements of the body can be used as natural biomarkers to analyze the BMI, body to hip ratio can be used to assess the risk of developing obesity or even diabetes! Biomarkers are expected to be consistent across all genders and ethnic groups making it universal in terms of usage. Additionally, if it is cost-effective, easy to measure and allows a wider range of modification when it comes to treatment, the better. A lot of research is underway in multiple government and private institutions to make biomarkers affordable and accessible to patients and hospitals.

Increasing number of clinical trials and a boom in the market has opened up different opportunities for the biomarkers market to grow. Breakthrough in cancer research and cure has added to the increase in demand. With a compound annual growth rate of 13.44%, an industry that had a revenue cap of $24.55 billion in 2015 is expected to grow exponentially and record a margin of $46.112 billion by 2020. An increased traction in research and development in terms of drug development, inexpensive drug trials, driven initiatives to find a cure for critical diseases are expected to drive the market to new heights during the forecasted period.

Biomarkers can be in different forms. It could be a simple software or a consumable product depending on the condition one is trying to detect. If recent developments are to be considered, there are pills that can be consumed as regular ones to treat cancer cells. Moreover, one might wonder how! These lithium pills have marking qualities that target the malignant cancer cells. Once consumed, it disintegrates in the body and attaches itself to these harmful cells.

The process can be observed thoroughly through probes that are attached with 3D cameras. These cameras assist the surgeons to focus on these impacted cells and treat it with lasers that further breaks down the entire malignant composition making the area cancer-free. Even if the development is in its nascent stages, it is expected to gain a commercial platform no sooner than ever. Therefore, it hardly comes as a surprise that the consumable biomarkers have the largest market share in terms of product circulation. Geographically, North America is the largest shareholder of the biomarkers globally. However, the Asia Pacific countries are expected to catch up to the numbers soon.

Check out Market Data Forecast’s comprehensive reports with in-depth analysis about the Biomarkers Market a free research sample can also be availed. Stay tuned for trending news stories about the latest technologies and interesting Healthcare tit-bits.

A Glance at Chia seeds market

Being healthy is a privilege. Working out, yoga, nutrition analysis and tracking calories along with those steps and heartbeat monitors have become a part of a health-conscious lifestyle. However, do we consume enough healthy foods instead of just following fads?

Individuals need macronutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and fibers as a part of their diet. Any mismatch in the proportion can lead to an inch gain or loss of stamina in the long run. Therefore, it is essential that the number of nutrients consumed be tracked properly in order to maintain a balance in the diet and overall health regime.

Chia seeds are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, iron, calcium, anti-oxidants, and other essential enzymes that are crucial for a healthy metabolism and weight loss process. The composition of these seeds facilitate regulating cholesterol levels in the body and cleansing the gut bacteria for a healthy bowel movement too! Known to guard the heart against strokes, these tiny seeds are an excellent substitute for eggs.

Consume it raw as a spoonful of goodness or mix it with water and allow it to swell up, these seeds are extremely versatile and can be cooked as a part of your everyday meal. Rich in protein, it is a great supplement to overcome protein deficiency and facilitate the weight loss process if you have been trying for the same.

Introduced as part of multiple diets, such as keto, GM or even a regular diet regime it also compensates for the micronutrient volume in the body such as manganese, potassium, copper, calcium, phosphorus, and others. Studies prove that chia seeds can help reduce obesity, diabetes, and risk of other lifestyle diseases. One teaspoon of chia seeds has an equal number of nutrients compared to a fruit or a vegetable that you might miss as a part of your hectic lifestyle.

Chia is in demand widely due to its nutritional and cosmetic value. Be it in the form of raw seeds, grounded powder, or oil; chia has recorded a compound annual growth rate of 40.62%. As a part of the market study, it is expected that the annual revenue will clock a whopping amount of $1.5 billion by 2021. Not only the product is high in demand due to its gluten-free content, but also a difference between the demand and supply chains have trodden the path for an exaggerated growth.

Promoted widely as a superfood, chia seeds have found importance in bakery supplements, beverages, granola bars, peanut butter, animal feed, and even cosmetics. It is better than other seeds such as flax, basil, sunflower, pumpkin or other seeds due to its lower rancidity quotient. Use it as a food additive for salads, mocktails, and multiple other recipes to give it another dimension that is not only different but also healthy in several aspects.

A plant so native to the South American continent, Chia is imported by several countries globally. Immensely popular in the French market, Chia is expected to surpass the demand of flax and make it obsolete. Animal welfare and a growing awareness towards a healthy lifestyle are one of the major factors for an elevated CAGR.

Geographically, Europe is one of the largest consumers of Chia seeds globally. Consumers turning vegan to support personal choices is hardly unusual. The trend is expected to gain traction in the Middle East as well. Traditional food is a rage in the Middle-eastern countries. Including the seeds as a part of their diet in the form of savory delicacies and chia beverages is expected to drive the market during the period of forecast. Eat it whole or grind it to a finer form, Chia is here to dominate!

Check out Market Data Forecast’s comprehensive reports with in-depth analysis about the Chia Seeds Market a free research sample can also be availed. Stay tuned for trending news stories about the latest technologies and interesting Food and Beverages tit-bits.

An accessory that is great to look at and also allows medical monitoring for a prolonged period comprises an essential wearable medical devices. Embed it in your clothing or wear it as a stylish accessory, these devices have been in demand for the last couple of years due to multiple reasons.

Wearable medical devices are popular due to their light, tiny and non-intrusive nature. Making use of the data processing modules, physiological sensors, wireless data transmission mechanisms, these devices have evolved and how! A real-time feedback system in a watch-like device, alert mechanism, wireless access to information and the ability to transfer and monitor it at the one’s own convenience, make it simple to use even by the unskilled audience.

The wearable medical devices market was worth 5327.6 million dollars in 2016. However, with an annual compound growth rate of 20.40%, it is expected to reach an all-time high of 15,830 billion dollars by the end of 2022. If the technical advancements in the field of developing modern day wearable medical devices gain traction, it will not be a rare sight to see people sporting these devices more frequently than ever. North America is a dominant market. It single-handedly contributes to 40% of the entire market share. However, a growing awareness and advancement in technology are expected to push the Asia Pacific and Europe into a growing phase too!

Currently, if statistics are to be believed, one in every six consumers owns a wearable medical device, and the number is only expected to rise. People are moving over regular activity trackers and are choosing for an alternative that does more than tracking the steps and a nominal heart rate. Medical wearable devices can help you track life-threatening diseases, conditions and so much more.

Make use of the biometric data and help your doctor diagnose the condition better. Even if the wearable come across as a luxury good, it is essential in the current world given that people have virtually no time to wait in a queue and wait for a thorough diagnosis. However, a commercial case is still not a glaring reality due to several reasons.

There is always a dominant aspect which questions the safety and accuracy of these devices. But that hasn’t deterred enthusiast from investing in them. A device that can be synced with the latest smartphones is anyway a rage. If it can be customized to check the frequency of an asthma attack or detect the probable onset of arrhythmia, users can be expected to exercise an extra measure of caution instead of fussing over the anticipated occurrence.

Growing cases of lifestyle diseases require that patients keep themselves alert. Therefore, a watch that acts as a glucose monitoring device or a necklace that doubles up as cardiac disease management device is not an unlikely idea. It allows free motions instead of restricting you to a confined space which was otherwise the case a couple of years ago.

Smart clothing, 3D printed hearing aids, flexible electronic devices and even methods to store and transfer the data over a wireless system is what development is aiming at. Research shows that the devices have a lower frequency of transmission which can be used during pregnancy as well. Now expecting mothers can track the fetal development without having to rush to the gynecologist.

Use it as an alarm to remind yourself of the medication, or just use it as a database to share medical history; medical wearable devices are here to stay. Record vital parameters such as blood pressure, sugar levels, chronic conditions, their frequency so on and so forth and use it as a monitoring system to keep your health in check.

Respiratory monitoring and diagnostic devices (RMDDs) enables the measurement of the amount of air taken in or breathed out and also provides the oxygen and carbon dioxide count present in the blood.

In urbanized localities of the developing countries like India respiratory diseases and COPD are on the rise due to rising levels of pollution and environmental degradation. People addicted to smoking also succumb easily to respiratory diseases.

World over and especially in developing and urbanizing regions the demand for  Respiratory monitoring and diagnostic devices are showing a growing trend due to a greater number of people seeking treatment for respiratory diseases and ailments. Advancement in respiratory disease therapy methods is also increasing the demand for the RMDDs. The global respiratory monitoring and diagnostic devices market is growing at the rate of 9.7% CAGR. In 2016 the market worth was 15.14 billion US dollars, and within the next five years, it is expected to cross 24.07 billion US dollars.

Several types of Respiratory monitoring and diagnostic devices are being produced by the global manufacturers. These include Pulse Oximeter, Sleep test devices, Gas analyzers, Capnograph, Spirometers and Peak flow meters. Advancement in technology has made these devices smaller and more effective. The devices can also be used for treatments at home, and the readings can be saved on the cloud and accessed by the doctor anytime.

Pulse oximeters are devices which have been designed to capture absorbance in the pulsating arteries alone. Other absorbances like absorbance by blood flowing through veins, absorption by skin, muscles, fats and other tissues are screened out by the device. Since the blood in the arteries absorbs oxygen, the device is able to quantify oxygen absorption rate. The device is small and is attached to a thin part of the body like earlobe or fingertip while monitoring the oxygen absorption rate.

Sleep test devices enable testing of oxygen absorption during sleep in patients with sleep apnea or in people who experience breathing problems while sleeping. Sleep test device is a small device that is attached to the fingertip to measure oxygen absorption rate by the blood. The device has thin tubes attached to the nasal and oral passage to measure the air flows through these pathways in sleeping patients.

Gas analyzers are used in therapy to analyze the amounts of gasses present in the breathing environment of patients or people with breathing problems. Some gas analyzing devices have inbuilt alarms which buzz out when oxygen level goes down permissible limits or if the presence of harmful gasses is detected. The gas analyzer is based on different infrared rays absorption patterns of different gases and their calibration.

Capnograph devices have been used to monitor carbon dioxide content in the respired air during administering anesthesia or sedation to look out for hypoxia and correct it immediately so as to prevent brain damage or while administering CPR to monitor chest compression.

A spirometer is a device to measure the volume of air inhaled and exhaled in the lungs during respiration. Spirometers can identify obstructive and restrictive patterns of the lungs being filled by air and then become empty of air. Spirometers are based on different technologies including a pressure transducer, ultrasonic and water gauge technology. Spirometers are used for detecting symptoms of diseases like asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. A spirometer is also used for diagnosing problems like shortness of breath and effect of breathing contaminated air and for monitoring the effect of certain medicinal therapies for treating respiratory diseases.

Peak flow meters are devices that measure the patient’s maximum expiration speed. The handheld device can assess the airflow through the bronchi and identify obstructions in breathing. Patients with respiratory diseases are likely to have obstructed breathing and lower than normal peak flow meter readings.

At present, there is an untapped market which is waiting to be discovered. The Asia Pacific and Latin American regions are expected to pose a greater demand during the forecasted period.

The drug quality standard protocols and government regulations have made virus microfiltration mandatory for most of the processes conducted by biotechnology and pharmaceutical firms.

Sterile filtration is a compulsory procedure to be followed while making the end products from the input materials as the input materials are derived from organic sources contain viruses and other microbes.

Microbes are filtered out through microfiltration films. Microfilters are made of cellulose and polyether based substances. Viruses are smaller than microbes like bacteria and other unicellular organisms. Hence the microfilms which prevent the microbes from passing through do not prevent the viruses from doing so. Virus filtration requires nanofiltration films in order to be filtered out from the solution. Microfiltration enables removal of microbes and viruses without changing the input substance in any other way.

Within the sterile filtration industry, the membrane filtration segment is witnessing significant growth at present largely due to the growth in pharmaceuticals and biotechnological industries. More and more pharma and biotech companies are bringing out new molecules and products the productions of which require micro and nanomembrane filtration.

Besides the pharma and biotech industries, membrane filtrations are also applied in the food industry, water filtration industry and academic and research institutions. The sterile filtration market is expected to grow at the rate of 12.5% CAGR from 2016 to 2021. In 2016 the world sterile filtration market was 4.5 billion US dollars. By 2021 the market is expected to grow to 8.11billion US dollars.

The growth is being realized from all the major regions of the world. In the developing countries of Asia availability and high cost remain a problem. However, these problems can be addressed by increasing the distribution networks, taking up local production, tying up with the global manufacturers for local distribution and production. In countries like India, biotech and pharma industries are on the growth trajectory and increase in the supply of micro and nano filters will be immediately be snapped up by the demand. The increase in demand, in turn, would lower the price and level out the price differences.

Nanofilms have holes ranging from 18 nm to 130 nm. They are used to strain out liquids containing organic matter. One problem encountered while nano filtering is that the rate of flow of the liquid substance through the films gets very slow for nano-sized holes and the fluid substance is not just able to flow through. One way of overcoming the problem was placing microfilms having holes of larger sizes one above the other. This implies that films or filters with larger holes are placed towards the top and as the fluid descends the holes in the films get smaller. This technique has its advantages as the films with larger holes obstructed the larger particles and microbes, and the nano filters are used only to filter out the viruses.

Micro and nanofiltration processes are accompanied by virus titration. The filtration and titration is carried out as per the production plan in specified stages. It is important to count the virus at each stage to know how many have been removed through the nanomembranes. Virus titration requires specific equipment and plates for carrying out the virus counts. Growth in nanofiltration in this way will also impact the growth in the entire virus titration supply chain.

What happens to the viruses that get caught up in the membrane meshes? They need to be annihilated or made inactive. The films also need to be studied to identify the viruses and look out for any new strains. Industries and chains which supply to these two activities are also likely to evince growth due to growth in the virus filtration segment.

Check out Market Data Forecast’s comprehensive reports with in-depth analysis of the Sterile Filtration Market a free research sample can also be availed. Stay tuned for trending news stories about the latest technologies Of Healthcare.

Metabolomics is basically the study of metabolites and other micro atomic particles mainly in the biological field. Metabolites are grouped as metabolomes and primarily consist of compounds in cell fluids, tissues, organs, organ systems, and Organisms. Metabolomics is a highly apprehensive research field as it allows a specific framework for metabolites in a diverse range from the micro atomic to the highest level.

The Metabolomics Market has been standing at a market value of USD 1.25 billion as of the year 2016. With scholars preferring a wider and comprehensive scale research, the metabolomics market is gradually getting the boost to kickstart a phenomenal market position. The production of customized medicine has also started accepting metabolomics as a standard development scale, which is further enhancing the performance of the Metabolomics industry in the present market.

The metabolomes market is studied under various segments. These segments are usually made on the basis of product, application, and indication. Like with the study of all other industries, a regional market segregation is also done. On the basis of product, the metabolomics market is divided into Bioinformatics, HPLC, GC, NMRS, Mass Spectrometry.

Bioinformatics has been faring sufficiently well in the present market. According to the indication, the metabolomics market has been categorized into Cardiology, Inborn Errors, and Oncology. On the basis of application, the market is studied under the categories of Toxicology, Nutrigenomics, and Biomarker and Drug Discovery. In the year 2016, the market segment of Biomarker and Drug Discovery held the largest market share in the metabolomics industry.

In the forthcoming years, a lot of factors may affect the performance of the metabolomics industry in the market. As advancement commences in the realm of biotechnology, the metabolomics market is becoming more innovatively designed. This will make its stand in the competitive market a firm one. Consumption of pharmaceutical products has also accelerated in the last decade as more and more people become aware of the medicinal information.

This has played a huge role in paving the way to a successful market value for the metabolomics market. In the previous year, drug discovery and biomarkers have performed exceptionally well in the market. This can be attributed to their reliability as an information tool and an efficient metabolomic scale. With the gradual growth of biotechnology and the merging of pharmaceutical industries with biotechnology may allow a high CAGR to the personalized medical segment.

The global metabolomics market has been segregated into smaller categories on a geographical basis. The categories are North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia – Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa. The highest market share in the metabolomics market is held by North America, as pharmaceutical consumption and medical awareness in this region is high.

In the next forecast season, Asia Pacific may rise as a market leader with its high CAGR and quick pace of growth. The Asia Pacific is the second largest market holder in the global metabolomics market. A high population and their inclination towards biotechnologically manipulated products may steer them towards the top as market leaders.

Most market leaders in the metabolomics industry have their grounds in the United States. Some notable market leaders include Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Metabolon Inc., Waters Corporation, Agilent Technologies, Inc., and Bruker Corporation. Metabolomic companies from the Asia Pacific region have also performed well and remained among the key players.

Major Asian Companies in the metabolomics industry are Human Metabolome Technologies Inc., and Shimadzu Corporation. Both of them belong to Japan. In the European Market, an Austrian Company, Biocrates Life Sciences AG has been performing as a key market player in the metabolomics market.

The CAGR for the upcoming years has been estimated at 19%. Therefore, the global Metabolomics market may reach a market value of USD 2.981 billion by the year 2021.The Filling of gaps for high costs of instruments, the requirement of specialists, and an environmentally conscious effort will definitely give the metabolomics market the momentum it deserves.

Check out Market Data Forecast’s comprehensive reports with in-depth analysis about the Metabolomics Market a free research sample can also be availed. Stay tuned for trending news stories about the latest technologies and interesting Healthcare tit-bits.

Agrochemical Intermediates are chemical products that find their use in the field of Agriculture. Most agrochemical Intermediates include insecticides, pesticides, fertilizers, hormones, and so on.

Agriculture has come a long way with the amalgamation of chemical processes into it. This has shaped the market for agriculture, chemicals, and agrochemical intermediates in an all-new dimension.

Let us look through the trends of the agrochemical market as of 2016-2021.

In the year 2016, the Agrochemical Intermediates market stood at a consistently high global market value. The main factors that have attributed towards the massive market value of this industry are its close intimacy with agriculture and the quick results that its products provide.

The Agrochemical Intermediates market has been segregated according to the product, type, and region. On the basis of the types of agrochemical, the market is classified into pesticides, fertilizing manures, insecticides, fungicides, herbicide. Pesticides and Fertilizing manures have consistently been greater market contributors than the others. The popularity of these agrochemical intermediates is seen not only in the Industrial scale but also on the domestic scale. Other intermediates are comparatively used to a smaller domestically.

According to the product, agrochemical intermediates are grouped as Amines, Acids, Aldehydes, Alkyl Amines. Acids have traditionally been dominant products in the agrochemical industry. Therefore, up till the previous forecast year Acids have been major contributing factors to the market. However, with the caution of environmental protection being prominent, industries have started resorting to chemicals that could be relatively milder than acids. In such a case, aldehydes may witness a steep market demand in the next years.

The market analysis for the agrochemical intermediates industry is done under Latin America, North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East and Africa. Although Latin America and the Asia Pacific are a dominant ground for agricultural endeavors, North America has taken the position of a market leader as of 2016. Their total market share includes 36% of the global agrochemical intermediates market. In the next few years, However, Asia Pacific may offer a tough global competition as it’s high CAGR indicates. Latin America to is set for a steep growth in the agrochemical field.

The Agrochemical Intermediates Market trees dominated by some giant companies. The competition is fierce, and the growth is quick. Companies like RohnerChem, Lonza, Eastman, Air Water, AGC, DPx Fine Chemicals have remained on top of the ladder as market leaders.

With innovative methods and environmental consciousness, several Asian companies like Sugai Chemical, Sudarshan Chemical, and Mitsubishi Corporation have been dominating the Asia Pacific market. With the high CAGR for the region, they may even become global leaders in the agrochemical intermediates market.

Agriculture is an ever flourishing market, and everything associated with it will continue to grow. An increasing global population is a significant factor contributing towards the market growth of this industry. With a bigger population, more food will be required. For faster and efficient production of food grains or other agricultural entities, industries will keep depending on agrochemical catalysts.

The global CAGR for the agrochemical intermediate market is moderately high for the upcoming forecast season. Therefore, the market value is predicted to level up significantly in its market value by the year 2021. As with all other industries, the growth of the agrochemical market too will directly depend on the need for innovation and sustainability in the future years.

Environmental issues have grappled humanity, and the use of agrochemicals for agriculture has been questioned several times. Research and development towards making this industry environment more sustainable while keeping production intact us going to greatly boost the agrochemical intermediates market in the forthcoming decade.

Check out Market Data Forecast’s comprehensive reports with in-depth analysis of the Agrochemical Intermediates Market a free research sample can also be availed. Stay tuned for trending news stories about the latest technologies and interesting Agriculture tit-bits.

The rise in treatment cost is the biggest concern area among the health organizations and the government, and these organizations are trying their best to curb the increase in health costs.

Healthcare at home is an efficient alternative, and this is a better option too as compared to expensive hospitals. The treatment cost at home is far less than the same treatment in a hospital. This setting helps to save cost and gives a driver to the healthcare market.

The growing workforce that is entering the service is translating the increase in demand in this industry. The growth of the geriatric population is the major driver for the growth in this market. It is estimated that the geriatric population will more than double by the year 2050. This group will need long-term care to treat chronic diseases, and thus the home healthcare will give them the best possible alternative as well as affordable quality.

The maintenance, as well as establishment of hospitals, is very cost intensive and one needs to invest large amounts in the capital and operational expenses. Therefore most of the providers that help acquisitions are entering the growing healthcare market at home which will help them to capitalize on the available opportunity and help to curtail costs.

The diagnostic equipment accounts for more than 35% of the home healthcare equipment market and is expected to gain its share because of the prevalence of diabetes and cardiopulmonary diseases. This is also because of the long-term illnesses that require constant diagnosis and usage of BP monitors and fertility tests.

The rehabilitation services were more than 50% of the overall home healthcare service market, and this was because of the growth in surgery rates that pertained to trauma.

North America has the highest revenue share in the regional market which is over 40%, and this is because of the presence of sophisticated medial infrastructure. This is also because of high awareness in patient’s levels and higher health expenditure levels.

Asia Pacific is also expected to witness growth in the forecasted period. This is because of the progressive economy, high unmet needs of the huge population, reforms to improve infrastructure and availability of skilled labor that will help to govern the growth of this region.

The major players are into many strategic initiatives such as regional expansion collaboration and mergers and acquisitions.

The global market for Home Healthcare was worth USD 227.5 billion in the year 2016 and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 9%. This is estimated to reach USD 349.8 billion by the year 2021. It is expected that the global health market will see a remarkable growth in the years to come. The home health care intends to offer many administration benefits to patients in the comfort of their home. The home health care business has been already developed to treat minor wounds and illness in patients. This is because it is a more viable option and also less expensive.

In this rapidly developing world which is mobile and free, the healthcare business remains completely established and brought together. The inclination of customers to benefit from the quality administration from the comfort of their home requires the decentralization of the health care admin to guarantee care and accommodation to the patients in need.

The need for cost-effective health care is on the rise and the global home healthcare market is driven by the rise in the geriatric population across the globe. However, the only constraint on the growth of this market is the reimbursement policies, the limited coverage of insurance and the risk of the home care workers.

Check out Market Data Forecast’s comprehensive reports with in-depth analysis about the Home Healthcare Market a free research sample can also be availed. Stay tuned for trending news stories about the latest technologies and interesting Healthcare tit-bits.


Biochar from biosolids microwaved-pyrolysis

11 January, 2018
 

Biochar, produced from biosolids using microwave pyrolysis technology, is energetically a more efficient alternative to that produced with conventional convective heating. However the potential of microwave generated biochar as a growing media amendment has not been sufficiently explored. Here we produced biochar from biosolids using microwave energy. The pyrolysis expeiments were conducted in two stages, initially using a custom built single mode chamber to explore the energetics and product distribution of the pyrolysis process at different temperatures and secondly in a 1 m3 6 kW multi-mode chamber, to explore potential scale-up of the process. The second phase of the pyrolysis experiments was focused on biochar generation for use in the remainder of this research. Microwave pyrolyzed biochar (MB) was characterised for its chemcal and physical properties. Then, we conducted a greenhouse experiment, where we compared the ability of four growing media mixes that combined pine bark with (i) sphagnum peat and fertilizers; (ii) 20% MB and fertilizers; (iii) 60% MB and fertilizers; and (iv) 60% MB and no fertilizers, to promote plant growth and nutrient uptake and to minimise leaching losses. MB had high mesoporosity (average pore width of 4.46 nm), moderate surface area (75 m2 g−1), elevated nutrient content and low heavy metal concentrations as compared to other biosolids biochars reprted in literatures. Substitution of peat with 60% MB on volume basis reduced leaching loss of nitrate and phosphate from the media but increased leaching loss of ammonium. Addition of MB in conjunction with fertilizer increased plant growth and plant nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency. Our study has shown microwave pyrolysis as a promising technology for pyrolyzing biosolids and also has demonstrated the synergistic interaction of MB and fertilizer which results in greater plant growth and nutrient uptake and use efficiency.

 


Wood Gasifier, Biochar; Aussie Flu; Fermentation; Ocean Freezing

11 January, 2018
 

 

 

Exploring more alternative energy solutions: wood gasifiers and biochar retorts. Australian Flu raging. News: Sahara covered with snow. Ocean freezing in Massachusetts. Heavy snowfall disrupts 2 million in China.

Full Episode 29 show notes with all links on wiki: http://wiki.iceagefarmer.com/wiki/IAF… Start taking daily steps NOW towards radical self-sufficiency so that you can thrive in the Grand Solar Minimum! http://IceAgeFarmer.com http://gab.ai/IceAgeFarmer https://twitter.com/IceAgeFarmer

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Show links:

Action Jackson’s Wood Gasification for GSM writeup: http://iceagefarmer.com/docs/Energy/W…

Fiskfarm’s channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/fiskfarm…

Fred writes in with ground report from Toronto: https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/…

— MEDIA NARRATIVE: Media is struggling to contain people’s curiosity. Headlines from JUST ONE SOURCE, the times .co.uk: “Global Cooling is not worth shivering about” https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/gl…

No link between snowfall in the Sahara and a new Ice Age https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/no…

— Other referenced links: Sahara covered in snow: https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/…

143 lives taken by extreme cold spell in India http://www.thebigwobble.org/2018/01/c…

Massive 7.8 Earthquake in Honduras http://www.news.com.au/technology/env…

2.1 million people disrupted by heavy snowfall in China https://watchers.news/2018/01/08/heav…

13,000 tourists trapped in resort by ~1m snow: https://www.iceagenow.info/heavy-snow…

Aussie flu spreading like wildfire: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/5286222…

Hundreds of motorists trapped in their cars in Spain, army sent in to rescue: https://www.thelocal.es/20180108/big-…

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Residual Effect of Biochar on Soil Properties and Yield of Maize

11 January, 2018
 

Keywords:

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a versatile as well as complete cereal crop proving food for human being and feed for animals as well as different raw materials for industries [1] . After wheat and rice, maize is the 3rd important cereal crop in Pakistan. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, maize is the 2nd important cereal crop after wheat [2] . The area under maize in Pakistan is 1.1 m ha with a total production of 4.5 million metric tons [3] whereas Khyber Pakhtunkhwa contributes 56 percent to the total area and 63 percent to the total production of maize. The average potential yield of maize is greater than our average national yield. A number of factors are responsible for low production of maize in Pakistan. One of most important limiting factor is soil’s low fertility. One way of increasing soil fertility on sustainable basis is the use of biochar.

Biochar is rich in organic carbon and resistant to microbial degradation. Biochar is produced from pyrolysis of different organic wastes. Quality of soil, nutrient cycling and sequestration of carbon through biochar application to agricultural land has received rising consideration. [4] suggested that the application of biochar is very important for the improvement of degraded soil. Application of biochar improves soil physical properties such as bulk density, water holding capacity, permeability, chemical properties such as nutrients availability, cation exchange capacity and retention, and biological properties such as microbial population, microbial biomass and microbial activities, thus ultimately increased crop yield [4] [5] [6] . The net influence of biochar on the physical characteristics of the soil depends on the interaction of the biochar by way of the physico-chemical properties of the soil as well as other determinant factor such as the climatic conditions and appliance of biochar management. [7] noticed the effect of biochar on regulation and production role of the agricultural soil. Positive effects of biochar on the plant-available phosphorus have been reported in other studies [8] [9] . Almost 50% – 100% of maize characteristics yield and water use efficiency was improved when use of biochar was enhanced since 15 to 20 t∙ha−1 [10] . Rate of crop development and uptake of nutrients was higher with increased levels of biochar [6] .

Positive responses of yield and yield parameters of maize to biochar as soil amendment have been obtained/reported and the positive responses were mainly attributed to improvement in saturated hydraulic conductivity of the sandy soil, the same as a result throughout the growing season nutrients availability, moisture content and WUE were increased [9] . Soils amended with biochar resulted in improved in better crop establishment and definitely improved rate of crop development and net incorporation rate, and resulted in high production of corn [10] . By the application of biochar soil microbial life increases and thus enhanced carbon storage in soil thus reduced the used of synthetic fertilizers. [11] found that N losses could be restricted through biochar application because it retains nitrogen, increases cation exchange capacity and reduces nitrous oxide emissions. Increased in cation exchange capacity and soil pH have been noticed by the application of biochar. Application of biochar improved the overall sorption capacity of soils and consequently it may persuade the transport, and fate of dissimilar heavy metals and toxicity in the soil. [5] also reported the increased accessibility of most important plant nutrients due to biochar application. Although positive impact of biochar amendment on soil properties and crops yields has been reported, the information on sustainability of biochar impact is still sparse. This study was therefore undertaken to examine the impact of biochar applied to other crops in previous seasons on current maize and soil properties.

Therefore, present study was designed to examine the residual influence of biochar on yield of maize (Zea mays L.) as well as on selected soil properties under different cropping systems with the objective to assess the residual influence of biochar on bulk density, pH, EC, organic C of soil and as well as yield components of maize crop under continuous cereal or cereal-legume cropping systems.

Study was carried out to examine the residual influence of biochar on yield of maize and important properties of soil in a rotation experiment involving cereals and legumes. A rotation experiment was established at the research farm of Agriculture University, Peshawar during Rabi season 2014 involving cereal-cereal and cereal-legume cropping systems receiving different levels of biochar. The cropping systems were continuous cereals both in winter and summer (wheat-maize), cereal in winter (wheat) followed by legume (mung bean) in summer legume in winter (chickpea) followed by cereal in summer (maize) and continuous legumes both in summer and winter (chickpea-mung bean). The biochar treatments were 0, 20 and 40 t∙ha−1 applied both to cereal and legume in each season as per plan presented in Table 1. The experimental design was RCB with split plot arrangement. Cropping systems were in main plots and biochar in sub-plots with four replications. Before the commencement of this study,

biochar received by different treatments in each cropping systems were 0, 40, 60 and 80 t∙ha−1.

For this study the field was thoroughly prepared after the removal of winter crops (wheat and chickpea). After the harvest of wheat and chickpea soil samples at 0 – 15 cm depth were collected from each treatment plot for the required analysis. After proper land preparation and soil sampling maize was planted in designated treatment plots. The row to row distance was kept 75 cm as well as plant to plant distance 30 cm. Basal doses of N at 150 kg∙N∙ha−1 P at 90 kg∙P2O5∙ha−1 and K at 60 kg∙K2O∙ha−1 were apply in the form of urea, SSP and MOP respectively to each treatment plot. Nitrogen was apply in two splits half at sowing time and half at knee high stage of the crop, whereas all phosphorus as well as potassium were apply at the time of sowing. Weed was controlled manually. Similarly, the crop was irrigated when needed. All other recommended cultural practices should be followed throughout the growing season. Data were analyzed statistically according to [12] and means were compared using LSD test (P ≤ 0.05) using statistical packages statistic 8.1 Agronomic data was recorded for some parameters like plant population, number of cob per plant, cob weight, grain yield, Stover yield and harvest index.

The bulk density of soil was determined using core method [13] . In this procedure, pre-weighed soil cores of known dimensions were carefully inserted in each treatment plot at proper water soil conditions. The cores were carefully removed and then transported to lab. After weighing, cores were dried in oven at 105˚C for 24 hr. The cores were then removed from oven and cooled in desecrator and re-weighed to determine weight of dry sample accommodated in the core. The volume of core was taken as volume of the soil and bulk density was calculated using the expression

B D = Massofsoil Volofsoil .

Soil organic matter content was determined using method of [14] . Briefly soil sample (1.0 g) was treated with K2Cr2O7 solution (10 ml of 1.0 N) and concentrated sulphuric acid (20 ml). After adding distilled water (200 ml) the suspension was filtered and the filtrate was titrated against ferrous sulphate solution (0.5 N) in the presence of organophneonpthaline as indicator. A blank sample also runs simultaneously.

Total mineral N in soil was determined by the steam distillation method of [15] . In this procedure, twenty g soil samples was taken in shaking bottle as well as 200 ml of 1 M KCl was added to it. The sample was then kept on a horizontal shaker and shaken for 1 hour. After shaking, the sample was then filtered through Whatman-42 filter paper. Then twenty ml extract was distilled with MgO and devarda’s alloy to recover both ammonium and nitrate into 5 ml boric acid mixed indicator solution. The distillate was titrated against 0.005 M HCl.

For determination of soil pH and ECe 10 g soil sample was taken in a conical flask and 50 ml distilled water was added to make soil water suspension of 1:5. The suspension was shaken for 30 minutes on mechanical shaker and pH of the suspension was measured on pH meter [16] and EC on EC meter (Jenway 4510).

Total N in soil and plant sample was determined using of the Kjeldhal method [17] . In this method, 0.2 g soil or plant finely ground samples were taken in a digestion tube. Then digestion mixture (1.1 g) and concentrated sulfuric acid (3 ml) were added to it and digested at 350˚C on a digestion block till greenish color appeared. The samples were removed from the digestion block and allowed to cool for now and again. The digest was diluted to 100 ml with distilled water. For distillation, 20 ml of the digest was taken in a distillation flask together with 4 ml of 40% NaOH and distilled in to boric acid mix indicator solution. The distillate was titrated against 0.005 N HCl.

The total nitrogen in sample was calculated as follows:

Totalnitrogen ( % ) = ( Sample − Blank ) × 0.005 × 0.014 × 100 × 100 s Wt .ofsoil × 20 .

Nitrogen concentration in stover and grains was determined and converted to kg N∙ha−1 using the stover and grain yields in kg∙ha−1. Total uptake was calculated as follows:

TotalNuptake ( kg ⋅ ha − 1 ) = TotalNingrains + TotalNinstover ( kg ⋅ ha − 1 ) .

The data showed that plant population was not significantly affected by cropping systems (CS), biochar (BC) levels and by their interaction (CS × BC) (Table 2). Although the effect of cropping system was not significant yet maximum number of plants (63,512 ha−1) was obtained for chickpea/maize cropping system which was statistically similar to wheat/maize cropping system. Similarly, the differences between the biochar and control treatments were non-significant. However, the maximum plant numbers of 65,714 ha−1 was noticed with the application of 80 t∙ha−1 biochar which was statistically similar to other treatments. The increase in plant population in biochar treatments suggests the carry over effect of biochar. [18] reported that application of biochar removed all the constrains that limiting the plant growth as well as also enhanced the fertilizers use efficiency as well as hence increased plant biomass. [9] also report that biochar application improved nitrogen availability in soil and transport in plant so more photosynthesis were formed and plant biomass were increased. However, [19] observed that biochar, FYM and mineral nitrogen did not cause any significant variation in maize plant population at harvest although maximum plant population at harvest were recorded in plots where only biochar or biochar plus FYM were applied.

Data revealed that number of cobs in maize was significantly affected by cropping system (CS), biochar (BC) levels and by their interaction (Table 2). Significantly greater numbers of cobs (60446 ha−1) were observed for treatment having chickpea than wheat in the preceding season suggesting the carry over effect of chickpea on the following maize crop (Figure 1). Significantly greater numbers of cobs were obtained for treatment receiving biochar in the previous season compare with the control treatment. It was observed that the maximum

numbers of cobs (61,250 ha−1) were obtained for treatment receiving biochar at 80 t∙ha−1 but this be statistically alike to the treatment receiving biochar at 40 or 60 t∙ha−1 suggesting that there were significant differences in the carry over effect of biochar levels beyond 40 t∙ha−1.

The data showed that cobs weight was considerably affected by cropping system, biochar level as well as by their interactive effect (Table 2). The cobs weight of maize was significantly greater for treatment following chickpea than wheat in the preceding period suggesting that the carry over effect of chickpea was more evident than wheat on the following maize crop (Figure 2). Similarly, the cobs weight was significantly greater for treatment receiving biochar in the previous season than in the control treatment. The results show that maximum cobs weight of 6881 kg∙ha−1 was obtain with the appliance of biochar at 80 t∙ha−1, but it was statistically alike to treatments receiving biochar at 40 or 60 t∙ha−1. The lowest cobs weight was observed in the control treatment. These results suggested the strong carry over effect of biochar applied previously on the following maize. [20] reported that application of biochar at 5 t∙ha−1 plus 100% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer plus biofertilizers produced the highest cobs weight (310 g) over all other treatments including control.

The grain yield of maize as affected by different level of biochar and cropping systems is shown in Table 3. Grain yield was considerably affected by cropping system (CS), biochar (BC) levels and by their interaction. Like the grain yield (5261 kg∙ha−1) of maize was significantly greater for treatment under chickpea/maize than under the wheat/maize cropping system (Figure 3). Moreover, biochar exhibited tough carry over effect on grain yield of maize as the grain yield be considerably better in biochar than in the control treatments. Like biological yield, the highest grain yield of 5098 kg∙ha−1 was obtain in the treatments received biochar at 40 t∙ha−1 while the lowest grain yield of 3685 kg∙ha−1 was obtained in the control treatment. It was evident that the grain yield obtained in all biochar treatments was statistically similar or indifferent. [10] also reported that biochar. Application at the @ 20 and 30 t∙ha−1 appreciably improved the grains yield of maize. [21] found that grains yield was considerably improved with the application of biochar at 100 t∙ha−1. Our result is also supported by [22] . [23] who reported that appliance of biochar improved the yields of crops due to better

NS = non-significant.

supply of water to plants. Our result are supported by [24] who also reported that maize yield was improved by the combined use of organic manures and mineral nitrogen. [19] reported that 5 t∙ha−1 biochar plus 100% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer plus biofertilizer increased the grain and stover yield of 8100 and 12,150 kg∙ha−1 of maize, respectively. [25] observed that the appliance of biochar at the @15 t∙ha−1 produced maximum grain yield (31 t∙ha−1) of maize compared with 0.51 t∙ha−1 in the control plot. [19] reported that high grain yields of 4194 kg∙ha−1 of maize was produced in treatment where biochar and chemical fertilizer were applied whereas lower grain yield of 2042 kg∙ha−1 was noticed for control treatments.

Data revealed that stover yield of maize was not significantly affected by biochar, cropping system or by their interactions (Table 3). Although the stover yields of maize was not considerably affected by cropping system yet greater stover yield was obtained for treatment having chickpea than wheat in the preceding season. In case of biochar, no significant affect on stover yield of maize was observed by any of the biochar level applied in the previous season compared with the control. It was however, observed that the maximum stover yield of 11,000 kg∙ha−1 was obtained for the treatment receiving biochar at 40 t∙ha−1 but this was statistically at par with all other treatments including control. However [20] reported that biochar at 5 t∙ha−1 plus 100% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers along with biofertilizer increased the stover yield of maize.

The data showed that cropping systems, biochar levels and their interactions (CS × BC) had no significant effect on harvest index of maize (Table 3). However, somehow improved harvest index of 28.3% was observed for treatment following chickpea than wheat in previous season. Although statistical non-significant, harvest index of maize was generally greater for biochar than for the control treatment. The results showed that higher harvest index of 29.4% was recorded for treatment receiving biochar (BC) at 40 t∙ha−1 while the lowest harvest index of 24.1% was recorded for the control treatment. [26] [27] found that application of biochar improved harvest index. [28] reported that higher biochar application produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher HI values in each year (0.44 in 2003, 0.47 in 2004 and 0.50 in 2005).

The data showed that nitrogen concentration in grains was not considerably effected by cropping systems and biochar levels (Table 4). Although significantly non different, the maximum nitrogen concentration of 1.58% was obtained in the treatment under wheat-maize cropping system which was statistically similar to that under chickpea-maize cropping system (Figure 4). The effect of biochar levels was not significant yet the maximum nitrogen concentration of 1.61 % in maize grains was observed with the application of biochar at 60 t∙ha−1 which was similar to all other treatments including the control. [28] reported that N concentration in maize grains increased with application of biochar. Alike result have also been reported by [29] . In another study, it was also found that nitrogen concentration was increased with the application of biochar [30] .

The data showing nitrogen concentration in stover of maize as affected by cropping system and biochar levels are presented in Table 4. The nitrogen concentrations was non-significantly affected by cropping systems yet the maximum

NS = non-significant.

concentration of 0.86% was observed in treatment following chickpea than wheat in the previous season Significantly greater nitrogen concentration of 0.98% in maize stover was obtained for treatment receiving biochar at 80 t∙ha−1 in the previous season and this was statistically at par with 0.83% noticed for treatments receiving biochar 40 t∙ha−1. furthermore, the differences in N concentration in stover between treatment receiving biochar at 40 or 60 t∙ha−1 and control treatments were statistically non-significant (p ≤ 0.05) (Figure 5). Contrary to our results, [28] observed that nitrogen concentration increased with the appliance of biochar at the @20 t∙ha−1. Alike result have also been reported by [29] who found that with the application of biochar nitrogen concentration increased which has the ability to increased nitrogen efficiency of nitrogen used.

Data revealed that nitrogen uptake in maize was considerably affected by cropping systems and biochar levels and by their interaction (Table 4). Nitrogen uptake in maize was considerably better for treatments following chickpea than wheat in the previous season (Figure 6). These results suggest that chickpea had significant effect on N uptake in the following maize than wheat. Moreover, the N uptake in maize was significantly greater for treatment receiving biochar in the previous season than in the control. It was observed that the maximum N uptake of 187 kg∙ha−1 was noticed for treatments having biochar at 80 t∙ha−1 followed by 60 and 40 t∙ha−1. While the lowest was observed in the control treatment, the results suggest the carry over effect of biochar applied previously. Our results are supported by [28] who report that appliance of biochar at the @20 t∙ha−1 significantly improved nitrogen uptake in maize plant. [29] also demonstrated that nitrogen uptake was significantly increased with the appliance of biochar. [31] reported that nitrogen uptake was significantly improved in biochar and sewage sludge amended treatments compare to the un amended control treatment.

The data showed that soil organic carbon was significantly affected by cropping system and biochar levels (Table 5). The maximum soil organic carbon of 0.91% was noticed in the chickpea-maize cropping system follow by that in the chickpea-mung bean, wheat-maize and wheat-mung bean cropping system respectively. It was observed that soil organic carbon was generally larger for the treatments following chickpea than wheat in the preceding season. The soil organic carbon was also considerably better in the biochar than in the control treatments. The maximum organic carbon of 0.99% was noticed for the

NS = non-significant.

treatments having biochar at the rate of 80 t∙ha−1 followed by 0.82% for the treatment receiving biochar at 60 t∙ha−1. The lowest organic carbon of 0.64% was observed in the control treatment. These results showed the strong carry over effect of biochar receiving in the previous season. [32] observed that the application of biochar considerably increased SOC and N but decrease BD of the soil. [33] also found that total soluble N, soluble C, available P, sodium, bulk density and exchangeable calcium were considerably improved with the application of biochar. [34] reported improved in SC with the application of biochar. Our results are also supported by [35] [36] .

The data showed that soil bulk density was considerably affected by cropping systems, biochar level as well as by their interactive effect (Table 5). The lowest bulk density of soil 1.43 g∙cm−3 was obtained for treatment under chickpea-mung bean cropping, whereas the greater bulk density (1.52 g∙cm−3) for treatment under wheat-maize cropping system (Figure 7). These results suggest that legumes cropping significantly reduced the bulk density of soil compared with continuous cereal-cereal cropping system. The soil BD was also considerably lower in the biochar than in the control treatments. The minimum bulk density of 1.3538 g∙cm−3 was obtained for the treatment receiving biochar at the @80 t∙ha−1 followed by 1.4719 g∙cm−3 for the treatments having biochar at 60 t∙ha−1. The greater bulk density was recorded in the control treatments. These results suggest the strong carry over influence of biochar applied previously on the soil bulk density. [37] reported that rising total organic carbon by the accumulation of organic amendments in soils could extensively drop off bulk density. Moreover, the decrease in bulk density of the biochar-amended soils appears to have also been the result of modification of soil aggregate sizes, as shown by [38] . Physical properties of soil such as texture, porosity, BD, soil structure and particle size distribution can also be improved with the application of biochar [39] . Similar result have also been report by [40] as well as [41] who found that bulk density, porosity and water holding capacity were improved with the application of biochar.

The data showed that soil mineral nitrogen was not significantly affected by cropping systems but it was significantly affected with the application of biochar (Table 5). The interaction effect was also significant (Figure 8). The highest soil mineral nitrogen (20.46 ug∙g−1 soil) was noticed for the treatments having biochar at 60 t∙ha−1. The results were however, inconsistent as no considerable differences in soil mineral nitrogen were obtained among the control treatment and the treatment receiving highest level of biochar (i.e. 80 t∙ha−1). Microbial N immobilization cause if organic matter with higher C/N ratio (more than 1:20) is applied to the soil [42] . [43] viewed that there is some component in biochar which cause N immobilization.

The data showed that soil pH was not significantly affected by cropping systems but it was significantly affected with the application of biochar (Table 6). Highest soil pH (7.91) was observed for the treatment having biochar at 60 t∙ha−1. The result were however, inconsistent as no significant differences in soil pH were

observed between the control treatment and treatment receiving the highest level of biochar (i.e. 80 t∙ha−1). Our results are generally contrary to the published literature. For example, [44] reported that biochar application significantly enhanced pH of the soil. [45] also reported that in highly weathered soil, pH, base saturation and CSC were significantly increased with the application of biochar. [33] also reported similar results.

NS =non-significant

Data showed that soil ECe was non-significantly affected by cropping system, biochar levels and by their interactions (Table 6). Although significantly non different, the highest soil ECe of 0.149 dS∙m−1 was obtained for the treatment following chickpea-maize cropping system which was statistically similar to other treatments following other cropping systems. Similarly, differences in soil ECe between the biochar levels and control treatments were statistically non-significant. However, the highest ECe of 0.141 dS∙m−1 was observed with the application of biochar at 60 t∙ha−1 which was statistically similar to all other treatments including control. Published literature showed that the ECe of the soil generally increased with the application of biochar due to release of weakly bond nutrients (cations and anions) of biochar into the soil solution, which are accessible for uptake of plant. [43] [46] [47] reported that highest mean values of pH and EC were observed in soils treated with 10 t∙ha−1 biochar.

It could be concluded from the results of this study that the chickpea-maize cropping system performed better in terms of improving yield and yield components of maize, and in improving various soil properties. Application of biochar also improved various yield and yield components of maize and soil properties. It is therefore recommended that legumes must be involved in cropping system for sustainable and higher crop productivity and improved soil properties. However further studies are suggested to find out suitable dose of biochar for sustainable and economic crop productivity and soil fertility.

Sara, Shah, Z. and Shah, T. (2018) Residual Effect of Biochar on Soil Properties and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Different Cropping Systems. Open Journal of Soil Science, 8, 16-35. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2018.81002

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Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield

12 January, 2018
 

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Affiliation National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, National Engineering Technology Research Center for Slow and Controlled Release Fertilizers, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong, China

chengliang_li11@163.com (CL); minzhang-2002@163.com (MZ)

Affiliation National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, National Engineering Technology Research Center for Slow and Controlled Release Fertilizers, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong, China

chengliang_li11@163.com (CL); minzhang-2002@163.com (MZ)

Affiliation National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, National Engineering Technology Research Center for Slow and Controlled Release Fertilizers, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong, China

Affiliation Soil and Water Science Department, Tropical Research & Education Center, University of Florida, Homestead, Florida, United States of America

Affiliation Jining Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jining, Shandong, China

Affiliation National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, National Engineering Technology Research Center for Slow and Controlled Release Fertilizers, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong, China

Affiliation National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, National Engineering Technology Research Center for Slow and Controlled Release Fertilizers, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong, China

Biochar application as a soil amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yields. However, the effects of successive biochar applications on cotton yields and nutrient distribution in soil are not well documented. A three-year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of successive biochar applications at different rates on cotton yield and on the soil nutrient distribution in the 0–100 cm soil profile. Biochar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 (expressed as Control, BC5, BC10, and BC20, respectively) for each cotton season, with identical doses of chemical fertilizers. Biochar enhanced the cotton lint yield by 8.0–15.8%, 9.3–13.9%, and 9.2–21.9% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively, and high levels of biochar application achieved high cotton yields each year. Leaching of soil nitrate was reduced, while the pH values, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N), and available K content of the 0–20 cm soil layer were increased in 2014 and 2015. However, the changes in the soil available P content were less substantial. This study suggests that successive biochar amendments have the potential to enhance cotton productivity and soil fertility while reducing nitrate leaching.

Citation: Tian X, Li C, Zhang M, Wan Y, Xie Z, Chen B, et al. (2018) Biochar derived from corn straw affected availability and distribution of soil nutrients and cotton yield. PLoS ONE 13(1): e0189924. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189924

Editor: Jorge Paz-Ferreiro, RMIT University, AUSTRALIA

Received: March 25, 2017; Accepted: December 5, 2017; Published: January 11, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Tian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0201901 and 2017YFD0200706) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 41571236 and 21377074).

Competing interests: Min Zhang is the technical advisor on controlled release fertilizers of Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co., Ltd. and Min Zhang is a member of the scientific advisory board for Sate Key Laboratory of Nutrition Resources Integrated Utilization (China) and this Laboratory is established by Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co., Ltd. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter our adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

The application of chemical fertilizers is essential for modern agriculture, contributing approximately 30–50% to increases in crop yields [1]. However, the dependence on soil nutrients in the form of chemical fertilizers and low supplemental organic input into the land has become a major concern in intensive agriculture due to the associated low efficiency of fertilizer utilization and potential environmental pollution [23]. These problems are especially pronounced on the North China Plain, where only 45% of the applied nitrogen (N) is absorbed by crops [45]. Most of the N applied in agricultural fields is lost, mainly through surface runoff, ammonia volatilization, and NO3−N leaching [67], resulting in severe soil degradation and groundwater pollution; therefore, effective and comprehensive soil management strategies must be urgently developed not only to improve crop yield and quality but also to enhance soil fertility.

Biochar is a carbon-rich and porous material that is resistant to decomposition in the natural environment due to its condensed structure [8]. Because of its stable organic carbon content, large specific surface area, and negative surface charge [9], biochar has been widely recognized as a beneficial soil amendment for its role in improving soil physical [10], chemical [11], and biological [1213] properties, as well as in enhancing crop productivity [1415]. Our review of over 50 reports of research on this subject (Table 1) revealed several interesting points. First, the beneficial role of biochar applications for soil fertility improvements varied with the type of nutrients, the experimental conditions, and the length of the study. For example, although Gaskin et al. [30] found that biochar application directly increased the soil carbon content by adding organic materials (C and N) to the soil, they did not observe any change in the soil P content after two years of field study. Although previous studies showed lower nitrate levels with biochar application, most of them were conducted with column or incubation experiments [2425]. Comparable field studies were not conclusive on this topic. Major et al. [31] found that the amendment of a low-fertility soil with wood biochar at 20 t ha-1 increased the concentration of NO3-N in the soil solution. In addition, improved soil fertility or elevated nutrient availability was observed mostly in surface soils [32], with most studies focusing on topsoil at the 0–20 cm depth (Table 1). Very limited research has examined the migration of nutrients or soil carbon into deeper layers in the soil profile with consecutive biochar applications.

Second, increases in crop yields with biochar application have been studied mostly with a single biochar application [3334]. For example, Liao et al. [23] verified that a single amendment of 4.5 t ha-1 biochar significantly increased cotton yields, by 24–37%, in a one-year field study; in contrast, Major et al. [20] noted that wood biochar application at a single dose of 20 ha-1 had no obvious influence on maize yields in the first year, although crop yields in the subsequent three years were significantly increased. Zhang et al. [19] affirmed that biochar application enhanced rice yields by 10% in the first cycle and by 9.5–29.0% in the subsequent cycle. Little information is available about the effects of successive biochar applications on crop yields through long-term field observations.

Overall, the effects of biochar applications for improving soil fertility and increasing crop productivity are complex and depend on the soil type, biochar properties, biochar application rate, chemical fertilizers used, and the years examined [1920, 35]. Our study contributes to the existing literature through a comprehensive examination of the soil nutrient distribution along 1 m depth of the soil profile and the enhancement of crop yield and quality with three successive years of biochar applications in the field. This general assessment depends on details of the interactions between biochar, soil, and application times. We hypothesized that successive applications of biochar will have significant incremental benefits in (i) cotton yield and quality, (ii) overall soil fertility, and (iii) decreased NO3−N leaching. Our three-year field experiment was conducted on the North China Plain. Specifically, the objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the long-term effects of different rates of biochar application on cotton yield, fiber quality, and topsoil fertility, with identical doses of controlled release urea; and (2) to study the dynamic changes in response to biochar application in the leaching of soil NO3−N and NH4+-N and the distribution of soil pH, organic carbon, total N, available K, and available P across the 0–100 cm soil profile.

The study was performed at Zhoulianchi Village (34°58′N, 116°10′E), Jinxiang County, Shandong Province, China, from May 2013 to October 2015 under a cotton-garlic intercropping system. As a local conventional cropping system, cultivation of cotton in the summer and garlic in the winter has been popular at this site since the 1980s. This region has a Dwa climate according to Köppen climatic classification, with low temperatures below 0°C in the winter and high temperatures above 40°C in the summer. Annual precipitation is 700 mm, most of which falls from June to August. The predominant soil of the experimental site is classified as an Inceptisol according to U.S.D.A. Soil Taxonomy [36]. The basic properties of the experimental soil at the initiation of the study are described in Table 2.

The feedstock for the biochar used in this study was corn straw, which was collected from an experimental site at the National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources in Tai’an, Shandong province (34°20′N, 117°13′E). The biochar was produced from the slow pyrolysis of corn straw at 450°C, with a residence time of 2 h under oxygen-limited conditions in a programmed pyrolysis furnace (Taian Hongtai, Inc., Shandong, China), followed by cooling at room temperature for 24 h. The basic properties of the biochar are pH (H2O) 10.3; ash content 109.1 g kg-1; CEC 40.1 cmol kg-1; and total C, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg contents of 890.5, 7.2, 4.3, 15.2, 3.20, and 1.13 g kg-1, respectively.

The cotton cultivar was ‘Lu Yanmian 28’, which has been widely adopted in northern and central China. The chemical fertilizers, including polymer coating of sulfur-coated urea (PSCU, 35% N), polymer-coated urea (PCU, 43% N), urea (N 46%), diammonium phosphate (DAP, 48% P2O5, and 16% N), and potassium sulfate (KPS, 50% K2O), were provided by Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co., Ltd., China.

The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The four treatments were (1) chemical fertilizer without biochar application (Control); (2) chemical fertilizer with biochar applied at 5t ha-1 each cotton season (BC5); (3) chemical fertilizer with biochar applied at 10 t ha-1 each cotton season (BC10); and (4) chemical fertilizer with biochar applied at 20 t ha-1 each cotton season (BC20). The chemical fertilizers used for cotton and garlic were the same. In all treatments, 220 kg ha-1 N, 180 kg ha-1 P2O5, and 90 kg ha-1 K2O were basally applied during each growing season. Of the total N, 50% was applied as PCU and PSCU in equal proportion, and the remainder was supplied as urea and DAP. DAP was also used as the P fertilizer and KPS as the K fertilizer.

Under the cotton-garlic intercropping system, cotton seedlings were transplanted into the garlic row spaces before the garlic harvest. Thus, the two crops were growing together side by side in the field for approximately 30–40 days. Approximately 20–25 days after the garlic harvest, chemical fertilizers and biochar were applied via deep-strip tilling in the soil at a depth of 15 cm. No irrigation or chemical fertilizer top-dressing was used during the entire cotton growth period.

Three replicated trial plots (4.4 m×5 m) were established and separated by buffer rows that were 0.7 m wide, each with an irrigation and drainage outlet. Cotton was seeded in April and transplanted in the field in mid-May, with a row space of 110 cm, a plant space of 35 cm, and an actual density of 20,800 plants ha−1(S1 Fig). After the cotton was uprooted in early October, before all the bolls opened, chemical fertilizers for the garlic were spread on the surface and plowed to a depth of over 15 cm before sowing.

At maturity, the seed yield was measured by the arithmetic product of boll weight, the average number of bolls, and plant density. Before the cotton was uprooted, 100 open bolls (>2 cm in diameter) were randomly picked by hand from each plot and air dried before the boll weight was measured, after which the lint percentage and fiber quality were measured. Meanwhile, 20 consecutive plants in the middle two rows were used to survey boll numbers. Then, the fiber samples were sent to the cotton quality supervision and inspection center (Henan) to determine the fiber quality parameters (e.g., micronaire, fiber length, fiber strength, length uniformity index, and fiber elongation) of each sample.

When the cotton was uprooted each year, soil samples were taken from each plot at 20 cm intervals from soil depths of 0 to 100 cm. Fresh soil samples of the same depth from five random locations per plot were mixed as a composite sample. Part of each sample was stored fresh in a 4°C refrigerator, and the remainder was air-dried and sieved through 2.0-mm and 0.25-mm sieves.

The contents of NO3−N and NH4+-N (extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2) in fresh soil samples were analyzed using an AA3-A001-02E auto-analyzer (Bran-Luebbe, Germany) within 48 hours after collection. The organic carbon content was measured using a WR112 Leco carbon detector (LECO Corp., Michigan, USA). The total N content was measured using the Kjeldahl digestion method [37]. Soil pH was measured at a 1:2.5 (w/v) ratio of soil to CO2-free distilled water using a pH meter (PB-10, Sartorius AG, Germany). The soil available P content was determined using the Olsen-P method based on the extraction of air-dry soil with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 and the spectrophotometric method. The soil available K content was measured using the CH3COONH4 extraction method with a flame photometer.

Two-way analysis of variation (ANOVA) was performed to determine the effects of the biochar treatment, year (application times), and their interaction on yield, fiber quality, and soil properties. One-way ANOVA was performed to assess the significant differences of cotton growth, quality, and soil nutrients between different treatments within the same year. ANOVAs and mean separation tests (Duncan’s multiple range test at the 5% probability level) were performed using the Statistical Analysis System package, version 9.2 (2010, SAS Institute Cary, NC). Means and standard errors were calculated to assemble graphs using Sigma Plot software, version 10 (MMIV Systat Software, Inc., San Jose, CA).

Analysis of variance showed that the biochar application and years had significant (p < 0.01) effects on cotton yields though the interactions between them were not significant (Table 3). The cotton yield increased with the increasing rate of biochar amendments and with increasing application times within the same rate. In 2013, the seed yield of BC10 and BC20 treatments increased by 10.3% and 17.1%, respectively, over that of the control (p < 0.05), although the yield increase with BC5 was not significant. The seed yield of the BC20 treatment increased by 6.2% and 8.3%, respectively, over BC10 and BC5 (p < 0.05), but no significant difference was detected between BC5 and BC10. In 2014, the seed yield increased over the control by 9.6%, 12.2%, and 13.5%, respectively, for the BC5, BC10, and BC20 treatments. In 2015, the corresponding increase was 8.1%, 15.4%, and 18.6%, respectively, for the three doses of biochar application. Similar trends were observed with cotton lint yield among all treatments (Table 3).

Plant height was considerably affected by biochar applications and years butwith no significant interaction between those factors (Table 3). The stem diameter and number of branches were not markedly affected by the biochar application rate, with the stem diameter maintained at 1.7–1.9 cm and branches of 16–18 per plant-1. In 2013, the BC20 treatment possessed the highest boll number, 7.6–8.8% more than other treatments. In 2014, the highest boll number appeared in the BC10 and BC20 treatments, and no pronounced difference in boll number was observed between BC5 and the control. In 2014, the highest boll weight occurred in BC20, followed by BC10, and the lint percentage was significantly higher in the BC20 treatment than in the control.

Analysis of variance showed that the biochar amendments and years had significant (p< 0.01) effects on cotton fiber length and fiber strength (Table 4). Fiber length was significantly greater in the BC20 treatment than in the control in both 2014 and 2015. However, no significant difference in fiber length was observed among all treatments in 2013. The fiber micronaire was not affected by biochar application in 2013 or 2014, whereas it decreased with biochar applications in 2015. Fiber uniformity was significantly greater in 2015 than in 2013 and 2014. Fiber strength was significantly greater in the BC20 treatment than in the control in 2013 and 2014, and it was significantly improved with biochar application in 2015. Fiber elongation greatly increased in the BC10 and BC20 treatments compared with the control in 2014.

After three years of fertilization, the total organic carbon content in the soil decreased with increasing depth for all treatments (Fig 1). In the 0–40 cm soil layer, the total organic carbon increased with the biochar application rate after three years of biochar applications, following the sequence of BC20 > BC10 > BC5 > control (p < 0.05). Generally, the soil organic carbon in the 0–20 cm soil layer increased the most. Furthermore, the soil organic carbon content in the 40–60 cm soil layer was significantly higher in the BC20 treatment than in the control.

The total N content was considerably affected by biochar treatments and years, as well as by their interaction, except in the 60–100 cm soil layer (S1 Table). As with the soil organic carbon content trend, the total N content decreased with increasing depth in the 0–100 cm profile (Fig 2). In 2015, the 0–40 cm soil layer showed significantly higher total soil N contents in the biochar application treatments than in the control. No obvious difference between the control and BC5 treatments was observed in 2014. In all three years, total soil N at 20–40 cm was significantly greater in the BC20 treatment than in the control. Furthermore, at soil depths below 40 cm in the profile, no significant differences were seen among all treatments.

Biochar applications, years, and their interactions significantly affected the soil NO3−N content (S1 Table). The NO3−N content decreased with depth in the 0–100 cm soil profile for all treatments. Compared with the control, the 0–20 cm soil profile showed significantly greater NO3−N content with biochar application. At other depths, no significant difference in the NO3−N content was observed among the treatments in 2013 (Fig 3). Furthermore, the NO3−N content of the BC20 treatment in the 0–40 cm soil layer was significantly higher than in the control, but the opposite trend was observed in the 40–60 cm soil layer in 2014 and in the 60–80 cm soil layer in 2015, indicating that successive applications of biochar amendments maintained higher levels of mineral N in the topsoil to feed plants. In addition, biochar amendments decreased the nitrate N content in deeper soil under long-term fertilization.

Significant effects on the soil profile NH4+-N content were observed for biochar applications, years, and their interaction (S1 Table). The NH4+-N content decreased with the depth of soil for all treatments in all three years (Fig 4). The NH4+-N contents in the biochar application treatments were significantly greater than in the control in the 0–40 cm soil layer in 2014, but no obvious differences among all treatments were found in 2015. Furthermore, the NH4+-N contents of the BC5, BC10, and BC20 treatments were significantly higher in the 20–40 cm soil layer than in the control in 2015. Meanwhile, the NH4+-N content in the 60–100 cm soil layer was not significantly affected by biochar applications in comparison with the control in 2014 and 2015.

Analysis of variance showed that the addition of biochar, years, and years by treatment interactions had significant (p < 0.01) effects on the soil pH in the 0–20 and 20–40 cm soil layers (Table 5). The pH value increased with soil depth in the 0–100 cm soil layer for all treatments in all three years. Compared with the control, the pH values of the biochar application treatments significantly increased in 2014 and 2015. Furthermore, the pH in the topsoil (0–20 cm) was higher in the BC20 treatment than in the BC5 and BC10 treatments in 2014 and 2015. Moreover, the biochar applications significantly increased the pH values of the 20–40 cm soil layer in 2015.

Analysis of variance showed that the addition of biochar, years, and years by treatment interactions had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the soil available K and available P contents in the 0–20 and 20–40 cm soil layers (Table 6). In general, the soil available P and available K contents in the 0–20 cm soil layer decreased with time and with the depth of soil in the 0–100 cm soil depths (Table 7). In 2014, the soil available P content of the BC20 and BC10 treatments was significantly lower than in BC5 and the control. In contrast, the BC10 and BC20 treatments significantly increased the soil available K content in the 0–20 cm soil layer compared with the control in all three years. In addition, the available K content of the 20–40 cm soil layer significantly increased with the BC10 and BC20 treatments in 2014.

In this study, biochar applications to silt loam soil increased seed cotton yields by 8.1–17.1%, 9.6–13.5%, and 8.1–18.6% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. Similarly, in a previous study, the maize yield did not increase with 20 t ha-1 biochar amendment in the first year, but it increased by 28–140% in the following three years [20]. The increases in cotton yield could be attributed to the addition of nutrients along with biochar, as well as to associated improvement in soil structure and moisture conditions [27, 38]. Meanwhile, many experiments have also reported improvements in the soil water-holding capacity after biochar amendment [39]. Thus, the improvement in soil moisture conditions may be another contributor to increases in cotton yield in water-limited cropland.

Based on a meta-analysis of literature data, Liu et al. [40] demonstrated a convincing positive response of crop yields to biochar application, with a few negative responses limited to specific circumstances. In a pot experiment, Butnan et al. [14] proved that a single amendment of 2% w/w biochar decreased corn biomass accumulation in the first cycle and increased biomass accumulation in the second season. Rajkovich et al. [39] also reported that a single dose of food waste biochar at 90 t ha-1 resulted in an 80% decline in crop productivity. In this study, the total amendments of 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1 biochar in three treatments (2013, 2014, and 2015), rather than a single application, resulted in a steady increase in the cotton lint yield. Hence, successive applications of biochar may be a better approach under field conditions. However, further studies should be conducted to verify the differences between a single biochar application and separate biochar applications and the total amounts of cotton growth under field conditions.

Producing longer and stronger cotton fiber with a suitable micronaire is important for cotton market preference. In this study, fiber uniformity, which may be an intrinsic genetic quality, was not affected by biochar amendments. However, in 2014 and 2015, BC20 showed significantly higher fiber length and strength than the control. Numerous studies have found that fiber length and fiber strength were adversely affected by K [41] and N deficiency [42] but were less sensitive to soil available P [43]. The observed increases in fiber length and strength in this study were probably because biochar applications increased the soil available K content and inorganic N content. Although the effect of the 20 t ha-1 biochar application on the micronaire was significant (p < 0.01), only in 2015 was the micronaire value in the biochar treatments significantly lower than in the control treatment. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of how biochar changes the fiber micronaire value of cotton.

In this study, biochar applications increased the NO3−N content at the soil depth of 0–20 cm but decreased its content at 60–80 cm soil depth in 2015 (Fig 4), indicating that successive applications of biochar maintained more mineral N in the topsoil to feed plants under long-term fertilization. Yao et al. [25] indicated that amendments with biochar derived from peanut hulls (2% of the soil, w/w) reduced the leaching of NO3−N and NH4+-N by 34% and 14%, respectively, in a soil column experiment. The mechanisms responsible for reduced NO3−N leaching through biochar applications may be related to the functional properties of biochar, such as its large surface area, highly porous structure, and strong ion exchange capacity [44]. Biochar application in farmlands increased the residence time of NO3−N in arable soil and provided greater opportunity for crops to absorb NO3−N [45], which then decreased soil NO3−N leaching potential. The soil NH4+-N content in the 0–20 cm soil layer increased with biochar application in 2014 and 2015, whereas no significant differences were observed in the 40–100 cm soil layer. Similar results were reported by Agegnehu et al. [7], who found that biochar particles adsorbed NH4+, thus decreasing soil NH4+-N loss and increased its concentration.

The effects of biochar on soil properties vary widely depending on the characteristics of both the underlying soil and the biochar [32]. In the present study, the organic carbon content of the 0–20 cm soil layer increased with increasing rates of biochar application, which was consistent with previous findings [14, 22]. Dong et al. [22] demonstrated, based on data from a three-year field study with a single biochar application, that biochar derived from mushroom waste enhanced the levels of water-soluble organic C during rice/wheat seasons compared with the control. In this study, 73.9–93.9% of the carbon from biochar addition was detected in the 0–20 cm soil profile after three years of successive applications. Meanwhile, the organic soil carbon content was also significantly higher in the 20–40 cm soil than in the control after three years of amendments. This is consistent with previous field studies and may have been caused by the downward movement of the fine biochar particles into the subsoil by earthworm activity, root growth, and leaching [46].

Biochar can improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil, change the soil pH, and alter soil microbial populations, all of which can affect nitrogen cycling [2425]. Like soil organic carbon content tendency, the soil total N content increased with increasing biochar application rates in the 0–20 cm soil depth, especially in 2015. In addition to labile C and N in biochar, the increase in organic matter and total N with the biochar treatments may also be associated with the increasing yield and biomass, thereby returning more plant residues to the soil. Meanwhile, successive applications of 20 t ha-1 biochar increased the total N content in the 0–20 cm soil layer year by year.

The alteration of soil pH has significant implications for nutrient availability and organic soil matter mineralization, thereby affecting subsequent nutrient delivery (especially N and base cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+) [30]. In this study, soil pH decreased in the biochar-free treatment and increased with increasing rates of biochar addition in all three years, which was consistent with previous results [47]. This result confirmed that biochar could serve as a liming agent to improve soil pH for Inceptisols. Generally, the pH of biochar is influenced by the type of feedstock used, production temperature, and production duration [11], whereas the effectiveness of liming materials is determined by the pH buffer capacity of the soil and the neutralizing values of the amendments.

The ability of biochar to retain P in soil varied with the biochar application rate and the P concentration in the soil solution. In our study, biochar application had no significant influence on the available P content in 2013. Moreover, the soil available P content in the 0–20 cm soil layer decreased with the 20 t ha-1 biochar application compared with the biochar-free treatment in 2014 and 2015. Lehmann et al. [32] reported contrasting findings, observing increased available P concentrations after biochar addition in Anthrosols and Ferralsols. Parvage et al. [48] reported a similar increase in the soil available P. One possible reason for the observed decrease in the soil available P in our study may be that the large amount of free Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ oxides contained in the biochar served as P sorption sites [49]. Meanwhile, the P availability was highly pH-dependent, with a high solution pH helping precipitation of phosphate to less soluble forms [50]. Thus, successive biochar applications could limit P availability, but further study is required to clarify the underlying mechanism.

A high K content in the biochar contributed to more plant available K in the soil [51]. In this study, we found that biochar application improved the available K content of the 0–20 cm soil layer. It has been suggested that biochar retained K+ in a Typic Plinthudult soil via electrostatic attraction forces [25]. Yuan et al. [52] also reported that biochar had a greater K+ retaining effect, reducing K+ release by 7.9–23.4%.

Successive applications of biochar to silt loam soil positively affected cotton growth, soil fertility, and N retention, but the effects varied with the biochar application rate and application time. Greater effects on cotton productivity and fiber quality were observed with higher rates of biochar application. The biochar amendments also significantly increased the soil organic carbon; total N, NO3−N, and NH4+-N; and available K contents of the 0–20 cm layer. Application of biochar also decreased the contents of NO3-N in the 60–100 cm soil profile, especially after three years of amendments. In conclusion, successive applications of biochar to soil have the potential to enhance cotton growth and arable soil fertility while reducing NO3−N leaching in the North China Plain; however, the long-term effects of successive biochar applications on the properties of deep soil require further study.

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Effect of freeze-thaw cycling on grain size of biochar

12 January, 2018
 

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zl17@rice.edu

Affiliation Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Current address: Department of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Affiliations Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America, Departments of Chemistry and Bioscience, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America

Biochar may improve soil hydrology by altering soil porosity, density, hydraulic conductivity, and water-holding capacity. These properties are associated with the grain size distributions of both soil and biochar, and therefore may change as biochar weathers. Here we report how freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling impacts the grain size of pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and sewage waste biochars under two drainage conditions: undrained (all biochars) and a gravity-drained experiment (mesquite biochar only). In the undrained experiment plant biochars showed a decrease in median grain size and a change in grain-size distribution consistent with the flaking off of thin layers from the biochar surface. Biochar grain size distribution changed from unimodal to bimodal, with lower peaks and wider distributions. For plant biochars the median grain size decreased by up to 45.8% and the grain aspect ratio increased by up to 22.4% after 20 F-T cycles. F-T cycling did not change the grain size or aspect ratio of sewage waste biochar. We also observed changes in the skeletal density of biochars (maximum increase of 1.3%), envelope density (maximum decrease of 12.2%), and intraporosity (porosity inside particles, maximum increase of 3.2%). In the drained experiment, mesquite biochar exhibited a decrease of median grain size (up to 4.2%) and no change of aspect ratio after 10 F-T cycles. We also document a positive relationship between grain size decrease and initial water content, suggesting that, biochar properties that increase water content, like high intraporosity and pore connectivity large intrapores, and hydrophilicity, combined with undrained conditions and frequent F-T cycles may increase biochar breakdown. The observed changes in biochar particle size and shape can be expected to alter hydrologic properties, and thus may impact both plant growth and the hydrologic cycle.

Citation: Liu Z, Dugan B, Masiello CA, Wahab LM, Gonnermann HM, Nittrouer JA (2018) Effect of freeze-thaw cycling on grain size of biochar. PLoS ONE 13(1): e0191246. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191246

Editor: Jorge Paz-Ferreiro, RMIT University, AUSTRALIA

Received: June 7, 2017; Accepted: January 2, 2018; Published: January 12, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was funded by United States National Science Foundation (https://www.nsf.gov/) with fund number NSF-EAR-0911685 received by CAM and BD. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. There was no additional external funding received for this study.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Biochar has been proposed as a means to sequester carbon and to improve soil properties over the long term [13]. To accomplish these goals simultaneously, biochar must have a long residence time in soil and it must maintain the ability to offer positive ecosystem services (e.g. improved nutrient retention, improved soil water properties) while in soil [4, 5]. Previous studies have characterized the physical and chemical properties of freshly produced biochar that offer ecosystem services (e.g. grain size, porosity, ion exchange capacity, sorption capacity) [68], however, little is known about how these properties evolve over time. For example, frequent freeze and thaw cycling (F-T) in cold regions [9], penetration by plant roots or fungal hyphae [10], decomposition, and bioturbation [11] all likely reduce biochar grain size, although the timescales of these processes are not well constrained.

It is important to understand how freeze-thaw cycling alters biochar grain size and porosity because these parameters have been shown to impact soil hydrologic properties such as hydraulic conductivity [4, 12, 13] and soil water retention [14, 15]. Existing research suggests that whether biochar increases or decreases soil hydraulic conductivity is a function of the difference in grain size between biochar particles and soil particles [12]. When fine biochar grains infill pores between coarse soil grains (e.g. sand), this increases tortuosity, reduces interpore size and pore throat size, and thus decreases hydraulic conductivity [8, 12, 16]. When biochar is coarser than soil grains (e.g. clay), pore sizes increase, resulting in an increase of hydraulic conductivity [16, 17]. Any biochar particle size changes resulting from freeze-thaw cycles may therefore drive changes in soil hydraulic conductivity.

The internal porosity of biochar particles (intraporosity) also plays a role in delivering ecosystem services. The internal pore volume of biochar from plant matter is dominated by large pores remaining from the plant cell skeleton [18]. These large pores play a key role in increasing plant-available water in biochar-amended soils, as demonstrated water retention curves of biochar-sand mixtures where biochar particle size varied [14]. Liu et al. [14] documented that coarse biochar caused a larger increase in plant-available water than fine biochar, pointing to a key role for these large, internal pores in holding soil water in a plant-available form.

Biochar’s intraporosity (ϕintra, m3/m3) is high, up to 0.86 m3/m3 [18]. When water inside these pores expands during freezing, grains may break into finer grains, and we hypothesize that biochar grain size will be reduced by this effect. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the grain size response of different types of biochar, at different water contents, to F-T cycling. We evaluated four types of biochar (pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and sewage waste) pyrolyzed at 400°C. We conducted 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 F-T cycles on these four types of biochars after they were placed in a synthetic rainwater bath for at least one day and sealed in a cylinder without drainage. We measured the grain-size distribution of the biochar, skeletal density (ρs, kg/m3, the density of the biochar skeleton not considering internal pores) and envelope density (ρe, kg/m3, the density of biochar particles including internal pores) pre- and post- F-T cycles. We then calculated the intraporosity (ϕintra = 1- ρes, m3/m3) of biochar particles to quantify any changes in intrapores. Changes in skeletal density or envelope density will yield changes of intraporosity. However, even if there is no statistical change for skeletal density or envelope density, we cannot definitively conclude that there is no change of intraporosity without making strong assumptions (e.g. independence of skeletal density and envelope density). Using our observations, we developed a conceptual model of how the grain size of biochar is changed by F-T cycles when samples were prepared without drainage. Based on these results, we then tested how F-T cycles affect the grain size distribution of mesquite biochar after 30 minutes of gravity-driven drainage.

We prepared synthetic rainwater by dissolving NaCl, KNO3, MgSO4, CaSO4, and NH4NO3 into purified water (18.2 MΩ-cm, PURELAB® Ultra Laboratory Water Purification Systems, SIEMENS, Germany) (S1 Table). This recipe represents an average for U.S. inland rainwater [19].

We pyrolyzed pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and pelletized sewage waste feedstock at 400°C for 4 hrs to form biochar (Fig 1) [12, 20]. To minimize heat transfer differences caused by different grain sizes [21], we pre-ground pine, mesquite, and miscanthus feedstocks and sieved the four feedstocks into a uniform size range (2.36–3.35 mm, corresponding to #8 to #6 US standard mesh) prior to pyrolysis. During pyrolysis, the heating rate was 5°C/min until the furnace reached 400°C, and then temperature was maintained at 400°C for 4 hrs. The biochar then cooled down in the absence of oxygen for a minimum of 16 hrs. For each type of biochar, we made several batches, homogenized them, and stored them in sealed glass jars until use in the experiments. We made four batches of pine biochar, seven batches of mesquite biochar, five bathes of miscanthus biochar, and one batch of sewage waste biochar.For biochar production, we used 149 ± 7 g pine, 196 ± 10 g mesquite, 101 ± 1 g miscanthus, and 550 ± 0 g sewage waste feedstock; the biochar mass yields were 54 ± 4 g, 80 ± 4 g, 36 ± 2g or 297 ± 0 g, respectively. See statistical analysis for details on values and errors.

Photograph of (a) pine biochar; (b) mesquite biochar; (c) miscanthus biochar; (d) sewage waste biochar pre F-T cycling; and (e) pine biochar; (f) mesquite biochar; and (g) miscanthus biochar; (h) sewage waste biochar after 20 F-T cycles. These biochars were placed in a water bath for at least one day and sealed in cylinders without drainage pre F-T cycling. The images show that biochars made from different feedstocks are visually different. However, for the same biochar type there was no visual difference between pre- and post- F-T cycles. Biochar feedstocks were sieved between 2.36–3.35 mm.

For each freeze-thaw experimental sample, we poured 10 g of air-dried biochar into a clear, plastic, cylindrical column (0.0198 m inner radius) with a piece of 54-micron polyester mesh (Part No.: CMY-0054-10YD, Small parts, FL) on the bottom of the column to allow water flow while preventing biochar mass loss. We placed the base of columns into a synthetic rainwater bath to allow water to rise into the sample from bottom to top. The water level was at least 5 cm higher than the sample height. However, according to visual inspection, pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars initially floated when we added water and approximately half of the biochar sank overnight. The majority of the sewage waste biochar sank after being placed in water as its envelope density is greater than the density of water. While not perfectly saturated, our experiment may emulate saturation after rainfall.

The presence of salts on the surface of biochar particles [22] may affect water infiltration into particles as the salts dissolve and pores may become open for water flow. This would increase settling of particles in the water column as pores are filled with water. However, our previous study [12] documented an ash content of approximately 5% for mesquite biochar made by the same techniques suggesting low content of inorganic elements and thus low potential for inorganic salts. Therefore, we assume salt effects are negligible in our experiments. After allowing each sample to remain in the rainwater bath for at least one day, we prepared samples with two drainage conditions which produced different initial water contents (Table 1): (1) undrained for all biochars (referred as the ‘undrained experiment’) resulting in samples with water contents that ranged from 1.3 ± 0.5 to 11 ± 3 kg/kg; and (2) 30 minutes of gravity-driven drainage for mesquite biochar only (referred as the ‘drained experiment’) resulting samples with water contents of 1.9 ±0.3 kg/kg. We covered the bottom and the top of each column with plastic wrap and then sealed the whole column in a freezer zip-lock bag to minimize water loss.

We froze biochars at -19 ± 3°C for 8 hrs in a freezer, and thawed them at room temperature (25 ± 0°C) for 16 hrs for each F-T cycle. In the undrained experiment, we completed three replicates of four types of biochar treated by 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 F-T cycles, for a total of 60 samples. In the drained experiment, we made three replicate measurements of mesquite biochar treated by 1, 2, 5, and 10 F-T cycles, for a total of 12 samples. Between F-T cycles, we monitored total mass of each sample after thawing and before freezing and added synthetic rainwater to the top of the sample to keep the water content constant through F-T cycling by assuming no biochar mass loss. We also monitored the temperature of the freezer, the room, and three representative biochar samples (1 mesquite, 1 miscanthus, and 1 sewage waste) to ensure complete freezing (S1 Text and S1S3 Figs).

After a set number of F-T cycles (e.g., 1, 2, 5, 10, or 20), we transferred each sample into a glass jar and massed the wet sample (M, kg). After measuring the wet mass, we oven-dried each sample at 60°C for 72 hrs in open glass jars. After drying we sealed the air-tight jars to avoid water adsorption during exposure to air and measured the mass of each dry sample (Md, kg). We then calculated water content (θ = M/Md-1, kg/kg). We also computed mass loss ((1-Md/Mo) x 100, %) using sample mass pre F-T (Mo) and Md. The mass losses were 4 ± 4%, 4 ± 1%, 6 ± 3%, 3 ± 3% for pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and sewage waste biochar, respectively. Most of the mass losses were due to handling, and had no effect on further calculations.

We performed a secondary grain-size analysis on the fine and coarse fractions of the biochar to determine if the coarse and fine fractions had similar grain shapes. We sieved pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars after 20 F-T cycles using a #20 U.S. standard mesh resulting in particles smaller than 0.853 mm (referred as ‘fine’) and larger than 0.853 mm (referred as ‘coarse’). We then measured the grain-size distribution of the fine and the coarse fractions of the biochar and calculated their AR values.

We used a hyperbolic model to provide a continuous grain-size distribution from discrete grain size observation of the biochar as Bayat et al. [23] showed that hyperbolic model has the highest fitting accuracy over a wide range of grain size and soil textures. The hyperbolic model [24] correlates the percent of grains by volume (P) passing through the a specific diameter (D) through two empirical constants (A, c).

Where wi is the weight for each grain size distribution curve and w1+w2 = 1. We can only fit w1 because w2 = 1- w1.

We used this modified hyperbolic model to fit Dmax and Dmin distribution at 0 and 20 F-T cycles in the undrained experiment. The fitted parameters (A, c, and w1) and goodness of fit (R-square (R2) and root-mean-square error (RMSE)) were determined using the MATLAB Curve Fitting toolbox.

We characterized how skeletal density, envelope density, and intraporoisty changed as the grain size changed due to F-T cycles. We measured the ρs of biochar in the undrained experiment by helium pycnometry in a 3.5 cc sample chamber (AccuPyc II 1340, Micromeritics, Norcross, GA) and the ρe of biochar using quasi-fluid displacement in a sample chamber with inside diameter of 1.27 cm (Geopyc 1360, Micromeritics, Norcross, GA). Both the AccuPyc and Geopyc measure density by measuring the displacement of a fluid. In the case of the AccuPyc, the fluid is He atoms. In the case of the Geopyc, the “fluid” is composed of Dry Flo particles, a quasi-fluid composed of small, rigid spheres having a high degree of flow-ability and a particle diameter of ~120 μm.

The Geopyc provides the best envelope density data when the displacement fluid particles (diameter ~120 μm) are at least 20x smaller than the particles being measured. This allows the displacement fluid to completely surround the measured particles. In practice this restricts envelope density measurements to particles with a diameter larger than 2 mm. Before F-T cycling, a small fraction (Dmax50 were 1 ± 0.4%, 1.3 ± 0.4%, 2.0 ± 0.6%, 0.6 ± 0.5% by volume for pine, mesquite, miscanthus and sewage waste biochar, respectively) of biochar particles were finer than 2 mm. After F-T cycling, the volumetric fraction of fine particles (Dmax50 < 2 mm) increased to 19 ± 2%, 23 ± 3%,29 ± 2% and 1.7 ± 0.6% for pine, mesquite, miscanthus and sewage waste biochar, respectively. The existence of these fine particles causes inaccuracy of envelope density measurements by the Geopyc and thus changes in envelope density caused by F-T cycling may not have be detected. However, we still report envelope density data to provide basic information of the biochars used.

Statistical comparisons of Dmin50, Dmax50, AR, ρs, ρe, and ϕintra between pre- and post- F-T cycles, and between different biochars were done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Differences were deemed significant at a p-value less than 0.05. We also computed Pearson correlation coefficients (R) between the decrease of median grain size and water content of samples at 10 F-T cycles (the most F-T cycles in drained experiment).

For each experiment, we had triplicate samples that we analyzed. All values and errors presented here are mean and standard deviation for direct measurements. For ϕintra and AR, values are mean and errors are calculated using equations Eq 1 or Eq 4, respectively.

In the undrained experiment, all biochars had unimodal grain-size distributions before F-T cycling (Figs 2 and 3). Pine biochar and mesquite biochars had similar Dmin and Dmax distributions. The grain-size distribution of miscanthus biochar was wider than that of pine and mesquite biochars. The grain-size distribution of sewage waste biochar was narrower than that of pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars.

Grain size (at the shortest chord of a biochar grain projection, Dmin) distribution by volume for (a) pine; (b) mesquite; (c) miscanthus; and (d) sewage waste biochar from 0–20 F-T cycles in the undrained experiments. There were decreases in Dmin for pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars with increasing number of F-T cycles. However, distributions of Dmin for sewage waste biochar from 0–20 F-T cycles overlapped with each other, meaning that there is no change of Dmin distribution for sewage waste biochar. We didn’t observe any particle aggregation. Values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. Numerical data for individual samples are presented in S2 Table.

Grain size distribution (at the maximum diameter of a biochar grain projection, Dmax) by volume for (a) pine; (b) mesquite; (c) miscanthus; and (d) sewage waste biochar from 0–20 F-T cycles in the undrained experiments. There were decreases in Dmax for pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars with increasing number of F-T cycles. However, distributions of Dmax for sewage waste biochar from 0–20 F-T cycles overlapped with each other, meaning that there is no change of Dmax distribution for sewage waste biochar. Values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. Numerical data for individual replicates are presented in S2 Table.

Modified hyperbolic model fitting parameters were very similar between pine biochar and mesquite biochar. We observed gaps of cumulative grain size distribution indicating decreases in grain size between 0 and 20 F-T cycles, and the decreases were quantified by the change of modified hyperbolic model fitting parameters for pine, mesquite and miscanthus biochar. However, for sewage waste biochar, cumulative grain size distribution at 0 F-T cycle overlapped with that at 20 F-T cycles and the hyperbolic model fitting parameters at 0 F-T cycle were also very close to that at 20 F-T cycles. This indicates no change in grain size for sewage waste biochar. In addition, the weight parameter (w1) for sewage waste is 1 which means w2 is equal to 0 indicating a unimodal grain size distribution (Figs 4 and 5 and Table 2).

Cumulative grain size (Dmin) distribution by volume at 0 and 20 F-T cycles and the best-fit modified hyperbolic model for (a) pine; (b) mesquite; (c) miscanthus; and (d) sewage waste biochar in the undrained experiment. Values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. Numerical data for individual replicates are presented in S2 Table.

Cumulative grain size (Dmax) distribution by volume at 0 and 20 F-T cycles and the best-fit modified hyperbolic model for (a) pine; (b) mesquite; (c) miscanthus; and (d) sewage waste biochar in the undrained experiment. Values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. Numerical data for individual replicates are presented in S2 Table.

Before F-T cycling, the median grain size varied with biochar feedstocks even though they were sieved to the same mesh sizes pre-pyrolysis (Fig 6). Pine and mesquite biochars had similar but statistically different Dmin50 (2.2 ± 0.0 mm and 2.3± 0.0 mm for pine and mesquite biochars, respectively) and Dmax50 (5.9 ± 0.1 mm, and 5.6 ± 0.1 mm for pine and mesquite biochars, respectively). Miscanthus biochar had the largest median grain sizes with Dmin50 of 2.7 ± 0.1 mm and Dmax50 of 10.4 ± 0.2 mm. Sewage waste biochar had the smallest Dmax50 (3.0 ± 0.0 mm) and its Dmin50 was 2.5 ± 0.0mm (Fig 6).

Median grain size (a) at the shortest chord (Dmin50) and (b) at the maximum diameter (Dmax50) of all undrained experiment biochar samples from 0 to 20 F-T cycles. Note: X-axis is not on a linear scale. Values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. Numerical data for individual replicates are presented in S2 Table.

Biochar grain shapes were visually different (Fig 1) although all feedstocks were sieved between the same mesh sizes (#8 and #6 U.S. standard mesh, 2.36–3.35 mm). Pine and mesquite biochars had a similar grain shape with pre-F-T aspect ratios (AR, m/m) of 0.38 ± 0.01 and 0.40 ± 0.01, respectively (Fig 7A). Pre-F-T, miscanthus biochar had the lowest AR of 0.25 ± 0.01 meaning they had the most elongated shape. The highest AR of 0.84 ± 0.00 was documented for sewage waste biochar indicating its more spherical shape.

(a) Aspect ratio (AR = Dmin50/Dmax50) of all the undrained experiment biochar samples from 0 to 20 F-T cycles and (b) AR of the undrained experiment pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars before (bulk) and after passing (fine) or being retained (coarse) by a U.S. standard #20 mesh (0.853 mm) at 20 F-T cycles. Note: X-axis is not on a linear scale. Symbols plotted are mean values. Errors are calculated using Eq 1. Numerical data for individual replicates are presented in S2 Table.

The changes of grain-size distributions by F-T cycling for pine and mesquite biochars were similar with an increase in proportion of smaller particles (Figs 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B). Pine and mesquite biochars also had the same Dmin50 and Dmax50 from 1–20 F-T cycles although their pre-F-T Dmin50 and Dmax50 were slightly different. Therefore, the magnitudes of decrease in median grain size for pine and mesquite biochars from 0–20 F-T cycles were similar. From 0–20 F-T cycles, the decrease of Dmin50 was 19.9% for pine biochar and 19.6% for mesquite biochar. Similarly, the decrease of Dmax50 was 32.0% for pine biochar and 28.8% for mesquite biochar (Fig 6).

The grain-size distribution of miscanthus biochar shifted to smaller grain sizes with increasing number of F-T cycles. After 20 F-T cycles, grain-size distributions of miscanthus biochar became bimodal (Figs 2C and 3C). After 20 F-T cycles, miscanthus biochar had the largest decreases of median grain sizes with 33.9% decrease in Dmin50 and 45.8% decrease in Dmax50 (Fig 6).

We did not observe any change of grain-size distributions (Figs 2D and 3D) or median grain size (Fig 6) by F-T cycling for sewage waste biochar, likely reflecting its feedstock, which is not dominated by plant material.

The change of AR with F-T cycles varied with biochar feedstock (Fig 7A) although there were no visual differences of biochar shape pre- and post- F-T cycling (Fig 1). For pine biochar, there was no significant change of AR after 1 and 2 F-T cycles; however, the AR was increased by 17.7% after 20 F-T cycles. The increase of AR for mesquite biochar started at 2 F-T cycles with a 13.0% increase after 20 F-T cycles. The AR of miscanthus biochar had a 22.4% increase after 20 F-T cycles. There was no significant change of AR for sewage waste biochar (Fig 7A).

Aspect ratio also varied with biochar grain size. After 20 F-T cycles, the AR of the fine biochars were higher than that of the coarse biochars for pine, mesquite, and miscanthus (Fig 7B). However, there were no significant differences of AR between coarse biochar and the bulk sample (fine + coarse) for pine, mesquite, and miscanthus (Fig 7B).

Pre-F-T, biochar’s skeletal density (ρs), envelope density (ρe), and intraporosity (ϕintra) varied with biochar feedstock (Table 3 and Fig 8). The skeletal densities of pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars (1450 ± 10 kg/m3, 1450 ± 20 kg/m3, and 1510 ± 20 kg/m3, respectively) were statistically the same. Miscanthus biochar had the lowest ρe (320 ± 10 kg/m3) and the highest ϕintra (0.79 ± 0.00 m3/m3). The envelope densities of pine and mesquite biochars were 410 ± 00 kg/m3 and 520 ± 10 kg/m3, respectively, which were higher than that of miscanthus biochar. Sewage waste biochar had the highest ρs (1760 ± 00 kg/m3) and the highest ρe (1220 ± 10 kg/m3) resulting in the lowest intraporosity of 0.31 ± 0.01 m3/m3 (Table 3 and Fig 8).

(a) Skeletal density (ρs), (b) envelope density (ρe), and (c) intraporosity (ϕintra) of four types of biochar from 0–20 F-T cycles in the undrained experiment. For ρs and ρe, values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. For ϕintra, values are mean, and errors are calculated using Eq 4. Note: X-axis is not on a linear scale.

For ρs and ρe, values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. For ϕintra, values are mean, and errors are calculated using Eq 4.

The effects of F-T cycling on ρs, ρe, and intraporosity (ϕintra) were small. There was no change of ρs for pine, mesquite, or miscanthus biochars after 20 F-T cycles. The skeletal density of sewage waste biochar decreased with F-T cycles, but the decreases were <1.3% after 20 F-T cycles (Fig 8A). There were no significant changes of ρe from 0–10 F-T cycles for pine and mesquite biochars. However, the envelope densities of these two biochars decreased by 7.9% and 3.7% after 20 F-T cycles. The envelope density of miscanthus decreased from 2–20 F-T cycles with a decrease of 12.2% after 20 F-T cycles. We did not observe any change in ρe for sewage waste biochar (Fig 8B).

The intraporosity of miscanthus biochar increased with increasing number of F-T cycles reaching a peak change of 3.2% at 20 F-T cycles. The intraporosity of pine biochar and mesquite biochar did not change until 20 F-T cycles where ϕintra of pine biochar increased by 2.5% and ϕintra of mesquite biochar increased by 3.1%. These small shifts suggest the possibility of expansion of intrapores prior to physical breakdown. There were no significant changes in ϕintra for sewage waste biochar (Fig 8C).

The changes of grain size in the drained experiment were much smaller than the undrained experiment. In the drained experiment, grain-size distributions (Dmin and Dmax) of mesquite biochar at 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 F-T cycles were similar (Fig 9). Median grain sizes were statistically the same before and after each F-T cycle for Darea50 and Dmax50, however, Dmin50 showed a decrease of 4.2% at 10 F-T cycles. There was no change of AR for mesquite biochar at this water content of 1.9 ± 0.3 kg/kg (Fig 10).

Grain size (a) at the shortest chord (Dmin) and (b) at the maximum diameter (Dmax) distribution by volume of drained experiment mesquite biochars from 0 to 10 F-T cycles. Values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. Numerical data for individual replicates are presented in S2 Table.

(a) Median grain size (Dmin50 and Dmax50) and (b) aspect ratio (AR) of drained experiment mesquite biochars from 0–10 F-T cycles. Values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. Numerical data for individual replicates are presented in S2 Table. Note: X-axis is not on a linear scale.

In the undrained experiment, we observed: (1) decreases in median grain size; (2) shifts in grain-size distribution from unimodal to bimodal; and (3) increases in aspect ratio after F-T cycling for pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars. As these biochars physically weathered into finer particles by F-T cycling, their aspect ratio increased, meaning that they became less elongated. We also observed shifts in grain-size distribution from unimodal with only one peak to bimodal with a major peak and a minor peak. This indicates that before F-T cycles, most biochar particles had similar grain sizes (one major peak) and after F-T cycles, the finer particles produced by F-T cycles created a minor peak. By examining the grain sizes at the two peaks in each grain-size distribution curve, we found that grain size at the major peak was approximately four times larger than the grain size at the minor peak (Figs 2 and 3). We interpret that the decrease of grain size is caused by loss of thin layers on the surface (Fig 11), instead of breakage through the center of the particle. In our experiment, coarser biochar particles still dominated the bulk sample from 0–20 F-T cycles. If more F-T cycles are applied, we predict that more fine biochar particles would be produced from the surface of larger particles resulting in a larger increase in particle aspect ratio, and potentially to a shift in the major peak of grain size distribution.

(a) a biochar particle with its skeleton (black), connected intrapores filled with water (gray) and isolated, air-filled intrapores (white); (b) water-filled intrapores expand during freezing which increases intraporosity; and (c) biochar grain size decreases through loss of fine particles from surface of larger particles due to intrapores’ expansion.

In addition, we observed slight increases (up to 3.2%) of biochar intraporosity but no change of skeletal density by F-T cycling for pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars. However, there are documented increases of skeletal density when grinding biochar into smaller particle sizes [18]. The differences we observed indicate that F-T cycling breaks biochar particles differently compared to grinding. Liu et al. [12] suggested that the increase of skeletal density was due to breaking of isolated pores by grinding. In this study, we propose that ice crystal growth during freezing could increase biochar intrapore size due to expansion of pores that have been infiltrated by water before finally breaking biochar particles (Fig 11B).

In our experiments, biochar with water content less than 1.3 ± 0.5 kg/kg had no reductions in grain size due to F-T cycling. There is a positive correlation (R = 0.90 for all samples) between decrease of grain size and water content (Fig 12). Similarly, the experimental results of Bullock et al. [25] showed that the aggregate size of silt loam and loam were decreased by F-T cycling as water content increased when water content was 20 kg/kg. They interpreted these results as showing that forces reducing soil aggregate size were probably due to ice crystals expanding in pores, breaking particle-to-particle bonds, and splitting the soil aggregates into smaller aggregates. At lower water contents, fewer biochar particles were broken down indicating that the ice crystals completed their growth in the pores before they could apply significant force on particle bonds or biochar skeleton materials [25]. In our experiments, lower water contents were either caused by low intraporosity of biochar (i.e. sewage waste biochar in undrained experiment) or gravity drainage (i.e. mesquite biochar in drained experiment). Biochar’s intraporosity is related to biochar feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and residence time [18]. Because biochar intraporosity and size can be controlled to some extent before application, and gravity drainage dominates in many settings, biochar can be optimally designed for different soil amendment purposes.

Values and errors are mean and standard deviation of triplicate samples. Numerical data for individual replicates are presented in S2 Table.

In summary, there are several conditions that speed up physical degradation of biochar by F-T cycling: high intraporosity and pore connectivity, large intrapores and hydrophilicity that enhances water penetration into intrapores, undrained conditions to provide enough water, and frequent F-T cycles to break the intrapores.

Our data show a decrease of grain size and an increase of aspect ratio by F-T cycling for pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars. From these observations, we conclude that changes will also occur in soil hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention after biochar addition to soil and exposure to F-T cycling in nature. Liu et al. [12] documented that by adding finer biochar into sand, the hydraulic conductivity decreased due to finer biochar particles filling pores between sand particles, which reduced pore throat size and increased tortuosity. Similarly, the decrease of biochar grain size by F-T cycling could decrease hydraulic conductivity in biochar-soil mixtures as the F-T-cycles produced finer particles that could migrate into pore spaces, thus increasing tortuosity and decreasing pore throat radii.

A change in biochar grain size, grain shape, and intraporosity by F-T cycling will affect soil water retention which could drive changes in plant available water. Biochar grain size and grain shape will influence the particle packing in the biochar-soil system and could change interpore volume which will impact soil water retention [14]. Biochar with lower aspect ratios (more elongated) has been found to increase water retention in the wet range (i.e. above field capacity) [14]. As aspect ratio increases and grain size decreases with F-T cycling for pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars, we expect water content to increase at higher (less negative) soil water potentials which will equate to more water retained by the biochar-soil mixture. Meanwhile, Liu et al. [14] found decrease of plant available water of biochar-sand mixtures after grinding biochar into smaller sizes. Liu et al. [14] also showed that plant available water in biochar-sand mixtures is mainly controlled by biochar intraporosity. However, in this study, we observed slight increases of biochar intraporosity (up to 3.2%) which may cause a small increase in plant available water.

The number of annual F-T cycles varies with region, therefore local climate will play a very important role in the effect of F-T cycling on biochar grain size. For example in the United States from the coast (proximity to Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico) to the western Rocky Mountains, the number of F-T cycles increases from 0 to above 180 days per year [26]. Our results have shown that 20 F-T cycles can decrease biochar grain size by up to 45.8%. According to Haley [26], most regions in United States have more than 20 F-T cycles each year. As a result, we could expect a significant decrease of biochar grain size in a few years, especially for biochar amendments in the mountainous regions with sharp daily temperature changes, assuming water contents are high.

In addition, there is a feedback between the decrease of biochar grain size by F-T cycling and the increase of water retention by biochar addition affecting the longevity of biochar in soil. In these experiments we observed a positive correlation between the degree of decrease in biochar grain size and the increase of water content. In a previous study [12], we found that biochar addition could increase water retention which may have a positive impact on the decrease of biochar grain size right after biochar application in the cold regions with frequent F-T cycles. However, as biochar grain size decreases with destruction of intrapores, water retention will decrease [14], and thus the decrease in biochar grain size by F-T cycling may slow down.

We investigated how F-T cycling alters grain size of four types of biochar (pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and sewage waste) prepared at two drainage conditions: an undrained experiment for all biochars and a drained experiment for mesquite biochar only.

The effect of F-T cycling on biochar grain size varied with feedstock type and drainage condition. In the undrained experiment, the grain-size distribution of miscanthus biochar shifted from unimodal to bimodal after 20 F-T cycles. The median grain size of pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars decreased with increasing number of F-T cycles with decreases of up to 45.8% for miscanthus biochar after 20 F-T cycles. The aspect ratio of pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars also increased, up to 22.4% for miscanthus biochar after 20 F-T cycles. The increase of aspect ratio means F-T cycling produced particles that were less elongated. We observed no statistically significant change in median grain size and grain shape for sewage waste biochar. The changes in skeletal density (up to 1.3% decrease), envelope density (up to 12.2% increase), and intraporosity (up to 3.2% increase) for these biochars were small. In the drained experiment, median grain size of mesquite biochar decreased by 4.2% after 10 F-T cycles.

From our laboratory experiments and analyses, we developed a conceptual model where F-T cycling decreases biochar grain size through loss of thin layers on the particle surface. These results suggest that grinding particles in the laboratory will not accurately represent how biochar will weather physically in the field. Since the effect of F-T cycling is correlated with biochar water content, biochar is more likely to break down during F-T cycling when it is wet. Furthermore, we expect the decrease of grain size and increase of aspect ratio by F-T cycling for pine, mesquite, and miscanthus biochars would drive changes in properties like soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity which are influenced by grain size and intraporosity of biochar.

We would like to thank the collaboration of the Rice University Biochar group.

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Biochar Market Outlook, Opportunities And Forecasts Report 2017-2022

12 January, 2018
 

Biochar Market report delivers a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology, Market report presents the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, Contact Information of manufacturer and market shares for company. Biochar market report also provides comprehensive information on “Industry Production”, “Sales and Consumption Status” and ” market Prospects”

“Biochar is the solid product of pyrolysis, designed to be used for environmental management. IBI defines biochar as: A solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar can increase soil fertility of acidic soils (low pH soils), increase agricultural productivity, and provide protection against some foliar and soil-borne diseases. Furthermore, biochar reduces pressure on forests. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years.”

Biochar Market Manufacturers are as follows: Diacarbon Energy, Agri-Tech Producers, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Kina, The Biochar Company, Swiss Biochar GmbH, ElementC6 , BioChar Products, BlackCarbon, Cool Planet, Carbon Terra, Pacific Biochar, Vega Biofuels, Liaoning Jinhefu Group, Hubei Jinri Ecology-Energy, Nanjing Qinfeng Crop-straw Technology, Seek Bio-Technology (Shanghai) And More……

Biochar Market Segment by Type, covers:   Wood Source Biochar, Corn Stove Source Biochar, Rice Stove Source Biochar, Wheat Stove Source Biochar, Other Stove Source Biochar

Biochar Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into: Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others

Ask for PDF sample @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10385329

Biochar Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers

Scope of the Report:

This report focuses on the Biochar in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Biochar Market Research Report @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/10385329

Key questions answered in this Biochar market research: –

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Effects of ball milling on the physicochemical and sorptive properties of biochar

12 January, 2018
 

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Experimental and modeling investigations of ball-milled biochar for the removal of aqueous …

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INOH Adds Pedigreed Industry Professional to its Advisory Committee as it Maps Out its Revenue …

12 January, 2018
 

Mr. Turner, in introducing himself to INOH shareholders stated, “I have been cultivating and breeding novel cannabis strains for almost two decades. Most recently:

As a cultivation manager, Mr. Turner has been using biochar in his soil mixes for almost a decade. Mr. Turner continued, “It is one of the most under-used and least explored of all of the available soil amendments available to growers. Therefore, it has one of the greatest potentials for revenue generating growth as an ancillary product to the cannabis industry. Uses range from extremely large commercial farms of hundreds of acres to the small scale home medicinal grower. It is a versatile product that can be used as a carbon source for filters, soil amendments, clone and propagation mediums, and numerous other uses.”

One of the most significant improvements the legal cannabis industry needs to make is reduction in its carbon footprint. As more attention is given to the large amounts of energy consumed by indoor cannabis cultivation facilities, companies will be pressured to focus on more sustainable production models. Biochar can help to improve cannabis cultivation facilities’ sustainability in several ways: filter wastewater that is often laden with hazardous contaminants, improve and reduce fertilizer usage, and make waste soils reusable.

For large scale outdoor farms, biochar can greatly improve a farm’s production by improving soil quality. Soil amendments are one of the largest startup expenses for cannabis farms. By showing farm managers that adding biochar to their soil will greatly improve soil tilth and overall soil quality, farms are likely to continue to invest in biochar thus reducing their overall expenses on downstream fertilizer products. Research has shown that biochar: keeps soil/compost moist and aerated, promoting increased biological activity, biochar increases nitrogen retention, biochar improves soil/compost maturity and humic content, and biochar improves plant growth. Using the available data and by performing some simple side-by-side growth trials, it will be simple to provide scientific evidence to the cannabis industry that biochar is a must have in their overall cultivation plans.

Mr. Turner further stated, “I hope to be able to contribute to INOH’s rapid growth by helping to build a consortium of industry professionals to support product development and sales. I will be prospecting, identifying, and fostering new qualified opportunities for our team by utilizing my industry knowledge and contacts.”

Innovation Holding’s CEO, Mark Goldberg, added, “With almost two decades of cannabis industry experience, Mr. Turner can help develop INOH customer relationships, modify the way we communicate with target businesses, and raise the bar for an excellent sales experience relative to the biochar products.”

Mr. Goldberg stated, “We anticipate that Mr. Turner’s vast knowledge and industry contacts will allow us to target strategic accounts and help make them loyal biochar product consumers. With the addition of Mr. Turner’s to the In Ovations team, we expect to see vision and prescience that leads directly to real, top line, revenue growth for our BioChar division.”

We plan to add additional 2018 information and guidance regarding revenues and other corporate developments in the near future. We want to wish all a happy and healthy New Year and we thank you for your support.

FORWARD-LOOKING DISCLAIMER

This press release may contain certain forward-looking statements and information, as defined within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and is subject to the Safe Harbor created by those sections. This material contains statements about expected future events and/or financial results that are forward-looking in nature and subject to risks and uncertainties. Such forward-looking statements by definition involve risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from the statements made herein.

In Ovations Holdings, Inc. does not grow, process, sell, or distribute any products that are in violation of the United States Controlled Substances Act (US.CSA).

In Ovations Holdings
Email:
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Twitter: @inohotc

Aquarius Brands & #8482;
The Conservation Company & #8482;
12260 SW 53rd Street, Suite 603
Cooper City, Florida, 33330, USA
Email:

Seychelle Environmental Technologies, Inc.

Dr. Kenneth Hughes

Gary Williams

SOURCE: In Ovations Holdings, Inc.

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Globally Growth Biochar Market Sales Report in 2017- 2022

12 January, 2018
 

Global Biochar Market Report provides an analytical assessment of the prime challenges faced by this Market currently and in the coming years, which helps Market participants in understanding the problems they may face while operating in this Market over a longer period of time. In this report, the Global Biochar Market value in 2017 and expected value by the end of 2022 along growth between 2017 and 2022 is mentioned. Various Global Biochar industry leading players are studied with respect to their company profile, product portfolio, capacity, price, cost and revenue.

Get a Sample of Biochar Market report from – https://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-sample/10521783

The Key Players that are included in the Global Biochar Market report are
Pacific Pyrolysis Pty Ltd
Vega Biofuels, Inc.
Full Circle Biochar
Genesis Industries LLC
Diacarbonn Energy Inc.
Earth Systems Bioenergy
Agri-Tech Producers, LLC
Pacific Biochar
Phoenix Energy
Biochar Supreme LLC
CharGrow, LLC
Cool Planet Energy Systems

Have any Query Regarding the Global Biochar Market Report? Contact us at: https://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10521783

Various policies and news are also included in the Global Biochar Market report. This includes labour cost, depreciation cost, raw material cost and other costs. The production process is analysed with respect to various aspects like, manufacturing plant distribution, capacity, commercial production, R&D status, raw material source and technology source. By Product Analysis the Global Biochar Market is Segmented into Glass Fibre, Carbon Fibre and by End Users/Applications Analysis the Global Biochar Market is segmented into: Chemical and Others.

Price of Report (single User Licence): $ 4000
Get Discount on Biochar Market Report at: https://www.marketreportsworld.com/Discount /10521783

Further in the Global Biochar Market research report, following points Production, Sales and Revenue, Supply and Consumption and other analysis are included along with in-depth study of each point. Production of the Global Biochar is analysed with respect to different regions, types and applications. Here, price analysis of various Global Biochar Market key players is also covered. Both, sales and revenue are studied for the different regions of the global Biochar Market. Another major aspect, price, which plays important part in the revenue generation, is also assessed in this section for the various regions. In continuation with sales, this section studies supply and consumption for the Global Biochar Market. This part also sheds light on the gap between supply and consumption. Apart from the aforementioned information, trade and distribution analysis for the Global Biochar Market, contact information of major manufacturers, suppliers and key consumers is also given. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.

Regions covered in the Global Biochar Market report include: United States, Japan, Europe, India, China and Southeast Asia.

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BioChar Workshop

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For it to be #72 there must be a lot of useless shit there. I mean useless in terms of scale, this doesn't preclude oddball off griders like me doing it to enrich our little gardens soil. If I have sequestered 50kg I'd be surprised:)

Cause the gigatonnes of CO2 we need to pull out of the atmosphere precludes biochar being a workable solution. And energy intensive as fuck… collecting it all and naking it vs the volume produced. Also I have no idea what percentage CO2 escapes in the burning process vs the amount sequestered ?

Where's huglekulture ? #73 🙂

My revolutionary idea. The planet has already sequestered it, stop digging the shit up and burning it 🙂

My revolutionary idea. The planet has already sequestered it, stop digging the shit up and burning it 🙂

What? That's crazytalk! How will we keep growing the economy? /s

My revolutionary idea. The planet has already sequestered it, stop digging the shit up and burning it 🙂

Oops, about a century, maybe two, too late. Now what?

Not at all too late. 4C is much worse than 2C, on a scale that it virtually unimaginable. 2C will see catastrophic change but humanity will survive .4C.. fucking hell. 6C it's probably the end of humanity. There are no sequestering solutions that will work to preserve the bullshit..anything from here foward is stopping the worst effects..fucking about and ignoring that reality just makes it worse.

Perhaps correct, if we haven't already triggered too many positive feedbacks. But we'd have to start right now, and change everything we do. It's the assumption that we won't do that and things are already past tipping points that leads me to say, "too late".

It's looking more and more probable that we won't be able to avoid a +4C scenario since we can't stop emitting carbon and we most likely won't be able to pull hundreds of gigatonnes of carbon out of the atmosphere.

I think what will happen is that in 2028 there will be a climate conference where we will finally be forced to admit that +2C is going to happen, but in the same breath we will add that it shouldn't be that bad if we just stay positive and apply new technology and human innovation! From then onwards we should instead start working towards preventing +3C because that is the real problem, as it always was, and we can't let it happen. /s

Don't need the /s, I think goalposts will be moved. They have been before. Maybe the /s was for the date? It could be much sooner than 2028.

I just find it irresistibly sarcastic that this cycle will repeat until we're at +4C and the oceans have gone up by 2 meters. It's one of the most human things I can think of. Every kilogram of CO2 is excessive, inexcusable and brings us closer to global chaos. People just don't want to believe this because they don't want to change their own lives. The reason for this denial is so simple and naive that it beautifully captures the human condition in a very minimalistic set.

What leads me to think it's too late is the magnitude of the task and the short timeframe compared to not only the absence of any action, but continuing to make the problem worse.

Not only are we making the problem worse but our current way of life depends on making it worse. It's basically designed to undermine itself.

And energy intensive as fuck… collecting it all and naking it

It was my understanding that, with a properly constructed vessel, the volatile gases given off should power the process. Something like a

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top-lit_updraft_gasifier

http://charcoalkiln.com/55-gallon-drum-charcoal-retort/

How are you making it?

Oh, and if it makes you feel any better, we only need to sequester the carbon weight (~27%) of the CO2.

You misunderstand.. collecting the material to process it. Making the chambers etc. They dont last so you need to mine a shit load of material to keep replacing them.

I understand the C in the CO2 part 🙂 it's very light so volumes needed are massive to get any weight .

Me ? a 44 steel drum that I cut. It's not going to last long and the work involved isn't worth it IMO.. so outsourcing noncommercial enterprise and a huge amount of energy for distribution rather than on-site is the only commercial way.

I think it's a great DIY for folk to do as a soil inprover. As a serious CO2 sequestration solution I'd give it a 1 out of 100 if that. I suggest currently it's CO2 negative. Theblifecycle releasing more CO2 then it sequestered. It might be slightly positive.. maybe.. But that makes it a useless sequestration solution.

A couple commercial blueberry farms sort of near me use it on a commercial scale as well. I am not sure where they source it from ? China probably 🙂

It's like saying going vegetarian is better for emissions when that's patently bullshit as well. Lettuce grown in So.Cal and shipped to NY is not fucking low emissions. It only "works" if you completely ignore the externalities.

http://phys.org/news/2015-12-vegetarian-healthy-diets-environment.html

Stop emitting 🙂

collecting the material to process it.

What sort of materials are you processing?

They dont last so you need to mine a shit load of material to keep replacing them.

Can we put some numbers on that?

Low scrap input (worst case) carbon steel production emits about 2 tons CO2 per ton of steel. A 55 gallon steel barrel, per my cursory googling, weighs about 45 lbs. So you need to make about 25 lbs of charcoal (45 * 2 * .27) to break even with low scrap input steel. How much do you get from a batch?

And that's presuming you must construct the reactor from steel.

But that makes it a useless sequestration solution.

It's the closest thing we'll get. Every other solution involves a massive, energy intensive equipment build out. This is the only one we can do with the trash left over from our industrialist binge.

Stop emitting 🙂

Sure. But we're beyond the point where that's all that's needed.

Sure. But we're beyond the point where that's all that's needed.

Anyone that suggests sequestration is a solution is just looking to keep emitting and let magic thinking deal with the future. Sequestration of any sort will not work… they.. do.. not…scale and will hinder, not help.

Yes. Mitigation is all that's needed. Because it can be done now and be done successfully on a immense scale by folk not actually doing anything..by not flying by not turning the AC on by not driving to work . The point of emissions mitigation isn't to stop 2C it's to hopefully stop 4C and more. Mitigation and adaption by managed withdrawal from places like Phoenix, Miami, Boston and NY etc as well as managed migratioions from Africa and the Middle East, dismantle the military etc. That's all we have left, burning trees and burying the shit underground is at best bullshit as a sequestration solituon that can scale and pie in the sky stupidity at worse, so no doubt we'll have a go 🙂

My point isn't that mitigation can't be done, it won't. This sub alone is scattered with assholes that love super high emissions lifestyles. Many even acknowledge that it's unsustainable but the only suggestion they have is to keep emitting but fuck poor people over with violence, never is their a suggestion to actually mitigate their own F250 driving ass.

There is no hope not because of a lack of ideas but because of ideas, they are presented as viable solutions and ever increasing stupid ideas in order to preserve the BAU.

We can protect civilisation and the biosphere by just stopping emitting because a 2C planet is livable in places. Anything else is delusional. 4C and above is where we will head I suspect and biochar will be part of that.

Biochar is a great soil improver,it is ridiculous as a mitigatinion solution of any scale. You need to remove Gt of CO2, many hundred.

Non-Mobile link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top-lit_updraft_gasifier

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Top-lit updraft gasifier

A top-lit updraft gasifier (also known as a TLUD) is a micro-kiln used to produce charcoal, especially biochar, and heat for cooking. A TLUD pyrolyzes organic material, including wood or manure, and uses a reburner to eliminate volatile byproducts of pyrolization. The process leaves mostly carbon as a residue, which can be incorporated into soil to create terra preta.

Dr Thomas B Reed and the Norwegian architect Paal Wendelbo independently developed the working idea of a TLUD gasifier in the 1990s.

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Seems that how well it works at sequestering might be questionable. But aside from the other arguments, even if it worked really well and was all positive results…the scale needed. Goes right back to what Dr. Hunt has said before (and probably not the only one). The amount of carbon we have to take out to reduce its effects is a magnitude larger than any other process humans have even done. Something is certainly better than nothing, but is even large scale burning in ground going to do much? And time scale is also a problem, if you're relying on growing things (in a changing climate!) to harvest for this burying.

I've made plenty. Lately I been just burning in half barrels and then sealing it down. I used to make retorts to use the vinegars and tar for things, but not lately. Been reading some studies that show that it over stimulates the michorrizae and leads to overall less carbon if immediate production is the target.


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Permaculture

14 January, 2018
 

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Permaculture (Permanent-Culture): A practical design philosophy intended to help us live and prosper in an environment, while working with nature in a positive way, using solutions based on careful observation of natural ecosystems and common sense. This can include food and energy production, shelter, resource management, nature conservation and community living.

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It's pretty often that we see questions along the lines of, "I want to do X–what are the species/structures to get it done?" This isn't a bad question but there's not enough information to give a decent answer. When submitting a question, there is some information that ought to be included, such as:

This is the kind of stuff a permaculture consultant wants to know before doing a site visit/design/recommendation. And while no one is going to get a professional job done over reddit, better questions will lead to better answers.

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Biochar is just a good structure for microbes. Other than that it has no real function in the soil ecology. In a sandy soil or desert conditions it could be great but i'm, er, blessed with clay soil. I'm better off amending with calcium and inoculating with a fungally dominated compost. I recently found out that drywall is almost pure calcium sulphate so this spring i'm just going to smash some old drywall to dust and go at it.

Soil fungi are going to create hummic and fluvic acids which are long term stores of carbon, especially in the deep soil horizons where they are associated with tree roots. Why burn trees for carbon sequestration when you can grow trees for carbon sequestration?

oo, I'd advise caution with that repurposing drywall idea. Apparently a good amount of the stuff is made with 'synthetic' gypsum that is a byproduct of emission control systems at coal power plants, among other concerns listed here: https://www.buildinggreen.com/blog/gypsum-board-are-our-walls-leaching-toxins

Wouldn't a clay soil benefit a lot from additional carbon? Also, it's not like many people are just burning existing trees for biochar, I'd like to use it in my area to make productive use of removed invasives (honeysuckle mostly).

most soils benefit from additional carbon but my understanding is that this is usually in the form of humic and fulvic acids (humis or black earth is named for these compounds). these are biologically available forms of carbon that are part of the soil food web. biochar is basically activated charcoal and more or less elemental carbon which is pretty different from hummic acid. it's a precursor to these forms but carbon isn't hard to come by in most ecosystems.

I have used biochar in heavy clay, heavily disturbed soils. I'm have not seen much difference from where I did not add it but I'm only about a year out. Also, soil is so gnarly everywhere in this site (heavy clay compacted by machinery) I think it simply needs more time

Interesting. My soil is heavy clay, but in a few spots where organic matter has been worked in it's a lot more pleasant to work with, and more resembles the beautiful black Iowa soil I grew up with (I'm in eastern Iowa now). I haven't added biochar yet, since I'm still designing a retort system that meets my needs.

My site is a recent hotel build with 30-40ft of compacted clay devoid of organic material in places. Absolutely horrible. Also, this site burned a few years ago so there is a huge amount of forest fire created char onsite so adding biochar is most likely pointless. We have basically created a wonderful big experiment and will continue to figure out what works.

How long did it take for you to see the difference in soil after mixing in organic material?

I didn't, it was naturally heterogeneous. Some spots were hard clay, while.others had black streaks from decayed roots. All was in grass, so no yield reports yet.

Describe a tree that doesn't exist.

There's a difference in intention. Biochar can be an endpoint of otherwise justified management.

Can confirm the whole micro-organisms thing. In terrariums/jarrariums you use activated charcoal to breed springtails on mass. They are really good decomposers and eat fungi, mold, etc. as well 🙂

Are you worried about formaldehyde in drywall? I seem to remember some recent problems with imported Chinese drywall making people sick.

I'm no expert, but the way I see it is that we need to rotate production plots on farm-scale systems. If we start from the beginning (woods or grasslands), convert it to food production, and slowly move to a fully wooded ecosystem, and you rotated that around over tens of years (time lapse overhead might look like the forest is 'crawling' across the landscape as it's being gradually rotated), then when you get back to the point of needing to deforest, you could either burly the wood (longer breakdown) or turn it into biochar and still sequester more carbon than just leaving the trees.

I mean yes absolutely. I think long term succession planting is the future. I'm just not sure I'm sold on biochar. I think it works some places but it's a classic 'it depends' thing.

It definitely depends! 100% agree.

To add to u/Erinaceous, it also improves tropical soils by setting a baseline of soil nutrition and health so to prevent the constant weathering that is so prevalent in them. It's not the be all and end all, but it's just another tool in the shed for permaculture.

I make char from the crap load of waste that bamboo puts out. I use it in the worm farm, compost, I pee on it, I run my grey water through it, I've started lining the duck run with it (which is a whole other post in itself; the ducks spend all their time eating it and actually shit chewed up biochar which has made a huge difference to the run and the smell of their water). I feel confident that at least I've taken something out of the short term carbon cycle and that's a positive.

I echo u/Iconoclast674, 30% is what I get and that's a bonus to reduce the bamboo waste.

Go to r/biochar and r/biocharvideos. u/vailhem does really well with those 2 subreddits.

I kept this post that someone made on this subreddit (from memory), I'm on phone so I can't google the thread:

*Like u/eosha said, it's great for improving sub-par lands… helps retain water/moisture, reduces runoff, increase soil microbial health/activity, retains nutrients, etc. … if land already has a good percentage of carbon in its soil, you'll see less of an improvement of production.

…but, that'st not to say not to do it. I'm of the opinion that maintaining a higher carbon content in the soil is more beneficial than letting it reduce itself. There seems to be plenty of science backing this up… as well a good deal of common sense.

from the perspective of 'improving yield', it's just a part of what's needed though. …albeit, a pretty big part, but by no means is it 'have high C content and crops will flourish', water>to>wine, heaven on earth … as a lot of people would lead one to believe.

biochar is it's 'own thing'. on the one hand, sure, it increases carbon in the soil, but it isn't SOC (soil organic carbon). it's more of a… ..another amendment; like gypsum or rock dust or others. It helps 'structure' the soil. It helps set the conditions for SOC to build.

One of the industry buzzterms for biochar is/was 'condos for microbes'. The porosity of biochar adds a lot to the soil… and, more so than, say, gypsum, diatomaceous earth, etc. It not only helps to retain water, nutrients, other amendments (fertilizers, minerals, etc), but also promotes organic life (bugs, roots, fungi, microbes, etc) to flourish. Imo, biochar is … …well, two things: it's a jack of a whole lot of trades and a master of 'none' of them, per se… more 'a benefit' than a 'necessity'. the other thing is, it's a 'ballast' for the soil: rain too much? the biochar will help the soil absorb the extra water.. move to deeper regions of the soil, run off if necessary / that much water… but do so in such a way that the soil (with help of the biochar) will hold onto the nutrients, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. …a 'filter' of sort, keeping behind the stuff you want kept behind.

depending on the quantity of biochar in the soil, and the rest of the SOM (soil organic matter), it'll help to retain as much of the water that the soil needs or may need… while helping excess get out of there before causing problems. It'll keep that moisture locked up in the soil in such a way that it not only doesn't-promote root rot, but actually helps prevent it. It 'holds onto' the nutrients, water, etc… strongly enough to keep it there, but weakly enough that the microbes, fungi, plant roots can easily access it… pull it away and utilize it when they need to.

On the other hand, because it holds onto the nutrients, water, etc… if it goes to the other extreme, if it's a run of dry period… up to and including the conditions of 'a drought', the biochar will help hold onto those nutrients, water, etc … in such a way that there's more of it there for the plants… to keep them and the soil healthy until the next water application (rain, irrigation, 'whatever'). obviously if it's a long period of no rain, biochar-alone may not be enough, a change in practices will most likely be in order… adding irrigation, changing crop-type, etc.

but, i'm also of the opinion that if enough biochar were in place… say, 5% or more biochar by volume… across 5% or more of farmland over an area the size of a state or a region… Iowa, the midwest, etc … …that the increase in moisture would actually create its own 'micro'climate over that region … allowing an increase in rain and overall humidity in that area due to the retention that it could possibly begin to … …well, geoengineer the area. …if on a large enough scale.

but, backing out of that,… biochar can stand up to very acidic and alkaline environments… much higher extremes in pH optimal for growing conditions … ..and not breakdown while exposed to them. …in such that an excess in one amendment or another… say, too much synthetic fertilizer… that isn't accompanied with the neutralizing carbon of biologically added nitrogen from diazotrophs for example (which tend to add about 2 parts carbon to every 1 part nitrogen… or higher C:N ratio even… …so, sure the acidity of an increase in nitrogen, but also an increase in the neutral to slightly-alkaline environment the SOC provides) … … this excess nitrogen will 'burn back' the organic carbon in the soil, 'dissolving' it into CO/CO2 much faster.. and the soil can/will 'evaporate' or 'exhale' its SOC. The biochar not only helps to 'filter' this C.. from the CO/CO2 / soil evaporation/exhalation … keeping it in the soil longer, and giving other biota in the soil a chance to utilize it … ….but it also promotes microbial activity within the soil in such that even if a excessively heavy dose of N is applied, …and, subsequently, much of the organic carbon in the soil lost… …the soil can rebuild itself much much faster.

Think of biochar as a sort of 'restore point' or 'backup' for the soil (windows/computer analogy). in such that, even if the soil crashes, it will crash back to the point of the biochar, and… ..the biochar can help rebuild it again. assuming there's enough biochar of course… but even if there's 'just a little', the soil will still be able to rebound much easier, faster, and… well, 'at-all'.. vs… say, reducing farther down into even smaller particles and becoming clay or something.

also, the biochar does this in such a way that, once added, it's damn-near impossible to remove (in a good way, imo). so, if your intention was to destroy soil… do add biochar. … or else you'd have to dig below the depth the biochar was added and had managed to be pushed during its time there.. …but, if you were just an idiot with good intentions… and accidentally destroyed the SOM… the biochar would absorb as much of what destroyed the soil as it could (the more biochar, … and/or the higher the porosity of the biochar… the more it can absorb, obviously). and, from there, the conditions can neutralize and… the soil can begin to rebuild.

so, again, a sort of ballast for the soil, helping the soil withstand extreme fluctuations in conditions. even if there are drought or drought-like conditions… a heavy flooding rain… whereby the biochar absorbed as much of the excess water as its capacitance would allow.. and helped to control the runoff of nutrients of the excess beyond what it could… ….and then slow-released or made-available that water… …and rainless conditions persisted… ….a farmer could irrigate in excess if need be… and feel more confident that their water was being put to good use… …as much more of it would be absorbed into the soil, refilling the biochar/surrounding soil… than simply running off.

Biochar has been shown to reduce water by up to 90% in more extreme cases… possibly farther in the most extreme cases… a more practical estimate would be ~25%, but 50% is quite common. a 'smart farmer' irrigating the same volume of water over a few days vs 'all at once' would get much more from it… and, help the ground soak up more.. as well the biochar.

this could, in turn, help survive an unexpected persistent dry period… with the aid of irrigation… even through a drought period.

and, biochar 'lasts forever'. generally on the order of 'about a century', but, in truth, it could last millenia… longer even. It's very difficult to carbon date inorganic carbon of the nature that activated carbon / biochar is. ..so, there's really 'no way of knowing' just how long the 'old biochar' has been in the soils its found in.

That said… because of this, yes, the increase in soil activity would lead to an increase in carbon sequestered… beyond the biochar. There was a statistic floating around in the biochar world for a while that stated that once biochar was added to the soil, that biochar became 1/3rd of the increase of SOC specifically tied to the biochar application… meaning, add 10lbs of biochar to the soil, and specifically because the biochar was added, there will be another 20lbs of carbon stored in that soil… beyond the 10# of the biochar… vs soil where biochar hasn't been added. and, again, the biochar will help to keep it there… if not potentially increase the addition in subsequent periods.

The increase has been attributed to 1 part: an increase in plant growth due to the biochar.. roots, the plant itself, etc and 2) an increase in soil microbial growth, activity, and content. Thus, 10lbs of biochar (which is sequestered carbon as is… (plants get 98% of their carbon from inhaled/atmospheric CO2… on average), leads to an additional 10# of carbon sequestered in the soil due to the increase in soil microbial activity (fungi predominately, but bacteria, bugs, worms, protozoa, etc as well) .. specifically because the biochar was added… and another 10# of sequestered carbon in the increase in plant growth vs soils where biochar wasn't added.

I don't know the number off the top of my head, but the world's soils contain way more carbon than the world's atmosphere.

so/thus, yes, increasing SOC would go a long way towards mitigating global carbon levels.. and any results that may happen from that.

but, even if we could sequester all the carbon civilization releases into the atmosphere.. and increase soil health & farm yields as a result.. ..that doesn't mean that adding it to the atmosphere in the first place doesn't 'change things'. Fossilized carbon buried deep underground coming to the surface is still carbon being shifted from a non-atmospheric locale to one in the atmosphere… even if it's then going to be pulled down into a plant and 'cooked' into char only to be put back in the ground (soil… ~top 6"-1ft in this case) …

so, thus, like /u/eosha typed, more an improvement for sub-quality than good land.

I've created it in a 55 gal steel drum with a makeshift chimney, a TLUD style. I got probably 30% conversion.

Same. Here's my setup: http://www.appropedia.org/Simple_Biochar_Kilns

Subsequent challenge I haven't well addressed is a good system to crush the results into fine crumbs or powder, without making a mess or inhaling the stuff.

I'm wanting to set something like this up for coconut husks – think this will work?

recently had three runs with an unfinished tlud stove (keg) and made a pail of biochar thats being charged atm. didnt use any in the garden yet.

your rotation sounds interesting

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Global Granular Biochar Sales Market Growth

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Living Web Farms' Biochar Facility

14 January, 2018
 

Repair Cafe is a free event where people with broken things come together with the people who have the know-how to fix them. The event Read More…


Biochar For Sale

14 January, 2018
 

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2013 Biochar Conference Bio Gallery

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Action filled day at our production facility! Place your orders at CharDirect.com . . . . . . #wastetowisdom   #soil   #biomassutilization   #forestry   #cbd   #livingsoil   #biochar   #oregon   #sustainablefarming   #cannabis   #carbon   #pnw   #notillrevolution   #hemp  

Shade tunnel made from recycled materials keeping our plants out of the harsh Australian sun and saving us water. #vegegarden   #biochar   #waterwise   #vegetablegarden   #permaculture   #offgrid   #recycle  

Heading your way, ready to talk soil and sustainability! Three days and I'll be in the great state of Oregon… land of timber, mountain and plains, beach, beaver, grape and hop. And oh yes, some of the best cannabis a gal could ask for! I'll be in Portland area Thursday, and southern Oregon Friday-Monday. Let me know if you'd like a visit, complete with samples and information! (And good vibes, of course) ••••• This print is by Michael Tompsett #oregongrown   #soilfoodweb   #homeland   #millersoils   #livingsoil   #biochar   #oregonsungrown   #oregoncannabis   #pnw   #longlivethesoil  

What I like to see in my soil: earthworms and pieces of carbon. ~ ~ ~ #sustainability   #garden   #soil   #plant   #growyourown   #dirtfarmer   #naturallygrown   #rural   #biochar   #gardening   #gardensofinstgram   #dirt   #earthworm   #farming   #ecofriendly   #hipstamatic   #bookfarmer   #sustainablefarming   #sustainablelifestyle   #mississippi  

Just stacking some #customsoil   #biochar   #soil  

Senyores i senyors, ja el tenim aquí. El cowboy del biochar 🤠 __________ #exploretocreate   #natureaddicts   #awesomepeople   #exploreglobe   #smile   #discover   #sunset   #biochar   #livelife   #beautiful   #portrait   #larioja   #cowboy   #nature   #discoverworld   #enjoylife   #earthfocus   #earthpix   #landscape   #gratitude   #awakethesoul   #naturelovers   #portraitfolk   #mountain   #wilderness   #mountainlife   #beauty  

making #antique   #carrots   #biochar   #garlic   #cuttingboard   #radishes  

@Regrann from @hometown_horticulture – @secondgenerationgenetics #grown4mebyme   #jdshort   #growyourown   #livingsoil   #biochar   #blueberry   #worms   #regrann   #oregoncutthroat   #blackrose   #kelp   #greenwork420   #djshort   #em1   #crab   #oyster   #fish   #cannabiscommunity  

@secondgenerationgenetics #grown4mebyme   #jdshort   #growyourown   #livingsoil   #biochar   #blueberry   #worms   #oregoncutthroat   #blackrose   #kelp   #greenwork420   #djshort   #em1   #crab   #oyster   #fish   #cannabiscommunity  

Day 28, and this girl is doing her thing. #kelp   #em1   #livingsoil   #worms   #crab   #biochar   #oyster   #fish   #molasses  

New Life Farm. Coffs Harbour, NSW. . Thanks to my lovely former student and now great friend, gaia-girl, I had the pleasure of visiting @newlifefarmau on the way back from bamboo building at woodford. . Darren was incredibly accommodating, I’m sure we could have chatted for days given the opportunity- we were talking at increasing speed about market gardens, Korean gardening, biochar, composting, effective microbes, holistic management, food forests… it was a real treat to be in his presence and share the abundance of his work! . . New Life Farm supplies veggie boxes to 30 clients, with a focus on organic, nutrient dense foods that increase land productivity and habitat. The farm is neat, functional and brimming with food! . . If you’d like to learn more about growing your own food in a regenerative way have a look at the Permaculture Design Course starting in Feb with The Perma Pixie: https://www.thepermapixie.com/permaculture-design-course . . #permaculture   #thepermapixie   #newlifefarmau   #marketgarden   #foodforest   #compost   #biochar   #permaculturelife   #regenerativeliving   #permaculturedesign  

Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or influence biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. . . . #environmentalscience   #carbonfarming   #soil   #soilhorizon   #bioremdiation   #farmlife   #climatechange   #circleoflife   #agroforestry   #livingsoil   #biology   #biochar   #agriculture   #systems   #permaculture   #gardening   #npk   #plantmedicine   #science   #health   #research   #organic   #chemistry   #soilhealth   #farming   #sciencefacts   #ecology   #agronomy   #nutrition   #microbiology  

Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or influence biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. . . . #environmentalscience   #carbonfarming   #soil   #soilhorizon   #bioremdiation   #farmlife   #climatechange   #circleoflife   #agroforestry   #livingsoil   #biology   #biochar   #agriculture   #systems   #permaculture   #gardening   #npk   #plantmedicine   #science   #health   #research   #organic   #chemistry   #soilhealth   #farming   #sciencefacts   #ecology   #agronomy   #nutrition   #microbiology  

A few more for the collection this is licorice fern, it came off a big leaf maple. Polypodium glycyrrhiza, commonly known as licorice fern, many-footed fern, and sweet root, is a summer deciduous fern native to western North America, primarily in a narrow strip in southern Alaska, southwestern Yukon Territory, western British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, though two highly disjunct populations are known from Idaho and Arizona. It thrives in a humid climate, prevailing in areas with cool and moist summers and warm and wet winters. P. glycyrrhiza can often be found growing on the trunks and branches of winter deciduous trees, particularly bigleaf maple, but is also often found on rocks, logs, and wet, mossy humus. It takes advantage of the mild, wet winters and the substrate of deciduous trees to photosynthesize and grow during the cold season when most other temperate plants are dormant. Habitat elevation is lowlands below 600 meters. Licorice fern acquires its name from its licorice-flavored rhizome, which was chewed for flavor by numerous Native American groups, including the Squamish, Shishalh, Comox, Nuxalk, Haida, and Kwakwaka'wakw. The rhizomes were also usually used medicinally as a treatment for the cold and sore throats. Spores are located in rounded sori on the undersides of the fronds, and are released in cool weather and high humidity. This species is a diploid, and is one parent of several species of hybrid origin. #lichen   #stressrelief   #rhizome   #serotonin   #forest   #microbes   #biology   #livingsoil   #fungi   #spores   #adventure   #biochar   #terrarium   #permaculture   #moss   #specimens   #feen   #roots   #plantmedicine   #nature   #freshair   #research   #explore   #humus   #hike   #ecology   #bacteria   #microbiology  

Took the boys out to collect various moss, lichen, native microbes, humus, bark, forest litter and food web specimens for our new vintage terrarium. I watched this ted talk about humus last night and peter Rutherford was talking about the bacteria that creates humus (one of my favorite smells) actually stimulates your serotonin level. A lil bit high on soil. All the more reason to swing by the forest and go smell some fresh humus because apparently it is pure stress relief. I highly recommend going and burying your nose in some humus on break. Live and breath a little. . . . #learn   #lichen   #biome   #adventureawaits   #stressrelief   #serotonin   #forest   #rainforest   #fungus   #livingsoil   #biochar   #particpate   #washingtonstate   #biodiversity   #moss   #playoutside   #nature   #science   #freshair   #familytime   #fungusamongus   #research   #pnwonderland   #explore   #humus   #forester   #hike   #create   #microbiology   #microclimate  

Escríbenos a info@latambioenergy.com y entérate cómo puedes ser parte del cambio. #latambioenergy   #biochar   #biomasa   #gasificacion   #solarenergy   #mitigacion   #betterfuelsbetterfood  

Info@latambioenergy.com Escríbenos y entérate cómo puedes unirte al cambio. #gasificacion   #biochar   #biomasa   #monetizatubiomasa   #mitigacion   #betterfuelsbetterfood   #solar  

#bamboo   #mexico   #elbosquedeniebla   #tb   #biochar   #lascañadas   #veracruz   #bosquedeniebla   #bambu  

#charcoaltoothpowder   #pyrolitech   #biochar   #carbonoffsetzone  

Fresh giveaway for the new week coming up. Couple bags of #cannabisoil   #southernoregon   #growyourown   #cannabissociety   #bigfootmycorrhizae   #biochar   #cannabisdestiny   #mycorrhizae   #cannabis   #nectarfam   #cannabiscommunity  

Mizuna, shiso, strawberries with some chamomile…all looking cheerful after the rain. #vegegarden   #herbs   #waterwise   #offgridlife   #biochar   #shiso   #strawberries   #gardentoplate   #vegetablegarden   #offgrid   #asiangreens  

What happens when you find an avocado seed sprouting in the compost pile? #lifeiseverywhere   #leftcoast   #humboldtworms   #compost   #organicgardening   #transplant   #localwormguy   #wormcastings   #biochar   #wormfarm   #humboldtcounty  

Cloudy day and way off at a distance the clouds separated to expose the end of this vibrant rainbow. Primary colors look muted by the surrounding clouds. • #southafrican   #garden   #droughttolerant   #waterwise   #homegrown   #yardwaste   #landscapephotography   #rainbow   #compost   #biodegradable   #pincushion   #biochar   #paperpot   #horticulture   #orangeflower   #desertplants   #metasequoia   #colorful   #landscapedesign   #charcoal   #ornamental   #landscape   #mycology   #growsomethinggreen   #bush   #greenthumb   #mycelium   #succulents  

Small hydroponic experiment with watercress in perlite/vermiculite growing medium with worm tea and seaweed nutrient mix. #nonasties   #vegegarden   #hydroponics   #wormfarm   #biochar   #experiment   #vegetablegarden   #eatyourgreens  

#carbonizer   #ricehulls   #biochar   #soilmanagement  

Peace, joy and tranquility most arise for me when I am connected with nature. Spring is not so far, and The Little Red Bird House awaits its new tenant or old tenant. The bird house is attached to the beautiful and stunning 64 year old Metasequoia glyptostroboides- #southafrican   #dawnredwood   #garden   #droughttolerant   #waterwise   #homegrown   #yardwaste   #landscapephotography   #compost   #biodegradable   #pincushion   #biochar   #paperpot   #horticulture   #orangeflower   #desertplants   #metasequoia   #colorful   #landscapedesign   #charcoal   #ornamental   #landscape   #mycology   #growsomethinggreen   #bush   #centralpointoregon   #greenthumb   #mycelium   #succulents  

Saving all the #garden   #biochar   #charcoal   #permaculture   #useandvaluerenewableresourcesandservices   #woodstove  

Just made our first batch of Boone char! Ready to incorporate it into our compost piles to get them activated and ready to spread on the fields in the spring. Thanks to ASU for building the kiln! #biodynamicfarm   #bonechar   #healthysoil   #828isgreat   #compost   #organic   #activatedcharcoal   #biochar   #appstate   #atgfarm  

Something to think about on this Friday afternoon….. #biochar   #soil   #hemp   #hempherd   #local   #organic  

Got this idea last night, had to make it this morning. When I say my shit smells like flowers this spring I won’t be lying #woodchips   #repurposed   #humanure   #doyouevenhugelbro   #biochar   #toiletgarden   #hugelkultur   #reclaimed  


Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Novel Biochar-Based Slow-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer with …

16 January, 2018
 

ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN: 2168-0485, Vol: 5, Issue: 8, Page: 7374-7382

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Amazing Photos of the 2013 Biochar Conference at UMass and Tech Field Day at NESFI

17 January, 2018
 

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Biochar

17 January, 2018
 


Biochar Biocharger For Sale

18 January, 2018
 

biochar biocharger for sale.

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Biochar

19 January, 2018
 


Assessment of Pistachio Shell Biochar Quality and Its Potential for Adsorption of Heavy Metals

19 January, 2018
 

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CHAR Technologies Ltd. Announces Grant of Stock Options

19 January, 2018
 

January 19, 2018 18:41 ET

TORONTO, ONTARIO–(Marketwired – Jan. 19, 2018) –

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION IN THE UNITED STATES OR THROUGH UNITED STATES WIRE SERVICES

CHAR Technologies Ltd. (“CHAR“) (TSX VENTURE:YES) announces that its Board of Directors has yesterday approved the grant of 650,000 stock options to directors, officers and consultants of the Corporation, which options are exercisable into common shares of the Corporation at a price of $0.22 per common share in accordance with TSX Policy 4.4, subject to the rules of the TSX Venture Exchange and the Corporation’s Stock Option Plan. The options have a term of five years and will expire on January 18, 2023.

About CHAR

CHAR is in the business of producing a proprietary activated charcoal like material (“SulfaCHAR“), which can be used to removed hydrogen sulfide from various gas streams (focusing on methane-rich and odorous air). The SulfaCHAR, once used for the gas cleaning application, has further use as a sulfur-enriched biochar for agricultural purposes (saleable soil amendment product): http://www.sulfachar.com/.

Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

TORONTO, ONTARIO–(Marketwired – Jan. 19, 2018) –

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION IN THE UNITED STATES OR THROUGH UNITED STATES WIRE SERVICES

CHAR Technologies Ltd. (“CHAR“) (TSX VENTURE:YES) announces that its Board of Directors has yesterday approved the grant of 650,000 stock options to directors, officers and consultants of the Corporation, which options are exercisable into common shares of the Corporation at a price of $0.22 per common share in accordance with TSX Policy 4.4, subject to the rules of the TSX Venture Exchange and the Corporation’s Stock Option Plan. The options have a term of five years and will expire on January 18, 2023.

About CHAR

CHAR is in the business of producing a proprietary activated charcoal like material (“SulfaCHAR“), which can be used to removed hydrogen sulfide from various gas streams (focusing on methane-rich and odorous air). The SulfaCHAR, once used for the gas cleaning application, has further use as a sulfur-enriched biochar for agricultural purposes (saleable soil amendment product): http://www.sulfachar.com/.

Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

CHAR Technologies Ltd.
Andrew White
(647) 968-5347
andrew.white@chartechnologies.com

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Effects of biochar on carbon and nitrogen fluxes in boreal forest soil

20 January, 2018
 

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Impact of Biochar Amendment, Hydraulic Retention Time, and Influent Concentration on N and P …

20 January, 2018
 

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Mix your soil and biochar and then soak it in the urine you

20 January, 2018
 

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Co-Combustion Performance and Kinetic Study of Solid Digestate With Gasification Biochar

20 January, 2018
 

Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was carried out to evaluate the interactions and kinetics of char from biomass gasification, solid digestate and their blends under combustion condition. The gasification char was blended with solid digestate in the range of 10–90 wt.% to analyze the co-combustion performance. Based on the thermal degradation experiments which were performed at three heating rates 5, 10, and 15 °C/min, the OFW model-free method was used to determine the activation energy, based on which the pre-exponential factor, the enthalpy, the Gibbs free energy and the entropy were also calculated to label the combustion process directly.

Blending gasification char with solid digestate tends to reduce the activation energy, but the overall analysis of combustion, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters reveals the complexity of the degradation process of all blends. Results showed that the blending proportion of 50% was regarded as the optimum blend in according to the limitations of activation energy, comprehensive performance index and Gibbs free-energy.

 


"Elimination of A Potentially Hazardous Chemical, Tetrakis (Hydroxymeth" by Simpo Rose Ogwang …

21 January, 2018
 

Home > COGS- Jack N. Averitt College of Graduate Studies > Electronic Theses & Dissertations > 1703

Elimination of A Potentially Hazardous Chemical, Tetrakis (Hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Chloride (THPC) From Water Using Biochar

Fall 2017

Master of Science in Applied Physical Science (M.S.)

Thesis (restricted to Georgia Southern)

Department of Chemistry

Arpita Saha

Karelle Aiken

Asli Aslan

The increasing human population and the need for resources for this increasing population have resulted in environmental pollution. Wastes from industries, agriculture, residences, and urbanization have led to contamination of water. In order for the global population to receive clean and safe water, it is necessary that appropriate measures be taken to eliminate hazardous chemicals which include heavy metals, pesticides, and other organic chemicals from water. The overall objective of this study was to determine the ability of biochar to eliminate Tetrakis (Hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Chloride (THPC) from water. THPC is an organophosphorus salt which is soluble in water and is formed by the reaction of phosphine with formaldehyde in the presence of hydrochloric acid. It is used by textile industries as a flame retardant and creaseresistant for cotton and cellulose fabrics. However trace amounts of THPC from industrial effluent can make its way into surface water as observed in Ogeechee River, in Georgia 2011, a possible cause for massive fish kills. Herein, the research investigates the possible elimination process of THPC from water using biochar as a medium of adsorption. Hence, batch adsorption studies were conducted by three biochar dosages, contact time, agitation, temperature and pretreatment of biochar. It was found that the adsorption of THPC on to biochar is favorable at low biochar dosage (1:1 ratio of biochar to THPC). The study also showed THPC adsorption onto 2 biochar is highest at low temperature (20oC). In terms of the agitation speed, the lowest agitation speed of 60 rpm was more favorable for THPC adsorption. The effect of solution pH on THPC adsorption onto biochar was also studied. The result showed that the adsorption capacity of biochar for THPC is highest with both pH > 8 and pH< 5 as compared to neutral pH of biochar. Adsorption of THPC on to biochar followed the Freundlich isotherm showing that biochar is heterogeneous in nature and the adsorption process is favorable. The adsorption fitted best Pseudo-second-order model indicating that THPC adsorption is a chemisorption process. Biochar as a low cost adsorbent medium has shown a promising potential of eliminating THPC from water.

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Biochar Market Analyzed Closely in New Market Research Report

22 January, 2018
 

This report analyzes and forecasts the market for Biochar at the Global and Regional levels. The market has been estimated based on revenue [US$ Mn] from 2015 to 2021 and forecasts for the sub-segments have also been provided in the report. The study includes impact analysis of the drivers and restraints in the Global Biochar Market. It also covers the analysis of the trends in demand for Biochar during the forecast period. Infinium Global Research has added a new report on Global Biochar Market. The report predicts the market size of Biochar is expected to reach XX billion by 2021.

Global market for Biochar is a niche market but is expected to grow in coming years on account of various agronomic benefits such as high fertility, improved soil quality and positive environmental effects. The market is at an introduction stage but with several demo projects and small scale production technologies it is expected to rise by 2021. The global biochar market can be segmented on the basis of application as agriculture, gardening and household.

 

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Segments Covered:

Biochar market can also be segmented on the basis of technology used for its production as Fast & Intermediate pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis, gasification and microwave pyrolysis.Biochar is an inert residue created by heating organic material in a low oxygen environment during the process called pyrolysis.

Heating organic material without oxygen in a process called pyrolysis thermo chemically transforms biomass into a stable char residue that resists decomposition, while also producing oil and gas. Example of biomass consist forest residues like branches, wood chips and yard clippings. Pyrolysis leaves behind gases and oils that can be combusted to create energy. The characteristic and proportion of oil, gas and char produced can be determined by temperature, feedstock and time of exposure in pyrolysis. This char portion created by the pyrolysis process is called Biochar which is used for agricultural amendment.

 

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Companies Profiled:

  •           British Biochar Foundation
  •           Cool Planet Energy Systems Inc.
  •           Biochar Products, Inc.
  •           Blackcarbon
  •           Diacarbon Energy Inc.
  •           Genesis Industries
  •           The Biochar Company
  •           Agri-Tech Producers LLC
  •           Vega Biofuels Inc.
  •           Hawaii Biochar Products
  •           Phoenix Energy and others

 

Key topics covered:

1.Preface

2.Executive summary

3.Global BiocharMarket Overview

4.Global BiocharMarket Analysis, by technology type (USD million) 2015 – 2021

5.Global BiocharMarket Analysis, by application type (USD million)2015 – 2021

6.Global BiocharMarket Analysis, Regional Analysis (USD million) 2015 – 2021

7.Company profiles

 

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Predicting changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity of bioretention media amended with biochar

22 January, 2018
 

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Read Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation Full Online

24 January, 2018
 

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Biochar Biocharger

24 January, 2018
 

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25 January, 2018
 

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25 January, 2018
 

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Preparation and characterization of Na2S-modified biochar for nickel removal

26 January, 2018
 

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Biochar/Conservation Burn Workshop and Training at Circle Bar Ranch at Circle Bar Ranch on …

26 January, 2018
 

The Sonoma Biochar Initiative and Sonoma Ecology Center are pleased to announce a Biochar and Conservation Burn Workshop and Training to be held from 9 A.M. to 1 P.M. on Friday January 26th at Circle Bar Ranch south of the town of Sonoma. Replacing conventional open burn methods with the conservation burn can significantly reduce polluting emissions from agricultural burns in your community and conserve resources, especially carbon. You will also learn how to produce biochar, a valuable soil amendment, in the process. Biochar, made when biomass (such as vineyard or orchard clippings) is heated at high temperature in a low-oxygen environment, has been under serious, worldwide study over the last 10 years as a soil amendment. Biochar has been shown to reduce water use, and to increase soil tilth, cation exchange capacity, and plant production. Its highly porous structure and adsorption characteristics act as microscopic holding cells for nutrients, moisture, and beneficial microorganisms. The workshop includes information on biochar as well as the conservation burn technique and how they add to more sustainable on-farm practices. Classroom and hands-on field training will be will cover the theory behind the process, safety and permitting considerations, pile construction, burn management, and maximizing production of biochar. A portion of the proceeds will support programs at both the Sonoma Biochar Initiative and the Sonoma Ecology Center. Please bring a snack if you feel you will need one as no food is included. Who should attend: Anyone with wood or brush surplus who normally does an open burn, or who is interested in biochar, such as: Vineyard, orchard and row crop managers Cannabis growers Land managers Environmental Students Ecologists Forestry and tree contractors Fire Service Personnel And anyone interested in learning more about biochar, a remarkable soil amendment that also sequester carbon where it will do the most goodin soil. Attendees that want to participate should come ready to do some physical labor to help construct and manage burn piles. Please bring heavy work gloves, eye cover, heavy boots, and cotton clothing only to the workshop. A face shield is also recommended. Sonoma Biochar Initiative Director Raymond Baltar will lead the morning presentation, and Cuauhtemoc Villa and Melissa Roberts will be assisting with the field demonstration.

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Global Biochar Fertilizer Market Research Report: Key Growth Factors and Forecast 2022 with top …

26 January, 2018
 

Biochar is an essential soil amendment as it removes all toxic elements and sand pollutants from the soil. It prevents soil leeching, fertilizer runoff and maintains the moisture level of the soil.  It also protects the crops during draughts and floods. Presently, synthetic and other bio-based fertilizers dominate the agricultural sector. But, led by several initiatives the awareness is spreading gradually amongst the farmers to include it into agricultural activities. Thus, creating huge avenues for market growth in coming years.

Raw materials used for biochar production include plant waste, agricultural residue, wood (wood pellets), and animal manure. The suppliers are from the wood and forest-based products sectors. Timber companies such as Weyerhaeuser, Georgia-Pacific, and West Fraser supply wood residue and wood pellets to various manufacturers.

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Key players:

Biogrow Limited, Biochar Farms, Anulekh, GreenBack, Carbon Fertilizer, Global Harvest Organics LLC

The prognosis of the said market across all sectors is obtainable in terms of CAGR and other important factors such year-on-year growth and out-and-out dollar opportunity. These constraints provide the client with in depth insights and future prospects from the standpoint of Biochar Fertilizer market.

Another key note to be declared here is integration of market desirability index in the report particularizing growth, enactment and opportunities in the Biochar Fertilizer market. The report is determined by enclosure of the competitive landscape among major players involved in production of the market components. The subdivision contains an far-reaching company summarizing and dashboard presentation of major players.

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Furthermore, based on geography, the market is classified into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East & Africa and Latin America. For these regions, charts are included, which displays their past and present growth trajectories, and projected future. The performance of each region and countries constituted in it are contributing to the expansion of the global Biochar Fertilizer market. In-depth study provided for all these regions will assist market players of any size to wisely strategize their plans in an attempt to maximize their return-on-investment.

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Biochar amendment changes jasmonic acid levels in two rice varieties and alters their resistance to …

26 January, 2018
 

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Affiliations School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea, Department of Agriculture Extension, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Buner, Pakistan

Affiliation School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea

Affiliation Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan

Affiliation UoN Chair of Oman’s Medicinal Plants & Marine Natural Products, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman

Affiliation UoN Chair of Oman’s Medicinal Plants & Marine Natural Products, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman

Affiliation School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea

Affiliation School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea

Affiliation School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea

ijlee@knu.ac.kr

Affiliation School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea

Biochar addition to soil not only sequesters carbon for the long-term but enhances agricultural productivity. Several well-known benefits arise from biochar amendment, including constant provision of nutrients, increased soil moisture retention, decreased soil bulk density, and sometimes the induction of systemic resistance against foliar and soil borne plant pathogens. However, no research has investigated the potential of biochar to increase resistance against herbivory. The white-backed plant hopper (WBPH) (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) is a serious agricultural pest that targets rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop that feeds half of the world’s human population. Therefore, we investigated the (1) optimization of biochar amendment levels for two rice varieties (‘Cheongcheong’ and ‘Nagdong’) and (2) subsequent effects of different biochar amendments on resistance and susceptibility of these two varieties to WBPH infestation. Initial screening results for the optimization level revealed that the application of biochar 10% (w/w) to the rooting media significantly improved plant physiological characteristics of both rice varieties. However, levels of biochar amendment, mainly 1, 2, 3, and 20%, resulted in negative effects on plant growth characteristics. Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice plants grown with the optimum biochar level showed contrasting reactions to WBPH infestation. Specifically, biochar application significantly increased plant growth characteristics of Nagdong when exposed to WBPH infestation and significantly decreased these characteristics in Cheongcheong. The amount of WBPH-induced damage to plants was significantly lower and higher in Nagdong and Cheongcheong, respectively, compared to that in the controls. Higher levels of jasmonic acid caused by the biochar priming effect could have accumulated in response to WBPH infestation, resulting in a maladaptive response to stress, negatively affecting growth and resistance to WBPH in Cheongcheong. This study highlights the importance of investigating the effects of biochar on different rice varieties before application on a commercial scale to avoid potential crop losses.

Citation: Waqas M, Shahzad R, Hamayun M, Asaf S, Khan AL, Kang S-M, et al. (2018) Biochar amendment changes jasmonic acid levels in two rice varieties and alters their resistance to herbivory. PLoS ONE 13(1): e0191296. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191296

Editor: Jorge Paz-Ferreiro, RMIT University, AUSTRALIA

Received: February 26, 2017; Accepted: January 2, 2018; Published: January 26, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Waqas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: This work was financially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), Ministry of Science, ICT and Future-Planning through Basic-Science Research Program (2014R1A1A2A10058022) to IJL.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Rice is at the top of globally important agronomic crops (Oryza sativa L.) and is a major dietary staple for half of the human population. The demand for rice is on the rise, particularly due to the steadily increasing populations of countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America [1]. In China, rice production needs to be increased by approximately 20% by 2030 to meet local demand if rice consumption per capita remains at its present level [2]. Therefore, rice is grown over a huge area of cultivated fields worldwide. In India 43.86 million ha cropping area with diverse environmental conditions are utilized for rice cultivation [3]. However, rice crop production is affected by numerous biotic and abiotic factors such as insects, diseases, and other environmental stresses. Insect infestations in rice have recently become intensified across Asia, resulting in heavy yield losses [4]. Among these insects, the white-backed plant hopper (WBPH) (Sogatella furcifera Horváth, Homoptera: Delphacidae) appeared as a serious piercing-sucking pest responsible for damaging rice grown in Asian countries. The WBPH can rapidly devastate rice crops due to its long-distance migration ability, and it has caused sporadic famines in eastern Asia since ancient times. It became particularly conspicuous after the Green Revolution in the Southeast Asia region. Nymphs and adults damage the rice plants by feeding on the phloem. Additionally, they turn the crop into a meaningful source of transmitting major viral diseases, such as southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Important crop factors such as plant vigor, height, number of productive tillers, filled grains, and yield are subsequently negatively affected [5]. Moreover, if heavy WBPH infestation occurs at the tillering stage, complete necrosis or death of rice plants occurs—a condition is called “hopper burn” [6]. In rice agronomic practices, the management of WBPH infestation largely relies on chemical pesticides. However, this method has economic and environmental consequences, such as killing WBPH predators, and pesticide resistance in insects cannot be avoided. All of these factors lead to pest resurgence, including indiscriminate insecticide usage during early crop stages of recorded outbreaks of sap-sucking insects [7]. On the other hand, massive pesticide application adversely affects pests that are known to be beneficial to crop plants, as well as pose serious risks to human health and the environment. Rice plants have previously been transformed with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry genes for defense against WBPH [8]. Various genes delivering resistance against sap-sucking insects have been sorted out in the rice germplasm itself; however, the development of resistant varieties is a slow process [9].

The use of Bt rice is still debatable, and cultivation is limited due to the potential ecological risks associated with transgenic plants [10]. Consequently, in view of economical and environmentally friendly management of WBPH, the exploration of host plant resistance approaches has gained tremendous attention. Moreover, various types of dominant and recessive genes for resistance against WBPH have been identified in various rice accessions [1116]. Complete resistance against the WBPH has not yet been achieved in high-yielding rice cultivars. The management of WBPH using synthetic chemicals has failed because of insecticide resistance [17]. In the current “post-green revolution era,” emphasis is given on sustainability and efficiency rather than on further agricultural intensification, which requires expensive inputs. In pest management, the challenge is to make natural non-chemical methods collectively more effective.

As a major carbon-negative source, Biochar is currently receiving much attention for its amendment in substrate/soil [18]. Biochar addition to the substrate of growing media has been reported to significantly improve plant growth characteristics, mediate heavy metal stress, increase macro- and micronutrients uptake, and improve nutritional quality [19,20]. Kaudal et al. [18] examined the suitability of substituting coir peat with urban biochar in industry-based plant growing media. It was found that volume-based 60% addition was the optimum rate of urban biochar and could improve chemical and physical characteristics in terms of increasing media pH, C:N mass ratio, nutrient content, surface oxidation, and increased air-filled porosity. The amendment also stabilized and increased the bulk density and improved the resistance of particles to breakdown [18]. Similarly, certain biochar additions to sequester carbon from the atmosphere to the soil have been reported to improve the soil tilth, nutrient retention, and bioavailability for plant and crop productivity. Various researchers reported the positive effects of biochar soil amendment on trees and crops grown under controlled and open field conditions [21, 22]. For instance, charcoal-amended soil resulted in greater shoot and root biomass of birch and pine [22]. A single dose of 20 t ha-1 of biochar to Columbian savanna soil caused an increase in maize yield by 28–140% when compared to the non-amended control in the second to fourth years after application [21, 23]. These results demonstrate the potential for biochar application to increase plant productivity. However, biochar addition of the same origin shows differential results in substrate and soil. Tender et al. [24] amended soil and substrate with the same type of biochar and observed the effects on lettuce and strawberry. Biochar amendment in the substrate was more pronounced compared to the soil in terms of improving physicochemical properties, fresh and dry biomass, altering rhizosphere microbial community structure, and increasing the foliar resistance against Botrytis cinerea [24].

Apart from the physicochemical properties of biochar, its intrinsic nutrient composition plays an important role in enhancing agronomic traits [25]. Biochar with a percentage of C less than 50% and a high amount of macro and micro plant growth elements was categorized as bring nutrient-rich. In this context, mixing nutrient-rich cow manure biochar in sandy soil significantly promoted maize crop parameters, and the effect was attributed to the presence of innate plant nutrients in the manure [26]. To elaborate the effects of two types of biochar with different nutrient constituents, Deenik and Cooney [25] analyzed the performance of nutrient-rich and -poor biochars on maize growth under infertile Oxisol soil. The results revealed that the application of nutrient rich biochar with low C content and high amounts of N, P, S, and ash content significantly promoted maize growth and yield. It has been clearly revealed that overcoming the nutrient deficiency in biochar, often through the addition of N fertilizer, enhances its agronomic efficiency [25, 27, 28]. Chan et al. [27] reported similar findings about the application of green waste biochar that was extremely low in total N and mineral N. Even higher dose of the biochar (100 t ha-1) did not show any significant effect on radish yield, until N fertilizer was added.

Although pyrolysis makes biochar sterile, it influences microbial populations and communities and increases beneficial microorganisms [29]. The production of antibiotics and outcompeting pathogens by stimulation of beneficial microorganisms may directly extend protection against soil pathogens [29]. During the addition of biochar to the soil, toxic chemical compounds in the residual tars of biochar may double the killing of soil pathogens [30]. Several antibiotic-producing bacterial strains have been identified in biochar amended soil [30]. The possible role of biochar in inducing plant systemic resistance against pathogenic microorganisms has been evaluated in a number of different systems involving foliar pathogens. For example, Elad et al. [31] found that the biochar amendment significantly reduced disease severity of foliar necrotrophic (Botrytis cinerea) and biotrophic (Oidiopsis sicula) pathogens in pepper and tomato. Additionally, Harel et al. [32] found that biochar amended substrate suppressed the pathogenicity of Podosphaera aphanis powdery mildew, B. cinerea, and Colletotrichum acutatum on strawberry leaves. Together these findings suggest that biochar could induce a systemic response in plants against pathogens. There was no direct toxicity towards the pathogen, as the location of biochar was spatially separated from the site of infection during all stages of plant development [32].

Plants protect themselves from biotic stresses, such as damage from necrotrophic pathogens and leaf-chewing herbivores [33, 34]. Jasmonic acid (JA) is among the major phytohormones during biotic stress resistance, e.g., it releases volatiles to indirectly kill herbivores by attracting its natural enemies or directly by producing toxic compounds to deter invaders [33]. Jasmonic acid also plays a role in the regulation of important developmental processes (fertility, tendril coiling, sex determination, and leaf senescence) [35]. Jasmonic acid and its derivatives are derived from linolenic acid, and their biosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts and peroxisomes, respectively [35]. Despite studies on the role of jasmonic acid in rice defense responses can accumulate plant volatile compounds has been conducted [35]. Still, in-depth investigations are necessary to gain a more comprehensive understanding of jasmonic acid regulation as a mechanism in rice grown under various conditions for handling biotic stress in order to improve important agricultural traits.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the optimum biochar level for plant growth promotion in Japonica rice cultivars with varying levels of resistance to WBPH. A supplementary experiment was designed to test the effect of substrate amended with the optimized biochar level on the resistance and susceptibility of rice cultivars and its role in the enhancement of induced systemic resistance with or without WBPH infestation by measuring levels of endogenous jasmonic acid content. It is obvious that jasmonic acid induces defense, but it is unknown whether this is at the expense of growth suppression by delaying cell division/growth and depleting energy reservoirs or simply to promote one trait by scarifying the other [36]. Therefore, quantification of endogenous jasmonic acid was intended to analyze the extent to which growth will be affected in case of induced systemic resistance offered by biochar application.

In this study, the substrate TBT (Soil and Fertilizer Technology, Korea) was used. The nutrient composition of the substrate consisted of peat moss (10–15%), perlite (35–40%), coco peat (45–50%), and zeolite (6–8%); it contained NH4+ (~0.09 mg g−1), NO3 (~0.205 mg g−1), P2O5 (~0.35 mg g−1), and K2O (~0.1 mg g−1). The biochar was obtained commercially from Kangwon Grasses Industries Ltd. (Kangwondo, South Korea). Biochar consists of deciduous trees (70%), dolomite (20%), and molasses (10%), is derived via slow pyrolysis, and is alkaline in nature. Biochar has an average particle size of ≤ 5 mm, a moisture level of 7.4%, and an ash content of 2–3%. ICP-OES analysis confirmed the presence of 24.55% C, 1.154% N, and with the remaining contents measured in mg kg-1: 27, Al; 124841, Ca; 0.16, Cu; 1774, Fe; 12009, K; 61272, Mg; 9, Mn; 2252, Na; 0.05, Zn; and 440, P. Mb, B, Ni, and Co were not detected at a 0.01 mg kg-1 limit of detection. Biochar concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% were added to the substrate based on weight and mixed well by stirring and rotating end-over-end in sealed plastic bags to incorporate it homogeneously. Substrate not containing biochar served as a control. Prior to the addition of water, all substrate samples were moistened to half of their dry weight and left for 7 d in dark conditions at room temperature to equilibrate. The plastic pots (25 cm × 20 cm × 20 cm) filled with 1 kg of substrates and 3 L of double distilled water (DDW) with and without designated rates of biochar doses were then autoclaved (at 121°C for 15 min) three times to create microbe-free conditions for semi hydroponic media. Three pots per treatment prepared using a similar method were used throughout the experiments.

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds of two cultivars ‘Nagdong’ and ‘Cheongcheong’ were obtained from the Rice Genetic Resource Center (Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea). Recently, Yun et al. [37] reported Cheongcheong as moderately resistant and determined that Nagdong has both a positive and negative resistance against WBPH [37, 38]. The Cheongcheong seeds and Nagdong seeds used in this experiment are the F2 cross of Cheongcheong and Nagdong (see Yun et al. [37], Kim et al. [38], and Vicheka et al. [39]). Due to segregation, both the susceptibility as well as resistance are expected at this stage. Meanwhile, the F2 material was considered good enough for WBPH experiment because it is the segregation seeds after large produced double haploid lines. This is the reason we chose these varieties to determine and easily identify the resistance of their ‘Cheongcheong/Nagdong’ double haploid (CNDH) population against WBPH. The genealogical population was the development of Cheongcheong/Nagdong Doubled Haploid (CNDH). The population cross of YR675-153-2-2/IR2035-290-2 resulted in Cheongcheong (Milyang46), and that of Nonglim No.6/Mineyyudaka resulted in Nagdong (Milyang15). The procedure entailed the continuous crossing of Cheongcheong (Milyang46)/ Nagdong (Milyang15), which yielded Cheongcheong/Nagdong. We used for constructing a genetic map, and we developed Cheongcheong/Nagdong through another culture of the F1 derived from a cross between Cheongcheong and Nagdong, ultimately resulting in Cheongcheong/Nagdong Doubled Haploid (CNDH). F2 segregation is good for the vertical generation in rice transplanting. Milyang 46 and Milyang 15 are the systematic numbers named in the regional adaptability experiment after completion of the yield tester. These varieties were named ‘Cheongcheong’ and ‘Nagdong’, respectively, to register the brand name. The seeds were healthy, with 6% moisture content and 95% germination rate. At the same time as preparing the pots, the seeds were germinated (28°C and relative humidity of 60%) for 10 d to obtain seedlings of similar size in the germination trays. Prior to germination, the seeds were surface sterilized in autoclave pots with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min and were then rinsed with autoclaved DDW. After germination, seedlings of similar size were randomly selected, and transplanted to their respective plastic pots that were prepared earlier.

The plastic pots were fitted with Styrofoam sheets. Fifteen holes of equal size at equal distance were made in Styrofoam sheets, and foam was used to fill the gap and support the rice seedlings. The semi-hydroponic media were aerated daily for 2 h with the help of air pumps to avoid harmful decreases in oxygen levels, and water was added to the pots to maintain sufficient moisture levels. A total of 16 treatments were completed in the initial screening, for which the Nagdong and Cheongcheong rice cultivars were grown in the control substrate (biochar 0%), and substrates amended with 1%, 2%, 3%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% biochar in pots for 15 d. After 15 d of growth in a controlled growth chamber (KGC-175 VH, KOENCON, South Korea) with regulated conditions (14-h light, 06:00–20:00 h, 30°C, relative humidity 70% and 10 h dark, 20:00–06:00 h, 25°C, relative humidity 70%), growth parameters (shoot/root length, chlorophyll content) were recorded. The total chlorophyll content of the second-most upper leaves were determined using a chlorophyll meter (Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD-502); Minolta, Japan). Plants were harvested and immediately stored in liquid nitrogen. For dry weight, five plants were randomly selected from each replication in all treatments and oven dried at 70°C for 72 h. The weights of oven-dried plants were measured using a sensitive electronic scale.

Using the results from the initial screening (experimental setup 1), we selected two weight-based biochar doses that promoted maximum plant growth (biochar 10% equivalent to 27 t ha-1 by using layer of substrate = 0.1 m and its bulk density = 0.3 Mg m-3) and inhibition (biochar 20%) along with the control (biochar 0%) for the second experiment. The methods for rice seed germination, seedling selection, transplantation, and closely regulated growth conditions for 15 d were the same as previously described for the initial screening. The plants were then divided into two groups, one of which was subjected to WBPH and the other not. The entire experimental setup was then shifted to a greenhouse with environmental conditions identical to that of the growth chamber. Both WBPH and no-WBPH sample groups were placed in boxes (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) covered with a nylon screen mesh. The purpose of the mesh was to prevent the escape of WBPH and infestation of the no-WBPH control group. For the WBPH group, 10 insects (see details below for rearing and domestication) in their second to third instars were applied to each plant. After infestation, WBPH were monitored daily and were generally observed on the rice stem or leaf sheaths and partly on leaf surfaces. The difference in plant growth parameters among the three treatments may cause the variation in the distribution of WBPH. Therefore, the numbers of WBPH were regularly counted and found to be the same in each plant to rule out a numbers effect. Throughout the course of biotic stress, WBPH were not seen resting on the mesh wall of the cages. The experiment included the following treatments: (1) Cheongcheong rice without biochar, (2) Cheongcheong rice with 10% biochar, (3) Cheongcheong rice with 20% biochar, (4) Cheongcheong rice with WBPH and without biochar, (5) Cheongcheong rice with 10% biochar and WBPH, (6) Cheongcheong rice with 20% biochar and WBPH, (7) Nagdong rice without biochar, (8) Nagdong rice with 10% biochar, (9) Nagdong rice with 20% biochar, (10) Nagdong rice with WBPH and without biochar, (11) Nagdong rice with 10% biochar and WBPH, and (12) Nagdong rice with 20% biochar and WBPH. The rice plants were left to grow for 6 d with stress application (WBPH infestation) under controlled greenhouse conditions (day/night cycle: 14 h at 30°C/10 h at 25°C; relative humidity 60–70%). The semi-hydroponic media were aerated daily for 2 h, and tap water was added to maintain moisture levels. The plant’s growth parameters including their resistance score were recorded, and the plants were then immediately stored in liquid nitrogen after harvesting and were freeze-dried for 1 wk. (VirTis Freeze Dryer, Gardiner, NY, USA). The Standard Evaluation System for Rice (IRRI) detail given in the footnote of Table 1 was used for scoring resistance to insect infestation (IRRI, 1988).

The WBPH population was obtained from the National Institute of Crop Sciences (NICS), Rural Development Administration (RDA), South Korea and reared inside an insect room according to the methods described by Yun et al. [37] and Vicheka et al. [39]. The temperature and day and night conditions for insect rearing were set to 27°C, 16 h, and 8 h, respectively. The insects were continuously fed with freshly grown WBPH-susceptible japonica rice seedlings ‘Chucheong,’ which were changed twice weekly. Oviferous hoppers were separated and maintained in special screened cages (50 cm × 50 cm × 40 cm) to obtain second and third stage instar nymphs that could be used for infesting seedlings in the relevant sample groups.

Endogenous jasmonic acid was extracted from seedlings according to the protocol in McCloud and Baldwin [40]. The extracts were then analyzed by GC/MS–SIM (6,890 N network GC system and 5,973 network mass selective detector; Agilent Technologies). To enhance the sensitivity of the method, spectra were recorded in the selected ion mode, i.e., to determine jasmonic acid content, we monitored the fragment ion at m/z = 83 amu, corresponding to the base peaks of JA and [9, 10-2H2]-9, 10-dihydro-JA. The amounts of endogenous jasmonic acid were calculated from the peak areas of jasmonic acid compared with the corresponding standards.

Experiments 1 and 2 were repeated three times in a completely randomized design, and each treatment was replicated six times. ANOVA was employed for statistical analysis, and the mean values were compared with the Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) (P < 0.05) using the statistical software program SAS (version 9.2, Cary, NC, USA).

The results revealed that the biochar amendment at various concentrations showed differential effects on plant growth parameters such as shoot/root length, fresh/dry weight of root/shoot, and chlorophyll content (Table 2). The addition of biochar at different concentrations resulted in a very unique trend. Biochar at lower concentrations (e.g., 1%, 2%, and 3%) negatively affected growth, while a 5% biochar concentration showed a stimulatory effect. However, in both Cheongcheong and Nagdong varieties, the greatest effect was observed at a concentration of 10% biochar. This concentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased all plant growth parameters compared with the control. A decline for all growth parameters was observed at 15% biochar and 20% biochar. However, the 20% biochar presented significant inhibitory effects on plant growth compared with 10% biochar and the control. Therefore, all further experiments were executed with the optimal biochar concentration of 10% along with plants with and without biochar concentrations of 20% as a control. Furthermore, with and without biochar application, plant growth parameters of Cheongcheong and Nagdong were significantly different (P < 0.05) from each other.

It is obvious that the plant growth parameters decreased as the biochar dose increased from 1%–3%, while the growth attributes suddenly increased at 5% biochar. It is known that biochar can produce bi-phasic plant responses; at low to optimum concentrations, it often promotes plant growth or defenses to pests and pathogens and vice versa at high concentrations. However, here the addition of 1%–3% biochar caused a surprising effect and might have shifted the bi-phasic plant response to the negative side along the biochar concentration gradient. Our results were consistent with those of Kammann et al. [41], who suggested that the negative effect on growth parameters would have been primarily caused by the capture of nitrate and other nutrients. Several other authors also observed that biochar captured nitrate and other nutrients [4244].

Although we have identified an optimal concentration for biochar amended substrate/growth medium (10%) in our experimental setup, there is currently no standard recommended application dosage for biochar. Dosages for biochar can depend on several factors and need to be determined separately for the specific purposes of the application, whether in an agronomic or environmental context [45, 46]. A number of authors have identified several factors that need to be investigated in different scenarios, including variation in the physical and chemical properties of biochar, substrate, and differences in the responses of different plant species [24, 32, 47, 48]. Several studies have identified the beneficial effects and optimum rates of biochar amendment in different types of substrate [18, 19, 20, 24, 30, 32, 45, 46, 48]. The previous studies of Méndez et al. [49, 50] and Nieto et al. [51] reported the promising effect of biochar mixing with peat substrate at higher rates, such as 10%, 50% or 75% v/v, to find a low-cost solution for growing horticultural crops. The experiment conducted by Méndez et al. [50] demonstrated that the addition of biochar (10% volume rate) to peat increased plant biomass and shoot length of lettuce plants by 184–270% and 137–147%, respectively. Steiner and Harttung [48] compared the effect of biochar amendment in different types of growing media and found that biochar addition up to 75% in peat could replace lime for enhanced plant growth by favorably increasing pH and lowering electrical conductivity. Ruqin et al. [45] reported that substrate amendment with an optimum rate of biochar (100 mL L-1) and super absorbent polymer (0.8 g L-1) improved physical and chemical properties of spent pig litter compost substrate, which subsequently increased plant growth and macro- and micronutrient uptake of water spinach under greenhouse conditions.

In a similar context, authors Mia et al. [47] analyzed the effects of biochar at different applications (0, 10, 50, and 120 t ha-1) on biologically driven N fixation and total biomass in common garden experiments. Mia et al. [47] found that a biochar application at the rate of 10 t ha-1 to the soil significantly increased N fixation and total biomass in their study species: red clover grown alone or in combination with red fescue grass and plantain. Furthermore, the results obtained at 120 t ha-1 of biochar showed a negative impact on the biological parameters and, hence, corroborate our findings of rice growth retardation at biochar 20%. Liu et al. [52] applied biochar at two different rates (8 and 16 g kg-1) to ryegrass grown under water-limited conditions in separate treatments of low and adequate fertile soil. The application of different biochar doses presented variable outcomes, and the 8 g kg-1 of biochar was shown to be the optimum dose by resulting in improved plant height and biomass in low fertile soil, compared to biochar applied at 16 g kg-1 as well as the control. Pratiwi and Shinogi [53] applied two doses of rice husk biochar (2% and 4%) to Japonica rice grown in pots subjected to field conditions. Among the growth parameters, stem height showed a significant positive response to biochar 4%, while root length and other plant growth parameters were only marginally increased. In another greenhouse pot study, the application of biochar derived from peanut shell at the concentration of 6% in red-ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol soil improved several biomass parameters (leaf, stem, root, and pod) in commercial peanut plants compared with biochar concentrations of 0.375%, 0.750%, 1.50%, 3.00%, and the control [54]. A two-year field study conducted by Dong et al. [55] revealed that rice straw-derived biochar at a dose of 22.5 t ha−1 resulted in higher rice yield and longer stem length. Furthermore, a study accounting for the potential conditions under future climate change—such as higher CO2 levels and temperatures—demonstrated that biochar application improved both the total and aboveground biomass under predicted and normal conditions [56]. In a study conducted by Yeboah et al. [57], biochar at two rates (2.5 t ha-1, 5 t ha-1) was combined with three different NPK fertilizer doses, with the purpose of minimizing the use of inorganic fertilizers on maize grown in small fields. Among the treatments, the biochar application at a rate of 5 t ha-1 was shown to be the most effective treatment. However, the authors also recommended that, in cases where feedstock availability was limited, the application of biochar at the rate of 2.5 t ha-1 combined with half of the NPK dose could also produce an optimum yield. In summary, each of these studies signifies the importance of optimizing the correct dose of biochar in order to produce maximum yields in an economical way. They also highlight the importance of employing the appropriate experimental processes for the agronomic or environmental context before recommending an optimum dose.

The most likely explanation for the results of the current study and previous studies is that biochar amendment provides a lasting supply of additional nutrients, as well as improves nutrient retention and the water holding capacity of the soil. In the present study, it was also observed that the biochar used contained a variety of macro- and micronutrients. One of the most important factors that specify the usage of a particular type of biochar is its intrinsic nutrient composition (rich or poor), which could produce varying results in the form of significant differences in plant growth, soil properties and nutrient accumulation in crop plants [25, 58]. Abbasi and Anwar [58] found that biochar obtained from two different sources—white clover residues and poultry manure—respectively showed a differential response upon application in maize and wheat. Overall, poultry manure biochar enhanced plant growth characteristics more than from white clover residues. The relatively lower C, narrower C:N ratio, higher total N, and ash content in poultry manure biochar was attributed as the apparent explanation for these promising results. The study of Yue et al. [59] demonstrated that nutrient rich biochar could potentially influence the soil fertility status in a short period of time. Furthermore, Yue et al. [59] found that the application of municipal sewage sludge-derived biochar to the poor urban soil acted as a soil conditioner and significantly stimulated the growth and dry weight of turf grass by enhancing plant mineral nutrition. In another study, Khan et al. [28] investigated the effect of nutrient rich sewage sludge biochar on rice growth parameters and soil fertility. The sewage sludge biochar improved grain yield, biomass, and the accumulation of P and Na in tissues. Further beneficial effects were observed on soil physical and chemical properties like pH, nutrient availability, soil organic carbon, and total N, in addition to decreasing some of the hazardous heavy metals. All of these reasons justify the addition of molasses and dolomite to the hardwood biochar used in our study, thus making it nutrient rich and capable of dual-purpose use, i.e., carbon sequestration and agronomic potential in the form of fertilizer.

When comparing the Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice varieties with and without WBPH infestation, and in the presence and absence of biochar, significant differences were observed in the plant growth parameters (Table 3; Fig 1). In Cheongcheong, the sample group subjected to WBPH infestation had no significant differences in the plant parameters between 10% biochar and the control, with the exception of chlorophyll content being higher in 10% biochar. However, 20% biochar demonstrated a significant reduction in the growth parameters compared with 10% biochar and the control. In the Nagdong sample group subjected to WBPH infestation, a biochar concentration of 10% resulted in significant increases in the plant parameters (shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content) (P < 0.05) compared with 20% biochar and the control. As with the initial screening experiment, for the sample groups (both Cheongcheong and Nagdong) not subjected to WBPH infestation, a biochar concentration of 10% showed a significant (P < 0.05) promoting effect on the analyzed growth parameters.

Cheongcheong–CC (a, b) and Nagdong–ND (c, d) rice varieties in the presence or absence of biochar with (+) or without (-) WBPH infestation. For the evaluation of biochar effect on the resistance and susceptibility of rice, ten insects of WBPH were applied to each designated plant for 6 d under control condition. From right to left in Figs a, b, c and d, Control (BC 0%) = plants without any treatment; i.e., no biochar application in both CC and ND rice varieties; BC 10% = application of biochar at rate of 10% (w/w) to the potting media of both CC and ND rice varieties; BC 20% = application of biochar at rate of 20% (w/w) to the potting media of both CC and ND rice varieties. Figs (a, b, c, and d) represents the effect of treatments from three independent consecutively conducted experiments.

WBPH infestation in the control plants (without biochar) significantly reduced shoot length in Nagdong and the chlorophyll contents of Cheongcheong, compared with their respective controls that were not subjected to WBPH infestation. This could likely be explained by previous research which has demonstrated that WBPH infestation reduces plant vigor and growth, induces leaf discoloration, and delays tillering emergence, grain setting, and dehydration [6062]. Furthermore, WBPH are highly problematic for the cultivation of Chinese hybrid rice varieties. Infestation not only mechanically damages the rice plants but also transmits viruses which can hasten the onset of symptoms, as well as increase the magnitude of existing stresses. The devastating impacts that WBPH can cause have made it one of the most important pests of rice in Asia, and it is responsible for severe losses in rice production [61].

The Nagdong and Cheongcheong varieties were evaluated for their resistance to WBPH with and without biochar amendment (Table 1, Fig 1). The control Cheongcheong (Con + WBPH) showed some damage with a resistance rating of 6.20 ± 1.26, with more than half of plant leaves remaining yellow, stunted, and wilted, whereas the control Nagdong (Con + WBPH), was rated 5.00 ± 0.00. Interestingly, the biochar amendment resulted in significantly different effects on each variety. In the case of Cheongcheong, 10% biochar and 20% biochar applications significantly decreased the WBPH resistance, resulting in resistance scores of 8.47 ± 1.141 and 9.00 ± 0.00, respectively. Conversely, Nagdong resistance was significantly increased with additions of 10% biochar and 20% biochar, with resistance ratings of 3.13 ± 0.52 and 5.27 ± 1.98, respectively.

In this study, the first and foremost issue that was considered concerns the difference in the environmental conditions of WBPH rearing and plant growth conditions that might affect the results. However, no such effect was noted that could bias our results. Previous studies that did not report an effect should not imply the absence of an effect. We all know that circadian rhythm would affect behavior. Here it is noted that the score for resistance and susceptibly were made on a visual observation basis where chance of error cannot be denied. Furthermore, Cheongcheong is the result of a Japonica and Indica rice cross and shares 70–80% and 30–20% genes from both varieties, respectively. Yun et al. [37] determined that segregated populations derived from the cross of the same Japonica and Indica varieties revealed higher frequencies of the Cheongcheong allele than that of the Nagdong allele, and they later act as a donor for increasing allele.

Only a few studies have addressed the potential of biochar soil amendment to alter plant resistance to pathogens and herbivorous insects. For example, biochar pyrolyzed from eucalyptus woodchips and pepper plant waste products was shown to decrease the severity of R. solani infection in beans [63]. In another related study, Harel et al. [32] applied biochar derived from pepper plant waste products to strawberry plants under different infection treatments and found that it suppressed three foliar diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, and Podosphaera aphanis. Additionally, the application of biochar pyrolyzed from citrus wood to tomato plants suppressed the infection of B. cinerea and Leveillula taurica—pathogens responsible for causing gray mold and powdery mildew [31]. Lehmann et al. [64] have suggested that the potential mechanisms by which biochar induces systemic plant defenses against pathogens and promotes growth may include enhanced nutrient solubilization and uptake.

Due to the significant threat that WBPH infestations pose to rice crops, considerable effort has been invested in discovering a genetic solution to resistance. For example, breeding programs have so far identified 14 resistance-enhancing genes and incorporated them in to existing rice varieties [38]. Moreover, the relevant quantitative trait loci in all 12 rice chromosomes have been identified to add further genetic resolution that can be used to strengthen the breeding program. In our study, biochar amendment resulted in significant and interesting effects on the resistance of the Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice varieties. Our evaluation resulted in contrasting results between the two varieties, with Nagdong gaining increased resistance, whereas Cheongcheong decreased in resistance to WBPH infestation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that biochar amendment has contrasting effects on the resistance levels towards WBPH of two different rice varieties. However, our results do corroborate the findings of Kajimura et al. [65] regarding the difference in resistance of the susceptible variety between the control and 10% biochar-treated plants. In their field experiment, Kajimura et al. [65] found that biochar amendment significantly lowered the WBPH population density compared to treatment with a synthetic fertilizer. Regarding our results with the Cheongcheong variety, previous research suggests that the application of biochar may have altered the metabolism of plants and subsequently changed the nature of plant volatiles. Plant volatiles have been proven to play an important role in the susceptibility of rice varieties to WBPH infestation. For example, Khan and Saxena [62] analyzed the effects of volatiles in the form of steam distillates derived from resistant and susceptible rice on WBPH and found that the odors of volatiles of the resistant variety repelled WBPH, whereas odors of the susceptible variety attracted WBPH. The same study also demonstrated that the treatment of susceptible rice with plant volatile extracts of resistant rice reduced the feeding behavior or metabolism of WBPH [62]. Previous studies have suggested that the addition of P and N at higher levels than normal can significantly enhance the male and female longevity of WBPH in both resistant and susceptible rice [66]. Therefore, in the present study, the additive effect of biochar on available nutrients, consistent with that reported by Waqas et al. [20], could have likely resulted in such changes occurring only in the Cheongcheong variety. The difference between our results and those of Salim and Saxena [66] regarding the increased resistance of the Nagdong rice could simply be attributed to the vigorous physiological response of the Nagdong variety compared to that of the Cheongcheong variety. This may have also made the nutrient status of the Nagdong variety unfavorable to WBPH due to the dilution of nutrients resulting from more plant mass per unit of nutrient, and the opposite effect in the Cheongcheong variety.

The addition of biochar showed contrasting effects on jasmonic acid contents versus significant growth promotion of Cheongcheong and Nagdong under no WBPH condition (Fig 2, Table 3). The application of biochar to Cheongcheong significantly increased its jasmonic acid content in the absence of WBPH infestation (Fig 2). In the absence of WBPH, jasmonic acid content increased by three-fold and four-fold under 10% and 20% biochar, respectively, compared to the Cheongcheong control. In contrast, the application of biochar to Nagdong significantly reduced the jasmonic acid content in the absence of WBPH.

JA levels in rice shoots under all mentioned treatment circumstances were measured to understand the effect of biochar on induced systemic resistance under WBPH infestation. Control = plants without any treatment; i.e., no biochar application in both CC and ND rice varieties; BC 10% = application of biochar at rate of 10% (w/w) to the potting media of both CC and ND rice varieties; BC 20% = application of biochar at rate of 20% (w/w) to the potting media of both CC and ND rice varieties. Mean values ± standard error (n = 3) in the form of column bars and error bars denote the analyzed data pooled from three independent consecutively conducted experiments. Different lowercase letters on each column shows the significant difference (P < 0.05) among different treatments in each group as indicated by DMRT.

The same pattern of increased jasmonic acid content was observed in Cheongcheong in the presence of WBPH infestation under 10% biochar and 20% biochar compared with the Cheongcheong control. Regarding Nagdong, 20% biochar significantly increased jasmonic acid content, with 10% biochar having a less significant increasing effect, compared with the Nagdong control.

Biochar amendment has been shown to increase exogenous ethylene (ET) production and alter plant metabolic activities, thereby inducing resistance to pathogens [64, 67]. Hence, it could be assumed that exogenous ET interacts with jasmonic acid and other green volatiles to promote induced systemic response pathways in plants. The same function of ET was previously found in the activation of the jasmonic acid dependent defense against root knot nematodes. Huang et al. [68] suggested that biochar amendment induced priming in rice partly via an ET signaling pathway, thereby reducing infestation of root knot nematodes. Regarding our results of jasmonic acid contents increasing in Cheongcheong in the absence of WBPH infestation (Fig 2), this could be explained by biochar amendment producing the priming effect suggested by Huang et al. [68]. Looking at these results that increase in jasmonic acid level parallel to plant growth promotion under 10% biochar in the absence of WBPH is contradictory to common jasmonic acid behavior. However, it can be inferred that the same jasmonic acid level may be optimum for growth promotion in Cheongcheong. This result is also corroborated by the findings of Waqas et al. [19], wherein the priming effect caused by biochar application increased jasmonic acid levels in soybean plants under normal conditions. However, when exposed to heavy metals, the same primed soybean plants exhibited stress amelioration by lowering their endogenous jasmonic acid levels. In contrast, in our results this priming effect was followed by an apparent increase rather than a decrease in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in response to WBPH infestation [69]. This may correspond to an overproduction of jasmonic acid in stressful conditions, thereby negatively effecting plant growth and plant resistance. Machado et al. [36] recently reported same findings that simulated herbivore attack of Manduca sexta in Nicotiana attenuata increased jasmonates contents therefore significantly reduced growth by impairing secondary metabolites, sugar contents and antagonizing gibberellins signaling. Contrastingly, Nagdong lowered the jasmonic acid level under biochar application without WBPH attack and promoted plant growth, which is a result consistent with the findings of Viger et al. [70]. However, as with Cheongcheong, jasmonic acid levels in Nagdong also increased under biotic stress. To improve our understanding of these reactions, further investigations on the same experiments are underway—particularly the regulation of ET, salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellins (GAs) in biochar applied WBPH resistant and susceptible rice under WBPH attack.

We found an optimum level of biochar (10%, w/w) that promotes plant physiological characteristics of both Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice varieties. Under the optimum level of biochar, Cheongcheong and Nagdong had contrasting responses to WBPH infestation. Interestingly, the Cheongcheong variety became susceptible to WBPH infestation, while the Nagdong gained resistance to WBPH infestation. Plant regulation of endogenous jasmonic acid levels in response to the priming effect of biochar could be one of the interrelated mechanisms explaining these results. The decrease in jasmonic acid levels under normal conditions and slight increase under WBPH infestation could indicate a regulated response to stress in Nagdong, which might explain the observed increase in resistance and plant growth parameters. In contrast, Cheongcheong significantly increased its jasmonic acid levels with the addition of the optimum biochar level under normal conditions. Cheongcheong jasmonic acid levels increased another two-fold in response to WBPH infestation. This may represent a maladaptive overproduction of jasmonic acid under stress, as these plants also exhibited decreases in plant growth parameters and WBPH resistance. However, the potential biological mechanisms which may have produced these results are not clear, and further investigations will be required in order to elucidate the relationship between jasmonic acid levels and WBPH infestation in various rice varieties. Understanding these results will be important for avoiding unfavorable impacts on crops, such as decreases in crop yields. The experimental results demonstrate that biochar addition may have differential effects depending on the variety of rice. Our results for the Nagdong and Cheongcheong varieties highlight this possibility, and these varieties would therefore be useful inclusions in future studies investigating the effects of biochar on plant responses to different types of stress. Due to the ambiguous plant responses to biochar amendment, intensive future research is necessary to explore the underlying biological mechanisms that dictate plant responses to biochar amendment.

This work was financially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future-Planning through Basic-Science Research Program (2014R1A1A2A10058022).

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Training on role of Biochar in improving soil health held

27 January, 2018
 

STATE TIMES NEWS
JAMMU: A training programme on Role of Biochar in improving soil health was organised under the guidance of Dr. J.P Sharma, Director Research of SKUAST-J.
Dr Peeyush Sharma, Principal Investigator of NABARD sponsored project ‘On-farm training and demonstration of biochar production for carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation in Kandi belt of Jammu’ organised training in Chilla Danga village of Mohargarh Panchayat.
Dr Peeyush deliberated about the importance of converting available farm waste into carbon enriched biochar which has huge potential to sequester carbon and improving soil health with special reference to rainfed agriculture. Farmers were informed that biochar is soil powerfully simple tool to mitigate global warming and one of the few technologies that is relatively inexpensive, widely applicable, and quickly scalable.

Regarding the alleged use of the so-called armor-piercing 7.62x39mm bu …

It’s impossible to eradicate something (especially something that peop …


[PDF] Biochar: Production, Characterization, and Applications

27 January, 2018
 

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Biochar: Putting Carbon Underground

28 January, 2018
 

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SECRET TO HEALTHY PLANTS: Best Fertilizer – BIO-CHAR, WOOD ASH in Gardening and Plants

29 January, 2018
 

Today we will look into — what is wood ash and what is Bio Char and charcoal ash, what are the uses of wood ash in your garden as a fertilizer and other benefits and details like How to use…

PLEASE WATCH FULL VIDEO — THERE IS BONUS TIP AT THE END, EXPERIMENT USING PH TESTER AND MUCH MORE.. PLEASE LIKE, SHARE AND COMMENT ANYTHING BELOW THE VIDEO.

Thank you for clarifying my mind. I thought wood ash was good to use on potatoes and It's not! I may get potatoes this season after all :-)👍

🌟

Sir kya main rose cutting Epsom salt kaisa pani main ek do din rakh k badmain uski cutting mud main lagasakte sakte hun

U R GREAT 😊

Sir mere pas ph testing soil nahi hai to kya karu

Sir can we use cow dung ash….

Sir mint me woodash dal sakte hai

If wood ash is moistened, should it be used effectively?

good morning,I have some as from muskieto wierrook ,can I use this also for my plant.

How much cost of it

can I use this wood ash to turn my hydrangeas blue? can u please make a video on how to change the color of the hydrangeas organically?

Hats off! Useful info on wood ash for plants. I never knew about biochar. thank you.

Can I used in rose nd habiscus

Superb superb superb sir

Why Can't We Use Wood Coal Ash ??

Nice video… Good tips

Very informative

Another great video. Very interesting..

Very helpful Dr. Thanks a lot

Hello Dr. Excellent Information

nice video dear bro

This is one of your best videos. Very useful info on uses of wood ash in garden and nicely presented in an easy to understand language and accent.


Mason's Field Study

29 January, 2018
 

We’ve been fortunate this week to have a couple of days without rain to really take care of some of our preparations for our scale of biochar production. Working with the biochar group, we were able to organize our production area. It’s nice to get this task off the mind so now we can continue our research and collect our

feedstock all whilst having a perfect staging area to start making our recipes! We also threw together a little compost pile, as you can see in the back-right of this photo. Our plan is to even throw some biochar into the compost to see if we can’t passively charge it with the decomposing materials.

The idea is to use these pallets to store our certain feedstocks and allow to dry. Once we are able to, we are going to cover our feedstocks in a clear plastic to allow them to dry even faster which will allow us to have a more efficient product. Water in your feedstock can greatly alter the outcome so we are aiming for 15%-30% water within the feedstock to allow for the greatest amount of consistency.

This embarks the first post of many throughout the quarter. My focus is biochar and the effects it has on soil, soil biota, and vegetation. Not only can biochar have an effect on these aspects of agriculture, but it can also help to mitigate climate change. Attached are just a few pages of notes from what may soon be considered a novel of information. Luckily I have a great opportunity to work with some

great friends and faculty on the matter which I’m sure will help navigate the mountain of information we plan to summit. My background in biochar is very limited, for now. As you can see from the first few pages of notes they pertain to the basic understandings of what biochar is and how exactly it can change soil positively or negatively. The biochar group collectively is working to better understand the characteristics of biochar and determine under what parameters do we produce the safest, most effective soil amendment. To all my other classmates, I hope you enjoy following along and as always, input is greatly appreciated.

Biochar Notes Week 1


Granular Biochar Market Segmentation and Analysis by Recent Trends, Development and Growth …

29 January, 2018
 

Granular Biochar Market report presents a detailed analysis of the industry by size, growth rate, key players, regions, product types & applications. Granular Biochar Market report evaluates key factors that affected market growth and with the help of previous figures this report elaborates current scenario and forecast of Granular Biochar industry.

The Granular Biochar market report offers a complete assessment of the industry. The projections included in the report have been determined utilizing demonstrated research philosophies and presumptions. Thusly, the exploration report fills in as a vault of examination and data for each feature of the market, including Regional markets, methodology, types, and applications. In a word, this report will help buyer to establish a panorama of industrial development and characteristics of the Granular Biochar market.

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The report starts with a basic Granular Biochar market overview. It also acts as a vital tool to industries active across the value chain and for new entrants by enabling them to take advantage of the opportunities and develop business strategies.

Granular Biochar Market by Product types: Wood Source Biochar, Corn  Source Biochar, Wheat  Source Biochar, Others, and Market Split by Applications: Soil Conditioner, Fertilizer, Others.

Top Key Vendors in Granular Biochar Market Report: The Biochar Company, Biochar Now, Carbon Gold, Diacarbon Energy, BlackCarbon, Carbon Terra, Agri-Tech Producers, BioChar Products, ElementC6, Swiss Biochar GmbH, Cool Planet, Kina,

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This report gives Granular Biochar Industry Analysis and Forecast considering Market Value and Volume by type, applications and Regions for next five years. The report also provides New Project Feasibility Analysis, Industry Barriers, New Entrants SWOT Analysis and Suggestions on New Project Investment in Granular Biochar Market.

Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight from 2017-2022(forecast) of Granular Biochar industry covering all important parameters.

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30 January, 2018
 

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Biochar Market -Global Scenario, Market Size, Outlook, Trend and Forecast, 2015

30 January, 2018
 

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Signs of life starting to show again following the Thomas Fire

31 January, 2018
 

VENTURA COUNTY, Calif. – It might appear charred and lifeless at the Ventura Botanical Gardens following the Thomas Fire that ravaged the area, but it's not all bad news. The flames actually helped create healthier soil and plants are starting to show signs of existence once again.

On average, more than 3,000 people a week would visit the gardens for its beauty and incredible sights. Since the fire, however, it's been closed for repairs. Crews are working to make the gardens safe for visitors again.

Rick Wilson, who is known as the soil doctor at Agromin, says the char residue along the hillsides is not all bad and is known as Biochar.

“This material carbonizes and turns into gratified material and it holds on to nutrients and it holds on to water and that is what is going to enable the plants to do well and actually be more robust in the future when it comes to droughts and so out of something bad, something good is going to happen. The soil is going to be healthier," said Wilson, Chief Technology Officer at Agromin.

The issue after a fire is erosion, and so Wilson donated a truckload of mulch, which will cover several aces to help prevent potential mudslides.

“Our goal is to revegetate this area as quickly as possible. To do that we put a mulch cover down and it will hold moisture down and create an environment and enable plants to grow, said Wilson. "I think 10 years from now you’re going to see this area more ascetically pleasing.”


More efficient method of ridding farms of waste suggested

31 January, 2018
 

BIOCHAR has potential to make anaerobic digestion of animal manure a more efficient method to rid farms of waste while producing methane for energy, Texas A&M University researchers say.

Biochar, a man-made charcoal material composed of agricultural wastes including manure, crop residues and forage grasses, can be used as sustainable fertilisers and to filter a broad range of contaminants, including antibiotics, pesticide and hormones in wastewater and water. It can also capture greenhouse and odorous gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia.

Chemical and environmental engineer Eunsung Kan says present management of animal manure includes applying waste to croplands. This often generates odours and greenhouse gasses and can cause ecological problems downstream, such as algae blooms and contaminated groundwater.

“The value of the new research is that manure can be a problem source, and anaerobic digestion using biochar serves to dispose of manure while producing methane to power the farm and possibly be sold to local utilities,” Kan said.

Anaerobic digestion of manure results in low pH and other undesirable conditions in the bioreactor, which slow down or inhibit methanogenic bacterial growth and metabolism when operating conditions aren’t optimal, he said.

Environmental engineer Hyun Min Jang and Kan tested low biochar-to-manure ratios with promising results.

Dairy manure mixed with no biochar and 0.1-1 per cent biochar showed that adding biochar increased methane production by about 40 per cent and reduced the time to achieve target biogas production by 50- 70 per cent.

“It decreased the lag phase, which is the time that elapses before production starts, and cut the biogas production time in half each time we added more biochar,” Jang said. “Production time is a significant factor for a dairy with say 1,000 cows that produce 8,000 kilograms of dry manure each day, but reducing the digestion time also means the size of the anaerobic bioreactor reduces by half.”

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Email: t.dougan@farmweek.com


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